WorldWideScience

Sample records for embedded thin disk

  1. THICK-DISK EVOLUTION INDUCED BY THE GROWTH OF AN EMBEDDED THIN DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos, Alvaro; Helmi, Amina; Kazantzidis, Stelios

    2010-01-01

    We perform collisionless N-body simulations to investigate the evolution of the structural and kinematical properties of simulated thick disks induced by the growth of an embedded thin disk. The thick disks used in the present study originate from cosmologically common 5:1 encounters between initially thin primary disk galaxies and infalling satellites. The growing thin disks are modeled as static gravitational potentials and we explore a variety of growing-disk parameters that are likely to influence the response of thick disks. We find that the final thick-disk properties depend strongly on the total mass and radial scale length of the growing thin disk, and much less sensitively on its growth timescale and vertical scale height as well as the initial sense of thick-disk rotation. Overall, the growth of an embedded thin disk can cause a substantial contraction in both the radial and vertical direction, resulting in a significant decrease in the scale lengths and scale heights of thick disks. Kinematically, a growing thin disk can induce a notable increase in the mean rotation and velocity dispersions of thick-disk stars. We conclude that the reformation of a thin disk via gas accretion may play a significant role in setting the structure and kinematics of thick disks, and thus it is an important ingredient in models of thick-disk formation.

  2. Thin accretion disks in stationary axisymmetric wormhole spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study the physical properties and the equilibrium thermal radiation emission characteristics of matter forming thin accretion disks in stationary axially symmetric wormhole spacetimes. The thin disk models are constructed by taking different values of the wormhole's angular velocity, and the time averaged energy flux, the disk temperature, and the emission spectra of the accretion disks are obtained. Comparing the mass accretion in a rotating wormhole geometry with the one of a Kerr black hole, we verify that the intensity of the flux emerging from the disk surface is greater for wormholes than for rotating black holes with the same geometrical mass and accretion rate. We also present the conversion efficiency of the accreting mass into radiation, and show that the rotating wormholes provide a much more efficient engine for the transformation of the accreting mass into radiation than the Kerr black holes. Therefore specific signatures appear in the electromagnetic spectrum of thin disks around rotating wormholes, thus leading to the possibility of distinguishing wormhole geometries by using astrophysical observations of the emission spectra from accretion disks.

  3. The AMBRE project: The thick thin disk and thin thick disk of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, M. R.; Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Mikolaitis, S.; Worley, C. C.

    2017-11-01

    We analyze 494 main sequence turnoff and subgiant stars from the AMBRE:HARPS survey. These stars have accurate astrometric information from Gaia DR1, providing reliable age estimates with relative uncertainties of ±1 or 2 Gyr and allowing precise orbital determinations. The sample is split based on chemistry into a low-[Mg/Fe] sequence, which are often identified as thin disk stellar populations, and high-[Mg/Fe] sequence, which are often associated with thick disk stellar populations. We find that the high-[Mg/Fe] chemical sequence has extended star formation for several Gyr and is coeval with the oldest stars of the low-[Mg/Fe] chemical sequence: both the low- and high-[Mg/Fe] sequences were forming stars at the same time. We find that the high-[Mg/Fe] stellar populations are only vertically extended for the oldest, most-metal poor and highest [Mg/Fe] stars. When comparing vertical velocity dispersion for the low- and high-[Mg/Fe] sequences, the high-[Mg/Fe] sequence has lower vertical velocity dispersion than the low-[Mg/Fe] sequence for stars of similar age. This means that identifying either group as thin or thick disk based on chemistry is misleading. The stars belonging to the high-[Mg/Fe] sequence have perigalacticons that originate in the inner disk, while the perigalacticons of stars on the low-[Mg/Fe] sequence are generally around the solar neighborhood. From the orbital properties of the stars, the high-[Mg/Fe] and low-[Mg/Fe] sequences are most likely a reflection of the chemical enrichment history of the inner and outer disk populations, respectively; radial mixing causes both populations to be observed in situ at the solar position. Based on these results, we emphasize that it is important to be clear in defining what populations are being referenced when using the terms thin and thick disk, and that ideally the term thick disk should be reserved for purely geometric definitions to avoid confusion and be consistent with definitions in external

  4. Modeling of a diode-pumped thin-disk cesium vapor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Guofei; Cai, He; Liu, Xiaoxu; Han, Juhong; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Hongyuan; Wang, You

    2018-03-01

    A diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) provides a significant potential for construction of high-powered lasers. Until now, a series of models have been established to analyze the kinetic process and most of them are based on the end-pumped alkali laser system in which the vapor cell are usually cylindrical and cuboid. In this paper, a mathematic model is constructed to investigate the kinetic processes of a diode pumped thin-disk cesium vapor laser, in which the cesium vapor and the buffer gases are beforehand filled in a sealed glass cell with a thin-disk structure. We systemically study the influences of the cell temperature and cell thickness on the output features of a thin-disk DPAL. Further, we study the thin-disk DPAL with the W-shaped resonator and multiple-disk configuration. To the best of our knowledge, there have not been any similar reports so far.

  5. Time-dependent simulations of disk-embedded planetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stökl, A.; Dorfi, E. A.

    2014-03-01

    At the early stages of evolution of planetary systems, young Earth-like planets still embedded in the protoplanetary disk accumulate disk gas gravitationally into planetary atmospheres. The established way to study such atmospheres are hydrostatic models, even though in many cases the assumption of stationarity is unlikely to be fulfilled. Furthermore, such models rely on the specification of a planetary luminosity, attributed to a continuous, highly uncertain accretion of planetesimals onto the surface of the solid core. We present for the first time time-dependent, dynamic simulations of the accretion of nebula gas into an atmosphere around a proto-planet and the evolution of such embedded atmospheres while integrating the thermal energy budget of the solid core. The spherical symmetric models computed with the TAPIR-Code (short for The adaptive, implicit RHD-Code) range from the surface of the rocky core up to the Hill radius where the surrounding protoplanetary disk provides the boundary conditions. The TAPIR-Code includes the hydrodynamics equations, gray radiative transport and convective energy transport. The results indicate that diskembedded planetary atmospheres evolve along comparatively simple outlines and in particular settle, dependent on the mass of the solid core, at characteristic surface temperatures and planetary luminosities, quite independent on numerical parameters and initial conditions. For sufficiently massive cores, this evolution ultimately also leads to runaway accretion and the formation of a gas planet.

  6. Hydrodynamical winds from a geometrically thin disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukue, Jun

    1989-01-01

    Hydrodynamical winds emanating from the surface of a geometrically thin disk under the gravitational field of the central object are examined. The attention is focused on the transonic nature of the flow. For a given configuration of streamlines, the flow fields are divided into three regions: the inner region where the gas near the disk plane is gravitationally bound to form a corona; the intermediate wind region where multiple critical points appear and the gas flows out from the disk passing through critical points; and the outer region where the gas is unbound to escape to infinity without passing through critical points. This behavior of disk winds is due to the shape of the gravitational potential of the central object along the streamline and due to the energy source distribution at the flow base on the disk plane where the potential in finite. (author)

  7. ALIGNMENT OF PROTOSTARS AND CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS DURING THE EMBEDDED PHASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, Christopher; Batygin, Konstantin; Adams, Fred C.

    2014-01-01

    Star formation proceeds via the collapse of a molecular cloud core over multiple dynamical timescales. Turbulence within cores results in a spatially non-uniform angular momentum of the cloud, causing a stochastic variation in the orientation of the disk forming from the collapsing material. In the absence of star-disk angular momentum coupling, such disk-tilting would provide a natural mechanism for the production of primordial spin-orbit misalignments in the resulting planetary systems. However, owing to high accretion rates in the embedded phase of star formation, the inner edge of the circumstellar disk extends down to the stellar surface, resulting in efficient gravitational and accretional angular momentum transfer between the star and the disk. Here, we demonstrate that the resulting gravitational coupling is sufficient to suppress any significant star-disk misalignment, with accretion playing a secondary role. The joint tilting of the star-disk system leads to a stochastic wandering of star-aligned bipolar outflows. Such wandering widens the effective opening angle of stellar outflows, allowing for more efficient clearing of the remainder of the protostar's gaseous envelope. Accordingly, the processes described in this work provide an additional mechanism responsible for sculpting the stellar initial mass function

  8. Rocking Rotation of a Rigid Disk Embedded in a Transversely Isotropic Half-Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric problem of rocking rotation of a circular rigid disk embedded in a finite depth of a transversely isotropic half-space is analytically addressed. The rigid disk is assumed to be in frictionless contact with the elastic half-space. By virtue of appropriate Green's functions, the mixed boundary value problem is written as a dual integral equation. Employing further mathematical techniques, the integral equation is reduced to a well-known Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. The results related to the contact stress distribution across the disk region and the equivalent rocking stiffness of the system are expressed in terms of the solution of the obtained Fredholm  integral  equation. When the rigid disk is located on the surface or at the remote boundary, the exact closed-form solutions are presented. For verification purposes, the limiting case of an isotropic half-space is considered and the results are verified with those available in the literature. The jump behavior in the results at the edge of the rigid disk for the case of an infinitesimal embedment is highlighted analytically for the first time. Selected numerical results are depicted for the contact stress distribution across the disk region, rocking stiffness of the system, normal stress, and displacement components along the radial axis. Moreover, effects of anisotropy on the rocking stiffness factor are discussed in detail.

  9. General relativistic razor-thin disks with magnetically polarized matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Noguera, Anamaría; Lora-Clavijo, F. D.; González, Guillermo A.

    2018-06-01

    The origin of magnetic fields in the universe still remains unknown and constitutes one of the most intriguing questions in astronomy and astrophysics. Their significance is enormous since they have a strong influence on many astrophysical phenomena. In regards of this motivation, theoretical models of galactic disks with sources of magnetic field may contribute to understand the physics behind them. Inspired by this, we present a new family of analytical models for thin disks composed by magnetized material. The solutions are axially symmetric, conformastatic and are obtained by solving the Einstein-Maxwell Field Equations for continuum media without the test field approximation, and assuming that the sources are razor-thin disk of magnetically polarized matter. We find analytical expressions for the surface energy density, the pressure, the polarization vector, the electromagnetic fields, the mass and the rotational velocity for circular orbits, for two particular solutions. In each case, the energy-momentum tensor agrees with the energy conditions and also the convergence of the mass for all the solutions is proved. Since the solutions are well-behaved, they may be used to model astrophysical thin disks, and also may contribute as initial data in numerical simulations. In addition, the process to obtain the solutions is described in detail, which may be used as a guide to find solutions with magnetized material in General Relativity.

  10. Scale Length of the Galactic Thin Disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    thin disk density scale length, hR, is rather short (2.7 ± 0.1 kpc). Key words. ... The 2MASS near infrared data provide, for the first time, deep star counts on a ... peaks allows to adjust the spatial extinction law in the model. ... probability that fi.

  11. EMBEDDED PROTOSTELLAR DISKS AROUND (SUB-)SOLAR STARS. II. DISK MASSES, SIZES, DENSITIES, TEMPERATURES, AND THE PLANET FORMATION PERSPECTIVE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobyov, Eduard I.

    2011-01-01

    We present basic properties of protostellar disks in the embedded phase of star formation (EPSF), which is difficult to probe observationally using available observational facilities. We use numerical hydrodynamics simulations of cloud core collapse and focus on disks formed around stars in the 0.03-1.0 M sun mass range. Our obtained disk masses scale near-linearly with the stellar mass. The mean and median disk masses in the Class 0 and I phases (M mean d,C0 = 0.12 M sun , M mdn d,C0 = 0.09 M sun and M mean d,CI = 0.18 M sun , M mdn d,CI = 0.15 M sun , respectively) are greater than those inferred from observations by (at least) a factor of 2-3. We demonstrate that this disagreement may (in part) be caused by the optically thick inner regions of protostellar disks, which do not contribute to millimeter dust flux. We find that disk masses and surface densities start to systematically exceed that of the minimum mass solar nebular for objects with stellar mass as low as M * = 0.05-0.1 M sun . Concurrently, disk radii start to grow beyond 100 AU, making gravitational fragmentation in the disk outer regions possible. Large disk masses, surface densities, and sizes suggest that giant planets may start forming as early as in the EPSF, either by means of core accretion (inner disk regions) or direct gravitational instability (outer disk regions), thus breaking a longstanding stereotype that the planet formation process begins in the Class II phase.

  12. Thin disk laser with unstable resonator and reduced output coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavili, Anwar; Shayganmanesh, Mahdi

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, feasibility of using unstable resonator with reduced output coupling in a thin disk laser is studied theoretically. Unstable resonator is modeled by wave-optics using Collins integral and iterative method. An Yb:YAG crystal with 250 micron thickness is considered as a quasi-three level active medium and modeled by solving rate equations of energy levels populations. The amplification of laser beam in the active medium is calculated based on the Beer-Lambert law and Rigrod method. Using generalized beam parameters method, laser beam parameters like, width, divergence, M2 factor, output power as well as near and far-field beam profiles are calculated for unstable resonator. It is demonstrated that for thin disk laser (with single disk) in spite of the low thickness of the disk which leads to low gain factor, it is possible to use unstable resonator (with reduced output coupling) and achieve good output power with appropriate beam quality. Also, the behavior of output power and beam quality versus equivalent Fresnel number is investigated and optimized value of output coupling for maximum output power is achieved.

  13. TRANSITIONAL DISKS AS SIGNPOSTS OF YOUNG, MULTIPLANET SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.; Salyk, Colette

    2011-01-01

    Although there has yet been no undisputed discovery of a still-forming planet embedded in a gaseous protoplanetary disk, the cleared inner holes of transitional disks may be signposts of young planets. Here, we show that the subset of accreting transitional disks with wide, optically thin inner holes of 15 AU or more can only be sculpted by multiple planets orbiting inside each hole. Multiplanet systems provide two key ingredients for explaining the origins of transitional disks. First, multiple planets can clear wide inner holes where single planets open only narrow gaps. Second, the confined, non-axisymmetric accretion flows produced by multiple planets provide a way for an arbitrary amount of mass transfer to occur through an apparently optically thin hole without overproducing infrared excess flux. Rather than assuming that the gas and dust in the hole are evenly and axisymmetrically distributed, one can construct an inner hole with apparently optically thin infrared fluxes by covering a macroscopic fraction of the hole's surface area with locally optically thick tidal tails. We also establish that other clearing mechanisms, such as photoevaporation, cannot explain our subset of accreting transitional disks with wide holes. Transitional disks are therefore high-value targets for observational searches for young planetary systems.

  14. Cryogenic Yb: YAG Thin-Disk Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-09

    as a 4- level laser. Its absorption and emission cross-sections increase, and its thermal conductivity improves. Yb:YAG thin disk laser performance...Air Force Base, NM USA 87117 4RINI Technologies, 582 South Econ Circle, Oviedo, FL USA 32765 Keywords: Laser materials; Lasers, ytterbium...temperatures, Yb:YAG behaves as a 4- level laser. Its absorption and emission cross-sections increase, and its thermal conductivity improves. Yb:YAG

  15. Thin accretion disks around cold Bose-Einstein condensate stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danila, Bogdan [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Harko, Tiberiu [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Kovacs, Zoltan

    2015-05-15

    Due to their superfluid properties some compact astrophysical objects, like neutron or quark stars, may contain a significant part of their matter in the form of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Observationally distinguishing between neutron/quark stars and BEC stars is a major challenge for this latter theoretical model. An observational possibility of indirectly distinguishing BEC stars from neutron/quark stars is through the study of the thin accretion disks around compact general relativistic objects. In the present paper, we perform a detailed comparative study of the electromagnetic and thermodynamic properties of the thin accretion disks around rapidly rotating BEC stars, neutron stars and quark stars, respectively. Due to the differences in the exterior geometry, the thermodynamic and electromagnetic properties of the disks (energy flux, temperature distribution, equilibrium radiation spectrum, and efficiency of energy conversion) are different for these classes of compact objects. Hence in this preliminary study we have pointed out some astrophysical signatures that may allow one to observationally discriminate between BEC stars and neutron/quark stars. (orig.)

  16. Shifting of the resonance location for planets embedded in circumstellar disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzari, F.

    2018-03-01

    Context. In the early evolution of a planetary system, a pair of planets may be captured in a mean motion resonance while still embedded in their nesting circumstellar disk. Aims: The goal is to estimate the direction and amount of shift in the semimajor axis of the resonance location due to the disk gravity as a function of the gas density and mass of the planets. The stability of the resonance lock when the disk dissipates is also tested. Methods: The orbital evolution of a large number of systems is numerically integrated within a three-body problem in which the disk potential is computed as a series of expansion. This is a good approximation, at least over a limited amount of time. Results: Two different resonances are studied: the 2:1 and the 3:2. In both cases the shift is inwards, even if by a different amount, when the planets are massive and carve a gap in the disk. For super-Earths, the shift is instead outwards. Different disk densities, Σ, are considered and the resonance shift depends almost linearly on Σ. The gas dissipation leads to destabilization of a significant number of resonant systems, in particular if it is fast. Conclusions: The presence of a massive circumstellar disk may significantly affect the resonant behavior of a pair of planets by shifting the resonant location and by decreasing the size of the stability region. The disk dissipation may explain some systems found close to a resonance but not locked in it.

  17. Innovative opto-mechanical design of a laser head for compact thin-disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macúchová, Karolina; Smrž, Martin; Řeháková, Martina; Mocek, Tomáš

    2016-11-01

    We present recent progress in design of innovative versatile laser head for lasers based on thin-disk architecture which are being constructed at the HiLASE centre of the IOP in the Czech Republic. Concept of thin-disk laser technology allows construction of lasers providing excellent beam quality with high average output power and optical efficiency. Our newly designed thin-disk carrier and pump module comes from optical scheme consisting of a parabolic mirror and roof mirrors proposed in 90's. However, mechanical parts and a cooling system were in-house simplified and tailor-made to medium power lasers since no suitable setup was commercially available. Proposed opto-mechanical design is based on stable yet easily adjustable mechanics. The only water nozzle-cooled component is a room-temperature-operated thindisk mounted on a special cooling finger. Cooling of pump optics was replaced by heat conductive transfer from mirrors made of special Al alloy to a massive brass baseplate. Such mirrors are easy to manufacture and very cheap. Presented laser head was manufactured and tested in construction of Er and Yb doped disk lasers. Details of the latest design will be presented.

  18. Vertical Structure of Radiation-pressure-dominated Thin Disks: Link between Vertical Advection and Convective Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Hong-Yu; Gu, Wei-Min

    2017-01-01

    In the classic picture of standard thin accretion disks, viscous heating is balanced by radiative cooling through the diffusion process, and the radiation-pressure-dominated inner disk suffers convective instability. However, recent simulations have shown that, owing to the magnetic buoyancy, the vertical advection process can significantly contribute to energy transport. In addition, in comparing the simulation results with the local convective stability criterion, no convective instability has been found. In this work, following on from simulations, we revisit the vertical structure of radiation-pressure-dominated thin disks and include the vertical advection process. Our study indicates a link between the additional energy transport and the convectively stable property. Thus, the vertical advection not only significantly contributes to the energy transport, but it also plays an important role in making the disk convectively stable. Our analyses may help to explain the discrepancy between classic theory and simulations on standard thin disks.

  19. Thin accretion disk around regular black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIU Tianqi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Penrose′s cosmic censorship conjecture says that naked singularities do not exist in nature.So,it seems reasonable to further conjecture that not even a singularity exists in nature.In this paper,a regular black hole without singularity is studied in detail,especially on its thin accretion disk,energy flux,radiation temperature and accretion efficiency.It is found that the interaction of regular black hole is stronger than that of the Schwarzschild black hole. Furthermore,the thin accretion will be more efficiency to lost energy while the mass of black hole decreased. These particular properties may be used to distinguish between black holes.

  20. Perturbation of a Schwarzschild Black Hole Due to a Rotating Thin Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Čížek, P.; Semerák, O., E-mail: oldrich.semerak@mff.cuni.cz [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2017-09-01

    Will, in 1974, treated the perturbation of a Schwarzschild black hole due to a slowly rotating, light, concentric thin ring by solving the perturbation equations in terms of a multipole expansion of the mass-and-rotation perturbation series. In the Schwarzschild background, his approach can be generalized to perturbation by a thin disk (which is more relevant astrophysically), but, due to rather bad convergence properties, the resulting expansions are not suitable for specific (numerical) computations. However, we show that Green’s functions, represented by Will’s result, can be expressed in closed form (without multipole expansion), which is more useful. In particular, they can be integrated out over the source (a thin disk in our case) to yield good converging series both for the gravitational potential and for the dragging angular velocity. The procedure is demonstrated, in the first perturbation order, on the simplest case of a constant-density disk, including the physical interpretation of the results in terms of a one-component perfect fluid or a two-component dust in a circular orbit about the central black hole. Free parameters are chosen in such a way that the resulting black hole has zero angular momentum but non-zero angular velocity, as it is just carried along by the dragging effect of the disk.

  1. Mechanical properties of very thin cover slip glass disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Mechanical properties of very thin cover slip glass disk. A SEAL, A K DALUI, M BANERJEE, A K MUKHOPADHYAY* and K K PHANI. Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata 700 032, India. Abstract. The biaxial flexural strength, Young's modulus, Vicker's microhardness and fracture toughness data for very ...

  2. The Evolution of a Supermassive Retrograde Binary Embedded in an Accretion Disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov P. B.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this note we discuss the main results of a study of a massive binary with unequal mass ratio, q, embedded in an accretion disk, with its orbital rotation being opposed to that of the disk. When the mass ratio is sufficiently large, a gap opens in the disk, but the mechanism of gap formation is very different from the prograde case. Inward migration occurs on a timescale of tev ~ Mp/Ṁ, where Mp is the mass of the less massive component (the perturber, and Ṁ is the accretion rate. When q ≪ 1, the accretion takes place mostly onto the more massive component, with the accretion rate onto the perturber being smaller than, or of order of, q1/3 Ṁ. However, this rate increases when supermassive binary black holes are considered and gravitational wave emission is important. We estimate a typical duration of time for which the accretion onto the perturber and gravitational waves could be detected.

  3. Experimental analysis and flow visualization of a thin liquid film on a stationary and rotating disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S.; Faghri, A.; Hankey, W.

    1991-01-01

    The mean thickness of a thin liquid film of deionized water with a free surface on a stationary and rotating horizontal disk has been measured with a nonobtrusive capacitance technique. The measurements were taken when the rotational speed ranged from 0-300 rpm and the flow rate varied from 7.0-15.0 lpm. A flow visualization study of the thin film was also performed to determine the characteristics of the waves on the free surface. When the disk was stationary, a circular hydraulic jump was present on the disk. Upstream from the jump, the film thickness was determined by the inertial and frictional forces on the fluid, and the radial spreading of the film. The surface tension at the edge of the disk affected the film thickness downstream from the jump. For the rotating disk, the film thickness was dependent upon the inertial and frictional forces near the center of the disk and the centrifugal forces near the edge of the disk.

  4. Evolution of rotating star clusters at the inelastic-collision stage. II. Dynamics of a disk of gas and stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanova, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamics of a gas--star disk embedded in a dense, mildly oblate (flattening epsilon-c or approx. =0.2--0.3 the stable disk will survive for at least half the cluster evolution time. The possibility of a thin disk of stars existing inside a dense star cluster is considered. For small epsilon-c and for disk member stars having > or approx. =0.04 the mass of the cluster members, collisions between cluster and disk stars will have no effect on the disk evolution prior to instability

  5. The flow of a thin liquid film on a stationary and rotating disk. I - Experimental analysis and flow visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S.; Faghri, A.; Hankey, W.

    1990-01-01

    The mean thickness of a thin liquid film of deionized water with a free surface on a stationary and rotating horizontal disk has been measured with a nonobtrusive capacitance technique. The measurements were taken when the rotational speed was 0-300 RPM and the flow rate was 7.0-15.0 LPM. A flow visualization study of the thin film was also performed to determine the characteristics of the waves on the free surface. When the disk was stationary, a circular hydraulic jump was present on the disk. Surface waves were found in the supercritical and subcritical regions at all flow rates studied. When the rotational speed of the disk is low, a standing wave at the edge of the disk was present. As the rotational speed increased, the surface waves changed from the wavy-laminar region to a region in which the waves ran nearly radially across the disk on top of a thin substrate of fluid.

  6. Polarization characterization of PZT disks and of embedded PZT plates by thermal wave methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eydam, Agnes; Suchaneck, Gunnar; Gerlach, Gerald; Esslinger, Sophia; Schönecker, Andreas; Neumeister, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the thermal wave method was applied to characterize PZT disks and embedded PZT plates with regard to the polarization magnitude and spatial homogeneity. The samples were exposed to periodic heating by means of a laser beam and the pyroelectric response was determined. Thermal relaxation times (single time constants or distributions of time constants) describe the heat losses of the PZT samples to the environment. The resulting pyroelectric current spectrum was fitted to the superposition of thermal relaxation processes. The pyroelectric coefficient gives insight in the polarization distribution. For PZT disks, the polarization distribution in the surface region showed a characteristic decrease towards the electrodes

  7. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Separating disk chemical substructures with cluster models. Evidence of a separate evolution in the metal-poor thin disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Schultheis, M.; Guiglion, G.; Mikolaitis, Š.; Kordopatis, G.; Hill, V.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Alfaro, E. J.; Bensby, T.; Koposov, S. E.; Costado, M. T.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Lind, K.; Magrini, L.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.; Chiappini, C.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Recent spectroscopic surveys have begun to explore the Galactic disk system on the basis of large data samples, with spatial distributions sampling regions well outside the solar neighborhood. In this way, they provide valuable information for testing spatial and temporal variations of disk structure kinematics and chemical evolution. Aims: The main purposes of this study are to demonstrate the usefulness of a rigorous mathematical approach to separate substructures of a stellar sample in the abundance-metallicity plane, and provide new evidence with which to characterize the nature of the metal-poor end of the thin disk sequence. Methods: We used a Gaussian mixture model algorithm to separate in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane a clean disk star subsample (essentially at RGC -0.25 dex) highlight a change in the slope at solar metallicity. This holds true at different radial regions of the Milky Way. The distribution of Galactocentric radial distances of the metal-poor part of the thin disk ([Fe/H] Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit (CASU) at the Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, and by the FLAMES/UVES reduction team at INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri. These data have been obtained from the Gaia-ESO Survey Data Archive, prepared and hosted by the Wide Field Astronomy Unit, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, which is funded by the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council.

  8. Accreting planets as dust dams in 'transition' disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, James E.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate under what circumstances an embedded planet in a protoplanetary disk may sculpt the dust distribution such that it observationally presents as a 'transition' disk. We concern ourselves with 'transition' disks that have large holes (≳ 10 AU) and high accretion rates (∼10 –9 -10 –8 M ☉ yr –1 ), particularly, those disks which photoevaporative models struggle to explain. Adopting the observed accretion rates in 'transition' disks, we find that the accretion luminosity from the forming planet is significant, and can dominate over the stellar luminosity at the gap edge. This planetary accretion luminosity can apply a significant radiation pressure to small (s ≲ 1 μm) dust particles provided they are suitably decoupled from the gas. Secular evolution calculations that account for the evolution of the gas and dust components in a disk with an embedded, accreting planet, show that only with the addition of the radiation pressure can we explain the full observed characteristics of a 'transition' disk (NIR dip in the spectral energy distribution (SED), millimeter cavity, and high accretion rate). At suitably high planet masses (≳ 3-4 M J ), radiation pressure from the accreting planet is able to hold back the small dust particles, producing a heavily dust-depleted inner disk that is optically thin to infrared radiation. The planet-disk system will present as a 'transition' disk with a dip in the SED only when the planet mass and planetary accretion rate are high enough. At other times, it will present as a disk with a primordial SED, but with a cavity in the millimeter, as observed in a handful of protoplanetary disks.

  9. Highly efficient 400  W near-fundamental-mode green thin-disk laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehler, Stefan; Dietrich, Tom; Rumpel, Martin; Graf, Thomas; Ahmed, Marwan Abdou

    2016-01-01

    We report on the efficient generation of continuous-wave, high-brightness green laser radiation. Green lasers are particularly interesting for reliable and reproducible deep-penetration welding of copper or for pumping Ti:Sa oscillators. By intracavity second-harmonic generation in a thin-disk laser resonator designed for fundamental-mode operation, an output power of up to 403 W is demonstrated at a wavelength of 515 nm with almost diffraction-limited beam quality. The unprecedented optical efficiency of 40.7% of green output power with respect to the pump power of the thin-disk laser is enabled by the intracavity use of a highly efficient grating waveguide mirror, which combines the functions of wavelength stabilization and spectral narrowing, as well as polarization selection in a single element.

  10. GIANT PLANET MIGRATION, DISK EVOLUTION, AND THE ORIGIN OF TRANSITIONAL DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Richard D.; Armitage, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    We present models of giant planet migration in evolving protoplanetary disks. Our disks evolve subject to viscous transport of angular momentum and photoevaporation, while planets undergo Type II migration. We use a Monte Carlo approach, running large numbers of models with a range in initial conditions. We find that relatively simple models can reproduce both the observed radial distribution of extrasolar giant planets, and the lifetimes and accretion histories of protoplanetary disks. The use of state-of-the-art photoevaporation models results in a degree of coupling between planet formation and disk clearing, which has not been found previously. Some accretion across planetary orbits is necessary if planets are to survive at radii ∼<1.5 AU, and if planets of Jupiter mass or greater are to survive in our models they must be able to form at late times, when the disk surface density in the formation region is low. Our model forms two different types of 'transitional' disks, embedded planets and clearing disks, which show markedly different properties. We find that the observable properties of these systems are broadly consistent with current observations, and highlight useful observational diagnostics. We predict that young transition disks are more likely to contain embedded giant planets, while older transition disks are more likely to be undergoing disk clearing.

  11. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a vertical thin disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Yin; He, Xiao-Zhou; Yik, Hiu-Fai; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Schumacher, Jorg; Tong, Penger

    2017-11-01

    We report a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a thin vertical disk with a high-order spectral element method code NEK5000. An unstructured mesh is used to adapt the turbulent flow in the thin disk and to ensure that the mesh sizes satisfy the refined Groetzbach criterion and a new criterion for thin boundary layers proposed by Shishkina et al. The DNS results for the mean and variance temperature profiles in the thermal boundary layer region are found to be in good agreement with the predictions of the new boundary layer models proposed by Shishkina et al. and Wang et al.. Furthermore, we numerically calculate the five budget terms in the boundary layer equation, which are difficult to measure in experiment. The DNS results agree well with the theoretical predictions by Wang et al. Our numerical work thus provides a strong support for the development of a common framework for understanding the effect of boundary layer fluctuations. This work was supported in part by Hong Kong Research Grants Council.

  12. Properties of a thin accretion disk around a rotating non-Kerr black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Songbai; Jing Jiliang

    2012-01-01

    We study the accretion process in the thin disk around a rotating non-Kerr black hole with a deformed parameter and an unbound rotation parameter. Our results show that the presence of the deformed parameter ε modifies the standard properties of the disk. For the case in which the black hole is more oblate than a Kerr black hole, the larger deviation leads to the smaller energy flux, the lower radiation temperature and the fainter spectra luminosity in the disk. For the black hole with positive deformed parameter, we find that the effect of the deformed parameter on the disk becomes more complicated. It depends not only on the rotation direction of the black hole and the orbit particles, but also on the sign of the difference between the deformed parameter ε and a certain critical value ε c . These significant features in the mass accretion process may provide a possibility to test the no-hair theorem in the strong-field regime in future astronomical observations.

  13. Relativistic static thin dust disks with an inner edge: An infinite family of new exact solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Guillermo A.; Gutierrez-Pineres, Antonio C.; Vina-Cervantes, Viviana M.

    2009-01-01

    An infinite family of new exact solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations is presented. The solutions are static and axially symmetric and correspond to an infinite family of thin dust disks with a central inner edge. The metric functions of all the solutions can be explicitly computed, and can be expressed in a simple manner in terms of oblate spheroidal coordinates. The energy density of all the disks of the family is positive everywhere and well behaved, so that the corresponding energy-momentum tensor is in full agreement with all the energy conditions. Moreover, although the total mass of the disks is infinite, the solutions are asymptotically flat and the Riemann tensor is regular everywhere, as it is shown by computing the curvature scalars. Now, besides its importance as a new family of exact solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations, the main importance of this family of solutions is that it can be easily superposed with the Schwarzschild solution in order to describe thin disks surrounding a central black hole. Accordingly, a detailed analysis of this superposition will be presented in a subsequent paper.

  14. Chemical constraints on the formation of the Galactic thick disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feltzing S.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We highlight some results from our detailed abundance analysis study of 703 kinematically selected F and G dwarf stars in the solar neighbourhood. The analysis is based on spectra of high-resolution (R = 45000 to 110 000 and high signal-to-noise (S/N ≈ 150 to 300. The main findings include: (1 at a given metallicity, the thick disk abundance trends are more α-enhanced than those of the thin disk; (2 the metal-rich limit of the thick disk reaches at least solar metallicities; (3 the metal-poor limit of the thin disk is around [Fe/H] ≈−0.8; (4 the thick disk shows an age-metallicity gradient; (5 the thin disk does not show an age-metallicity gradient; (6 the most metal-rich thick disk stars at [Fe/H] ≈ 0 are significantly older than the most metal-poor thin disk stars at [Fe/H] ≈−0.7; (7 based on our elemental abundances we find that kinematical criteria produce thin and thick disk stellar samples that are biased in the sense that stars from the low-velocity tail of the thick disk are classified as thin disk stars, and stars from the high-velocity tail of the thin disk are classified as thick disk stars; (8 age criteria appears to produce thin and thick disk stellar samples with less contamination.

  15. Finite Difference Solution of Elastic-Plastic Thin Rotating Annular Disk with Exponentially Variable Thickness and Exponentially Variable Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Elastic-plastic stresses, strains, and displacements have been obtained for a thin rotating annular disk with exponentially variable thickness and exponentially variable density with nonlinear strain hardening material by finite difference method using Von-Mises' yield criterion. Results have been computed numerically and depicted graphically. From the numerical results, it can be concluded that disk whose thickness decreases radially and density increases radially is on the safer side of design as compared to the disk with exponentially varying thickness and exponentially varying density as well as to flat disk.

  16. MIGRATION OF PLANETS EMBEDDED IN A CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromley, Benjamin C.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    Planetary migration poses a serious challenge to theories of planet formation. In gaseous and planetesimal disks, migration can remove planets as quickly as they form. To explore migration in a planetesimal disk, we combine analytic and numerical approaches. After deriving general analytic migration rates for isolated planets, we use N-body simulations to confirm these results for fast and slow migration modes. Migration rates scale as m -1 (for massive planets) and (1 + (e H /3) 3 ) -1 , where m is the mass of a planet and e H is the eccentricity of the background planetesimals in Hill units. When multiple planets stir the disk, our simulations yield the new result that large-scale migration ceases. Thus, growing planets do not migrate through planetesimal disks. To extend these results to migration in gaseous disks, we compare physical interactions and rates. Although migration through a gaseous disk is an important issue for the formation of gas giants, we conclude that migration has little impact on the formation of terrestrial planets.

  17. Preparation of thin actinide metal disks using a multiple disk casting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, W.V.

    1975-01-01

    A casting technique has been developed for preparing multiple actinide metal disks which have a minimum thickness of 0.006 inch. This technique was based on an injection casting procedure which utilizes the weight of a tantalum metal rod to force the molten metal into the mold cavity. Using the proper mold design and casting parameters, it has been possible to prepare ten 1/2 inch diameter neptunium or plutonium metal disks in a single casting, This casting technique is capable of producing disks which are very uniform. The average thickness of the disks from a typical casting will vary no more than 0.001 inch and the variation in the thickness of the individual disks will range from 0.0001 to 0.0005 inch. (Auth.)

  18. Preparation of thin actinide metal disks using a multiple disk casting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, W.V.

    1976-01-01

    A casting technique has been developed for preparing multiple actinide metal disks which have a minimum thickness of 0.006 inch. This technique was based on an injection casting procedure which utilizes the weight of a tantalum metal rod to force the molten metal into the mold cavity. Using the proper mold design and casting parameters, it has been possible to prepare ten 1/2 inch diameter neptunium or plutonium metal disks in a single casting. This casting technique is capable of producing disks which are very uniform. The average thickness of the disks from a typical casting will vary no more than 0.001 inch and the variation in the thickness of the individual disks will range from 0.0001 to 0.0005 inch. (author)

  19. The effect of radial migration on galactic disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera-Ciro, Carlos; D'Onghia, Elena; Navarro, Julio; Abadi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    We study the radial migration of stars driven by recurring multi-arm spiral features in an exponential disk embedded in a dark matter halo. The spiral perturbations redistribute angular momentum within the disk and lead to substantial radial displacements of individual stars, in a manner that largely preserves the circularity of their orbits and that results, after 5 Gyr (∼40 full rotations at the disk scale length), in little radial heating and no appreciable changes to the vertical or radial structure of the disk. Our results clarify a number of issues related to the spatial distribution and kinematics of migrators. In particular, we find that migrators are a heavily biased subset of stars with preferentially low vertical velocity dispersions. This 'provenance bias' for migrators is not surprising in hindsight, for stars with small vertical excursions spend more time near the disk plane, and thus respond more readily to non-axisymmetric perturbations. We also find that the vertical velocity dispersion of outward migrators always decreases, whereas the opposite holds for inward migrators. To first order, newly arrived migrators simply replace stars that have migrated off to other radii, thus inheriting the vertical bias of the latter. Extreme migrators might therefore be recognized, if present, by the unexpectedly small amplitude of their vertical excursions. Our results show that migration, understood as changes in angular momentum that preserve circularity, can strongly affect the thin disk, but cast doubts on models that envision the Galactic thick disk as a relic of radial migration.

  20. Using Vertical Structure to Infer the Total Mass Hidden in a Debris Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Cail; Hughes, A. Meredith; Carter, Evan; Flaherty, Kevin; Stafford Lambros, Zachary; Pan, Margaret; Schlichting, Hilke; Chiang, Eugene; Wilner, David; Dent, Bill; Carpenter, John; Andrews, Sean; MacGregor, Meredith Ann; Moor, Attila; Kospal, Agnes

    2018-01-01

    Disks of optically thin debris dust surround ≥ 20% of main sequence stars and mark the final stage of planetary system evolution. The features of debris disks encode dynamical interactions between the dust and any unseen planets embedded in the disk. The vertical distribution of the dust is particularly sensitive to the total mass of planetesimal bodies in the disk, and is therefore well suited for constraining the prevalence of otherwise unobservable Uranus and Neptune analogs. Inferences of mass from debris disk vertical structure have previously been applied to infrared and optical observations of several systems, but the smaller particles traced by short-wavelength observations are ‘puffed up’ by radiation pressure, yielding only upper limits on the total embedded mass. The large grains that dominate the emission at millimeter wavelengths are essentially impervious to the effects of stellar radiation, and therefore trace the underlying mass distribution more directly. Here we present 1.3mm dust continuum observations of the debris disk around the nearby M star AU Mic with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The 3 au spatial resolution of the observations, combined with the favorable edge-on geometry of the system, allows us to measure the vertical structure of a debris disk at millimeter wavelengths for the first time. We analyze the data using a ray-tracing code that translates a 2-D density and temperature structure into a model sky image of the disk. This model image is then compared directly to the interferometric data in the visibility domain, and the model parameters are explored using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo routine. We measure a scale height-to-radius ratio of 0.03, which we then compare to a theoretical model of steady-state, size-dependent velocity distributions in the collisional cascade to infer a total mass within the disk of ∼ 1.7 Earth masses. These measurements rule out the presence of a gas giant or Neptune

  1. Optical characterizations of silver nanoprisms embedded in polymer thin film layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Miriam; Pourcin, Florent; Margeat, Olivier; Le Rouzo, Judikael; Berginc, Gerard; Sauvage, Rose-Marie; Ackermann, Jorg; Escoubas, Ludovic

    2017-10-01

    The precise control of light-matter interaction has a wide range of applications and is currently driven by the use of nanoparticles (NPs) by the recent advances in nanotechnology. Taking advantage of the material, size, shape, and surrounding media dependence of the optical properties of plasmonic NPs, thin film layers with tunable optical properties are achieved. The NPs are synthesized by wet chemistry and embedded in a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) polymer thin film layer. Spectrophotometer and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements are coupled to finite-difference time domain numerical modeling to optically characterize the heterogeneous thin film layers. Silver nanoprisms of 10 to 50 nm edge size exhibit high absorption through the visible wavelength range. A simple optical model composed of a Cauchy law and a Lorentz law, accounting for the optical properties of the nonabsorbing polymer and the absorbing property of the nanoprisms, fits the spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Knowing the complex optical indices of heterogeneous thin film layers let us design layers of any optical properties.

  2. Phase models of galaxies consisting of a disk and halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipkov, L.P.; Kutuzov, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    A method is developed for finding the phase density of a two-component model of a distribution of masses. The equipotential surfaces and potential law are given. The equipotentials are lenslike surfaces with a sharp edge in the equatorial plane, this ensuring the existence of a vanishingly thin embedded disk. The equidensity surfaces of the halo coincide with the equipotentials. Phase models are constructed separately for the halo and for the disk on the basis of the spatial and surface mass densities by the solution of the corresponding integral equations. In particular, models with a halo having finite dimensions can be constructed. For both components, the part of the phase density even with respect to the velocities is found. For the halo, it depends only on the energy integral. Two examples, for which exact solutions are found, are considered

  3. WL 17: A Young Embedded Transition Disk

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehan, Patrick D.; Eisner, Josh A.

    2017-01-01

    We present the highest spatial resolution ALMA observations to date of the Class I protostar WL 17 in the $\\rho$ Ophiuchus L1688 molecular cloud complex, which show that it has a 12 AU hole in the center of its disk. We consider whether WL 17 is actually a Class II disk being extincted by foreground material, but find that such models do not provide a good fit to the broadband SED and also require such high extinction that it would presumably arise from dense material close to the source such...

  4. Phenomenological understanding of dewetting and embedding of noble metal nanoparticles in thin films induced by ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, Jai, E-mail: jai.gupta1983@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, MMH College (Ch. Charan Singh University Meerut), Ghaiziabad 201001 (India); Chemical Physics of Materials, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine, CP 243, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Tripathi, A. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asif Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Gautam, Sanjeev; Chae, K.H.; Song, Jonghan [Advanced Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136–791 (Korea, Republic of); Rigato, V. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Via Romea. 4, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Tripathi, Jalaj [Department of Chemistry, MMH College (Ch. Charan Singh University Meerut), Ghaiziabad 201001 (India); Asokan, K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asif Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2014-10-15

    The present experimental work provides the phenomenological approach to understand the dewetting in thin noble metal films with subsequent formation of nanoparticles (NPs) and embedding of NPs induced by ion irradiation. Au/polyethyleneterepthlate (PET) bilayers were irradiated with 150 keV Ar ions at varying fluences and were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (X-TEM). Thin Au film begins to dewet from the substrate after irradiation and subsequent irradiation results in spherical nanoparticles on the surface that at a fluence of 5 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} become embedded into the substrate. In addition to dewetting in thin films, synthesis and embedding of metal NPs by ion irradiation, the present article explores fundamental thermodynamic principles that govern these events systematically under the effect of irradiation. The results are explained on the basis of ion induced sputtering, thermal spike inducing local melting and of thermodynamic driving forces by minimization of the system free energy where contributions of surface and interfacial energies are considered with subsequent ion induced viscous flow in substrate. - Highlights: • Phenomenological interpretation of dewetting and embedding of metal NPs in thin film. • Exploring fundamental thermodynamic principles under influence of ion irradiation. • Ion induced surface/interface microstructural changes using SEM/X-TEM. • Ion induced sputtering, thermal spike induced local melting. • Thermodynamic driving forces relate to surface and interfacial energies.

  5. Abundances of Copper and Zinc in Stars of the Galactic Thin and Thick Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbaneva, T. I.; Mishenina, T. V.; Basak, N. Yu.; Soubiran, C.; Kovtyukh, V. V.

    The spectra of studied stars were obtained with the ELODIE spectrograph at the 1.93-m telescope of the Observatoire de Haute Provence (France). The determination of Cu and Zn abundances was carried out in LTE assumption by model atmosphere method, for Cu the hyperfine structure was taken into account. Cu and Zn abundance trends for thin and thick disk's stars are presented.

  6. Moderate high power 1 to 20μs and kHz Ho:YAG thin disk laser pulses for laser lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, Günther

    2015-02-01

    An acousto-optically or self-oscillation pulsed thin disk Ho:YAG laser system at 2.1 μm with an average power in the 10 W range will be presented for laser lithotripsy. In the case of cw operation the thin disk Ho:YAG is either pumped with InP diode stacks or with a thulium fiber laser which leads to a laser output power of 20 W at an optical-to-optical efficiency of 30%. For the gain switched mode of operation a modulated Tm-fiber laser is used to produce self-oscillation pulses. A favored pulse lengths for uric acid stone ablation is known to be at a few μs pulse duration which can be delivered by the thin disk laser technology. In the state of the art laser lithotripter, stone material is typically ablated with 250 to 750 μs pulses at 5 to 10 Hz and with pulse energies up to a few Joule. The ablation mechanism is performed in this case by vaporization into stone dust and fragmentation. With the thin disk laser technology, 1 to 20 μs-laser pulses with a repetition rate of a few kHz and with pulse energies in the mJ-range are available. The ablation mechanism is in this case due to a local heating of the stone material with a decomposition of the crystalline structure into calcium carbonate powder which can be handled by the human body. As a joint process to this thermal effect, imploding water vapor bubbles between the fiber end and the stone material produce sporadic shock waves which help clear out the stone dust and biological material.

  7. Sol-Gel Derived Active Material for Yb Thin-Disk Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Rui M; Ribeiro, Tiago; Santos, Luís F

    2017-09-02

    A ytterbium doped active material for thin-disk laser was developed based on aluminosilicate and phosphosilicate glass matrices containing up to 30 mol% YbO 1.5 . Thick films and bulk samples were prepared by sol-gel processing. The structural nature of the base material was assessed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy and the film morphology was evidenced by scanning electron microscopy. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of different compositions, including emission spectra and lifetimes, were also studied. Er 3+ was used as an internal reference to compare the intensities of the Yb 3+ PL peaks at ~ 1020 nm. The Yb 3+ PL lifetimes were found to vary between 1.0 and 0.5 ms when the Yb concentration increased from 3 to 30 mol%. Based on a figure of merit, the best active material selected was the aluminosilicate glass composition 71 SiO₂-14 AlO 1.5 -15 YbO 1.5 (in mol%). An active disk, ~ 36 μm thick, consisting of a Bragg mirror, an aluminosilicate layer doped with 15 mol% Yb and an anti-reflective coating, was fabricated.

  8. Assessing the antimicrobial activity of zinc oxide thin films using disk diffusion and biofilm reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittard, Shaun D.; Perfect, John R.; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Wei Wei; Jin Chunming; Narayan, Roger J.

    2009-01-01

    The electronic and chemical properties of semiconductor materials may be useful in preventing growth of microorganisms. In this article, in vitro methods for assessing microbial growth on semiconductor materials will be presented. The structural and biological properties of silicon wafers coated with zinc oxide thin films were evaluated using atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and MTT viability assay. The antimicrobial properties of zinc oxide thin films were established using disk diffusion and CDC Biofilm Reactor studies. Our results suggest that zinc oxide and other semiconductor materials may play a leading role in providing antimicrobial functionality to the next-generation medical devices

  9. ORIGIN OF CHEMICAL AND DYNAMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE GALACTIC THICK DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekki, Kenji; Tsujimoto, Takuji

    2011-01-01

    We adopt a scenario in which the Galactic thick disk was formed by minor merging between the first generation of the Galactic thin disk (FGTD) and a dwarf galaxy about ∼9 Gyr ago and thereby investigate chemical and dynamical properties of the Galactic thick disk. In this scenario, the dynamical properties of the thick disk have long been influenced both by the mass growth of the second generation of the Galactic thin disk (i.e., the present thin disk) and by its non-axisymmetric structures. On the other hand, the early star formation history and chemical evolution of the thin disk was influenced by the remaining gas of the thick disk. Based on N-body simulations and chemical evolution models, we investigate the radial metallicity gradient, structural and kinematical properties, and detailed chemical abundance patterns of the thick disk. Our numerical simulations show that the ancient minor merger event can significantly flatten the original radial metallicity gradient of the FGTD, in particular, in the outer part, and also can be responsible for migration of inner metal-rich stars into the outer part (R > 10 kpc). The simulations show that the central region of the thick disk can develop a bar due to dynamical effects of a separate bar in the thin disk. Whether or not rotational velocities (V φ ) can correlate with metallicities ([Fe/H]) for the simulated thick disks depends on the initial metallicity gradients of the FGTDs. The simulated orbital eccentricity distributions in the thick disk for models with higher mass ratios (∼0.2) and lower orbital eccentricities (∼0.5) of minor mergers are in good agreement with the corresponding observations. The simulated V φ -|z| relation of the thick disk in models with low orbital inclination angles of mergers are also in good agreement with the latest observational results. The vertical metallicity gradient of the simulated thick disk is rather flat or very weakly negative in the solar neighborhood. Our Galactic

  10. Relativistic, Viscous, Radiation Hydrodynamic Simulations of Geometrically Thin Disks. I. Thermal and Other Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragile, P. Chris; Etheridge, Sarina M.; Anninos, Peter; Mishra, Bhupendra; Kluźniak, Włodek

    2018-04-01

    We present results from two-dimensional, general relativistic, viscous, radiation hydrodynamic numerical simulations of Shakura–Sunyaev thin disks accreting onto stellar-mass Schwarzschild black holes. We consider cases on both the gas- and radiation-pressure-dominated branches of the thermal equilibrium curve, with mass accretion rates spanning the range from \\dot{M}=0.01{L}Edd}/{c}2 to 10L Edd/c 2. The simulations directly test the stability of this standard disk model on the different branches. We find clear evidence of thermal instability for all radiation-pressure-dominated disks, resulting universally in the vertical collapse of the disks, which in some cases then settle onto the stable, gas-pressure-dominated branch. Although these results are consistent with decades-old theoretical predictions, they appear to be in conflict with available observational data from black hole X-ray binaries. We also find evidence for a radiation-pressure-driven instability that breaks the unstable disks up into alternating rings of high and low surface density on a timescale comparable to the thermal collapse. Since radiation is included self-consistently in the simulations, we are able to calculate light curves and power density spectra (PDS). For the most part, we measure radiative efficiencies (ratio of luminosity to mass accretion rate) close to 6%, as expected for a nonrotating black hole. The PDS appear as broken power laws, with a break typically around 100 Hz. There is no evidence of significant excess power at any frequencies, i.e., no quasi-periodic oscillations are observed.

  11. Gravitational Instabilities in a Young Protoplanetary Disk with Embedded Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Karna M.; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Durisen, Richard H.

    2018-01-01

    Gravitational Instabilities (GIs), a mechanism for angular momentum transport, are more prominent during the early phases of protoplanetary disk evolution when the disk is relatively massive. In my dissertation work, I performed radiative 3D hydrodynamics simulations (by employing the code, CHYMERA) and extensively studied GIs by inserting different objects in the ‘control disk’ (a 0.14 M⊙ protoplanetary disk around a 1 M⊙ star).Studying planetary migration helps us better constrain planet formation models. To study the migration of Jovian planets, in 9 separate simulations, each of the 0.3 MJ, 1 MJ, and 3 MJ planets was inserted near the Inner and Outer Lindblad Resonances and the Corotation Radius (CR) of the dominant GI-induced two-armed spiral density wave in the disk. I found the migration timescales to be longer in a GI-active disk when compared to laminar disks. The 3 MJ planet controls its own orbital evolution, while the migration of a 0.3 MJ planet is stochastic in nature. I defined a ‘critical mass’ as the mass of an arm of the dominant two-armed spiral density wave within the planet’s Hill diameter. Planets above this mass control their own destiny, and planets below this mass are scattered by the disk. This critical mass could provide a recipe for predicting the migration behavior of planets in GI-active disks.To understand the stochastic migration of low-mass planets, I performed a simulation of 240 zero-mass planet-tracers (hereafter, planets) by inserting these at a range of locations in the control disk (an equivalent of 240 simulations of Saturn-mass or lower-mass objects). I calculated a Diffusion Coefficient (3.6 AU2/ 1000 yr) to characterize the stochastic migration of planets. I analyzed the increase in the eccentricity dispersion and compared it with the observed exoplanet eccentricities. The diffusion of planets can be a slow process, resulting in the survival of small planetary cores. Stochastic migration of planets is

  12. MODELING DUST EMISSION OF HL TAU DISK BASED ON PLANET–DISK INTERACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Sheng; Ji, Jianghui; Li, Shengtai; Li, Hui; Isella, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We use extensive global two-dimensional hydrodynamic disk gas+dust simulations with embedded planets, coupled with three-dimensional radiative transfer calculations, to model the dust ring and gap structures in the HL Tau protoplanetary disk observed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). We include the self-gravity of disk gas and dust components and make reasonable choices of disk parameters, assuming an already settled dust distribution and no planet migration. We can obtain quite adequate fits to the observed dust emission using three planets with masses of 0.35, 0.17, and 0.26 M Jup at 13.1, 33.0, and 68.6 AU, respectively. Implications for the planet formation as well as the limitations of this scenario are discussed

  13. Chemical evolution of the galactic disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyse, R.F.G.; Gilmore, G.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of enriched material in the stars and gas of their Galaxy contains information pertaining to the chemical evolution of the Milky Way from its formation epoch to the present day, and provides general constraints on theories of galaxy formation. The separate stellar components of the Galaxy cannot readily be understood if treated in isolation, but a reasonably self-consistent model for Galactic chemical evolution may be found if one considers together the chemical properties of the extreme spheroid, thick disk and thin disk populations of the Galaxy. The three major stellar components of the Galaxy are characterized by their distinct spatial distributions, metallicity structure, and kinematics, with the newly-identified thick disk being approximately three times more massive than the classical metal-poor, non-rotating extreme spheroid. Stellar evolution in the thick disk straightforwardly provides the desired pre-enrichment for resolution of the thin disk G dwarf problem

  14. CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF THIN-DISK, HIGH-METALLICITY RED HORIZONTAL-BRANCH FIELD STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afşar, M.; Sneden, C.; For, B.-Q.

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed abundance analysis and atmospheric parameters of 76 stars from a survey to identify field Galactic red horizontal-branch (RHB) stars. High-resolution echelle spectra (R ≅ 60,000, S/N ≥ 100) were obtained with the 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. The target stars were selected only by color and parallax information. Overall metallicities and relative abundances of proton-capture elements (C, N, O, Li), α-elements (Ca and Si), and neutron-capture elements (Eu and La) were determined by either equivalent width or synthetic spectrum analyses. We used CN features at the λλ7995-8040 region in order to determine the 12 C/ 13 C ratios of our targets. Investigation of the evolutionary stages, using spectroscopic T eff and log g values along with derived 12 C/ 13 C ratios, revealed the presence of 18 probable RHB stars in our sample. We also derived kinematics of the stars with available distance information. Taking into account both the kinematics and probable evolutionary stages, we conclude that our sample contains 5 thick-disk and 13 thin-disk RHB stars. Up until now, RHB stars have been considered as members of the thick disk, and were expected to have large space velocities and sub-solar metallicities. However, our sample is dominated by low-velocity solar-metallicity RHB stars; their existence cannot be easily explained with standard stellar evolution.

  15. On the gravitational instability in thin gaseous Kepler disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruediger, G.; Tschaepe, R.

    1987-01-01

    The idea that the Titius-Bode law reflects an unstable mode of a self-gravitational instability in very thin Keplerian disks makes a careful discussion of the Poisson equation especially necessary. Due to the planetary distances in the solar system (δr/r ≅ 0.5) the well-known short-wave approximation is not appropriate for definite assertions. We will here use a simple series expansion of the relation between the radial and vertical wave numbers of the disturbances which is additionally valid for medium-scale and non-zonal modes. The numerical solution of the dispersion relation reveals an extra unstable branch for wave-lengths of rings and spirals two orders of magnitudes larger than those already known. Though we are not yet able to consider modes long enough for application to the planetary system, we feel the existence of the medium-wave instability (δr/r ≅ 0.1) to be a serious challenge for a better, i.e. non-local theory. (author)

  16. An Analytical Model for the Evolution of the Protoplanetary Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khajenabi, Fazeleh; Kazrani, Kimia; Shadmehri, Mohsen, E-mail: f.khajenabi@gu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Golestan University, Gorgan 49138-15739 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    We obtain a new set of analytical solutions for the evolution of a self-gravitating accretion disk by holding the Toomre parameter close to its threshold and obtaining the stress parameter from the cooling rate. In agreement with the previous numerical solutions, furthermore, the accretion rate is assumed to be independent of the disk radius. Extreme situations where the entire disk is either optically thick or optically thin are studied independently, and the obtained solutions can be used for exploring the early or the final phases of a protoplanetary disk evolution. Our solutions exhibit decay of the accretion rate as a power-law function of the age of the system, with exponents −0.75 and −1.04 for optically thick and thin cases, respectively. Our calculations permit us to explore the evolution of the snow line analytically. The location of the snow line in the optically thick regime evolves as a power-law function of time with the exponent −0.16; however, when the disk is optically thin, the location of the snow line as a function of time with the exponent −0.7 has a stronger dependence on time. This means that in an optically thin disk inward migration of the snow line is faster than an optically thick disk.

  17. The Interplay between Radiation Pressure and the Photoelectric Instability in Optically Thin Disks of Gas and Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richert, Alexander J. W.; Lyra, Wladimir; Kuchner, Marc J.

    2018-03-01

    In optically thin disks, dust grains are photoelectrically stripped of electrons by starlight, heating nearby gas and possibly creating a dust clumping instability—the photoelectric instability (PeI)—that significantly alters global disk structure. In the current work, we use the Pencil Code to perform the first numerical models of the PeI that include stellar radiation pressure on dust grains in order to explore the parameter regime in which the instability operates. In some models with low gas and dust surface densities, we see a variety of dust structures, including sharp concentric rings. In the most gas- and dust-rich models, nonaxisymmetric clumps, arcs, and spiral arms emerge that represent dust surface density enhancements of factors of ∼5–20. In one high gas surface density model, we include a large, low-order gas viscosity and find that it observably smooths the structures that form in the gas and dust, suggesting that resolved images of a given disk may be useful for deriving constraints on the effective viscosity of its gas. Our models show that radiation pressure does not preclude the formation of complex structure from the PeI, but the qualitative manifestation of the PeI depends strongly on the parameters of the system. The PeI may provide an explanation for unusual disk morphologies, such as the moving blobs of the AU Mic disk, the asymmetric dust distribution of the 49 Ceti disk, and the rings and arcs found in the HD 141569A disk.

  18. Planetary influence in the gap of a protoplanetary disk: structure formation and an application to V1247 Ori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Meraz, R.; Nagel, E.; Rendon, F.; Barragan, O.

    2017-10-01

    We present a set of hydrodynamical models of a planetary system embedded in a protoplanetary disk in order to extract the number of dust structures formed in the disk, their masses and sizes, within optical depth ranges τ≤0.5, 0.5planetary mass accretion corresponds to slower time effects for optically thin structures; (3) an increase in the number of planets allows a faster evolution of the structures in the Hill radius for the different optical depth ranges of the inner planets. An ad-hoc simulation was run using the available information of the stellar system V1247 Ori, leading to a model of a planetary system which explains the SED and is consistent with interferometric observations of structures.

  19. Continuum Reverberation Mapping of AGN Accretion Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fausnaugh, Michael M. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA (United States); Peterson, Bradley M. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Starkey, David A. [SUPA Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, Scotland (United Kingdom); Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Horne, Keith, E-mail: faus@mit.edu [SUPA Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, Scotland (United Kingdom); Collaboration: the AGN STORM Collaboration

    2017-12-05

    We show recent detections of inter-band continuum lags in three AGN (NGC 5548, NGC 2617, and MCG+08-11-011), which provide new constraints on the temperature profiles and absolute sizes of the accretion disks. We find lags larger than would be predicted for standard geometrically thin, optically thick accretion disks by factors of 2.3–3.3. For NGC 5548, the data span UV through optical/near-IR wavelengths, and we are able to discern a steeper temperature profile than the T ~ R{sup −3/4} expected for a standard thin disk. Using a physical model, we are also able to estimate the inclinations of the disks for two objects. These results are similar to those found from gravitational microlensing of strongly lensed quasars, and provide a complementary approach for investigating the accretion disk structure in local, low luminosity AGN.

  20. Structure and stability of accretion-disk around a black-hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibazaki, N; Hoshi, R [Rikkyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1975-09-01

    Structure and stability of a stationary thin-disk formed around a black-hole are studied using the conventional formula for the viscous stress. The disk is classified into an optically thick case, an optically thin case and an intermediate case in which the comptonization plays an important role. Thermal and secular stabilities are examined in each of the above three cases. High temperatures in excess of 10sup(9 0)K are expected in the optically thin case and in the comptonization dominant case. However, it is shown that in these cases the disk is unstable for the thermal perturbation.

  1. Diode-pumped thin-disk Nd:GdVO4 laser at 893 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y L; Fu, X H; Wang, A G

    2011-01-01

    We report for the first time a Nd:GdVO 4 laser operating in a continuous wave (CW) on the quasi-three-level laser at 893 nm, based on the 4 F 3/2 – 4 I 9/2 transition, generally used for a 912 nm emission. The use of a pump module with 16 passes through the crystal allowed the realization of a Nd:GdVO 4 thin-disk laser with 157 mW of CW output power at 893 nm. Moreover, intracavity second-harmonic generation (SHG) has also been achieved with a power of 23 mW at 447 nm by using a BiB 3 O 6 (BiBO) nonlinear crystal

  2. Constraints on observing brightness asymmetries in protoplanetary disks at solar system scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunngräber, Robert; Wolf, Sebastian

    2018-04-01

    We have quantified the potential capabilities of detecting local brightness asymmetries in circumstellar disks with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) in the mid-infrared wavelength range. The study is motivated by the need to evaluate theoretical models of planet formation by direct observations of protoplanets at early evolutionary stages, when they are still embedded in their host disk. Up to now, only a few embedded candidate protoplanets have been detected with semi-major axes of 20-50 au. Due to the small angular separation from their central star, only long-baseline interferometry provides the angular resolving power to detect disk asymmetries associated to protoplanets at solar system scales in nearby star-forming regions. In particular, infrared observations are crucial to observe scattered stellar radiation and thermal re-emission in the vicinity of embedded companions directly. For this purpose we performed radiative transfer simulations to calculate the thermal re-emission and scattered stellar flux from a protoplanetary disk hosting an embedded companion. Based on that, visibilities and closure phases are calculated to simulate observations with the future beam combiner MATISSE, operating at the L, M and N bands at the VLTI. We find that the flux ratio of the embedded source to the central star can be as low as 0.5 to 0.6% for a detection at a feasible significance level due to the heated dust in the vicinity of the embedded source. Furthermore, we find that the likelihood for detection is highest for sources at intermediate distances r ≈ 2-5 au and disk masses not higher than ≈10-4 M⊙.

  3. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF THE T CHA TRANSITION DISK: CONSTRAINING THE OUTER DISK PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Cieza, Lucas A.; Olofsson, Johan; Harvey, Paul M.; Pinte, Christophe; Merin, Bruno; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Evans, Neal J., II; Najita, Joan; Henning, Thomas; Menard, Francois

    2011-01-01

    T Cha is a nearby (d = 100 pc) transition disk known to have an optically thin gap separating optically thick inner and outer disk components. Huelamo et al. (2011) recently reported the presence of a low-mass object candidate within the gap of the T Cha disk, giving credence to the suspected planetary origin of this gap. Here we present the Herschel photometry (70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 micron) of T Cha from the "Dust, Ice, and Gas in Time" (DIGIT) Key Program, which bridges the wavelength ...

  4. Thin disk models of Anomalous X-ray Pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz Eksi, K.; Ali Alpar, M

    2004-06-01

    We discuss the options of the fall-back disk model of Anomalous X-Ray Pulsars (AXPs). We argue that the power-law index of the mass inflow rate during the propeller stage can be lower than those employed in earlier models. We take into account the effect of the super-critical mass inflow at the earliest stages on the inner radius of the disk and argue that the system starts as a propeller. Our results show that, assuming a fraction of the mass inflow is accreted onto the neutron star, the fall-back disk scenario can produce AXPs for acceptable parameters.

  5. Transport properties of β-Ga2O3 nanoparticles embedded in Nb thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Vaidhyanathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of ferromagnetism in nanoparticles of nonmagnetic oxides is an interesting area of research. In the present work, transport properties of niobium thin films, with β-Ga2O3 nanoparticles embedded within them, are presented. Nanoparticles of β-Ga2O3 embedded in a Nb matrix were prepared at room temperature by radio frequency co-sputtering technique on Si (100 and glass substrates held at room temperature. The thin films deposited on Si substrates were subjected to Ar annealing at a temperature range of 600-650 C for 1 hour. Films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Micro-Raman and elemental identification was performed with an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS. Transport measurements were performed down to liquid helium temperatures by four-probe contact technique, showed characteristics analogous to those observed in the context of a Kondo system. A comparison of the experimental data with the theoretical formalism of Kondo and Hamann is presented. It is suggested that this behavior arises from the existence of magnetic moments associated with the oxygen vacancy defects in the nanoparticles of the nonmagnetic oxide Ga2O3.

