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Sample records for elongatus swaison mollusca

  1. Anatomy and systematics of Anodontites Elongatus (Swainson from Amazon and Parana Basins, Brazil (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Unionoida, Mycetopodidae

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    Luiz Ricardo L Simone

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of Anodontiies elongatus (Swainson, 1823, a rare species restricted to the Amazon and Parana Basins, is described by first time, showing a group of conchological and anatomical characters exclusive of this species that may be analyzed to identify it. Diagnosis of A. elongatus: shell long antero-posteriorly, umbones prominent, periostracum opaque and smooth, two posterior radial striae; middle fold of mantle edge veiy tall; gill long antero-posteriorly and short dorso-ventrally, extending about a half of it total length beyond visceral mass; palps proportionally small, several furrows in its outer surface; stomach without esophageal transversal ridjp, dorsal hood and gastric shield poorly developed, major typhlosole entering in ddd , posterior pouch of sa³ very-long; style sac reduced, without crystalline style; distal region of intestine and rectum with a well developed typhlosole, "T" in section, other intestinal regions without folds; gonad gonochoristic.

  2. studies on trace metal concentration pseudotolithus elongatus from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    KEY WORDS: Trace metals, Lead Pollution, Pseudotolithus elongatus, Mbo coastal waters, ..... Analysis of soil heavy metal pollution and ... Pekey, H., Karakas, D., and Bakog'lu, M., 2004. Source apportionment of trace metals in the surface.

  3. Reproductive biology of the Del Norte salamander (Plethodon elongatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara A. Wheeler; Hartwell H. Welsh Jr.; Lisa M. Ollivier

    2013-01-01

    We examined seasonal reproductive patterns of the Del Norte Salamander, Plethodon elongatus, in mixed conifer and hardwood forests of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon. Seasonal size differences in reproductive structures suggested that maximum spermatogenic activity occurred during the late summer, with spermatozoa transfer to the...

  4. De weekdieren van de Nederlandse brakwatergebieden (Mollusca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    The molluscs of the brackish waters in the Netherlands (Mollusca) The Netherlands is a river delta rich in brackish waters. The organisms in these waters need to be adapted to extreme conditions, especially large fluctuations in chlorinity. However, several species occur optimally in this habitat.

  5. Notes on Loricata (Mollusca) 11-14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaas, P.

    1985-01-01

    Four new species of chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) are described, viz Leptochiton (L.) dispersus and L. (L.) permodestus from Transkei, L. (L.) meiringae from the eastern Cape Province, S Africa (note 11) and Ischnochiton (Stenosemus) vanbellei from the Mediterranean Sea (note 14). New records

  6. Uptake of uranium from sea water by Synechococcus elongatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horikoshi, Takao; Nakajima, Akira; Sakaguchi, Takashi

    1979-01-01

    Basic features of the uranium uptake by Synechococcus elongatus, and the factors affecting it were examined. Synechococcus elongatus was grown in Roux flasks containing 1 liter of culture solution in light (20,000 lux) and with aeration at 30 deg C. Synechococcus cells in the linear growth phase were collected by centrifugation at 6,000 x g for 5 minutes, washed with sea water, and used for the uranium-uptake experiments. The uptake of uranium from sea water containing 1 ppm of the element was strongly affected by the pH of sea water. The optimum uptake was at pH 5. Presence of carbonate ions markedly inhibited and decarbonation of sea water greatly enhanced the uptake. Absorption of uranium by Synechococcus cells was initially rapid, and reached a plateau within 24 hours. The uranium accumulation capacity of Synechococcus cells was increased by heat treatment, the capacity of scalded cells being about twice as much as that of living cells. Most of the uranium absorbed by Synechococcus was found in the inner space of the cells, and only a small amount was present in the cell walls. (Kaihara, S.)