  6. Dynamics of acoustically levitated disk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, W J; Wei, B

    2004-10-01

    The acoustic levitation force on disk samples and the dynamics of large water drops in a planar standing wave are studied by solving the acoustic scattering problem through incorporating the boundary element method. The dependence of levitation force amplitude on the equivalent radius R of disks deviates seriously from the R3 law predicted by King's theory, and a larger force can be obtained for thin disks. When the disk aspect ratio gamma is larger than a critical value gamma(*) ( approximately 1.9 ) and the disk radius a is smaller than the critical value a(*) (gamma) , the levitation force per unit volume of the sample will increase with the enlargement of the disk. The acoustic levitation force on thin-disk samples ( gammaacoustic field for stable levitation of a large water drop is to adjust the reflector-emitter interval H slightly above the resonant interval H(n) . The simulation shows that the drop is flattened and the central parts of its top and bottom surface become concave with the increase of sound pressure level, which agrees with the experimental observation. The main frequencies of the shape oscillation under different sound pressures are slightly larger than the Rayleigh frequency because of the large shape deformation. The simulated translational frequencies of the vertical vibration under normal gravity condition agree with the theoretical analysis.

  7. Gas Flow Across Gaps in Protoplanetary Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Lubow, Steve H.; D'Angelo, Gennaro

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the gas accretion flow through a planet-produced gap in a protoplanetary disk. We adopt the alpha disk model and ignore effects of planetary migration. We develop a semi-analytic, one-dimensional model that accounts for the effects of the planet as a mass sink and also carry out two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of a planet embedded in a disk. The predictions of the mass flow rate through the gap based on the semi-analytic model generally agree with the hydrodynamical simu...

  8. THE VLA VIEW OF THE HL TAU DISK: DISK MASS, GRAIN EVOLUTION, AND EARLY PLANET FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco-González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica UNAM, Apartado Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Henning, Thomas; Linz, Hendrik; Birnstiel, Til; Boekel, Roy van; Klahr, Hubert [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Chandler, Claire J.; Pérez, Laura [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States); Anglada, Guillem; Macias, Enrique; Osorio, Mayra [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Flock, Mario [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Menten, Karl [Jansky Fellow of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (United States); Testi, Leonardo [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Torrelles, José M. [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC) and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (UB-IEEC), Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Zhu, Zhaohuan, E-mail: c.carrasco@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: l.rodriguez@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: r.galvan@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: henning@mpia.de, E-mail: linz@mpia.de [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    The first long-baseline ALMA campaign resolved the disk around the young star HL Tau into a number of axisymmetric bright and dark rings. Despite the very young age of HL Tau, these structures have been interpreted as signatures for the presence of (proto)planets. The ALMA images triggered numerous theoretical studies based on disk–planet interactions, magnetically driven disk structures, and grain evolution. Of special interest are the inner parts of disks, where terrestrial planets are expected to form. However, the emission from these regions in HL Tau turned out to be optically thick at all ALMA wavelengths, preventing the derivation of surface density profiles and grain-size distributions. Here, we present the most sensitive images of HL Tau obtained to date with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at 7.0 mm wavelength with a spatial resolution comparable to the ALMA images. At this long wavelength, the dust emission from HL Tau is optically thin, allowing a comprehensive study of the inner disk. We obtain a total disk dust mass of (1–3) × 10{sup −3} M {sub ⊙}, depending on the assumed opacity and disk temperature. Our optically thin data also indicate fast grain growth, fragmentation, and formation of dense clumps in the inner densest parts of the disk. Our results suggest that the HL Tau disk may be actually in a very early stage of planetary formation, with planets not already formed in the gaps but in the process of future formation in the bright rings.

  9. THE VLA VIEW OF THE HL TAU DISK: DISK MASS, GRAIN EVOLUTION, AND EARLY PLANET FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco-González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Henning, Thomas; Linz, Hendrik; Birnstiel, Til; Boekel, Roy van; Klahr, Hubert; Chandler, Claire J.; Pérez, Laura; Anglada, Guillem; Macias, Enrique; Osorio, Mayra; Flock, Mario; Menten, Karl; Testi, Leonardo; Torrelles, José M.; Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2016-01-01

    The first long-baseline ALMA campaign resolved the disk around the young star HL Tau into a number of axisymmetric bright and dark rings. Despite the very young age of HL Tau, these structures have been interpreted as signatures for the presence of (proto)planets. The ALMA images triggered numerous theoretical studies based on disk–planet interactions, magnetically driven disk structures, and grain evolution. Of special interest are the inner parts of disks, where terrestrial planets are expected to form. However, the emission from these regions in HL Tau turned out to be optically thick at all ALMA wavelengths, preventing the derivation of surface density profiles and grain-size distributions. Here, we present the most sensitive images of HL Tau obtained to date with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at 7.0 mm wavelength with a spatial resolution comparable to the ALMA images. At this long wavelength, the dust emission from HL Tau is optically thin, allowing a comprehensive study of the inner disk. We obtain a total disk dust mass of (1–3) × 10 −3 M ⊙ , depending on the assumed opacity and disk temperature. Our optically thin data also indicate fast grain growth, fragmentation, and formation of dense clumps in the inner densest parts of the disk. Our results suggest that the HL Tau disk may be actually in a very early stage of planetary formation, with planets not already formed in the gaps but in the process of future formation in the bright rings

  10. Cutting-Edge High-Power Ultrafast Thin Disk Oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Südmeyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of applications in science and industry are currently pushing the development of ultrafast laser technologies that enable high average powers. SESAM modelocked thin disk lasers (TDLs currently achieve higher pulse energies and average powers than any other ultrafast oscillator technology, making them excellent candidates in this goal. Recently, 275 W of average power with a pulse duration of 583 fs were demonstrated, which represents the highest average power so far demonstrated from an ultrafast oscillator. In terms of pulse energy, TDLs reach more than 40 μJ pulses directly from the oscillator. In addition, another major milestone was recently achieved, with the demonstration of a TDL with nearly bandwidth-limited 96-fs long pulses. The progress achieved in terms of pulse duration of such sources enabled the first measurement of the carrier-envelope offset frequency of a modelocked TDL, which is the first key step towards full stabilization of such a source. We will present the key elements that enabled these latest results, as well as an outlook towards the next scaling steps in average power, pulse energy and pulse duration of such sources. These cutting-edge sources will enable exciting new applications, and open the door to further extending the current performance milestones.

  11. Observations on Si-based micro-clusters embedded in TaN thin film deposited by co-sputtering with oxygen contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Mi [Beamline Division, Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Min-Sang; Choi, Duck-Kyun, E-mail: duck@hanyang.ac.kr, E-mail: mcjung@oist.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Min-Cherl, E-mail: duck@hanyang.ac.kr, E-mail: mcjung@oist.jp [Energy Materials and Surface Sciences Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Okinawa, 904-0495 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with the synchrotron radiation we investigated Si-based micro-clusters embedded in TaSiN thin films having oxygen contamination. TaSiN thin films were deposited by co-sputtering on fixed or rotated substrates and with various power conditions of TaN and Si targets. Three types of embedded micro-clusters with the chemical states of pure Si, SiO{sub x}-capped Si, and SiO{sub 2}-capped Si were observed and analyzed using SEM and Si 2p and Ta 4f core-level spectra were derived. Their different resistivities are presumably due to the different chemical states and densities of Si-based micro-clusters.

  12. Observations on Si-based micro-clusters embedded in TaN thin film deposited by co-sputtering with oxygen contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Mi Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with the synchrotron radiation we investigated Si-based micro-clusters embedded in TaSiN thin films having oxygen contamination. TaSiN thin films were deposited by co-sputtering on fixed or rotated substrates and with various power conditions of TaN and Si targets. Three types of embedded micro-clusters with the chemical states of pure Si, SiOx-capped Si, and SiO2-capped Si were observed and analyzed using SEM and Si 2p and Ta 4f core-level spectra were derived. Their different resistivities are presumably due to the different chemical states and densities of Si-based micro-clusters.

  13. Simplified design of thin-film polarizing beam splitter using embedded symmetric trilayer stack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, R M A

    2011-07-01

    An analytically tractable design procedure is presented for a polarizing beam splitter (PBS) that uses frustrated total internal reflection and optical tunneling by a symmetric LHL trilayer thin-film stack embedded in a high-index prism. Considerable simplification arises when the refractive index of the high-index center layer H matches the refractive index of the prism and its thickness is quarter-wave. This leads to a cube design in which zero reflection for the p polarization is achieved at a 45° angle of incidence independent of the thicknesses of the identical symmetric low-index tunnel layers L and L. Arbitrarily high reflectance for the s polarization is obtained at subwavelength thicknesses of the tunnel layers. This is illustrated by an IR Si-cube PBS that uses an embedded ZnS-Si-ZnS trilayer stack.

  14. New Constraints on Turbulence and Embedded Planet Mass in the HD 163296 Disk from Planet–Disk Hydrodynamic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shang-Fei; Jin, Sheng; Li, Shengtai; Isella, Andrea; Li, Hui

    2018-04-01

    Recent Atacama Large Millimeter and Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the protoplanetary disk around the Herbig Ae star HD 163296 revealed three depleted dust gaps at 60, 100, and 160 au in the 1.3 mm continuum as well as CO depletion in the middle and outer dust gaps. However, no CO depletion was found in the inner dust gap. To examine the planet–disk interaction model, we present results of 2D two fluid (gas + dust) hydrodynamic simulations coupled with 3D radiative transfer simulations. To fit the high gas-to-dust ratio of the first gap, we find that the Shakura–Sunyaev viscosity parameter α must be very small (≲ {10}-4) in the inner disk. On the other hand, a relatively large α (∼ 7.5× {10}-3) is required to reproduce the dust surface density in the outer disk. We interpret the variation of α as an indicator of the transition from an inner dead zone to the outer magnetorotational instability (MRI) active zone. Within ∼100 au, the HD 163296 disk’s ionization level is low, and non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic effects could suppress the MRI, so the disk can be largely laminar. The disk’s ionization level gradually increases toward larger radii, and the outermost disk (r> 300 au) becomes turbulent due to MRI. Under this condition, we find that the observed dust continuum and CO gas line emissions can be reasonably fit by three half-Jovian-mass planets (0.46, 0.46, and 0.58 {M}{{J}}) at 59, 105, and 160 au, respectively.

  15. Oscillator strength and quantum-confined Stark effect of excitons in a thin PbS quantum disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oukerroum, A.; El-Yadri, M.; El Aouami, A.; Feddi, E.; Dujardin, F.; Duque, C. A.; Sadoqi, M.; Long, G.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we report a study of the effect of a lateral electric field on a quantum-confined exciton in a thin PbS quantum disk. Our approach was performed in the framework of the effective mass theory and adiabatic approximation. The ground state energy and the stark shift were determined by using a variational method with an adequate trial wavefunction, by investigating a 2D oscillator strength under simultaneous consideration of the geometrical confinement and the electric field strength. Our results showed a strong dependence of the exciton binding and the Stark shift on the disk dimensions in both axial and longitudinal directions. On the other hand, our results also showed that the Stark shift’s dependence on the electric field is not purely quadratic but the linear contribution is also important and cannot be neglected, especially when the confinement gets weaker.

  16. CLUSTER DYNAMICS LARGELY SHAPES PROTOPLANETARY DISK SIZES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincke, Kirsten; Pfalzner, Susanne, E-mail: kvincke@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    To what degree the cluster environment influences the sizes of protoplanetary disks surrounding young stars is still an open question. This is particularly true for the short-lived clusters typical for the solar neighborhood, in which the stellar density and therefore the influence of the cluster environment change considerably over the first 10 Myr. In previous studies, the effect of the gas on the cluster dynamics has often been neglected; this is remedied here. Using the code NBody6++, we study the stellar dynamics in different developmental phases—embedded, expulsion, and expansion—including the gas, and quantify the effect of fly-bys on the disk size. We concentrate on massive clusters (M {sub cl} ≥ 10{sup 3}–6 ∗ 10{sup 4} M {sub Sun}), which are representative for clusters like the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) or NGC 6611. We find that not only the stellar density but also the duration of the embedded phase matters. The densest clusters react fastest to the gas expulsion and drop quickly in density, here 98% of relevant encounters happen before gas expulsion. By contrast, disks in sparser clusters are initially less affected, but because these clusters expand more slowly, 13% of disks are truncated after gas expulsion. For ONC-like clusters, we find that disks larger than 500 au are usually affected by the environment, which corresponds to the observation that 200 au-sized disks are common. For NGC 6611-like clusters, disk sizes are cut-down on average to roughly 100 au. A testable hypothesis would be that the disks in the center of NGC 6611 should be on average ≈20 au and therefore considerably smaller than those in the ONC.

  17. Analysis of Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer in a Thin Liquid Film Flowing over a Rotating Disk by Integral Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S.; Cetegen, B. M.

    2005-01-01

    An integral analysis of hydrodynamics and heat transfer in a thin liquid film flowing over a rotating disk surface is presented for both constant temperature and constant heat flux boundary conditions. The model is found to capture the correct trends of the liquid film thickness variation over the disk surface and compare reasonably well with experimental results over the range of Reynolds and Rossby numbers covering both inertia and rotation dominated regimes. Nusselt number variation over the disk surface shows two types of behavior. At low rotation rates, the Nusselt number exhibits a radial decay with Nusselt number magnitudes increasing with higher inlet Reynolds number for both constant wall temperature and heat flux cases. At high rotation rates, the Nusselt number profiles exhibit a peak whose location advances radially outward with increasing film Reynolds number or inertia. The results also compare favorably with the full numerical simulation results from an earlier study as well as with the reported experimental results.

  18. Ultra-thin flexible polyimide neural probe embedded in a dissolvable maltose-coated microneedle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Zhuolin; Yen, Shih-Cheng; Zhang, Songsong; Lee, Chengkuo; Xue, Ning; Sun, Tao; Tsang, Wei Mong; Liao, Lun-De; Thakor, Nitish V

    2014-01-01

    The ultra-thin flexible polyimide neural probe can reduce the glial sheath growth on the probe body while its flexibility can minimize the micromotion between the probe and brain tissue. To provide sufficient stiffness for penetration purposes, we developed a drawing lithography technology for uniform maltose coating to make the maltose-coated polyimide neural probe become a stiff microneedle. The coating thicknesses under different temperature and the corresponding stiffness are studied. It has been proven that the coated maltose is dissolved by body fluids after implantation for a few seconds. Moreover, carbon nanotubes are coated on the neural probe recording electrodes to improve the charge delivery ability and reduce the impedance. Last but not least, the feasibility and recording characteristic of this ultra-thin polyimide neural probe embedded in a maltose-coated microneedle are further demonstrated by in vivo tests. (paper)

  19. Ultra-thin flexible polyimide neural probe embedded in a dissolvable maltose-coated microneedle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zhuolin; Yen, Shih-Cheng; Xue, Ning; Sun, Tao; Mong Tsang, Wei; Zhang, Songsong; Liao, Lun-De; Thakor, Nitish V.; Lee, Chengkuo

    2014-06-01

    The ultra-thin flexible polyimide neural probe can reduce the glial sheath growth on the probe body while its flexibility can minimize the micromotion between the probe and brain tissue. To provide sufficient stiffness for penetration purposes, we developed a drawing lithography technology for uniform maltose coating to make the maltose-coated polyimide neural probe become a stiff microneedle. The coating thicknesses under different temperature and the corresponding stiffness are studied. It has been proven that the coated maltose is dissolved by body fluids after implantation for a few seconds. Moreover, carbon nanotubes are coated on the neural probe recording electrodes to improve the charge delivery ability and reduce the impedance. Last but not least, the feasibility and recording characteristic of this ultra-thin polyimide neural probe embedded in a maltose-coated microneedle are further demonstrated by in vivo tests.

  20. Contraction of an air disk caught between two different liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Thoraval, M.-J.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2013-01-01

    When a drop impacts a pool of liquid it entraps a thin disk of air under its center. This disk contracts rapidly into a bubble to minimize surface energy. Herein we use ultra-high-speed imaging to measure the contraction speed of this disk when

  1. Applying a Particle-only Model to the HL Tau Disk

    OpenAIRE

    Tabeshian, Maryam; Wiegert, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    Observations have revealed rich structures in protoplanetary disks, offering clues about their embedded planets. Due to the complexities introduced by the abundance of gas in these disks, modeling their structure in detail is computationally intensive, requiring complex hydrodynamic codes and substantial computing power. It would be advantageous if computationally simpler models could provide some preliminary information on these disks. Here we apply a particle-only model (that we developed f...

  2. Planetary Torque in 3D Isentropic Disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, Jeffrey; Masset, Frédéric; Velasco, David; Lega, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Planetary migration is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) problem, because Earth-size planetary cores are deeply embedded in protoplanetary disks. Simulations of these 3D disks remain challenging due to the steep resolution requirements. Using two different hydrodynamics codes, FARGO3D and PEnGUIn, we simulate disk–planet interaction for a one to five Earth-mass planet embedded in an isentropic disk. We measure the torque on the planet and ensure that the measurements are converged both in resolution and between the two codes. We find that the torque is independent of the smoothing length of the planet’s potential ( r s ), and that it has a weak dependence on the adiabatic index of the gaseous disk ( γ ). The torque values correspond to an inward migration rate qualitatively similar to previous linear calculations. We perform additional simulations with explicit radiative transfer using FARGOCA, and again find agreement between 3D simulations and existing torque formulae. We also present the flow pattern around the planets that show active flow is present within the planet’s Hill sphere, and meridional vortices are shed downstream. The vertical flow speed near the planet is faster for a smaller r s or γ , up to supersonic speeds for the smallest r s and γ in our study.

  3. RADIALLY MAGNETIZED PROTOPLANETARY DISK: VERTICAL PROFILE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, Matthew; Thompson, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the response of a thin accretion disk to an external radial magnetic field. Our focus is on protoplanetary disks (PPDs), which are exposed during their later evolution to an intense, magnetized wind from the central star. A radial magnetic field is mixed into a thin surface layer, wound up by the disk shear, and pushed downward by a combination of turbulent mixing and ambipolar and ohmic drift. The toroidal field reaches much greater strengths than the seed vertical field that is usually invoked in PPD models, even becoming superthermal. Linear stability analysis indicates that the disk experiences the magnetorotational instability (MRI) at a higher magnetization than a vertically magnetized disk when both the effects of ambipolar and Hall drift are taken into account. Steady vertical profiles of density and magnetic field are obtained at several radii between 0.06 and 1 AU in response to a wind magnetic field B r ∼ (10 −4 –10 −2 )(r/ AU) −2 G. Careful attention is given to the radial and vertical ionization structure resulting from irradiation by stellar X-rays. The disk is more strongly magnetized closer to the star, where it can support a higher rate of mass transfer. As a result, the inner ∼1 AU of a PPD is found to evolve toward lower surface density. Mass transfer rates around 10 −8 M ⊙ yr −1 are obtained under conservative assumptions about the MRI-generated stress. The evolution of the disk and the implications for planet migration are investigated in the accompanying paper

  4. Thermal Comptonization in standard accretion disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraschi, L.; Molendi, S.

    1990-01-01

    Using the theory of geometrically thin accretion disks (where the effects of viscosity are parametrized in terms of the total pressure, viscosity parameter, α) equations are presented for the innermost region of the disk (where the pressure is due to radiation, and the main source of opacity is Thompson scattering). It is important to stress that the four equations can be solved without making use of an equation for the temperature. This is not true for the other regions of the disk. An equation given is used to determine the temperature, assuming that the disk is homogeneous and isothermal in the vertical direction. (author)

  5. Simulations of minor mergers. I. General properties of thick disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villalobos, Álvaro; Helmi, Amina

    2008-01-01

    We present simulations of the formation of thick disks via the accretion of twocomponent satellites onto a pre-existing thin disk. Our goal is to establish the detailed characteristics of the thick disks obtained in this way, as well as their dependence on the initial orbital and internal properties

  6. Noise characteristics of barium ferrite particulate rigid disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Naoki; Inoue, Hitoshi; Spratt, Geoffrey; Uesaka, Yasutaro; Katsumoto, Masayuki

    1991-04-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between the noise characteristics and magnetic properties of longitudinal barium ferrite (Ba-F) rigid disks with different switching field distributions (SFD). The magnetomotive force dependencies of reverse dc-erase (RDC) noise are measured and compared with SFD values. Coated disks with acicular magnetic particles have dips and thin-film disks peaks in the RDC. In Ba-F disks, both cases are observed depending on the SFD values, though the depths or heights of the RDC noise are much smaller than those of coated disks with acicular particles or thin-film disks. Disks with small SFD values have peaks, and disks with large SFD values have dips. In order to find the relationship between noise properties and magnetic properties, interparticle interactions in Ba-F disks are investigated. Reverse dc remanence Id(H) and ac-demagnetized isothermal remanence Ir(H) are measured. Both are normalized by the saturation remanence. The deviation from the noninteracting system, ΔM = Id(H) - [1ΔM=Id(H)-[1- 2Ir(H)] and an interaction field factor (IFF) given by (H'r - Hr)/Hc, are derived from these remanent properties. Here, H'r is the field corresponding to 50% of the remanent magnetization, Hr is remanence coercivity. In Ba-F disks, ΔM shows positive interactions, and the peak heights of ΔM increase and IFF decrease with decreasing SFD values. Positive interactions between Ba-F particles seem to be caused by particle stacking. Therefore, particle stacking results in small SFD values and peak-type RDC noise.

  7. Radiation Hydrodynamical Turbulence in Protoplanetary Disks: Numerical Models and Observational Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flock, Mario; Nelson, Richard P.; Turner, Neal J.; Bertrang, Gesa H.-M.; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Henning, Thomas; Lyra, Wladimir; Teague, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Planets are born in protostellar disks, which are now observed with enough resolution to address questions about internal gas flows. Magnetic forces are possibly drivers of the flows, but ionization state estimates suggest that much of the gas mass decouples from magnetic fields. Thus, hydrodynamical instabilities could play a major role. We investigate disk dynamics under conditions typical for a T Tauri system, using global 3D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations with embedded particles and a resolution of 70 cells per scale height. Stellar irradiation heating is included with realistic dust opacities. The disk starts in joint radiative balance and hydrostatic equilibrium. The vertical shear instability (VSI) develops into turbulence that persists up to at least 1600 inner orbits (143 outer orbits). Turbulent speeds are a few percent of the local sound speed at the midplane, increasing to 20%, or 100 m s-1, in the corona. These are consistent with recent upper limits on turbulent speeds from optically thin and thick molecular line observations of TW Hya and HD 163296. The predominantly vertical motions induced by the VSI efficiently lift particles upward. Grains 0.1 and 1 mm in size achieve scale heights greater than expected in isotropic turbulence. We conclude that while kinematic constraints from molecular line emission do not directly discriminate between magnetic and nonmagnetic disk models, the small dust scale heights measured in HL Tau and HD 163296 favor turbulent magnetic models, which reach lower ratios of the vertical kinetic energy density to the accretion stress.

  8. Disk Emission from Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Spinning Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Krolik, Julian H.; Noble, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a new series of global, three-dimensional, relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of thin accretion disks around spinning black holes. The disks have aspect ratios of H/R approx. 0.05 and spin parameters of a/M = 0, 0.5, 0.9, and 0.99. Using the ray-tracing code Pandurata, we generate broadband thermal spectra and polarization signatures from the MHD simulations. We find that the simulated spectra can be well fit with a simple, universal emissivity profile that better reproduces the behavior of the emission from the inner disk, compared to traditional analyses carried out using a Novikov-Thorne thin disk model. Finally, we show how spectropolarization observations can be used to convincingly break the spin-inclination degeneracy well known to the continuum-fitting method of measuring black hole spin.

  9. MIGRATION TRAPS IN DISKS AROUND SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellovary, Jillian M.; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; McKernan, Barry; Ford, K. E. Saavik

    2016-01-01

    Accretion disks around supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) contain stars, stellar mass black holes, and other stellar remnants, which perturb the disk gas gravitationally. The resulting density perturbations exert torques on the embedded masses causing them to migrate through the disk in a manner analogous to planets in protoplanetary disks. We determine the strength and direction of these torques using an empirical analytic description dependent on local disk gradients, applied to two different analytic, steady-state disk models of SMBH accretion disks. We find that there are radii in such disks where the gas torque changes sign, trapping migrating objects. Our analysis shows that major migration traps generally occur where the disk surface density gradient changes sign from positive to negative, around 20–300R g , where R g  = 2GM/c 2 is the Schwarzschild radius. At these traps, massive objects in the AGN disk can accumulate, collide, scatter, and accrete. Intermediate mass black hole formation is likely in these disk locations, which may lead to preferential gap and cavity creation at these radii. Our model thus has significant implications for SMBH growth as well as gravitational wave source populations

  10. Development of an Erlang System Adaopted to Embedded Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Fredrik; Bergström, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    Erlang is a powerful and robust language for writing massively parallel and distributed applications. With the introduction of multi-core ARM processors, the embedded market will be looking for ways of taking advantage of the newfound opportunities for parallelism. To support the development of embedded applications using Erlang we want to provide Erlang and Embedded developers with a run-time system suited for embedded devices. We have managed to shrink the disk size of the Erlang runtime sy...

  11. RADIALLY MAGNETIZED PROTOPLANETARY DISK: VERTICAL PROFILE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Matthew [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 1A7 (Canada); Thompson, Christopher [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2015-11-10

    This paper studies the response of a thin accretion disk to an external radial magnetic field. Our focus is on protoplanetary disks (PPDs), which are exposed during their later evolution to an intense, magnetized wind from the central star. A radial magnetic field is mixed into a thin surface layer, wound up by the disk shear, and pushed downward by a combination of turbulent mixing and ambipolar and ohmic drift. The toroidal field reaches much greater strengths than the seed vertical field that is usually invoked in PPD models, even becoming superthermal. Linear stability analysis indicates that the disk experiences the magnetorotational instability (MRI) at a higher magnetization than a vertically magnetized disk when both the effects of ambipolar and Hall drift are taken into account. Steady vertical profiles of density and magnetic field are obtained at several radii between 0.06 and 1 AU in response to a wind magnetic field B{sub r} ∼ (10{sup −4}–10{sup −2})(r/ AU){sup −2} G. Careful attention is given to the radial and vertical ionization structure resulting from irradiation by stellar X-rays. The disk is more strongly magnetized closer to the star, where it can support a higher rate of mass transfer. As a result, the inner ∼1 AU of a PPD is found to evolve toward lower surface density. Mass transfer rates around 10{sup −8} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} are obtained under conservative assumptions about the MRI-generated stress. The evolution of the disk and the implications for planet migration are investigated in the accompanying paper.

  12. Planetary Torque in 3D Isentropic Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, Jeffrey [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Masset, Frédéric; Velasco, David [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad s/n, 62210 Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Lega, Elena, E-mail: jeffrey.fung@berkeley.edu [Université de la Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange UMR 7293, Nice (France)

    2017-03-01

    Planetary migration is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) problem, because Earth-size planetary cores are deeply embedded in protoplanetary disks. Simulations of these 3D disks remain challenging due to the steep resolution requirements. Using two different hydrodynamics codes, FARGO3D and PEnGUIn, we simulate disk–planet interaction for a one to five Earth-mass planet embedded in an isentropic disk. We measure the torque on the planet and ensure that the measurements are converged both in resolution and between the two codes. We find that the torque is independent of the smoothing length of the planet’s potential ( r {sub s}), and that it has a weak dependence on the adiabatic index of the gaseous disk ( γ ). The torque values correspond to an inward migration rate qualitatively similar to previous linear calculations. We perform additional simulations with explicit radiative transfer using FARGOCA, and again find agreement between 3D simulations and existing torque formulae. We also present the flow pattern around the planets that show active flow is present within the planet’s Hill sphere, and meridional vortices are shed downstream. The vertical flow speed near the planet is faster for a smaller r {sub s} or γ , up to supersonic speeds for the smallest r {sub s} and γ in our study.

  13. Effect of carbon embedding on the tribological properties of magnetic media surface with and without a perfluoropolyether (PFPE) layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samad, M Abdul; Yang, H; Bhatia, C S; Sinha, S K

    2011-01-01

    Carbon embedding (≤1 nm) in the top surface of cobalt (∼100 nm) sputtered on a silicon surface is used as a surface modification technique to evaluate the tribological properties with or without an ultra-thin layer of perfluoropolyether (PFPE) lubricant. The carbon embedding is achieved using the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique at an ion energy of 90 eV. Transport of ions in matter simulations, time-of-flight secondary ion spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are used to study the carbon embedding profiles and surface chemical composition. The XPS results show that carbon embedding using the ion energy of 90 eV results in the formation of about 58 ± 6% of tetrahedral (sp 3 ) carbon hybridization. Furthermore, the XPS results also show that the carbon embedding is effective in improving the anti-oxidation resistance of cobalt. Ball-on-disk tribological tests are conducted at a contact pressure of 0.26 GPa on the modified cobalt surface with or without the PFPE layer. It is observed that the average coefficient of friction is reduced considerably from a value of approximately 0.7 to 0.42 after the surface modification. The coefficient of friction is further reduced to ∼0.26 after the deposition of an ultra-thin layer of PFPE over the modified surface, which is lower than a friction coefficient of 0.4 from commercial media. The modified cobalt surface also shows much better wear life than the present day commercial media.

  14. Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek A. Abramowicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves. In this light we discuss how accretion disks might reveal some of the unique signatures of strong gravity: the event horizon, the innermost stable circular orbit, and the ergosphere. We then review, from a first-principles perspective, the physical processes at play in accretion disks. This leads us to the four primary accretion disk models that we review: Polish doughnuts (thick disks, Shakura-Sunyaev (thin disks, slim disks, and advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs. After presenting the models we discuss issues of stability, oscillations, and jets. Following our review of the analytic work, we take a parallel approach in reviewing numerical studies of black hole accretion disks. We finish with a few select applications that highlight particular astrophysical applications: measurements of black hole mass and spin, black hole vs. neutron star accretion disks, black hole accretion disk spectral states, and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs.

  15. Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowicz, Marek A; Fragile, P Chris

    2013-01-01

    This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves. In this light we discuss how accretion disks might reveal some of the unique signatures of strong gravity: the event horizon, the innermost stable circular orbit, and the ergosphere. We then review, from a first-principles perspective, the physical processes at play in accretion disks. This leads us to the four primary accretion disk models that we review: Polish doughnuts (thick disks), Shakura-Sunyaev (thin) disks, slim disks, and advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs). After presenting the models we discuss issues of stability, oscillations, and jets. Following our review of the analytic work, we take a parallel approach in reviewing numerical studies of black hole accretion disks. We finish with a few select applications that highlight particular astrophysical applications: measurements of black hole mass and spin, black hole vs. neutron star accretion disks, black hole accretion disk spectral states, and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs).

  16. Characterization of fracture properties of thin aluminum inclusions embedded in anisotropic laminate composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Bolzon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fracture properties of thin aluminum inclusions embedded in anisotropic paperboard composites, of interest for food and beverage packaging industry, can be determined by performing tensile tests on non-conventional heterogeneous specimens. The region of interest of the investigated material samples is monitored all along the experiment by digital image correlation techniques, which allow to recover qualitative and quantitative information about the metal deformation and about the evolution of the damaging processes leading to the detachment of the inclusion from the surrounding laminate composite. The interpretation of the laboratory results is supported by the numerical simulation of the tests.

  17. SIZES AND TEMPERATURE PROFILES OF QUASAR ACCRETION DISKS FROM CHROMATIC MICROLENSING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburne, Jeffrey A.; Pooley, David; Rappaport, Saul; Schechter, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    Microlensing perturbations to the flux ratios of gravitationally lensed quasar images can vary with wavelength because of the chromatic dependence of the accretion disk's apparent size. Multiwavelength observations of microlensed quasars can thus constrain the temperature profiles of their accretion disks, a fundamental test of an important astrophysical process which is not currently possible using any other method. We present single-epoch broadband flux ratios for 12 quadruply lensed quasars in 8 bands ranging from 0.36 to 2.2 μm, as well as Chandra 0.5-8 keV flux ratios for five of them. We combine the optical/IR and X-ray ratios, together with X-ray ratios from the literature, using a Bayesian approach to constrain the half-light radii of the quasars in each filter. Comparing the overall disk sizes and wavelength slopes to those predicted by the standard thin accretion disk model, we find that on average the disks are larger than predicted by nearly an order of magnitude, with sizes that grow with wavelength with an average slope of ∼0.2 rather than the slope of 4/3 predicted by the standard thin disk theory. Though the error bars on the slope are large for individual quasars, the large sample size lends weight to the overall result. Our results present severe difficulties for a standard thin accretion disk as the main source of UV/optical radiation from quasars.

  18. MIGRATION TRAPS IN DISKS AROUND SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellovary, Jillian M.; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; McKernan, Barry; Ford, K. E. Saavik [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, NY 10024 (United States)

    2016-03-10

    Accretion disks around supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) contain stars, stellar mass black holes, and other stellar remnants, which perturb the disk gas gravitationally. The resulting density perturbations exert torques on the embedded masses causing them to migrate through the disk in a manner analogous to planets in protoplanetary disks. We determine the strength and direction of these torques using an empirical analytic description dependent on local disk gradients, applied to two different analytic, steady-state disk models of SMBH accretion disks. We find that there are radii in such disks where the gas torque changes sign, trapping migrating objects. Our analysis shows that major migration traps generally occur where the disk surface density gradient changes sign from positive to negative, around 20–300R{sub g}, where R{sub g} = 2GM/c{sup 2} is the Schwarzschild radius. At these traps, massive objects in the AGN disk can accumulate, collide, scatter, and accrete. Intermediate mass black hole formation is likely in these disk locations, which may lead to preferential gap and cavity creation at these radii. Our model thus has significant implications for SMBH growth as well as gravitational wave source populations.

  19. Levitation of dust at the surface of protoplanetary disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurm, Gerhard; Haack, Henning

    2009-01-01

    In recent years photophoretic forces acting on dust particles have been shown to be important for optically thin parts of protoplanetary disks. The optical surface (photosphere) of protoplanetary disks is a transitional region where the thermal radiation of the disk can escape. We show here...... disks. In general these are small particles with low thermal conductivity, probably highly porous dust aggregates. If optical properties vary strongly for given dust aggregatesthe more absorbing aggregates are lifted the highest. Overall, levitationby thermal radiation introduces a bias...

  20. Magnetohydrodynamics of accretion disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torkelsson, U.

    1994-04-01

    The thesis consists of an introduction and summary, and five research papers. The introduction and summary provides the background in accretion disk physics and magnetohydrodynamics. The research papers describe numerical studies of magnetohydrodynamical processes in accretion disks. Paper 1 is a one-dimensional study of the effect of magnetic buoyancy on a flux tube in an accretion disk. The stabilizing influence of an accretion disk corona on the flux tube is demonstrated. Paper 2-4 present numerical simulations of mean-field dynamos in accretion disks. Paper 11 verifies the correctness of the numerical code by comparing linear models to previous work by other groups. The results are also extended to somewhat modified disk models. A transition from an oscillatory mode of negative parity for thick disks to a steady mode of even parity for thin disks is found. Preliminary results for nonlinear dynamos at very high dynamo numbers are also presented. Paper 3 describes the bifurcation behaviour of the nonlinear dynamos. For positive dynamo numbers it is found that the initial steady solution is replaced by an oscillatory solution of odd parity. For negative dynamo numbers the solution becomes chaotic at sufficiently high dynamo numbers. Paper 4 continues the studies of nonlinear dynamos, and it is demonstrated that a chaotic solution appears even for positive dynamo numbers, but that it returns to a steady solution of mixed parity at very high dynamo numbers. Paper 5 describes a first attempt at simulating the small-scale turbulence of an accretion disk in three dimensions. There is only find cases of decaying turbulence, but this is rather due to limitations of the simulations than that turbulence is really absent in accretion disks

  1. Applying a Particle-only Model to the HL Tau Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabeshian, Maryam; Wiegert, Paul A.

    2018-04-01

    Observations have revealed rich structures in protoplanetary disks, offering clues about their embedded planets. Due to the complexities introduced by the abundance of gas in these disks, modeling their structure in detail is computationally intensive, requiring complex hydrodynamic codes and substantial computing power. It would be advantageous if computationally simpler models could provide some preliminary information on these disks. Here we apply a particle-only model (that we developed for gas-poor debris disks) to the gas-rich disk, HL Tauri, to address the question of whether such simple models can inform the study of these systems. Assuming three potentially embedded planets, we match HL Tau’s radial profile fairly well and derive best-fit planetary masses and orbital radii (0.40, 0.02, 0.21 Jupiter masses for the planets orbiting a 0.55 M ⊙ star at 11.22, 29.67, 64.23 au). Our derived parameters are comparable to those estimated by others, except for the mass of the second planet. Our simulations also reproduce some narrower gaps seen in the ALMA image away from the orbits of the planets. The nature of these gaps is debated but, based on our simulations, we argue they could result from planet–disk interactions via mean-motion resonances, and need not contain planets. Our results suggest that a simple particle-only model can be used as a first step to understanding dynamical structures in gas disks, particularly those formed by planets, and determine some parameters of their hidden planets, serving as useful initial inputs to hydrodynamic models which are needed to investigate disk and planet properties more thoroughly.

  2. Signatures of Young Planets in the Continuum Emission from Protostellar Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isella, Andrea; Turner, Neal J.

    2018-06-01

    Many protostellar disks show central cavities, rings, or spiral arms likely caused by low-mass stellar or planetary companions, yet few such features are conclusively tied to bodies embedded in the disks. We note that even small features on the disk surface cast shadows, because the starlight grazes the surface. We therefore focus on accurately computing the disk thickness, which depends on its temperature. We present models with temperatures set by the balance between starlight heating and radiative cooling, which are also in vertical hydrostatic equilibrium. The planet has 20, 100, or 1000 M ⊕, ranging from barely enough to perturb the disk significantly, to clearing a deep tidal gap. The hydrostatic balance strikingly alters the appearance of the model disk. The outer walls of the planet-carved gap puff up under starlight heating, throwing a shadow across the disk beyond. The shadow appears in scattered light as a dark ring that could be mistaken for a gap opened by another more distant planet. The surface brightness contrast between outer wall and shadow for the 1000 M ⊕ planet is an order of magnitude greater than a model neglecting the temperature disturbances. The shadow is so deep that it largely hides the planet-launched outer arm of the spiral wave. Temperature gradients are such that outer low-mass planets undergoing orbital migration will converge within the shadow. Furthermore, the temperature perturbations affect the shape, size, and contrast of features at millimeter and centimeter wavelengths. Thus radiative heating and cooling are key to the appearance of protostellar disks with embedded planets.

  3. On the way to enhance the optical absorption of a-Si in NIR by embedding Mg_2Si thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernev, I. M.; Shevlyagin, A. V.; Galkin, K. N.; Stuchlik, J.; Remes, Z.; Fajgar, R.; Galkin, N. G.

    2016-01-01

    Mg_2Si thin film was embedded in amorphous silicon matrix by solid phase epitaxy. The structure and optical properties were investigated by electron energy loss, X-ray photoelectron, Raman, and photo thermal deflection spectroscopy measurements. It was found that in the photon energy range of 0.8–1.7 eV, the light absorption of the structure with magnesium silicide (Mg_2Si) film embedded in a-Si(i) matrix is 1.5 times higher than that for the same structure without Mg_2Si.

  4. THE STRUCTURE AND SPECTRAL FEATURES OF A THIN DISK AND EVAPORATION-FED CORONA IN HIGH-LUMINOSITY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J. Y.; Liu, B. F.; Qiao, E. L.; Mineshige, S.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the accretion process in high-luminosity active galactic nuclei (HLAGNs) in the scenario of the disk evaporation model. Based on this model, the thin disk can extend down to the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) at accretion rates higher than 0.02 M-dot Edd while the corona is weak since part of the coronal gas is cooled by strong inverse Compton scattering of the disk photons. This implies that the corona cannot produce as strong X-ray radiation as observed in HLAGNs with large Eddington ratio. In addition to the viscous heating, other heating to the corona is necessary to interpret HLAGN. In this paper, we assume that a part of accretion energy released in the disk is transported into the corona, heating up the electrons, and is thereby radiated away. For the first time, we compute the corona structure with additional heating, fully taking into account the mass supply to the corona, and find that the corona could indeed survive at higher accretion rates and that its radiation power increases. The spectra composed of bremsstrahlung and Compton radiation are also calculated. Our calculations show that the Compton-dominated spectrum becomes harder with the increase of energy fraction (f) liberating in the corona, and the photon index for hard X-ray (2-10 keV) is 2.2 bol /L 2-10keV ) increases with increasing accretion rate for f < 8/35, which is roughly consistent with the observational results.

  5. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF THE T CHA TRANSITION DISK: CONSTRAINING THE OUTER DISK PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieza, Lucas A.; Olofsson, Johan; Henning, Thomas; Harvey, Paul M.; Evans II, Neal J.; Pinte, Christophe; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Ménard, Francois; Merín, Bruno; Najita, Joan

    2011-01-01

    T Cha is a nearby (d ∼ 100 pc) transition disk known to have an optically thin gap separating optically thick inner and outer disk components. Huélamo et al. recently reported the presence of a low-mass object candidate within the gap of the T Cha disk, giving credence to the suspected planetary origin of this gap. Here we present the Herschel photometry (70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm) of T Cha from the 'Dust, Ice, and Gas in Time' Key Program, which bridges the wavelength range between existing Spitzer and millimeter data and provide important constraints on the outer disk properties of this extraordinary system. We model the entire optical to millimeter wavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) of T Cha (19 data points between 0.36 and 3300 μm without any major gaps in wavelength coverage). T Cha shows a steep spectral slope in the far-IR, which we find clearly favors models with outer disks containing little or no dust beyond ∼40 AU. The full SED can be modeled equally well with either an outer disk that is very compact (only a few AU wide) or a much larger one that has a very steep surface density profile. That is, T Cha's outer disk seems to be either very small or very tenuous. Both scenarios suggest a highly unusual outer disk and have important but different implications for the nature of T Cha. Spatially resolved images are needed to distinguish between the two scenarios.

  6. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF THE T CHA TRANSITION DISK: CONSTRAINING THE OUTER DISK PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieza, Lucas A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Olofsson, Johan; Henning, Thomas [Max Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Harvey, Paul M.; Evans II, Neal J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Pinte, Christophe; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Menard, Francois [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble, F-38041 (France); Merin, Bruno [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Agency (ESAC), P.O. Box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Najita, Joan, E-mail: lcieza@ifa.hawaii.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 86719 (United States)

    2011-11-10

    T Cha is a nearby (d {approx} 100 pc) transition disk known to have an optically thin gap separating optically thick inner and outer disk components. Huelamo et al. recently reported the presence of a low-mass object candidate within the gap of the T Cha disk, giving credence to the suspected planetary origin of this gap. Here we present the Herschel photometry (70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m) of T Cha from the 'Dust, Ice, and Gas in Time' Key Program, which bridges the wavelength range between existing Spitzer and millimeter data and provide important constraints on the outer disk properties of this extraordinary system. We model the entire optical to millimeter wavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) of T Cha (19 data points between 0.36 and 3300 {mu}m without any major gaps in wavelength coverage). T Cha shows a steep spectral slope in the far-IR, which we find clearly favors models with outer disks containing little or no dust beyond {approx}40 AU. The full SED can be modeled equally well with either an outer disk that is very compact (only a few AU wide) or a much larger one that has a very steep surface density profile. That is, T Cha's outer disk seems to be either very small or very tenuous. Both scenarios suggest a highly unusual outer disk and have important but different implications for the nature of T Cha. Spatially resolved images are needed to distinguish between the two scenarios.

  7. THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISK-PLANET TORQUES IN A LOCALLY ISOTHERMAL DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, Gennaro; Lubow, Stephen H.

    2010-01-01

    We determine an expression for the Type I planet migration torque involving a locally isothermal disk, with moderate turbulent viscosity (5 x 10 -4 ∼< α ∼< 0.05), based on three-dimensional nonlinear hydrodynamical simulations. The radial gradients (in a dimensionless logarithmic form) of density and temperature are assumed to be constant near the planet. We find that the torque is roughly equally sensitive to the surface density and temperature radial gradients. Both gradients contribute to inward migration when they are negative. Our results indicate that two-dimensional calculations with a smoothed planet potential, used to account for the effects of the third dimension, do not accurately determine the effects of density and temperature gradients on the three-dimensional torque. The results suggest that substantially slowing or stopping planet migration by means of changes in disk opacity or shadowing is difficult and appears unlikely for a disk that is locally isothermal. The scalings of the torque and torque density with planet mass and gas sound speed follow the expectations of linear theory. We also determine an improved formula for the torque density distribution that can be used in one-dimensional long-term evolution studies of planets embedded in locally isothermal disks. This formula can be also applied in the presence of mildly varying radial gradients and of planets that open gaps. We illustrate its use in the case of migrating super-Earths and determine some conditions sufficient for survival.

  8. Block copolymer templated self-assembly of disk-shaped molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragones, J. L.; Alexander-Katz, A.

    2017-08-01

    Stacking of disk-shaped organic molecules is a promising strategy to develop electronic and photovoltaic devices. Here, we investigate the capability of a soft block copolymer matrix that microphase separates into a cylindrical phase to direct the self-assembly of disk-shaped molecules by means of molecular simulations. We show that two disk molecules confined in the cylinder domain experience a depletion force, induced by the polymer chains, which results in the formation of stacks of disks. This entropic interaction and the soft confinement provided by the matrix are both responsible for the structures that can be self-assembled, which include slanted or columnar stacks. In addition, we evidence the transmission of stresses between the different minority domains of the microphase, which results in the establishment of a long-ranged interaction between disk molecules embedded in different domains; this interaction is of the order of the microphase periodicity and may be exploited to direct assembly of disks at larger scales.

  9. Numerical and experimental analysis of a thin liquid film on a rotating disk related to development of a spacecraft absorption cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghri, Amir; Swanson, Theodore D.

    1989-01-01

    The numerical and experimental analysis of a thin liquid film on a rotating and a stationary disk related to the development of an absorber unit for a high capacity spacecraft absorption cooling system, is described. The creation of artificial gravity by the use of a centrifugal field was focused upon in this report. Areas covered include: (1) One-dimensional computation of thin liquid film flows; (2) Experimental measurement of film height and visualization of flow; (3) Two-dimensional computation of the free surface flow of a thin liquid film using a pressure optimization method; (4) Computation of heat transfer in two-dimensional thin film flow; (5) Development of a new computational methodology for the free surface flows using a permeable wall; (6) Analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in a thin film in the presence and absence of gravity; and (7) Comparison of theoretical prediction and experimental data. The basic phenomena related to fluid flow and heat transfer on rotating systems reported here can also be applied to other areas of space systems.

  10. Stress singularities in a model of a wood disk under sinusoidal pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay A. Johnson; John C. Hermanson; Steven M. Cramer; Charles Amundson

    2005-01-01

    A thin, solid, circular wood disk, cut from the transverse plane of a tree stem, can be modeled as a cylindrically orthotropic elastic material. It is known that a stress singularity can occur at the center of a cylindrically orthotropic disk subjected to uniform pressure. If a solid cylindrically orthotropic disk is subjected to sinusoidal pressure distributions, then...

  11. z~2: An Epoch of Disk Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Raymond C.; Kassin, Susan A.; Weiner, Benjamin; Heckman, Timothy M.; Trump, Jonathan; SIGMA, DEEP2

    2018-01-01

    At z = 0, the majority of massive star-forming galaxies contain thin, rotationally supported gas disks. It was once accepted that galaxies form thin disks early: collisional gas with high velocity dispersion should dissipate energy, conserve angular momentum, and develop strong rotational support in only a few galaxy crossing times (~few hundred Myr). However, this picture is complicated at high redshift, where the processes governing galaxy assembly tend to be violent and inhospitable to disk formation. We present results from our SIGMA survey of star-forming galaxy kinematics at z = 2. These results challenge the simple picture described above: galaxies at z = 2 are unlike local well-ordered disks. Their kinematics tend to be much more disordered, as quantified by their low ratios of rotational velocity to gas velocity dispersion (Vrot/σg): less than 35% of galaxies have Vrot/σg > 3. For comparison, nearly 100% of local star-forming galaxies meet this same threshold. We combine our high redshift sample with a similar low redshift sample from the DEEP2 survey. This combined sample covers a continuous redshift baseline over 0.1 < z < 2.5, spanning 10 Gyrs of cosmic time. Over this period, galaxies exhibit remarkably smooth kinematic evolution on average. All galaxies tend towards rotational support with time, and it is reached earlier in higher mass systems. This is due to both a significant decline in gas velocity dispersion and a mild rise in ordered rotational motions. These results indicate that z = 2 is a period of disk assembly, during which the strong rotational support present in today’s massive disk galaxies is only just beginning to emerge.

  12. Quasi-three-level thin-disk laser at 1024 nm based on diode-pumped Yb:YAG crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, A G; Li, Y L; Fu, X H

    2011-01-01

    We present for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a Yb:YAG laser operating in a continuous wave (CW) on the quasi-three-level laser at 1024 nm, based on the 2 F 5/2 – 2 F 7/2 transition, generally used for a 1030 nm emission. The use of a pump module with 16 passes through the crystal allowed the realization of a Yb:YAG thin-disk laser with 370 mW of CW output power at 1024 nm. Moreover, intracavity second-harmonic generation (SHG) has also been achieved with a power of 45 mW at 512 nm by using a LiB 3 O 5 (LBO) nonlinear crystal

  13. Mode-locked thin-disk lasers and their potential application for high-power terahertz generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraceno, Clara J.

    2018-04-01

    The progress achieved in the last few decades in the performance of ultrafast laser systems with high average power has been tremendous, and continues to provide momentum to new exciting applications, both in scientific research and technology. Among the various technological advances that have shaped this progress, mode-locked thin-disk oscillators have attracted significant attention as a unique technology capable of providing ultrashort pulses with high energy (tens to hundreds of microjoules) and at very high repetition rates (in the megahertz regime) from a single table-top oscillator. This technology opens the door to compact high repetition rate ultrafast sources spanning the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the XUV to the terahertz regime, opening various new application fields. In this article, we focus on their unexplored potential as compact driving sources for high average power terahertz generation.

  14. ACCRETION DISKS WITH A LARGE SCALE MAGNETIC FIELD AROUND BLACK HOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady Bisnovatyi-Kogan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider accretion disks around black holes at high luminosity, and the problem of the formation of a large-scale magnetic field in such disks, taking into account the non-uniform vertical structure of the disk. The structure of advective accretion disks is investigated, and conditions for the formation of optically thin regions in central parts of the accretion disk are found. The high electrical conductivity of the outer layers of the disk prevents outward diffusion of the magnetic field. This implies a stationary state with a strong magnetic field in the inner parts of the accretion disk close to the black hole, and zero radial velocity at the surface of the disk. The problem of jet collimation by magneto-torsion oscillations is investigated.

  15. On the way to enhance the optical absorption of a-Si in NIR by embedding Mg{sub 2}Si thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernev, I. M., E-mail: igor-chernev7@mail.ru; Shevlyagin, A. V.; Galkin, K. N. [Institute of Automation and Control Processes of FEB RAS, Radio St. 5, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Stuchlik, J. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v. v. i., Cukrovarnická 10/112, 162 00 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Remes, Z. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v. v. i., Cukrovarnická 10/112, 162 00 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); FBE CTU, Nam. Sitna 3105, 272 01 Kladno (Czech Republic); Fajgar, R. [Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR, v. v. i., Rozvojová 135, 165 02 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Galkin, N. G. [Institute of Automation and Control Processes of FEB RAS, Radio St. 5, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal University, School of Natural Sciences, Sukhanova St. 8, 690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-25

    Mg{sub 2}Si thin film was embedded in amorphous silicon matrix by solid phase epitaxy. The structure and optical properties were investigated by electron energy loss, X-ray photoelectron, Raman, and photo thermal deflection spectroscopy measurements. It was found that in the photon energy range of 0.8–1.7 eV, the light absorption of the structure with magnesium silicide (Mg{sub 2}Si) film embedded in a-Si(i) matrix is 1.5 times higher than that for the same structure without Mg{sub 2}Si.

  16. EVIDENCE FOR DYNAMICAL CHANGES IN A TRANSITIONAL PROTOPLANETARY DISK WITH MID-INFRARED VARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzerolle, James; Flaherty, Kevin; Balog, Zoltan; Smith, Paul S.; Rieke, George H.; Furlan, Elise; Allen, Lori; Muench, August; Calvet, Nuria; D'Alessio, Paola; Megeath, S. Thomas; Sherry, William H.

    2009-01-01

    We present multi-epoch Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the transitional disk LRLL 31 in the 2-3 Myr old star-forming region IC 348. Our measurements show remarkable mid-infrared variability on timescales as short as one week. The infrared continuum emission exhibits systematic wavelength-dependent changes that suggest corresponding dynamical changes in the inner disk structure and variable shadowing of outer disk material. We propose several possible sources for the structural changes, including a variable accretion rate or a stellar or planetary companion embedded in the disk. Our results indicate that variability studies in the infrared can provide important new constraints on protoplanetary disk behavior.

  17. Time-Dependent Variations of Accretion Disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Weon Na

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available In dward nova we assume the primary star as a white dwarf and the secondary as the late type star which filled Roche lobe. Mass flow from the secondary star leads to the formation of thin accretion disk around the white dwarf. We use the α parameter as viscosity to maintain the disk form and propose that the outburst in dwarf nova cause the steep increase of source term. With these assumptions we solve the basic equations of stellar structure using Newton-Raphson method. We show the physical parameters like temperature, density, pressure, opacity, surface density, height and flux to the radius of disk. Changing the value of α, we compare several parameters when mass flow rate is constant with those of when luminosity of disk is brightest. At the same time, we obtain time-dependent variations of luminosity and mass of disk. We propose the suitable range of α is 0.15-0.18 to the difference of luminosity. We compare several parameters of disk with those of the normal late type stars which have the same molecular weight of disk is lower. Maybe the outburst in dwarf nova is due to the variation of the α value instead of increment of mass flow from the secondary star.

  18. A backing device based on an embedded stiffener and retractable insertion tool for thin-film cochlear arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Radheshyam

    Intracochlear trauma from surgical insertion of bulky electrode arrays and inadequate pitch perception are areas of concern with current hand-assembled commercial cochlear implants. Parylene thin-film arrays with higher electrode densities and lower profiles are a potential solution, but lack rigidity and hence depend on manually fabricated permanently attached polyethylene terephthalate (PET) tubing based bulky backing devices. As a solution, we investigated a new backing device with two sub-systems. The first sub-system is a thin poly(lactic acid) (PLA) stiffener that will be embedded in the parylene array. The second sub-system is an attaching and detaching mechanism, utilizing a poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-block-poly(d,l-lactide) (PVP-b-PDLLA) copolymer-based biodegradable and water soluble adhesive, that will help to retract the PET insertion tool after implantation. As a proof-of-concept of sub-system one, a microfabrication process for patterning PLA stiffeners embedded in parylene has been developed. Conventional hot-embossing, mechanical micromachining, and standard cleanroom processes were integrated for patterning fully released and discrete stiffeners coated with parylene. The released embedded stiffeners were thermoformed to demonstrate that imparting perimodiolar shapes to stiffener-embedded arrays will be possible. The developed process when integrated with the array fabrication process will allow fabrication of stiffener-embedded arrays in a single process. As a proof-of-concept of sub-system two, the feasibility of the attaching and detaching mechanism was demonstrated by adhering 1x and 1.5x scale PET tube-based insertion tools and PLA stiffeners embedded in parylene using the copolymer adhesive. The attached devices survived qualitative adhesion tests, thermoforming, and flexing. The viability of the detaching mechanism was tested by aging the assemblies in-vitro in phosphate buffer solution. The average detachment times, 2.6 minutes and 10 minutes

  19. On the Formation of Multiple Concentric Rings and Gaps in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaehan; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Hartmann, Lee

    2017-12-01

    As spiral waves driven by a planet in a gaseous disk steepen into a shock, they deposit angular momentum, opening a gap in the disk. This has been well studied using both linear theory and numerical simulations, but so far only for the primary spiral arm: the one directly attached to the planet. Using 2D hydrodynamic simulations, we show that the secondary and tertiary arms driven by a planet can also open gaps as they steepen into shocks. The depths of the secondary/tertiary gaps in surface density grow with time in a low-viscosity disk (α =5× {10}-5), so even low-mass planets (e.g., super-Earth or mini-Neptune-mass) embedded in the disk can open multiple observable gaps, provided that sufficient time has passed. Applying our results to the HL Tau disk, we show that a single 30 Earth-mass planet embedded in the ring at 68.8 au (B5) can reasonably well reproduce the positions of the two major gaps at 13.2 and 32.3 au (D1 and D2), and roughly reproduce two other major gaps at 64.2 and 74.7 au (D5 and D6) seen in the mm continuum. The positions of secondary/tertiary gaps are found to be sensitive to the planetary mass and the disk temperature profile, so with accurate observational measurements of the temperature structure, the positions of multiple gaps can be used to constrain the mass of the planet. We also comment on the gaps seen in the TW Hya and HD 163296 disk.

  20. Effect of small floating disks on the propagation of gravity waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santi, F De; Olla, P, E-mail: olla@dsf.unica.it [ISAC-CNR, Sez. Cagliari, I-09042 Monserrato (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    A dispersion relation for gravity waves in water covered by disk-like impurities embedded in a viscous matrix is derived. The macroscopic equations are obtained by ensemble-averaging the fluid equations at the disk scale in the asymptotic limit of long waves and low disk surface fraction. Various regimes are identified depending on the disk radii and the thickness and viscosity of the top layer. Semi-quantitative analysis in the close-packing regime suggests dramatic modification of the dynamics, with orders of magnitude increase in wave damping and wave dispersion. A simplified model working in this regime is proposed. Possible applications to wave propagation in an ice-covered ocean are discussed and comparison with field data is provided. (paper)

  1. METALLICITY GRADIENTS OF THICK DISK DWARF STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrell, Kenneth; Chen Yuqin; Zhao Gang, E-mail: carrell@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2012-12-01

    We examine the metallicity distribution of the Galactic thick disk using F, G, and K dwarf stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Data Release 8. Using the large sample of dwarf stars with proper motions and spectroscopically determined stellar parameters, metallicity gradients in the radial direction for various heights above the Galactic plane and in the vertical direction for various radial distances from the Galaxy center have been found. In particular, we find a vertical metallicity gradient of -0.113 {+-} 0.010 (-0.125 {+-} 0.008) dex kpc{sup -1} using an isochrone (photometric) distance determination in the range 1 kpc <|Z| < 3 kpc, which is the vertical height range most consistent with the thick disk of our Galaxy. In the radial direction, we find metallicity gradients between +0.02 and +0.03 dex kpc{sup -1} for bins in the vertical direction between 1 kpc <|Z| < 3 kpc. Both of these results agree with similar values determined from other populations of stars, but this is the first time a radial metallicity gradient for the thick disk has been found at these vertical heights. We are also able to separate thin and thick disk stars based on kinematic and spatial probabilities in the vertical height range where there is significant overlap of these two populations. This should aid further studies of the metallicity gradients of the disk for vertical heights lower than those studied here but above the solar neighborhood. Metallicity gradients in the thin and thick disks are important probes into possible formation scenarios for our Galaxy and a consistent picture is beginning to emerge from results using large spectroscopic surveys, such as the ones presented here.

  2. Measurement errors for thermocouples attached to thin plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolik, K.B.; Keltner, N.R.; Beck, J.V.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses Unsteady Surface Element (USE) methods which are applied to a model of a thermocouple wire attached to a thin disk. Green's functions are used to develop the integral equations for the wire and the disk. The model can be used to evaluate transient and steady state responses for many types of heat flux measurement devices including thin skin calorimeters and circular foil (Gardon) head flux gauges. The model can accommodate either surface or volumetric heating of the disk. The boundary condition at the outer radius of the disk can be either insulated or constant temperature. Effect on the errors of geometrical and thermal factors can be assessed. Examples are given

  3. On the Preparation and Testing of Fuel Cell Catalysts Using the Thin Film Rotating Disk Electrode Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Masanori; Quinson, Jonathan; Bucher, Jan Rudolf; Arenz, Matthias

    2018-03-16

    We present a step-by-step tutorial to prepare proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalysts, consisting of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) supported on a high surface area carbon, and to test their performance in thin film rotating disk electrode (TF-RDE) measurements. The TF-RDE methodology is widely used for catalyst screening; nevertheless, the measured performance sometimes considerably differs among research groups. These uncertainties impede the advancement of new catalyst materials and, consequently, several authors discussed possible best practice methods and the importance of benchmarking. The visual tutorial highlights possible pitfalls in the TF-RDE testing of Pt/C catalysts. A synthesis and testing protocol to assess standard Pt/C catalysts is introduced that can be used together with polycrystalline Pt disks as benchmark catalysts. In particular, this study highlights how the properties of the catalyst film on the glassy carbon (GC) electrode influence the measured performance in TF-RDE testing. To obtain thin, homogeneous catalyst films, not only the catalyst preparation, but also the ink deposition and drying procedures are essential. It is demonstrated that an adjustment of the ink's pH might be necessary, and how simple control measurements can be used to check film quality. Once reproducible TF-RDE measurements are obtained, determining the Pt loading on the catalyst support (expressed as Pt wt%) and the electrochemical surface area is necessary to normalize the determined reaction rates to either surface area or Pt mass. For the surface area determination, so-called CO stripping, or the determination of the hydrogen underpotential deposition (Hupd) charge, are standard. For the determination of the Pt loading, a straightforward and cheap procedure using digestion in aqua regia with subsequent conversion of Pt(IV) to Pt(II) and UV-vis measurements is introduced.

  4. Basic properties of a stationary accretion disk surrounding a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Reiun

    1977-01-01

    The structure of a stationary accretion disk surrounding a black hole is studied by means of newly developed basic equations. The basic equations are derived under the assumption that the vertical distribution of disk matter is given by a polytrope. For a Keplerian accretion disk, basic equations reduce to a differential equation of the first order. We have found that solutions of an optically thick accretion disk converge to a limiting value, irrespective of the outer boundary condition. This gives the happy consequence that the inner structure of an optically thick accretion disk is determined irrespective of the outer boundary condition. On the contrary, an optically thin accretion disk shows bimodal behavior, that is, two physically distinct states exist depending on the outer boundary condition imposed at the outer edge of the accretion disk. (auth.)

  5. Contraction of an air disk caught between two different liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Thoraval, M.-J.

    2013-12-17

    When a drop impacts a pool of liquid it entraps a thin disk of air under its center. This disk contracts rapidly into a bubble to minimize surface energy. Herein we use ultra-high-speed imaging to measure the contraction speed of this disk when the drop and pool are of different liquids. For miscible liquids the contraction rate is governed by the weaker of the two surface tensions. Some undulations are observed on the edge of the disk for a water drop impacting a pool of water, but not on a pool of lower surface tension. Similar results are observed for a pair of immiscible liquids.

  6. Continuous-wave green thin-disk laser at 524 nm based on frequency-doubled diode-pumped Yb:GSO crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Y; Zhang, D; Liu, H P; Jin, H J; Li, Y L; Tao, Z H; Ruan, Q R; Zhang, T Y

    2011-01-01

    We report what is believed to be the first demonstration of diode-pumped continuous-wave (CW) thin-disk Yb 3+ -doped Gd 2 SiO 5 (Yb:GSO) laser at 1048 nm. With a 3.8% output coupler, the maximum output power is 1.38 W under a pump power of 17.8 W. Moreover, intracavity second-harmonic generation (SHG) has also been achieved with a power of 337 mW at 524 nm by using a LiB 3 O 5 (LBO) nonlinear crystal. At the output power level of 337 mW, the green power stability is better than 5% and the ellipticity of spot is 0.97

  7. THE VVV SURVEY REVEALS CLASSICAL CEPHEIDS TRACING A YOUNG AND THIN STELLAR DISK ACROSS THE GALAXY’S BULGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dékány, I. [Instituto Milenio de Astrofísica, Santiago (Chile); Minniti, D. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andres Bello, República 220, Santiago (Chile); Majaess, D. [Saint Mary’s University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Zoccali, M.; Hajdu, G.; Catelan, M. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Alonso-García, J. [Unidad de Astronomía, Fac. Cs. Básicas, Universidad de Antofagasta, Avda. U. de Antofagasta 02800, Antofagasta (Chile); Gieren, W. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Borissova, J., E-mail: idekany@astro.puc.cl [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, Valparaso (Chile)

    2015-10-20

    Solid insight into the physics of the inner Milky Way is key to understanding our Galaxy’s evolution, but extreme dust obscuration has historically hindered efforts to map the area along the Galactic mid-plane. New comprehensive near-infrared time-series photometry from the VVV Survey has revealed 35 classical Cepheids, tracing a previously unobserved component of the inner Galaxy, namely a ubiquitous inner thin disk of young stars along the Galactic mid-plane, traversing across the bulge. The discovered period (age) spread of these classical Cepheids implies a continuous supply of newly formed stars in the central region of the Galaxy over the last 100 million years.

  8. CONSTRAINTS ON COMPTON-THICK WINDS FROM BLACK HOLE ACCRETION DISKS: CAN WE SEE THE INNER DISK?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    Strong evidence is emerging that winds can be driven from the central regions of accretion disks in both active galactic nuclei and Galactic black hole binaries. Direct evidence for highly ionized, Compton-thin inner-disk winds comes from observations of blueshifted (v ∼ 0.05-0.1c) iron-K X-ray absorption lines. However, it has been suggested that the inner regions of black hole accretion disks can also drive Compton-thick winds—such winds would enshroud the inner disk, preventing us from seeing direct signatures of the accretion disk (i.e., the photospheric thermal emission, or the Doppler/gravitationally broadened iron Kα line). Here, we show that, provided the source is sub-Eddington, the well-established wind-driving mechanisms fail to launch a Compton-thick wind from the inner disk. For the accelerated region of the wind to be Compton-thick, the momentum carried in the wind must exceed the available photon momentum by a factor of at least 2/λ, where λ is the Eddington ratio of the source, ruling out radiative acceleration unless the source is very close to the Eddington limit. Compton-thick winds also carry large mass fluxes, and a consideration of the connections between the wind and the disk shows this to be incompatible with magneto-centrifugal driving. Finally, thermal driving of the wind is ruled out on the basis of the large Compton radii that typify black hole systems. In the absence of some new acceleration mechanisms, we conclude that the inner regions of sub-Eddington accretion disks around black holes are indeed naked.

  9. Characterization of lap joints laser beam welding of thin AA 2024 sheets with Yb:YAG disk-laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Fabrizia; Alfieri, Vittorio; Cardaropoli, Francesco; Sergi, Vincenzo

    2012-06-01

    Lap joints obtained by overlapping two plates are widely diffused in aerospace industry. Nevertheless, because of natural aging, adhesively bonded and riveted aircraft lap joints may be affected by cracks from rivets, voids or corrosion. Friction stir welding has been proposed as a valid alternative, although large heat affected zones are produced both in the top and the bottom plate due to the pin diameter. Interest has therefore been shown in studying laser lap welding as the laser beam has been proved to be competitive since it allows to concentrate the thermal input and increases productivity and quality. Some challenges arise as a consequence of aluminum low absorptance and high thermal conductivity; furthermore, issues are due to metallurgical challenges such as both micro and macro porosity formation and softening in the fused zone. Welding of AA 2024 thin sheets in a lap joint configuration is discussed in this paper: tests are carried out using a recently developed Trumpf TruDisk 2002 Yb:YAG disk-laser with high beam quality which allows to produce beads with low plates distortion and better penetration. The influence of the processing parameters is discussed considering the fused zone extent and the bead shape. The porosity content as well as the morphological features of the beads have been examined.

  10. Radial Transport and Meridional Circulation in Accretion Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippov, Alexander A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Rafikov, Roman R., E-mail: sashaph@princeton.edu [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2017-03-10

    Radial transport of particles, elements and fluid driven by internal stresses in three-dimensional (3D) astrophysical accretion disks is an important phenomenon, potentially relevant for the outward dust transport in protoplanetary disks, origin of the refractory particles in comets, isotopic equilibration in the Earth–Moon system, etc. To gain better insight into these processes, we explore the dependence of meridional circulation in 3D disks with shear viscosity on their thermal stratification, and demonstrate a strong effect of the latter on the radial flow. Previous locally isothermal studies have normally found a pattern of the radial outflow near the midplane, switching to inflow higher up. Here we show, both analytically and numerically, that a flow that is inward at all altitudes is possible in disks with entropy and temperature steeply increasing with height. Such thermodynamic conditions may be typical in the optically thin, viscously heated accretion disks. Disks in which these conditions do not hold should feature radial outflow near the midplane, as long as their internal stress is provided by the shear viscosity. Our results can also be used for designing hydrodynamical disk simulations with a prescribed pattern of the meridional circulation.

  11. Exploring Disks Around Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    Giant planets are thought to form in circumstellar disks surrounding young stars, but material may also accrete into a smaller disk around the planet. Weve never detected one of these circumplanetary disks before but thanks to new simulations, we now have a better idea of what to look for.Image from previous work simulating a Jupiter-mass planet forming inside a circumstellar disk. The planet has its own circumplanetary disk of accreted material. [Frdric Masset]Elusive DisksIn the formation of giant planets, we think the final phase consists of accretion onto the planet from a disk that surrounds it. This circumplanetary disk is important to understand, since it both regulates the late gas accretion and forms the birthplace of future satellites of the planet.Weve yet to detect a circumplanetary disk thus far, because the resolution needed to spot one has been out of reach. Now, however, were entering an era where the disk and its kinematics may be observable with high-powered telescopes (like the Atacama Large Millimeter Array).To prepare for such observations, we need models that predict the basic characteristics of these disks like the mass, temperature, and kinematic properties. Now a researcher at the ETH Zrich Institute for Astronomy in Switzerland, Judit Szulgyi, has worked toward this goal.Simulating CoolingSzulgyi performs a series of 3D global radiative hydrodynamic simulations of 1, 3, 5, and 10 Jupiter-mass (MJ) giant planets and their surrounding circumplanetary disks, embedded within the larger circumstellar disk around the central star.Density (left column), temperature (center), and normalized angular momentum (right) for a 1 MJ planet over temperatures cooling from 10,000 K (top) to 1,000 K (bottom). At high temperatures, a spherical circumplanetary envelope surrounds the planet, but as the planet cools, the envelope transitions around 64,000 K to a flattened disk. [Szulgyi 2017]This work explores the effects of different planet temperatures and

  12. Imprint of accretion disk-induced migration on gravitational waves from extreme mass ratio inspirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunes, Nicolás; Kocsis, Bence; Loeb, Abraham; Haiman, Zoltán

    2011-10-21

    We study the effects of a thin gaseous accretion disk on the inspiral of a stellar-mass black hole into a supermassive black hole. We construct a phenomenological angular momentum transport equation that reproduces known disk effects. Disk torques modify the gravitational wave phase evolution to detectable levels with LISA for reasonable disk parameters. The Fourier transform of disk-modified waveforms acquires a correction with a different frequency trend than post-Newtonian vacuum terms. Such inspirals could be used to detect accretion disks with LISA and to probe their physical parameters. © 2011 American Physical Society

  13. Circumstellar and circumplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Eugene

    2000-11-01

    This thesis studies disks in three astrophysical contexts: (1)protoplanetary disks; (2)the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt; and (3)planetary rings. We derive hydrostatic, radiative equilibrium models of passive protoplanetary disks surrounding T Tauri and Herbig Ae/Be stars. Each disk is encased by an optically thin layer of superheated dust grains. This layer is responsible for up to ~70% of the disk luminosity at wavelengths between ~5 and 60 μm. The heated disk flares and absorbs more stellar radiation at a given stellocentric distance than a flat disk would. Spectral energy distributions are computed and found to compare favorably with the observed flattish infrared excesses of several young stellar objects. Spectral features from dust grains in the superheated layer appear in emission if the disk is viewed nearly face-on. We present the results of a pencil-beam survey of the Kuiper Belt using the Keck 10-m telescope. Two new objects are discovered. Data from all surveys are pooled to construct the luminosity function from mR = 20 to 27. The cumulative number of objects per square degree, Σ(surface area but the largest bodies contain most of the mass. To order-of-magnitude, 0.2 M⊕ and 1 × 1010 comet progenitors lie between 30 and 50 AU. The classical Kuiper Belt appears truncated at a distance of 50 AU. We propose that rigid precession of narrow eccentric planetary rings surrounding Uranus and Saturn is maintained by a balance of forces due to ring self- gravity, planetary oblateness, and interparticle collisions. Collisional impulses play an especially dramatic role near ring edges. Pressure-induced accelerations are maximal near edges because there (1)velocity dispersions are enhanced by resonant satellite perturbations, and (2)the surface density declines steeply. Remarkably, collisional forces felt by material in the last ~100 m of a ~10 km wide ring can increase equilibrium masses up to a factor of ~100. New ring surface densities are derived which accord with

  14. THE SPINDLE: AN IRRADIATED DISK AND BENT PROTOSTELLAR JET IN ORION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bally, John; Youngblood, Allison; Ginsburg, Adam, E-mail: John.Bally@colorado.edu, E-mail: Allison.Youngblood@colorado.edu, E-mail: Adam.Ginsburg@colorado.edu [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    We present Hubble Space Telescope observations of a bent, pulsed Herbig-Haro jet, HH 1064, emerging from the young star Parenago 2042 embedded in the H II region NGC 1977 located about 30' north of the Orion Nebula. This outflow contains eight bow shocks in the redshifted western lobe and five bow shocks in the blueshifted eastern lobe. Shocks within a few thousand AU of the source star exhibit proper motions of {approx}160 km s{sup -1} but motions decrease with increasing distance. Parenago 2042 is embedded in a proplyd-a photoevaporating protoplanetary disk. A remarkable set of H{alpha} arcs resembling a spindle surround the redshifted (western) jet. The largest arc with a radius of 500 AU may trace the ionized edge of a circumstellar disk inclined by {approx}30 Degree-Sign . The spindle may be the photoionized edge of either a {approx}3 km s{sup -1} FUV-driven wind from the outer disk or a faster MHD-powered flow from an inner disk. The HH 1064 jet appears to be deflected north by photoablation of the south-facing side of a mostly neutral jet beam. V2412 Ori, located 1' west of Parenago 2042 drives a second bent flow, HH 1065. Both HH 1064 and 1065 are surrounded by LL Ori-type bows marking the boundary between the outflow cavity and the surrounding nebula.

  15. Diskoseismology: Probing accretion disks. I - Trapped adiabatic oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Michael A.; Wagoner, Robert V.

    1991-01-01

    The normal modes of acoustic oscillations within thin accretion disks which are terminated by an innermost stable orbit around a slowly rotating black hole or weakly magnetized compact neutron star are analyzed. The dominant relativistic effects which allow modes to be trapped within the inner region of the disk are approximated via a modified Newtonian potential. A general formalism is developed for investigating the adiabatic oscillations of arbitrary unperturbed disk models. The generic behavior is explored by way of an expansion of the Lagrangian displacement about the plane of symmetry and by assuming separable solutions with the same radial wavelength for the horizontal and vertical perturbations. The lowest eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions of a particular set of radial and quadrupole modes which have minimum motion normal for the plane are obtained. These modes correspond to the standard dispersion relation of disk theory.

  16. Improving the Friction Durability of Magnetic Head-Disk Interfaces by Thin Lubricant Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shojiro Miyake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanowear and viscoelasticity were evaluated to study the nanotribological properties of lubricant films of Z-tetraol, D-4OH, and A20H, including their retention and replenishment properties. For A20H and thick Z-tetraol-coated disks, the disk surface partially protrudes, and the phase lag (tan⁡δ increases with friction. This result is consistent with replenishment of the lubricant upon tip sliding. For the D-4OH-coated disk, the tan⁡δ value decreases with tip sliding, similar to the case for the unlubricated disk. The durability of the lubricant-coated magnetic disks was then evaluated by load increase and decrease friction tests. The friction force of the unlubricated disk rapidly increases after approximately 30 reciprocating cycles, regardless of the load. The lubrication state can be estimated by mapping the dependence of friction coefficient on the reciprocating cycle number and load. The friction coefficient can be classified into one of four areas. The lowest friction area constitutes fluid lubrication. The second area constitutes the transition to mixed lubrication. The third area constitutes boundary lubrication. The highest friction of the fourth area results from surface fracture. The boundary lubricating area of the A20H lubricant was wide, because of its good retention and replenishment properties.

  17. Gravitational Instabilities in Circumstellar Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratter, Kaitlin; Lodato, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Star and planet formation are the complex outcomes of gravitational collapse and angular momentum transport mediated by protostellar and protoplanetary disks. In this review, we focus on the role of gravitational instability in this process. We begin with a brief overview of the observational evidence for massive disks that might be subject to gravitational instability and then highlight the diverse ways in which the instability manifests itself in protostellar and protoplanetary disks: the generation of spiral arms, small-scale turbulence-like density fluctuations, and fragmentation of the disk itself. We present the analytic theory that describes the linear growth phase of the instability supplemented with a survey of numerical simulations that aim to capture the nonlinear evolution. We emphasize the role of thermodynamics and large-scale infall in controlling the outcome of the instability. Despite apparent controversies in the literature, we show a remarkable level of agreement between analytic predictions and numerical results. In the next part of our review, we focus on the astrophysical consequences of the instability. We show that the disks most likely to be gravitationally unstable are young and relatively massive compared with their host star, Md/M*≥0.1. They will develop quasi-stable spiral arms that process infall from the background cloud. Although instability is less likely at later times, once infall becomes less important, the manifestations of the instability are more varied. In this regime, the disk thermodynamics, often regulated by stellar irradiation, dictates the development and evolution of the instability. In some cases the instability may lead to fragmentation into bound companions. These companions are more likely to be brown dwarfs or stars than planetary mass objects. Finally, we highlight open questions related to the development of a turbulent cascade in thin disks and the role of mode-mode coupling in setting the maximum angular

  18. Linearly polarized photoluminescence of InGaN quantum disks embedded in GaN nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngsin; Chan, Christopher C S; Nuttall, Luke; Puchtler, Tim J; Taylor, Robert A; Kim, Nammee; Jo, Yongcheol; Im, Hyunsik

    2018-05-25

    We have investigated the emission from InGaN/GaN quantum disks grown on the tip of GaN nanorods. The emission at 3.21 eV from the InGaN quantum disk doesn't show a Stark shift, and it is linearly polarized when excited perpendicular to the growth direction. The degree of linear polarization is about 39.3% due to the anisotropy of the nanostructures. In order to characterize a single nanostructure, the quantum disks were dispersed on a SiO 2 substrate patterned with a metal reference grid. By rotating the excitation polarization angle from parallel to perpendicular relative to the nanorods, the variation of overall PL for the 3.21 eV peak was recorded and it clearly showed the degree of linear polarization (DLP) of 51.5%.

  19. High-power diode-pumped Nd:Lu2O3 crystal continuous-wave thin-disk laser at 1359 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J H; Liu, X H; Wu, J B; Zhang, X; Li, Y L

    2012-01-01

    We present for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a 1359 nm continuous-wave (CW) Nd:Lu 2 O 3 laser based on the 4 F 5/2 – 4 F 13/2 transition. The use of a pump module with 16 passes through the crystal allowed the realization of a Nd:Lu 2 O 3 thin-disk laser with 3.52 W of CW output power. The slope efficiency with respect to the incident pump power was 21.4%, and the fluctuation of the output power was better than 3.55% in the given 2 hour. The beam quality factor M 2 is 1.14 and 1.18 for tangential direction and sagittal direction, respectively

  20. GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY OF ROTATING, PRESSURE-CONFINED, POLYTROPIC GAS DISKS WITH VERTICAL STRATIFICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Kim, Woong-Tae; Seo, Young Min; Hong, Seung Soo

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the gravitational instability (GI) of rotating, vertically stratified, pressure-confined, polytropic gas disks using a linear stability analysis as well as analytic approximations. The disks are initially in vertical hydrostatic equilibrium and bounded by a constant external pressure. We find that the GI of a pressure-confined disk is in general a mixed mode of the conventional Jeans and distortional instabilities, and is thus an unstable version of acoustic-surface-gravity waves. The Jeans mode dominates in weakly confined disks or disks with rigid boundaries. On the other hand, when the disk has free boundaries and is strongly pressure confined, the mixed GI is dominated by the distortional mode that is surface-gravity waves driven unstable under their own gravity and thus incompressible. We demonstrate that the Jeans mode is gravity-modified acoustic waves rather than inertial waves and that inertial waves are almost unaffected by self-gravity. We derive an analytic expression for the effective sound speed c eff of acoustic-surface-gravity waves. We also find expressions for the gravity reduction factors relative to a razor-thin counterpart that are appropriate for the Jeans and distortional modes. The usual razor-thin dispersion relation, after correcting for c eff and the reduction factors, closely matches the numerical results obtained by solving a full set of linearized equations. The effective sound speed generalizes the Toomre stability parameter of the Jeans mode to allow for the mixed GI of vertically stratified, pressure-confined disks.

  1. The Quasar Accretion Disk Size-Black Hole Mass Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Christopher W.; Kochanek, C. S.; Morgan, Nicholas D.; Falco, Emilio E.

    2010-04-01

    We use the microlensing variability observed for 11 gravitationally lensed quasars to show that the accretion disk size at a rest-frame wavelength of 2500 Å is related to the black hole mass by log(R 2500/cm) = (15.78 ± 0.12) + (0.80 ± 0.17)log(M BH/109 M sun). This scaling is consistent with the expectation from thin-disk theory (R vprop M 2/3 BH), but when interpreted in terms of the standard thin-disk model (T vprop R -3/4), it implies that black holes radiate with very low efficiency, log(η) = -1.77 ± 0.29 + log(L/L E), where η =L/(\\dot{M}c^2). Only by making the maximum reasonable shifts in the average inclination, Eddington factors, and black hole masses can we raise the efficiency estimate to be marginally consistent with typical efficiency estimates (η ≈ 10%). With one exception, these sizes are larger by a factor of ~4 than the size needed to produce the observed 0.8 μm quasar flux by thermal radiation from a thin disk with the same T vprop R -3/4 temperature profile. While scattering a significant fraction of the disk emission on large scales or including a large fraction of contaminating line emission can reduce the size discrepancy, resolving it also appears to require that accretion disks have flatter temperature/surface brightness profiles. Based on observations obtained with the Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS) 1.3 m, which is operated by the SMARTS Consortium, the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium, the WIYN Observatory which is owned and operated by the University of Wisconsin, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO), the 6.5 m Magellan Baade telescope, which is a collaboration between the observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington (OCIW), University of Arizona, Harvard University, University of Michigan, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and observations made

  2. Equilibrium figures for beta Lyrae type disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Accumulated evidence for a geometrically and optically thick disk in the β Lyrae system has now established the disk's basic external configuration. Since the disk has been constant in its main properties over the historical interval of β Lyrae observations and also seems to have a basically well-defined photosphere, it is now time to being consideration of its sturcture. Here, we compute equilibrium figures for self-gravitating disks around stars in binary systems as a start toward eventual computation of complete disk models. A key role is played by centrifugally limited rotation of the central star, which would naturally arise late in the rapid phase of mass transfer. Beta Lyrae is thus postulated to be a double-contact binary, which makes possible nonarbitrary separation of star and disk into separate structures. The computed equilibrium figures are three-dimensional, as the gravitation of the second star is included. Under the approximation that the gravitational potential of the disk is that of a thin wire and that the local disk angular velocity is proportional to u/sup n/ (u = distance from rotation axis), we comptue the total potential and locate equipotential surfaces. The centrifugal potential is written in a particularly convenient form which permits one to change the rotation law discontinuously (for example, at the star-disk coupling point) while ensuring that centrifugal potential and centrifigual force are continuous functions of position. With such a one-parameter rotation law, one can find equilibrium disk figures with dimensions very similar to those found in β Lyrae, but considerations of internal consistency demand at least a two-parameter law

  3. Thick Disks in the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Tompkins, Brittany; Jenks, Leah G., E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com, E-mail: elmegreen@vassar.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    Thick disk evolution is studied using edge-on galaxies in two Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Field Parallels. The galaxies were separated into 72 clumpy types and 35 spiral types with bulges. Perpendicular light profiles in F435W, F606W, and F814W ( B , V , and I ) passbands were measured at 1 pixel intervals along the major axes and fitted to sech{sup 2} functions convolved with the instrument line spread function (LSF). The LSF was determined from the average point spread function of ∼20 stars in each passband and field, convolved with a line of uniform brightness to simulate disk blurring. A spread function for a clumpy disk was also used for comparison. The resulting scale heights were found to be proportional to galactic mass, with the average height for a 10{sup 10±0.5} M {sub ⊙} galaxy at z = 2 ± 0.5 equal to 0.63 ± 0.24 kpc. This value is probably the result of a blend between thin and thick disk components that cannot be resolved. Evidence for such two-component structure is present in an inverse correlation between height and midplane surface brightness. Models suggest that the thick disk is observed best between the clumps, and there the average scale height is 1.06 ± 0.43 kpc for the same mass and redshift. A 0.63 ± 0.68 mag V − I color differential with height is also evidence for a mixture of thin and thick components.

  4. Development of an embedded thin-film strain-gauge-based SHM network into 3D-woven composite structure for wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongning; Rasool, Shafqat; Forde, Micheal; Weafer, Bryan; Archer, Edward; McIlhagger, Alistair; McLaughlin, James

    2017-04-01

    Recently, there has been increasing demand in developing low-cost, effective structure health monitoring system to be embedded into 3D-woven composite wind turbine blades to determine structural integrity and presence of defects. With measuring the strain and temperature inside composites at both in-situ blade resin curing and in-service stages, we are developing a novel scheme to embed a resistive-strain-based thin-metal-film sensory into the blade spar-cap that is made of composite laminates to determine structural integrity and presence of defects. Thus, with fiberglass, epoxy, and a thinmetal- film sensing element, a three-part, low-cost, smart composite laminate is developed. Embedded strain sensory inside composite laminate prototype survived after laminate curing process. The internal strain reading from embedded strain sensor under three-point-bending test standard is comparable. It proves that our proposed method will provide another SHM alternative to reduce sensing costs during the renewable green energy generation.

  5. New look at the dynamics of twisted accretion disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatchett, S.P.; Begelman, M.C.; Sarazin, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    We reexamine the dynamic response of a thin, accretion disk to twisting torques, guided by the earlier analyses by Bardeen and Petterson. We make several corrections to this earlier work, and present a new version of the twist equations consistent with their physical assumptions. By describing the distortion of the disk in terms Cartesian direction cosines rather than the Euler angles used by the earlier authors, we are able to transform the twist equations from a pair of coupled, nonlinear, partial differential equations to a single, linear, complex one. We write down formulae for the external twisting torques likley to be encountered in astrophysic, and we show that even with these driving torques our twist equation remains linear. We find exact, analytic solutions for steady state structure of a disk subject to Lense-Thirring torques by a nonaligned central Kerr black hole and also for the time-dependent problem of the structure of a slaved disk with its oscillating boundary conditions. Finally, we discuss the stability of disks against twisting modes and show that undriven disks and disks subject to time-independent driving torques are stable

  6. MIGRATION OF EXTRASOLAR PLANETS: EFFECTS FROM X-WIND ACCRETION DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Fred C.; Cai, Mike J.; Lizano, Susana

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic fields are dragged in from the interstellar medium during the gravitational collapse that forms star/disk systems. Consideration of mean field magnetohydrodynamics in these disks shows that magnetic effects produce sub-Keplerian rotation curves and truncate the inner disk. This Letter explores the ramifications of these predicted disk properties for the migration of extrasolar planets. Sub-Keplerian flow in gaseous disks drives a new migration mechanism for embedded planets and modifies the gap-opening processes for larger planets. This sub-Keplerian migration mechanism dominates over Type I migration for sufficiently small planets (m P ∼ + ) and/or close orbits (r ∼< 1 AU). Although the inclusion of sub-Keplerian torques shortens the total migration time by only a moderate amount, the mass accreted by migrating planetary cores is significantly reduced. Truncation of the inner disk edge (for typical system parameters) naturally explains final planetary orbits with periods P ∼ 4 days. Planets with shorter periods, P ∼ 2 days, can be explained by migration during FU-Orionis outbursts, when the mass accretion rate is high and the disk edge moves inward. Finally, the midplane density is greatly increased at the inner truncation point of the disk (the X-point); this enhancement, in conjunction with continuing flow of gas and solids through the region, supports the in situ formation of giant planets.

  7. Self-planarized quantum-disks nanowires ultraviolet-B emitter utilizing pendeo-epitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal

    2017-03-03

    The growth of self-assembled, vertically oriented and uniform nanowires (NWs) has remained a challenge for efficient light-emitting devices. Here, we demonstrate dislocation-free AlGaN NWs with spontaneous coalescence, which are grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on an n-type doped silicon (100) substrate. A high density of NWs (filling factor > 95%) was achieved under optimized growth conditions, enabling device fabrication without planarization using ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing polymer materials. UV-B (280-320 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which emit at ~303 nm with a narrow full width at half maximum (FWHM) (~20 nm) of the emission spectrum, are demonstrated using a large active region (“active region/NW length-ratio” ~ 50%) embedded with 15 stacks of AlxGa1-xN/AlyGa1-yN quantum-disks (Qdisks). To improve the carrier injection, a graded layer is introduced at the AlGaN/GaN interfaces on both p- and n-type regions. This work demonstrates a viable approach to easily fabricate ultra-thin, efficient UV optoelectronic devices on low-cost and scalable silicon substrates.

  8. Thin-plate-type embedded ultrasonic transducer based on magnetostriction for the thickness monitoring of the secondary piping system of a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Tae Hoon; Cho, Seung Hyun [Center for Safety Measurement, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Pipe wall thinning in the secondary piping system of a nuclear power plant is currently a major problem that typically affects the safety and reliability of the nuclear power plant directly. Regular in-service inspections are carried out to manage the piping system only during the overhaul. Online thickness monitoring is necessary to avoid abrupt breakage due to wall thinning. To this end, a transducer that can withstand a high-temperature environment and should be installed under the insulation layer. We propose a thin plate type of embedded ultrasonic transducer based on magnetostriction. The transducer was designed and fabricated to measure the thickness of a pipe under a high-temperature condition. A number of experimental results confirmed the validity of the present transducer.

  9. Phase and electrical properties of PZT thin films embedded with CuO nano-particles by a hybrid sol-gel route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreesattabud, Tharathip; Gibbons, Brady J.; Watcharapasorn, Anucha; Jiansirisomboon, Sukanda

    2013-07-01

    Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 or PZT thin films embedded with CuO nano-particles were successfully prepared by a hybrid sol-gel process. In this process, CuO (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 1 wt. %) nanopowder was suspended in an organometallic solution of PZT, and then coated on platinised silicon substrate using a spin-coating technique. The influence of CuO nano-particles' dispersion on the phase of PZT thin films was investigated. XRD results showed a perovskite phase in all films. At the CuO concentration of 0.4-1 wt. %, a second phase was observed. The addition of CuO nano-particles affected the orientation of PZT thin films. The addition was also found to reduce the ferroelectric properties of PZT thin films. However, at 0.2 wt. % CuO concentration, the film exhibited good ferroelectric properties similar to those of PZT films. In addition, the fatigue retention properties of the PZT/CuO system was observed, and it showed 14% fatigue at 108 switching bipolar pulse cycles while the fatigue in PZT thin films was found to be 17% at the same switching bipolar pulse cycles.

  10. Quantum-dot light-emitting diodes utilizing CdSe /ZnS nanocrystals embedded in TiO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Hee; Kumar, Ch. Kiran; Lee, Zonghoon; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Huh, Chul; Kim, Eui-Tae

    2008-11-01

    Quantum-dot (QD) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are demonstrated on Si wafers by embedding core-shell CdSe /ZnS nanocrystals in TiO2 thin films via plasma-enhanced metallorganic chemical vapor deposition. The n-TiO2/QDs /p-Si LED devices show typical p-n diode current-voltage and efficient electroluminescence characteristics, which are critically affected by the removal of QD surface ligands. The TiO2/QDs /Si system we presented can offer promising Si-based optoelectronic and electronic device applications utilizing numerous nanocrystals synthesized by colloidal solution chemistry.

  11. Transport coefficients and mechanical response in hard-disk colloidal suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bo-Kai; Ma Yu-Qiang; Li Jian; Chen Kang; Tian Wen-De

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the transport properties and mechanical response of glassy hard disks using nonlinear Langevin equation theory. We derive expressions for the elastic shear modulus and viscosity in two dimensions on the basis of thermal-activated barrier-hopping dynamics and mechanically accelerated motion. Dense hard disks exhibit phenomena such as softening elasticity, shear-thinning of viscosity, and yielding upon deformation, which are qualitatively similar to dense hard-sphere colloidal suspensions in three dimensions. These phenomena can be ascribed to stress-induced “landscape tilting”. Quantitative comparisons of these phenomena between hard disks and hard spheres are presented. Interestingly, we find that the density dependence of yield stress in hard disks is much more significant than in hard spheres. Our work provides a foundation for further generalizing the nonlinear Langevin equation theory to address slow dynamics and rheological behavior in binary or polydisperse mixtures of hard or soft disks. (rapid communication)

  12. Models of disk chemical evolution focusing the pure dynamical radial mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Re Fiorentin P.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We performed N-body simulations to study the dynamical evolution of a stellar disk inside a Dark Matter (DM halo. Our results evidence how a standard -radially decreasing- metallicity gradient produces a negative vϕ vs. [Fe/H] correlation, similar to that shown by the thin disk stars, while an inverse radial gradient generates a positive rotation-metallicity correlation, as that observed in the old thick population.

  13. Plasma deposition of organosilicon polymer thin films with embedded nanosilver for prevention of microbial adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulou, Claire; Despax, Bernard; Raynaud, Patrice; Zanna, Sandrine; Marcus, Philippe; Mercier-Bonin, Muriel

    2009-01-01

    Composite thin films (∼170 nm) containing silver nanoclusters embedded in an organosilicon matrix were deposited by PE-CVD onto stainless steel in order to prevent microbial adhesion. The process originality relies on a dual strategy combining silver sputtering and simultaneous plasma polymerization in argon-hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) plasma, using an asymmetrical RF glow discharge. The metal content in the film was controlled by varying the HMDSO flow rate. Investigation of the physico-chemical properties of the obtained films was conducted by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission FTIR spectroscopy. Plasma-mediated coatings were composed of C, O, Si and Ag which was predominantly under metallic form, as indicated by XPS analysis. The presence of Si-H, Si-O-Si, Si-(CH) n -Si and C-H groups was established by FTIR. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was selected as the model for eukaryotic microorganisms. The maximal anti-adhesive efficiency was achieved for the organosilicon matrix alone. When nanosilver was incorporated into the organic matrix, the efficiency was reduced, especially for high metal contents. Silver antimicrobial property was assumed to be related to Ag + progressive release from the embedded nanoparticles into the surrounding medium. This release was confirmed by ICP-MS measurements. Moreover, silver-containing film antifungal activity was observed towards sessile cells.

  14. Plasma deposition of organosilicon polymer thin films with embedded nanosilver for prevention of microbial adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulou, Claire [Universite de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INPT, LISBP, 135 Av. de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); Despax, Bernard; Raynaud, Patrice [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); Zanna, Sandrine; Marcus, Philippe [LPCS, UMR CNRS/ENSCP 7045, 11 rue P. et M. Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Mercier-Bonin, Muriel, E-mail: muriel.mercier-bonin@insa-toulouse.fr [Universite de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INPT, LISBP, 135 Av. de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France)

    2009-11-15

    Composite thin films ({approx}170 nm) containing silver nanoclusters embedded in an organosilicon matrix were deposited by PE-CVD onto stainless steel in order to prevent microbial adhesion. The process originality relies on a dual strategy combining silver sputtering and simultaneous plasma polymerization in argon-hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) plasma, using an asymmetrical RF glow discharge. The metal content in the film was controlled by varying the HMDSO flow rate. Investigation of the physico-chemical properties of the obtained films was conducted by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission FTIR spectroscopy. Plasma-mediated coatings were composed of C, O, Si and Ag which was predominantly under metallic form, as indicated by XPS analysis. The presence of Si-H, Si-O-Si, Si-(CH){sub n}-Si and C-H groups was established by FTIR. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was selected as the model for eukaryotic microorganisms. The maximal anti-adhesive efficiency was achieved for the organosilicon matrix alone. When nanosilver was incorporated into the organic matrix, the efficiency was reduced, especially for high metal contents. Silver antimicrobial property was assumed to be related to Ag{sup +} progressive release from the embedded nanoparticles into the surrounding medium. This release was confirmed by ICP-MS measurements. Moreover, silver-containing film antifungal activity was observed towards sessile cells.

  15. Numerical simulation of fluid flow and heat transfer in a thin liquid film over a stationary and rotating disk and comparison with experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghri, Amir; Swanson, Theodore D.

    1990-01-01

    In the first section, improvements in the theoretical model and computational procedure for the prediction of film height and heat-transfer coefficient of the free surface flow of a radially-spreading thin liquid film adjacent to a flat horizontal surface of finite extent are presented. Flows in the presence and absence of gravity are considered. Theoretical results are compared to available experimental data with good agreement. In the presence of gravity, a hydraulic jump is present, isolating the flow into two regimes: supercritical upstream from the jump and subcritical downstream of it. In this situation, the effects of surface tension are important near the outer edge of the disk where the fluid experiences a free fall. A region of flow separation is present just downstream of the jump. In the absence of gravity, no hydraulic jump or separated flow region is present. The variation of the heat-transfer coefficient for flows in the presence and absence of gravity are also presented. In the second section, the results of a numerical simulation of the flow field and associated heat transfer coefficients are presented for the free surface flow of a thin liquid film adjacent to a horizontal rotating disk. The computation was performed for different flow rates and rotational velocities using a 3-D boundary-fitted coordinate system. Since the geometry of the free surface is unknown and dependent on flow rate, rate of rotation, and other parameters, an iterative procedure had to be used to ascertain its location. The computed film height agreed well with existing experimental measurements. The flow is found to be dominated by inertia near the entrance and close to the free surface and dominated by centrifugal force at larger radii and adjacent to the disk. The rotation enhances the heat transfer coefficient by a significant amount.

  16. Extraordinary light transmission through opaque thin metal film with subwavelength holes blocked by metal disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Di; Hu, Jonathan; Chou, Stephen Y

    2011-10-10

    We observed that when subwavelength-sized holes in an optically opaque metal film are completely covered by opaque metal disks larger than the holes, the light transmission through the holes is not reduced, but rather enhanced. Particularly we report (i) the observation of light transmission through the holes blocked by the metal disks up to 70% larger than the unblocked holes; (ii) the observation of tuning the light transmission by varying the coupling strength between the blocking disks and the hole array, or by changing the size of the disks and holes; (iii) the observation and simulation that the metal disk blocker can improve light coupling from free space to a subwavelength hole; and (iv) the simulation that shows the light transmission through subwavelength holes can be enhanced, even though the gap between the disk and the metal film is partially connected with a metal. We believe these finding should have broad and significant impacts and applications to optical systems in many fields.

  17. Mineral processing by short circuits in protoplanetary disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcnally, C.P.; Hubbard, A.; Mac Low, M.-M.

    2013-01-01

    Meteoritic chondrules were formed in the early solar system by brief heating of silicate dust to melting temperatures. Some highly refractory grains (Type B calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, CAIs) also show signs of transient heating. A similar process may occur in other protoplanetary disks......, as evidenced by observations of spectra characteristic of crystalline silicates. One possible environment for this process is the turbulent magnetohydrodynamic flow thought to drive accretion in these disks. Such flows generally form thin current sheets, which are sites of magnetic reconnection, and dissipate...... the magnetic fields amplified by a disk dynamo. We suggest that it is possible to heat precursor grains for chondrules and other high-temperature minerals in current sheets that have been concentrated by our recently described short-circuit instability. We extend our work on this process by including...

  18. The 0.5-2.22 micrometer Scattered Light Spectrum of the Disk around TW Hya: Detection of a Partially Filled Disk Gap at 80 AU*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debes, John H.; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Roberge, Aki; Schneider, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    We present a 0.5-2.2 micrometer scattered light spectrum of the circumstellar disk around TW Hya from a combination of spatially resolved Hubble Space Telescope STIS spectroscopy and NICMOS coronagraphic images of the disk. We investigate the morphology of the disk at distances greater than 40 AU over this wide range of wavelengths, and identify the presence of a depression in surface brightness at approximately 80 AU that could be caused by a gap in the disk. Additionally, we quantify the surface brightness, azimuthal symmetry, and spectral character of the disk as a function of radius. Our analysis shows that the scattering efficiency of the dust is largely neutral to blue over the observed wavelengths. We model the disk as a steady a-disk with an ad hoc gap structure. The thermal properties of the disk are selfconsistently calculated using a three-dimensional radiative transfer code that uses ray tracing to model the heating of the disk interior and scattered light images. We find a good fit to the data over a wide range of distances from the star if we use a model disk with a partially filled gap of 30% depth at 80 AU and with a self-similar truncation knee at 100 AU. The origin of the gap is unclear, but it could arise from a transition in the nature of the disk's dust composition or the presence of a planetary companion. Based on scalings to previous hydrodynamic simulations of gap-opening criteria for embedded proto-planets, we estimate that a planetary companion forming the gap could have a mass between 6 and 28 solar mass.

  19. Analysis of a biphase-based servo format for hard-disk drives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makinwa, K.A.A.; Bergmans, J.W.M.; Voorman, J.O.

    2000-01-01

    Biphase modulation in an embedded-servo format for hard-disk drives is investigated. It is shown that for biphase, at the low linear densities typical of servo information, near-maximum-likelihood performance can be attained by a simple bit detector consisting of a full-response linear equalizer and

  20. Disk accretion onto a black hole at subcritical luminosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G.S.; Blinnikov, S.I.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of radiation pressure on the structure of an accretion disk is considered when the total luminosity L approaches the Eddington limit Lsub(c). The motion of particles in the disk radiation field and gravitational field of a nonrotating black hole is investigated. It is shown that the disk accretion is destroyed when L approximately equal to (0.6 / 1.0) Lsub(c). Matter outflow from the central parts of the disk to infinity then sets in. We conclude that the luminosity cannot significantly exceed the Eddington limit. We show that for L > approximately 0.1 Lsub(c) the plasma in the upper layers of the central region of the disk is heated up to temperatures T approximately 10 9 K and the disk becomes thicker as compared with the standard theory. It is shown that the radiative force can generate magnetic fields B approximately 100 G. We find that convection is the main energy transfer mechanism along z-coordinate in the central parts of the disk. The convection generates an acoustic flux which dissipates in the upper, optically thin layers of the disk and heats them. The comptonization of soft photons going from layers to the hot upper layers and variable accretion rate may explain the spectrum and variations of X-ray emission of the CygX-1. (orig.) [de

  1. Empirical Temperature Measurement in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Erik; Isella, Andrea; Boehler, Yann

    2018-02-01

    The accurate measurement of temperature in protoplanetary disks is critical to understanding many key features of disk evolution and planet formation, from disk chemistry and dynamics, to planetesimal formation. This paper explores the techniques available to determine temperatures from observations of single, optically thick molecular emission lines. Specific attention is given to issues such as the inclusion of optically thin emission, problems resulting from continuum subtraction, and complications of real observations. Effort is also made to detail the exact nature and morphology of the region emitting a given line. To properly study and quantify these effects, this paper considers a range of disk models, from simple pedagogical models to very detailed models including full radiative transfer. Finally, we show how the use of the wrong methods can lead to potentially severe misinterpretations of data, leading to incorrect measurements of disk temperature profiles. We show that the best way to estimate the temperature of emitting gas is to analyze the line peak emission map without subtracting continuum emission. Continuum subtraction, which is commonly applied to observations of line emission, systematically leads to underestimation of the gas temperature. We further show that once observational effects such as beam dilution and noise are accounted for, the line brightness temperature derived from the peak emission is reliably within 10%–15% of the physical temperature of the emitting region, assuming optically thick emission. The methodology described in this paper will be applied in future works to constrain the temperature, and related physical quantities, in protoplanetary disks observed with ALMA.

  2. Enhanced Electroluminescence from Silicon Quantum Dots Embedded in Silicon Nitride Thin Films Coupled with Gold Nanoparticles in Light Emitting Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luz Muñoz-Rosas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the use of plasmonic metal layers to improve the photonic emission characteristics of several semiconductor quantum dots is a booming tool. In this work, we report the use of silicon quantum dots (SiQDs embedded in a silicon nitride thin film coupled with an ultra-thin gold film (AuNPs to fabricate light emitting devices. We used the remote plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (RPECVD in order to grow two types of silicon nitride thin films. One with an almost stoichiometric composition, acting as non-radiative spacer; the other one, with a silicon excess in its chemical composition, which causes the formation of silicon quantum dots imbibed in the silicon nitride thin film. The ultra-thin gold film was deposited by the direct current (DC-sputtering technique, and an aluminum doped zinc oxide thin film (AZO which was deposited by means of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, plays the role of the ohmic metal-like electrode. We found that there is a maximum electroluminescence (EL enhancement when the appropriate AuNPs-spacer-SiQDs configuration is used. This EL is achieved at a moderate turn-on voltage of 11 V, and the EL enhancement is around four times bigger than the photoluminescence (PL enhancement of the same AuNPs-spacer-SiQDs configuration. From our experimental results, we surmise that EL enhancement may indeed be due to a plasmonic coupling. This kind of silicon-based LEDs has the potential for technology transfer.

  3. Milky Way Tomography with K and M Dwarf Stars: The Vertical Structure of the Galactic Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, Deborah; Gardner, Susan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Yanny, Brian [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2017-07-10

    We use the number density distributions of K and M dwarf stars with vertical height from the Galactic disk, determined using observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, to probe the structure of the Milky Way disk across the survey’s footprint. Using photometric parallax as a distance estimator we analyze a sample of several million disk stars in matching footprints above and below the Galactic plane, and we determine the location and extent of vertical asymmetries in the number counts in a variety of thin- and thick-disk subsamples in regions of some 200 square degrees within 2 kpc in vertical distance from the Galactic disk. These disk asymmetries present wave-like features as previously observed on other scales and at other distances from the Sun. We additionally explore the scale height of the disk and the implied offset of the Sun from the Galactic plane at different locations, noting that the scale height of the disk can differ significantly when measured using stars only above or only below the plane. Moreover, we compare the shape of the number density distribution in the north for different latitude ranges with a fixed range in longitude and find the shape to be sensitive to the selected latitude window. We explain why this may be indicative of a change in stellar populations in the latitude regions compared, possibly allowing access to the systematic metallicity difference between thin- and thick-disk populations through photometry.

  4. Disk laser: a new generation of industrial lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Rüdiger; Havrilla, David

    2009-02-01

    The disk laser concept aggregates high efficiency, excellent beam quality, high average and peak power with moderate cost and high reliability. Therefore it became one major technology in industrial laser material processing. In several large scale installations in the automotive industry, high power cw- systems make already use of the high brightness and high efficiency of disk lasers, e.g. in remote welding [1,2]. Other applications including cutting, drilling, deep welding and hybrid welding are arising. This report highlights the latest results in cw disk laser development. A 1.5 kW source with a beam parameter product (BPP) of 2 mm mrad is described as well as the demonstration of a 14 kW system out of three disks with a BPP of 8 mm mrad. The future prospects regarding increased power and even further improved productivity and economics are presented. A new industrial disk laser series with output powers up to 16 kW and a beam parameter product of 8 mm*mrad will enable both, new applications in the thick sheet area and very cost efficient high productive applications like welding and cutting of thin sheets.

  5. THE HERSCHEL DIGIT SURVEY OF WEAK-LINE T TAURI STARS: IMPLICATIONS FOR DISK EVOLUTION AND DISSIPATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieza, Lucas A.; Olofsson, Johan; Henning, Thomas; Harvey, Paul M.; Evans, Neal J. II; Najita, Joan; Merín, Bruno; Liebhart, Armin; Güdel, Manuel; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Pinte, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    As part of the 'Dust, Ice, and Gas In Time (DIGIT)' Herschel Open Time Key Program, we present Herschel photometry (at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm) of 31 weak-line T Tauri star (WTTS) candidates in order to investigate the evolutionary status of their circumstellar disks. Of the stars in our sample, 13 had circumstellar disks previously known from infrared observations at shorter wavelengths, while 18 of them had no previous evidence for a disk. We detect a total of 15 disks as all previously known disks are detected at one or more Herschel wavelengths and two additional disks are identified for the first time. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of our targets seem to trace the dissipation of the primordial disk and the transition to the debris disk regime. Of the 15 disks, 7 appear to be optically thick primordial disks, including 2 objects with SEDs indistinguishable from those of typical Classical T Tauri stars, 4 objects that have significant deficit of excess emission at all IR wavelengths, and 1 'pre-transitional' object with a known gap in the disk. Despite their previous WTTS classification, we find that the seven targets in our sample with optically thick disks show evidence for accretion. The remaining eight disks have weaker IR excesses similar to those of optically thin debris disks. Six of them are warm and show significant 24 μm Spitzer excesses, while the last two are newly identified cold debris-like disks with photospheric 24 μm fluxes, but significant excess emission at longer wavelengths. The Herschel photometry also places strong constraints on the non-detections, where systems with F 70 /F 70,* ∼> 5-15 and L disk /L * ∼> 10 –3 to 10 –4 can be ruled out. We present preliminary models for both the optically thick and optically thin disks and discuss our results in the context of the evolution and dissipation of circumstellar disks.

  6. THE HERSCHEL DIGIT SURVEY OF WEAK-LINE T TAURI STARS: IMPLICATIONS FOR DISK EVOLUTION AND DISSIPATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieza, Lucas A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Olofsson, Johan; Henning, Thomas [Max Planck Institute fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Harvey, Paul M.; Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Najita, Joan [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 86719 (United States); Merin, Bruno [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, ESA, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Liebhart, Armin; Guedel, Manuel [Department of Astronomy, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Augereau, Jean-Charles; Pinte, Christophe, E-mail: lcieza@ifa.hawaii.edu [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d' Astrophysique (IPAG) UMR 5274, BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2013-01-10

    As part of the 'Dust, Ice, and Gas In Time (DIGIT)' Herschel Open Time Key Program, we present Herschel photometry (at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m) of 31 weak-line T Tauri star (WTTS) candidates in order to investigate the evolutionary status of their circumstellar disks. Of the stars in our sample, 13 had circumstellar disks previously known from infrared observations at shorter wavelengths, while 18 of them had no previous evidence for a disk. We detect a total of 15 disks as all previously known disks are detected at one or more Herschel wavelengths and two additional disks are identified for the first time. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of our targets seem to trace the dissipation of the primordial disk and the transition to the debris disk regime. Of the 15 disks, 7 appear to be optically thick primordial disks, including 2 objects with SEDs indistinguishable from those of typical Classical T Tauri stars, 4 objects that have significant deficit of excess emission at all IR wavelengths, and 1 'pre-transitional' object with a known gap in the disk. Despite their previous WTTS classification, we find that the seven targets in our sample with optically thick disks show evidence for accretion. The remaining eight disks have weaker IR excesses similar to those of optically thin debris disks. Six of them are warm and show significant 24 {mu}m Spitzer excesses, while the last two are newly identified cold debris-like disks with photospheric 24 {mu}m fluxes, but significant excess emission at longer wavelengths. The Herschel photometry also places strong constraints on the non-detections, where systems with F {sub 70}/F {sub 70,*} {approx}> 5-15 and L {sub disk}/L {sub *} {approx}> 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -4} can be ruled out. We present preliminary models for both the optically thick and optically thin disks and discuss our results in the context of the evolution and dissipation of circumstellar disks.

  7. The deterministic prediction of failure of low pressure steam turbine disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chun; Macdonald, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Localized corrosion phenomena, including pitting corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and corrosion fatigue, are the principal causes of corrosion-induced damage in electric power generating facilities and typically result in more than 50% of the unscheduled outages. Prediction of damage, so that repairs and inspections can be made during scheduled outages, could have an enormous impact on the economics of electric power generation. To date, prediction of corrosion damage has been made on the basis of empirical/statistical methods that have proven to be insufficiently robust and accurate to form the basis for the desired inspection/repair protocol. In this paper, we describe a deterministic method for predicting localized corrosion damage. We have used the method to illustrate how pitting corrosion initiates stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for low pressure steam turbine disks downstream of the Wilson line, where a thin condensed liquid layer exists on the steel disk surfaces. Our calculations show that the SCC initiation and propagation are sensitive to the oxygen content of the steam, the environment in the thin liquid condensed layer, and the stresses that the disk experiences in service

  8. A SPITZER CENSUS OF TRANSITIONAL PROTOPLANETARY DISKS WITH AU-SCALE INNER HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzerolle, James; Allen, Lori E.; Megeath, S. Thomas; Hernandez, Jesus; Gutermuth, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Protoplanetary disks with AU-scale inner clearings, often referred to as transitional disks, provide a unique sample for understanding disk dissipation mechanisms and possible connections to planet formation. Observations of young stellar clusters with the Spitzer Space Telescope have amassed mid-infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for thousands of star-disk systems from which transition disks can be identified. From a sample of eight relatively nearby young regions (d ∼ 0) to select for robust optically thick outer disks, and 3.6-5.8 μm spectral slope and 5.8 μm continuum excess limits to select for optically thin or zero continuum excess from the inner few AU of the disks. We also identified two additional categories representing more ambiguous cases: 'warm excess' objects with transition-like SEDs but moderate excess at 5.8 μm, and 'weak excess' objects with smaller 24 μm excess that may be optically thin or exhibit advanced dust grain growth and settling. From existing Hα emission measurements, we find evidence for different accretion activity among the three categories, with a majority of the classical and warm excess transition objects still accreting gas through their inner holes and onto the central stars, while a smaller fraction of the weak transition objects are accreting at detectable rates. We find a possible age dependence on the frequency of classical transition objects, with fractions relative to the total population of disks in a given region of a few percent at 1-2 Myr rising to 10%-20% at 3-10 Myr. The trend is even stronger if the weak and warm excess objects are included. This relationship may be due to a dependence of the outer disk clearing timescale with stellar age, suggesting a variety of clearing mechanisms working at different times, or it may reflect that a smaller fraction of all disks actually undergo an inner clearing phase at younger ages. Classical transition disks appear to be less common, and weak transition

  9. THE 0.5-2.22 μm SCATTERED LIGHT SPECTRUM OF THE DISK AROUND TW Hya: DETECTION OF A PARTIALLY FILLED DISK GAP AT 80 AU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debes, John H.; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Roberge, Aki; Schneider, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    We present a 0.5-2.2 μm scattered light spectrum of the circumstellar disk around TW Hya from a combination of spatially resolved Hubble Space Telescope STIS spectroscopy and NICMOS coronagraphic images of the disk. We investigate the morphology of the disk at distances >40 AU over this wide range of wavelengths, and identify the presence of a depression in surface brightness at ∼80 AU that could be caused by a gap in the disk. Additionally, we quantify the surface brightness, azimuthal symmetry, and spectral character of the disk as a function of radius. Our analysis shows that the scattering efficiency of the dust is largely neutral to blue over the observed wavelengths. We model the disk as a steady α-disk with an ad hoc gap structure. The thermal properties of the disk are self-consistently calculated using a three-dimensional radiative transfer code that uses ray tracing to model the heating of the disk interior and scattered light images. We find a good fit to the data over a wide range of distances from the star if we use a model disk with a partially filled gap of 30% depth at 80 AU and with a self-similar truncation knee at 100 AU. The origin of the gap is unclear, but it could arise from a transition in the nature of the disk's dust composition or the presence of a planetary companion. Based on scalings to previous hydrodynamic simulations of gap-opening criteria for embedded proto-planets, we estimate that a planetary companion forming the gap could have a mass between 6 and 28 M ⊕ .

  10. Shear thinning behavior of monolayer liquid lubricant films measured by fiber wobbling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Y; Itoh, S; Fukuzawa, K; Zhang, H

    2010-01-01

    It is essential to clarify mechanical properties of monolayer lubricant films coated on magnetic disks under shearing motion for designing future hard disk drives with ultra-low flying height. Many of previous researchers reported that strong shear rate dependence of viscoelasticity was one of the typical phenomena observed with molecularly thin liquid films. However, it has not been clarified whether or not perfluoropolyether (PFPE) lubricant films, which are used for the head-disk interface (HDI) lubrication, show shear thinning behavior under actual HDI conditions. In this study, we used the fiber wobbling method that can achieve both highly-sensitive shear force measurement and precise gap control and measured shear rate dependence of viscoelastic properties of monolayer PFPE films coated on the magnetic disk. Our experimental results showed that shear thinning does occur at high shear rate ranged from 10 2 to 10 6 s -1 .

  11. Fracture of thermally loaded disks of materials in elastic-brittle state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, V.S.; Lanin, A.G.; Fedik, I.I.

    1981-01-01

    Fracture kinetics and limiting supporting power were studied in a solid thin disk axisymmetrically cooled from the periphery depending on the deqree of the stressed state nonuniformity and crack interaction. Basing on a strength approach of fracture linear mechanism it has become possible to obtain limit equilibrium curves and to evaluate thermoelastic stress redistribution on the boundary of the disk with one, two and four symmetrical radial cracks. Calculated data are confirmed by the results of the experiments performed with zirconium carbide water-cooled disks. It is shown that while determining the limit supporting power of a thermally loaded body, the loading history and fracture kinetics should be taken into account

  12. Mass Distribution in Rotating Thin-Disk Galaxies According to Newtonian Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Q. Feng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An accurate computational method is presented for determining the mass distribution in a mature spiral galaxy from a given rotation curve by applying Newtonian dynamics for an axisymmetrically rotating thin disk of finite size with or without a central spherical bulge. The governing integral equation for mass distribution is transformed via a boundary-element method into a linear algebra matrix equation that can be solved numerically for rotation curves with a wide range of shapes. To illustrate the effectiveness of this computational method, mass distributions in several mature spiral galaxies are determined from their measured rotation curves. All the surface mass density profiles predicted by our model exhibit approximately a common exponential law of decay, quantitatively consistent with the observed surface brightness distributions. When a central spherical bulge is present, the mass distribution in the galaxy is altered in such a way that the periphery mass density is reduced, while more mass appears toward the galactic center. By extending the computational domain beyond the galactic edge, we can determine the rotation velocity outside the cut-off radius, which appears to continuously decrease and to gradually approach the Keplerian rotation velocity out over twice the cut-off radius. An examination of circular orbit stability suggests that galaxies with flat or rising rotation velocities are more stable than those with declining rotation velocities especially in the region near the galactic edge. Our results demonstrate the fact that Newtonian dynamics can be adequate for describing the observed rotation behavior of mature spiral galaxies.

  13. Dust Concentration and Emission in Protoplanetary Disks Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Anibal; Lizano, Susana; Barge, Pierre

    2017-12-01

    We study the dust concentration and emission in protoplanetary disks vortices. We extend the Lyra-Lin solution for the dust concentration of a single grain size to a power-law distribution of grain sizes n(a)\\propto {a}-p. Assuming dust conservation in the disk, we find an analytic dust surface density as a function of the grain radius. We calculate the increase of the dust-to-gas mass ratio ɛ and the slope p of the dust size distribution due to grain segregation within the vortex. We apply this model to a numerical simulation of a disk containing a persistent vortex. Due to the accumulation of large grains toward the vortex center, ɛ increases by a factor of 10 from the background disk value, and p decreases from 3.5 to 3.0. We find the disk emission at millimeter wavelengths corresponding to synthetic observations with ALMA and VLA. The simulated maps at 7 mm and 1 cm show a strong azimuthal asymmetry. This happens because, at these wavelengths, the disk becomes optically thin while the vortex remains optically thick. The large vortex opacity is mainly due to an increase in the dust-to-gas mass ratio. In addition, the change in the slope of the dust size distribution increases the opacity by a factor of two. We also show that the inclusion of the dust scattering opacity substantially changes the disks images.

  14. Fluorescence in situ hybridization on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laub Petersen, Bodil; Zeuthen, Mette Christa; Pedersen, Sanni

    2004-01-01

    , such as quantitation of signals as in triploidy, it is possible to isolate nuclei from paraffin-embedded tissue. However, using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, either in thin sections or as isolated nuclei, one encounters a range of technical problems, paralleling those met in immunohistochemistry. Variations...... nuclei and tissue sections from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue....

  15. The Origin of Magnetite Crystals in ALH84001 Carbonate Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Martian meteorite ALH84001 preserves evidence of interaction with aqueous fluids while on Mars in the form of microscopic carbonate disks believed to have formed approx 3.9 Ga ago at beginning of the Noachian epoch. Intimately associated within and throughout these carbonate disks are nanocrystal magnetites (Fe3O4) with unusual chemical and physical properties, whose origins have become the source of considerable debate. One group of hypotheses argues that these magnetites are the product of partial thermal decomposition of the host carbonate. Alternatively, the origins of magnetite and carbonate may be unrelated; that is, from the perspective of the carbonate the magnetite is allochthonous. We have sought to resolve between these hypotheses through the detailed characterized of the compositional and structural relationships between the carbonate disks, their associated magnetites and the orthopyroxene matrix in which they are embedded. Comparison of these results with experimental thermal decomposition studies of sideritic carbonates conducted under a range of heating scenarios suggests that the magnetite nanocrystals in the ALH84001 carbonate disks are not the products of thermal decomposition.

  16. Outputs of shock-loaded small piezoceramic disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charest, Jacques A.; Mace, Jonathan Lee

    2002-01-01

    Thin small-diameter polycrystalline Lead-Zirconate-Titanate piezoceramic disks were shock loaded in the D33 orientation over a stress range of 0.1-30 GPa. Their electrical outputs were discharged into 50 Ω viewing resistors, producing typically 0.15 μs quasi-triangular impulses ranging from 50-700 V. The gas gun flat plate impact approach and the high explosives (HE) plane wave lens approach were used to load piezoceramic elements. These piezoceramic elements consisted of 0.25 mm thick and 1.32 mm diameter disks that were ultrasonically machined from 25 mm piezocrystal disks of type APC 850, commercially produced by American Piezo Ceramic Inc. To facilitate our experiments, the piezoceramic elements were coaxially mounted at the tip of a 2.35 mm diameter brass tube, an arrangement that is commercialized by Dynasen, Inc. under the name Piezopin of model CA-1136. Simple calculations on the electrical outputs produced by these piezoceramic disks reveal electrical outputs in excess of 3000 W. Such short bursts of electrical energy have the potential for numerous applications where critical timing is needed to observe fast transient events

  17. The assembly of the disk shielding is finished.

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Hedberg

    At the end of March, the shielding project engineer, Jan Palla, could draw a sigh of relief when the fourth and final rotation of the disk shielding was carried out without incident. The two 80-ton heavy shielding assemblies were built in a horizontal position and they had to be first turned upside-down and then rotated to a vertical position during the assembly. The relatively thin disk plate with a diameter of 9 meters, made this operation quite delicate and a lot of calculation work and strengthening of the shielding was carried out before the rotations could take place. The disk shielding is being turned upside-down. The stainless steel cylinder in the centre supports the shielding as well as the small muon wheel. The two disk shielding assemblies consist of different materials such as bronze, gray steel, cast iron, stainless steel, boron doped polyethylene and lead. The project is multinational with the major pieces having been made by companies in Armenia, Serbia, Spain, Bulgaria, Italy, Slovaki...

  18. STABILITY OF MAGNETIZED DISKS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PLANET FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizano, Susana; Galli, Daniele; Cai, Mike J.; Adams, Fred C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers gravitational perturbations in geometrically thin disks with rotation curves dominated by a central object, but with substantial contributions from magnetic pressure and tension. The treatment is general, but the application is to the circumstellar disks that arise during the gravitational collapse phase of star formation. We find the dispersion relation for spiral density waves in these generalized disks and derive the stability criterion for axisymmetric (m = 0) disturbances (the analog of the Toomre parameter Q T ) for any radial distribution of the mass-to-flux ratio λ. The magnetic effects work in two opposing directions: on one hand, magnetic tension and pressure stabilize the disk against gravitational collapse and fragmentation; on the other hand, they also lower the rotation rate making the disk more unstable. For disks around young stars the first effect generally dominates, so that magnetic fields allow disks to be stable for higher surface densities and larger total masses. These results indicate that magnetic fields act to suppress the formation of giant planets through gravitational instability. Finally, even if gravitational instability can form a secondary body, it must lose an enormous amount of magnetic flux in order to become a planet; this latter requirement represents an additional constraint for planet formation via gravitational instability and places a lower limit on the electrical resistivity.

  19. Gauging the Galactic thick disk with RR Lyrae stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz G.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we present results from the QUEST RR Lyrae Survey of the thick disk. The survey spans ~480 sq. deg. at low latitude |b| < 30°, with multi-epoch VRI observations, obtained with the QUEST-I camera at the 1m Jürgen Stock Schmidt telescope located at the National Astronomical Observatory of Venezuela. This constitutes the first deep RR Lyrae survey of the Galactic thick disk conducted at low galactic latitudes, covering simultaneously a large range in radial (8disk structural parameters from in situ RR Lyrae stars having accurate distances (errors <7% and individual reddenings derived from each star’s color curve at minimum light. Moreover, the use of RR Lyrae stars as tracers ensures negligible contamination from the Galactic thin disk. We find a thick disk mean scale height hZ = 0.94 ± 0.11kpc and scale length hR = 3.2 ± 0.4kpc, derived from the vertical and radial mean density profiles of RR Lyrae stars. We also find evidence of thick disk flaring and results that may suggest the thick disk radial density profile shows signs of antitruncation. We discuss our findings in the context of recent thick disk formation models.

  20. Disk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); L. Liu (Lei); M. Tamer Özsu

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractIn disk storage, data is recorded on planar, round and rotating surfaces (disks, discs, or platters). A disk drive is a peripheral device of a computer system, connected by some communication medium to a disk controller. The disk controller is a chip, typically connected to the CPU of

  1. [Expression and distribution of xenoantigen alpha-Gal in intervertebral disk of Chinese banna minipig inbred line].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Jian-guo; Mi, Jian-hong; Ying, Da-jun

    2002-09-01

    To investigate the expression and distribution of xenoantigen in intervertebral disk of Chinese banna minipig inbred line, and to study the availability of xenograft transplantation of intervertebral disk. Samples of intervertebral disk were collected from six Banna pigs of 8 to 11-month-old. The fixation, embedment and slice were performed. alpha-Gal specific binding lection (BSI-B4) were used as affinity reagents and affinity-immunohistochemistry assays (SABC methods and DAB stain) were conducted to detect the expression and distribution of xenoantigen (alpha-Gal). alpha-Gal was found in chondrocyte cell and chondrocyte-like cell in intervertebral disk which have the positive yellow-stained particulate aggradation. There was no stain in the matrix, elastic fiber and collagen fiber. The distribution of xenoantigen is locally in the tissue of intervertebral disk and its expression is weak. This suggests that the intervertebral disk of Banna pig may be alternative donor for xenotransplantation.

  2. An Intrinsic Algorithm for Parallel Poisson Disk Sampling on Arbitrary Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiang; Xin, Shi-Qing; Sun, Qian; He, Ying

    2013-03-08

    Poisson disk sampling plays an important role in a variety of visual computing, due to its useful statistical property in distribution and the absence of aliasing artifacts. While many effective techniques have been proposed to generate Poisson disk distribution in Euclidean space, relatively few work has been reported to the surface counterpart. This paper presents an intrinsic algorithm for parallel Poisson disk sampling on arbitrary surfaces. We propose a new technique for parallelizing the dart throwing. Rather than the conventional approaches that explicitly partition the spatial domain to generate the samples in parallel, our approach assigns each sample candidate a random and unique priority that is unbiased with regard to the distribution. Hence, multiple threads can process the candidates simultaneously and resolve conflicts by checking the given priority values. It is worth noting that our algorithm is accurate as the generated Poisson disks are uniformly and randomly distributed without bias. Our method is intrinsic in that all the computations are based on the intrinsic metric and are independent of the embedding space. This intrinsic feature allows us to generate Poisson disk distributions on arbitrary surfaces. Furthermore, by manipulating the spatially varying density function, we can obtain adaptive sampling easily.

  3. Improvement of resistive switching characteristics in ZrO2 film by embedding a thin TiOx layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yingtao; Long Shibing; Lv Hangbing; Liu Qi; Wang Yan; Zhang Sen; Lian Wentai; Wang Ming; Zhang Kangwei; Xie Hongwei; Liu Ming; Liu Su

    2011-01-01

    The stabilization of the resistive switching characteristics is important to resistive random access memory (RRAM) device development. In this paper, an alternative approach for improving resistive switching characteristics in ZrO 2 -based resistive memory devices has been investigated. Compared with the Cu/ZrO 2 /Pt structure device, by embedding a thin TiO x layer between the ZrO 2 and the Cu top electrode, the Cu/TiO x -ZrO 2 /Pt structure device exhibits much better resistive switching characteristics. The improvement of the resistive switching characteristics in the Cu/TiO x -ZrO 2 /Pt structure device might be attributed to the modulation of the barrier height at the electrode/oxide interfaces.

  4. Transport coefficients and mechanical response in hard-disk colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo-Kai; Li, Jian; Chen, Kang; Tian, Wen-De; Ma, Yu-Qiang

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the transport properties and mechanical response of glassy hard disks using nonlinear Langevin equation theory. We derive expressions for the elastic shear modulus and viscosity in two dimensions on the basis of thermal-activated barrier-hopping dynamics and mechanically accelerated motion. Dense hard disks exhibit phenomena such as softening elasticity, shear-thinning of viscosity, and yielding upon deformation, which are qualitatively similar to dense hard-sphere colloidal suspensions in three dimensions. These phenomena can be ascribed to stress-induced “landscape tilting”. Quantitative comparisons of these phenomena between hard disks and hard spheres are presented. Interestingly, we find that the density dependence of yield stress in hard disks is much more significant than in hard spheres. Our work provides a foundation for further generalizing the nonlinear Langevin equation theory to address slow dynamics and rheological behavior in binary or polydisperse mixtures of hard or soft disks. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB821500) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21374073 and, 21574096).