  7. [Species composition and distribution of medical mollusca in Shanghai City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yun-hai; Lv, Shan; Gu, Wen-biao; Liu, He-xiang; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Yi

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the species diversity and distribution of medical mollusca in Shanghai City. From August 2012 to October 2013, all kinds of habitats in 8 districts and counties in Shanghai City, namely Jiading, Qingpu, Baoshan, Minhang, Songjiang, Jinshan, Chongming, Pudong, were selected for the field survey according to the distribution characteristics of the river system, and all the specimens of medical mollusca in the investigation sites were collected and classified by morphological identification. Meanwhile, the species composition, habitats as well as the fauna of the medical mollusca collected were analyzed. A total of 5,211 specimens were collected, which belonged to 2 classes, 14 families, 18 genera and 25 species, including Oncomelania hupensis hupensis, Pomacea canaliculata, Parafossarulus striatulus, Alocinma longicornis, Physa acuta, Galba pervia, Hippeutis cantori, etc. The species numbers of medical mollusca in Chongming, Jinshan, Pudong new area and Qingpu districts (counties) were 22, 22, 21 and 20, respectively, which were more than those of other areas. The habitat analysis suggested that the species numbers in the river and wetland were the most, both of which were 14 species. The main faunas of the medical mollusca in Shanghai were the cosmopolitan and oriental species. The freshwater gastropod species are paucity in Shanghai City, but almost of them can be served as the intermediate hosts of certain parasites to transmit snail-related parasitic diseases, so the surveillance of medical mollusca should be strengthened.

  8. Metabolism of 60Co in mollusca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Motokazu

    1983-01-01

    After mollusca were bred in 60 Co-labeled sea water or were given 60 Co-labeled feed for certain hours, their tissues including the liver were removed as experimental samples. 60 Co metabolism was observed by the Sephadex gel filtration profile. A gel chromatogram of the liver in gastropoda showed a marked peak of 60 Co on the high-molecular side. Although the peak was observed on both high- and low-molecular sides in pelecypoda, it was more marked on the high-molecular side than on the low-molecular side. In cephalopoda, the peak pattern was similar to that in the other mollusca, but the proportion of low-molecular components was comparatively large. The gel filtration profile of 60 Co in various tissues of cephalopoda revealed the incorporation of 60 Co into the high-molecular components in blood, three peaks in the kidneys, and the incorporation of 60 Co into the low-molecular components in the branchial heart. The metabolism of 60 Co was dependent upon the chemical form of Co in gastropoda, and organic 60 Co was specifically observed in the high-molecular components. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Accumulation of cesium-137 by useful mollusca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yuzuru; Nakahara, Motokazu; Nakamura, Ryoichi

    1978-01-01

    There are few data available on the radioactive contamination of marine mollusca, especially cephalopoda. Therefore, in this paper, data obtained on the radioactive contamination of cephalopoda were compared with those on pelecypoda and gastropoda. The uptake and elimination experiments were carried out by means of radioisotope tracer methods, and the concentration factors of 137 Cs due to radioactive fallout were estimated. The contamination of cephalopoda was also compared with those of other marine organisms in terms of concentration factor. The activity ratios in the organs or tissues of octopus were in the range of 3.5 and 12.8 on the 14th day after the beginning of exposure and those of squid were in the range of 8.8 and 10.9 on the 6th day after the commencement of the experiment. The biological half time was 90 days for octopus from the observation over 75 days, while it was 31 days for clam from the results of 75 days' experiment. The concentration factors of 137 Cs due to radioactive fallout were in the range of 3 and 23 for cephalopoda, 7 and 28 for pelecypoda and 24 and 30 for gastropoda, respectively. It was concluded that no difference in the concentration factors was clearly observable among the classes of mollusca, but the values were substantially similar to those of crustaceans and slightly lower than those of marine fish. (auth.)

  10. The distribution of exocrine glands in Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus (Copepoda: Caligidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, S.; Bron, J.E.; Sommerville, C.

    2000-01-01

    The morphology, function and distribution of exocrine glands of copepods have rarely been studied in detail and almost nothing is known about them in the sea lice species L. salmonis and C. elongatus. This study utilised a novel application of a light-microscopy staining technique to reveal a

  11. De nauwe korfslak Vertigo angustior in Nederland (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyne, de R.

    2002-01-01

    The narrow whorlsnail Vertigo angustior in the Netherlands (Mollusca: Gastropoda) In June and July 2001, a special survey was held in several coastal areas in the province of Zuid- Holland, the Netherlands. The main objective was retrieving additional data on the occurrence of Vertigo angustior

  12. Overwinteringsgedrag van de nauwe korfslak Vertigo angustior (Mollusca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesveld, A.

    2005-01-01

    Overwintering habits of the land snail Vertigo angustior (Mollusca) During a mollusc survey in 2004 en 2005 in the province of Zuid-Holland special attention was paid to Vertigo angustior. The species was observed overwintering in large groups, up to hundreds of specimens together, between mosses

  13. Bibliographie der Flussperlmuschel Margaritifera Margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) [Mollusca: Pelecypoda

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    Jungbluth, J.H.; Coomans, H.E.; Grohs, H.