  5. RADIATION PRESSURE-SUPPORTED ACCRETION DISKS: VERTICAL STRUCTURE, ENERGY ADVECTION, AND CONVECTIVE STABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Weimin

    2012-01-01

    By taking into account the local energy balance per unit volume between the viscous heating and the advective cooling plus the radiative cooling, we investigate the vertical structure of radiation pressure-supported accretion disks in spherical coordinates. Our solutions show that the photosphere of the disk is close to the polar axis and therefore the disk seems to be extremely thick. However, the density profile implies that most of the accreted matter exists in a moderate range around the equatorial plane. We show that the well-known polytropic relation between the pressure and the density is unsuitable for describing the vertical structure of radiation pressure-supported disks. More importantly, we find that the energy advection is significant even for slightly sub-Eddington accretion disks. We argue that the non-negligible advection may help us understand why the standard thin disk model is likely to be inaccurate above ∼0.3 Eddington luminosity, which was found by some works on black hole spin measurement. Furthermore, the solutions satisfy the Solberg-Høiland conditions, which indicate the disk to be convectively stable. In addition, we discuss the possible link between our disk model and ultraluminous X-ray sources.

  6. The evolution of stellar metallicity gradients of the Milky Way disk from LSS-GAC main sequence turn-off stars: a two-phase disk formation history?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Mao-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Huang, Yang; Wang, Chun; Ren, Juan-Juan; Chen, Bing-Qiu; Sun, Ning-Chen; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto; Huo, Zhi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    significant radial flows of gas in the disk, and the rate of gas inflow near the solar neighborhood reaches a maximum around a lookback time of 7–8 Gyr. The transition between the two phases occurs around a lookback time between 8 and 11 Gyr. The two phases may be responsible for the formation of the Milky Way's thick and thin disks, respectively. Also, as a consequence, we recommend that stellar age is a natural, physical criterion to distinguish stars from the thin and thick disks. From an epoch earlier than 11Gyr to one between 8 and 11Gyr, there is an abrupt, significant change in magnitude of both the radial and vertical metallicity gradients, suggesting that stellar radial migration is unlikely to play an important role in the formation of the thick disk. (paper)

  7. Thin accretion disk signatures of slowly rotating black holes in Horava gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lobo, Francisco S N

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we consider the possibility of observationally testing Horava gravity by using the accretion disk properties around slowly rotating black holes of the Kehagias-Sfetsos (KS) solution in asymptotically flat spacetimes. The energy flux, temperature distribution, the emission spectrum as well as the energy conversion efficiency are obtained, and compared to the standard slowly rotating general relativistic Kerr solution. Comparing the mass accretion in a slowly rotating KS geometry in Horava gravity with the one of a slowly rotating Kerr black hole, we verify that the intensity of the flux emerging from the disk surface is greater for the slowly rotating Kehagias-Sfetsos solution than for rotating black holes with the same geometrical mass and accretion rate. We also present the conversion efficiency of the accreting mass into radiation, and show that the rotating KS solution provides a much more efficient engine for the transformation of the accreting mass into radiation than the Kerr black holes. Thus, distinct signatures appear in the electromagnetic spectrum, leading to the possibility of directly testing Horava gravity models by using astrophysical observations of the emission spectra from accretion disks.

  8. Thin accretion disk signatures of slowly rotating black holes in Horava gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Kovacs, Zoltan [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam Road (Hong Kong); Lobo, Francisco S N, E-mail: harko@hkucc.hku.hk, E-mail: zkovacs@hku.hk, E-mail: flobo@cii.fc.ul.pt [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofisica da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed. C8 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-08-21

    In this work, we consider the possibility of observationally testing Horava gravity by using the accretion disk properties around slowly rotating black holes of the Kehagias-Sfetsos (KS) solution in asymptotically flat spacetimes. The energy flux, temperature distribution, the emission spectrum as well as the energy conversion efficiency are obtained, and compared to the standard slowly rotating general relativistic Kerr solution. Comparing the mass accretion in a slowly rotating KS geometry in Horava gravity with the one of a slowly rotating Kerr black hole, we verify that the intensity of the flux emerging from the disk surface is greater for the slowly rotating Kehagias-Sfetsos solution than for rotating black holes with the same geometrical mass and accretion rate. We also present the conversion efficiency of the accreting mass into radiation, and show that the rotating KS solution provides a much more efficient engine for the transformation of the accreting mass into radiation than the Kerr black holes. Thus, distinct signatures appear in the electromagnetic spectrum, leading to the possibility of directly testing Horava gravity models by using astrophysical observations of the emission spectra from accretion disks.

  9. Turbulence in the TW Hya Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Kevin M.; Hughes, A. Meredith; Teague, Richard; Simon, Jacob B.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.

    2018-04-01

    Turbulence is a fundamental parameter in models of grain growth during the early stages of planet formation. As such, observational constraints on its magnitude are crucial. Here we self-consistently analyze ALMA CO(2–1), SMA CO(3–2), and SMA CO(6–5) observations of the disk around TW Hya and find an upper limit on the turbulent broadening of equilibrium in the presence of a vertical temperature gradient and/or the confinement of CO to a thin molecular layer above the midplane, although further work is needed to quantify the influence of these prescriptions. Assumptions about hydrostatic equilibrium and the CO distribution are physically motivated, and may have a small influence on measuring the kinematics of the gas, but they become important when constraining small effects such as the strength of the turbulence within a protoplanetary disk.

  10. Thin accretion disk signatures in dynamical Chern-Simons-modified gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lobo, Francisco S N

    2010-01-01

    A promising extension of general relativity is Chern-Simons (CS)-modified gravity, in which the Einstein-Hilbert action is modified by adding a parity-violating CS term, which couples to gravity via a scalar field. In this work, we consider the interesting, yet relatively unexplored, dynamical formulation of CS-modified gravity, where the CS coupling field is treated as a dynamical field, endowed with its own stress-energy tensor and evolution equation. We consider the possibility of observationally testing dynamical CS-modified gravity by using the accretion disk properties around slowly rotating black holes. The energy flux, temperature distribution, the emission spectrum as well as the energy conversion efficiency are obtained, and compared to the standard general relativistic Kerr solution. It is shown that the Kerr black hole provides a more efficient engine for the transformation of the energy of the accreting mass into radiation than their slowly rotating counterparts in CS-modified gravity. Specific signatures appear in the electromagnetic spectrum, thus leading to the possibility of directly testing CS-modified gravity by using astrophysical observations of the emission spectra from accretion disks.

  11. RESOLVED CO GAS INTERIOR TO THE DUST RINGS OF THE HD 141569 DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaherty, Kevin M.; Hughes, A. Meredith; Zachary, Julia [Van Vleck Observatory, Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, 96 Foss Hill Drive, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Andrews, Sean M.; Qi, Chunhua; Wilner, David J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Boley, Aaron C.; White, Jacob A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC (Canada); Harney, Will [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Union College, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2016-02-10

    The disk around HD 141569 is one of a handful of systems whose weak infrared emission is consistent with a debris disk, but still has a significant reservoir of gas. Here we report spatially resolved millimeter observations of the CO(3-2) and CO(1-0) emission as seen with the Submillimeter Array and CARMA. We find that the excitation temperature for CO is lower than expected from cospatial blackbody grains, similar to previous observations of analogous systems, and derive a gas mass that lies between that of gas-rich primordial disks and gas-poor debris disks. The data also indicate a large inner hole in the CO gas distribution and an outer radius that lies interior to the outer scattered light rings. This spatial distribution, with the dust rings just outside the gaseous disk, is consistent with the expected interactions between gas and dust in an optically thin disk. This indicates that gas can have a significant effect on the location of the dust within debris disks.

  12. The photocatalytic application and regeneration of anatase thin films with embedded commercial TiO{sub 2} particles deposited on glass microrods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina-Valtierra, Jorge [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Bioquimica, Tecnologico de Aguascalientes, Av. Adolfo Lopez Mateos No. 182 Ote., Fracc. Bona Gens, Aguascalientes, Ags., 20256 (Mexico)]. E-mail: jormeval@yahoo.com; Garcia-Servin, Josafat [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Bioquimica, Tecnologico de Aguascalientes, Av. Adolfo Lopez Mateos No. 182 Ote., Fracc. Bona Gens, Aguascalientes, Ags., 20256 (Mexico)]. E-mail: josgaser@yahoo.com.mx; Frausto-Reyes, Claudio [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.C., Unidad Aguascalientes, Prol. Constitucion No. 607, Reserva de Loma Bonita, Aguascalientes, Ags., 20200 (Mexico)]. E-mail: cfraus@cio.mx; Calixto, Sergio [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.C., Loma del Bosque No. 115, Col. Lomas del Campestre, Leon, Gto., 37150 (Mexico)]. E-mail: scalixto@cio.mx

    2006-03-15

    Anatase thin films (<200 nm in thickness) embedding Degussa P25 TiO{sub 2} were prepared by sol-gel method. TiO{sub 2}-anatase thin films were deposited on a fiberglass substrate and then ground to obtain glass microrods containing the composite films. The film structure was characterized using Raman spectroscopy, atomic absorption and UV-vis spectrophotometry, and atomic force microscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the composite films, calcined at 450 deg. C, and the regeneration of the activity under the same experimental conditions, were assessed using gas chromatography to study the photodegradation of phenol, an industrial pollutant, in water under 365 nm irradiation. The film with 15.0 wt.% of P25 TiO{sub 2} was found to be more photoactive (54 ppm of degraded phenol at 6 h of illumination) than the other ones.

  13. Numerical simulation of a hovering rotor using embedded grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Earl-Peter N.; Srinivasan, Ganapathi R.

    1992-01-01

    The flow field for a rotor blade in hover was computed by numerically solving the compressible thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations on embedded grids. In this work, three embedded grids were used to discretize the flow field - one for the rotor blade and two to convect the rotor wake. The computations were performed at two hovering test conditions, for a two-bladed rectangular rotor of aspect ratio six. The results compare fairly with experiment and illustrates the use of embedded grids in solving helicopter type flow fields.

  14. A deeply embedded young protoplanetary disk around L1489 IRS observed by the Submillimeter Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, C.; Crapsi, A.; Jørgensen, J. K.

    2007-01-01

    Context. Circumstellar disks are expected to form early in the process that leads to the formation of a young star, during the collapse of the dense molecular cloud core. Currently, it is not well understood at what stage of the collapse the disk is formed or how it subsequently evolves. Aims. We....... This misalignment of the angular momentum axes may be caused by a gradient within the angular momentum in the parental cloud, or if L1489 IRS is a binary system rather than just a single star. In the latter case, future observations looking for variability at sub-arcsecond scales may be able to constrain...

  15. A Kinematical Detection of Two Embedded Jupiter-mass Planets in HD 163296

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, Richard; Bae, Jaehan; Bergin, Edwin A.; Birnstiel, Tilman; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    We present the first kinematical detection of embedded protoplanets within a protoplanetary disk. Using archival Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA) observations of HD 163296, we demonstrate a new technique to measure the rotation curves of CO isotopologue emission to sub-percent precision relative to the Keplerian rotation. These rotation curves betray substantial deviations caused by local perturbations in the radial pressure gradient, likely driven by gaps carved in the gas surface density by Jupiter-mass planets. Comparison with hydrodynamic simulations shows excellent agreement with the gas rotation profile when the disk surface density is perturbed by two Jupiter-mass planets at 83 and 137 au. As the rotation of the gas is dependent upon the pressure of the total gas component, this method provides a unique probe of the gas surface density profile without incurring significant uncertainties due to gas-to-dust ratios or local chemical abundances that plague other methods. Future analyses combining both methods promise to provide the most accurate and robust measures of embedded planetary mass. Furthermore, this method provides a unique opportunity to explore wide-separation planets beyond the mm continuum edge and to trace the gas pressure profile essential in modeling grain evolution in disks.

  16. An intrinsic algorithm for parallel Poisson disk sampling on arbitrary surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiang; Xin, Shi-Qing; Sun, Qian; He, Ying

    2013-09-01

    Poisson disk sampling has excellent spatial and spectral properties, and plays an important role in a variety of visual computing. Although many promising algorithms have been proposed for multidimensional sampling in euclidean space, very few studies have been reported with regard to the problem of generating Poisson disks on surfaces due to the complicated nature of the surface. This paper presents an intrinsic algorithm for parallel Poisson disk sampling on arbitrary surfaces. In sharp contrast to the conventional parallel approaches, our method neither partitions the given surface into small patches nor uses any spatial data structure to maintain the voids in the sampling domain. Instead, our approach assigns each sample candidate a random and unique priority that is unbiased with regard to the distribution. Hence, multiple threads can process the candidates simultaneously and resolve conflicts by checking the given priority values. Our algorithm guarantees that the generated Poisson disks are uniformly and randomly distributed without bias. It is worth noting that our method is intrinsic and independent of the embedding space. This intrinsic feature allows us to generate Poisson disk patterns on arbitrary surfaces in IR(n). To our knowledge, this is the first intrinsic, parallel, and accurate algorithm for surface Poisson disk sampling. Furthermore, by manipulating the spatially varying density function, we can obtain adaptive sampling easily.

  17. The advantage of an alternative substrate over Al/NiP disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaa, Chi L.; Eltoukhy, Atef

    1994-02-01

    Compact-size disk drives with high storage densities are in high demand due to the popularity of portable computers and workstations. The contact-start-stop (CSS) endurance performance must improve in order to accomodate the higher number of on/off cycles. In this paper, we looked at 65 mm thin-film canasite substrate disks and evaluated their mechanical performance. We compared them with conventional aluminum NiP-plated disks in surface topography, take-off time with changes of skew angles and radius, CSS, drag test and glide height performance, and clamping effect. In addition, a new post-sputter process aimed at the improvement of take-off and glide as well as CSS performances was investigated and demonstrated for the canasite disks. From the test results, it is indicated that canasite achieved a lower take-off velocity, higher clamping resistance, and better glide height and CSS endurance performance. This study concludes that a new generation disk drive equipped with canasite substrate disks will consume less power from the motor due to faster take-off and lighter weight, achieve higher recording density since the head flies lower, can better withstand damage from sliding friction during the CSS operations, and will be less prone to disk distortion from clamping due to its superior mechanical properties.

  18. HIDING IN THE SHADOWS: SEARCHING FOR PLANETS IN PRE-TRANSITIONAL AND TRANSITIONAL DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobinson, Jack; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.; Teanby, Nick A.

    2013-01-01

    Transitional and pre-transitional disks can be explained by a number of mechanisms. This work aims to find a single observationally detectable marker that would imply a planetary origin for the gap and, therefore, indirectly indicate the presence of a young planet. N-body simulations were conducted to investigate the effect of an embedded planet of one Jupiter mass on the production of instantaneous collisional dust derived from a background planetesimal disk. Our new model allows us to predict the dust distribution and resulting observable markers with greater accuracy than previous works. Dynamical influences from a planet on a circular orbit are shown to enhance dust production in the disk interior and exterior to the planet orbit, while removing planetesimals from the orbit itself, creating a clearly defined gap. In the case of an eccentric planet, the gap opened by the planet is not as clear as the circular case, but there is a detectable asymmetry in the dust disk

  19. The Fragmentation Criteria in Local Vertically Stratified Self-gravitating Disk Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baehr, Hans; Klahr, Hubert [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kratter, Kaitlin M., E-mail: baehr@mpia.de [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2017-10-10

    Massive circumstellar disks are prone to gravitational instabilities, which trigger the formation of spiral arms that can fragment into bound clumps under the right conditions. Two-dimensional simulations of self-gravitating disks are useful starting points for studying fragmentation because they allow high-resolution simulations of thin disks. However, convergence issues can arise in 2D from various sources. One of these sources is the 2D approximation of self-gravity, which exaggerates the effect of self-gravity on small scales when the potential is not smoothed to account for the assumed vertical extent of the disk. This effect is enhanced by increased resolution, resulting in fragmentation at longer cooling timescales β . If true, it suggests that the 3D simulations of disk fragmentation may not have the same convergence problem and could be used to examine the nature of fragmentation without smoothing self-gravity on scales similar to the disk scale height. To that end, we have carried out local 3D self-gravitating disk simulations with simple β cooling with fixed background irradiation to determine if 3D is necessary to properly describe disk fragmentation. Above a resolution of ∼40 grid cells per scale height, we find that our simulations converge with respect to the cooling timescale. This result converges in agreement with analytic expectations which place a fragmentation boundary at β {sub crit} = 3.

  20. Potential Vorticity Evolution in the Co-orbital Region of Embedded Protoplanets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koller, J.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis presents two-dimensional hydrodynamic disk simulations with embedded protoplanets, emphasizing the non-linear dynamics in the co-orbital region. In particular, it demonstrates how a protoplanetary disk responds to embedded low mass planets at the inviscid limit. Since the potential vorticity (PV) flow is not conserved, due to the spiral shocks and possibly boundary layer effects emanating from the planet, the PV profile develops inflection points which eventually render the flow unstable. Vortices are produced in association with the potential vorticity minima. Born in the separatrix region, these vortices experience close encounters with the planet, consequently exerting strong torques on the planet. The existence of these vortices, if confirmed, have important implications on planetary migration rates. The formation of vortices is discussed in more detail and a key parameter is found which depends solely on planet mass and sound speed. With this key parameter, one can predict the disk evolution, PV growth rates, and threshold conditions for forming vortices in the co-orbital region. An analytical estimate for the change of PV due to shocks is compared to the actual change in PV in the hydrodynamic simulations. They match well except in the inner region where vortices form. In addition, extensive resolution tests were carried out but uncertainties remain about the physics of this particular region

  1. RESOLVING THE GAP AND AU-SCALE ASYMMETRIES IN THE PRE-TRANSITIONAL DISK OF V1247 ORIONIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Stefan; Espaillat, Catherine; Wilner, David J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ireland, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Sitko, Michael L.; Swearingen, Jeremy R.; Werren, Chelsea [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Monnier, John D.; Calvet, Nuria [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 918 Dennison Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Grady, Carol A. [Eureka Scientific Inc., Oakland, CA 94602 (United States); Harries, Tim J. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Hoenig, Sebastian F. [Department of Physics, University of California Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Russell, Ray W. [The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA 90009 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Pre-transitional disks are protoplanetary disks with a gapped disk structure, potentially indicating the presence of young planets in these systems. In order to explore the structure of these objects and their gap-opening mechanism, we observed the pre-transitional disk V1247 Orionis using the Very Large Telescope Interferometer, the Keck Interferometer, Keck-II, Gemini South, and IRTF. This allows us to spatially resolve the AU-scale disk structure from near- to mid-infrared wavelengths (1.5-13 {mu}m), tracing material at different temperatures and over a wide range of stellocentric radii. Our observations reveal a narrow, optically thick inner-disk component (located at 0.18 AU from the star) that is separated from the optically thick outer disk (radii {approx}> 46 AU), providing unambiguous evidence for the existence of a gap in this pre-transitional disk. Surprisingly, we find that the gap region is filled with significant amounts of optically thin material with a carbon-dominated dust mineralogy. The presence of this optically thin gap material cannot be deduced solely from the spectral energy distribution, yet it is the dominant contributor at mid-infrared wavelengths. Furthermore, using Keck/NIRC2 aperture masking observations in the H, K', and L' bands, we detect asymmetries in the brightness distribution on scales of {approx}15-40 AU, i.e., within the gap region. The detected asymmetries are highly significant, yet their amplitude and direction changes with wavelength, which is not consistent with a companion interpretation but indicates an inhomogeneous distribution of the gap material. We interpret this as strong evidence for the presence of complex density structures, possibly reflecting the dynamical interaction of the disk material with sub-stellar mass bodies that are responsible for the gap clearing.

  2. Childhood to adolescence: dust and gas clearing in protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joanna Margaret

    Disks are ubiquitous around young stars. Over time, disks dissipate, revealing planets that formed hidden by their natal dust. Since direct detection of young planets at small orbital radii is currently impossible, other tracers of planet formation must be found. One sign of disk evolution, potentially linked to planet formation, is the opening of a gap or inner hole in the disk. In this thesis, I have identified and characterized several cold disks with large inner gaps but retaining massive primordial outer disks. While cold disks are not common, with ~5% of disks showing signs of inner gaps, they provide proof that at least some disks evolve from the inside-out. These large gaps are equivalent to dust clearing from inside the Earth's orbit to Neptune's orbit or even the inner Kuiper belt. Unlike more evolved systems like our own, the central star is often still accreting and a large outer disk remains. I identified four cold disks in Spitzer 5-40 μm spectra and modeled these disks using a 2-D radiative transfer code to determine the gap properties. Outer gap radii of 20-45 AU were derived. However, spectrophotometric identification is indirect and model-dependent. To validate this interpretation, I observed three disks with a submillimeter interferometer and obtained the first direct images of the central holes. The images agree well with the gap sizes derived from the spectrophotometry. One system, LkH&alpha 330, has a very steep outer gap edge which seems more consistent with gravitational perturbation rather than gradual processes, such as grain growth and settling. Roughly 70% of cold disks show CO v=1&rarr 0 gas emission from the inner 1 AU and therefore are unlikely to have evolved due to photoevaporation. The derived rotation temperatures are significantly lower for the cold disks than disks without gaps. Unresolved (sub)millimeter photometry shows that cold disks have steeper colors, indicating that they are optically thin at these wavelengths, unlike

  3. Modeling collisions in circumstellar debris disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvold, Erika

    2015-10-01

    Observations of resolved debris disks show a spectacular variety of features and asymmetries, including inner cavities and gaps, inclined secondary disks or warps, and eccentric, sharp-edged rings. Embedded exoplanets could create many of these features via gravitational perturbations, which sculpt the disk directly and by generating planetesimal collisions. In this thesis, I present the Superparticle Model/Algorithm for Collisions in Kuiper belts and debris disks (SMACK), a new method for simultaneously modeling, in 3-D, the collisional and dynamical evolution of planetesimals in a debris disk with planets. SMACK can simulate azimuthal asymmetries and how these asymmetries evolve over time. I show that SMACK is stable to numerical viscosity and numerical heating over 107 yr, and that it can reproduce analytic models of disk evolution. As an example of the algorithm's capabilities, I use SMACK to model the evolution of a debris ring containing a planet on an eccentric orbit and demonstrate that differential precession creates a spiral structure as the ring evolves, but collisions subsequently break up the spiral, leaving a narrower eccentric ring. To demonstrate SMACK's utility in studying debris disk physics, I apply SMACK to simulate a planet on a circular orbit near a ring of planetesimals that are experiencing destructive collisions. Previous simulations of a planet opening a gap in a collisionless debris disk have found that the width of the gap scales as the planet mass to the 2/7th power (alpha = 2/7). I find that gap sizes in a collisional disk still obey a power law scaling with planet mass, but that the index alpha of the power law depends on the age of the system t relative to the collisional timescale t coll of the disk by alpha = 0.32(t/ tcoll)-0.04, with inferred planet masses up to five times smaller than those predicted by the classical gap law. The increased gap sizes likely stem from the interaction between collisions and the mean motion

  4. The 0.5-2.22 μm Scattered Light Spectrum of the Disk around TW Hya: Detection of a Partially Filled Disk Gap at 80 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debes, John H.; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Roberge, Aki; Schneider, Glenn

    2013-07-01

    We present a 0.5-2.2 μm scattered light spectrum of the circumstellar disk around TW Hya from a combination of spatially resolved Hubble Space Telescope STIS spectroscopy and NICMOS coronagraphic images of the disk. We investigate the morphology of the disk at distances >40 AU over this wide range of wavelengths, and identify the presence of a depression in surface brightness at ~80 AU that could be caused by a gap in the disk. Additionally, we quantify the surface brightness, azimuthal symmetry, and spectral character of the disk as a function of radius. Our analysis shows that the scattering efficiency of the dust is largely neutral to blue over the observed wavelengths. We model the disk as a steady α-disk with an ad hoc gap structure. The thermal properties of the disk are self-consistently calculated using a three-dimensional radiative transfer code that uses ray tracing to model the heating of the disk interior and scattered light images. We find a good fit to the data over a wide range of distances from the star if we use a model disk with a partially filled gap of 30% depth at 80 AU and with a self-similar truncation knee at 100 AU. The origin of the gap is unclear, but it could arise from a transition in the nature of the disk's dust composition or the presence of a planetary companion. Based on scalings to previous hydrodynamic simulations of gap-opening criteria for embedded proto-planets, we estimate that a planetary companion forming the gap could have a mass between 6 and 28 M ⊕. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 10167, 8624, 7226, and 7233.

  5. THE SPITZER c2d SURVEY OF WEAK-LINE T TAURI STARS. III. THE TRANSITION FROM PRIMORDIAL DISKS TO DEBRIS DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Cieza, Lucas; Koerner, David W.; Case, April; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Chapman, Nicholas; Padgett, Deborah L.; Brooke, Tim; Keller, James R.; MerIn, Bruno; Evans, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul; Sargent, Anneila; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Allen, Lori; Blake, Geoff; Mundy, Lee; Myers, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    We present 3.6 to 70 μm Spitzer photometry of 154 weak-line T Tauri stars (WTTSs) in the Chamaeleon, Lupus, Ophiuchus, and Taurus star formation regions, all of which are within 200 pc of the Sun. For a comparative study, we also include 33 classical T Tauri stars which are located in the same star-forming regions. Spitzer sensitivities allow us to robustly detect the photosphere in the IRAC bands (3.6 to 8 μm) and the 24 μm MIPS band. In the 70 μm MIPS band, we are able to detect dust emission brighter than roughly 40 times the photosphere. These observations represent the most sensitive WTTSs survey in the mid- to far-infrared to date and reveal the frequency of outer disks (r = 3-50 AU) around WTTSs. The 70 μm photometry for half the c2d WTTSs sample (the on-cloud objects), which were not included in the earlier papers in this series, those of Padgett et al. and Cieza et al., are presented here for the first time. We find a disk frequency of 19% for on-cloud WTTSs, but just 5% for off-cloud WTTSs, similar to the value reported in the earlier works. WTTSs exhibit spectral energy distributions that are quite diverse, spanning the range from optically thick to optically thin disks. Most disks become more tenuous than L disk /L * = 2 x 10 -3 in 2 Myr and more tenuous than L disk /L * = 5 x 10 -4 in 4 Myr.

  6. Exploring the Effects of Disk Thickness on the Black Hole Reflection Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Corbin; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2018-03-01

    The relativistically broadened reflection spectrum, observed in both AGN and X-ray binaries, has proven to be a powerful probe of the properties of black holes and the environments in which they reside. Emitted from the innermost regions of the accretion disk, this X-ray spectral component carries with it information not only about the plasma that resides in these extreme conditions, but also the black hole spin, a marker of the formation and accretion history of these objects. The models currently used to interpret the reflection spectrum are often simplistic, however, approximating the disk as an infinitely thin, optically thick plane of material orbiting in circular Keplerian orbits around the central object. Using a new relativistic ray-tracing suite (Fenrir) that allows for more complex disk approximations, we examine the effects that disk thickness may have on the reflection spectrum. Assuming a lamppost corona, we find that finite disk thickness can have a variety of effects on the reflection spectrum, including a truncation of the blue wing (from self-shadowing of the accretion disk) and an enhancement of the red wing (from the irradiation of the central “eye wall” of the inner disk). We deduce the systematic errors on black hole spin and height that may result from neglecting these effects.

  7. Scattering properties of vein induced localized surface plasmon resonances on a gold disk

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    It is demonstrated via simulations that a gold nano-disk with a non-concentric cavity supports localized surface plasmon resonances over a frequency band that includes the visible and the near-infrared parts of the spectrum. The charge distribution on the disk indicates that the two distinct peaks in the scattering cross section are due to the (hybridized) higher-order plasmon modes; plasmon hybridization that involves the dipole modes of the disk and the cavity enforces the "coupling" of the plane-wave excitation to the originally-dark higher-order modes. It is further demonstrated that the resonance frequencies can be tuned by varying the radius of the embedded non-concentric cavity. The near-field enhancement observed at these two tunable resonance frequencies suggests that the proposed structure can be used as a substrate in surface enhanced spectroscopy applications. © 2011 IEEE.

  8. Dust Density Distribution and Imaging Analysis of Different Ice Lines in Protoplanetary Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinilla, P. [Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Pohl, A. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Stammler, S. M.; Birnstiel, T., E-mail: pinilla@email.arizona.edu [University Observatory, Faculty of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Münich (Germany)

    2017-08-10

    Recent high angular resolution observations of protoplanetary disks at different wavelengths have revealed several kinds of structures, including multiple bright and dark rings. Embedded planets are the most used explanation for such structures, but there are alternative models capable of shaping the dust in rings as it has been observed. We assume a disk around a Herbig star and investigate the effect that ice lines have on the dust evolution, following the growth, fragmentation, and dynamics of multiple dust size particles, covering from 1 μ m to 2 m sized objects. We use simplified prescriptions of the fragmentation velocity threshold, which is assumed to change radially at the location of one, two, or three ice lines. We assume changes at the radial location of main volatiles, specifically H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, and NH{sub 3}. Radiative transfer calculations are done using the resulting dust density distributions in order to compare with current multiwavelength observations. We find that the structures in the dust density profiles and radial intensities at different wavelengths strongly depend on the disk viscosity. A clear gap of emission can be formed between ice lines and be surrounded by ring-like structures, in particular between the H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} (or CO). The gaps are expected to be shallower and narrower at millimeter emission than at near-infrared, opposite to model predictions of particle trapping. In our models, the total gas surface density is not expected to show strong variations, in contrast to other gap-forming scenarios such as embedded giant planets or radial variations of the disk viscosity.

  9. The Dynamics of Truncated Black Hole Accretion Disks. I. Viscous Hydrodynamic Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogg, J. Drew; Reynolds, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2017-07-10

    Truncated accretion disks are commonly invoked to explain the spectro-temporal variability in accreting black holes in both small systems, i.e., state transitions in galactic black hole binaries (GBHBs), and large systems, i.e., low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). In the canonical truncated disk model of moderately low accretion rate systems, gas in the inner region of the accretion disk occupies a hot, radiatively inefficient phase, which leads to a geometrically thick disk, while the gas in the outer region occupies a cooler, radiatively efficient phase that resides in the standard geometrically thin disk. Observationally, there is strong empirical evidence to support this phenomenological model, but a detailed understanding of the dynamics of truncated disks is lacking. We present a well-resolved viscous, hydrodynamic simulation that uses an ad hoc cooling prescription to drive a thermal instability and, hence, produce the first sustained truncated accretion disk. With this simulation, we perform a study of the dynamics, angular momentum transport, and energetics of a truncated disk. We find that the time variability introduced by the quasi-periodic transition of gas from efficient cooling to inefficient cooling impacts the evolution of the simulated disk. A consequence of the thermal instability is that an outflow is launched from the hot/cold gas interface, which drives large, sub-Keplerian convective cells into the disk atmosphere. The convective cells introduce a viscous θ − ϕ stress that is less than the generic r − ϕ viscous stress component, but greatly influences the evolution of the disk. In the truncated disk, we find that the bulk of the accreted gas is in the hot phase.

  10. DUST PROPERTIES AND DISK STRUCTURE OF EVOLVED PROTOPLANETARY DISKS IN Cep OB2: GRAIN GROWTH, SETTLING, GAS AND DUST MASS, AND INSIDE-OUT EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Henning, Thomas; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Bouwman, Jeroen; Sturm, Bernhard; Patel, Nimesh; Juhász, Attila

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph spectra of 31 T Tauri stars (TTS) and IRAM/1.3 mm observations for 34 low- and intermediate-mass stars in the Cep OB2 region. Including our previously published data, we analyze 56 TTS and 3 intermediate-mass stars with silicate features in Tr 37 (∼4 Myr) and NGC 7160 (∼12 Myr). The silicate emission features are well reproduced with a mixture of amorphous (with olivine, forsterite, and silica stoichiometry) and crystalline grains (forsterite, enstatite). We explore grain size and disk structure using radiative transfer disk models, finding that most objects have suffered substantial evolution (grain growth, settling). About half of the disks show inside-out evolution, with either dust-cleared inner holes or a radially dependent dust distribution, typically with larger grains and more settling in the innermost disk. The typical strong silicate features nevertheless require the presence of small dust grains, and could be explained by differential settling according to grain size, anomalous dust distributions, and/or optically thin dust populations within disk gaps. M-type stars tend to have weaker silicate emission and steeper spectral energy distributions than K-type objects. The inferred low dust masses are in a strong contrast with the relatively high gas accretion rates, suggesting global grain growth and/or an anomalous gas-to-dust ratio. Transition disks in the Cep OB2 region display strongly processed grains, suggesting that they are dominated by dust evolution and settling. Finally, the presence of rare but remarkable disks with strong accretion at old ages reveals that some very massive disks may still survive to grain growth, gravitational instabilities, and planet formation.

  11. Coverlayer fabrication for small form factor optical disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Won; Kim, Jin-Hong

    2004-09-01

    Two different coverlayers made of UV resin and coversheet were prepared for small form factor optical disks. Thin coverlayer of 10 mm and thick coverlayer of 80 mm were fabricated for flying optical head and non-flying optical head, respectively. Thickness uniformity was analyzed for both coverlayers, and new designs to diminish a ski-jump phenomenon were suggested. Mechanical properties of protective film made of UV resin were investigated.

  12. PATCHY ACCRETION DISKS IN ULTRA-LUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Webb, N. A. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F- 31100 Toulouse (France); Harrison, F. A.; Walton, D. J.; Rana, V. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fabian, A. C., E-mail: jonmm@umich.edu [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-10

    The X-ray spectra of the most extreme ultra-luminous X-ray sources—those with L ≥ 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}—remain something of a mystery. Spectral roll-over in the 5-10 keV band was originally detected in the deepest XMM-Newton observations of the brightest sources; this is confirmed in subsequent NuSTAR spectra. This emission can be modeled via Comptonization, but with low electron temperatures (kT{sub e} ≅ 2 keV) and high optical depths (τ ≅ 10) that pose numerous difficulties. Moreover, evidence of cooler thermal emission that can be fit with thin disk models persists, even in fits to joint XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations. Using NGC 1313 X-1 as a test case, we show that a patchy disk with a multiple temperature profile may provide an excellent description of such spectra. In principle, a number of patches within a cool disk might emit over a range of temperatures, but the data only require a two-temperature profile plus standard Comptonization, or three distinct blackbody components. A mechanism such as the photon bubble instability may naturally give rise to a patchy disk profile, and could give rise to super-Eddington luminosities. It is possible, then, that a patchy disk (rather than a disk with a standard single-temperature profile) might be a hallmark of accretion disks close to or above the Eddington limit. We discuss further tests of this picture and potential implications for sources such as narrow-line Seyfert-1 galaxies and other low-mass active galactic nuclei.

  13. Anisotropic Multishell Analytical Modeling of an Intervertebral Disk Subjected to Axial Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Sébastien; Nadeau, Sylvie; Bouzid, Abdel-Hakim

    2016-04-01

    Studies on intervertebral disk (IVD) response to various loads and postures are essential to understand disk's mechanical functions and to suggest preventive and corrective actions in the workplace. The experimental and finite-element (FE) approaches are well-suited for these studies, but validating their findings is difficult, partly due to the lack of alternative methods. Analytical modeling could allow methodological triangulation and help validation of FE models. This paper presents an analytical method based on thin-shell, beam-on-elastic-foundation and composite materials theories to evaluate the stresses in the anulus fibrosus (AF) of an axisymmetric disk composed of multiple thin lamellae. Large deformations of the soft tissues are accounted for using an iterative method and the anisotropic material properties are derived from a published biaxial experiment. The results are compared to those obtained by FE modeling. The results demonstrate the capability of the analytical model to evaluate the stresses at any location of the simplified AF. It also demonstrates that anisotropy reduces stresses in the lamellae. This novel model is a preliminary step in developing valuable analytical models of IVDs, and represents a distinctive groundwork that is able to sustain future refinements. This paper suggests important features that may be included to improve model realism.

  14. Inferring giant planets from ALMA millimeter continuum and line observations in (transition) disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, S.; Pinilla, P.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; de Juan Ovelar, M.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Radial gaps or cavities in the continuum emission in the IR-mm wavelength range are potential signatures of protoplanets embedded in their natal protoplanetary disk are. Hitherto, models have relied on the combination of mm continuum observations and near-infrared scattered light images to put constraints on the properties of embedded planets. Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations are now probing spatially resolved rotational line emission of CO and other chemical species. These observations can provide complementary information on the mechanism carving the gaps in dust and additional constraints on the purported planet mass. Aims: We investigate whether the combination of ALMA continuum and CO line observations can constrain the presence and mass of planets embedded in protoplanetary disks. Methods: We post-processed azimuthally averaged 2D hydrodynamical simulations of planet-disk models, in which the dust densities and grain size distributions are computed with a dust evolution code that considers radial drift, fragmentation, and growth. The simulations explored various planet masses (1 MJ ≤ Mp ≤ 15 MJ) and turbulent parameters (10-4 ≤ α ≤ 10-3). The outputs were then post-processed with the thermochemical code DALI, accounting for the radially and vertically varying dust properties. We obtained the gas and dust temperature structures, chemical abundances, and synthetic emission maps of both thermal continuum and CO rotational lines. This is the first study combining hydrodynamical simulations, dust evolution, full radiative transfer, and chemistry to predict gas emission of disks hosting massive planets. Results: All radial intensity profiles of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O show a gap at the planet location. The ratio between the location of the gap as seen in CO and the peak in the mm continuum at the pressure maximum outside the orbit of the planet shows a clear dependence on planet mass and is independent of disk

  15. Disk Masses around Solar-mass Stars are Underestimated by CO Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mo; Evans II, Neal J. [Astronomy Department, University of Texas, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E. [University of Delaware, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 217 Sharp Lab, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Willacy, Karen; Turner, Neal J. [Mail Stop 169-506, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-05-20

    Gas in protostellar disks provides the raw material for giant planet formation and controls the dynamics of the planetesimal-building dust grains. Accurate gas mass measurements help map the observed properties of planet-forming disks onto the formation environments of known exoplanets. Rare isotopologues of carbon monoxide (CO) have been used as gas mass tracers for disks in the Lupus star-forming region, with an assumed interstellar CO/H{sub 2} abundance ratio. Unfortunately, observations of T-Tauri disks show that CO abundance is not interstellar, a finding reproduced by models that show CO abundance decreasing both with distance from the star and as a function of time. Here, we present radiative transfer simulations that assess the accuracy of CO-based disk mass measurements. We find that the combination of CO chemical depletion in the outer disk and optically thick emission from the inner disk leads observers to underestimate gas mass by more than an order of magnitude if they use the standard assumptions of interstellar CO/H{sub 2} ratio and optically thin emission. Furthermore, CO abundance changes on million-year timescales, introducing an age/mass degeneracy into observations. To reach a factor of a few accuracy for CO-based disk mass measurements, we suggest that observers and modelers adopt the following strategies: (1) select low- J transitions; (2) observe multiple CO isotopologues and use either intensity ratios or normalized line profiles to diagnose CO chemical depletion; and (3) use spatially resolved observations to measure the CO-abundance distribution.

  16. Phase models of galaxies consisting of disk and halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipkov, L.P.; Kutuzov, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    A method of finding the phase density of a two-component model of mass distribution is developed. The equipotential surfaces and the potential law are given. The equipotentials are lenslike surfaces with a sharp edge in the equatorial plane, which provides the existence of an imbedded thin disk in halo. The equidensity surfaces of the halo coincide with the equipotentials. Phase models for the halo and the disk are constructed separately on the basis of spatial and surface mass densities by solving the corresponding integral equations. In particular the models for the halo with finite dimensions can be constructed. The even part of the phase density in respect to velocities is only found. For the halo it depends on the energy integral as a single argument

  17. A new concept in polymeric thin-film composite nanofiltration membranes with antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollahosseini, Arash; Rahimpour, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    A new, thin film, biofouling resistant, nanofiltration (NF) membrane was fabricated with two key characteristics, viz. a low rate of silver (Ag) release and long-lasting antibacterial properties. In the new approach, nanoparticles were embedded completely in a polymeric thin-film layer. A comparison was made between the new thin-film composite (TFC), NF membrane and thin-film nanocomposite (TFN), and antibacterial NF membranes. Both types of NF membrane were fabricated by interfacial polymerization on a polysulphone sublayer using m-phenylenediamine and trimesoyl chloride as an amine monomer and an acid chloride monomer, respectively. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis demonstrated the presence of Ag nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to study the cross-sectional and surface morphological properties of the NF membranes. Permeability and salt rejection were tested using a dead-end filtration cell. Ag leaching from the membranes was measured using inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Morphological studies showed that the TFC NF membranes had better thin-film formation (a more compact structure and a smoother surface) than TFN NF membranes. Performance experiments on TFC NF membranes revealed that permeability was good, without sacrificing salt rejection. The antibacterial properties of the fabricated membranes were tested using the disk diffusion method and viable plate counts. The antibiofouling properties of the membranes were examined by measuring the quantity of bacterial cells released from the biofilm formed (as a function of the amount of biofilm present). A more sensitive surface was observed compared to that of a typical antibacterial NF membrane. The Ag leaching rates were low, which will likely result in long-lasting antibacterial and biofouling resistant properties.

  18. SECOND-GENERATION STELLAR DISKS IN DENSE STAR CLUSTERS AND CLUSTER ELLIPTICITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrobuono-Battisti, Alessandra; Perets, Hagai B.

    2016-01-01

    Globular clusters (GCs) and nuclear star clusters (NSCs) are typically composed of several stellar populations, characterized by different chemical compositions. Different populations show different ages in NSCs, but not necessarily in GCs. The youngest populations in NSCs appear to reside in disk-like structures as observed in our Galaxy and in M31. Gas infall followed by formation of second-generation (SG) stars in GCs may similarly form disk-like structures in the clusters nuclei. Here we explore this possibility and follow the long-term evolution of stellar disks embedded in GCs, and study their effects on the evolution of the clusters. We study disks with different masses by means of detailed N-body simulations and explore their morphological and kinematic signatures on the GC structures. We find that as a SG disk relaxes, the old, first-generation stellar population flattens and becomes more radially anisotropic, making the GC structure become more elliptical. The SG stellar population is characterized by a lower velocity dispersion and a higher rotational velocity compared with the primordial older population. The strength of these kinematic signatures depends both on the relaxation time of the system and on the fractional mass of the SG disk. We therefore conclude that SG populations formed in flattened configurations will give rise to two systematic trends: (1) a positive correlation between GC ellipticity and fraction of SG population and (2) a positive correlation between GC relaxation time and ellipticity. Therefore, GC ellipticities and rotation could be related to the formation of SG stars and their initial configuration.

  19. Ultrafast disk technology enables next generation micromachining laser sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckl, Oliver H.; Weiler, Sascha; Luzius, Severin; Zawischa, Ivo; Sutter, Dirk

    2013-02-01

    Ultrashort pulsed lasers based on thin disk technology have entered the 100 W regime and deliver several tens of MW peak power without chirped pulse amplification. Highest uptime and insensitivity to back reflections make them ideal tools for efficient and cost effective industrial micromachining. Frequency converted versions allow the processing of a large variety of materials. On one hand, thin disk oscillators deliver more than 30 MW peak power directly out of the resonator in laboratory setups. These peak power levels are made possible by recent progress in the scaling of the pulse energy in excess of 40 μJ. At the corresponding high peak intensity, thin disk technology profits from the limited amount of material and hence the manageable nonlinearity within the resonator. Using new broadband host materials like for example the sesquioxides will eventually reduce the pulse duration during high power operation and further increase the peak power. On the other hand industry grade amplifier systems deliver even higher peak power levels. At closed-loop controlled 100W, the TruMicro Series 5000 currently offers the highest average ultrafast power in an industry proven product, and enables efficient micromachining of almost any material, in particular of glasses, ceramics or sapphire. Conventional laser cutting of these materials often requires UV laser sources with pulse durations of several nanoseconds and an average power in the 10 W range. Material processing based on high peak power laser sources makes use of multi-photon absorption processes. This highly nonlinear absorption enables micromachining driven by the fundamental (1030 nm) or frequency doubled (515 nm) wavelength of Yb:YAG. Operation in the IR or green spectral range reduces the complexity and running costs of industrial systems initially based on UV light sources. Where UV wavelength is required, the TruMicro 5360 with a specified UV crystal life-time of more than 10 thousand hours of continues

  20. Elastic Stress Analysis of Rotating Functionally Graded Annular Disk of Variable Thickness Using Finite Difference Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hadi Jalali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Elastic stress analysis of rotating variable thickness annular disk made of functionally graded material (FGM is presented. Elasticity modulus, density, and thickness of the disk are assumed to vary radially according to a power-law function. Radial stress, circumferential stress, and radial deformation of the rotating FG annular disk of variable thickness with clamped-clamped (C-C, clamped-free (C-F, and free-free (F-F boundary conditions are obtained using the numerical finite difference method, and the effects of the graded index, thickness variation, and rotating speed on the stresses and deformation are evaluated. It is shown that using FG material could decrease the value of radial stress and increase the radial displacement in a rotating thin disk. It is also demonstrated that increasing the rotating speed can strongly increase the stress in the FG annular disk.

  1. High-Contrast Near-Infrared Imaging Polarimetry of the Protoplanetary Disk around RY Tau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Michihiro; Karr, Jennifer L.; Hashimoto, Jun; Kim, Hyosun; Wisenewski, John; Henning, Thomas; Grady, Carol; Kandori, Ryo; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Kudo, Tomoyuki; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present near-infrared coronagraphic imaging polarimetry of RY Tau. The scattered light in the circumstellar environment was imaged at H-band at a high resolution (approx. 0.05) for the first time, using Subaru-HiCIAO. The observed polarized intensity (PI) distribution shows a butterfly-like distribution of bright emission with an angular scale similar to the disk observed at millimeter wavelengths. This distribution is offset toward the blueshifted jet, indicating the presence of a geometrically thick disk or a remnant envelope, and therefore the earliest stage of the Class II evolutionary phase. We perform comparisons between the observed PI distribution and disk models with: (1) full radiative transfer code, using the spectral energy distribution (SED) to constrain the disk parameters; and (2) monochromatic simulations of scattered light which explore a wide range of parameters space to constrain the disk and dust parameters. We show that these models cannot consistently explain the observed PI distribution, SED, and the viewing angle inferred by millimeter interferometry. We suggest that the scattered light in the near-infrared is associated with an optically thin and geometrically thick layer above the disk surface, with the surface responsible for the infrared SED. Half of the scattered light and thermal radiation in this layer illuminates the disk surface, and this process may significantly affect the thermal structure of the disk.

  2. HIGH-CONTRAST NEAR-INFRARED IMAGING POLARIMETRY OF THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK AROUND RY TAU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takami, Michihiro; Karr, Jennifer L.; Kim, Hyosun; Chou, Mei-Yin [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica. P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hashimoto, Jun; Kandori, Ryo; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kwon, Jungmi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Wisniewski, John [H. L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Henning, Thomas; Brandner, Wolfgang [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Grady, Carol A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 96002 (United States); Hodapp, Klaus W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Kudo, Tomoyuki [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Itoh, Yoichi [Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory, Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, 407-2 Nishigaichi, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan); Momose, Munetake [College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Mayama, Satoshi [The Center for the Promotion of Integrated Sciences, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Shonan International Village, Hayama-cho, Miura-gun, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Currie, Thayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Follette, Katherine B. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); Abe, Lyu, E-mail: hiro@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Laboratoire Lagrange (UMR 7293), Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, 28 Avenue Valrose, F-06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); and others

    2013-08-01

    We present near-infrared coronagraphic imaging polarimetry of RY Tau. The scattered light in the circumstellar environment was imaged at the H band at a high resolution ({approx}0.''05) for the first time, using Subaru/HiCIAO. The observed polarized intensity (PI) distribution shows a butterfly-like distribution of bright emission with an angular scale similar to the disk observed at millimeter wavelengths. This distribution is offset toward the blueshifted jet, indicating the presence of a geometrically thick disk or a remnant envelope, and therefore the earliest stage of the Class II evolutionary phase. We perform comparisons between the observed PI distribution and disk models with (1) full radiative transfer code, using the spectral energy distribution (SED) to constrain the disk parameters; and (2) monochromatic simulations of scattered light which explore a wide range of parameters space to constrain the disk and dust parameters. We show that these models cannot consistently explain the observed PI distribution, SED, and the viewing angle inferred by millimeter interferometry. We suggest that the scattered light in the near-infrared is associated with an optically thin and geometrically thick layer above the disk surface, with the surface responsible for the infrared SED. Half of the scattered light and thermal radiation in this layer illuminates the disk surface, and this process may significantly affect the thermal structure of the disk.

  3. Quasar Accretion Disk Sizes With Continuum Reverberation Mapping From the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudd, D.; et al.

    2017-11-30

    We present accretion disk size measurements for 15 luminous quasars at $0.7 \\leq z \\leq 1.9$ derived from $griz$ light curves from the Dark Energy Survey. We measure the disk sizes with continuum reverberation mapping using two methods, both of which are derived from the expectation that accretion disks have a radial temperature gradient and the continuum emission at a given radius is well-described by a single blackbody. In the first method we measure the relative lags between the multiband light curves, which provides the relative time lag between shorter and longer wavelength variations. The second method fits the model parameters for the canonical Shakura-Sunyaev thin disk directly rather than solving for the individual time lags between the light curves. Our measurements demonstrate good agreement with the sizes predicted by this model for accretion rates between 0.3-1 times the Eddington rate. These results are also in reasonable agreement with disk size measurements from gravitational microlensing studies of strongly lensed quasars, as well as other photometric reverberation mapping results.

  4. MINERAL PROCESSING BY SHORT CIRCUITS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNally, Colin P. [Niels Bohr International Academy, Niels Bohr Institute, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Hubbard, Alexander; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States); Ebel, Denton S. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States); D' Alessio, Paola, E-mail: cmcnally@nbi.dk, E-mail: ahubbard@amnh.org, E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org, E-mail: debel@amnh.org, E-mail: p.dalessio@crya.unam.mx [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 58089 Morelia, MICH (Mexico)

    2013-04-10

    Meteoritic chondrules were formed in the early solar system by brief heating of silicate dust to melting temperatures. Some highly refractory grains (Type B calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, CAIs) also show signs of transient heating. A similar process may occur in other protoplanetary disks, as evidenced by observations of spectra characteristic of crystalline silicates. One possible environment for this process is the turbulent magnetohydrodynamic flow thought to drive accretion in these disks. Such flows generally form thin current sheets, which are sites of magnetic reconnection, and dissipate the magnetic fields amplified by a disk dynamo. We suggest that it is possible to heat precursor grains for chondrules and other high-temperature minerals in current sheets that have been concentrated by our recently described short-circuit instability. We extend our work on this process by including the effects of radiative cooling, taking into account the temperature dependence of the opacity; and by examining current sheet geometry in three-dimensional, global models of magnetorotational instability. We find that temperatures above 1600 K can be reached for favorable parameters that match the ideal global models. This mechanism could provide an efficient means of tapping the gravitational potential energy of the protoplanetary disk to heat grains strongly enough to form high-temperature minerals. The volume-filling nature of turbulent magnetic reconnection is compatible with constraints from chondrule-matrix complementarity, chondrule-chondrule complementarity, the occurrence of igneous rims, and compound chondrules. The same short-circuit mechanism may perform other high-temperature mineral processing in protoplanetary disks such as the production of crystalline silicates and CAIs.

  5. Resolving the Polarized Dust Emission of the Disk around the Massive Star Powering the HH 80–81 Radio Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girart, J. M.; Fernández-López, M.; Li, Z.-Y.; Yang, H.; Estalella, R.; Anglada, G.; Áñez-López, N.; Busquet, G.; Carrasco-González, C.; Curiel, S.; Galvan-Madrid, R.; Gómez, J. F.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Krasnopolsky, R.; Martí, J.; Osorio, M.; Padovani, M.; Rao, R.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Torrelles, J. M.

    2018-04-01

    Here we present deep (16 μJy beam‑1), very high (40 mas) angular resolution 1.14 mm, polarimetric, Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations toward the massive protostar driving the HH 80–81 radio jet. The observations clearly resolve the disk oriented perpendicularly to the radio jet, with a radius of ≃0.″171 (∼291 au at 1.7 kpc distance). The continuum brightness temperature, the intensity profile, and the polarization properties clearly indicate that the disk is optically thick for a radius of R ≲ 170 au. The linear polarization of the dust emission is detected almost all along the disk, and its properties suggest that dust polarization is produced mainly by self-scattering. However, the polarization pattern presents a clear differentiation between the inner (optically thick) part of the disk and the outer (optically thin) region of the disk, with a sharp transition that occurs at a radius of ∼0.″1 (∼170 au). The polarization characteristics of the inner disk suggest that dust settling has not occurred yet with a maximum dust grain size between 50 and 500 μm. The outer part of the disk has a clear azimuthal pattern but with a significantly higher polarization fraction compared to the inner disk. This pattern is broadly consistent with the self-scattering of a radiation field that is beamed radially outward, as expected in the optically thin outer region, although contribution from non-spherical grains aligned with respect to the radiative flux cannot be excluded.

  6. A SCALING RELATION BETWEEN MEGAMASER DISK RADIUS AND BLACK HOLE MASS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardle, Mark; Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Several thin, Keplerian, sub-parsec megamaser disks have been discovered in the nuclei of active galaxies and used to precisely determine the mass of their host black holes. We show that there is an empirical linear correlation between the disk radius and the black hole mass. We demonstrate that such disks are naturally formed by the partial capture of molecular clouds passing through the galactic nucleus and temporarily engulfing the central supermassive black hole. Imperfect cancellation of the angular momenta of the cloud material colliding after passing on opposite sides of the hole leads to the formation of a compact disk. The radial extent of the disk is determined by the efficiency of this process and the Bondi-Hoyle capture radius of the black hole, and naturally produces the empirical linear correlation of the radial extent of the maser distribution with black hole mass. The disk has sufficient column density to allow X-ray irradiation from the central source to generate physical and chemical conditions conducive to the formation of 22 GHz H 2 O masers. For initial cloud column densities ∼ 23.5 cm –2 the disk is non-self-gravitating, consistent with the ordered kinematics of the edge-on megamaser disks; for higher cloud columns the disk would fragment and produce a compact stellar disk similar to that observed around Sgr A* at the galactic center.

  7. Accretion outbursts in self-gravitating protoplanetary disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Zhu, Zhaohuan [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Nelson, Richard P., E-mail: jaehbae@umich.edu, E-mail: lhartm@umich.edu, E-mail: zhuzh@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: r.p.nelson@qmul.ac.uk [Astronomy Unit, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-01

    We improve on our previous treatments of the long-term evolution of protostellar disks by explicitly solving disk self-gravity in two dimensions. The current model is an extension of the one-dimensional layered accretion disk model of Bae et al. We find that gravitational instability (GI)-induced spiral density waves heat disks via compressional heating (i.e., PdV work), and can trigger accretion outbursts by activating the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in the magnetically inert disk dead zone. The GI-induced spiral waves propagate well inside of the gravitationally unstable region before they trigger outbursts at R ≲ 1 AU where GI cannot be sustained. This long-range propagation of waves cannot be reproduced with the previously used local α treatments for GI. In our standard model where zero dead-zone residual viscosity (α{sub rd}) is assumed, the GI-induced stress measured at the onset of outbursts is locally as large as 0.01 in terms of the generic α parameter. However, as suggested in our previous one-dimensional calculations, we confirm that the presence of a small but finite α{sub rd} triggers thermally driven bursts of accretion instead of the GI + MRI-driven outbursts that are observed when α{sub rd} = 0. The inclusion of non-zero residual viscosity in the dead zone decreases the importance of GI soon after mass feeding from the envelope cloud ceases. During the infall phase while the central protostar is still embedded, our models stay in a 'quiescent' accretion phase with M-dot {sub acc}∼10{sup −8}--10{sup −7} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} over 60% of the time and spend less than 15% of the infall phase in accretion outbursts. While our models indicate that episodic mass accretion during protostellar evolution can qualitatively help explain the low accretion luminosities seen in most low-mass protostars, detailed tests of the mechanism will require model calculations for a range of protostellar masses with some constraint on the

  8. Accretion outbursts in self-gravitating protoplanetary disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Nelson, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    We improve on our previous treatments of the long-term evolution of protostellar disks by explicitly solving disk self-gravity in two dimensions. The current model is an extension of the one-dimensional layered accretion disk model of Bae et al. We find that gravitational instability (GI)-induced spiral density waves heat disks via compressional heating (i.e., PdV work), and can trigger accretion outbursts by activating the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in the magnetically inert disk dead zone. The GI-induced spiral waves propagate well inside of the gravitationally unstable region before they trigger outbursts at R ≲ 1 AU where GI cannot be sustained. This long-range propagation of waves cannot be reproduced with the previously used local α treatments for GI. In our standard model where zero dead-zone residual viscosity (α rd ) is assumed, the GI-induced stress measured at the onset of outbursts is locally as large as 0.01 in terms of the generic α parameter. However, as suggested in our previous one-dimensional calculations, we confirm that the presence of a small but finite α rd triggers thermally driven bursts of accretion instead of the GI + MRI-driven outbursts that are observed when α rd = 0. The inclusion of non-zero residual viscosity in the dead zone decreases the importance of GI soon after mass feeding from the envelope cloud ceases. During the infall phase while the central protostar is still embedded, our models stay in a 'quiescent' accretion phase with M-dot acc ∼10 −8 --10 −7 M ⊙ yr −1 over 60% of the time and spend less than 15% of the infall phase in accretion outbursts. While our models indicate that episodic mass accretion during protostellar evolution can qualitatively help explain the low accretion luminosities seen in most low-mass protostars, detailed tests of the mechanism will require model calculations for a range of protostellar masses with some constraint on the initial core angular momentum, which

  9. Binary pulsars as probes of a Galactic dark matter disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Andrea; Zavala, Jesús; Blas, Diego

    2018-03-01

    As a binary pulsar moves through a wind of dark matter particles, the resulting dynamical friction modifies the binary's orbit. We study this effect for the double disk dark matter (DDDM) scenario, where a fraction of the dark matter is dissipative and settles into a thin disk. For binaries within the dark disk, this effect is enhanced due to the higher dark matter density and lower velocity dispersion of the dark disk, and due to its co-rotation with the baryonic disk. We estimate the effect and compare it with observations for two different limits in the Knudsen number (Kn). First, in the case where DDDM is effectively collisionless within the characteristic scale of the binary (Kn ≫ 1) and ignoring the possible interaction between the pair of dark matter wakes. Second, in the fully collisional case (Kn ≪ 1), where a fluid description can be adopted and the interaction of the pair of wakes is taken into account. We find that the change in the orbital period is of the same order of magnitude in both limits. A comparison with observations reveals good prospects to probe currently allowed DDDM models with timing data from binary pulsars in the near future. We finally comment on the possibility of extending the analysis to the intermediate (rarefied gas) case with Kn ∼ 1.

  10. Discovery of Small-Scale Spiral Structures in the Disk of SAO 206462 (HD 135344B)(exp 1): Implications for the Physical State of the Disk from Spiral Density Wave Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, T.; Grady, C. A.; Hashimoto, J.; Fukagawa, M.; Hornbeck, J. B.; Sitko, M.; Russell, R.; Werren, C.; Cure, M; Currie, T.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present high-resolution, H-band, imaging observations, collected with Subaru /HiCIAO, of the scattered light from the transitional disk around SAO 206462 (HD 1353448). Although previous sub-mm imagery suggested the existence of the dust-depleted cavity at r spiral structures lying within 0".5 (approx 70 AU). We present models for the spiral structures using the spiral density wave theory, and derive a disk aspect ratio of h approx. 0.1, which is consistent with previous sub-mm observations. This model can potentially give estimates of the temperature and rotation profiles of the disk based on dynamical processes. independently from sub-nun observations. It also predicts the evolution of the spiral structures, which can be observable on timescales of 10-20 years, providing conclusive tests of the model. While we cannot uniquely identify the origin of these spirals, planets embedded in the disk may be capable of exciting the observed morphology. Assuming that this is the case, we can make predictions on the locations and, possibly, the masses of the unseen planets. Such planets may be detected by future multi-wavelengths observations,

  11. Identifying Likely Disk-hosting M dwarfs with Disk Detective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Steven; Wisniewski, John; Kuchner, Marc J.; Disk Detective Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    M dwarfs are critical targets for exoplanet searches. Debris disks often provide key information as to the formation and evolution of planetary systems around higher-mass stars, alongside the planet themselves. However, less than 300 M dwarf debris disks are known, despite M dwarfs making up 70% of the local neighborhood. The Disk Detective citizen science project has identified over 6000 new potential disk host stars from the AllWISE catalog over the past three years. Here, we present preliminary results of our search for new disk-hosting M dwarfs in the survey. Based on near-infrared color cuts and fitting stellar models to photometry, we have identified over 500 potential new M dwarf disk hosts, nearly doubling the known number of such systems. In this talk, we present our methodology, and outline our ongoing work to confirm systems as M dwarf disks.

  12. EVIDENCE FOR DCO+ AS A PROBE OF IONIZATION IN THE WARM DISK SURFACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favre, Cécile; Bergin, Edwin A.; Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Hersant, Franck; Qi, Chunhua; Aikawa, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    In this Letter, we model the chemistry of DCO + in protoplanetary disks. We find that the overall distribution of the DCO + abundance is qualitatively similar to that of CO but is dominated by a thin layer located at the inner disk surface. To understand its distribution, we investigate the different key gas-phase deuteration pathways that can lead to the formation of DCO + . Our analysis shows that the recent update in the exothermicity of the reaction involving CH 2 D + as a parent molecule of DCO + favors deuterium fractionation in warmer conditions. As a result, the formation of DCO + is enhanced in the inner warm surface layers of the disk where X-ray ionization occurs. Our analysis points out that DCO + is not a reliable tracer of the CO snow line as previously suggested. We thus predict that DCO + is a tracer of active deuterium and, in particular, X-ray ionization of the inner disk

  13. Formation and Atmosphere of Complex Organic Molecules of the HH 212 Protostellar Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Ho, Paul T. P.; Hirano, Naomi; Shang, Hsien [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhi-Yun [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Zhang, Qizhou, E-mail: cflee@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    HH 212 is a nearby (400 pc) Class 0 protostellar system recently found to host a “hamburger”-shaped dusty disk with a radius of ∼60 au, deeply embedded in an infalling-rotating flattened envelope. We have spatially resolved this envelope-disk system with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array at up to ∼16 au (0.″04) resolution. The envelope is detected in HCO{sup +} J = 4–3 down to the dusty disk. Complex organic molecules (COMs) and doubly deuterated formaldehyde (D{sub 2}CO) are detected above and below the dusty disk within ∼40 au of the central protostar. The COMs are methanol (CH{sub 3}OH), deuterated methanol (CH{sub 2}DOH), methyl mercaptan (CH{sub 3}SH), and formamide (NH{sub 2}CHO, a prebiotic precursor). We have modeled the gas kinematics in HCO{sup +} and COMs and found a centrifugal barrier (CB) at a radius of ∼44 au, within which a Keplerian rotating disk is formed. This indicates that HCO{sup +} traces the infalling-rotating envelope down to the CB and COMs trace the atmosphere of a Keplerian rotating disk within the CB. The COMs are spatially resolved for the first time, both radially and vertically, in the atmosphere of a disk in the earliest, Class 0 phase of star formation. Our spatially resolved observations of COMs favor their formation in the disk rather than a rapidly infalling (warm) inner envelope. The abundances and spatial distributions of the COMs provide strong constraints on models of their formation and transport in low-mass star formation.

  14. The FU Orionis outburst as a thermal accretion event: Observational constraints for protostellar disk models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, K. R.; Lin, D. N. C.; Hartmann, L. W.; Kenyon, S. J.

    1995-01-01

    The results of the time-dependent disk models developed in Bell & Lin are compared with observed properties of FU Orionis variables. Specific models are fit to the light curves of Fu Ori, V1515 Cyg, and V1057 Cyg. The slow risetime of V1515 Cyg can be matched by a self-regulated outburst model. The rapid risetimes of FU Ori and V1057 Cyg can be fitted with the application of modest perturbations to the disk surface density. Model disks display spectral features characteristic of observed objects. The color evolution of V1057 Cyg is naturally explained if mass flux drops in the inner disk (r less than 1/4 AU) while remaining steady in the outer disk. The decrease in optical line width (rotational velocity) observed during the decay of V1057 Cyg may be accounted for by an outward-propagating ionization front. We predict that before final decay to the quiescent phase, short-wavelength line widths (lambda less than 1.5 microns) will again increase. It is suggested that FU Orionis outbursts primarily occur to systems during the embedded phase with ages less than several times 10(exp 5) yr.

  15. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the formation of hot accretion disk coronae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yan-Fei [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Stone, James M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Davis, Shane W. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics. Toronto, ON M5S3H4 (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    A new mechanism to form a magnetic pressure supported, high temperature corona above the photosphere of an accretion disk is explored using three dimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. The thermal properties of the disk are calculated self-consistently by balancing radiative cooling through the surfaces of the disk with heating due to dissipation of turbulence driven by magneto-rotational instability (MRI). As has been noted in previous work, we find the dissipation rate per unit mass increases dramatically with height above the mid-plane, in stark contrast to the α-disk model which assumes this quantity is a constant. Thus, we find that in simulations with a low surface density (and therefore a shallow photosphere), the fraction of energy dissipated above the photosphere is significant (about 3.4% in our lowest surface density model), and this fraction increases as surface density decreases. When a significant fraction of the accretion energy is dissipated in the optically thin photosphere, the gas temperature increases substantially and a high temperature, magnetic pressure supported corona is formed. The volume-averaged temperature in the disk corona is more than 10 times larger than at the disk mid-plane. Moreover, gas temperature in the corona is strongly anti-correlated with gas density, which implies the corona formed by MRI turbulence is patchy. This mechanism to form an accretion disk corona may help explain the observed relation between the spectral index and luminosity from active galactic nucleus (AGNs), and the soft X-ray excess from some AGNs. It may also be relevant to spectral state changes in X-ray binaries.