    1985-01-01

    Bibliography of the freshwater Pearlmussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) [Mollusca: Pelecypoda] The freshwater pearlmussel, described by Linnaeus as Mya margaritifera is one of the most important molluscs existing. It belongs with only a few congeneric fossil and recent species to the

  14. Cross-amplification of heterologous microsatellite markers in Rhamdia quelen and Leporinus elongatus

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    Nelson Mauricio Lopera-Barrero

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Native fish species in Brazil are an asset in fish farming, but their natural stocks have been significantly reduced in recent years. To mitigate this negative impact, studies on fish conservation are being conducted and genetic tools for the discrimination of population parameters are increasingly achieving great importance. Current analysis evaluates a set of microsatellite heterologous primers in the jundiá (Rhamdia quelen and in the piapara (Leporinus elongatus. Samples from the caudal fin of 15 broodstock from each species were analyzed. DNA extraction was performed with NaCl protocol and the integrity of the extracted DNA was checked with agarose gel 1%. Twenty primers developed for Piaractus mesopotamicus, Colossoma macropomum, Prochilodus lineatus, Brycon opalinus and Oreochromis niloticus were evaluated. Cross amplification of four primers of the B. opalinus and P. lineatus species (BoM12, Pli43 and Pli60 in R. quelen and BoM2, Pli43 and Pli60 in L. elongatus was assessed. Primers of P. mesopotamicus, C. macropomum and O. niloticus showed no cross amplification in the two species analyzed. Results revealed the possibility of using the four amplified heterologous primers in genetic studies for R. quelen and L. elongatus.

  15. Heterochromatin analysis in the fish species Liposarcus anisitsi (siluriformes and Leporinus elongatus (characiformes

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    Roberto Ferreira Artoni

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The chromosomes of two neotropical freshwater fish species, namely Liposarcus anisitsi (Siluriformes, Loricariidae and Leporinus elongatus (Characiformes, Anostomidae, were investigated by means of C-banding, Ag-NORs, fluorochrome staining and banding by hot saline solution (HSS treatment, to reveal patterns of heterochromatin differentiation. The karyotype of L. anisitsi is described for the first time. Staining with the GC-specific fluorescent antibiotic mithramycin (MM revealed bright signals in some C-banded blocks in both species, suggesting that these MM+ heterochromatin contains GC-rich DNA. Banding by denaturation employing HSS, followed by Giemsa staining, yielded corresponding results documenting the thermal stability of GC-rich DNA part of heterochromatin positive after C-banding. In L. elongatus the Ag-NOR also followed the above banding patterns. However, in L. anisitsi the Ag-NOR was MM+ but negatively stained after C-banding and HSS treatment. L. elongatus also showed C-banded segments that were negative for mithramycin staining and HSS treatment. The results obtained evidence the heterochromatin heterogeneity in these fish species.Cromossomos mitóticos de duas especies de peixes neotropicais, Leporinus elongatus (Characiformes e Liposarcus anisitsi (Siluriformes, foram estudados por diferentes métodos de bandamentos, com o intuito de investigar a diferenciação da heterocromatina. Enquanto que a macroestrutura cariotípica de L. elongatus já foi objeto de estudos anteriores, o cariótipo de L. anisitsi está sendo apresentado pela primeira vez. Em ambas as espécies, a coloração dos cromossomos com a mitramicina (MM, fluorocromo GC específico, evidenciou sinais brilhantes em alguns segmentos heterocromáticos também positivos ao bandamento C, sugerindo ser esta fração da heterocromatina rica em seqüências de bases GC. O tratamento dos cromossomos com solução salina aquecida e posterior coloração com Giemsa

  16. Blueprint for a minimal photoautotrophic cell: conserved and variable genes in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942

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    Peretó Juli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simpler biological systems should be easier to understand and to engineer towards pre-defined goals. One way to achieve biological simplicity is through genome minimization. Here we looked for genomic islands in the fresh water cyanobacteria Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 (genome size 2.7 Mb that could be used as targets for deletion. We also looked for conserved genes that might be essential for cell survival. Results By using a combination of methods we identified 170 xenologs, 136 ORFans and 1401 core genes in the genome of S. elongatus PCC 7942. These represent 6.5%, 5.2% and 53.6% of the annotated genes respectively. We considered that genes in genomic islands could be found if they showed a combination of: a unusual G+C content; b unusual phylogenetic similarity; and/or c a small number of the highly iterated palindrome 1 (HIP1 motif plus an unusual codon usage. The origin of the largest genomic island by horizontal gene transfer (HGT could be corroborated by lack of coverage among metagenomic sequences from a fresh water microbialite. Evidence is also presented that xenologous genes tend to cluster in operons. Interestingly, most genes coding for proteins with a diguanylate cyclase domain are predicted to be xenologs, suggesting a role for horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of Synechococcus sensory systems. Conclusions Our estimates of genomic islands in PCC 7942 are larger than those predicted by other published methods like SIGI-HMM. Our results set a guide to non-essential genes in S. elongatus PCC 7942 indicating a path towards the engineering of a model photoautotrophic bacterial cell.

  17. A radioactivity study of mollusca distributed along the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Ammar, I.; Mamish, S.; Haleem, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, radioactivity has been studied in several Mollusca collected from four selected sites (Al Basset, Latakia, Banise and Tartous) along the Syrian coast. Concentration Factors (CF) of radionuclides (Lead-210, Polonium-210, Uranium Isotopes, Potassium-40 and Cesium-137) in mussels and shells of Mollusca have been calculated in order to determine the species that could be used as Bioindicators for these isotopes. Statistical analysis of the results using the box plot method showed that the mussels of Spondylus gaederopus spinosus and Chama pacifica can be used as biomonitor for the studied radionuclides in addition to shell of Strombus decorus persicus and Spondylus gaederopus spinosus. While the mussels of Brachidonta variabilis and Spondylus gaederopus spinosus have shown good selectivity for Cd and Pb and Pinctada radiate for Zn and Thais haemostoma for Cu. In addition, the migrant Mullusca from the Red Sea, Strombus decoruspersicus, can be used as biomonitor for lead, Zn and Cu, Cd, while the shell of Thais haemostoma for lead. However, the importance of the results of the present study that are considered as a baseline data for radionuclides in Mullusca distributed along the Syria coast and it is the only study in the eastern Mediterranean basin, that defined the Mollusca species which could be use as biomonitors for radionuclides. (Authors)

  18. A radioactivity study of mollusca distributed along the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Ammar, I.; Mamish, S.; Haleem, M. A.

    2006-10-01

    In the present work, radioactivity has been studied in several Mollusca collected from four selected sites(Al Basset, Lattakia, Banise and Tartous) along the Syrian coast. Concentration Factors (CF) of radionuclides (Lead-210, Polonium-210, Uranium Isotopes, Potassium-40 and Cesium-137) in mussels and shells of Mollusca have been calculated in order to determine the species that could be used as Bioindicators for these isotopes. Statistical analysis of the results using the box plot method showed that the mussels of Spondylus spinosus and Chama pacifica can be used as biomonitor for the studied radionuclides in addition to shell of Strombus persicus and Spondylus spinosus. While the mussels of Brachidonta variabilis and Spondylus spinosus have shown good selectivity for Cd and Pb and Pinctada radiate for Zn and Thais haemostoma for Cu. In addition, the migrant Mullusca from the Red Sea, Strombus persicus, can be used as biomonitor for lead, Zn and Cu, Cd, while the shell of Thais haemostoma for lead. However, the importance of the results of the present study that are considered as a baseline data for radionuclides in Mullusca distributed along the Syria coast and it is the only study in the eastern Mediterranean basin, that defined the Mollusca species which could be use as biomonitors for radionuclides. (Authors)

  19. Types of Cenozoic Mollusca from Java in the Martin Collection of Naturalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leloux, J.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2009-01-01

    An updated type catalogue of the Martin Collection (fossil Mollusca, predominantly from the Cenozoic of Java, Indonesia) is presented. Type specimen data, updated locality data, and illustrations are given.