  16. ALMA Survey of Lupus Protoplanetary Disks. II. Gas Disk Radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansdell, M.; Williams, J. P.; Trapman, L.; van Terwisga, S. E.; Facchini, S.; Manara, C. F.; van der Marel, N.; Miotello, A.; Tazzari, M.; Hogerheijde, M.; Guidi, G.; Testi, L.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2018-05-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-Millimeter Array (ALMA) Band 6 observations of a complete sample of protoplanetary disks in the young (∼1–3 Myr) Lupus star-forming region, covering the 1.33 mm continuum and the 12CO, 13CO, and C18O J = 2–1 lines. The spatial resolution is ∼0.″25 with a medium 3σ continuum sensitivity of 0.30 mJy, corresponding to M dust ∼ 0.2 M ⊕. We apply Keplerian masking to enhance the signal-to-noise ratios of our 12CO zero-moment maps, enabling measurements of gas disk radii for 22 Lupus disks; we find that gas disks are universally larger than millimeter dust disks by a factor of two on average, likely due to a combination of the optically thick gas emission and the growth and inward drift of the dust. Using the gas disk radii, we calculate the dimensionless viscosity parameter, α visc, finding a broad distribution and no correlations with other disk or stellar parameters, suggesting that viscous processes have not yet established quasi-steady states in Lupus disks. By combining our 1.33 mm continuum fluxes with our previous 890 μm continuum observations, we also calculate the millimeter spectral index, α mm, for 70 Lupus disks; we find an anticorrelation between α mm and millimeter flux for low-mass disks (M dust ≲ 5), followed by a flattening as disks approach α mm ≈ 2, which could indicate faster grain growth in higher-mass disks, but may also reflect their larger optically thick components. In sum, this work demonstrates the continuous stream of new insights into disk evolution and planet formation that can be gleaned from unbiased ALMA disk surveys.

  17. Evidence for large temperature fluctuations in quasar accretion disks from spectral variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, John J.; Anderson, Scott F.; Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Dexter, Jason, E-mail: jruan@astro.washington.edu [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    The well-known bluer-when-brighter trend observed in quasar variability is a signature of the complex processes in the accretion disk and can be a probe of the quasar variability mechanism. Using a sample of 604 variable quasars with repeat spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II (SDSS), we construct difference spectra to investigate the physical causes of this bluer-when-brighter trend. The continuum of our composite difference spectrum is well fit by a power law, with a spectral index in excellent agreement with previous results. We measure the spectral variability relative to the underlying spectra of the quasars, which is independent of any extinction, and compare to model predictions. We show that our SDSS spectral variability results cannot be produced by global accretion rate fluctuations in a thin disk alone. However, we find that a simple model of an inhomogeneous disk with localized temperature fluctuations will produce power-law spectral variability over optical wavelengths. We show that the inhomogeneous disk will provide good fits to our observed spectral variability if the disk has large temperature fluctuations in many independently varying zones, in excellent agreement with independent constraints from quasar microlensing disk sizes, their strong UV spectral continuum, and single-band variability amplitudes. Our results provide an independent constraint on quasar variability models and add to the mounting evidence that quasar accretion disks have large localized temperature fluctuations.

  18. DISK EVOLUTION IN THE THREE NEARBY STAR-FORMING REGIONS OF TAURUS, CHAMAELEON, AND OPHIUCHUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, E.; Watson, Dan M.; McClure, M. K.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze samples of Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra of T Tauri stars in the Ophiuchus, Taurus, and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions, whose median ages lie in the <1-2 Myr range. The median mid-infrared spectra of objects in these three regions are similar in shape, suggesting, on average, similar disk structures. When normalized to the same stellar luminosity, the medians follow each other closely, implying comparable mid-infrared excess emission from the circumstellar disks. We use the spectral index between 13 and 31 μm and the equivalent width of the 10 μm silicate emission feature to identify objects whose disk configuration departs from that of a continuous, optically thick accretion disk. Transitional disks, whose steep 13-31 μm spectral slope and near-IR flux deficit reveal inner disk clearing, occur with about the same frequency of a few percent in all three regions. Objects with unusually large 10 μm equivalent widths are more common (20%-30%); they could reveal the presence of disk gaps filled with optically thin dust. Based on their medians and fraction of evolved disks, T Tauri stars in Taurus and Chamaeleon I are very alike. Disk evolution sets in early, since already the youngest region, the Ophiuchus core (L1688), has more settled disks with larger grains. Our results indicate that protoplanetary disks show clear signs of dust evolution at an age of a few Myr, even as early as ∼1 Myr, but age is not the only factor determining the degree of evolution during the first few million years of a disk's lifetime.

  19. HERSCHEL PACS OBSERVATIONS AND MODELING OF DEBRIS DISKS IN THE TUCANA-HOROLOGIUM ASSOCIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, J. K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Roberge, A. [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Chen, C. H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Augereau, J.-C.; Menard, F. [UJF - Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble, F-38041 (France); Dent, W. R. F. [ALMA, Avda Apoquindo 3846, Piso 19, Edificio Alsacia, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Eiroa, C.; Meeus, G. [Dpt. Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Krivov, A. V. [Astrophysikalishes Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Schillergaesschen 2-3, 07745 Jena (Germany); Mathews, G. S. [Institute for Astronomy (IfA), University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Riviere-Marichalar, P. [Centro de Astrobiologia Depto. Astrofisica (CSIC-INTA), POB 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada (Spain); Sandell, G., E-mail: jessd@astro.umd.edu [SOFIA-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, Building N232, Rm. 146, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2012-07-10

    We present Herschel PACS photometry of 17 B- to M-type stars in the 30 Myr old Tucana-Horologium Association. This work is part of the Herschel Open Time Key Programme 'Gas in Protoplanetary Systems'. 6 of the 17 targets were found to have infrared excesses significantly greater than the expected stellar IR fluxes, including a previously unknown disk around HD30051. These six debris disks were fitted with single-temperature blackbody models to estimate the temperatures and abundances of the dust in the systems. For the five stars that show excess emission in the Herschel PACS photometry and also have Spitzer IRS spectra, we fit the data with models of optically thin debris disks with realistic grain properties in order to better estimate the disk parameters. The model is determined by a set of six parameters: surface density index, grain size distribution index, minimum and maximum grain sizes, and the inner and outer radii of the disk. The best-fitting parameters give us constraints on the geometry of the dust in these systems, as well as lower limits to the total dust masses. The HD105 disk was further constrained by fitting marginally resolved PACS 70 {mu}m imaging.

  20. The HIP 79977 debris disk in polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, N.; Schmid, H. M.; Thalmann, Ch.; Boccaletti, A.; Bazzon, A.; Baruffolo, A.; Beuzit, J. L.; Claudi, R.; Costille, A.; Desidera, S.; Dohlen, K.; Dominik, C.; Feldt, M.; Fusco, T.; Ginski, C.; Gisler, D.; Girard, J. H.; Gratton, R.; Henning, T.; Hubin, N.; Janson, M.; Kasper, M.; Kral, Q.; Langlois, M.; Lagadec, E.; Ménard, F.; Meyer, M. R.; Milli, J.; Mouillet, D.; Olofsson, J.; Pavlov, A.; Pragt, J.; Puget, P.; Quanz, S. P.; Roelfsema, R.; Salasnich, B.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Sissa, E.; Suarez, M.; Szulagyi, J.; Turatto, M.; Udry, S.; Wildi, F.

    2017-11-01

    Context. Debris disks are observed around 10 to 20% of FGK main-sequence stars as infrared excess emission. They are important signposts for the presence of colliding planetesimals and therefore provide important information about the evolution of planetary systems. Direct imaging of such disks reveals their geometric structure and constrains their dust-particle properties. Aims: We present observations of the known edge-on debris disk around HIP 79977 (HD 146897) taken with the ZIMPOL differential polarimeter of the SPHERE instrument. We measure the observed polarization signal and investigate the diagnostic potential of such data with model simulations. Methods: SPHERE-ZIMPOL polarimetric data of the 15 Myr-old F star HIP 79977 (Upper Sco, 123 pc) were taken in the Very Broad Band (VBB) filter (λc = 735 nm, Δλ = 290 nm) with a spatial resolution of about 25 mas. Imaging polarimetry efficiently suppresses the residual speckle noise from the AO system and provides a differential signal with relatively small systematic measuring uncertainties. We measure the polarization flux along and perpendicular to the disk spine of the highly inclined disk for projected separations between 0.2'' (25 AU) and 1.6'' (200 AU). We perform model calculations for the polarized flux of an optically thin debris disk which are used to determine or constrain the disk parameters of HIP 79977. Results: We measure a polarized flux contrast ratio for the disk of (Fpol)disk/F∗ = (5.5 ± 0.9) × 10-4 in the VBB filter. The surface brightness of the polarized flux reaches a maximum of SBmax = 16.2 mag arcsec-2 at a separation of 0.2''-0.5'' along the disk spine with a maximum surface brightness contrast of 7.64 mag arcsec-2. The polarized flux has a minimum near the star 1''. This can be explained by a radial blow-out of small grains. The data are modelled as a circular dust belt with a well defined disk inclination I = 85( ± 1.5)° and a radius between r0 = 60 and 90 AU. The radial

  1. NASA Lunar Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers and Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo rocks and regolith soils first hand. Lunar samples embedded in plastic are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks has revealed the early history of our Earth-Moon system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet as well as connections to the basic lunar surface processes - impact and volcanism. With these samples educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by missions to Moon. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections of the rocks to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the violent impact history of the Moon. The disks also include two regolith soils and

  2. Oscillations of disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the current state of research on disk oscillation theory, focusing on relativistic disks and tidally deformed disks. Since the launch of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in 1996, many high-frequency quasiperiodic oscillations (HFQPOs) have been observed in X-ray binaries. Subsequently, similar quasi-periodic oscillations have been found in such relativistic objects as microquasars, ultra-luminous X-ray sources, and galactic nuclei. One of the most promising explanations of their origin is based on oscillations in relativistic disks, and a new field called discoseismology is currently developing. After reviewing observational aspects, the book presents the basic characteristics of disk oscillations, especially focusing on those in relativistic disks. Relativistic disks are essentially different from Newtonian disks in terms of several basic characteristics of their disk oscillations, including the radial distributions of epicyclic frequencies. In order to understand the basic processes...

  3. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers, and Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jaclyn; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Huynh, P.; Tobola, K.; Loftin, L.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo samples and meteorites first hand. Lunar rocks and soil, embedded in Lucite disks, are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks reveals the early history of our Earth-Moon system and meteorites reveal much of the history of the early solar system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet and solar system and the basic processes accretion, differentiation, impact and volcanism. With these samples, educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by many NASA planetary missions. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the

  4. Classifying the embedded young stellar population in Perseus and Taurus and the LOMASS database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carney, M. T.; Ylldlz, U. A.; Mottram, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    . An additional 16% are confused sources with an uncertain evolutionary stage. Outflows are found to make a negligible contribution to the integrated HCO+ intensity for the majority of sources in this study. Conclusions. Separating classifications by cloud reveals that a high percentage of the Class 0+I sources...... in the Perseus star forming region are truly embedded Stage I sources (71%), while the Taurus cloud hosts a majority of evolved PMS stars with disks (68%). The concentration factor method is useful to correct misidentified embedded YSOs, yielding higher accuracy for YSO population statistics and Stage timescales...

  5. A three-dimensional model for lubricant depletion under sliding condition on bit patterned media of hard disk drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we model the depletion dynamics of the molecularly thin layer of lubricants on a bit patterned media disk of hard disk drives under a sliding air bearing head. The dominant physics and consequently, the lubricant depletion dynamics on a patterned disk are shown to be significantly different from the well-studied cases of a smooth disk. Our results indicate that the surface tension effect, which is negligible on a flat disk, apparently suppresses depletion by enforcing a bottleneck effect around the disk pattern peak regions to thwart the migration of lubricants. When the disjoining pressure is relatively small, it assists the depletion. But, when the disjoining pressure becomes dominant, the disjoining pressure resists depletion. Disk pattern orientation plays a critical role in the depletion process. The effect of disk pattern orientation on depletion originates from its complex interaction with other intermingled factors of external air shearing stress distribution and lubricant particle trajectory. Patterning a disk surface with nanostructures of high density, large height/pitch ratio, and particular orientation is demonstrated to be one efficient way to alleviate the formation of lubricant depletion tracks.

  6. Coatings for Oxidation and Hot Corrosion Protection of Disk Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Jim; Gabb, Tim; Draper, Sue; Miller, Bob; Locci, Ivan; Sudbrack, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    Increasing temperatures in aero gas turbines is resulting in oxidation and hot corrosion attack of turbine disks. Since disks are sensitive to low cycle fatigue (LCF), any environmental attack, and especially hot corrosion pitting, can potentially seriously degrade the life of the disk. Application of metallic coatings are one means of protecting disk alloys from this environmental attack. However, simply the presence of a metallic coating, even without environmental exposure, can degrade the LCF life of a disk alloy. Therefore, coatings must be designed which are not only resistant to oxidation and corrosion attack, but must not significantly degrade the LCF life of the alloy. Three different Ni-Cr coating compositions (29, 35.5, 45wt. Cr) were applied at two thicknesses by Plasma Enhanced Magnetron Sputtering (PEMS) to two similar Ni-based disk alloys. One coating also received a thin ZrO2 overcoat. The coated samples were also given a short oxidation exposure in a low PO2 environment to encourage chromia scale formation. Without further environmental exposure, the LCF life of the coated samples, evaluated at 760C, was less than that of uncoated samples. Hence, application of the coating alone degraded the LCF life of the disk alloy. Since shot peening is commonly employed to improve LCF life, the effect of shot peening the coated and uncoated surface was also evaluated. For all cases, shot peening improved the LCF life of the coated samples. Coated and uncoated samples were shot peened and given environmental exposures consisting of 500 hrs of oxidation followed by 50 hrs of hot corrosion, both at 760C). The high-Cr coating showed the best LCF life after the environmental exposures. Results of the LCF testing and post-test characterization of the various coatings will be presented and future research directions discussed.

  7. Linear arrangement of metallic and superconducting defects in a thin superconducting sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barba-Ortega, J.; Sardella, Edson; Albino Aguiar, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the influence of superconducting and metallic defects on the vortex configurations in a thin mesoscopic disk. • We found that the vortex–defect interaction leads to interesting vortex configurations. • The first vortex entry is always (never) found sitting on the metallic (superconducting) defect position. -- Abstract: The vortex matter in a superconducting disk with a linear configuration of metallic and superconducting defects is studied. Effects associated to the pinning (anti-pinning) force of the metallic (superconducting) defect on the vortex configuration and on the thermodynamic critical fields are analyzed in the framework of the Ginzburg Landau theory. We calculate the loop of the magnetization, vorticity and free energy curves as a function of the magnetic field for a thin disk. Due to vortex–defect attraction for a metallic defect (repulsion for a superconducting defect), the vortices always (never) are found to be sitting on the defect position

  8. Magnetically Induced Disk Winds and Transport in the HL Tau Disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Flock, Mario; Turner, Neal J.; Okuzumi, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of angular momentum transport in protoplanetary disks is fundamental to understanding the distributions of gas and dust in the disks. The unprecedented ALMA observations taken toward HL Tau at high spatial resolution and subsequent radiative transfer modeling reveal that a high degree of dust settling is currently achieved in the outer part of the HL Tau disk. Previous observations, however, suggest a high disk accretion rate onto the central star. This configuration is not necessarily intuitive in the framework of the conventional viscous disk model, since efficient accretion generally requires a high level of turbulence, which can suppress dust settling considerably. We develop a simplified, semi-analytical disk model to examine under what condition these two properties can be realized in a single model. Recent, non-ideal MHD simulations are utilized to realistically model the angular momentum transport both radially via MHD turbulence and vertically via magnetically induced disk winds. We find that the HL Tau disk configuration can be reproduced well when disk winds are properly taken into account. While the resulting disk properties are likely consistent with other observational results, such an ideal situation can be established only if the plasma β at the disk midplane is β 0 ≃ 2 × 10 4 under the assumption of steady accretion. Equivalently, the vertical magnetic flux at 100 au is about 0.2 mG. More detailed modeling is needed to fully identify the origin of the disk accretion and quantitatively examine plausible mechanisms behind the observed gap structures in the HL Tau disk.

  9. Magnetically Induced Disk Winds and Transport in the HL Tau Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Flock, Mario; Turner, Neal J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Okuzumi, Satoshi, E-mail: yasuhiro@caltech.edu [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2017-08-10

    The mechanism of angular momentum transport in protoplanetary disks is fundamental to understanding the distributions of gas and dust in the disks. The unprecedented ALMA observations taken toward HL Tau at high spatial resolution and subsequent radiative transfer modeling reveal that a high degree of dust settling is currently achieved in the outer part of the HL Tau disk. Previous observations, however, suggest a high disk accretion rate onto the central star. This configuration is not necessarily intuitive in the framework of the conventional viscous disk model, since efficient accretion generally requires a high level of turbulence, which can suppress dust settling considerably. We develop a simplified, semi-analytical disk model to examine under what condition these two properties can be realized in a single model. Recent, non-ideal MHD simulations are utilized to realistically model the angular momentum transport both radially via MHD turbulence and vertically via magnetically induced disk winds. We find that the HL Tau disk configuration can be reproduced well when disk winds are properly taken into account. While the resulting disk properties are likely consistent with other observational results, such an ideal situation can be established only if the plasma β at the disk midplane is β {sub 0} ≃ 2 × 10{sup 4} under the assumption of steady accretion. Equivalently, the vertical magnetic flux at 100 au is about 0.2 mG. More detailed modeling is needed to fully identify the origin of the disk accretion and quantitatively examine plausible mechanisms behind the observed gap structures in the HL Tau disk.

  10. Angle-sensitive and fast photovoltage of silver nanocluster embeded ZnO thin films induced by 1.064-μm pulsed laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song-Qing, Zhao; Li-Min, Yang; Wen-Wei, Liu; Kun, Zhao; Yue-Liang, Zhou; Qing-Li, Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Silver nanocluster embedded ZnO composite thin film was observed to have an angle-sensitive and fast photovoltaic effect in the angle range from −90° to 90°, its peak value and the polarity varied regularly with the angle of incidence of the 1.064-μm pulsed Nd:YAG laser radiation onto the ZnO surface. Meanwhile, for each photovoltaic signal, its rising time reached ∼2 ns with an open-circuit photovoltage of ∼2 ns full width at half-maximum. This angle-sensitive fast photovoltaic effect is expected to put this composite film a candidate for angle-sensitive and fast photodetector. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  11. Short-term variability of Cyg X-1 and the accretion disk temperature fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, K.

    1980-01-01

    Recent theoretical models which have been proposed to explain the observed time-averaged spectrum of Cyg X-1 assume that the hard x-rays are emitted by inverse-Compton mechanism from an optically thin, hot accretion disk around a black hole. Results are reported here of balloon observations (20-68 keV) and compared with previous rocket observations (1.5-25 keV). Using the results an analysis is made of the variability of the source intensity in the hard x-ray range which suggests that the variation is essentially spectral indicating that it originated from temperature fluctuation in an accretive disk. Such a model, which explains the stochastic nature of the variability, its characteristic time scale and spectral features at the same time in the context of the conventional accretion disk model for Cyg X-1, is examined. (U.K.)

  12. Non-linear radial spinwave modes in thin magnetic disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helsen, M.; De Clercq, J.; Vansteenkiste, A.; Van Waeyenberge, B.; Gangwar, A.; Back, C. H.; Weigand, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present an experimental investigation of radial spin-wave modes in magnetic nano-disks with a vortex ground state. The spin-wave amplitude was measured using a frequency-resolved magneto-optical spectrum analyzer, allowing for high-resolution resonance curves to be recorded. It was found that with increasing excitation amplitude up to about 10 mT, the lowest-order mode behaves strongly non-linearly as the mode frequency redshifts and the resonance peak strongly deforms. This behavior was quantitatively reproduced by micromagnetic simulations. Micromagnetic simulations showed that at higher excitation amplitudes, the spinwaves are transformed into a soliton by self-focusing, and collapse onto the vortex core, dispersing the energy in short-wavelength spinwaves. Additionally, this process can lead to switching of the vortex polarization through the injection of a Bloch point

  13. Fabric management with disk-less servers and QUATTOR in LHCb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, P.; Bonaccorsi, E.; Brarda, L.; Neufeld, N.

    2012-01-01

    At CERN LHCb experiment (Large Hadron Collider beauty), in order to reconstitute and filter events, a huge computing facility is required (currently about 1500 nodes). This computing farm, running SLC (Scientific Linux CERN), a Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) derivative, is net booted and managed using Quattor to allow easy maintenance. LHCb is also using around 500 disk-less Credit Card PCs (CCPCs) embedded in the front end electronic cards. To add flexibility to the disk-less nodes handling, we had the idea of using the file system union, which is usually used on Linux live media. The principle of the file system union is to join several file systems, at least one read-only (generally) and one read-write and use that union as a normal Linux file system. We have successfully tested this idea. The use of this new file system has helped to reveal some security vulnerability in the Linux kernel

  14. MAPPING H-BAND SCATTERED LIGHT EMISSION IN THE MYSTERIOUS SR21 TRANSITIONAL DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follette, Katherine B.; Close, Laird; Tamura, Motohide; Hashimoto, Jun; Kwon, Jungmi; Kandori, Ryo; Whitney, Barbara; Grady, Carol; Andrews, Sean M.; Wisniewski, John; Brandt, Timothy D.; Dong, Ruobing; Mayama, Satoshi; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Feldt, Markus; Carson, Joseph; Currie, Thayne; Egner, Sebastian E.; Goto, Miwa

    2013-01-01

    We present the first near infrared (NIR) spatially resolved images of the circumstellar transitional disk around SR21. These images were obtained with the Subaru HiCIAO camera, adaptive optics, and the polarized differential imaging technique. We resolve the disk in scattered light at H-band for stellocentric 0.''1 ≤ r ≤ 0.''6 (12 ∼ –6 ) are inconsistent with our H-band images when they are assumed to carry over to small grains, suggesting that surface grains scattering in the NIR either survive or are generated by whatever mechanism is clearing the disk midplane. In fact, the radial polarized intensity profile of our H-band observations is smooth and steeply inwardly-increasing (r –3 ), with no evidence of a break at the 36 AU sub-mm cavity wall. We hypothesize that this profile is dominated by an optically thin disk envelope or atmosphere component. We also discuss the compatibility of our data with the previously postulated existence of a sub-stellar companion to SR21 at r ∼ 10-20 AU, and find that we can neither exclude nor verify this scenario. This study demonstrates the power of multiwavelength imaging of transitional disks to inform modeling efforts, including the debate over precisely what physical mechanism is responsible for clearing these disks of their large midplane grains.

  15. Thin films of metal-organic compounds and metal nanoparticle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thin films of metal-organic compounds and metal nanoparticle-embedded polymers for nonlinear optical applications. S Philip Anthony Shatabdi Porel D ... Thin films based on two very different metal-organic systems are developed and some nonlinear optical applications are explored. A family of zinc complexes which ...

  16. DISCOVERY OF SMALL-SCALE SPIRAL STRUCTURES IN THE DISK OF SAO 206462 (HD 135344B): IMPLICATIONS FOR THE PHYSICAL STATE OF THE DISK FROM SPIRAL DENSITY WAVE THEORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, T.; Takeuchi, T. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Grady, C. A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland CA 96002 (United States); Hashimoto, J. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Fukagawa, M. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1, Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Hornbeck, J. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Sitko, M. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut St., Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Russell, R. [The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA 90009 (United States); Werren, C. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0011 (United States); Cure, M. [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Avda. Gran Bretana 1111, Casilla 5030, Valparaiso (Chile); Currie, T. [ExoPlanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ohashi, N. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Okamoto, Y.; Momose, M. [College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Honda, M. [Department of Information Science, Kanagawa University, 2946 Tsuchiya, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1293 (Japan); Inutsuka, S. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8602 (Japan); Dong, R.; Brandt, T. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, NJ08544 (United States); Abe, L. [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, 06300 Nice (France); Brandner, W., E-mail: muto@geo.titech.ac.jp [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2012-04-01

    We present high-resolution, H-band imaging observations, collected with Subaru/HiCIAO, of the scattered light from the transitional disk around SAO 206462 (HD 135344B). Although previous sub-mm imagery suggested the existence of a dust-depleted cavity at r {<=} 46 AU, our observations reveal the presence of scattered light components as close as 0.''2 ({approx} 28 AU) from the star. Moreover, we have discovered two small-scale spiral structures lying within 0.''5 ({approx} 70 AU). We present models for the spiral structures using the spiral density wave theory, and derive a disk aspect ratio of h {approx} 0.1, which is consistent with previous sub-mm observations. This model can potentially give estimates of the temperature and rotation profiles of the disk based on dynamical processes, independently from sub-mm observations. It also predicts the evolution of the spiral structures, which can be observable on timescales of 10-20 years, providing conclusive tests of the model. While we cannot uniquely identify the origin of these spirals, planets embedded in the disk may be capable of exciting the observed morphology. Assuming that this is the case, we can make predictions on the locations and, possibly, the masses of the unseen planets. Such planets may be detected by future multi-wavelength observations.

  17. DISCOVERY OF SMALL-SCALE SPIRAL STRUCTURES IN THE DISK OF SAO 206462 (HD 135344B): IMPLICATIONS FOR THE PHYSICAL STATE OF THE DISK FROM SPIRAL DENSITY WAVE THEORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, T.; Takeuchi, T.; Grady, C. A.; Hashimoto, J.; Fukagawa, M.; Hornbeck, J. B.; Sitko, M.; Russell, R.; Werren, C.; Curé, M.; Currie, T.; Ohashi, N.; Okamoto, Y.; Momose, M.; Honda, M.; Inutsuka, S.; Dong, R.; Brandt, T.; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.

    2012-01-01

    We present high-resolution, H-band imaging observations, collected with Subaru/HiCIAO, of the scattered light from the transitional disk around SAO 206462 (HD 135344B). Although previous sub-mm imagery suggested the existence of a dust-depleted cavity at r ≤ 46 AU, our observations reveal the presence of scattered light components as close as 0.''2 (∼ 28 AU) from the star. Moreover, we have discovered two small-scale spiral structures lying within 0.''5 (∼ 70 AU). We present models for the spiral structures using the spiral density wave theory, and derive a disk aspect ratio of h ∼ 0.1, which is consistent with previous sub-mm observations. This model can potentially give estimates of the temperature and rotation profiles of the disk based on dynamical processes, independently from sub-mm observations. It also predicts the evolution of the spiral structures, which can be observable on timescales of 10-20 years, providing conclusive tests of the model. While we cannot uniquely identify the origin of these spirals, planets embedded in the disk may be capable of exciting the observed morphology. Assuming that this is the case, we can make predictions on the locations and, possibly, the masses of the unseen planets. Such planets may be detected by future multi-wavelength observations.

  18. Discovery of Small-Scale Spiral Structures in the Disk of SAO 206462 (HD 135344B): Implications for the Physical State of the Disk from Spiral Density Wave Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. A.; Currie, T.

    2012-01-01

    We present high-resolution, H-band, imaging observations, collected with Subaru/HiCIAO, of the scattered light from the transitional disk around SAO 206462 (HD 135344B). Although previous sub-mm imagery suggested the existence of the dust-depleted cavity at r approximates 46 AU, our observations reveal the presence of scattered light components as close as 0".2 (approx 28 AU) from the star. Moreover, we have discovered two small-scale spiral structures lying within 0".5 (approx 70 AU). We present models for the spiral structures using the spiral density wave theory, and derive a disk aspect ratio of h approx 0.1, which is consistent with previous sub-mm observations. This model can potentially give estimates of the temperature and rotation profiles of the disk based on dynamical processes, independently from sub-mm observations. It also predicts the evolution of the spiral structures, which can be observable on timescales of 10-20 years, providing conclusive tests of the model. While we cannot uniquely identify the origin of these spirals, planets embedded in the disk may be capable of exciting the observed morphology. Assuming that this is the case, we can make predictions on the locations and, possibly, the masses of the unseen planets. Such planets may be detected by future multi-wavelengths observations.

  19. Powder Metallurgy Fabrication of Molybdenum Accelerator Target Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowden, Richard Andrew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kiggans Jr., James O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nunn, Stephen D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Parten, Randy J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Powder metallurgy approaches for the fabrication of accelerator target disks are being examined to support the development of Mo-99 production by NorthStar Medical Technologies, LLC. An advantage of powder metallurgy is that very little material is wasted and, at present, dense, quality parts are routinely produced from molybdenum powder. The proposed targets, however, are thin wafers, 29 mm in diameter with a thickness of 0.5 mm, with very stringent dimensional tolerances. Although tooling can be machined to very high tolerance levels, the operations of powder feed, pressing and sintering involve complicated mechanisms, each of which affects green density and shrinkage, and therefore the dimensions and shape of the final product. Combinations of powder morphology, lubricants and pressing technique have been explored to produce target disks with minimal variations in thickness and little or no distortion. In addition, sintering conditions that produce densities for optimum target dissolvability are being determined.

  20. A ROBUST DETERMINATION OF THE SIZE OF QUASAR ACCRETION DISKS USING GRAVITATIONAL MICROLENSING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-Vicente, J.; Mediavilla, E.; Muñoz, J. A.; Kochanek, C. S.

    2012-01-01

    Using microlensing measurements for a sample of 27 image pairs of 19 lensed quasars we determine a maximum likelihood estimate for the accretion disk size of an average quasar of r s = 4.0 +2.4 –3.1 lt-day at rest frame (λ) = 1736 Å for microlenses with a mean mass of (M) = 0.3 M ☉ . This value, in good agreement with previous results from smaller samples, is roughly a factor of five greater than the predictions of the standard thin disk model. The individual size estimates for the 19 quasars in our sample are also in excellent agreement with the results of the joint maximum likelihood analysis.

  1. Dependence of Pin Surface Roughness for Friction Forces of Ultrathin Perfluoropolyether Lubricant Film on Magnetic Disks by Pin-on-Disk Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated supersmooth probes for use in pin-on-disk sliding tests by applying gas cluster ion beam irradiation to glass convex lenses. In the fabrication process, various changes were made to the irradiation conditions; these included one-step irradiation of Ar clusters or two-step irradiation of Ar and N2 clusters, with or without Ar cluster-assisted tough carbon deposition prior to N2 irradiation, and the application of various ion doses onto the surface. We successfully obtained probes with a centerline averaged surface roughness that ranged widely from 1.08 to 4.30 nm. Using these probes, we measured the friction forces exerted on magnetic disks coated with a molecularly thin lubricant film. Perfluoropolyether lubricant films with different numbers of hydroxyl end groups were compared, and our results indicated that the friction force increases as the surface roughness of the pin decreases and that increases as the number of hydroxyl end groups increases.

  2. Contact statuses between functionally graded brake disk and pure pad disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzamanian, M.M.; Sahari, B.B.; Bayat, M.; Mustapha, F.; Ismarrubie, Z.N.; Shahrjerdi, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The contact statuses between functionally graded (FG) brake disks and pure pad disk are investigated by using finite element method (FEM). Two types of variation is considered for FG brake disk, the variation of materials are considered change in radial and thickness direction of disk. The material properties of these two types of FG brake disks are assumed to be represented by power-law distributions in the radius and thickness direction. The results are obtained and then compared. For the radial FG brake disk, the inner and outer surfaces are considered metal and ceramic respectively, and friction coefficient between metal surface and ceramic surface of FG brake dick with pad are considered 1.4 and 0.75 respectively. For the thickness FG brake disk the contact surface with pure pad brake disk is ceramic and the free surface is metal and friction coefficient between ceramic (contact) surface and pure pad brake disk is considered 0.75. In both types of FG brake disks the Coulomb contact friction is applied. Mechanical response of FG brake disks are compared and verified with the known results in the literatures. Three types of contact statuses are introduced as Sticking, Contact and Near Contact. The contact status between pad and disk for different values for pad thickness, grading index,n , and percentage of friction coefficient (λ) is shown. It can be seen that for all values of percentage of friction coefficient,λ , and grading indices, n, by increasing the thickness of pad cause the contact status changes from sticking to contact and then to near contact. (author)

  3. High-coercivity FePt nanoparticle assemblies embedded in silica thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Q; Purkayastha, A; Singh, A P; Li, H; Ramanath, G; Li, A; Ramanujan, R V

    2009-01-01

    The ability to process assemblies using thin film techniques in a scalable fashion would be a key to transmuting the assemblies into manufacturable devices. Here, we embed FePt nanoparticle assemblies into a silica thin film by sol-gel processing. Annealing the thin film composite at 650 deg. C transforms the chemically disordered fcc FePt phase into the fct phase, yielding magnetic coercivity values H c >630 mT. The positional order of the particles is retained due to the protection offered by the silica host. Such films with assemblies of high-coercivity magnetic particles are attractive for realizing new types of ultra-high-density data storage devices and magneto-composites.

  4. Implementing Explicit and Finding Implicit Sharing in Embedded DSLs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Kiselyov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aliasing, or sharing, is prominent in many domains, denoting that two differently-named objects are in fact identical: a change in one object (memory cell, circuit terminal, disk block is instantly reflected in the other. Languages for modelling such domains should let the programmer explicitly define the sharing among objects or expressions. A DSL compiler may find other identical expressions and share them, implicitly. Such common subexpression elimination is crucial to the efficient implementation of DSLs. Sharing is tricky in embedded DSL, since host aliasing may correspond to copying of the underlying objects rather than their sharing. This tutorial summarizes discussions of implementing sharing in Haskell DSLs for automotive embedded systems and hardware description languages. The technique has since been used in a Haskell SAT solver and the DSL for music synthesis. We demonstrate the embedding in pure Haskell of a simple DSL with a language form for explicit sharing. The DSL also has implicit sharing, implemented via hash-consing. Explicit sharing greatly speeds up hash-consing. The seemingly imperative nature of hash-consing is hidden beneath a simple combinator language. The overall implementation remains pure functional and easy to reason about.

  5. Strength and fatigue life evaluation of composite laminate with embedded sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Vivek T.; Hiremath, S. R.; Roy Mahapatra, D.

    2014-04-01

    Prognosis regarding durability of composite structures using various Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) techniques is an important and challenging topic of research. Ultrasonic SHM systems with embedded transducers have potential application here due to their instant monitoring capability, compact packaging potential toward unobtrusiveness and noninvasiveness as compared to non-contact ultrasonic and eddy current techniques which require disassembly of the structure. However, embedded sensors pose a risk to the structure by acting as a flaw thereby reducing life. The present paper focuses on the determination of strength and fatigue life of the composite laminate with embedded film sensors like CNT nanocomposite, PVDF thin films and piezoceramic films. First, the techniques of embedding these sensors in composite laminates is described followed by the determination of static strength and fatigue life at coupon level testing in Universal Testing Machine (UTM). Failure mechanisms of the composite laminate with embedded sensors are studied for static and dynamic loading cases. The coupons are monitored for loading and failure using the embedded sensors. A comparison of the performance of these three types of embedded sensors is made to study their suitability in various applications. These three types of embedded sensors cover a wide variety of applications, and prove to be viable in embedded sensor based SHM of composite structures.

  6. SELF-DESTRUCTING SPIRAL WAVES: GLOBAL SIMULATIONS OF A SPIRAL-WAVE INSTABILITY IN ACCRETION DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee; Nelson, Richard P.; Richard, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    We present results from a suite of three-dimensional global hydrodynamic simulations that shows that spiral density waves propagating in circumstellar disks are unstable to the growth of a parametric instability that leads to break down of the flow into turbulence. This spiral wave instability (SWI) arises from a resonant interaction between pairs of inertial waves, or inertial-gravity waves, and the background spiral wave. The development of the instability in the linear regime involves the growth of a broad spectrum of inertial modes, with growth rates on the order of the orbital time, and results in a nonlinear saturated state in which turbulent velocity perturbations are of a similar magnitude to those induced by the spiral wave. The turbulence induces angular momentum transport and vertical mixing at a rate that depends locally on the amplitude of the spiral wave (we obtain a stress parameter α ∼ 5 × 10 −4 in our reference model). The instability is found to operate in a wide range of disk models, including those with isothermal or adiabatic equations of state, and in viscous disks where the dimensionless kinematic viscosity ν ≤ 10 −5 . This robustness suggests that the instability will have applications to a broad range of astrophysical disk-related phenomena, including those in close binary systems, planets embedded in protoplanetary disks (including Jupiter in our own solar system) and FU Orionis outburst models. Further work is required to determine the nature of the instability and to evaluate its observational consequences in physically more complete disk models than we have considered in this paper.

  7. Three Radial Gaps in the Disk of TW Hydrae Imaged with SPHERE

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boekel, R.; Henning, Th.; Menu, J.; de Boer, J.; Langlois, M.; Müller, A.; Avenhaus, H.; Boccaletti, A.; Schmid, H. M.; Thalmann, Ch.; Benisty, M.; Dominik, C.; Ginski, Ch.; Girard, J. H.; Gisler, D.; Lobo Gomes, A.; Menard, F.; Min, M.; Pavlov, A.; Pohl, A.; Quanz, S. P.; Rabou, P.; Roelfsema, R.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Teague, R.; Wildi, F.; Zurlo, A.

    2017-03-01

    We present scattered light images of the TW Hya disk performed with the Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch instrument in Polarimetric Differential Imaging mode at 0.63, 0.79, 1.24, and 1.62 μm. We also present H2/H3-band angular differential imaging (ADI) observations. Three distinct radial depressions in the polarized intensity distribution are seen, around ≈85, ≈21, and ≲6 au.21 The overall intensity distribution has a high degree of azimuthal symmetry; the disk is somewhat brighter than average toward the south and darker toward the north-west. The ADI observations yielded no signifiant detection of point sources in the disk. Our observations have a linear spatial resolution of 1-2 au, similar to that of recent ALMA dust continuum observations. The sub-micron-sized dust grains that dominate the light scattering in the disk surface are strongly coupled to the gas. We created a radiative transfer disk model with self-consistent temperature and vertical structure iteration and including grain size-dependent dust settling. This method may provide independent constraints on the gas distribution at higher spatial resolution than is feasible with ALMA gas line observations. We find that the gas surface density in the “gaps” is reduced by ≈50% to ≈80% relative to an unperturbed model. Should embedded planets be responsible for carving the gaps then their masses are at most a few 10 {{{M}}}\\oplus . The observed gaps are wider, with shallower flanks, than expected for planet-disk interaction with such low-mass planets. If forming planetary bodies have undergone collapse and are in the “detached phase,” then they may be directly observable with future facilities such as the Mid-Infrared E-ELT Imager and Spectrograph at the E-ELT.

  8. GRAIN GROWTH IN THE CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS OF THE YOUNG STARS CY Tau AND DoAr 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, Laura M.; Chandler, Claire J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Isella, Andrea [Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Carpenter, John M.; Sargent, Anneila I. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Andrews, Sean M.; Ricci, Luca [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Calvet, Nuria [University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Corder, Stuartt A. [Joint ALMA Observatory, Av. Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Deller, Adam T. [The Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), 7990-AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Dullemond, Cornelis P. [Heidelberg University, Center for Astronomy, Albert Ueberle Str 2, Heidelberg (Germany); Greaves, Jane S. [University of St. Andrews, Physics and Astronomy, North Haugh, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Harris, Robert J. [University of Illinois, 1002 West Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Henning, Thomas; Linz, Hendrik [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kwon, Woojin [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Lazio, Joseph [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr, Pasadena, CA 91106 (United States); Mundy, Lee G.; Storm, Shaye [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Tazzari, Marco [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2015-11-01

    We present new results from the Disks@EVLA program for two young stars: CY Tau and DoAr 25. We trace continuum emission arising from their circusmtellar disks from spatially resolved observations, down to tens of AU scales, at λ = 0.9, 2.8, 8.0, 9.8 mm for DoAr 25 and at λ = 1.3, 2.8, 7.1 mm for CY Tau. Additionally, we constrain the amount of emission whose origin is different from thermal dust emission from 5 cm observations. Directly from interferometric data, we find that observations at 7 mm and 1 cm trace emission from a compact disk while millimeter-wave observations trace an extended disk structure. From a physical disk model, where we characterize the disk structure of CY Tau and DoAr 25 at wavelengths shorter than 5 cm, we find that (1) dust continuum emission is optically thin at the observed wavelengths and over the spatial scales studied, (2) a constant value of the dust opacity is not warranted by our observations, and (3) a high-significance radial gradient of the dust opacity spectral index, β, is consistent with the observed dust emission in both disks, with low-β in the inner disk and high-β in the outer disk. Assuming that changes in dust properties arise solely due to changes in the maximum particle size (a{sub max}), we constrain radial variations of a{sub max} in both disks, from cm-sized particles in the inner disk (R < 40 AU) to millimeter sizes in the outer disk (R > 80 AU). These observational constraints agree with theoretical predictions of the radial-drift barrier, however, fragmentation of dust grains could explain our a{sub max}(R) constraints if these disks have lower turbulence and/or if dust can survive high-velocity collisions.

  9. Anchoring Polar Magnetic Field in a Stationary Thick Accretion Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samadi, Maryam; Abbassi, Shahram, E-mail: samadimojarad@um.ac.ir [Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, 91775-1436 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-08-20

    We investigate the properties of a hot accretion flow bathed in a poloidal magnetic field. We consider an axisymmetric viscous-resistive flow in the steady-state configuration. We assume that the dominant mechanism of energy dissipation is due to turbulence viscosity and magnetic diffusivity. A certain fraction of that energy can be advected toward the central compact object. We employ the self-similar method in the radial direction to find a system of ODEs with just one varible, θ in the spherical coordinates. For the existence and maintenance of a purely poloidal magnetic field in a rotating thick disk, we find that the necessary condition is a constant value of angular velocity along a magnetic field line. We obtain an analytical solution for the poloidal magnetic flux. We explore possible changes in the vertical structure of the disk under the influences of symmetric and asymmetric magnetic fields. Our results reveal that a polar magnetic field with even symmetry about the equatorial plane makes the disk vertically thin. Moreover, the accretion rate decreases when we consider a strong magnetic field. Finally, we notice that hot magnetized accretion flows can be fully advected even in a slim shape.

  10. CT-guided percutaneous laser disk decompression for cervical and lumbar disk hernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kanichiro; Koyama, Tutomu; Harada, Junta; Abe, Toshiaki

    2008-01-01

    Percutaneous laser disk decompression under X-ray fluoroscopy was first reported in 1987 for minimally invasive therapy of lumbar disk hernia. In patients with disk hernia, laser vaporizes a small portion of the intervertebral disk thereby reducing the volume and pressure of the affected disk. We present the efficacy and safety of this procedure, and analysis of fair or poor response cases. In our study, 226 cases of lumbar disk hernia and 7 cases of cervical disk hernia were treated under CT guided PLDD. Japan Orthopedic Association (JOA) score and Mac-Nab criteria were investigated to evaluate the response to treatment. Improvement ratio based on the JOA score was calculated as follows. Overall success rate was 91.6% in cases lumber disk hernia, and 100% in cases of cervical disk hernia. We experienced two cases with two cases with postoperative complication. Both cases were treated conservatively. The majority of acute cases and post operative cases were reported to be 'good' on Mac-Nab criteria. Cases of fair or poor response on Mac-Nab criteria were lateral type, foraminal stenosis or large disk hernia. CT-guided PLDD is a safe and accurate procedure. The overall success rate can be increased by carefully selecting patients. (author)

  11. Disk Storage Server

    CERN Multimedia

    This model was a disk storage server used in the Data Centre up until 2012. Each tray contains a hard disk drive (see the 5TB hard disk drive on the main disk display section - this actually fits into one of the trays). There are 16 trays in all per server. There are hundreds of these servers mounted on racks in the Data Centre, as can be seen.

  12. ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS FOR RADIATIVE TRANSFER: IMPLICATIONS FOR GIANT PLANET FORMATION BY DISK INSTABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, Alan P.

    2009-01-01

    The disk instability mechanism for giant planet formation is based on the formation of clumps in a marginally gravitationally unstable protoplanetary disk, which must lose thermal energy through a combination of convection and radiative cooling if they are to survive and contract to become giant protoplanets. While there is good observational support for forming at least some giant planets by disk instability, the mechanism has become theoretically contentious, with different three-dimensional radiative hydrodynamics codes often yielding different results. Rigorous code testing is required to make further progress. Here we present two new analytical solutions for radiative transfer in spherical coordinates, suitable for testing the code employed in all of the Boss disk instability calculations. The testing shows that the Boss code radiative transfer routines do an excellent job of relaxing to and maintaining the analytical results for the radial temperature and radiative flux profiles for a spherical cloud with high or moderate optical depths, including the transition from optically thick to optically thin regions. These radial test results are independent of whether the Eddington approximation, diffusion approximation, or flux-limited diffusion approximation routines are employed. The Boss code does an equally excellent job of relaxing to and maintaining the analytical results for the vertical (θ) temperature and radiative flux profiles for a disk with a height proportional to the radial distance. These tests strongly support the disk instability mechanism for forming giant planets.

  13. THE ROLE OF TURBULENT MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN THE FORMATION OF ROTATIONALLY SUPPORTED PROTOSTELLAR DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Lima, R.; De Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, R. do Matao, 1226, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); Lazarian, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The formation of protostellar disks out of molecular cloud cores is still not fully understood. Under ideal MHD conditions, the removal of angular momentum from the disk progenitor by the typically embedded magnetic field may prevent the formation of a rotationally supported disk during the main protostellar accretion phase of low-mass stars. This has been known as the magnetic braking problem and the most investigated mechanism to alleviate this problem and help remove the excess of magnetic flux during the star formation process, the so-called ambipolar diffusion (AD), has been shown to be not sufficient to weaken the magnetic braking at least at this stage of the disk formation. In this work, motivated by recent progress in the understanding of magnetic reconnection in turbulent environments, we appeal to the diffusion of magnetic field mediated by magnetic reconnection as an alternative mechanism for removing magnetic flux. We investigate numerically this mechanism during the later phases of the protostellar disk formation and show its high efficiency. By means of fully three-dimensional MHD simulations, we show that the diffusivity arising from turbulent magnetic reconnection is able to transport magnetic flux to the outskirts of the disk progenitor at timescales compatible with the collapse, allowing the formation of a rotationally supported disk around the protostar of dimensions {approx}100 AU, with a nearly Keplerian profile in the early accretion phase. Since MHD turbulence is expected to be present in protostellar disks, this is a natural mechanism for removing magnetic flux excess and allowing the formation of these disks. This mechanism dismisses the necessity of postulating a hypothetical increase of the ohmic resistivity as discussed in the literature. Together with our earlier work which showed that magnetic flux removal from molecular cloud cores is very efficient, this work calls for reconsidering the relative role of AD in the processes of star

  14. Chemo-orbital evidence from SDSS/SEGUE G dwarf stars for a mixed origin of the Galactic thick disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van de Ven G.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available About 13,000 G dwarf within 7disk. Combining [α/Fe] and [Fe/H] measurements with six-dimensional position-velocity parameters, we find that the sample is composed of two distinct stellar populations. The metal-rich population encompasses the thin disk with α-deficient stars and smoothly extends into a thick disk with α-enhanced stars, consistent with an in-situ formation through radial migration. On the other hand, the metal-poor population with enhanced α-abundance, higher scale height, and disperse kinematical properties, is difficult to explain with radial migration but might have originated from gas-rich mergers. The thick disk of the Milky Way seems to have a mixed origin.

  15. HNC IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graninger, Dawn; Öberg, Karin I.; Qi, Chunhua; Kastner, Joel

    2015-01-01

    The distributions and abundances of small organics in protoplanetary disks are potentially powerful probes of disk physics and chemistry. HNC is a common probe of dense interstellar regions and the target of this study. We use the Submillimeter Array (SMA) to observe HNC 3–2 toward the protoplanetary disks around the T Tauri star TW Hya and the Herbig Ae star HD 163296. HNC is detected toward both disks, constituting the first spatially resolved observations of HNC in disks. We also present SMA observations of HCN 3–2 and IRAM 30 m observations of HCN and HNC 1–0 toward HD 163296. The disk-averaged HNC/HCN emission ratio is 0.1–0.2 toward both disks. Toward TW Hya, the HNC emission is confined to a ring. The varying HNC abundance in the TW Hya disk demonstrates that HNC chemistry is strongly linked to the disk physical structure. In particular, the inner rim of the HNC ring can be explained by efficient destruction of HNC at elevated temperatures, similar to what is observed in the ISM. However, to realize the full potential of HNC as a disk tracer requires a combination of high SNR spatially resolved observations of HNC and HCN and disk-specific HNC chemical modeling

  16. HNC IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graninger, Dawn; Öberg, Karin I.; Qi, Chunhua [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kastner, Joel, E-mail: dgraninger@cfa.harvard.edu [Center for Imaging Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The distributions and abundances of small organics in protoplanetary disks are potentially powerful probes of disk physics and chemistry. HNC is a common probe of dense interstellar regions and the target of this study. We use the Submillimeter Array (SMA) to observe HNC 3–2 toward the protoplanetary disks around the T Tauri star TW Hya and the Herbig Ae star HD 163296. HNC is detected toward both disks, constituting the first spatially resolved observations of HNC in disks. We also present SMA observations of HCN 3–2 and IRAM 30 m observations of HCN and HNC 1–0 toward HD 163296. The disk-averaged HNC/HCN emission ratio is 0.1–0.2 toward both disks. Toward TW Hya, the HNC emission is confined to a ring. The varying HNC abundance in the TW Hya disk demonstrates that HNC chemistry is strongly linked to the disk physical structure. In particular, the inner rim of the HNC ring can be explained by efficient destruction of HNC at elevated temperatures, similar to what is observed in the ISM. However, to realize the full potential of HNC as a disk tracer requires a combination of high SNR spatially resolved observations of HNC and HCN and disk-specific HNC chemical modeling.

  17. Accretion Disk Assembly During Common Envelope Evolution: Implications for Feedback and LIGO Binary Black Hole Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murguia-Berthier, Ariadna; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Antoni, Andrea; Macias, Phillip [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); MacLeod, Morgan, E-mail: armurgui@ucsc.edu [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, 1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    During a common envelope (CE) episode in a binary system, the engulfed companion spirals to tighter orbital separations under the influence of drag from the surrounding envelope material. As this object sweeps through material with a steep radial gradient of density, net angular momentum is introduced into the flow, potentially leading to the formation of an accretion disk. The presence of a disk would have dramatic consequences for the outcome of the interaction because accretion might be accompanied by strong, polar outflows with enough energy to unbind the entire envelope. Without a detailed understanding of the necessary conditions for disk formation during CE, therefore, it is difficult to accurately predict the population of merging compact binaries. This paper examines the conditions for disk formation around objects embedded within CEs using the “wind tunnel” formalism developed by MacLeod et al. We find that the formation of disks is highly dependent on the compressibility of the envelope material. Disks form only in the most compressible of stellar envelope gas, found in envelopes’ outer layers in zones of partial ionization. These zones are largest in low-mass stellar envelopes, but comprise small portions of the envelope mass and radius in all cases. We conclude that disk formation and associated accretion feedback in CE is rare, and if it occurs, transitory. The implication for LIGO black hole binary assembly is that by avoiding strong accretion feedback, CE interactions should still result in the substantial orbital tightening needed to produce merging binaries.

  18. Development of Disk Rover, wall-climbing robot using permanent magnet disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Shigeo; Tsutsumitake; Hiroshi; Toyama, Ryousei; Kobayashi, Kengo.

    1992-01-01

    A new type of wall climbing robot, named Disk Rover, using permanent magnet disks are developed. The newly introduced permanent magnet disk is to rotate the magnet disk on the surface of wall with partly contacted posture. It allows to produce high magnetic attraction force compared with conventional permanent wheel which utilizes only a small portion of the magnet installed around the wheel. The optimum design of the magnetic wheel is done by using finit element method and it is shown that the magnetic attraction force vs. weight ratio can be designed about three times higher than conventional type magnet wheel. The developed Disk Rover is 25 kg in weight including controller and battery, about 685 mm in diameter, 239 mm in height and has a pair of permanent magnet disks. It is demonstrated by the experiments that the Disk Rover can move around on the surface of the wall quite smoothly by radio control and has payload of about its own weight. Several considerations are also done in order to surmount bead weld. (author)

  19. PROTOPLANETARY DISK MASSES IN IC348: A RAPID DECLINE IN THE POPULATION OF SMALL DUST GRAINS AFTER 1 Myr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Nicholas; Williams, Jonathan P.; Cieza, Lucas A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a 1.3 mm continuum survey of protoplanetary disks in the 2-3 Myr old cluster, IC348, with the Submillimeter Array. We observed 85 young stellar objects and detected 10 with 1.3 mm fluxes greater than 2 mJy. The brightest source is a young embedded protostar driving a molecular outflow. The other nine detections are dusty disks around optically visible stars. Our millimeter flux measurements translate into total disk masses ranging from 2 to 6 Jupiter masses. Each detected disk has strong mid-infrared emission in excess of the stellar photosphere and has Hα equivalent widths larger than the average in the cluster and indicative of ongoing gas accretion. The disk mass distribution, however, is shifted by about a factor of 20 to lower masses, compared to that in the ∼1 Myr old Taurus and Ophiuchus regions. These observations reveal the rapid decline in the number of small dust grains in disks with time and probably their concomitant growth beyond millimeter sizes. Moreover, if IC348 is to form planets in the same proportion as detected in the field, these faint millimeter detections may represent the best candidates in the cluster to study the progression from planetesimals to planets.

  20. Rings of Molecular Line Emission in the Disk Orbiting the Young, Close Binary V4046 Sgr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Vandervelde, Dorothy; Kastner, Joel H.; Qi, C.; Forveille, Thierry; Hily-Blant, Pierre; Oberg, Karin; Wilner, David; Andrews, Sean; Gorti, Uma; Rapson, Valerie; Sacco, Germano; Principe, David

    2018-01-01

    We present analysis of a suite of subarcsecond ALMA Band 6 (1.1 - 1.4 mm) molecular line images of the circumbinary, protoplanetary disk orbiting V4046 Sgr. The ~20 Myr-old V4046 Sgr system, which lies a mere ~73 pc from Earth, consists of a close (separation ~10 Rsun) pair of roughly solar-mass stars that are orbited by a gas-rich crcumbinary disk extending to ~350 AU in radius. The ALMA images reveal that the molecules CO and HCN and their isotopologues display centrally peaked surface brightness morphologies, whereas the cyanide group molecules (HC3N, CH3CN), deuterated molecules (DCN, DCO+), hydrocarbons (as traced by C2H), and potential CO ice line tracers (N2H+, and H2CO) appear as a sequence of sharp and diffuse rings of increasing radii. The characteristic sizes of these molecular emission rings, which range from ~25 to >100 AU in radius, are evident in radial emission-line surface brightness profiles extracted from the deprojected disk images. We find that emission from 13CO emission transitions from optically thin to thick within ~50 AU, whereas C18O emission remains optically thin within this radius. We summarize the insight into the physical and chemical processes within this evolved protoplanetary disk that can be obtained from comparisons of the various emission-line morphologies with each other and with that of the continuum (large-grain) emission on size scales of tens of AU.This research is supported by NASA Exoplanets program grant NNX16AB43G to RIT

  1. MID-INFRARED IMAGING OF THE TRANSITIONAL DISK OF HD 169142: MEASURING THE SIZE OF THE GAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Science, Kanagawa University, 2946 Tsuchiya, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1293 (Japan); Maaskant, Koen; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Dominik, C.; Mulders, G. D. [Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Okamoto, Y. K. [Institute of Astrophysics and Planetary Sciences, Faculty of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Kataza, H. [Department of Infrared Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Fukagawa, M. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Min, M. [Astronomical Institute Utrecht, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80000, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Yamashita, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Fujiyoshi, T.; Fujiwara, H. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Miyata, T.; Sako, S. [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Sakon, I.; Onaka, T. [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2012-06-20

    The disk around the Herbig Ae star HD 169142 was imaged and resolved at 18.8 and 24.5 {mu}m using Subaru/COMICS. We interpret the observations using a two-dimensional radiative transfer model and find evidence for the presence of a large gap. The mid-infrared images trace dust that is emitted at the onset of a strong rise in the spectral energy distribution (SED) at 20 {mu}m, and are therefore very sensitive to the location and characteristics of the inner wall of the outer disk and its dust. We determine the location of the wall to be 23{sup +3}{sub -5} AU from the star. An extra component of hot dust must exist close to the star. We find that a hydrostatic optically thick inner disk does not produce enough flux in the near-infrared, and an optically thin, geometrically thick component is our solution to fit the SED. Considering the recent findings of gaps and holes in a number of Herbig Ae/Be group I disks, we suggest that such disk structures may be common in group I sources. Classification as group I should be considered a strong case for classification as a transitional disk, though improved imaging surveys are needed to support this speculation.

  2. Variable H13CO+ Emission in the IM Lup Disk: X-Ray Driven Time-dependent Chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Bergin, Edwin A.; Öberg, Karin I.; Andrews, Sean; Wilner, David; Loomis, Ryan

    2017-07-01

    We report the first detection of a substantial brightening event in an isotopologue of a key molecular ion, HCO+, within a protoplanetary disk of a T Tauri star. The H13CO+ J=3-2 rotational transition was observed three times toward IM Lup between 2014 July and 2015 May with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. The first two observations show similar spectrally integrated line and continuum fluxes, while the third observation shows a doubling in the disk-integrated J=3-2 line flux compared to the continuum, which does not change between the three epochs. We explore models of an X-ray active star irradiating the disk via stellar flares, and find that the optically thin H13CO+ emission variation can potentially be explained via X-ray-driven chemistry temporarily enhancing the HCO+ abundance in the upper layers of the disk atmosphere during large or prolonged flaring events. If the HCO+ enhancement is indeed caused by an X-ray flare, future observations should be able to spatially resolve these events and potentially enable us to watch the chemical aftermath of the high-energy stellar radiation propagating across the face of protoplanetary disks, providing a new pathway to explore ionization physics and chemistry, including electron density, in disks.

  3. MID-INFRARED IMAGING OF THE TRANSITIONAL DISK OF HD 169142: MEASURING THE SIZE OF THE GAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, M.; Maaskant, Koen; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Dominik, C.; Mulders, G. D.; Okamoto, Y. K.; Kataza, H.; Fukagawa, M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Min, M.; Yamashita, T.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Fujiwara, H.; Miyata, T.; Sako, S.; Sakon, I.; Onaka, T.

    2012-01-01

    The disk around the Herbig Ae star HD 169142 was imaged and resolved at 18.8 and 24.5 μm using Subaru/COMICS. We interpret the observations using a two-dimensional radiative transfer model and find evidence for the presence of a large gap. The mid-infrared images trace dust that is emitted at the onset of a strong rise in the spectral energy distribution (SED) at 20 μm, and are therefore very sensitive to the location and characteristics of the inner wall of the outer disk and its dust. We determine the location of the wall to be 23 +3 –5 AU from the star. An extra component of hot dust must exist close to the star. We find that a hydrostatic optically thick inner disk does not produce enough flux in the near-infrared, and an optically thin, geometrically thick component is our solution to fit the SED. Considering the recent findings of gaps and holes in a number of Herbig Ae/Be group I disks, we suggest that such disk structures may be common in group I sources. Classification as group I should be considered a strong case for classification as a transitional disk, though improved imaging surveys are needed to support this speculation.

  4. Stirring up the dust: a dynamical model for halo-like dust clouds in transitional disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijt, S.; Dominik, C.

    2011-01-01

    Context. A small number of young stellar objects show signs of a halo-like structure of optically thin dust, in addition to a circumstellar disk. This halo or torus is located within a few AU of the star, but its origin has not yet been understood. Aims. A dynamically excited cloud of planetesimals

  5. One-dimensional analysis of plane and radial thin film flows including solid-body rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S.; Hankey, W.; Faghri, A.; Swanson, T.

    1989-01-01

    The flow of a thin liquid film with a free surface along a horizontal plate which emanates from a pressurized vessel is examined by integrating the equations of motion across the thin liquid layer and discretizing the integrated equations using finite difference techniques. The effects of 0-g and solid-body rotation will be discussed. The two cases of interest are plane flow and radial flow. In plane flow, the liquid is considered to be flowing along a channel with no change in the width of the channel, whereas in radial flow the liquid spreads out radially over a disk, so that the area changes along the radius. It is desired to determine the height of the liquid film at any location along the plate of disk, so that the heat transfer from the plate or disk can be found. The possibility that the flow could encounter a hydraulic jump is accounted for.

  6. THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH DEBRIS DISK CATALOG. II. SILICATE FEATURE ANALYSIS OF UNRESOLVED TARGETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Tushar [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-4767 (United States); Chen, Christine H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Jang-Condell, Hannah [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Manoj, P. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Sargent, Benjamin A. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Watson, Dan M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Lisse, Carey M., E-mail: cchen@stsci.edu [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    During the Spitzer Space Telescope cryogenic mission, astronomers obtained Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of hundreds of debris disk candidates that have been compiled in the Spitzer IRS Debris Disk Catalog. We have discovered 10 and/or 20 μm silicate emission features toward 120 targets in the catalog and modeled the IRS spectra of these sources, consistent with MIPS 70 μm observations, assuming that the grains are composed of silicates (olivine, pyroxene, forsterite, and enstatite) and are located either in a continuous disk with power-law size and surface density distributions or thin rings that are well-characterized using two separate dust grain temperatures. For systems better fit by the continuous disk model, we find that (1) the dust size distribution power-law index is consistent with that expected from a collisional cascade, q = 3.5-4.0, with a large number of values outside this range, and (2) the minimum grain size, a {sub min}, increases with stellar luminosity, L {sub *}, but the dependence of a {sub min} on L {sub *} is weaker than expected from radiation pressure alone. In addition, we also find that (3) the crystalline fraction of dust in debris disks evolves as a function of time with a large dispersion in crystalline fractions for stars of any particular stellar age or mass, (4) the disk inner edge is correlated with host star mass, and (5) there exists substantial variation in the properties of coeval disks in Sco-Cen, indicating that the observed variation is probably due to stochasticity and diversity in planet formation.

  7. Antibiogramj: A tool for analysing images from disk diffusion tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, C A; Domínguez, C; Heras, J; Mata, E; Pascual, V; Torres, C; Zarazaga, M

    2017-05-01

    Disk diffusion testing, known as antibiogram, is widely applied in microbiology to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of microorganisms. The measurement of the diameter of the zone of growth inhibition of microorganisms around the antimicrobial disks in the antibiogram is frequently performed manually by specialists using a ruler. This is a time-consuming and error-prone task that might be simplified using automated or semi-automated inhibition zone readers. However, most readers are usually expensive instruments with embedded software that require significant changes in laboratory design and workflow. Based on the workflow employed by specialists to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of microorganisms, we have designed a software tool that, from images of disk diffusion tests, semi-automatises the process. Standard computer vision techniques are employed to achieve such an automatisation. We present AntibiogramJ, a user-friendly and open-source software tool to semi-automatically determine, measure and categorise inhibition zones of images from disk diffusion tests. AntibiogramJ is implemented in Java and deals with images captured with any device that incorporates a camera, including digital cameras and mobile phones. The fully automatic procedure of AntibiogramJ for measuring inhibition zones achieves an overall agreement of 87% with an expert microbiologist; moreover, AntibiogramJ includes features to easily detect when the automatic reading is not correct and fix it manually to obtain the correct result. AntibiogramJ is a user-friendly, platform-independent, open-source, and free tool that, up to the best of our knowledge, is the most complete software tool for antibiogram analysis without requiring any investment in new equipment or changes in the laboratory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Feasibility of using PZT actuators to study the dynamic behavior of a rotating disk due to rotor-stator interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presas, Alexandre; Egusquiza, Eduard; Valero, Carme; Valentin, David; Seidel, Ulrich

    2014-07-07

    In this paper, PZT actuators are used to study the dynamic behavior of a rotating disk structure due to rotor-stator interaction excitation. The disk is studied with two different surrounding fluids-air and water. The study has been performed analytically and validated experimentally. For the theoretical analysis, the natural frequencies and the associated mode shapes of the rotating disk in air and water are obtained with the Kirchhoff-Love thin plate theory coupled with the interaction with the surrounding fluid. A model for the Rotor Stator Interaction that occurs in many rotating disk-like parts of turbomachinery such as compressors, hydraulic runners or alternators is presented. The dynamic behavior of the rotating disk due to this excitation is deduced. For the experimental analysis a test rig has been developed. It consists of a stainless steel disk (r = 198 mm and h = 8 mm) connected to a variable speed motor. Excitation and response are measured from the rotating system. For the rotating excitation four piezoelectric patches have been used. Calibrating the piezoelectric patches in amplitude and phase, different rotating excitation patterns are applied on the rotating disk in air and in water. Results show the feasibility of using PZT to control the response of the disk due to a rotor-stator interaction.

  9. Feasibility of Using PZT Actuators to Study the Dynamic Behavior of a Rotating Disk due to Rotor-Stator Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Presas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, PZT actuators are used to study the dynamic behavior of a rotating disk structure due to rotor-stator interaction excitation. The disk is studied with two different surrounding fluids—air and water. The study has been performed analytically and validated experimentally. For the theoretical analysis, the natural frequencies and the associated mode shapes of the rotating disk in air and water are obtained with the Kirchhoff-Love thin plate theory coupled with the interaction with the surrounding fluid. A model for the Rotor Stator Interaction that occurs in many rotating disk-like parts of turbomachinery such as compressors, hydraulic runners or alternators is presented. The dynamic behavior of the rotating disk due to this excitation is deduced. For the experimental analysis a test rig has been developed. It consists of a stainless steel disk (r = 198 mm and h = 8 mm connected to a variable speed motor. Excitation and response are measured from the rotating system. For the rotating excitation four piezoelectric patches have been used. Calibrating the piezoelectric patches in amplitude and phase, different rotating excitation patterns are applied on the rotating disk in air and in water. Results show the feasibility of using PZT to control the response of the disk due to a rotor-stator interaction.

  10. SELF-DESTRUCTING SPIRAL WAVES: GLOBAL SIMULATIONS OF A SPIRAL-WAVE INSTABILITY IN ACCRETION DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Nelson, Richard P.; Richard, Samuel, E-mail: jaehbae@umich.edu, E-mail: lhartm@umich.edu, E-mail: r.p.nelson@qmul.ac.uk, E-mail: samuel.richard@qmul.ac.uk [Astronomy Unit, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-20

    We present results from a suite of three-dimensional global hydrodynamic simulations that shows that spiral density waves propagating in circumstellar disks are unstable to the growth of a parametric instability that leads to break down of the flow into turbulence. This spiral wave instability (SWI) arises from a resonant interaction between pairs of inertial waves, or inertial-gravity waves, and the background spiral wave. The development of the instability in the linear regime involves the growth of a broad spectrum of inertial modes, with growth rates on the order of the orbital time, and results in a nonlinear saturated state in which turbulent velocity perturbations are of a similar magnitude to those induced by the spiral wave. The turbulence induces angular momentum transport and vertical mixing at a rate that depends locally on the amplitude of the spiral wave (we obtain a stress parameter α ∼ 5 × 10{sup −4} in our reference model). The instability is found to operate in a wide range of disk models, including those with isothermal or adiabatic equations of state, and in viscous disks where the dimensionless kinematic viscosity ν ≤ 10{sup −5}. This robustness suggests that the instability will have applications to a broad range of astrophysical disk-related phenomena, including those in close binary systems, planets embedded in protoplanetary disks (including Jupiter in our own solar system) and FU Orionis outburst models. Further work is required to determine the nature of the instability and to evaluate its observational consequences in physically more complete disk models than we have considered in this paper.

  11. Gas Velocities Reveal Newly Born Planets in a Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-06-01

    Occasionally, science comes together beautifully for a discovery and sometimes this happens for more than one team at once! Today we explore how two independent collaborations of scientists simultaneously found the very first kinematic evidence for young planets forming in a protoplanetary disk. Though they explored the same disk, the two teams in fact discovered different planets.Evidence for PlanetsALMAs view of the dust in the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young star HD 163296. Todays studies explore not the dust, but the gas of this disk. [ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO); A. Isella; B. Saxton (NRAO/AUI/NSF)]Over the past three decades, weve detected around 4,000 fully formed exoplanets. Much more elusive, however, are the young planets still in the early stages of formation; only a handful of these have been discovered. More observations of early-stage exoplanets are needed in order to understand how these worlds are born in dusty protoplanetary-disk environments, how they grow their atmospheres, and how they evolve.Recent observations by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) have produced stunning images of protoplanetary disks. The unprecedented resolution of these images reveals substructure in the form of gaps and rings, hinting at the presence of planets that orbit within the disk and clear out their paths as they move. But there are also non-planet mechanisms that could produce such substructure, like grain growth around ice lines, or hydrodynamic instabilities in the disk.How can we definitively determine whether there are nascent planets embedded in these disks? Direct direction of a point source in a dust gap would be a strong confirmation, but now we have the next best thing: kinematic evidence for planets, from the motion of a disks gas.Observations of carbon monoxide line emission at +1km/s from the systemic velocity (left) vs. the outcome of a computer simulation (right) in the Pinte et al. study. A visible kink occurs in the flow

  12. Surface vibrational modes in disk-shaped resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, A V; Gritsenko, D S; Mitrofanov, V P

    2014-03-01

    The natural frequencies and distributions of displacement components for the surface vibrational modes in thin isotropic elastic disks are calculated. In particular, the research is focused on even solutions for low-lying resonant vibrations with large angular wave numbers. Several families of modes are found which are interpreted as modified surface modes of an infinitely long cylinder and Lamb modes of a plate. The results of calculation are compared with the results of the experimental measurements of vibrational modes generated by means of resonant excitation in duraluminum disk with radius of ≈90 mm and thickness of 16 mm in the frequency range of 130-200 kHz. An excellent agreement between the calculated and measured frequencies is found. Measurements of the structure of the resonant peaks show splitting of some modes. About a half of the measured modes has splitting Δfsplit/fmode at the level of the order of 10(-5). The Q-factors of all modes measured in vacuum lie in the interval (2…3)×10(5). This value is typical for duraluminum mechanical resonators in the ultrasonic frequency range. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding Floppy Disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Pamela

    1980-01-01

    The author describes the floppy disk with an analogy to the phonograph record, and discusses the advantages, disadvantages, and capabilities of hard-sectored and soft-sectored floppy disks. She concludes that, at present, the floppy disk will continue to be the primary choice of personal computer manufacturers and their customers. (KC)

  14. OT1_ipascucc_1: Understanding the Origin of Transition Disks via Disk Mass Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascucci, I.

    2010-07-01

    Transition disks are a distinguished group of few Myr-old systems caught in the phase of dispersing their inner dust disk. Three different processes have been proposed to explain this inside-out clearing: grain growth, photoevaporation driven by the central star, and dynamical clearing by a forming giant planet. Which of these processes lead to a transition disk? Distinguishing between them requires the combined knowledge of stellar accretion rates and disk masses. We propose here to use 43.8 hours of PACS spectroscopy to detect the [OI] 63 micron emission line from a sample of 21 well-known transition disks with measured mass accretion rates. We will use this line, in combination with ancillary CO millimeter lines, to measure their gas disk mass. Because gas dominates the mass of protoplanetary disks our approach and choice of lines will enable us to trace the bulk of the disk mass that resides beyond tens of AU from young stars. Our program will quadruple the number of transition disks currently observed with Herschel in this setting and for which disk masses can be measured. We will then place the transition and the ~100 classical/non-transition disks of similar age (from the Herschel KP "Gas in Protoplanetary Systems") in the mass accretion rate-disk mass diagram with two main goals: 1) reveal which gaps have been created by grain growth, photoevaporation, or giant planet formation and 2) from the statistics, determine the main disk dispersal mechanism leading to a transition disk.

  15. Isolation of circulating tumor cells by a magnesium-embedded filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Kang, Dongyang; Xu, Lei; Park, Jungwook; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Tai, Yu-Chong; Xu, Tong; Xu, Yucheng; Chang, Jay Han-Chieh; Goldkorn, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are rare cancer cells that are shed by tumors into the bloodstream and that can be valuable biomarkers for various types of cancers. However, CTCs captured on the filter could not be released easily using the existing CTC analysis platforms based on size. To address this limitation, we have developed a novel magnesium (Mg)-embedded cell filter for capture, release and isolation of CTCs. The CTC-filter consists of a thin Ebeam-deposited Mg layer embedded between two parylene-C (PA-C) layers with designed slots for filtration and CTC capture. Thin Mg film has proved highly biocompatible and can be etched in saline, PBS and Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium (DMEM) etc, properties that are of great benefit to help dissociate the filter and thus release the cells. The finite element method (FEM) analysis was performed on the Mg etching process in DMEM for the structure design. After the filtration process, the filter was submerged in DMEM to facilitate Mg etching. The top PA-C filter pieces break apart from the bottom after Mg completely dissolves, enabling captured CTCs to detach. The released CTC can be easily aspirated into a micropipette for further analysis. Thus, the Mg-embedded cell filter provides a new and effective approach for CTCs isolation from the filter, making this a promising new strategy for cancer detection. (paper)

  16. The fastest disk wind in APM 08279+5255 and its acceleration mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagino, K.; Done, C.; Odaka, H.; Watanabe, S.; Takahashi, T.

    2017-10-01

    The luminous high-z quasar APM 08279+5255 has the most powerful ultra-fast outflow (UFO), which is claimed as the fastest disk wind with velocity of 0.7c. This extreme velocity is very important for constraining the physical mechanism to launch the UFOs because only magnetic driving mechanism can accelerate the winds up to velocities above 0.3c, at which radiation drag effects prevent radiation driving. We reanalyze all the observed data of this source with our spectral model of highly ionized disk winds constructed by 3D Monte Carlo radiation transfer simulation. This was applied to an archetypal disk wind in PDS 456, and successfully reproduced all the spectra observed with Suzaku in spite of their strong spectral variability. By applying our spectral model to APM 08279+5255, all the spectra observed with XMM-Newton, Chandra and Suzaku are explained with less extreme outflow velocities of 0.1-0.2c. In our analysis, the high energy absorption features, which were previously interpreted as absorption lines with extremely fast velocities, are produced by iron-K absorption edges from moderately ionized clumps embedded in the highly ionized wind. We also investigate the broadband SED, and find that it is X-ray weak and UV bright, which prefers the radiation driving.

  17. Analytic Expressions for the Inner-rim Structure of Passively Heated Protoplanetary Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Takahiro; Okuzumi, Satoshi [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo, 152-8551 (Japan); Flock, Mario, E-mail: t_ueda@geo.titech.ac.jp [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We analytically derive the expressions for the structure of the inner region of protoplanetary disks based on the results from the recent hydrodynamical simulations. The inner part of a disk can be divided into four regions: a dust-free region with a gas temperature in the optically thin limit, an optically thin dust halo, an optically thick condensation front, and the classical, optically thick region, in order from the innermost to the outermost. We derive the dust-to-gas mass ratio profile in the dust halo using the fact that partial dust condensation regulates the temperature relative to the dust evaporation temperature. Beyond the dust halo, there is an optically thick condensation front where all the available silicate gas condenses out. The curvature of the condensation surface is determined by the condition that the surface temperature must be nearly equal to the characteristic temperature ∼1200 K. We derive the midplane temperature in the outer two regions using the two-layer approximation, with the additional heating by the condensation front for the outermost region. As a result, the overall temperature profile is step-like, with steep gradients at the borders between the outer three regions. The borders might act as planet traps where the inward migration of planets due to gravitational interaction with the gas disk stops. The temperature at the border between the two outermost regions coincides with the temperature needed to activate magnetorotational instability, suggesting that the inner edge of the dead zone must lie at this border. The radius of the dead zone inner edge predicted from our solution is ∼2–3 times larger than that expected from the classical optically thick temperature.

  18. Equilibrium configuration of a stratus floating above accretion disks: Full-disk calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itanishi, Yusuke; Fukue, Jun

    2017-06-01

    We examine floating strati above a luminous accretion disk, supported by the radiative force from the entire disk, and calculate the equilibrium locus, which depends on the disk luminosity and the optical depth of the stratus. Due to the radiative transfer effect (albedo effect), the floating height of the stratus with a finite optical depth generally becomes high, compared with the particle case. In contrast to the case of the near-disk approximation, moreover, the floating height becomes yet higher in the present full-disk calculation, since the intense radiation from the inner disk is taken into account. As a result, when the disk luminosity normalized by the Eddington luminosity is ˜0.3 and the stratus optical depth is around unity, the stable configuration disappears at around r ˜ 50 rg, rg being the Schwarzschild radius, and the stratus would be blown off as a cloudy wind consisting of many strati with appropriate conditions. This luminosity is sufficiently smaller than the Eddington one, and the present results suggest that the radiation-driven cloudy wind can be easily blown off from the sub-Eddington disk, and this can explain various outflows observed in ultra-fast outflow objects as well as in broad-absorption-line quasars.

  19. Underwater sound transmission through arrays of disk cavities in a soft elastic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, David C; Thangawng, Abel L; Layman, Christopher N; Casalini, Riccardo; Othman, Shadi F

    2015-10-01

    Scattering from a cavity in a soft elastic medium, such as silicone rubber, resembles scattering from an underwater bubble in that low-frequency monopole resonance is obtainable in both cases. Arrays of cavities can therefore be used to reduce underwater sound transmission using thin layers and low void fractions. This article examines the role of cavity shape by microfabricating arrays of disk-shaped air cavities into single and multiple layers of polydimethylsiloxane. Comparison is made with the case of equivalent volume cylinders which approximate spheres. Measurements of ultrasonic underwater sound transmission are compared with finite element modeling predictions. The disks provide a deeper transmission minimum at a lower frequency owing to the drum-type breathing resonance. The resonance of a single disk cavity in an unbounded medium is also calculated and compared with a derived estimate of the natural frequency of the drum mode. Variation of transmission is determined as a function of disk tilt angle, lattice constant, and layer thickness. A modeled transmission loss of 18 dB can be obtained at a wavelength about 20 times the three-layer thickness, and thinner results (wavelength/thickness ∼ 240) are possible for the same loss with a single layer depending on allowable hydrostatic pressure.

  20. Optimization of the dissolution of molybdenum disks. FY-16 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkac, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotsch, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bailey, James L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krebs, John F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is providing technical development assistance to NorthStar Medical Technologies LLC in its pursuit of two pathways for production of molybdenum-99: the 98Mo(n,γ) 99Mo reaction and the photonuclear reaction, 100Mo(γ,n)99Mo. Processing of irradiated targets, from either production mode, requires dissolution of the target material in H2O2 followed by a concentration step, addition of ferric ion to precipitate impurities, and conversion of the final solution to 5M potassium hydroxide solution of potassium molybdate. Currently, NorthStar is using pressed and sintered Mo disks as targets. Several options are being considered for the design of Mo targets for the production of 99Mo using the (γ,n) reaction. In the current design, the target holder contains a series of sintered Mo disks lined up perpendicular to two incident electron beams, one entering from each side of the target stack. In this configuration, the front-most disks absorb most of the heat from the electron beam and need to be thinner to allow for better cooling, while the middle of the target can be thicker. Distribution of the total mass of Mo allows for larger masses of Mo material and thus larger production batches of 99Mo. A limitation of the sintering approach is the production of very thin disks. Recent advances in 3D printing allow for much thinner target components can be achieved than when the traditional press-and-sinter approach is used. We have demonstrated that several factors can play important roles in dissolution behavior: particle size of Mo metal used for production of targets, sintering conditions, degree of open porosity, and thickness of the sintered Mo targets. Here we report experimental results from studies of small-scale dissolution of sintered Mo disks fabricated from various recycled and commercial Mo materials, and dissolution of 3D-printed Mo disks that were

  1. The Most Ancient Spiral Galaxy: A 2.6-Gyr-old Disk with a Tranquil Velocity Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tiantian; Richard, Johan; Gupta, Anshu; Federrath, Christoph; Sharma, Soniya; Groves, Brent A.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Cen, Renyue; Birnboim, Yuval; Fisher, David B.

    2017-11-01

    We report an integral-field spectroscopic (IFS) observation of a gravitationally lensed spiral galaxy A1689B11 at redshift z = 2.54. It is the most ancient spiral galaxy discovered to date and the second kinematically confirmed spiral at z≳ 2. Thanks to gravitational lensing, this is also by far the deepest IFS observation with the highest spatial resolution (˜400 pc) on a spiral galaxy at a cosmic time when the Hubble sequence is about to emerge. After correcting for a lensing magnification of 7.2 ± 0.8, this primitive spiral disk has an intrinsic star formation rate of 22 ± 2 M ⊙ yr-1, a stellar mass of {10}9.8+/- 0.3 M ⊙, and a half-light radius of {r}1/2=2.6+/- 0.7 {kpc}, typical of a main-sequence star-forming galaxy at z˜ 2. However, the Hα kinematics show a surprisingly tranquil velocity field with an ordered rotation ({V}{{c}}=200+/- 12 km s-1) and uniformly small velocity dispersions ({V}σ ,{mean}=23 +/- 4 km s-1 and {V}σ ,{outer - {disk}}=15+/- 2 km s-1). The low gas velocity dispersion is similar to local spiral galaxies and is consistent with the classic density wave theory where spiral arms form in dynamically cold and thin disks. We speculate that A1689B11 belongs to a population of rare spiral galaxies at z≳ 2 that mark the formation epoch of thin disks. Future observations with the James Webb Space Telescope will greatly increase the sample of these rare galaxies and unveil the earliest onset of spiral arms.

  2. Quasicubic α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles embedded in TiO{sub 2} thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamm, Aile [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi 1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Seinberg, Liis [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Kozlova, Jekaterina [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi 1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Link, Joosep [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Pikma, Piret [University of Tartu, Institute of Chemistry, Ravila 14A, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Stern, Raivo [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Kukli, Kaupo [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Ostwaldi 1, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-08-01

    Monodispersed quasicubic α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized from ferric nitrite (Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}), N,N-dimethyl formamide and poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone). Layers of nanoparticles were attached to HF-etched Si substrates by dip coating and subsequently embedded in thin titanium oxide films grown by atomic layer deposition from TiCl{sub 4} and H{sub 2}O. The deposition of TiO{sub 2} onto Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles covered the nanoparticles uniformly and anatase phase of TiO{sub 2} was observed in Si/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanostructures. In Si/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanostructure magnetic domains, observable by magnetic force microscopy, were formed and these nanostructures implied ferromagnetic-like behavior at room temperature with the saturative magnetization and coercivity of 10 kA/m. - Highlights: • Cubic-shaped iron oxide crystallites were supported by thin titanium oxide films. • The process chemistry applied allowed formation of heterogeneous composite. • Atomic layer deposition of titanium oxide on nanocubes was uniform and conformal. • The nanostructures formed can be regarded as magnetically susceptible materials.

  3. Technical advantages of disk laser technology in short and ultrashort pulse processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, P.; Stollhof, J.; Weiler, S.; Massa, S.; Faisst, B.; Denney, P.; Gounaris, E.

    2011-03-01

    This paper demonstrates that disk-laser technology introduces advantages that increase efficiency and allows for high productivity in micro-processing in both the nanosecond (ns) and picosecond (ps) regimes. Some technical advantages of disk technology include not requiring good pump beam quality or special wavelengths for pumping of the disk, high optical efficiencies, no thermal lensing effects and a possible scaling of output power without an increase of pump beam quality. With cavity-dumping, the pulse duration of the disk laser can be specified between 30 and hundreds of nanoseconds, but is independent of frequency, thus maintaining process stability. TRUMPF uses this technology in the 750 watts average power laser TruMicro 7050. High intensity, along with fluency, is important for high ablation rates in thinfilm removal. Thus, these ns lasers show high removal rates, above 60 cm2/s, in thin-film solar cell production. In addition, recent results in paint-stripping of aerospace material prove the green credentials and high processing rates inherent with this technology as it can potentially replace toxic chemical processes. The ps disk technology meanwhile is used in, for example, scribing of solar cells, wafer dicing and drilling injector nozzles, as the pulse duration is short enough to minimize heat input in the laser-matter interaction. In the TruMicro Series 5000, the multi-pass regenerative amplifier stage combines high optical-optical efficiencies together with excellent output beam quality for pulse durations of only 6 ps and high pulse energies of up to 0.25 mJ.

  4. Sub-nanometre channels embedded in two-dimensional materials

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yimo

    2017-12-04

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are among the most promising candidates for next-generation electronics due to their atomic thinness, allowing for flexible transparent electronics and ultimate length scaling1. Thus far, atomically thin p–n junctions2,3,4,5,6,7,8, metal–semiconductor contacts9,10,11, and metal–insulator barriers12,13,14 have been demonstrated. Although 2D materials achieve the thinnest possible devices, precise nanoscale control over the lateral dimensions is also necessary. Here, we report the direct synthesis of sub-nanometre-wide one-dimensional (1D) MoS2 channels embedded within WSe2 monolayers, using a dislocation-catalysed approach. The 1D channels have edges free of misfit dislocations and dangling bonds, forming a coherent interface with the embedding 2D matrix. Periodic dislocation arrays produce 2D superlattices of coherent MoS2 1D channels in WSe2. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have identified other combinations of 2D materials where 1D channels can also be formed. The electronic band structure of these 1D channels offers the promise of carrier confinement in a direct-gap material and the charge separation needed to access the ultimate length scales necessary for future electronic applications.

  5. 2TB hard disk drive

    CERN Multimedia

    This particular object was used up until 2012 in the Data Centre. It slots into one of the Disk Server trays. Hard disks were invented in the 1950s. They started as large disks up to 20 inches in diameter holding just a few megabytes (link is external). They were originally called "fixed disks" or "Winchesters" (a code name used for a popular IBM product). They later became known as "hard disks" to distinguish them from "floppy disks (link is external)." Hard disks have a hard platter that holds the magnetic medium, as opposed to the flexible plastic film found in tapes and floppies.

  6. CHEMICAL IMAGING OF THE CO SNOW LINE IN THE HD 163296 DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Chunhua; Öberg, Karin I.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bergin, Edwin A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hughes, A. Meredith [Van Vleck Observatory, Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, 96 Foss Hill Drive, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Hogherheijde, Michiel [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); D’Alessio, Paola [Centro de Radioastronomi´a y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2015-11-10

    The condensation fronts (snow lines) of H{sub 2}O, CO, and other abundant volatiles in the midplane of a protoplanetary disk affect several aspects of planet formation. Locating the CO snow line, where the CO gas column density is expected to drop substantially, based solely on CO emission profiles, is challenging. This has prompted an exploration of chemical signatures of CO freeze-out. We present ALMA Cycle 1 observations of the N{sub 2}H{sup +} J = 3−2 and DCO{sup +} J = 4−3 emission lines toward the disk around the Herbig Ae star HD 163296 at ∼0.″5 (60 AU) resolution, and evaluate their utility as tracers of the CO snow line location. The N{sub 2}H{sup +} emission is distributed in a ring with an inner radius at 90 AU, corresponding to a midplane temperature of 25 K. This result is consistent with a new analysis of optically thin C{sup 18}O data, which implies a sharp drop in CO abundance at 90 AU. Thus N{sub 2}H{sup +} appears to be a robust tracer of the midplane CO snow line. The DCO{sup +} emission also has a ring morphology, but neither the inner nor the outer radius coincide with the CO snow line location of 90 AU, indicative of a complex relationship between DCO{sup +} emission and CO freeze-out in the disk midplane. Compared to TW Hya, CO freezes out at a higher temperature in the disk around HD 163296 (25 versus 17 K in the TW Hya disk), perhaps due to different ice compositions. This highlights the importance of actually measuring the CO snow line location, rather than assuming a constant CO freeze-out temperature for all disks.

  7. DISK DETECTIVE: DISCOVERY OF NEW CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK CANDIDATES THROUGH CITIZEN SCIENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchner, Marc J.; McElwain, Michael; Padgett, Deborah L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667 Greenbelt, MD 21230 (United States); Silverberg, Steven M.; Wisniewski, John P. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy The University of Oklahoma 440 W. Brooks St. Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Bans, Alissa S. [Valparaiso University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Neils Science Center, 1610 Campus Drive East, Valparaiso, IN 46383 (United States); Bhattacharjee, Shambo [International Space University 1 Rue Jean-Dominique Cassini F-67400 Illkirch-Graffenstaden (France); Kenyon, Scott J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 60 Garden Street Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Debes, John H. [Space Telescope Science Institute 3700 San Martin Dr. Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Currie, Thayne [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan 650 N A’ohokhu Place Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); García, Luciano [Observatorio Astronómico de Córdoba Universidad Nacional de Córdoba Laprida 854, X5000BGR, Córdoba (Argentina); Jung, Dawoon [Korea Aerospace Research Institute Lunar Exploration Program Office 169-84 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Lintott, Chris [Denys Wilkinson Building Keble Road Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Rebull, Luisa M. [Infrared Processing and Analaysis Center Caltech M/S 314-6 1200 E. California Blvd. Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nesvold, Erika, E-mail: Marc.Kuchner@nasa.gov, E-mail: michael.w.mcelwain@nasa.gov, E-mail: deborah.l.padgett@nasa.gov, E-mail: carol.a.grady@nasa.gov, E-mail: silverberg@ou.edu, E-mail: wisniewski@ou.edu [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States); Collaboration: Disk Detective Collaboration; and others

    2016-10-20

    The Disk Detective citizen science project aims to find new stars with 22 μ m excess emission from circumstellar dust using data from NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE ) mission. Initial cuts on the AllWISE catalog provide an input catalog of 277,686 sources. Volunteers then view images of each source online in 10 different bands to identify false positives (galaxies, interstellar matter, image artifacts, etc.). Sources that survive this online vetting are followed up with spectroscopy on the FLWO Tillinghast telescope. This approach should allow us to unleash the full potential of WISE for finding new debris disks and protoplanetary disks. We announce a first list of 37 new disk candidates discovered by the project, and we describe our vetting and follow-up process. One of these systems appears to contain the first debris disk discovered around a star with a white dwarf companion: HD 74389. We also report four newly discovered classical Be stars (HD 6612, HD 7406, HD 164137, and HD 218546) and a new detection of 22 μ m excess around the previously known debris disk host star HD 22128.

  8. DISK DETECTIVE: DISCOVERY OF NEW CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK CANDIDATES THROUGH CITIZEN SCIENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchner, Marc J.; McElwain, Michael; Padgett, Deborah L.; Silverberg, Steven M.; Wisniewski, John P.; Bans, Alissa S.; Bhattacharjee, Shambo; Kenyon, Scott J.; Debes, John H.; Currie, Thayne; García, Luciano; Jung, Dawoon; Lintott, Chris; Rebull, Luisa M.; Nesvold, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The Disk Detective citizen science project aims to find new stars with 22 μ m excess emission from circumstellar dust using data from NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE ) mission. Initial cuts on the AllWISE catalog provide an input catalog of 277,686 sources. Volunteers then view images of each source online in 10 different bands to identify false positives (galaxies, interstellar matter, image artifacts, etc.). Sources that survive this online vetting are followed up with spectroscopy on the FLWO Tillinghast telescope. This approach should allow us to unleash the full potential of WISE for finding new debris disks and protoplanetary disks. We announce a first list of 37 new disk candidates discovered by the project, and we describe our vetting and follow-up process. One of these systems appears to contain the first debris disk discovered around a star with a white dwarf companion: HD 74389. We also report four newly discovered classical Be stars (HD 6612, HD 7406, HD 164137, and HD 218546) and a new detection of 22 μ m excess around the previously known debris disk host star HD 22128.

  9. Disk Detective: Discovery of New Circumstellar Disk Candidates Through Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchner, Marc J.; Silverberg, Steven M.; Bans, Alissa S.; Bhattacharjee, Shambo; Kenyon, Scott J.; Debes, John H.; Currie, Thayne; Garcia, Luciano; Jung, Dawoon; Lintott, Chris; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Disk Detective citizen science project aims to find new stars with 22 micron excess emission from circumstellar dust using data from NASAs Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission. Initial cuts on the AllWISE catalog provide an input catalog of 277,686 sources. Volunteers then view images of each source online in 10different bands to identify false positives (galaxies, interstellar matter, image artifacts, etc.). Sources that survive this online vetting are followed up with spectroscopy on the FLWO Tillinghast telescope. This approach should allow us to unleash the full potential of WISE for finding new debris disks and proto planetary disks. We announce a first list of 37 new disk candidates discovered by the project, and we describe our vetting and follow-up process. One of these systems appears to contain the first debris disk discovered around a star with a white dwarf companion: HD 74389. We also report four newly discovered classical Be stars (HD 6612, HD 7406, HD 164137,and HD 218546) and a new detection of 22 micron excess around the previously known debris disk host star HD 22128.

  10. The vertical metallicity gradient of the Milky Way disk: transitions in [α/Fe] populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, Katharine J.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Rockosi, Constance M.; Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C.; Harding, Paul; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Bird, Jonathan C.; Schönrich, Ralph; Yanny, Brian; Schneider, Donald P.; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Brinkmann, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Using G dwarfs from the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) survey, we have determined the vertical metallicity gradient in the Milky Way's disk and examined how this gradient varies for different [α/Fe] subsamples. Our sample contains over 40,000 stars with low-resolution spectroscopy over 144 lines of sight. It also covers a significant disk volume, between ∼0.3 and 1.6 kpc from the Galactic plane, and allows us to examine the disk in situ, whereas previous analyses were more limited in scope. Furthermore, this work does not presuppose a disk structure, whether composed of a single complex population or distinct thin and thick disk components. We employ the SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline to obtain estimates of stellar parameters, [Fe/H], and [α/Fe] and extract multiple volume-complete subsamples of approximately 1000 stars each. Based on SEGUE's target-selection algorithm, we adjust each subsample to determine an unbiased picture of disk chemistry; consequently, each individual star represents the properties of many. The metallicity gradient is –0.243 −0.053 +0.039 dex kpc –1 for the entire sample, which we compare to various literature results. This gradient stems from the different [α/Fe] populations inhabiting different ranges of height above the Galactic plane. Each [α/Fe] subsample shows little change in median [Fe/H] with height. If we associate [α/Fe] with age, the negligible gradients of our [α/Fe] subsamples suggest that stars formed in different epochs exhibit comparable vertical structure, implying similar star formation processes and evolution.

  11. Galactic Structure in the Outer Disk: The Field in the Line of Sight to the Intermediate-Age open Cluster Tombaugh 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carraro, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitá di Padova Vicolo Osservatorio 3 I-35122, Padova (Italy); Silva, Joao Victor Sales [Observatorio Nacional/MCT Rua Gen. José Cristino 77 20291-400, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Bidin, Christian Moni [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Catolica del Norte Av. Angamos 0610, Casilla 1280 Antofagasta (Chile); Vazquez, Ruben A., E-mail: giovanni.carraro@unipd.it [Instituto de Astrofisica de La Plata CONICET/ UNLP, Paseo del Bosque s/n La Plata (Argentina)

    2017-03-01

    We employ optical photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy to study a field toward the open cluster Tombaugh 1, where we identify a complex population mixture that we describe in terms of young and old Galactic thin disks. Of particular interest is the spatial distribution of the young population, which consists of dwarfs with spectral types as early as B6 and is distributed in a blue plume feature in the color–magnitude diagram. For the first time, we confirm spectroscopically that most of these stars are early-type stars and not blue stragglers or halo/thick-disk subdwarfs. Moreover, they are not evenly distributed along the line of sight but crowd at heliocentric distances between 6.6 and 8.2 kpc. We compare these results with present-day understanding of the spiral structure of the Galaxy and suggest that they trace the outer arm. This range of distances challenges current Galactic models adopting a disk cutoff at 14 kpc from the Galactic center. The young dwarfs overlap in space with an older component, which is identified as an old Galactic thin disk. Both young and old populations are confined in space since the disk is warped at the latitude and longitude of Tombaugh 1. The main effects of the warp are that the line of sight intersects the disk and entirely crosses it at the outer arm distance and that there are no traces of the closer Perseus arm, which would then be either unimportant in this sector or located much closer to the formal Galactic plane. Finally, we analyze a group of giant stars, which turn out to be located at very different distances and to possess very different chemical properties, with no obvious relation to the other populations.

  12. Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity of Platinum Thin Films with Different Densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergul, Busra; Begum, Mahbuba; Kariuki, Nancy; Myers, Deborah J.; Karabacak, Tansel

    2017-08-24

    Platinum thin films with different densities were grown on glassy carbon electrodes by high pressure sputtering deposition and evaluated as oxygen reduction reaction catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells using cyclic voltammetry and rotating disk electrode techniques in aqueous perchloric acid electrolyte. The electrochemically active surface area, ORR mass activity (MA) and specific activity (SA) of the thin film electrodes were obtained. MA and SA were found to be higher for low-density films than for high-density film.

  13. Optimality based repetitive controller design for track-following servo system of optical disk drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wentao; Zhang, Weidong

    2009-10-01

    In an optical disk drive servo system, to attenuate the external periodic disturbances induced by inevitable disk eccentricity, repetitive control has been used successfully. The performance of a repetitive controller greatly depends on the bandwidth of the low-pass filter included in the repetitive controller. However, owing to the plant uncertainty and system stability, it is difficult to maximize the bandwidth of the low-pass filter. In this paper, we propose an optimality based repetitive controller design method for the track-following servo system with norm-bounded uncertainties. By embedding a lead compensator in the repetitive controller, both the system gain at periodic signal's harmonics and the bandwidth of the low-pass filter are greatly increased. The optimal values of the repetitive controller's parameters are obtained by solving two optimization problems. Simulation and experimental results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Evaluation of insertion characteristics of less invasive Si optoneural probe with embedded optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Takumi; Harashima, Takuya; Kino, Hisashi; Fukushima, Takafumi; Tanaka, Tetsu

    2017-04-01

    A less invasive Si optoneural probe with an embedded optical fiber was proposed and successfully fabricated. The diameter of the optical fiber was completely controlled by hydrogen fluoride etching, and the thinned optical fiber can propagate light without any leakage. This optical fiber was embedded in a trench formed inside a probe shank, which causes less damage to tissues. In addition, it was confirmed that the optical fiber embedded in the probe shank successfully irradiated light to optically stimulate gene transfected neurons. The electrochemical impedance of the probe did not change despite the light irradiation. Furthermore, probe insertion characteristics were evaluated in detail and less invasive insertion was clearly indicated for the Si optoneural probe with the embedded optical fiber compared with conventional optical neural probes. This neural probe with the embedded optical fiber can be used as a simple and easy tool for optogenetics and brain science.

  15. Approximate reflection coefficients for a thin VTI layer

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Qi; Stovas, Alexey

    2017-01-01

    We present an approximate method to derive simple expressions for the reflection coefficients of P- and SV-waves for a thin transversely isotropic layer with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) embedded in a homogeneous VTI background. The layer

  16. A SUZAKU OBSERVATION OF NGC 4593: ILLUMINATING THE TRUNCATED DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowitz, A. G.; Reeves, J. N.

    2009-01-01

    We report results from a 2007 Suzaku observation of the Seyfert 1 AGN NGC 4593. The narrow Fe Kα emission line has a FWHM width ∼ 4000 km s -1 , indicating emission from ∼> 5000 R g . There is no evidence for a relativistically broadened Fe K line, consistent with the presence of a radiatively efficient outer disk which is truncated or transitions to an interior radiatively inefficient flow. The Suzaku observation caught the source in a low-flux state; comparison to a 2002 XMM-Newton observation indicates that the hard X-ray flux decreased by 3.6, while the Fe Kα line intensity and width σ each roughly halved. Two model-dependent explanations for the changes in Fe Kα line profile are explored. In one, the Fe Kα line width has decreased from ∼10,000 to ∼4000 km s -1 from 2002 to 2007, suggesting that the thin disk truncation/transition radius has increased from 1000-2000 to ∼>5000 R g . However, there are indications from other compact accreting systems that such truncation radii tend to be associated only with accretion rates relative to Eddington much lower than that of NGC 4593. In the second model, the line profile in the XMM-Newton observation consists of a time-invariant narrow component plus a broad component originating from the inner part of the truncated disk (∼300 R g ) which has responded to the drop in continuum flux. The Compton reflection component strength R is ∼ 1.1, consistent with the measured Fe Kα line total equivalent width with an Fe abundance 1.7 times the solar value. The modest soft excess, modeled well by either thermal bremsstrahlung emission or by Comptonization of soft seed photons in an optical thin plasma, has fallen by a factor of ∼20 from 2002 to 2007, ruling out emission from a region 5 lt-yr in size.

  17. ON THE TRANSITIONAL DISK CLASS: LINKING OBSERVATIONS OF T TAURI STARS AND PHYSICAL DISK MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espaillat, C.; Andrews, S.; Qi, C.; Wilner, D.; Ingleby, L.; Calvet, N.; Hernández, J.; Furlan, E.; D'Alessio, P.; Muzerolle, J.

    2012-01-01

    Two decades ago 'transitional disks' (TDs) described spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of T Tauri stars with small near-IR excesses, but significant mid- and far-IR excesses. Many inferred this indicated dust-free holes in disks possibly cleared by planets. Recently, this term has been applied disparately to objects whose Spitzer SEDs diverge from the expectations for a typical full disk (FD). Here, we use irradiated accretion disk models to fit the SEDs of 15 such disks in NGC 2068 and IC 348. One group has a 'dip' in infrared emission while the others' continuum emission decreases steadily at all wavelengths. We find that the former have an inner disk hole or gap at intermediate radii in the disk and we call these objects 'transitional disks' and 'pre-transitional disks' (PTDs), respectively. For the latter group, we can fit these SEDs with FD models and find that millimeter data are necessary to break the degeneracy between dust settling and disk mass. We suggest that the term 'transitional' only be applied to objects that display evidence for a radical change in the disk's radial structure. Using this definition, we find that TDs and PTDs tend to have lower mass accretion rates than FDs and that TDs have lower accretion rates than PTDs. These reduced accretion rates onto the star could be linked to forming planets. Future observations of TDs and PTDs will allow us to better quantify the signatures of planet formation in young disks.

  18. Regulation of black-hole accretion by a disk wind during a violent outburst of V404 Cygni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Darias, T; Casares, J; Mata Sánchez, D; Fender, R P; Armas Padilla, M; Linares, M; Ponti, G; Charles, P A; Mooley, K P; Rodriguez, J

    2016-06-02

    Accretion of matter onto black holes is universally associated with strong radiative feedback and powerful outflows. In particular, black-hole transients have outflows whose properties are strongly coupled to those of the accretion flow. This includes X-ray winds of ionized material, expelled from the accretion disk encircling the black hole, and collimated radio jets. Very recently, a distinct optical variability pattern has been reported in the transient stellar-mass black hole V404 Cygni, and interpreted as disrupted mass flow into the inner regions of its large accretion disk. Here we report observations of a sustained outer accretion disk wind in V404 Cyg, which is unlike any seen hitherto. We find that the outflowing wind is neutral, has a large covering factor, expands at one per cent of the speed of light and triggers a nebular phase once accretion drops sharply and the ejecta become optically thin. The large expelled mass (>10(-8) solar masses) indicates that the outburst was prematurely ended when a sizeable fraction of the outer disk was depleted by the wind, detaching the inner regions from the rest of the disk. The luminous, but brief, accretion phases shown by transients with large accretion disks imply that this outflow is probably a fundamental ingredient in regulating mass accretion onto black holes.

  19. THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SURVEY OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS IN ORION A. I. DISK PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. H. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Watson, Dan M.; Manoj, P.; Forrest, W. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Furlan, Elise [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, 770 S. Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Najita, Joan [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Sargent, Benjamin [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Dr., Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Hernández, Jesús [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía, Apdo. Postal 264, Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Calvet, Nuria [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Adame, Lucía [Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Universidad S/N, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, C.P. 66451, México (Mexico); Espaillat, Catherine [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Megeath, S. T. [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Muzerolle, James, E-mail: quarkosmos@kasi.re.kr [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2016-09-01

    We present our investigation of 319 Class II objects in Orion A observed by Spitzer /IRS. We also present the follow-up observations of 120 of these Class II objects in Orion A from the Infrared Telescope Facility/SpeX. We measure continuum spectral indices, equivalent widths, and integrated fluxes that pertain to disk structure and dust composition from IRS spectra of Class II objects in Orion A. We estimate mass accretion rates using hydrogen recombination lines in the SpeX spectra of our targets. Utilizing these properties, we compare the distributions of the disk and dust properties of Orion A disks with those of Taurus disks with respect to position within Orion A (Orion Nebular Cluster [ONC] and L1641) and with the subgroups by the inferred radial structures, such as transitional disks (TDs) versus radially continuous full disks (FDs). Our main findings are as follows. (1) Inner disks evolve faster than the outer disks. (2) The mass accretion rates of TDs and those of radially continuous FDs are statistically significantly displaced from each other. The median mass accretion rate of radially continuous disks in the ONC and L1641 is not very different from that in Taurus. (3) Less grain processing has occurred in the disks in the ONC compared to those in Taurus, based on analysis of the shape index of the 10 μ m silicate feature ( F {sub 11.3}/ F {sub 9.8}). (4) The 20–31 μ m continuum spectral index tracks the projected distance from the most luminous Trapezium star, θ {sup 1} Ori C. A possible explanation is UV ablation of the outer parts of disks.

  20. Strongly baryon-dominated disk galaxies at the peak of galaxy formation ten billion years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzel, R; Schreiber, N M Förster; Übler, H; Lang, P; Naab, T; Bender, R; Tacconi, L J; Wisnioski, E; Wuyts, S; Alexander, T; Beifiori, A; Belli, S; Brammer, G; Burkert, A; Carollo, C M; Chan, J; Davies, R; Fossati, M; Galametz, A; Genel, S; Gerhard, O; Lutz, D; Mendel, J T; Momcheva, I; Nelson, E J; Renzini, A; Saglia, R; Sternberg, A; Tacchella, S; Tadaki, K; Wilman, D

    2017-03-15

    In the cold dark matter cosmology, the baryonic components of galaxies-stars and gas-are thought to be mixed with and embedded in non-baryonic and non-relativistic dark matter, which dominates the total mass of the galaxy and its dark-matter halo. In the local (low-redshift) Universe, the mass of dark matter within a galactic disk increases with disk radius, becoming appreciable and then dominant in the outer, baryonic regions of the disks of star-forming galaxies. This results in rotation velocities of the visible matter within the disk that are constant or increasing with disk radius-a hallmark of the dark-matter model. Comparisons between the dynamical mass, inferred from these velocities in rotational equilibrium, and the sum of the stellar and cold-gas mass at the peak epoch of galaxy formation ten billion years ago, inferred from ancillary data, suggest high baryon fractions in the inner, star-forming regions of the disks. Although this implied baryon fraction may be larger than in the local Universe, the systematic uncertainties (owing to the chosen stellar initial-mass function and the calibration of gas masses) render such comparisons inconclusive in terms of the mass of dark matter. Here we report rotation curves (showing rotation velocity as a function of disk radius) for the outer disks of six massive star-forming galaxies, and find that the rotation velocities are not constant, but decrease with radius. We propose that this trend arises because of a combination of two main factors: first, a large fraction of the massive high-redshift galaxy population was strongly baryon-dominated, with dark matter playing a smaller part than in the local Universe; and second, the large velocity dispersion in high-redshift disks introduces a substantial pressure term that leads to a decrease in rotation velocity with increasing radius. The effect of both factors appears to increase with redshift. Qualitatively, the observations suggest that baryons in the early (high

  1. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, L.; Isella, A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Testi, L.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Natta, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Scholz, A., E-mail: lricci@astro.caltech.edu [School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2014-08-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array continuum and spectral line data at 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm for three disks surrounding young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Taurus star forming region. Dust thermal emission is detected and spatially resolved for all the three disks, while CO(J = 3-2) emission is seen in two disks. We analyze the continuum visibilities and constrain the disks' physical structure in dust. The results of our analysis show that the disks are relatively large; the smallest one has an outer radius of about 70 AU. The inferred disk radii, radial profiles of the dust surface density, and disk to central object mass ratios lie within the ranges found for disks around more massive young stars. We derive from our observations the wavelength dependence of the millimeter dust opacity. In all the three disks, data are consistent with the presence of grains with at least millimeter sizes, as also found for disks around young stars, and confirm that the early stages of the solid growth toward planetesimals occur also around very low-mass objects. We discuss the implications of our findings on models of solids evolution in protoplanetary disks, the main mechanisms proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, as well as the potential of finding rocky and giant planets around very low-mass objects.

  2. ATLAS Simulation using Real Data: Embedding and Overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Andrew; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    For some physics processes studied with the ATLAS detector, a more accurate simulation in some respects can be achieved by including real data into simulated events, with substantial potential improvements in the CPU, disk space, and memory usage of the standard simulation configuration, at the cost of significant database and networking challenges. Real proton-proton background events can be overlaid (at the detector digitization output stage) on a simulated hard-scatter process, to account for pileup background (from nearby bunch crossings), cavern background, and detector noise. A similar method is used to account for the large underlying event from heavy ion collisions, rather than directly simulating the full collision. Embedding replaces the muons found in Z→μμ decays in data with simulated taus at the same 4-momenta, thus preserving the underlying event and pileup from the original data event. In all these cases, care must be taken to exactly match detector conditions (beamspot, magnetic fields, alignments, dead sensors, etc.) between the real data event and the simulation. We will discuss the status of these overlay and embedding techniques within ATLAS software and computing.

  3. Automated solid-phase extraction of phenolic acids using layered double hydroxide-alumina-polymer disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Milad; Palomino Cabello, Carlos; Saraji, Mohammad; Manuel Estela, Jose; Cerdà, Víctor; Turnes Palomino, Gemma; Maya, Fernando

    2018-01-26

    The application of layered double hydroxide-Al 2 O 3 -polymer mixed-matrix disks for solid-phase extraction is reported for the first time. Al 2 O 3 is embedded in a polymer matrix followed by an in situ metal-exchange process to obtain a layered double hydroxide-Al 2 O 3 -polymer mixed-matrix disk with excellent flow-through properties. The extraction performance of the prepared disks is evaluated as a proof of concept for the automated extraction using sequential injection analysis of organic acids (p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid) following an anion-exchange mechanism. After the solid-phase extraction, phenolic acids were quantified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection using a core-shell silica-C18 stationary phase and isocratic elution (acetonitrile/0.5% acetic acid in pure water, 5:95, v/v). High sensitivity and reproducibility were obtained with limits of detection in the range of 0.12-0.25 μg/L (sample volume, 4 mL), and relative standard deviations between 2.9 and 3.4% (10 μg/L, n = 6). Enrichment factors of 34-39 were obtained. Layered double hydroxide-Al 2 O 3 -polymer mixed-matrix disks had an average lifetime of 50 extractions. Analyte recoveries ranged from 93 to 96% for grape juice and nonalcoholic beer samples. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. PLANETESIMAL DISK MICROLENSING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heng, Kevin; Keeton, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by debris disk studies, we investigate the gravitational microlensing of background starlight by a planetesimal disk around a foreground star. We use dynamical survival models to construct a plausible example of a planetesimal disk and study its microlensing properties using established ideas of microlensing by small bodies. When a solar-type source star passes behind a planetesimal disk, the microlensing light curve may exhibit short-term, low-amplitude residuals caused by planetesimals several orders of magnitude below Earth mass. The minimum planetesimal mass probed depends on the photometric sensitivity and the size of the source star, and is lower when the planetesimal lens is located closer to us. Planetesimal lenses may be found more nearby than stellar lenses because the steepness of the planetesimal mass distribution changes how the microlensing signal depends on the lens/source distance ratio. Microlensing searches for planetesimals require essentially continuous monitoring programs that are already feasible and can potentially set constraints on models of debris disks, the progeny of the supposed extrasolar analogues of Kuiper Belts.

  5. Dusty disks around young stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, A.

    2009-01-01

    Stars are formed through the collapse of giant molecular clouds. During this contraction the matter spins up and naturally forms a circumstellar disk. Once accretion comes to a halt, these disks are relatively stable. Some disks are known to last up to 10 Myrs. Most disks however, dissipate on

  6. Debris Disks: Probing Planet Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Wyatt, Mark C.

    2018-01-01

    Debris disks are the dust disks found around ~20% of nearby main sequence stars in far-IR surveys. They can be considered as descendants of protoplanetary disks or components of planetary systems, providing valuable information on circumstellar disk evolution and the outcome of planet formation. The debris disk population can be explained by the steady collisional erosion of planetesimal belts; population models constrain where (10-100au) and in what quantity (>1Mearth) planetesimals (>10km i...

  7. Fast, Capacious Disk Memory Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Ronald M.

    1990-01-01

    Device for recording digital data on, and playing back data from, memory disks has high recording or playback rate and utilizes available recording area more fully. Two disks, each with own reading/writing head, used to record data at same time. Head on disk A operates on one of tracks numbered from outside in; head on disk B operates on track of same number in sequence from inside out. Underlying concept of device applicable to magnetic or optical disks.

  8. LOCAL LINEAR ANALYSIS OF INTERACTION BETWEEN A PLANET AND VISCOUS DISK AND AN IMPLICATION ON TYPE I PLANETARY MIGRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Takayuki; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the effects of viscosity on disk-planet interaction and discuss how type I migration of planets is modified. We have performed a linear calculation using shearing-sheet approximation and obtained the detailed, high-resolution density structure around the planet embedded in a viscous disk with a wide range of viscous coefficients. We use a time-dependent formalism that is useful in investigating the effects of various physical processes on disk-planet interaction. We find that the density structure in the vicinity of the planet is modified and the main contribution to the torque comes from this region, in contrast to the inviscid case. Although it is not possible to derive total torque acting on the planet within the shearing-sheet approximation, the one-sided torque can be very different from the inviscid case, depending on the Reynolds number. This effect has been neglected so far but our results indicate that the interaction between a viscous disk and a planet can be qualitatively different from an inviscid case and the details of the density structure in the vicinity of the planet are critically important.

  9. GAP OPENING BY EXTREMELY LOW-MASS PLANETS IN A VISCOUS DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffell, Paul C.; MacFadyen, Andrew I.

    2013-01-01

    By numerically integrating the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions, we calculate the criterion for gap formation by a very low mass (q ∼ 10 –4 ) protoplanet on a fixed orbit in a thin viscous disk. In contrast with some previously proposed gap-opening criteria, we find that a planet can open a gap even if the Hill radius is smaller than the disk scale height. Moreover, in the low-viscosity limit, we find no minimum mass necessary to open a gap for a planet held on a fixed orbit. In particular, a Neptune-mass planet will open a gap in a minimum mass solar nebula with suitably low viscosity (α ∼ –4 ). We find that the mass threshold scales as the square root of viscosity in the low mass regime. This is because the gap width for critical planet masses in this regime is a fixed multiple of the scale height, not of the Hill radius of the planet.

  10. Mass distributions in disk galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinsson, Thomas; Verheijen, Marc; Bershady, Matthew; Westfall, Kyle; Andersen, David; Swaters, Rob

    We present results on luminous and dark matter mass distributions in disk galaxies from the DiskMass Survey. As expected for normal disk galaxies, stars dominate the baryonic mass budget in the inner region of the disk; however, at about four optical scale lengths (hR ) the atomic gas starts to

  11. WIND-ACCRETION DISKS IN WIDE BINARIES, SECOND-GENERATION PROTOPLANETARY DISKS, AND ACCRETION ONTO WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perets, Hagai B.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Mass transfer from an evolved donor star to its binary companion is a standard feature of stellar evolution in binaries. In wide binaries, the companion star captures some of the mass ejected in a wind by the primary star. The captured material forms an accretion disk. Here, we study the evolution of wind-accretion disks, using a numerical approach which allows us to follow the long-term evolution. For a broad range of initial conditions, we derive the radial density and temperature profiles of the disk. In most cases, wind accretion leads to long-lived stable disks over the lifetime of the asymptotic giant branch donor star. The disks have masses of a few times 10 –5 -10 –3 M ☉ , with surface density and temperature profiles that follow broken power laws. The total mass in the disk scales approximately linearly with the viscosity parameter used. Roughly, 50%-80% of the mass falling into the disk accretes onto the central star; the rest flows out through the outer edge of the disk into the stellar wind of the primary. For systems with large accretion rates, the secondary accretes as much as 0.1 M ☉ . When the secondary is a white dwarf, accretion naturally leads to nova and supernova eruptions. For all types of secondary star, the surface density and temperature profiles of massive disks resemble structures observed in protoplanetary disks, suggesting that coordinated observational programs might improve our understanding of uncertain disk physics.

  12. A High-mass Protobinary System with Spatially Resolved Circumstellar Accretion Disks and Circumbinary Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, S.; Kluska, J.; Kreplin, A.; Bate, M.; Harries, T. J.; Hone, E.; Anugu, A. [School of Physics, Astrophysics Group, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Hofmann, K.-H.; Weigelt, G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Monnier, J. D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 311 West Hall, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); De Wit, W. J. [ESO, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 19 (Chile); Wittkowski, M., E-mail: skraus@astro.ex.ac.uk [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2017-01-20

    High-mass multiples might form via fragmentation of self-gravitational disks or alternative scenarios such as disk-assisted capture. However, only a few observational constraints exist on the architecture and disk structure of high-mass protobinaries and their accretion properties. Here, we report the discovery of a close (57.9 ± 0.2 mas = 170 au) high-mass protobinary, IRAS17216-3801, where our VLTI/GRAVITY+AMBER near-infrared interferometry allows us to image the circumstellar disks around the individual components with ∼3 mas resolution. We estimate the component masses to ∼20 and ∼18 M {sub ⊙} and find that the radial intensity profiles can be reproduced with an irradiated disk model, where the inner regions are excavated of dust, likely tracing the dust sublimation region in these disks. The circumstellar disks are strongly misaligned with respect to the binary separation vector, which indicates that the tidal forces did not have time to realign the disks, pointing toward a young dynamical age of the system. We constrain the distribution of the Br γ and CO-emitting gas using VLTI/GRAVITY spectro-interferometry and VLT/CRIRES spectro-astrometry and find that the secondary is accreting at a higher rate than the primary. VLT/NACO imaging shows L ′-band emission on (3–4)× larger scales than the binary separation, matching the expected dynamical truncation radius for the circumbinary disk. The IRAS17216-3801 system is ∼3× more massive and ∼5× more compact than other high-mass multiplies imaged at infrared wavelength and the first high-mass protobinary system where circumstellar and circumbinary dust disks could be spatially resolved. This opens exciting new opportunities for studying star–disk interactions and the role of multiplicity in high-mass star formation.

  13. Source to Accretion Disk Tilt

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, M. M.; Martin, E. L.

    2010-01-01

    Many different system types retrogradely precess, and retrograde precession could be from a tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk. However, a source to cause and maintain disk tilt is unknown. In this work, we show that accretion disks can tilt due to a force called lift. Lift results from differing gas stream supersonic speeds over and under an accretion disk. Because lift acts at the disk's center of pressure, a torque is applied around a rotation axis passing through...

  14. Evolution of magnetic disk subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Satoru

    1994-06-01

    The higher recording density of magnetic disk realized today has brought larger storage capacity per unit and smaller form factors. If the required access performance per MB is constant, the performance of large subsystems has to be several times better. This article describes mainly the technology for improving the performance of the magnetic disk subsystems and the prospects of their future evolution. Also considered are 'crosscall pathing' which makes the data transfer channel more effective, 'disk cache' which improves performance coupling with solid state memory technology, and 'RAID' which improves the availability and integrity of disk subsystems by organizing multiple disk drives in a subsystem. As a result, it is concluded that since the performance of the subsystem is dominated by that of the disk cache, maximation of the performance of the disk cache subsystems is very important.

  15. Angular Momentum in Disk Wind Revealed in the Young Star MWC 349A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qizhou; Claus, Brian; Watson, Linda; Moran, James, E-mail: qzhang@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Disk winds are thought to play a critical role in star birth. As winds extract excess angular momentum from accretion disks, matter in the disk can be transported inward to the star to fuel mass growth. However, observational evidence of wind carrying angular momentum has been very limited. We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations of the young star MWC 349A in the H26 α and H30 α recombination lines. The high signal-to-noise ratios made possible by the maser emission process allow us to constrain the relative astrometry of the maser spots to milli-arcsecond precision. Previous observations of the H30 α line with the SMA and the Plateau de Bure interferometer (PdBI) showed that masers are distributed in the disk and wind. Our new high-resolution observations of the H26 α line reveal differences in spatial distribution from that of the H30 α line. H26 α line masers in the disk are excited in a thin annulus with a radius of about 25 au, while the H30 α line masers are formed in a slightly larger annulus with a radius of 30 au. This is consistent with expectations for maser excitation in the presence of an electron density variation of approximately R {sup −4}. In addition, the H30 α and H26 α line masers arise from different parts in the wind. This difference is also expected from maser theory. The wind component of both masers exhibits line-of-sight velocities that closely follow a Keplerian law. This result provides strong evidence that the disk wind extracts significant angular momentum, thereby facilitating mass accretion in the young star.

  16. STELLAR MASS DEPENDENT DISK DISPERSAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Grant M.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    We use published optical spectral and infrared (IR) excess data from nine young clusters and associations to study the stellar mass dependent dispersal of circumstellar disks. All clusters older than ∼3 Myr show a decrease in disk fraction with increasing stellar mass for solar to higher mass stars. This result is significant at about the 1σ level in each cluster. For the complete set of clusters we reject the null hypothesis-that solar and intermediate-mass stars lose their disks at the same rate-with 95%-99.9% confidence. To interpret this behavior, we investigate the impact of grain growth, binary companions, and photoevaporation on the evolution of disk signatures. Changes in grain growth timescales at fixed disk temperature may explain why early-type stars with IR excesses appear to evolve faster than their later-type counterparts. Little evidence that binary companions affect disk evolution suggests that photoevaporation is the more likely mechanism for disk dispersal. A simple photoevaporation model provides a good fit to the observed disk fractions for solar and intermediate-mass stars. Although the current mass-dependent disk dispersal signal is not strong, larger and more complete samples of clusters with ages of 3-5 Myr can improve the significance and provide better tests of theoretical models. In addition, the orbits of extra-solar planets can constrain models of disk dispersal and migration. We suggest that the signature of stellar mass dependent disk dispersal due to photoevaporation may be present in the orbits of observed extra-solar planets. Planets orbiting hosts more massive than ∼1.6 M sun may have larger orbits because the disks in which they formed were dispersed before they could migrate.

  17. Manipulation of magnetic vortex parameters in disk-on-disk nanostructures with various geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim E. Stebliy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanostructures in the form of a sandwich consisting of two permalloy (Py disks with diameters of 600 and 200 nm separated by a nonmagnetic interlayer are studied. Magnetization reversal of the disk-on-disk nanostructures depends on the distance between centers of the small and big disks and on orientation of an external magnetic field applied during measurements. It is found that manipulation of the magnetic vortex chirality and the trajectory of the vortex core in the big disk is only possible in asymmetric nanostructures. Experimentally studied peculiarities of a motion path of the vortex core and vortex parameters by the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE magnetometer are supported by the magnetic force microscopy imaging and micromagnetic simulations.

  18. Global Simulations of the Inner Regions of Protoplanetary Disks with Comprehensive Disk Microphysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xue-Ning, E-mail: xbai@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The gas dynamics of weakly ionized protoplanetary disks (PPDs) are largely governed by the coupling between gas and magnetic fields, described by three non-ideal magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) effects (Ohmic, Hall, ambipolar). Previous local simulations incorporating these processes have revealed that the inner regions of PPDs are largely laminar and accompanied by wind-driven accretion. We conduct 2D axisymmetric, fully global MHD simulations of these regions (∼1–20 au), taking into account all non-ideal MHD effects, with tabulated diffusion coefficients and approximate treatment of external ionization and heating. With the net vertical field aligned with disk rotation, the Hall-shear instability strongly amplifies horizontal magnetic field, making the overall dynamics dependent on initial field configuration. Following disk formation, the disk likely relaxes into an inner zone characterized by asymmetric field configuration across the midplane, which smoothly transitions to a more symmetric outer zone. Angular momentum transport is driven by both MHD winds and laminar Maxwell stress, with both accretion and decretion flows present at different heights, and modestly asymmetric winds from the two disk sides. With anti-aligned field polarity, weakly magnetized disks settle into an asymmetric field configuration with supersonic accretion flow concentrated at one side of the disk surface, and highly asymmetric winds between the two disk sides. In all cases, the wind is magneto-thermal in nature, characterized by a mass loss rate exceeding the accretion rate. More strongly magnetized disks give more symmetric field configuration and flow structures. Deeper far-UV penetration leads to stronger and less stable outflows. Implications for observations and planet formation are also discussed.

  19. Global Simulations of the Inner Regions of Protoplanetary Disks with Comprehensive Disk Microphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xue-Ning

    2017-08-01

    The gas dynamics of weakly ionized protoplanetary disks (PPDs) are largely governed by the coupling between gas and magnetic fields, described by three non-ideal magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) effects (Ohmic, Hall, ambipolar). Previous local simulations incorporating these processes have revealed that the inner regions of PPDs are largely laminar and accompanied by wind-driven accretion. We conduct 2D axisymmetric, fully global MHD simulations of these regions (˜1-20 au), taking into account all non-ideal MHD effects, with tabulated diffusion coefficients and approximate treatment of external ionization and heating. With the net vertical field aligned with disk rotation, the Hall-shear instability strongly amplifies horizontal magnetic field, making the overall dynamics dependent on initial field configuration. Following disk formation, the disk likely relaxes into an inner zone characterized by asymmetric field configuration across the midplane, which smoothly transitions to a more symmetric outer zone. Angular momentum transport is driven by both MHD winds and laminar Maxwell stress, with both accretion and decretion flows present at different heights, and modestly asymmetric winds from the two disk sides. With anti-aligned field polarity, weakly magnetized disks settle into an asymmetric field configuration with supersonic accretion flow concentrated at one side of the disk surface, and highly asymmetric winds between the two disk sides. In all cases, the wind is magneto-thermal in nature, characterized by a mass loss rate exceeding the accretion rate. More strongly magnetized disks give more symmetric field configuration and flow structures. Deeper far-UV penetration leads to stronger and less stable outflows. Implications for observations and planet formation are also discussed.

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE INNER DISK AROUND HD 141569 A FROM KECK/NIRC2 L-BAND VORTEX CORONAGRAPHY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mawet, Dimitri; Bottom, Michael; Matthews, Keith [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Choquet, Élodie; Serabyn, Eugene [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Absil, Olivier; Huby, Elsa; Gonzalez, Carlos A. Gomez; Wertz, Olivier; Carlomagno, Brunella; Christiaens, Valentin; Defrère, Denis; Delacroix, Christian; Habraken, Serge; Jolivet, Aissa [Space sciences, Technologies and Astrophysics Research (STAR) Institute, Université de Liège, 19 Allée du Six Août, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Femenia, Bruno [W. M. Keck Observatory, 65-1120 Mamalahoa Hwy., Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Lebreton, Jérémy [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Forsberg, Pontus; Karlsson, Mikael [Department of Engineering Sciences, Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Milli, Julien, E-mail: dmawet@astro.caltech.edu [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordóva 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); and others

    2017-01-01

    HD 141569 A is a pre-main sequence B9.5 Ve star surrounded by a prominent and complex circumstellar disk, likely still in a transition stage from protoplanetary to debris disk phase. Here, we present a new image of the third inner disk component of HD 141569 A made in the L ′ band (3.8 μ m) during the commissioning of the vector vortex coronagraph that has recently been installed in the near-infrared imager and spectrograph NIRC2 behind the W.M. Keck Observatory Keck II adaptive optics system. We used reference point-spread function subtraction, which reveals the innermost disk component from the inner working distance of ≃23 au and up to ≃70 au. The spatial scale of our detection roughly corresponds to the optical and near-infrared scattered light, thermal Q , N , and 8.6 μ m PAH emission reported earlier. We also see an outward progression in dust location from the L ′ band to the H band (Very Large Telescope/SPHERE image) to the visible ( Hubble Space Telescope ( HST )/STIS image), which is likely indicative of dust blowout. The warm disk component is nested deep inside the two outer belts imaged by HST-NICMOS in 1999 (at 406 and 245 au, respectively). We fit our new L ′-band image and spectral energy distribution of HD 141569 A with the radiative transfer code MCFOST. Our best-fit models favor pure olivine grains and are consistent with the composition of the outer belts. While our image shows a putative very faint point-like clump or source embedded in the inner disk, we did not detect any true companion within the gap between the inner disk and the first outer ring, at a sensitivity of a few Jupiter masses.

  1. WIND-ACCRETION DISKS IN WIDE BINARIES, SECOND-GENERATION PROTOPLANETARY DISKS, AND ACCRETION ONTO WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perets, Hagai B. [Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Kenyon, Scott J., E-mail: hperets@physics.technion.ac.il [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    Mass transfer from an evolved donor star to its binary companion is a standard feature of stellar evolution in binaries. In wide binaries, the companion star captures some of the mass ejected in a wind by the primary star. The captured material forms an accretion disk. Here, we study the evolution of wind-accretion disks, using a numerical approach which allows us to follow the long-term evolution. For a broad range of initial conditions, we derive the radial density and temperature profiles of the disk. In most cases, wind accretion leads to long-lived stable disks over the lifetime of the asymptotic giant branch donor star. The disks have masses of a few times 10{sup -5}-10{sup -3} M {sub Sun }, with surface density and temperature profiles that follow broken power laws. The total mass in the disk scales approximately linearly with the viscosity parameter used. Roughly, 50%-80% of the mass falling into the disk accretes onto the central star; the rest flows out through the outer edge of the disk into the stellar wind of the primary. For systems with large accretion rates, the secondary accretes as much as 0.1 M {sub Sun }. When the secondary is a white dwarf, accretion naturally leads to nova and supernova eruptions. For all types of secondary star, the surface density and temperature profiles of massive disks resemble structures observed in protoplanetary disks, suggesting that coordinated observational programs might improve our understanding of uncertain disk physics.