  20. The structure of allophycocyanin from Thermosynechococcus elongatus at 3.5 Å resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, James William; Maghlaoui, Karim; Barber, James, E-mail: j.barber@imperial.ac.uk [Division of Molecular Biosciences, Imperial College, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-01

    The crystal structure of a light-harvesting protein that interacts with photosystem II is reported. Cyanobacteria and red algae use light-harvesting pigments bound by proteins to capture solar radiation and to channel excitation energy into their reaction centres. In most cyanobacteria, a multi-megadalton soluble structure known as the phycobilisome is a major light-harvesting system. Allophycocyanin is the main component of the phycobilisome core, forming a link between the rest of the phycobilisome and the reaction-centre core. The crystal structure of allophycocyanin from Thermosynechococcus elongatus (TeAPC) has been determined and refined at 3.5 Å resolution to a crystallographic R value of 26.0% (R{sub free} = 28.5%). The structure was solved by molecular replacement using the allophycocyanin structure from Spirulina platensis as the search model. The asymmetric unit contains an (αβ) monomer which is expanded by symmetry to a crystallographic trimer.

  1. Spatial genetic structure and mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of Argentinean populations of the grasshopper Dichroplus elongatus.

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    Natalia Rosetti

    Full Text Available Many grasshopper species are considered of agronomical importance because they cause damage to pastures and crops. Comprehension of pest population dynamics requires a clear understanding of the genetic diversity and spatial structure of populations. In this study we report on patterns of genetic variation in the South American grasshopper Dichroplus elongatus which is an agricultural pest of crops and forage grasses of great economic significance in Argentina. We use Direct Amplification of Minisatellite Regions (DAMD and partial sequences of the cytochrome oxydase 1 (COI mitochondrial gene to investigate intraspecific structure, demographic history and gene flow patterns in twenty Argentinean populations of this species belonging to different geographic and biogeographic regions. DAMD data suggest that, although genetic drift and migration occur within and between populations, measurable relatedness among neighbouring populations declines with distance and dispersal over distances greater than 200 km is not typical, whereas effective gene flow may occur for populations separated by less than 100 km. Landscape analysis was useful to detect genetic discontinuities associated with environmental heterogeneity reflecting the changing agroecosystem. The COI results indicate the existence of strong genetic differentiation between two groups of populations located at both margins of the Paraná River which became separated during climate oscillations of the Middle Pleistocene, suggesting a significant restriction in effective dispersion mediated by females and large scale geographic differentiation. The number of migrants between populations estimated through mitochondrial and DAMD markers suggest that gene flow is low prompting a non-homogeneous spatial structure and justifying the variation through space. Moreover, the genetic analysis of both markers allows us to conclude that males appear to disperse more than females, reducing the chance of the

  2. Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria for photosynthetic 3-hydroxypropionic acid production from CO2 using Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ethan I; Chuang, Derrick S; Shen, Claire R; Lee, Annabel M; Ro, Soo Y; Liao, James C

    2015-09-01

    Photosynthetic conversion of CO2 to chemicals using cyanobacteria is an attractive approach for direct recycling of CO2 to useful products. 3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3 HP) is a valuable chemical for the synthesis of polymers and serves as a precursor to many other chemicals such as acrylic acid. 3 HP is naturally produced through glycerol metabolism. However, cyanobacteria do not possess pathways for synthesizing glycerol and converting glycerol to 3 HP. Furthermore, the latter pathway requires coenzyme B12, or an oxygen sensitive, coenzyme B12-independent enzyme. These characteristics present major challenges for production of 3 HP using cyanobacteria. To overcome such difficulties, we constructed two alternative pathways in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942: a malonyl-CoA dependent pathway and a β-alanine dependent pathway. Expression of the malonyl-CoA dependent pathway genes (malonyl-CoA reductase and malonate semialdehyde reductase) enabled S. elongatus to synthesize 3 HP to a final titer of 665 mg/L. β-Alanine dependent pathway expressing S. elongatus produced 3H P to final titer of 186 mg/L. These results demonstrated the feasibility of converting CO2 into 3 HP using cyanobacteria. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Using a Microfluidic Gradient Generator to Characterize BG-11 Medium for the Growth of Cyanobacteria Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942

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    Chih-Chun Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942 has recently gained great attention for its ability to directly convert CO2 into renewable chemicals upon genetic engineering. Thus, it is of great interest to increase the growth speed and lower the medium requirement for cultivating this cyanobacterium. The cultivation medium of Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942 has been developed, which consists of many inorganic and metal ingredients with a specific composition, known as the BG-11 medium. In this work, we analyzed the concentration effect of each ingredient and identified the absolutely essential components in BG-11 medium for cyanobacteria growth using the concentration gradient generator chip (CGGC fabricated by MEMS technology. As shown by our results, removal of the individual component sodium nitrate, potassium phosphate, or magnesium sulfate from the BG-11 medium led to severe growth inhibition of Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942. Contrary to our expectation, increasing concentration of the crucial ingredients showed either insignificant or negative impact on cell growth. Overall, standard growth could be achieved without supplementation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA disodium, sodium carbonate, or sodium citrate to the culture medium. Further improvement of the CGGC-based microfluidic system based on this preliminary study may broaden its application range to analyze more complicated correlations.