  2. Chemical composition of stars in kinematical substructures of the galactic disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbaneva T.I.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Y, Zr, La, Ce, Nd , Sm and Eu abundances were found in LTE approach, and the abundance of Ba was computed in NLTE approximation for 280 FGK dwarfs in the region of metallicity of − 1<[Fe]< + 0.3. The selection of stars belonging to thin and thick disks and the stream Hercules was made on kinematic criteria. The analysis of enrichment of the different substructures of the Galaxy with α-element (Mg, Si, the iron peak (Ni and neutron-capture elements was carried out.

  3. Sub-Nanometer Channels Embedded in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yimo

    2017-07-31

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are among the most promising candidates for next-generation electronics due to their atomic thinness, allowing for flexible transparent electronics and ultimate length scaling1. Thus far, atomically-thin p-n junctions2-7, metal-semiconductor contacts8-10, and metal-insulator barriers11-13 have been demonstrated. While 2D materials achieve the thinnest possible devices, precise nanoscale control over the lateral dimensions are also necessary. Although external one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes14 can be used to locally gate 2D materials, this adds a non-trivial third dimension, complicating device integration and flexibility. Here, we report the direct synthesis of sub-nanometer 1D MoS2 channels embedded within WSe2 monolayers, using a dislocation-catalyzed approach. The 1D channels have edges free of misfit dislocations and dangling bonds, forming a coherent interface with the embedding 2D matrix. Periodic dislocation arrays produce 2D superlattices of coherent MoS2 1D channels in WSe2. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have identified other combinations of 2D materials that could form 1D channels. Density function theory (DFT) calculation predicts these 1D channels display type II band alignment needed for carrier confinement and charge separation to access the ultimate length scales necessary for future electronic applications.

  4. Accretion disks in active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begelman, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    The innermost regions of the central engines in active galactic nuclei are examined, and it is shown how different modes of accretion with angular momentum may account for the diverse manifestations of activity in the nuclei of galaxies. These modes are subsequently compared with the observed properties of quasars, Type I Seyferts, and radio galaxies. It was found that the qualitative features of an accretion flow orbiting a massive black hole depend principally on the ratio of the actual accretion rate to the Eddington accretion rate. For a value of this ratio much less than one, the flow may become an ion torus supported by gas pressure; for a value much greater than one, the flow traps its radiative output and becomes an inefficient radiation torus. At intermediate values, the flow may settle into a thin accretion disk. 62 references

  5. Vibration of imperfect rotating disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Půst L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the theoretical and numerical calculations of the flexural vibrations of a bladed disk. The main focus of this study is to elaborate the basic background for diagnostic and identification methods for ascertaining the main properties of the real structure or an experimental model of turbine disks. The reduction of undesirable vibrations of blades is proposed by using damping heads, which on the experimental model of turbine disk are applied only on a limited number of blades. This partial setting of damping heads introduces imperfection in mass, stiffness and damping distribution on the periphery and leads to more complicated dynamic properties than those of a perfect disk. Calculation of FEM model and analytic—numerical solution of disk behaviour in the limited (two modes frequency range shows the splitting of resonance with an increasing speed of disk rotation. The spectrum of resonance is twice denser than that of a perfect disk.

  6. High energy high repetition-rate thin-disk amplifier for OPCPA pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Michael

    2013-08-15

    The development of a pump laser system for a high power and high repetition rate optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) is presented in this thesis. The OPCPA system requires pump pulse energies in the range of tens of millijoules at high repetition rates with sub-picosecond pulse durations. This can be achieved to some extend with Innoslab amplifier technology. However, scaling to higher pulse energies at high repetition rates may be problematic. With the thin-disk amplifier presented in this thesis, output energies of 140 mJ at 100 kHz repetition rate could be achieved in burst-mode operation, which is a world record for this type of laser amplifier. Due to its material and spectral properties, ytterbium doped YAG (Yb:YAG) is used as a gain medium for the high power amplifier stages. The low quantum defect and the comparatively large emission bandwidth makes this material the choice for high power operation and sub-picosecond compressed pulse durations. The output beam profile as well as the shape of the output bursts is ideal to pump an OPCPA system. An OPCPA output energy in the millijoule range with repetition rates of 100 kHz to 1 MHz is needed to generate seed pulses for the FEL and for the application as pump-probe laser at the FEL facility. Since the development of this laser system needs to meet requirements set by the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), the amplifier is conceived for burst-mode operation. The main requirement is a high intra-burst pulse repetition rate of more than 100 kHz and a uniform pulse train (burst) with equal properties for every pulse. The burst-mode is an operation mode where the laser never reaches a lasing equilibrium, which means that the behavior of the amplifier is similar to a switch-on of the laser system for every burst. This makes the development of the amplifier system difficult. Therefore, an analytical model has been developed to study the amplification process during the burst. This includes the

  7. High energy high repetition-rate thin-disk amplifier for OPCPA pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Michael

    2013-08-01

    The development of a pump laser system for a high power and high repetition rate optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) is presented in this thesis. The OPCPA system requires pump pulse energies in the range of tens of millijoules at high repetition rates with sub-picosecond pulse durations. This can be achieved to some extend with Innoslab amplifier technology. However, scaling to higher pulse energies at high repetition rates may be problematic. With the thin-disk amplifier presented in this thesis, output energies of 140 mJ at 100 kHz repetition rate could be achieved in burst-mode operation, which is a world record for this type of laser amplifier. Due to its material and spectral properties, ytterbium doped YAG (Yb:YAG) is used as a gain medium for the high power amplifier stages. The low quantum defect and the comparatively large emission bandwidth makes this material the choice for high power operation and sub-picosecond compressed pulse durations. The output beam profile as well as the shape of the output bursts is ideal to pump an OPCPA system. An OPCPA output energy in the millijoule range with repetition rates of 100 kHz to 1 MHz is needed to generate seed pulses for the FEL and for the application as pump-probe laser at the FEL facility. Since the development of this laser system needs to meet requirements set by the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), the amplifier is conceived for burst-mode operation. The main requirement is a high intra-burst pulse repetition rate of more than 100 kHz and a uniform pulse train (burst) with equal properties for every pulse. The burst-mode is an operation mode where the laser never reaches a lasing equilibrium, which means that the behavior of the amplifier is similar to a switch-on of the laser system for every burst. This makes the development of the amplifier system difficult. Therefore, an analytical model has been developed to study the amplification process during the burst. This includes the

  8. RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: EQUILIBRIUM CONFIGURATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z., E-mail: d.pugliese.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-15

    We investigate a model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the general relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can then be determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We present also a perturbation analysis based on evolution of the oscillating components of the ringed disk. The dynamics of the unstable phases of the ringed disk evolution seems to be promising in relation to high-energy phenomena demonstrated in active galactic nuclei.

  9. CN rings in full protoplanetary disks around young stars as probes of disk structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzoletti, P.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Visser, R.; Facchini, S.; Bruderer, S.

    2018-01-01

    Aims: Bright ring-like structure emission of the CN molecule has been observed in protoplanetary disks. We investigate whether such structures are due to the morphology of the disk itself or if they are instead an intrinsic feature of CN emission. With the intention of using CN as a diagnostic, we also address to which physical and chemical parameters CN is most sensitive. Methods: A set of disk models were run for different stellar spectra, masses, and physical structures via the 2D thermochemical code DALI. An updated chemical network that accounts for the most relevant CN reactions was adopted. Results: Ring-shaped emission is found to be a common feature of all adopted models; the highest abundance is found in the upper outer regions of the disk, and the column density peaks at 30-100 AU for T Tauri stars with standard accretion rates. Higher mass disks generally show brighter CN. Higher UV fields, such as those appropriate for T Tauri stars with high accretion rates or for Herbig Ae stars or for higher disk flaring, generally result in brighter and larger rings. These trends are due to the main formation paths of CN, which all start with vibrationally excited H_2^* molecules, that are produced through far ultraviolet (FUV) pumping of H2. The model results compare well with observed disk-integrated CN fluxes and the observed location of the CN ring for the TW Hya disk. Conclusions: CN rings are produced naturally in protoplanetary disks and do not require a specific underlying disk structure such as a dust cavity or gap. The strong link between FUV flux and CN emission can provide critical information regarding the vertical structure of the disk and the distribution of dust grains which affects the UV penetration, and could help to break some degeneracies in the SED fitting. In contrast with C2H or c-C3H2, the CN flux is not very sensitive to carbon and oxygen depletion.

  10. Extraplanar H II Regions in Spiral Galaxies. I. Low-metallicity Gas Accreting through the Disk-halo Interface of NGC 4013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howk, J. Christopher; Rueff, Katherine M.; Lehner, Nicolas; Wotta, Christopher B.; Croxall, Kevin; Savage, Blair D.

    2018-04-01

    The interstellar thick disks of galaxies serve as the interface between the thin star-forming disk, where feedback-driven outflows originate, and the distant halo, the repository for accreted gas. We present optical emission line spectroscopy of a luminous, thick disk H II region located at z = 860 pc above the plane of the spiral galaxy NGC 4013 taken with the Multi-Object Double Spectrograph on the Large Binocular Telescope. This nebula, with an Hα luminosity ∼4–7 times that of the Orion nebula, surrounds a luminous cluster of young, hot stars that ionize the surrounding interstellar gas of the thick disk, providing a measure of the properties of that gas. We demonstrate that strong emission line methods can provide accurate measures of relative abundances between pairs of H II regions. From our emission line spectroscopy, we show that the metal content of the thick disk H II region is a factor of ≈2 lower than gas in H II regions at the midplane of this galaxy (with the relative abundance of O in the thick disk lower by ‑0.32 ± 0.09 dex). This implies incomplete mixing of material in the thick disk on small scales (hundreds of parsecs) and that there is accretion of low-metallicity gas through the thick disks of spirals. The inclusion of low-metallicity gas this close to the plane of NGC 4013 is reminiscent of the recently proposed “fountain-driven” accretion models.

  11. Buoyancy limits on magnetic viscosity stress-law scalings in quasi stellar object accretion disk models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakimoto, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSOs) are apparently the excessively bright nuclei of distant galaxies. They are thought to be powered by accretion disks surrounding supermassive black holes: however, proof of this presumption is hampered by major uncertainties in the viscous stress necessary for accretion to occur. Models generally assume an and hoc stress law which scales the stress with the total pressure. Near the black hole, radiation pressure dominates gas pressure; scaling the stress with the radiation pressure results in disk models that are thermally unstable and optically thin. This dissertation shows that a radiation pressure scaling for the stress is not possible if the viscosity is due to turbulent magnetic Maxwell stresses. The argument is one of internal self-consistency. First, four model accretion disks that bound the reasonably expected ranges of viscous stress scalings and vertical structures are constructed. Magnetic flux tubes of various initial field strengths are then placed within these models, nd their buoyancy is modeled numerically. In disks using the radiation pressure stress law scaling, low opacities allow rapid heat flow into the flux tubes: the tubes are extremely buoyant, and magnetic fields strong enough to provide the required stress cannot be retained. If an alternative gas pressure scaling for the stress is assumed, then the disks are optically thick; flux tubes have corresponding lower buoyancy, and magnetic fields strong enough to provide the stress can be retained for dynamically significant time periods

  12. Audit: Automated Disk Investigation Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Karabiyik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Software tools designed for disk analysis play a critical role today in forensics investigations. However, these digital forensics tools are often difficult to use, usually task specific, and generally require professionally trained users with IT backgrounds. The relevant tools are also often open source requiring additional technical knowledge and proper configuration. This makes it difficult for investigators without some computer science background to easily conduct the needed disk analysis. In this paper, we present AUDIT, a novel automated disk investigation toolkit that supports investigations conducted by non-expert (in IT and disk technology and expert investigators. Our proof of concept design and implementation of AUDIT intelligently integrates open source tools and guides non-IT professionals while requiring minimal technical knowledge about the disk structures and file systems of the target disk image.

  13. Titius-Bode laws in the solar system. 2: Build your own law from disk models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrulle, B.; Graner, F.

    1994-02-01

    Simply respecting both scale and rotational invariance, it is easy to construct an endless collection of theoretical models predicting a Titius-Bode law, irrespective to their physical content. Due to the numerous ways to get the law and its intrinsic arbitrariness, it is not a useful constraint on theories of solar system formation. To illustrate the simple elegance of scale-invariant methods, we explicitly cook up one of the simplest examples, an infinitely thin cold gaseous disk rotating around a central object. In that academic case, the Titius-Bode law holds during the linear stage of the gravitational instability. The time scale of the instability is of the order of a self-gravitating time scale, (G rhod)-1/2, where rhod is the disk density. This model links the separation between different density maxima with the ratio MD/MC of the masses of the disk and the central object; for instance, MD/MC of the order of 0.18 roughly leads to the observed separation between the planets. We discuss the boundary conditions and the limit of the Wentzel-Kramer-Brillouin (WKB) approximation.

  14. YottaYotta announces new world record set for TCP disk-to-disk bulk transfer

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The Yottabyte NetStorage(TM) Company, today announced a new world record for TCP disk-to-disk data transfer using the company's NetStorager(R) System. The record-breaking demonstration transferred 5 terabytes of data between Chicago, Il. to Vancouver, BC and Ottawa, ON, at a sustained average throughput of 11.1 gigabits per second. Peak throughput exceeded 11.6 gigabits per second, more than 15-times faster than previous records for TCP transfer from disk-to-disk (1 page).

  15. SURFACE LAYER ACCRETION IN TRANSITIONAL AND CONVENTIONAL DISKS: FROM POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS TO PLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Becker, Daniel; Chiang, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    'Transitional' T Tauri disks have optically thin holes with radii ∼>10 AU, yet accrete up to the median T Tauri rate. Multiple planets inside the hole can torque the gas to high radial speeds over large distances, reducing the local surface density while maintaining accretion. Thus multi-planet systems, together with reductions in disk opacity due to grain growth, can explain how holes can be simultaneously transparent and accreting. There remains the problem of how outer disk gas diffuses into the hole. Here it has been proposed that the magnetorotational instability (MRI) erodes disk surface layers ionized by stellar X-rays. In contrast to previous work, we find that the extent to which surface layers are MRI-active is limited not by ohmic dissipation but by ambipolar diffusion, the latter measured by Am: the number of times a neutral hydrogen molecule collides with ions in a dynamical time. Simulations by Hawley and Stone showed that Am ∼ 100 is necessary for ions to drive MRI turbulence in neutral gas. We calculate that in X-ray-irradiated surface layers, Am typically varies from ∼10 -3 to 1, depending on the abundance of charge-adsorbing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, whose properties we infer from Spitzer observations. We conclude that ionization of H 2 by X-rays and cosmic rays can sustain, at most, only weak MRI turbulence in surface layers 1-10 g cm -2 thick, and that accretion rates in such layers are too small compared to observed accretion rates for the majority of disks.

  16. Disk-to-Disk network transfers at 100 Gb/s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barczyk, Artur; Gable, Ian; Hay, Marilyn; Leavett-Brown, Colin; Legrand, Iosif; Lewall, Kim; McKee, Shawn; McWilliam, Donald; Mughal, Azher; Newman, Harvey; Rozsa, Sandor; Savard, Yvan; Sobie, Randall J.; Tam, Thomas; Voicu, Ramiro

    2012-12-01

    A 100 Gbps network was established between the California Institute of Technology conference booth at the Super Computing 2011 conference in Seattle, Washington and the computing center at the University of Victoria in Canada. A circuit was established over the BCNET, CANARIE and Super Computing (SCInet) networks using dedicated equipment. The small set of servers at the endpoints used a combination of 10GE and 40GE technologies, and SSD drives for data storage. The configuration of the network and the server configuration are discussed. We will show that the system was able to achieve disk-to-disk transfer rates of 60 Gbps and memory-to-memory rates in excess of 180 Gbps across the WAN. We will discuss the transfer tools, disk configurations, and monitoring tools used in the demonstration.

  17. Disk-to-Disk network transfers at 100 Gb/s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barczyk, Artur; Legrand, Iosif; Mughal, Azher; Newman, Harvey; Rozsa, Sandor; Voicu, Ramiro; Gable, Ian; Leavett-Brown, Colin; Lewall, Kim; Savard, Yvan; Sobie, Randall J; Hay, Marilyn; McWilliam, Donald; McKee, Shawn; Tam, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A 100 Gbps network was established between the California Institute of Technology conference booth at the Super Computing 2011 conference in Seattle, Washington and the computing center at the University of Victoria in Canada. A circuit was established over the BCNET, CANARIE and Super Computing (SCInet) networks using dedicated equipment. The small set of servers at the endpoints used a combination of 10GE and 40GE technologies, and SSD drives for data storage. The configuration of the network and the server configuration are discussed. We will show that the system was able to achieve disk-to-disk transfer rates of 60 Gbps and memory-to-memory rates in excess of 180 Gbps across the WAN. We will discuss the transfer tools, disk configurations, and monitoring tools used in the demonstration.

  18. Fast disk array for image storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dan; Zhu, Zhichun; Jin, Hai; Zhang, Jiangling

    1997-01-01

    A fast disk array is designed for the large continuous image storage. It includes a high speed data architecture and the technology of data striping and organization on the disk array. The high speed data path which is constructed by two dual port RAM and some control circuit is configured to transfer data between a host system and a plurality of disk drives. The bandwidth can be more than 100 MB/s if the data path based on PCI (peripheral component interconnect). The organization of data stored on the disk array is similar to RAID 4. Data are striped on a plurality of disk, and each striping unit is equal to a track. I/O instructions are performed in parallel on the disk drives. An independent disk is used to store the parity information in the fast disk array architecture. By placing the parity generation circuit directly on the SCSI (or SCSI 2) bus, the parity information can be generated on the fly. It will affect little on the data writing in parallel on the other disks. The fast disk array architecture designed in the paper can meet the demands of the image storage.

  19. Future Hard Disk Storage: Limits & Potential Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambeth, David N.

    2000-03-01

    For several years the hard disk drive technology pace has raced along at 60-100products this year and laboratory demonstrations approaching what has been estimated as a physical thermal stability limit of around 40 Gbit/in2. For sometime now the data storage industry has recogniz d that doing business as usually will not be viable for long and so both incremental evolutionary and revolutionary technologies are being explored. While new recording head materials or thermal recording techniques may allow higher coercivity materials to be recorded upon, and while high sensitivity spin transport transducer technology may provide sufficient signals to extend beyond the 100 Gigabit/in2 regime, conventional isotropic longitudinal media will show large data retention problems at less than 1/2 of this value. We have recently developed a simple model which indicates that while thermal instability issues may appear at different areal densities, they are non-discriminatory as to the magnetic recording modality: longitudinal, perpendicular, magnetooptic, near field, etc. The model indicates that a strong orientation of the media tends to abate the onset of the thermal limit. Hence, for the past few years we have taken an approach of controlled growth of the microstructure of thin film media. This knowledge has lead us to believe that epitaxial growth of multiple thin film layers on single crystalline Si may provide a pathway to nearly perfect crystallites of various, highly oriented, thin film textures. Here we provide an overview of the recording system media challenges, which are useful for the development of a future media design philosophy and then discuss materials issues and processing techniques for multi-layered thin film material structures which may be used to achieve media structures which can easy exceed the limits predicted for isotropic media.

  20. Photoionization Models for the Inner Gaseous Disks of Herbig Be Stars: Evidence against Magnetospheric Accretion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, P.; Sigut, T. A. A.; Landstreet, J. D., E-mail: ppatel54@uwo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2017-02-20

    We investigate the physical properties of the inner gaseous disks of three hot Herbig B2e stars, HD 76534, HD 114981, and HD 216629, by modeling CFHT-ESPaDOns spectra using non-LTE radiative transfer codes. We assume that the emission lines are produced in a circumstellar disk heated solely by photospheric radiation from the central star in order to test whether the optical and near-infrared emission lines can be reproduced without invoking magnetospheric accretion. The inner gaseous disk density was assumed to follow a simple power-law in the equatorial plane, and we searched for models that could reproduce observed lines of H i (H α and H β ), He i, Ca ii, and Fe ii. For the three stars, good matches were found for all emission line profiles individually; however, no density model based on a single power-law was able to reproduce all of the observed emission lines. Among the single power-law models, the one with the gas density varying as ∼10{sup −10}( R {sub *}/ R ){sup 3} g cm{sup −3} in the equatorial plane of a 25 R {sub *} (0.78 au) disk did the best overall job of representing the optical emission lines of the three stars. This model implies a mass for the H α -emitting portion of the inner gaseous disk of ∼10{sup −9} M {sub *}. We conclude that the optical emission line spectra of these HBe stars can be qualitatively reproduced by a ≈1 au, geometrically thin, circumstellar disk of negligible mass compared to the central star in Keplerian rotation and radiative equilibrium.

  1. Photoionization Models for the Inner Gaseous Disks of Herbig Be Stars: Evidence against Magnetospheric Accretion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, P.; Sigut, T. A. A.; Landstreet, J. D.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the physical properties of the inner gaseous disks of three hot Herbig B2e stars, HD 76534, HD 114981, and HD 216629, by modeling CFHT-ESPaDOns spectra using non-LTE radiative transfer codes. We assume that the emission lines are produced in a circumstellar disk heated solely by photospheric radiation from the central star in order to test whether the optical and near-infrared emission lines can be reproduced without invoking magnetospheric accretion. The inner gaseous disk density was assumed to follow a simple power-law in the equatorial plane, and we searched for models that could reproduce observed lines of H i (H α and H β ), He i, Ca ii, and Fe ii. For the three stars, good matches were found for all emission line profiles individually; however, no density model based on a single power-law was able to reproduce all of the observed emission lines. Among the single power-law models, the one with the gas density varying as ∼10 −10 ( R * / R ) 3 g cm −3 in the equatorial plane of a 25 R * (0.78 au) disk did the best overall job of representing the optical emission lines of the three stars. This model implies a mass for the H α -emitting portion of the inner gaseous disk of ∼10 −9 M * . We conclude that the optical emission line spectra of these HBe stars can be qualitatively reproduced by a ≈1 au, geometrically thin, circumstellar disk of negligible mass compared to the central star in Keplerian rotation and radiative equilibrium.

  2. One-dimensional analysis of the hydrodynamic and thermal characteristics of thin film flows including the hydraulic jump and rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S.; Hankey, W.; Faghri, A.; Swanson, T.

    1990-01-01

    The flow of a thin liquid film with a free surface along a horizontal plane that emanates from a pressurized vessel is examined numerically. In one g, a hydraulic jump was predicted in both plane and radial flow, which could be forced away from the inlet by increasing the inlet Froude number or Reynolds number. In zero g, the hydraulic jump was not predicted. The effect of solid-body rotation for radial flow in one g was to 'wash out' the hydraulic jump and to decrease the film height on the disk. The liquid film heights under one g and zero g were equal under solid-body rotation because the effect of centrifugal force was much greater than that of the gravitational force. The heat transfer to a film on a rotating disk was predicted to be greater than that of a stationary disk because the liquid film is extremely thin and is moving with a very high velocity.

  3. Shedding light on the eccentricity valley: Gap heating and eccentricity excitation of giant planets in protoplanetary disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, David; Cumming, Andrew; Turner, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the first order (non-co-orbital) corotation torques are significantly modified by entropy gradients in a non-barotropic protoplanetary disk. Such non-barotropic torques can dramatically alter the balance that, for barotropic cases, results in the net eccentricity damping for giant gap-clearing planets embedded in the disk. We demonstrate that stellar illumination can heat the gap enough for the planet's orbital eccentricity to instead be excited. We also discuss the 'Eccentricity Valley' noted in the known exoplanet population, where low-metallicity stars have a deficit of eccentric planets between ∼0.1 and ∼1 AU compared to metal-rich systems. We show that this feature in the planet distribution may be due to the self-shadowing of the disk by a rim located at the dust sublimation radius ∼0.1 AU, which is known to exist for several T Tauri systems. In the shadowed region between ∼0.1 and ∼1 AU, lack of gap insolation allows disk interactions to damp eccentricity. Outside such shadowed regions stellar illumination can heat the planetary gaps and drive eccentricity growth for giant planets. We suggest that the self-shadowing does not arise at higher metallicity due to the increased optical depth of the gas interior to the dust sublimation radius.

  4. Shedding light on the eccentricity valley: Gap heating and eccentricity excitation of giant planets in protoplanetary disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, David; Cumming, Andrew [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Turner, Neal J., E-mail: dtsang@physics.mcgill.ca [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2014-02-20

    We show that the first order (non-co-orbital) corotation torques are significantly modified by entropy gradients in a non-barotropic protoplanetary disk. Such non-barotropic torques can dramatically alter the balance that, for barotropic cases, results in the net eccentricity damping for giant gap-clearing planets embedded in the disk. We demonstrate that stellar illumination can heat the gap enough for the planet's orbital eccentricity to instead be excited. We also discuss the 'Eccentricity Valley' noted in the known exoplanet population, where low-metallicity stars have a deficit of eccentric planets between ∼0.1 and ∼1 AU compared to metal-rich systems. We show that this feature in the planet distribution may be due to the self-shadowing of the disk by a rim located at the dust sublimation radius ∼0.1 AU, which is known to exist for several T Tauri systems. In the shadowed region between ∼0.1 and ∼1 AU, lack of gap insolation allows disk interactions to damp eccentricity. Outside such shadowed regions stellar illumination can heat the planetary gaps and drive eccentricity growth for giant planets. We suggest that the self-shadowing does not arise at higher metallicity due to the increased optical depth of the gas interior to the dust sublimation radius.

  5. Debris Disks in Aggregate: Using Hubble Space Telescope Coronagraphic Imagery to Understand the Scattered-Light Disk Detection Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite more than a decade of coronagraphic imaging of debris disk candidate stars, only 16 have been imaged in scattered light. Since imaged disks provide our best insight into processes which sculpt disks, and can provide signposts of the presence of giant planets at distances which would elude radial velocity and transit surveys, we need to understand under what conditions we detect the disks in scattered light, how these disks differ from the majority of debris disks, and how to increase the yield of disks which are imaged with 0.1" angular resolution. In this talk, I will review what we have learned from a shallow HSTINICMOS NIR survey of debris disks, and present first results from our on-going HST /STIS optical imaging of bright scattered-light disks.

  6. Coevolution of Binaries and Circumbinary Gaseous Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David; Quinn, Thomas R.

    2018-04-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by Kepler raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disk, and how the disk and binary interact. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disk that drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disk. To probe how these interactions impact both binary eccentricity and disk structure evolution, we ran N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of gaseous protoplanetary disks surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 for 10^4 binary orbital periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disk via a parametric instability and excite disk eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disk causing eccentricity growth for both the disk and binary. Disks around sufficiently eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disk and develop an m = 1 spiral wave launched from the 1:3 eccentric outer Lindblad resonance (EOLR). This wave corresponds to an alignment of gas particle longitude of periastrons. We find that in all simulations, the binary semi-major axis decays due to dissipation from the viscous disk.

  7. Drag Measurements over Embedded Cavities in a Low Reynolds Number Couette Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmer, Caleb; Lang, Amy; Jones, Robert

    2010-11-01

    Recent research has revealed that thin-walled, embedded cavities in low Reynolds number flow have the potential to reduce the net viscous drag force acting on the surface. This reduction is due to the formation of embedded vortices allowing the outer flow to pass over the surface via a roller bearing effect. It is also hypothesized that the scales found on butterfly wings may act in a similar manner to cause a net increase in flying efficiency. In this experimental study, rectangular embedded cavities were designed as a means of successfully reducing the net drag across surfaces in a low Reynolds number flow. A Couette flow was generated via a rotating conveyor belt immersed in a tank of high viscosity mineral oil above which the plates with embedded cavities were placed. Drag induced on the plate models was measured using a force gauge and compared directly to measurements acquired over a flat plate. Various cavity aspect ratios and gap heights were tested in order to determine the conditions under which the greatest drag reductions occurred.

  8. 3.3 CM JVLA OBSERVATIONS OF TRANSITIONAL DISKS: SEARCHING FOR CENTIMETER PEBBLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina

    2017-01-01

    We present sensitive (rms-noises ∼4–25 μ Jy) and high angular resolution (∼1″–2″) 8.9 GHz (3.3 cm) Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of 10 presumed transitional disks associated with young low-mass stars. We report the detection of radio continuum emission in 5 out of the 10 objects (RXJ1615, UX Tau A, LkCa15, RXJ1633, and SR 24s). In the case of LkCa15, the centimeter emission is extended, and has a similar morphology to that of the transitional disk observed at millimeter wavelengths with an inner depression. For these five detections, we construct the spectral energy distributions from the centimeter to submillimeter wavelengths, and find that they can be well fitted with a single (RXJ1633 and UX Tau A) or a two-component power law (LkCa15, RXJ1615, and SR 24s). For the cases where a single power law fits the data well, the centimeter emission is likely produced by optically thin dust with large grains (i.e., centimeter-size pebbles) present in the transitional disks. For the cases where a double power law fits the data, the centimeter emission might be produced by the combination of photoevaporation and a free–free jet. We conclude that RXJ1633 and UX Tau A are excellent examples of transitional disks where the structure of the emission from centimeter/millimeter pebbles can be studied. In the other cases, some other physical emitting mechanisms are also important in the centimeter regime.

  9. 3.3 CM JVLA OBSERVATIONS OF TRANSITIONAL DISKS: SEARCHING FOR CENTIMETER PEBBLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina, E-mail: lzapata@crya.unam.mx [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2017-01-10

    We present sensitive (rms-noises ∼4–25 μ Jy) and high angular resolution (∼1″–2″) 8.9 GHz (3.3 cm) Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of 10 presumed transitional disks associated with young low-mass stars. We report the detection of radio continuum emission in 5 out of the 10 objects (RXJ1615, UX Tau A, LkCa15, RXJ1633, and SR 24s). In the case of LkCa15, the centimeter emission is extended, and has a similar morphology to that of the transitional disk observed at millimeter wavelengths with an inner depression. For these five detections, we construct the spectral energy distributions from the centimeter to submillimeter wavelengths, and find that they can be well fitted with a single (RXJ1633 and UX Tau A) or a two-component power law (LkCa15, RXJ1615, and SR 24s). For the cases where a single power law fits the data well, the centimeter emission is likely produced by optically thin dust with large grains (i.e., centimeter-size pebbles) present in the transitional disks. For the cases where a double power law fits the data, the centimeter emission might be produced by the combination of photoevaporation and a free–free jet. We conclude that RXJ1633 and UX Tau A are excellent examples of transitional disks where the structure of the emission from centimeter/millimeter pebbles can be studied. In the other cases, some other physical emitting mechanisms are also important in the centimeter regime.

  10. Embedded Leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    find that asset classes with embedded leverage offer low risk-adjusted returns and, in the cross-section, higher embedded leverage is associated with lower returns. A portfolio which is long low-embedded-leverage securities and short high-embedded-leverage securities earns large abnormal returns...

  11. Modelling and solution of contact problem for infinite plate and cross-shaped embedment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Kozin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of efficient methods of determination of an intense-strained state of thin-walled constructional designs with inclusions, reinforcements and other stress raisers is an important problem both with theoretical, and from the practical point of view, considering their wide practical application. Aim: The aim of this research is to develop the analytical mathematical method of studying of an intense-strained state of infinite plate with cross-shaped embedment at a bend. Materials and Methods: The method of boundary elements is an efficient way of the boundary value problems solution for systems of differential equations. The methods based on boundary integral equations get wide application in many branches of science and technique, calculation of plates and shells. One of methods of solution of a numerous class of the integral equations and systems arising on the basis of a method of boundary integral equations is the analytical method of construction of these equations and systems to Riemann problems with their forthcoming decision. Results: The integral equation for the analysis of deflections and the analysis of an intense-strained state of a thin rigid plate with rigid cross-shaped embedment is received. The precise solution of this boundary value problem is received by reduction to a Riemann problem and its forthcoming solution. An asymptotical behavior of contact efforts at the ends of embedment is investigated.

  12. Magnetic properties of MnAs nanoclusters embedded in a GaAs semiconductor matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai, Pham Nam; Takahashi, Keisuke; Yokoyama, Masafumi; Ohya, Shinobu; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2007-01-01

    We have clarified fundamental magnetic properties of MnAs nanoclusters (10 nm in diameter) embedded in a thin GaAs matrix (referred to as GaAs:MnAs) through tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) characteristics of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) consisting of a GaAs:MnAs thin film and a MnAs metal thin film as ferromagnetic electrodes. Although MnAs nanoclusters have coercive forces as small as 150 Oe at 7 K, they show unusually high blocking temperature, which is as large as 300 K. The remanent magnetization of the MnAs nanocluster system linearly decreases with increasing temperature. Those magnetic behaviors cannot be explained by the non-interacting particle model, revealing the important existence of dipolar interactions in MnAs nanocluster system

  13. Nonlinear analysis of the inflation of an initially flat, circular, elastic disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, R.M.; Feng, W.W.

    1986-01-01

    An approximate analysis is given for the inflation of a thin, flat circular disk of elastomeric material. The analysis results in a closed-form analytical solution for the maximum displacement as a function of pressure. The method is illustrated through the use of a Mooney-Rivlin material model. The results are compared with the exact solution, obtained by numerical means, and they are satisfactory, up into the range of several hundred percent strain. The method greatly simplifies the procedure for reducing test data, from this type of test, to nonlinear range mechanical properties

  14. Embedding potentials for excited states of embedded species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesolowski, Tomasz A.

    2014-01-01

    Frozen-Density-Embedding Theory (FDET) is a formalism to obtain the upper bound of the ground-state energy of the total system and the corresponding embedded wavefunction by means of Euler-Lagrange equations [T. A. Wesolowski, Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 012504 (2008)]. FDET provides the expression for the embedding potential as a functional of the electron density of the embedded species, electron density of the environment, and the field generated by other charges in the environment. Under certain conditions, FDET leads to the exact ground-state energy and density of the whole system. Following Perdew-Levy theorem on stationary states of the ground-state energy functional, the other-than-ground-state stationary states of the FDET energy functional correspond to excited states. In the present work, we analyze such use of other-than-ground-state embedded wavefunctions obtained in practical calculations, i.e., when the FDET embedding potential is approximated. Three computational approaches based on FDET, that assure self-consistent excitation energy and embedded wavefunction dealing with the issue of orthogonality of embedded wavefunctions for different states in a different manner, are proposed and discussed

  15. THE ROLE OF THE ACCRETION DISK, DUST, AND JETS IN THE IR EMISSION OF LOW-LUMINOSITY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R. E. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 N. A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Ramos Almeida, C. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/Vía Láctea, s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Levenson, N. A. [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Nemmen, R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Alonso-Herrero, A., E-mail: rmason@gemini.edu [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-UC, Avenida de los Castros s/n, E-39005 Santander (Spain)

    2013-11-10

    We use recent high-resolution infrared (IR; 1-20 μm) photometry to examine the origin of the IR emission in low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGN). The data are compared with published model fits that describe the spectral energy distribution (SED) of LLAGN in terms of an advection-dominated accretion flow, truncated thin accretion disk, and jet. The truncated disk in these models is usually not luminous enough to explain the observed IR emission, and in all cases its spectral shape is much narrower than the broad IR peaks in the data. Synchrotron radiation from the jet appears to be important in very radio-loud nuclei, but the detection of strong silicate emission features in many objects indicates that dust must also contribute. We investigate this point by fitting the IR SED of NGC 3998 using dusty torus and optically thin (τ{sub mid-IR} ∼ 1) dust shell models. While more detailed modeling is necessary, these initial results suggest that dust may account for the nuclear mid-IR emission of many LLAGN.

  16. MOLECULAR GAS IN YOUNG DEBRIS DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moor, A.; Abraham, P.; Kiss, Cs.; Juhasz, A.; Kospal, A.; Pascucci, I.; Apai, D.; Henning, Th.; Csengeri, T.; Grady, C.

    2011-01-01

    Gas-rich primordial disks and tenuous gas-poor debris disks are usually considered as two distinct evolutionary phases of the circumstellar matter. Interestingly, the debris disk around the young main-sequence star 49 Ceti possesses a substantial amount of molecular gas and possibly represents the missing link between the two phases. Motivated to understand the evolution of the gas component in circumstellar disks via finding more 49 Ceti-like systems, we carried out a CO J = 3-2 survey with the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment, targeting 20 infrared-luminous debris disks. These systems fill the gap between primordial and old tenuous debris disks in terms of fractional luminosity. Here we report on the discovery of a second 49 Ceti-like disk around the 30 Myr old A3-type star HD21997, a member of the Columba Association. This system was also detected in the CO(2-1) transition, and the reliable age determination makes it an even clearer example of an old gas-bearing disk than 49 Ceti. While the fractional luminosities of HD21997 and 49 Ceti are not particularly high, these objects seem to harbor the most extended disks within our sample. The double-peaked profiles of HD21997 were reproduced by a Keplerian disk model combined with the LIME radiative transfer code. Based on their similarities, 49 Ceti and HD21997 may be the first representatives of a so far undefined new class of relatively old (∼>8 Myr), gaseous dust disks. From our results, neither primordial origin nor steady secondary production from icy planetesimals can unequivocally explain the presence of CO gas in the disk of HD21997.

  17. A Detached Protostellar Disk around a ˜0.2 M ⊙ Protostar in a Possible Site of a Multiple Star Formation in a Dynamical Environment in Taurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Kazuki; Onishi, Toshikazu; Saigo, Kazuya; Hosokawa, Takashi; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Machida, Masahiro N.; Tomida, Kengo; Kunitomo, Masanobu; Kawamura, Akiko; Fukui, Yasuo; Tachihara, Kengo

    2017-11-01

    We report ALMA observations in 0.87 mm continuum and 12CO (J = 3-2) toward a very low-luminosity (<0.1 L ⊙) protostar, which is deeply embedded in one of the densest cores, MC27/L1521F, in Taurus with an indication of multiple star formation in a highly dynamical environment. The beam size corresponds to ˜20 au, and we have clearly detected blueshifted/redshifted gas in 12CO associated with the protostar. The spatial/velocity distributions of the gas show there is a rotating disk with a size scale of ˜10 au, a disk mass of ˜10-4 M ⊙, and a central stellar mass of ˜0.2 M ⊙. The observed disk seems to be detached from the surrounding dense gas, although it is still embedded at the center of the core whose density is ˜106 cm-3. The current low-outflow activity and the very low luminosity indicate that the mass accretion rate onto the protostar is extremely low in spite of a very early stage of star formation. We may be witnessing the final stage of the formation of ˜0.2 M ⊙ protostar. However, we cannot explain the observed low luminosity with the standard pre-main-sequence evolutionary track unless we assume cold accretion with an extremely small initial radius of the protostar (˜0.65 {R}⊙ ). These facts may challenge our current understanding of the low mass star formation, in particular the mass accretion process onto the protostar and the circumstellar disk.

  18. Deformation and Life Analysis of Composite Flywheel Disk and Multi-disk Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, S. M.; Saleeb, A. F.; AlZoubi, N. R.

    2001-01-01

    In this study an attempt is made to put into perspective the problem of a rotating disk, be it a single disk or a number of concentric disks forming a unit. An analytical model capable of performing an elastic stress analysis for single/multiple, annular/solid, anisotropic/isotropic disk systems, subjected to both pressure surface tractions, body forces (in the form of temperature-changes and rotation fields) and interfacial misfits is derived and discussed. Results of an extensive parametric study are presented to clearly define the key design variables and their associated influence. In general the important parameters were identified as misfit, mean radius, thickness, material property and/or load gradation, and speed; all of which must be simultaneously optimized to achieve the "best" and most reliable design. Also, the important issue of defining proper performance/merit indices (based on the specific stored energy), in the presence of multiaxiality and material anisotropy is addressed. These merit indices are then utilized to discuss the difference between flywheels made from PMC and TMC materials with either an annular or solid geometry. Finally two major aspects of failure analysis, that is the static and cyclic limit (burst) speeds are addressed. In the case of static limit loads, upper, lower, and out-of-plane bounds for disks with constant thickness are presented for both the case of internal pressure loading (as one would see in a hydroburst test) and pure rotation (as in the case of a free spinning disk). The results (interaction diagrams) are displayed graphically in designer friendly format. For the case of fatigue, a representative fatigue/life master curve is illustrated in which the normalized limit speed versus number of applied cycles is given for a cladded TMC disk application.

  19. Thin films of metal-organic compounds and metal nanoparticle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optical limiting capability of the nanoparticle-embedded polymer film is demonstrated. Keywords. Polar crystal; uniaxial orientational order; thin film; second harmonic gen- eration; silver ... able content of metal nanoparticles would be of considerable value from an appli- ... polar chain and perpendicular to it [10].

  20. FOMALHAUT'S DEBRIS DISK AND PLANET: CONSTRAINING THE MASS OF FOMALHAUT B FROM DISK MORPHOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, E.; Kalas, P.; Graham, J. R.; Kite, E.; Clampin, M.

    2009-01-01

    Following the optical imaging of exoplanet candidate Fomalhaut b (Fom b), we present a numerical model of how Fomalhaut's debris disk is gravitationally shaped by a single interior planet. The model is simple, adaptable to other debris disks, and can be extended to accommodate multiple planets. If Fom b is the dominant perturber of the belt, then to produce the observed disk morphology it must have a mass M pl J , an orbital semimajor axis a pl > 101.5 AU, and an orbital eccentricity e pl = 0.11-0.13. These conclusions are independent of Fom b's photometry. To not disrupt the disk, a greater mass for Fom b demands a smaller orbit farther removed from the disk; thus, future astrometric measurement of Fom b's orbit, combined with our model of planet-disk interaction, can be used to determine the mass more precisely. The inner edge of the debris disk at a ∼ 133 AU lies at the periphery of Fom b's chaotic zone, and the mean disk eccentricity of e ∼ 0.11 is secularly forced by the planet, supporting predictions made prior to the discovery of Fom b. However, previous mass constraints based on disk morphology rely on several oversimplifications. We explain why our constraint is more reliable. It is based on a global model of the disk that is not restricted to the planet's chaotic zone boundary. Moreover, we screen disk parent bodies for dynamical stability over the system age of ∼ 100 Myr, and model them separately from their dust grain progeny; the latter's orbits are strongly affected by radiation pressure and their lifetimes are limited to ∼ 0.1 Myr by destructive grain-grain collisions. The single planet model predicts that planet and disk orbits be apsidally aligned. Fomalhaut b's nominal space velocity does not bear this out, but the astrometric uncertainties may be large. If the apsidal misalignment proves real, our calculated upper mass limit of 3M J still holds. If the orbits are aligned, our model predicts M pl = 0.5M J , a pl = 115 AU, and e pl = 0

  1. Characteristics of RuO2-SnO2 nanocrystalline-embedded amorphous electrode for thin film microsupercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han-Ki; Choi, Sun-Hee; Yoon, Young Soo; Chang, Sung-Yong; Ok, Young-Woo; Seong, Tae-Yeon

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of RuO 2 -SnO 2 nanocrystalline-embedded amorphous electrode, grown by DC reactive sputtering, was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and transmission electron diffraction (TED) examination results showed that Sn and Ru metal cosputtered electrode in O 2 /Ar ambient have RuO 2 -SnO 2 nanocrystallines in an amorphous oxide matrix. It is shown that the cyclic voltammorgram (CV) result of the RuO 2 -SnO 2 nanocrystalline-embedded amorphous film in 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 liquid electrolyte is similar to a bulk-type supercapacitor behavior with a specific capacitance of 62.2 mF/cm 2 μm. This suggests that the RuO 2 -SnO 2 nanocrystalline-embedded amorphous film can be employed in hybrid all-solid state energy storage devises as an electrode of supercapacitor

  2. DISCOVERY OF AN EDGE-ON DEBRIS DISK WITH A DUST RING AND AN OUTER DISK WING-TILT ASYMMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasper, Markus; Apai, Dániel; Wagner, Kevin; Robberto, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Using Very Large Telescope/SPHERE near-infrared dual-band imaging and integral field spectroscopy, we discovered an edge-on debris disk around the 17 Myr old A-type member of the Scorpius–Centaurus OB association HD 110058. The edge-on disk can be traced to about 0.″6 or 65 AU projected separation. In its northern and southern wings, the disk shows at all wavelengths two prominent, bright, and symmetrically placed knots at 0.″3 or 32 AU from the star. We interpret these knots as a ring of planetesimals whose collisions may produce most of the dust observed in the disk. We find no evidence for a bow in the disk, but we identify a pair of symmetric, hooklike features in both wings. Based on similar features in the Beta Pictoris disk, we propose that this wing-tilt asymmetry traces either an outer planetesimal belt that is inclined with respect to the disk midplane or radiation-pressure-driven dust blown out from a yet unseen inner belt that is inclined with respect to the disk midplane. The misaligned inner or outer disk may be a result of interaction with a yet unseen planet. Overall, the disk geometry resembles the nearby disk around Beta Pictoris, albeit seen at smaller radial scales

  3. Warpage behavior analysis in package processes of embedded copper substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Yeong-Maw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advance of the semiconductor industry and in response to the demands of ultra-thin products, packaging technology has been continuously developed. Thermal bonding process of copper pillar flip chip packages is a new bonding process in packaging technology, especially for substrates with embedded copper trace. During the packaging process, the substrate usually warps because of the heating process. In this paper, a finite element software ANSYS is used to model the embedded copper trace substrate and simulate the thermal and deformation behaviors of the substrate during the heating package process. A fixed geometric configuration equivalent to the real structure is duplicated to make the simulation of the warpage behavior of the substrate feasible. An empirical formula for predicting the warpage displacements is also established.

  4. Time-Dependent Simulations of the Formation and Evolution of Disk-Accreted Atmospheres Around Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoekl, Alexander; Dorfi, Ernst

    2014-05-01

    In the early, embedded phase of evolution of terrestrial planets, the planetary core accumulates gas from the circumstellar disk into a planetary envelope. This atmosphere is very significant for the further thermal evolution of the planet by forming an insulation around the rocky core. The disk-captured envelope is also the staring point for the atmospheric evolution where the atmosphere is modified by outgassing from the planetary core and atmospheric mass loss once the planet is exposed to the radiation field of the host star. The final amount of persistent atmosphere around the evolved planet very much characterizes the planet and is a key criterion for habitability. The established way to study disk accumulated atmospheres are hydrostatic models, even though in many cases the assumption of stationarity is unlikely to be fulfilled. We present, for the first time, time-dependent radiation hydrodynamics simulations of the accumulation process and the interaction between the disk-nebula gas and the planetary core. The calculations were performed with the TAPIR-Code (short for The adaptive, implicit RHD-Code) in spherical symmetry solving the equations of hydrodynamics, gray radiative transport, and convective energy transport. The models range from the surface of the solid core up to the Hill radius where the planetary envelope merges into the surrounding protoplanetary disk. Our results show that the time-scale of gas capturing and atmospheric growth strongly depends on the mass of the solid core. The amount of atmosphere accumulated during the lifetime of the protoplanetary disk (typically a few Myr) varies accordingly with the mass of the planet. Thus, a core with Mars-mass will end up with about 10 bar of atmosphere while for an Earth-mass core, the surface pressure reaches several 1000 bar. Even larger planets with several Earth masses quickly capture massive envelopes which in turn become gravitationally unstable leading to runaway accretion and the eventual

  5. IRON OPACITY BUMP CHANGES THE STABILITY AND STRUCTURE OF ACCRETION DISKS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yan-Fei [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Davis, Shane W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Stone, James M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-08-10

    Accretion disks around supermassive black holes have regions where the Rosseland mean opacity can be larger than the electron scattering opacity due to the large number of bound–bound transitions in iron. We study the effects of this iron opacity “bump” on the thermal stability and vertical structure of radiation-pressure-dominated accretion disks, utilizing three-dimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations in the local shearing box approximation. The simulations self-consistently calculate the heating due to MHD turbulence caused by magneto-rotational instability and radiative cooling by using the radiative transfer module based on a variable Eddington tensor in Athena. For a 5 × 10{sup 8} solar mass black hole with ∼3% of the Eddington luminosity, a model including the iron opacity bump maintains its structure for more than 10 thermal times without showing significant signs of thermal runaway. In contrast, if only electron scattering and free–free opacity are included as in the standard thin disk model, the disk collapses on the thermal timescale. The difference is caused by a combination of (1) an anti-correlation between the total optical depth and the midplane pressure, and (2) enhanced vertical advective energy transport. These results suggest that the iron opacity bump may have a strong impact on the stability and structure of active galactic nucleus (AGN) accretion disks, and may contribute to a dependence of AGN properties on metallicity. Since this opacity is relevant primarily in UV emitting regions of the flow, it may help to explain discrepancies between observation and theory that are unique to AGNs.

  6. CIRCUMSTELLAR DEBRIS DISKS: DIAGNOSING THE UNSEEN PERTURBER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvold, Erika R. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, 5241 Broad Branch Rd., Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Naoz, Smadar; Vican, Laura [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Farr, Will M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-20

    The first indication of the presence of a circumstellar debris disk is usually the detection of excess infrared emission from the population of small dust grains orbiting the star. This dust is short-lived, requiring continual replenishment, and indicating that the disk must be excited by an unseen perturber. Previous theoretical studies have demonstrated that an eccentric planet orbiting interior to the disk will stir the larger bodies in the belt and produce dust via interparticle collisions. However, motivated by recent observations, we explore another possible mechanism for heating a debris disk: a stellar-mass perturber orbiting exterior to and inclined to the disk and exciting the disk particles’ eccentricities and inclinations via the Kozai–Lidov mechanism. We explore the consequences of an exterior perturber on the evolution of a debris disk using secular analysis and collisional N -body simulations. We demonstrate that a Kozai–Lidov excited disk can generate a dust disk via collisions and we compare the results of the Kozai–Lidov excited disk with a simulated disk perturbed by an interior eccentric planet. Finally, we propose two observational tests of a dust disk that can distinguish whether the dust was produced by an exterior brown dwarf or stellar companion or an interior eccentric planet.

  7. Head-Disk Interface Technology: Challenges and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo

    Magnetic hard disk drive (HDD) technology is believed to be one of the most successful examples of modern mechatronics systems. The mechanical beauty of magnetic HDD includes simple but super high accuracy positioning head, positioning technology, high speed and stability spindle motor technology, and head-disk interface technology which keeps the millimeter sized slider flying over a disk surface at nanometer level slider-disk spacing. This paper addresses the challenges and possible approaches on how to further reduce the slider disk spacing whilst retaining the stability and robustness level of head-disk systems for future advanced magnetic disk drives.

  8. In situ X-ray diffraction study of crystallization process of GeSbTe thin films during heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Naohiko; Konomi, Ichiro; Seno, Yoshiki; Motohiro, Tomoyoshi

    2005-01-01

    The crystallization processes of the Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 thin film used for PD and DVD-RAM were studied in its realistic optical disk film configurations for the first time by X-ray diffraction using an intense X-ray beam of a synchrotron orbital radiation facility (SPring-8) and in situ quick detection with a Position-Sensitive-Proportional-Counter. The dependence of the amorphous-to-fcc phase-change temperature T 1 on the rate of temperature elevation R et gave an activation energy E a : 0.93 eV much less than previously reported 2.2 eV obtained from a model sample 25-45 times thicker than in the real optical disks. The similar measurement on the Ge 4 Sb 1 Te 5 film whose large reflectance change attains the readability by CD-ROM drives gave E a : 1.13 eV with larger T 1 than Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 thin films at any R et implying a lower sensitivity in erasing as well as a better data stability of the phase-change disk

  9. The origin of enhanced optical absorption in solar cells with metal nanoparticles embedded in the active layer

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung-Yong

    2010-04-29

    We analyze the enhancement in optical absorption of an absorbing medium when spherical metal nanoparticles are embedded in it. Our analysis uses generalized Mie theory to calculate the absorbed optical power as a function of the distance from the metal nanoparticle. This analysis is used to evaluate the potential of enhancing optical absorption in thin-film solar cells by embedding spherical metal nanoparticles. We consider the trade-off between maximizing overall optical absorption and ensuring that a large fraction of the incident optical power is dissipated in the absorbing host medium rather than in the metal nanoparticle. We show that enhanced optical absorption results from strong scattering by the metal nanoparticle which locally enhances the optical electric fields. We also discuss the effect of a thin dielectric encapsulation of the metal nanoparticles. ©2010 Optical Society of America.

  10. The origin of enhanced optical absorption in solar cells with metal nanoparticles embedded in the active layer

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung-Yong; Peumans, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the enhancement in optical absorption of an absorbing medium when spherical metal nanoparticles are embedded in it. Our analysis uses generalized Mie theory to calculate the absorbed optical power as a function of the distance from the metal nanoparticle. This analysis is used to evaluate the potential of enhancing optical absorption in thin-film solar cells by embedding spherical metal nanoparticles. We consider the trade-off between maximizing overall optical absorption and ensuring that a large fraction of the incident optical power is dissipated in the absorbing host medium rather than in the metal nanoparticle. We show that enhanced optical absorption results from strong scattering by the metal nanoparticle which locally enhances the optical electric fields. We also discuss the effect of a thin dielectric encapsulation of the metal nanoparticles. ©2010 Optical Society of America.

  11. An Optimal Strategy for Accurate Bulge-to-disk Decomposition of Disk Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Hua [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-08-20

    The development of two-dimensional (2D) bulge-to-disk decomposition techniques has shown their advantages over traditional one-dimensional (1D) techniques, especially for galaxies with non-axisymmetric features. However, the full potential of 2D techniques has yet to be fully exploited. Secondary morphological features in nearby disk galaxies, such as bars, lenses, rings, disk breaks, and spiral arms, are seldom accounted for in 2D image decompositions, even though some image-fitting codes, such as GALFIT, are capable of handling them. We present detailed, 2D multi-model and multi-component decomposition of high-quality R -band images of a representative sample of nearby disk galaxies selected from the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey, using the latest version of GALFIT. The sample consists of five barred and five unbarred galaxies, spanning Hubble types from S0 to Sc. Traditional 1D decomposition is also presented for comparison. In detailed case studies of the 10 galaxies, we successfully model the secondary morphological features. Through a comparison of best-fit parameters obtained from different input surface brightness models, we identify morphological features that significantly impact bulge measurements. We show that nuclear and inner lenses/rings and disk breaks must be properly taken into account to obtain accurate bulge parameters, whereas outer lenses/rings and spiral arms have a negligible effect. We provide an optimal strategy to measure bulge parameters of typical disk galaxies, as well as prescriptions to estimate realistic uncertainties of them, which will benefit subsequent decomposition of a larger galaxy sample.

  12. An Optimal Strategy for Accurate Bulge-to-disk Decomposition of Disk Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hua; Ho, Luis C.

    2017-08-01

    The development of two-dimensional (2D) bulge-to-disk decomposition techniques has shown their advantages over traditional one-dimensional (1D) techniques, especially for galaxies with non-axisymmetric features. However, the full potential of 2D techniques has yet to be fully exploited. Secondary morphological features in nearby disk galaxies, such as bars, lenses, rings, disk breaks, and spiral arms, are seldom accounted for in 2D image decompositions, even though some image-fitting codes, such as GALFIT, are capable of handling them. We present detailed, 2D multi-model and multi-component decomposition of high-quality R-band images of a representative sample of nearby disk galaxies selected from the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey, using the latest version of GALFIT. The sample consists of five barred and five unbarred galaxies, spanning Hubble types from S0 to Sc. Traditional 1D decomposition is also presented for comparison. In detailed case studies of the 10 galaxies, we successfully model the secondary morphological features. Through a comparison of best-fit parameters obtained from different input surface brightness models, we identify morphological features that significantly impact bulge measurements. We show that nuclear and inner lenses/rings and disk breaks must be properly taken into account to obtain accurate bulge parameters, whereas outer lenses/rings and spiral arms have a negligible effect. We provide an optimal strategy to measure bulge parameters of typical disk galaxies, as well as prescriptions to estimate realistic uncertainties of them, which will benefit subsequent decomposition of a larger galaxy sample.

  13. An Optimal Strategy for Accurate Bulge-to-disk Decomposition of Disk Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hua; Ho, Luis C.

    2017-01-01

    The development of two-dimensional (2D) bulge-to-disk decomposition techniques has shown their advantages over traditional one-dimensional (1D) techniques, especially for galaxies with non-axisymmetric features. However, the full potential of 2D techniques has yet to be fully exploited. Secondary morphological features in nearby disk galaxies, such as bars, lenses, rings, disk breaks, and spiral arms, are seldom accounted for in 2D image decompositions, even though some image-fitting codes, such as GALFIT, are capable of handling them. We present detailed, 2D multi-model and multi-component decomposition of high-quality R -band images of a representative sample of nearby disk galaxies selected from the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey, using the latest version of GALFIT. The sample consists of five barred and five unbarred galaxies, spanning Hubble types from S0 to Sc. Traditional 1D decomposition is also presented for comparison. In detailed case studies of the 10 galaxies, we successfully model the secondary morphological features. Through a comparison of best-fit parameters obtained from different input surface brightness models, we identify morphological features that significantly impact bulge measurements. We show that nuclear and inner lenses/rings and disk breaks must be properly taken into account to obtain accurate bulge parameters, whereas outer lenses/rings and spiral arms have a negligible effect. We provide an optimal strategy to measure bulge parameters of typical disk galaxies, as well as prescriptions to estimate realistic uncertainties of them, which will benefit subsequent decomposition of a larger galaxy sample.

  14. Numerical study on flow fields and aerodynamics of tilt rotor aircraft in conversion mode based on embedded grid and actuator model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A method combining rotor actuator disk model and embedded grid technique is presented in this paper, aimed at predicting the flow fields and aerodynamic characteristics of tilt rotor aircraft in conversion mode more efficiently and effectively. In this method, rotor’s influence is considered in terms of the momentum it impacts to the fluid around it; transformation matrixes among different coordinate systems are deduced to extend actuator method’s utility to conversion mode flow fields’ calculation. Meanwhile, an embedded grid system is designed, in which grids generated around fuselage and actuator disk are regarded as background grid and minor grid respectively, and a new method is presented for ‘donor searching’ and ‘hole cutting’ during grid assembling. Based on the above methods, flow fields of tilt rotor aircraft in conversion mode are simulated, with three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations discretized by a second-order upwind finite-volume scheme and an implicit lower–upper symmetric Gauss–Seidel (LU-SGS time-stepping scheme. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed CFD method is very effective in simulating the conversion mode flow fields of tilt rotor aircraft.

  15. Embedded Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Embedded system, micro-con- troller ... Embedded systems differ from general purpose computers in many ... Low cost: As embedded systems are extensively used in con- .... operating systems for the desktop computers where scheduling.

  16. Relativistic, accreting disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, M.A; Jaroszynski, M.; Sikora, M.

    1978-01-01

    An analytic theory of the hydrodynamical structure of accreting disks (without self-gravitation but with pressure) orbiting around and axially symmetric, stationary, compact body (e.g. black hole) is presented. The inner edge of the marginally stable accreting disk (i.e. disk with constant angular momentum density) has a sharp cusp located on the equatorial plane between rsub(ms) and rsub(mb). The existence of the cusp is also typical for any angular momentum distribution. The physical importance of the cusp follows from the close analogy with the case of a close binary system (L 1 Lagrange point on the Roche lobe). The existence of the cusp is thus a crucial phenomenon in such problems as boundary condition for the viscous stresses, accretion rate etc. (orig.) [de

  17. CT recognition of lateral lumbar disk herniation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.L.; Haughton, V.M.; Daniels, D.L.; Thornton, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    Although computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be useful in diagnosing posterolateral and central lumbar disk herniations, its effectiveness in demonstrating lateral herniated disks has not been emphasized. The myelographic recognition of those herniations may be difficult because root sheaths or dural sacs may not be deformed. A total of 274 CT scans interpreted as showing lumbar disk herniation was reviewed. Fourteen (5%) showed a lateral disk herniation. The CT features of a lateral herniated disk included: (1) focal protrusion of the disk margin within or lateral to the intervertebral foramen: (2) displacement of epidural fat within the intervertebral foramen; (3) absence of dural sac deformity; and (4) soft-tissue mass within or lateral to the intervertebral foramen. Because it can image the disk margin and free disk fragments irrespective of dural sac or root sheath deformity, CT may be more effective than myelography for demonstrating the presence and extent of lateral disk herniation

  18. RADIATION HYDRODYNAMICS MODELS OF THE INNER RIM IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flock, M.; Turner, N. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Fromang, S. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris 7, Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Benisty, M., E-mail: mflock@caltech.edu [Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2016-08-20

    Many stars host planets orbiting within a few astronomical units (AU). The occurrence rate and distributions of masses and orbits vary greatly with the host star’s mass. These close planets’ origins are a mystery that motivates investigating protoplanetary disks’ central regions. A key factor governing the conditions near the star is the silicate sublimation front, which largely determines where the starlight is absorbed, and which is often called the inner rim. We present the first radiation hydrodynamical modeling of the sublimation front in the disks around the young intermediate-mass stars called Herbig Ae stars. The models are axisymmetric and include starlight heating; silicate grains sublimating and condensing to equilibrium at the local, time-dependent temperature and density; and accretion stresses parameterizing the results of MHD magnetorotational turbulence models. The results compare well with radiation hydrostatic solutions and prove to be dynamically stable. Passing the model disks into Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations, we show that the models satisfy observational constraints on the inner rim’s location. A small optically thin halo of hot dust naturally arises between the inner rim and the star. The inner rim has a substantial radial extent, corresponding to several disk scale heights. While the front’s overall position varies with the stellar luminosity, its radial extent depends on the mass accretion rate. A pressure maximum develops near the location of thermal ionization at temperatures of about 1000 K. The pressure maximum is capable of halting solid pebbles’ radial drift and concentrating them in a zone where temperatures are sufficiently high for annealing to form crystalline silicates.

  19. Grain surface chemistry in protoplanetary disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboussin, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Planetary formation occurs in the protoplanetary disks of gas and dust. Although dust represents only 1% of the total disk mass, it plays a fundamental role in disk chemical evolution since it acts as a catalyst for the formation of molecules. Understanding this chemistry is therefore essential to determine the initial conditions from which planets form. During my thesis, I studied grain-surface chemistry and its impact on the chemical evolution of molecular cloud, initial condition for disk formation, and protoplanetary disk. Thanks to numerical simulations, using the gas-grain code Nautilus, I showed the importance of diffusion reactions and gas-grain interactions for the abundances of gas-phase species. Model results combined with observations also showed the effects of the physical structure (in temperature, density, AV) on the molecular distribution in disks. (author)

  20. The DiskMass Survey. II. Error Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershady, Matthew A.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Andersen, David R.; Swaters, Rob A.; Martinsson, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    We present a performance analysis of the DiskMass Survey. The survey uses collisionless tracers in the form of disk stars to measure the surface density of spiral disks, to provide an absolute calibration of the stellar mass-to-light ratio (Υ_{*}), and to yield robust estimates of the dark-matter halo density profile in the inner regions of galaxies. We find that a disk inclination range of 25°-35° is optimal for our measurements, consistent with our survey design to select nearly face-on galaxies. Uncertainties in disk scale heights are significant, but can be estimated from radial scale lengths to 25% now, and more precisely in the future. We detail the spectroscopic analysis used to derive line-of-sight velocity dispersions, precise at low surface-brightness, and accurate in the presence of composite stellar populations. Our methods take full advantage of large-grasp integral-field spectroscopy and an extensive library of observed stars. We show that the baryon-to-total mass fraction ({F}_bar) is not a well-defined observational quantity because it is coupled to the halo mass model. This remains true even when the disk mass is known and spatially extended rotation curves are available. In contrast, the fraction of the rotation speed supplied by the disk at 2.2 scale lengths (disk maximality) is a robust observational indicator of the baryonic disk contribution to the potential. We construct the error budget for the key quantities: dynamical disk mass surface density (Σdyn), disk stellar mass-to-light ratio (Υ^disk_{*}), and disk maximality ({F}_{*,max}^disk≡ V^disk_{*,max}/ V_c). Random and systematic errors in these quantities for individual galaxies will be ~25%, while survey precision for sample quartiles are reduced to 10%, largely devoid of systematic errors outside of distance uncertainties.

  1. Conceptualizing Embedded Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur; Hvam, Lars; Lysgaard, Ole

    2006-01-01

    and services. The general idea can be named embedded configuration. In this article we intend to conceptualize embedded configuration, what it is and is not. The difference between embedded configuration, sales configuration and embedded software is explained. We will look at what is needed to make embedded...... configuration systems. That will include requirements to product modelling techniques. An example with consumer electronics will illuminate the elements of embedded configuration in settings that most can relate to. The question of where embedded configuration would be relevant is discussed, and the current...

  2. A COMMON SOURCE OF ACCRETION DISK TILT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, M. M.; Martin, E. L.

    2010-01-01

    Many different system types retrogradely precess, and retrograde precession could be from a tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk. However, a source that causes and maintains disk tilt is unknown. In this work, we show that accretion disks can tilt due to a force called lift. Lift results from differing gas stream supersonic speeds over and under an accretion disk. Because lift acts at the disk's center of pressure, a torque is applied around a rotation axis passing through the disk's center of mass. The disk responds to lift by pitching around the disk's line of nodes. If the gas stream flow ebbs, then lift also ebbs and the disk attempts to return to its original orientation. To first approximation, lift does not depend on magnetic fields or radiation sources but does depend on the mass and the surface area of the disk. Also, for disk tilt to be initiated, a minimum mass transfer rate must be exceeded. For example, a 10 -11 M sun disk around a 0.8 M sun compact central object requires a mass transfer rate greater than ∼ 8 x 10 -11 M sun yr -1 , a value well below the known mass transfer rates in cataclysmic variable dwarf novae systems that retrogradely precess and exhibit negative superhumps in their light curves and a value well below mass transfer rates in protostellar-forming systems.

  3. The Gaia-ESO Survey and CSI 2264: Substructures, disks, and sequential star formation in the young open cluster NGC 2264

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Flaccomio, E.; Bonito, R.; Damiani, F.; Micela, G.; Guarcello, M. G.; Randich, S.; Stauffer, J. R.; Cody, A. M.; Jeffries, R. D.; Alencar, S. H. P.; Alfaro, E. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Pancino, E.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Frasca, A.; Jofré, P.; Morbidelli, L.; Sousa, S. G.; Zaggia, S.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Reconstructing the structure and history of young clusters is pivotal to understanding the mechanisms and timescales of early stellar evolution and planet formation. Recent studies suggest that star clusters often exhibit a hierarchical structure, possibly resulting from several star formation episodes occurring sequentially rather than a monolithic cloud collapse. Aims: We aim to explore the structure of the open cluster and star-forming region NGC 2264 ( 3 Myr), which is one of the youngest, richest and most accessible star clusters in the local spiral arm of our Galaxy; we link the spatial distribution of cluster members to other stellar properties such as age and evolutionary stage to probe the star formation history within the region. Methods: We combined spectroscopic data obtained as part of the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES) with multi-wavelength photometric data from the Coordinated Synoptic Investigation of NGC 2264 (CSI 2264) campaign. We examined a sample of 655 cluster members, with masses between 0.2 and 1.8 M⊙ and including both disk-bearing and disk-free young stars. We used Teff estimates from GES and g,r,i photometry from CSI 2264 to derive individual extinction and stellar parameters. Results: We find a significant age spread of 4-5 Myr among cluster members. Disk-bearing objects are statistically associated with younger isochronal ages than disk-free sources. The cluster has a hierarchical structure, with two main blocks along its latitudinal extension. The northern half develops around the O-type binary star S Mon; the southern half, close to the tip of the Cone Nebula, contains the most embedded regions of NGC 2264, populated mainly by objects with disks and ongoing accretion. The median ages of objects at different locations within the cluster, and the spatial distribution of disked and non-disked sources, suggest that star formation began in the north of the cluster, over 5 Myr ago, and was ignited in its southern region a few Myr later

  4. An embedded stress sensor for concrete SHM based on amorphous ferromagnetic microwires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera, Jesús; González, Margarita; Fuente, José Vicente; Varga, Rastislav; Zhukov, Arkady; Anaya, José Javier

    2014-10-24

    A new smart concrete aggregate design as a candidate for applications in structural health monitoring (SHM) of critical elements in civil infrastructure is proposed. The cement-based stress/strain sensor was developed by utilizing the stress/strain sensing properties of a magnetic microwire embedded in cement-based composite (MMCC). This is a contact-less type sensor that measures variations of magnetic properties resulting from stress variations. Sensors made of these materials can be designed to satisfy the specific demand for an economic way to monitor concrete infrastructure health. For this purpose, we embedded a thin magnetic microwire in the core of a cement-based cylinder, which was inserted into the concrete specimen under study as an extra aggregate. The experimental results show that the embedded MMCC sensor is capable of measuring internal compressive stress around the range of 1-30 MPa. Two stress sensing properties of the embedded sensor under uniaxial compression were studied: the peak amplitude and peak position of magnetic switching field. The sensitivity values for the amplitude and position within the measured range were 5 mV/MPa and 2.5 µs/MPa, respectively.

  5. An Embedded Stress Sensor for Concrete SHM Based on Amorphous Ferromagnetic Microwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Olivera

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A new smart concrete aggregate design as a candidate for applications in structural health monitoring (SHM of critical elements in civil infrastructure is proposed. The cement-based stress/strain sensor was developed by utilizing the stress/strain sensing properties of a magnetic microwire embedded in cement-based composite (MMCC. This is a contact-less type sensor that measures variations of magnetic properties resulting from stress variations. Sensors made of these materials can be designed to satisfy the specific demand for an economic way to monitor concrete infrastructure health. For this purpose, we embedded a thin magnetic microwire in the core of a cement-based cylinder, which was inserted into the concrete specimen under study as an extra aggregate. The experimental results show that the embedded MMCC sensor is capable of measuring internal compressive stress around the range of 1–30 MPa. Two stress sensing properties of the embedded sensor under uniaxial compression were studied: the peak amplitude and peak position of magnetic switching field. The sensitivity values for the amplitude and position within the measured range were 5 mV/MPa and 2.5 µs/MPa, respectively.

  6. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap; Kim, Sangsub; Knauer, Christian; Schlipf, Lena; Shin, Chansu; Vigneron, Antoine E.

    2013-01-01

    We give exact and approximation algorithms for two-center problems when the input is a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in D intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap

    2013-04-01

    We give exact and approximation algorithms for two-center problems when the input is a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in D intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  8. TOWARD A GLOBAL EVOLUTIONARY MODEL OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xue-Ning, E-mail: xbai@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-04-20

    A global picture of the evolution  of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) is key to understanding almost every aspect of planet formation, where standard α-disk models have been continually employed for their simplicity. In the meantime, disk mass loss has been conventionally attributed to photoevaporation, which controls disk dispersal. However, a paradigm shift toward accretion driven by magnetized disk winds has taken place in recent years, thanks to studies of non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic effects in PPDs. I present a framework of global PPD evolution aiming to incorporate these advances, highlighting the role of wind-driven accretion and wind mass loss. Disk evolution is found to be largely dominated by wind-driven processes, and viscous spreading is suppressed. The timescale of disk evolution is controlled primarily by the amount of external magnetic flux threading the disks, and how rapidly the disk loses the flux. Rapid disk dispersal can be achieved if the disk is able to hold most of its magnetic flux during the evolution. In addition, because wind launching requires a sufficient level of ionization at the disk surface (mainly via external far-UV (FUV) radiation), wind kinematics is also affected by the FUV penetration depth and disk geometry. For a typical disk lifetime of a few million years, the disk loses approximately the same amount of mass through the wind as through accretion onto the protostar, and most of the wind mass loss proceeds from the outer disk via a slow wind. Fractional wind mass loss increases with increasing disk lifetime. Significant wind mass loss likely substantially enhances the dust-to-gas mass ratio and promotes planet formation.

  9. TOWARD A GLOBAL EVOLUTIONARY MODEL OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Xue-Ning

    2016-01-01

    A global picture of the evolution  of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) is key to understanding almost every aspect of planet formation, where standard α-disk models have been continually employed for their simplicity. In the meantime, disk mass loss has been conventionally attributed to photoevaporation, which controls disk dispersal. However, a paradigm shift toward accretion driven by magnetized disk winds has taken place in recent years, thanks to studies of non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic effects in PPDs. I present a framework of global PPD evolution aiming to incorporate these advances, highlighting the role of wind-driven accretion and wind mass loss. Disk evolution is found to be largely dominated by wind-driven processes, and viscous spreading is suppressed. The timescale of disk evolution is controlled primarily by the amount of external magnetic flux threading the disks, and how rapidly the disk loses the flux. Rapid disk dispersal can be achieved if the disk is able to hold most of its magnetic flux during the evolution. In addition, because wind launching requires a sufficient level of ionization at the disk surface (mainly via external far-UV (FUV) radiation), wind kinematics is also affected by the FUV penetration depth and disk geometry. For a typical disk lifetime of a few million years, the disk loses approximately the same amount of mass through the wind as through accretion onto the protostar, and most of the wind mass loss proceeds from the outer disk via a slow wind. Fractional wind mass loss increases with increasing disk lifetime. Significant wind mass loss likely substantially enhances the dust-to-gas mass ratio and promotes planet formation

  10. Relativistic, accreting disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, M A; Jaroszynski, M; Sikora, M [Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw

    1978-02-01

    An analytic theory of the hydrodynamical structure of accreting disks (without self-gravitation but with pressure) orbiting around an axially symmetric, stationary, compact body (e.g. black hole) is presented. The inner edge of the marginally stable accreting disk (i.e. disk with constant angular momentum density) has a sharp cusp located on the equatorial plane between r/sub ms/ and r/sub mb/. The existence of the cusp is also typical for any angular momentum distribution. The physical importance of the cusp follows from the close analogy with the case of a close binary system (L/sub 1/ Lagrange point on the Roche lobe). The existence of the cusp is thus a crucial phenomenon in such problems as boundary condition for the viscous stresses, accretion rate, etc.

  11. IBM 3390 Hard Disk Platter

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    The 3390 disks rotated faster than those in the previous model 3380. Faster disk rotation reduced rotational delay (ie. the time required for the correct area of the disk surface to move to the point where data could be read or written). In the 3390's initial models, the average rotational delay was reduced to 7.1 milliseconds from 8.3 milliseconds for the 3380 family.

  12. Formation of Close-in Super-Earths in an Evolving Disk Due to Disk Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Masahiro; Kokubo, Eiichiro; Suzuki, Takeru; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2018-04-01

    Planets with masses larger than Mars mass undergo rapid inward migration (type I migration) in a standard protoplanetary disk. Recent magnetohydrodynamical simulations revealed the presence of magnetically-driven disk winds, which would alter the disk profile and the type I migration in the close-in region (rEarths can be reproduced by simulations. We find that the type I migration is significantly suppressed in a disk with flat surface density profile. After planetary embryos undergo slow inward migration, they are captured in a resonant chain. The resonant chain undergoes late orbital instability during the gas depletion, leading to a non-resonant configuration. We also find that observed distributions of close-in super-Earths (e.g., period ratio, mass ratio) can be reproduced by results of simulations.

  13. Hydrogen Cyanide In Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ashley L.; Oberg, Karin; Cleeves, L. Ilsedore

    2018-01-01

    The chemistry behind star and planet formation is extremely complex and important in the formation of habitable planets. Life requires molecules containing carbon, oxygen, and importantly, nitrogen. Hydrogen cyanide, or HCN, one of the main interstellar nitrogen carriers, is extremely dangerous here on Earth. However, it could be used as a vital tool for tracking the chemistry of potentially habitable planets. As we get closer to identifying other habitable planets, we must understand the beginnings of how those planets are formed in the early protoplanetary disk. This project investigates HCN chemistry in different locations in the disk, and what this might mean for forming planets at different distances from the star. HCN is a chemically diverse molecule. It is connected to the formation for other more complex molecules and is commonly used as a nitrogen tracer. Using computational chemical models we look at how the HCN abundance changes at different locations. We use realistic and physically motivated conditions for the gas in the protoplanetary disk: temperature, density, and radiation (UV flux). We analyze the reaction network, formation, and destruction of HCN molecules in the disk environment. The disk environment informs us about stability of habitable planets that are created based on HCN molecules. We reviewed and compared the difference in the molecules with a variety of locations in the disk and ultimately giving us a better understanding on how we view protoplanetary disks.

  14. CO Gas Inside the Protoplanetary Disk Cavity in HD 142527: Disk Structure from ALMA

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, S.; Casassus, S.; Ménard, F.; Roman, P.; van der Plas, G.; Cieza, L.; Pinte, C.; Christiaens, Valentin; Hales, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Inner cavities and annular gaps in circumstellar disks are possible signposts of giant planet formation. The young star HD 142527 hosts a massive protoplanetary disk with a large cavity that extends up to 140 AU from the central star, as seen in continuum images at infrared and millimeter wavelengths. Estimates of the survival of gas inside disk cavities are needed to discriminate between clearing scenarios. We present a spatially and spectrally resolved carbon monoxide isotopologue 2-1 line ...

  15. CURVED WALLS: GRAIN GROWTH, SETTLING, AND COMPOSITION PATTERNS IN T TAURI DISK DUST SUBLIMATION FRONTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, M. K.; Calvet, N.; Hartmann, L.; Ingleby, L.; D'Alessio, P.; Espaillat, C.; Sargent, B.; Watson, D. M.; Hernández, J.

    2013-01-01

    The dust sublimation walls of disks around T Tauri stars represent a directly observable cross-section through the disk atmosphere and midplane. Their emission properties can probe the grain size distribution and composition of the innermost regions of the disk, where terrestrial planets form. Here we calculate the inner dust sublimation wall properties for four classical T Tauri stars with a narrow range of spectral types and inclination angles and a wide range of mass accretion rates to determine the extent to which the walls are radially curved. Best fits to the near- and mid-IR excesses are found for curved, two-layer walls in which the lower layer contains larger, hotter, amorphous pyroxene grains with Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.6 and the upper layer contains submicron, cooler, mixed amorphous olivine and forsterite grains. As the mass accretion rates decrease from 10 –8 to 10 –10 M ☉ yr –1 , the maximum grain size in the lower layer decreases from ∼3 to 0.5 μm. We attribute this to a decrease in fragmentation and turbulent support for micron-sized grains with decreasing viscous heating. The atmosphere of these disks is depleted of dust with dust-gas mass ratios 1 × 10 –4 of the interstellar medium (ISM) value, while the midplane is enhanced to eight times the ISM value. For all accretion rates, the wall contributes at least half of the flux in the optically thin 10 μm silicate feature. Finally, we find evidence for an iron gradient in the disk, suggestive of that found in our solar system

  16. CURVED WALLS: GRAIN GROWTH, SETTLING, AND COMPOSITION PATTERNS IN T TAURI DISK DUST SUBLIMATION FRONTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, M. K.; Calvet, N.; Hartmann, L.; Ingleby, L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, 830 Dennison Building., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); D' Alessio, P. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Espaillat, C. [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sargent, B. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Watson, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Hernández, J., E-mail: melisma@umich.edu, E-mail: ncalvet@umich.edu, E-mail: lhartm@umich.edu, E-mail: lingleby@umich.edu, E-mail: p.dalessio@astrosmo.unam.mx, E-mail: cespaillat@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: baspci@rit.edu, E-mail: dmw@pas.rochester.edu, E-mail: hernandj@cida.ve [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía (CIDA), Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    The dust sublimation walls of disks around T Tauri stars represent a directly observable cross-section through the disk atmosphere and midplane. Their emission properties can probe the grain size distribution and composition of the innermost regions of the disk, where terrestrial planets form. Here we calculate the inner dust sublimation wall properties for four classical T Tauri stars with a narrow range of spectral types and inclination angles and a wide range of mass accretion rates to determine the extent to which the walls are radially curved. Best fits to the near- and mid-IR excesses are found for curved, two-layer walls in which the lower layer contains larger, hotter, amorphous pyroxene grains with Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.6 and the upper layer contains submicron, cooler, mixed amorphous olivine and forsterite grains. As the mass accretion rates decrease from 10{sup –8} to 10{sup –10} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, the maximum grain size in the lower layer decreases from ∼3 to 0.5 μm. We attribute this to a decrease in fragmentation and turbulent support for micron-sized grains with decreasing viscous heating. The atmosphere of these disks is depleted of dust with dust-gas mass ratios 1 × 10{sup –4} of the interstellar medium (ISM) value, while the midplane is enhanced to eight times the ISM value. For all accretion rates, the wall contributes at least half of the flux in the optically thin 10 μm silicate feature. Finally, we find evidence for an iron gradient in the disk, suggestive of that found in our solar system.

  17. The Tilt between Acretion Disk and Stellar Disk Shiyin Shen1,2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030, China. 2Key Lab for Astrophysics, Shanghai 200234, China. ∗ e-mail: ssy@shao.ac.cn. Abstract. The orientations .... shows the model prediction from the stellar dust model (section 5). 4. Result: The tilt between the accretion disk and stellar disk. We parameterize the inclinations of the ...

  18. Cold disks : Spitzer spectroscopy of disks around young stars with large gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blake, G. A.; Dullemond, C. P.; Merin, B.; Augereau, J. C.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Evans, N. J.; Geers, V. C.; Lahuis, F.; Kessler-Silacci, J. E.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Brown, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    We have identified four circumstellar disks with a deficit of dust emission from their inner 15-50 AU. All four stars have F-G spectral type and were uncovered as part of the Spitzer Space Telescope "Cores to Disks" Legacy Program Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) first-look survey of similar to 100 pre -

  19. Optimization of sensing and feedback control for vibration/flutter of rotating disk by PZT actuators via air coupled pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tianhong; Xu, Xinsheng; Han, Jianqiang; Lin, Rongming; Ju, Bingfeng; Li, Qing

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a feedback control mechanism and its optimization for rotating disk vibration/flutter via changes of air-coupled pressure generated using piezoelectric patch actuators are studied. A thin disk rotates in an enclosure, which is equipped with a feedback control loop consisting of a micro-sensor, a signal processor, a power amplifier, and several piezoelectric (PZT) actuator patches distributed on the cover of the enclosure. The actuator patches are mounted on the inner or the outer surfaces of the enclosure to produce necessary control force required through the airflow around the disk. The control mechanism for rotating disk flutter using enclosure surfaces bonded with sensors and piezoelectric actuators is thoroughly studied through analytical simulations. The sensor output is used to determine the amount of input to the actuator for controlling the response of the disk in a closed loop configuration. The dynamic stability of the disk-enclosure system, together with the feedback control loop, is analyzed as a complex eigenvalue problem, which is solved using Galerkin's discretization procedure. The results show that the disk flutter can be reduced effectively with proper configurations of the control gain and the phase shift through the actuations of PZT patches. The effectiveness of different feedback control methods in altering system characteristics and system response has been investigated. The control capability, in terms of control gain, phase shift, and especially the physical configuration of actuator patches, are also evaluated by calculating the complex eigenvalues and the maximum displacement produced by the actuators. To achieve a optimal control performance, sizes, positions and shapes of PZT patches used need to be optimized and such optimization has been achieved through numerical simulations.

  20. Achieving selective interrogation and sub-wavelength resolution in thin plates with embedded metamaterial acoustic lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semperlotti, F., E-mail: fsemperl@nd.edu; Zhu, H. [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2014-08-07

    In this study, we present an approach to ultrasonic beam-forming and high resolution identification of acoustic sources having critical implications for applications such as structural health monitoring. The proposed concept is based on the design of dynamically tailored structural elements via embedded acoustic metamaterial lenses. This approach provides a completely new alternative to conventional phased-array technology enabling the formation of steerable and collimated (or focused) ultrasonic beams by exploiting a single transducer. Numerical results show that the ultrasonic beam can be steered by simply tuning the frequency of the excitation. Also, the embedded lens can be designed to achieve sub-wavelength resolution to clustered acoustic sources, which is a typical scenario encountered in incipient structural damage.

  1. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap; Kim, Sangsub; Knauer, Christian; Schlipf, Lena; Shin, Chansu; Vigneron, Antoine E.

    2011-01-01

    We consider new versions of the two-center problem where the input consists of a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. We give exact and approximation algorithms for these versions. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Verbatim Floppy Disk

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    Introduced under the name "Verbatim", Latin for "literally", these disks that sized more than 5¼ inches have become almost universal on dedicated word processing systems and personal computers. This format was replaced more slowly by the 3½-inch format, introduced for the first time in 1982. Compared to today, these large format disks stored very little data. In reality, they could only contain a few pages of text.

  3. Analysis of critical state response in thin films by AC susceptibility measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Youssef, A.; Švindrych, Z.; Hadač, J.; Janů, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2008), s. 1589-1592 ISSN 1051-8223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/05/0942 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : AC susceptibility * critical state * harmonics * thin film * axial magnetic-field * superconductor disks * cylinders Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.919, year: 2008

  4. A SPITZER SURVEY OF PROTOPLANETARY DISK DUST IN THE YOUNG SERPENS CLOUD: HOW DO DUST CHARACTERISTICS EVOLVE WITH TIME?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Isa; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Lahuis, Fred; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; MerIn, Bruno; Geers, Vincent C.; Joergensen, Jes K.; Olofsson, Johan; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Brown, Joanna M.

    2010-01-01

    We present Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) mid-infrared (5-35 μm) spectra of a complete flux-limited sample (≥3 mJy at 8 μm) of young stellar object (YSO) candidates selected on the basis of their infrared colors in the Serpens Molecular Cloud. Spectra of 147 sources are presented and classified. Background stars (with slope consistent with a reddened stellar spectrum and silicate features in absorption), galaxies (with redshifted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features), and a planetary nebula (with high ionization lines) amount to 22% of contamination in this sample, leaving 115 true YSOs. Sources with rising spectra and ice absorption features, classified as embedded Stage I protostars, amount to 18% of the sample. The remaining 82% (94) of the disk sources are analyzed in terms of spectral energy distribution shapes, PAHs, and silicate features. The presence, strength, and shape of these silicate features are used to infer disk properties for these systems. About 8% of the disks have 30/13 μm flux ratios consistent with cold disks with inner holes or gaps, and 3% of the disks show PAH emission. Comparison with models indicates that dust grains in the surface of these disks have sizes of at least a few μm. The 20 μm silicate feature is sometimes seen in the absence of the 10 μm feature, which may be indicative of very small holes in these disks. No significant difference is found in the distribution of silicate feature shapes and strengths between sources in clusters and in the field. Moreover, the results in Serpens are compared with other well-studied samples: the c2d IRS sample distributed over five clouds and a large sample of disks in the Taurus star-forming region. The remarkably similar distributions of silicate feature characteristics in samples with different environment and median ages-if significant-imply that the dust population in the disk surface results from an equilibrium between dust growth and destructive collision processes

  5. Astrophysical disks Collective and Stochastic Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexei M; Kovalenko, Ilya G

    2006-01-01

    The book deals with collective and stochastic processes in astrophysical discs involving theory, observations, and the results of modelling. Among others, it examines the spiral-vortex structure in galactic and accretion disks , stochastic and ordered structures in the developed turbulence. It also describes sources of turbulence in the accretion disks, internal structure of disk in the vicinity of a black hole, numerical modelling of Be envelopes in binaries, gaseous disks in spiral galaxies with shock waves formation, observation of accretion disks in a binary system and mass distribution of luminous matter in disk galaxies. The editors adaptly brought together collective and stochastic phenomena in the modern field of astrophysical discs, their formation, structure, and evolution involving the methodology to deal with, the results of observation and modelling, thereby advancing the study in this important branch of astrophysics and benefiting Professional Researchers, Lecturers, and Graduate Students.

  6. Development of Powered Disk Type Sugar Cane Stubble Saver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radite P.A.S.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to design, fabricate and test a prototype of sugar cane stubble saver based on powered disk mechanism. In this research, a heavy duty disk plow or disk harrow was used as a rotating knife to cut the sugarcane stubble. The parabolic disk was chosen because it is proven reliable as soil working tools and it is available in the market as spare part of disk plow or disk harrow unit. The prototype was mounted on the four wheel tractor’s three point hitch, and powered by PTO of the tractor. Two kinds of disks were used in these experiments, those were disk with regular edge or plain disk and disk with scalloped edge or scalloped disk. Both disks had diameter of 28 inch. Results of field test showed that powered disk mechanism could satisfy cut sugar cane’s stubble. However, scalloped disk type gave smoother stubble cuts compared to that of plain disk. Plain disk type gave broken stubble cut. Higher rotation (1000 rpm resulted better cuts as compared to lower rotation (500 rpm both either on plain disk and scalloped disk. The developed prototype could work below the soil surface at depth of 5 to 10 cm. With tilt angle setting 20O and disk angle 45O the width of cut was about 25 cm.

  7. Accretion in Radiative Equipartition (AiRE) Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdi, Yasaman K.; Afshordi, Niayesh, E-mail: yyazdi@pitp.ca, E-mail: nafshordi@pitp.ca [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street N, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2017-07-01

    Standard accretion disk theory predicts that the total pressure in disks at typical (sub-)Eddington accretion rates becomes radiation pressure dominated. However, radiation pressure dominated disks are thermally unstable. Since these disks are observed in approximate steady state over the instability timescale, our accretion models in the radiation-pressure-dominated regime (i.e., inner disk) need to be modified. Here, we present a modification to the Shakura and Sunyaev model, where the radiation pressure is in equipartition with the gas pressure in the inner region. We call these flows accretion in radiative equipartition (AiRE) disks. We introduce the basic features of AiRE disks and show how they modify disk properties such as the Toomre parameter and the central temperature. We then show that the accretion rate of AiRE disks is limited from above and below, by Toomre and nodal sonic point instabilities, respectively. The former leads to a strict upper limit on the mass of supermassive black holes as a function of cosmic time (and spin), while the latter could explain the transition between hard and soft states of X-ray binaries.

  8. Modeling Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Megan; Tubbs, Drake; Keller, L. D.

    2018-01-01

    Using spectra models with known parameters and comparing them to spectra gathered from real systems is often the only ways to find out what is going on in those real systems. This project uses the modeling programs of RADMC-3D to generate model spectra for systems containing protoplanetary disks. The parameters can be changed to simulate protoplanetary disks in different stages of planet formation, with different sized gaps in different areas of the disks, as well as protoplanetary disks that contain different types of dust. We are working on producing a grid of models that all have different variations in the parameters in order to generate a miniature database to use for comparisons to gathered spectra. The spectra produced from these simulations will be compared to spectra that have been gathered from systems in the Small Magellanic cloud in order to find out the contents and stage of development of that system. This allows us to see if and how planets are forming in the Small Magellanic cloud, a region which has much less metallicity than our own galaxy. The data we gather from comparisons between the model spectra and the spectra of systems in the Small Magellanic Cloud can then be applied to how planets may have formed in the early universe.

  9. Numerical simulations for quantitative analysis of electrostatic interaction between atomic force microscopy probe and an embedded electrode within a thin dielectric: meshing optimization, sensitivity to potential distribution and impact of cantilever contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azib, M.; Baudoin, F.; Binaud, N.; Villeneuve-Faure, C.; Bugarin, F.; Segonds, S.; Teyssedre, G.

    2018-04-01

    Recent experimental results demonstrated that an electrostatic force distance curve (EFDC) can be used for space charge probing in thin dielectric layers. A main advantage of the method is claimed to be its sensitivity to charge localization, which, however, needs to be substantiated by numerical simulations. In this paper, we have developed a model which permits us to compute an EFDC accurately by using the most sophisticated and accurate geometry for the atomic force microscopy probe. To avoid simplifications and in order to reproduce experimental conditions, the EFDC has been simulated for a system constituted of a polarized electrode embedded in a thin dielectric layer (SiN x ). The individual contributions of forces on the tip and on the cantilever have been analyzed separately to account for possible artefacts. The EFDC sensitivity to potential distribution is studied through the change in electrode shape, namely the width and the depth. Finally, the numerical results have been compared with experimental data.

  10. The Fabulous Four Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Michael; Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2004-09-01

    This program is a comprehensive study of the four bright debris disks that were spatially resolved by IRAS: Beta Pictoris, Epsilon Eridani, Fomalhaut, and Vega. All SIRTF instruments and observing modes will be used. The program has three major objectives: (1) Study of the disk spatial structure from MIPS and IRAC imaging; (2) Study of the dust grain composition using the IRS and MIPS SED mode; and (3) companion searches using IRAC. The data from this program should lead to a detailed understanding of these four systems, and will provide a foundation for understanding all of the debris disks to be studied with SIRTF. Images and spectra will be compared with models for disk structure and dust properties. Dynamical features indicative of substellar companions' effects on the disks will be searched for. This program will require supporting observations of PSF stars, some of which have been included explicitly. In the majority of cases, the spectral observations require a preferred orientation to align the slits along the disk position angles. Detector saturation issues are still being worked for this program, and will lead to AOR modifications in subsequent submissions. The results from this program will be analyzed collaboratively by the IRAC, IRS, and MIPS teams and by general GTOs Jura and Werner.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of thin solid films of silver doped hydroxyapatite prepared by sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Chapon, Patrick; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Predoi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were reported and their antimicrobial activity was characterized. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag:HAp) thin films coatings substrate was prepared on commercially pure Si disks by sol-gel method. The silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were characterized by various techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy Dispersive X-ray attachment (X-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). These techniques have permitted the structural and chemical characterisation of the silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films. The antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp thin films on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was then investigated. This is the first study on the antimicrobial effect of Ag:HAp thin films obtained by sol-gel method. The results of this study have shown that the Ag:HAp thin films with x(Ag) = 0.5 are effective against E. coli and S. aureus after 24 h.

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Thin Solid Films of Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Liliana Iconaru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were reported and their antimicrobial activity was characterized. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag:HAp thin films coatings substrate was prepared on commercially pure Si disks by sol-gel method. The silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were characterized by various techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM with energy Dispersive X-ray attachment (X-EDS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES. These techniques have permitted the structural and chemical characterisation of the silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films. The antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp thin films on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was then investigated. This is the first study on the antimicrobial effect of Ag:HAp thin films obtained by sol-gel method. The results of this study have shown that the Ag:HAp thin films with xAg=0.5 are effective against E. coli and S. aureus after 24 h.

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of Thin Solid Films of Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Chapon, Patrick; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Predoi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were reported and their antimicrobial activity was characterized. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag:HAp) thin films coatings substrate was prepared on commercially pure Si disks by sol-gel method. The silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were characterized by various techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy Dispersive X-ray attachment (X-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). These techniques have permitted the structural and chemical characterisation of the silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films. The antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp thin films on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was then investigated. This is the first study on the antimicrobial effect of Ag:HAp thin films obtained by sol-gel method. The results of this study have shown that the Ag:HAp thin films with x Ag = 0.5 are effective against E. coli and S. aureus after 24 h. PMID:24523630

  14. Exchange bias of Ni nanoparticles embedded in an antiferromagnetic IrMn matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuerbanjiang, Balati; Herr, Ulrich; Wiedwald, Ulf; Haering, Felix; Ziemann, Paul; Biskupek, Johannes; Kaiser, Ute

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles (Ni-NPs) embedded in an antiferromagnetic IrMn matrix were investigated. The Ni-NPs of 8.4 nm mean diameter were synthesized by inert gas aggregation. In a second processing step, the Ni-NPs were in situ embedded in IrMn films or SiO x films under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. Findings showed that Ni-NPs embedded in IrMn have an exchange bias field H EB = 821 Oe at 10 K, and 50 Oe at 300 K. The extracted value of the exchange energy density is 0.06 mJ m −2 at 10 K, which is in good accordance with the results from multilayered thin film systems. The Ni-NPs embedded in SiO x did not show exchange bias. As expected for this particle size, they are superparamagnetic at T = 300 K. A direct comparison of the Ni-NPs embedded in IrMn or SiO x reveals an increase of the blocking temperature from 210 K to around 400 K. The coercivity of the Ni-NPs exchange coupled to the IrMn matrix at 10 K is 8 times larger than the value for Ni-NPs embedded in SiO x . We studied time-dependent remanent magnetization at different temperatures. The relaxation behavior is described by a magnetic viscosity model which reflects a rather flat distribution of energy barriers. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of different field cooling processes on the magnetic properties of the embedded Ni-NPs. Exchange bias values fit to model calculations which correlate the contribution of the antiferromagnetic IrMn matrix to its grain size. (paper)

  15. PLANETESIMAL AND PROTOPLANET DYNAMICS IN A TURBULENT PROTOPLANETARY DISK: IDEAL UNSTRATIFIED DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chao-Chin; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Menou, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of planetesimals and planetary cores may be strongly influenced by density perturbations driven by magneto-rotational turbulence in their natal protoplanetary gas disks. Using the local shearing box approximation, we perform numerical simulations of planetesimals moving as massless particles in a turbulent, magnetized, unstratified gas disk. Our fiducial disk model shows turbulent accretion characterized by a Shakura-Sunyaev viscosity parameter of α ∼ 10 -2 , with rms density perturbations of ∼10%. We measure the statistical evolution of particle orbital properties in our simulations including mean radius, eccentricity, and velocity dispersion. We confirm random walk growth in time of all three properties, the first time that this has been done with direct orbital integration in a local model. We find that the growth rate increases with the box size used at least up to boxes of eight scale heights in horizontal size. However, even our largest boxes show velocity dispersions sufficiently low that collisional destruction of planetesimals should be unimportant in the inner disk throughout its lifetime. Our direct integrations agree with earlier torque measurements showing that type I migration dominates over diffusive migration by stochastic torques for most objects in the planetary core and terrestrial planet mass range. Diffusive migration remains important for objects in the mass range of kilometer-sized planetesimals. Discrepancies in the derived magnitude of turbulence between local and global simulations of magneto-rotationally unstable disks remains an open issue, with important consequences for planet formation scenarios.

  16. Circumstellar Gas in Young Planetary Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, A.

    Circumstellar (CS) disks orbiting young stars fall into two categories: primordial disks, composed of unprocessed interstellar dust and gas, and debris disks, produced by the destruction of solid planetary bodies. In the first class, the most abundant gas is H_2; in the second, it appears that the H_2 gas has disappeared, possibly through incorporation into gas giant planets. The lifetime of H_2 gas in a CS disk is therefore of great importance, as it dictates the timescale for the formation of giant planets. FUSE observations of H_2 in CS disk systems have shown that FUV absorption spectroscopy may sensitively probe for small amounts of gas along the line of sight to the star. Most importantly, the FUSE non-detection of H_2 gas in the Beta Pictoris disk suggests that the primordial gas lifetime is less than about 12 Myr, and that gas giant planets must form very quickly. However, this suggestion is based on one system, and needs to be tested in additional systems with a range of ages, especially since there are indications that age is not the only factor in the evolution of a CS disk. We propose for FUSE observations of 3 additional debris disk systems, Fomalhaut, HD3003, and HD2884. Fomalhaut is an intermediate age debris disk, one of the Fabulous Four CS disks first discovered in 1984. The other two disks are younger, with ages similar to that of Beta Pic. All three stars are brighter in the FUV than Beta Pic, permitting us to sensitively probe for traces of H_2 gas. We will also measure the amount of secondary atomic gas produced from planetary bodies in these disks, in an effort to understand the entire evolution of CS gas in young planetary systems.

  17. A New M Dwarf Debris Disk Candidate in a Young Moving Group Discovered with Disk Detective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Steven M.; Kuchner, Marc J.; Wisniewski, John P.; Gagne, Jonathan; Bans, Alissa S.; Bhattacharjee, Shambo; Currie, Thayne R.; Debes, John R.; Biggs, Joseph R; Bosch, Milton

    2016-01-01

    We used the Disk Detective citizen science project and the BANYAN II Bayesian analysis tool to identify a new candidate member of a nearby young association with infrared excess. WISE J080822.18-644357.3, an M5.5-type debris disk system with significant excess at both 12 and 22 microns, is a likely member (approx.90% BANYAN II probability) of the approx.45 Myr old Carina association. Since this would be the oldest M dwarf debris disk detected in a moving group, this discovery could be an important constraint on our understanding of M dwarf debris disk evolution.

  18. Eigensolutions of Annular-Like Elastic Disks with Intentionally Removed or Added Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayak, H.; Singh, R.

    1996-05-01

    Many examples of elastic, isotropic, stationary annular-like disks are studied analytically and experimentally for free-free and clamped-free boundary conditions. Natural frequencies and deformation shapes of the first few flexural modes including repeated roots are examined and tabulated. Disks with large circular holes or annular holes or annular slots within the disk body with a volume or mass ratio Γ of 5 to 15% are studied with particular emphasis on mode shapes as they deviate from the regular annular plate modes. Material removal cases via incisions or minor cuts at the disk rim, hub or within the body are not considered in this investigation. Material addition cases are simulated by thickening the outer rim or inner hub regions, for Γvalues up to 60%. The final example considers a gear from a helicopter tail rotor gearbox; it has 8 holes and thick rim and hub. A bi-orthogonal polynomial-trigonometrical shape function series is proposed in the Ritz minimization scheme that employs both classical thin and Mindlin's thick plate theories. The effect of number of terms is evaluated by examining an expansion of the linearly independent basis function and by calculating an overall root mean square (rms) error associated with the prediction of a mode shape. The clamped inner edge is described by 4 alternate models and the impedance boundary condition described was found to be the most satisfactory. Predictions of the semi-analytical Ritz method closely match with measured eigensolutions and results yielded by finite element models. The Ritz method is especially attractive because of significant computational savings in addition to the ease with which it can be integrated within a component mode synthesis or multi-body dynamics framework for forced response or system design studies.

  19. Circumstellar disks around binary stars in Taurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akeson, R. L.; Jensen, E. L. N.

    2014-01-01

    We have conducted a survey of 17 wide (>100 AU) young binary systems in Taurus with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) at two wavelengths. The observations were designed to measure the masses of circumstellar disks in these systems as an aid to understanding the role of multiplicity in star and planet formation. The ALMA observations had sufficient resolution to localize emission within the binary system. Disk emission was detected around all primaries and 10 secondaries, with disk masses as low as 10 –4 M ☉ . We compare the properties of our sample to the population of known disks in Taurus and find that the disks from this binary sample match the scaling between stellar mass and millimeter flux of F mm ∝M ∗ 1.5--2.0 to within the scatter found in previous studies. We also compare the properties of the primaries to those of the secondaries and find that the secondary/primary stellar and disk mass ratios are not correlated; in three systems, the circumsecondary disk is more massive than the circumprimary disk, counter to some theoretical predictions.

  20. In situ X-ray diffraction study of crystallization process of GeSbTe thin films during heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Naohiko [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)]. E-mail: e0957@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Konomi, Ichiro [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Seno, Yoshiki [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Motohiro, Tomoyoshi [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

    2005-05-15

    The crystallization processes of the Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin film used for PD and DVD-RAM were studied in its realistic optical disk film configurations for the first time by X-ray diffraction using an intense X-ray beam of a synchrotron orbital radiation facility (SPring-8) and in situ quick detection with a Position-Sensitive-Proportional-Counter. The dependence of the amorphous-to-fcc phase-change temperature T{sub 1} on the rate of temperature elevation R{sub et} gave an activation energy E{sub a}: 0.93 eV much less than previously reported 2.2 eV obtained from a model sample 25-45 times thicker than in the real optical disks. The similar measurement on the Ge{sub 4}Sb{sub 1}Te{sub 5} film whose large reflectance change attains the readability by CD-ROM drives gave E{sub a}: 1.13 eV with larger T{sub 1} than Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} thin films at any R{sub et} implying a lower sensitivity in erasing as well as a better data stability of the phase-change disk.

  1. Angular momentum transfer in steady disk accretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatskij, V.G.

    1977-01-01

    The conditions of steady disk accretion have been investigated. The disk axisymmetric model is considered. It is shown that the gas is let at the outer boundary of the disk with the azimuthal velocity which is slightly less than the Kepler circular one. Gas possesses the motion quality moment which is transferred from the outer layers of the disk to the surface of the star. The steady state of the disk preserved until the inflow of the moment to the star increases its rotation velocity up to magnitudes close to the critical one

  2. [Management of disk displacement with condylar fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shi-bin; Li, Zu-bing; Yang, Xue-wen; Zhao, Ji-hong; Dong, Yao-jun

    2003-07-01

    To investigate clinical features of disk displacement during the course of condylar fracture and to explore the techniques of disk reposition and suturation. 32 patients (10 females and 22 males) who had disk displacements with condylar fractures were followed up. Reduction and reposition of the dislocated disks simultaneously with fixation of fractures were performed. 7 patients underwent intermaxillary fixation with elastic bands for 1 to 2 weeks. The occlusions were satisfactory in all cases but one for the reason of ramus height loss. No TMJ symptom was found when examined 3 months post operation. Anterior disk displacements were most occurred with high condylar process fractures. Surgical reposition and suturation of disk play an important role for the later TMJ-function.

  3. Dust evolution in protoplanetary disks

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez , Jean-François; Fouchet , Laure; T. Maddison , Sarah; Laibe , Guillaume

    2007-01-01

    6 pages, 5 figures, to appear in the Proceedings of IAU Symp. 249: Exoplanets: Detection, Formation and Dynamics (Suzhou, China); International audience; We investigate the behaviour of dust in protoplanetary disks under the action of gas drag using our 3D, two-fluid (gas+dust) SPH code. We present the evolution of the dust spatial distribution in global simulations of planetless disks as well as of disks containing an already formed planet. The resulting dust structures vary strongly with pa...

  4. Fallback disks & magnetars: prospects & possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpar, M. A.

    Some bound matter in the form of a fallback disk may be an initial parameter of isolated neutron stars at birth which along with the initial rotation rate and dipole and higher multipole magnetic moments determines the evolution of neutron stars and the categories into which they fall This talk reviews the strengths and difficulties of fallback disk models in explaining properties of isolated neutron stars of different categories Evidence for and observational limits on fallback disks will also be discussed

  5. How empty are disk gaps opened by giant planets?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, Jeffrey [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4 (Canada); Shi, Ji-Ming; Chiang, Eugene, E-mail: fung@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy, UC Berkeley, Hearst Field Annex B-20, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2014-02-20

    Gap clearing by giant planets has been proposed to explain the optically thin cavities observed in many protoplanetary disks. How much material remains in the gap determines not only how detectable young planets are in their birth environments, but also how strong co-rotation torques are, which impacts how planets can survive fast orbital migration. We determine numerically how the average surface density inside the gap, Σ{sub gap}, depends on planet-to-star mass ratio q, Shakura-Sunyaev viscosity parameter α, and disk height-to-radius aspect ratio h/r. Our results are derived from our new graphics processing unit accelerated Lagrangian hydrodynamical code PEnGUIn and are verified by independent simulations with ZEUS90. For Jupiter-like planets, we find Σ{sub gap}∝q {sup –2.2}α{sup 1.4}(h/r){sup 6.6}, and for near brown dwarf masses, Σ{sub gap}∝q {sup –1}α{sup 1.3}(h/r){sup 6.1}. Surface density contrasts inside and outside gaps can be as large as 10{sup 4}, even when the planet does not accrete. We derive a simple analytic scaling, Σ{sub gap}∝q {sup –2}α{sup 1}(h/r){sup 5}, that compares reasonably well to empirical results, especially at low Neptune-like masses, and use discrepancies to highlight areas for progress.

  6. Circumstellar disks around binary stars in Taurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akeson, R. L. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, IPAC/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Jensen, E. L. N. [Swarthmore College, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Swarthmore, PA 19081 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    We have conducted a survey of 17 wide (>100 AU) young binary systems in Taurus with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) at two wavelengths. The observations were designed to measure the masses of circumstellar disks in these systems as an aid to understanding the role of multiplicity in star and planet formation. The ALMA observations had sufficient resolution to localize emission within the binary system. Disk emission was detected around all primaries and 10 secondaries, with disk masses as low as 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉}. We compare the properties of our sample to the population of known disks in Taurus and find that the disks from this binary sample match the scaling between stellar mass and millimeter flux of F{sub mm}∝M{sub ∗}{sup 1.5--2.0} to within the scatter found in previous studies. We also compare the properties of the primaries to those of the secondaries and find that the secondary/primary stellar and disk mass ratios are not correlated; in three systems, the circumsecondary disk is more massive than the circumprimary disk, counter to some theoretical predictions.

  7. Optimization of Sensing and Feedback Control for Vibration/Flutter of Rotating Disk by PZT Actuators via Air Coupled Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingfeng Ju

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a feedback control mechanism and its optimization for rotating disk vibration/flutter via changes of air-coupled pressure generated using piezoelectric patch actuators are studied. A thin disk rotates in an enclosure, which is equipped with a feedback control loop consisting of a micro-sensor, a signal processor, a power amplifier, and several piezoelectric (PZT actuator patches distributed on the cover of the enclosure. The actuator patches are mounted on the inner or the outer surfaces of the enclosure to produce necessary control force required through the airflow around the disk. The control mechanism for rotating disk flutter using enclosure surfaces bonded with sensors and piezoelectric actuators is thoroughly studied through analytical simulations. The sensor output is used to determine the amount of input to the actuator for controlling the response of the disk in a closed loop configuration. The dynamic stability of the disk-enclosure system, together with the feedback control loop, is analyzed as a complex eigenvalue problem, which is solved using Galerkin’s discretization procedure. The results show that the disk flutter can be reduced effectively with proper configurations of the control gain and the phase shift through the actuations of PZT patches. The effectiveness of different feedback control methods in altering system characteristics and system response has been investigated. The control capability, in terms of control gain, phase shift, and especially the physical configuration of actuator patches, are also evaluated by calculating the complex eigenvalues and the maximum displacement produced by the actuators. To achieve a optimal control performance, sizes, positions and shapes of PZT patches used need to be optimized and such optimization has been achieved through numerical simulations.

  8. Evaluation of powder metallurgy superalloy disk materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop nickel-base superalloy disk material using prealloyed powder metallurgy techniques. The program included fabrication of test specimens and subscale turbine disks from four different prealloyed powders (NASA-TRW-VIA, AF2-1DA, Mar-M-432 and MERL 80). Based on evaluation of these specimens and disks, two alloys (AF2-1DA and Mar-M-432) were selected for scale-up evaluation. Using fabricating experience gained in the subscale turbine disk effort, test specimens and full scale turbine disks were formed from the selected alloys. These specimens and disks were then subjected to a rigorous test program to evaluate their physical properties and determine their suitability for use in advanced performance turbine engines. A major objective of the program was to develop processes which would yield alloy properties that would be repeatable in producing jet engine disks from the same powder metallurgy alloys. The feasibility of manufacturing full scale gas turbine engine disks by thermomechanical processing of pre-alloyed metal powders was demonstrated. AF2-1DA was shown to possess tensile and creep-rupture properties in excess of those of Astroloy, one of the highest temperature capability disk alloys now in production. It was determined that metallographic evaluation after post-HIP elevated temperature exposure should be used to verify the effectiveness of consolidation of hot isostatically pressed billets.

  9. FORMING AN O STAR VIA DISK ACCRETION?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Keping; Zhang Qizhou; Beuther, Henrik; Fallscheer, Cassandra

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of outflow, infall, and rotation in a ∼10 5 L ☉ star-forming region, IRAS 18360-0537, with Submillimeter Array and IRAM 30 m observations. The 1.3 mm continuum map shows a 0.5 pc dust ridge, of which the central compact part has a mass of ∼80 M ☉ and harbors two condensations, MM1 and MM2. The CO (2-1) and SiO (5-4) maps reveal a biconical outflow centered at MM1, which is a hot molecular core (HMC) with a gas temperature of 320 ± 50 K and a mass of ∼13 M ☉ . The outflow has a gas mass of 54 M ☉ and a dynamical timescale of 8 × 10 3 yr. The kinematics of the HMC are probed by high-excitation CH 3 OH and CH 3 CN lines, which are detected at subarcsecond resolution and unveil a velocity gradient perpendicular to the outflow axis, suggesting a disk-like rotation of the HMC. An infalling envelope around the HMC is evidenced by CN lines exhibiting a profound inverse P Cygni profile, and the estimated mass infall rate, 1.5 × 10 –3 M ☉ yr –1 , is well comparable to that inferred from the mass outflow rate. A more detailed investigation of the kinematics of the dense gas around the HMC is obtained from the 13 CO and C 18 O (2-1) lines; the position-velocity diagrams of the two lines are consistent with the model of a free-falling and Keplerian-like rotating envelope. The observations suggest that the protostar of a current mass ∼10 M ☉ embedded within MM1 will develop into an O star via disk accretion and envelope infall.

  10. Calibration of energy dispersive x-ray spectrometers for analysis of thin environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giauque, R.D.; Garrett, R.B.; Goda, L.Y.

    1976-01-01

    Four separate techniques for calibrating energy dispersive x-ray spectrometers are described. They include the use of (1) individual evaporated elemental thin-film standards, (2) nebulized multielement standard solution deposits to determine relative elemental sensitivity factors, (3) a semi-empirical approach to calculate relative elemental sensitivity factors, and (4) thick pure element disks. The first three techniques are applicable for a broad range of elements. The utilization of nebulized multielement standard solution deposits, along with an evaporated single element thin-film standard for absolute system calibration, is the most accurate method of the calibration techniques described

  11. THE DISK IMAGING SURVEY OF CHEMISTRY WITH SMA. I. TAURUS PROTOPLANETARY DISK DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeberg, Karin I.; Qi Chunhua; Andrews, Sean M.; Espaillat, Catherine; Van Kempen, Tim A.; Wilner, David J.; Fogel, Jeffrey K. J.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Pascucci, Ilaria

    2010-01-01

    Chemistry plays an important role in the structure and evolution of protoplanetary disks, with implications for the composition of comets and planets. This is the first of a series of papers based on data from DISCS, a Submillimeter Array survey of the chemical composition of protoplanetary disks. The six Taurus sources in the program (DM Tau, AA Tau, LkCa 15, GM Aur, CQ Tau, and MWC 480) range in stellar spectral type from M1 to A4 and offer an opportunity to test the effects of stellar luminosity on the disk chemistry. The disks were observed in 10 different lines at ∼3'' resolution and an rms of ∼100 mJy beam -1 at ∼0.5 km s -1 . The four brightest lines are CO 2-1, HCO + 3-2, CN 2 33/4/2 - 1 22/3/1 , and HCN 3-2, and these are detected toward all sources (except for HCN toward CQ Tau). The weaker lines of CN 2 22 -1 11 , DCO + 3-2, N 2 H + 3-2, H 2 CO 3 03 -2 02 , and 4 14 -3 13 are detected toward two to three disks each, and DCN 3-2 only toward LkCa 15. CH 3 OH 4 21 -3 1 2 and c-C 3 H 2 are not detected. There is no obvious difference between the T Tauri and Herbig Ae sources with regard to CN and HCN intensities. In contrast, DCO + , DCN, N 2 H + , and H 2 CO are detected only toward the T Tauri stars, suggesting that the disks around Herbig Ae stars lack cold regions for long enough timescales to allow for efficient deuterium chemistry, CO freeze-out, and grain chemistry.

  12. Simultaneous measurements of disk vibration and pressure fluctuation in turbulent flow developing in a model hard disk drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurashima, D.; Naka, Y.; Fukagata, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Obi, S., E-mail: obsn@mech.keio.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    The complex flow features inside hard disk drive models are investigated in an axisymmetric and a semi-open shroud configurations. For the axisymmetric case, we have employed both experimental and computational approaches. The experiment focuses on both flow dynamics and the disk vibration, where measurements of the fluctuating pressure and velocity are undertaken at some representative points. The correlation between the disk vibration and the fluctuating pressure in the turbulent flow between disks is evident from the spectral analysis. The experimentally observed fluctuating pressure and velocity are partly due to the disk vibration and its contribution could be estimated by comparing the experiment with the results of a large eddy simulation. For the semi-open shroud case, although the characteristic peaks attributable to the large-scale vortical structure are still observed in the power spectra, the pressure fluctuation and the disk vibration are suppressed when the arm is inserted.

  13. MOLECULAR DISK PROPERTIES IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.; Walker, C.; Narayanan, D.

    2010-01-01

    We study the simulated CO emission from elliptical galaxies formed in the mergers of gas-rich disk galaxies. The cold gas not consumed in the merger-driven starburst quickly resettles into a disk-like configuration. By analyzing a variety of arbitrary merger orbits that produce a range of fast- to slow-rotating remnants, we find that molecular disk formation is a fairly common consequence of gas-rich galaxy mergers. Hence, if a molecular disk is observed in an early-type merger remnant, it is likely the result of a 'wet merger' rather than a 'dry merger'. We compare the physical properties from our simulated disks (e.g., size and mass) and find reasonably good agreement with recent observations. Finally, we discuss the detectability of these disks as an aid to future observations.

  14. Rotation of gas above the galactic disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gvaramadze, V.V.; Lominadze, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    The galactic disk is modeled by an oblate spheroid with confocal spherodial isodensity surfaces. An explicit analytic expression is found for the angular velocity of the gas outside the disk. The parameters of a three-component model of a spiral galaxy (oblate spheroid with central hole, bulge, and massive corona) are chosen in such a way as to obtain in the disk a two-hump rotation curve (as in the Galaxy, M 31, and M 81). It is shown that at heights absolute value z ≤ 2 kpc the gas rotates in the same manner as the disk. However, at greater heights the rotation curve ceases to have two humps. Allowance for the pressure gradient of the gas slightly changes the rotation curve directly above the disk (r r/sub disk/)

  15. Studies of Young, Star-forming Circumstellar Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaehan

    2017-08-01

    Disks of gas and dust around forming stars - circumstellar disks - last only a few million years. This is a very small fraction of the entire lifetime of Sun-like stars, several billion years. Nevertheless, by the time circumstellar disks dissipate stars complete building up their masses, giant planets finish accreting gas, and terrestrial bodies are nearly fully grown and ready for their final assembly to become planets. Understanding the evolution of circumstellar disks are thus crucial in many contexts. Using numerical simulations as the primary tool, my thesis has focused on the studies of various physical processes that can occur throughout the lifetime of circumstellar disks, from their formation to dispersal. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 emphasize the importance of early evolution, during which time a forming star-disk system obtains mass from its natal cloud: the infall phase. In Chapter 2 and 3, I have modeled episodic outbursts of accretion in protostellar systems resulting from disk instabilities - gravitational instability and magnetorotational instability. I showed that outbursts occur preferentially during the infall phase, because the mass addition provides more favorable conditions for gravitational instability to initiate the outburst cycle, and that forming stars build up a significant fraction of their masses through repeated short-lived, episodic outbursts. The infall phase can also be important for the formation of planets. Recent ALMA observations revealed sets of bright and dark rings in circumstellar disks of young, forming stars, potentially indicating early formation of planets. In Chapter 4, I showed that infall streams can create radial pressure bumps near the outer edge of the mass landing on the disk, from which vortices can form, collecting solid particles very efficiently to make initial seeds of planets. The next three chapters highlight the role of planets in setting the observational appearance and the evolution of circumstellar disks

  16. Comparison of Rosco Neo-Sensitabs with Oxoid paper disks in EUCAST disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing on Mueller-Hinton agar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, U S; Acar, Ziyap; Olsson, K

    2013-01-01

    This study compared Neo-Sensitabs with Oxoid paper disks using the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility test on Mueller-Hinton agar. The EUCAST-recommended quality control strains (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas...... paper disks for EUCAST disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing on Mueller-Hinton agar....

  17. Working with arrays of inexpensive EIDE disk drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, D.; Riley, C.; Cremaldi, L.; Summers, D.; Petravick, D.

    2000-01-01

    In today's marketplace, the cost per Terabyte of disks with EIDE interfaces is about a third that of disks with SCSI. Hence, three times as many particle physics events could be put online with EIDE. The modern EIDE interface includes many of the performance features that appeared earlier in SCSI. EIDE bus speeds approach 33 Megabytes/s and need only be shared between two disks rather than seven disks. The interal I/O rate of very fast (and expensive) SCSI disks is only 50% greater than EIDE disks. Hence, two EIDE disks whose combined cost is much less than one very fast SCSI disk can actually give more data throughput due to the advantage of multiple spindles and head actuators. The authors explore the use of 12 and 16 Gigabyte EIDE disks with motherboard and PCI bus card interfaces on a number of operating systems and CPUs. These include Red Hat Linux and Windows 95/98 on a Pentium, MacOS and Apple's Rhapsody/NeXT/UNIX on a PowerPC, and Sun Solaris on a UltraSparc 10 workstation

  18. Ultrafast disk lasers and amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Dirk H.; Kleinbauer, Jochen; Bauer, Dominik; Wolf, Martin; Tan, Chuong; Gebs, Raphael; Budnicki, Aleksander; Wagenblast, Philipp; Weiler, Sascha

    2012-03-01

    Disk lasers with multi-kW continuous wave (CW) output power are widely used in manufacturing, primarily for cutting and welding applications, notably in the automotive industry. The ytterbium disk technology combines high power (average and/or peak power), excellent beam quality, high efficiency, and high reliability with low investment and operating costs. Fundamental mode picosecond disk lasers are well established in micro machining at high throughput and perfect precision. Following the world's first market introduction of industrial grade 50 W picosecond lasers (TruMicro 5050) at the Photonics West 2008, the second generation of the TruMicro series 5000 now provides twice the average power (100 W at 1030 nm, or 60 W frequency doubled, green output) at a significantly reduced footprint. Mode-locked disk oscillators achieve by far the highest average power of any unamplified lasers, significantly exceeding the 100 W level in laboratory set-ups. With robust long resonators their multi-microjoule pulse energies begin to compete with typical ultrafast amplifiers. In addition, significant interest in disk technology has recently come from the extreme light laser community, aiming for ultra-high peak powers of petawatts and beyond.

  19. Development of Ultrafast Laser Flash Methods for Measuring Thermophysical Properties of Thin Films and Boundary Thermal Resistances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Tetsuya; Taketoshi, Naoyuki; Yagi, Takashi

    2011-11-01

    Reliable thermophysical property values of thin films are important to develop advanced industrial technologies such as highly integrated electronic devices, phase-change memories, magneto-optical disks, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), semiconductor lasers (LDs), flat-panel displays, and power electronic devices. In order to meet these requirements, the National Metrology Institute of Japan of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST) has developed ultrafast laser flash methods heated by picosecond pulse or nanosecond pulse with the same geometrical configuration as the laser flash method, which is the standard method to measure the thermal diffusivity of bulk materials. Since these pulsed light heating methods induce one-dimensional heat diffusion across a well-defined length of the specimen thickness, the absolute value of thermal diffusivity across thin films can be measured reliably. Using these ultrafast laser flash methods, the thermal diffusivity of each layer of multilayered thin films and the boundary thermal resistance between the layers can be determined from the observed transient temperature curves based on the response function method. The thermophysical properties of various thin films important for modern industries such as the transparent conductive films used for flat-panel displays, hard coating films, and multilayered films of next-generation phase-change optical disks have been measured by these methods.

  20. Embedded Web Technology: Applying World Wide Web Standards to Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponyik, Joseph G.; York, David W.

    2002-01-01

    Embedded Systems have traditionally been developed in a highly customized manner. The user interface hardware and software along with the interface to the embedded system are typically unique to the system for which they are built, resulting in extra cost to the system in terms of development time and maintenance effort. World Wide Web standards have been developed in the passed ten years with the goal of allowing servers and clients to intemperate seamlessly. The client and server systems can consist of differing hardware and software platforms but the World Wide Web standards allow them to interface without knowing about the details of system at the other end of the interface. Embedded Web Technology is the merging of Embedded Systems with the World Wide Web. Embedded Web Technology decreases the cost of developing and maintaining the user interface by allowing the user to interface to the embedded system through a web browser running on a standard personal computer. Embedded Web Technology can also be used to simplify an Embedded System's internal network.

  1. Recent development of disk lasers at TRUMPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Sven-Silvius; Gottwald, Tina; Kuhn, Vincent; Ackermann, Matthias; Bauer, Dominik; Scharun, Michael; Killi, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    The disk laser is one of the most important laser concepts for today's industrial laser market. Offering high brilliance at low cost, high optical efficiency and great application flexibility the disk laser paved the way for many industrial laser applications. Over the past years power and brightness increased and the disk laser turned out to be a very versatile laser source, not only for welding but also for cutting. Both, the quality and speed of cutting are superior to CO2-based lasers for a vast majority of metals, and, most important, in a broad thickness range. In addition, due to the insensitivity against back reflections the disk laser is well suited for cutting highly reflective metal such as brass or copper. These advantages facilitate versatile cutting machines and explain the high and growing demand for disk lasers for applications besides welding applications that can be observed today. From a today's perspective the disk principle has not reached any fundamental limits regarding output power per disk or beam quality, and offers numerous advantages over other high power resonator concepts, especially over fiber lasers or direct diode lasers. This paper will give insight in the latest progress in kilowatt class cw disk laser technology at TRUMPF and will discuss recent power scaling results as well.

  2. Radiative Transfer Modeling in Proto-planetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, David; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Kloster, Dylan

    2016-01-01

    Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) are rich astronomical research environments. Planets form in circumstellar disks of gas and dust around YSOs. With ever increasing capabilities of the observational instruments designed to look at these proto-planetary disks, most notably GPI, SPHERE, and ALMA, more accurate interfaces must be made to connect modeling of the disks with observation. PaRTY (Parallel Radiative Transfer in YSOs) is a code developed previously to model the observable density and temperature structure of such a disk by self-consistently calculating the structure of the disk based on radiative transfer physics. We present upgrades we are implementing to the PaRTY code to improve its accuracy and flexibility. These upgrades include: creating a two-sided disk model, implementing a spherical coordinate system, and implementing wavelength-dependent opacities. These upgrades will address problems in the PaRTY code of infinite optical thickness, calculation under/over-resolution, and wavelength-independent photon penetration depths, respectively. The upgraded code will be used to better model disk perturbations resulting from planet formation.

  3. Herniated lumbar intervertebral disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochhauser, L.; Cacayorin, E.D.; Karcnik, T.J.; McGowan, D.P.; Clark, K.G.; Storrs, D.; Kieffer, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    From a series of 25 patients with low-back pain and sciatica who subsequently underwent surgical exploration, 24 lumbar herniated disks and one asymmetrically bulging disk were correctly diagnosed with use of a 0.5-T MR imaging unit. The radiologic findings on saggital images included a polypoid protrusion beyond the posterior margin of the vertebral bodies more clearly displayed with T1-weighted than with T-2 weighted sequences and a focal extension into the extradural space on axial views. In most, the signal intensity of HNP was isointense to the disk of origin. The study suggests that MR imaging is currently capable of accurately predicting an HNP. The diagnosis is based primarily on morphologic characteristics rather than signal intensity alterations

  4. A 100 au Wide Bipolar Rotating Shell Emanating from the HH 212 Protostellar Disk: A Disk Wind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Li, Zhi-Yun; Codella, Claudio; Ho, Paul T. P.; Podio, Linda; Hirano, Naomi; Shang, Hsien; Turner, Neal J.; Zhang, Qizhou

    2018-03-01

    HH 212 is a Class 0 protostellar system found to host a “hamburger”-shaped dusty disk with a rotating disk atmosphere and a collimated SiO jet at a distance of ∼400 pc. Recently, a compact rotating outflow has been detected in SO and SO2 toward the center along the jet axis at ∼52 au (0.″13) resolution. Here we resolve the compact outflow into a small-scale wide-opening rotating outflow shell and a collimated jet, with the observations in the same S-bearing molecules at ∼16 au (0.″04) resolution. The collimated jet is aligned with the SiO jet, tracing the shock interactions in the jet. The wide-opening outflow shell is seen extending out from the inner disk around the SiO jet and has a width of ∼100 au. It is not only expanding away from the center, but also rotating around the jet axis. The specific angular momentum of the outflow shell is ∼40 au km s‑1. Simple modeling of the observed kinematics suggests that the rotating outflow shell can trace either a disk wind or disk material pushed away by an unseen wind from the inner disk or protostar. We also resolve the disk atmosphere in the same S-bearing molecules, confirming the Keplerian rotation there.

  5. DUST DISTRIBUTION IN THE β PICTORIS CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmic, Mirza; Croll, Bryce; Artymowicz, Pawel

    2009-01-01

    We present three-dimensional models of dust distribution around β Pictoris that produce the best fits to the Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys' images obtained by Golimowski and coworkers. We allow for the presence of either one or two separate axisymmetric dust disks. The density models are analytical, radial two power laws joined smoothly at a crossover radius with density exponentially decreasing away from the midplane of the disks. Two-disk models match the data best, yielding a reduced χ 2 of ∼1.2. Our two-disk model reproduces many of the asymmetries reported in the literature and suggests that it is the secondary (tilted) disk which is largely responsible for them. Our model suggests that the secondary disk is not constrained to the inner regions of the system (extending out to at least 250 AU) and that it has a slightly larger total area of dust than the primary, as a result of slower falloff of density with radius and height. This surprising result raises many questions about the origin and dynamics of such a pair of disks. The disks overlap, but can coexist owing to their low optical depths and therefore long mean collision times. We find that the two disks have dust replenishment times on the order of 10 4 yr at ∼100 AU, hinting at the presence of planetesimals that are responsible for the production of second generation dust. A plausible conjecture, which needs to be confirmed by physical modeling of the collisional dynamics of bodies in the disks, is that the two observed disks are derived from underlying planetesimal disks; such disks would be anchored by the gravitational influence of planets located at less than 70 AU from β Pic that are themselves in slightly inclined orbits.

  6. SPITZER IRS SPECTRA OF DEBRIS DISKS IN THE SCORPIUS–CENTAURUS OB ASSOCIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang-Condell, Hannah [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Chen, Christine H.; Mittal, Tushar; Lisse, Carey M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Manoj, P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Rd., Mumbai 400005 (India); Watson, Dan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Nesvold, Erika; Kuchner, Marc [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2015-08-01

    We analyze spectra obtained with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) of 110 B-, A-, F-, and G-type stars with optically thin infrared excess in the Scorpius–Centaurus OB association. The ages of these stars range from 11 to 17 Myr. We fit the infrared excesses observed in these sources by Spitzer IRS and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) to simple dust models according to Mie theory. We find that nearly all of the objects in our study can be fit by one or two belts of dust. Dust around lower mass stars appears to be closer in than around higher mass stars, particularly for the warm dust component in the two-belt systems, suggesting a mass-dependent evolution of debris disks around young stars. For those objects with stellar companions, all dust distances are consistent with truncation of the debris disk by the binary companion. The gaps between several of the two-belt systems can place limits on the planets that might lie between the belts, potentially constraining the mass and locations of planets that may be forming around these stars.

  7. Effects of Toroidal Magnetic Fields on the Thermal Instability of Thin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With this assumption, we obtain a general thermal instability criterion for magne- tized thin disks, i.e.,. = 2 − 5βgas − 4(1 + n)βmag − 6 fadv. + 8 fadvβgas + (8 + 4n) fadvβmag > 0, where βgas, βmag and fadv are the ratio of gas pressure to total pressure, the ratio of magnetic pressure to total pressure, and the advection factor ...