  4. Diversidade genética de três estoques de piapara (Leporinus elongatus, utilizando RAPD = Genetic diversity of three stocks of piapara (Leporinus elongatus, using RAPD

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    Patrícia Cristina Gomes

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Recentemente a produção aquícola brasileira tem apresentado grandeprogresso. Dentre as espécies nativas cultivadas no Brasil, a piapara (Leporinus elongatus tem sido amplamente preconizada. Com objetivo de avaliar os programas de repovoamento, foram analisadas a variabilidade e a divergência genética de três estoques de piapara com a técnica de RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic. O primeiro estoque pertence à Estação de Aquicultura e Hidrologia da Duke Energy International (A; o segundo, à piscicultura de Rolândia (B e o terceiro, ao Programa de Repovoamento dos Rios do Paraná (C. Os dezprimers para RAPD utilizados produziram 105 fragmentos polimórficos, conferindo um polimorfismo de 98,1% para os três estoques avaliados. A porcentagem de locos polimórficos e índice de Shannon foi superior para o estoque A. Porém, todos valores foram elevados, indicando alta diversidade intrapopulacional. Os valores de Gst indicam que houvebaixa diferenciação genética entre os estoques A x B e moderada diferenciação entre os demais. O Nm foi maior entre os estoques A x B. A distância genética e o dendrograma indicam que os estoques A x B são menos distantes geneticamente.Latelly, aquiculture production in Brazil has made great strides. Among the native species cultivated in Brazil, piapara (Leporinus elogatus has been widely praised. With the objective of evaluating restocking programs, the variability and genetic divergence ofthree piapara stocks were analyzed using the RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA technique. The first stock belongs to the Aquiculture and Hydrology Station of Duke Energy International (A; the second one belongs to a fish farm in the city of Rolândia(B; and the third to the River Restocking Program of Paraná (C. The ten primers used for RAPD produced 105 polymorphic loci, conferring a polymorphism of 98.1% for the three evaluated stocks. Polymorphic loci percentage and Shannon index were higher for stock A

  5. CRISPR/Cas9 mediated targeted mutagenesis of the fast growing cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus UTEX 2973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Kristen E; Ungerer, Justin; Cobb, Ryan E; Zhao, Huimin; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2016-06-23

    As autotrophic prokaryotes, cyanobacteria are ideal chassis organisms for sustainable production of various useful compounds. The newly characterized cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus UTEX 2973 is a promising candidate for serving as a microbial cell factory because of its unusually rapid growth rate. Here, we seek to develop a genetic toolkit that enables extensive genomic engineering of Synechococcus 2973 by implementing a CRISPR/Cas9 editing system. We targeted the nblA gene because of its important role in biological response to nitrogen deprivation conditions. First, we determined that the Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 enzyme is toxic in cyanobacteria, and conjugational transfer of stable, replicating constructs containing the cas9 gene resulted in lethality. However, after switching to a vector that permitted transient expression of the cas9 gene, we achieved markerless editing in 100 % of cyanobacterial exconjugants after the first patch. Moreover, we could readily cure the organisms of antibiotic resistance, resulting in a markerless deletion strain. High expression levels of the Cas9 protein in Synechococcus 2973 appear to be toxic and result in cell death. However, introduction of a CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system on a plasmid backbone that leads to transient cas9 expression allowed for efficient markerless genome editing in a wild type genetic background.

  6. Two new species of the Liolaemus elongatus-kriegi complex (Iguania, Liolaemidae) from Andean highlands of southern Chile

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    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Díaz, Hugo A.; Esquerré, Damien; Urra, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The elongatus-kriegi complex is one of the most diverse clades of the Liolaemus (sensu stricto) subgenus of lizards. There are currently 29 species recognized in this group distributed between Chile and Argentina. Based on molecular evidence, there seem to be five main clades nested within this complex: the elongatus, leopardinus, kriegi, petrophilus and punmahuida clades. Liolaemus buergeri and Liolaemus kriegi, both of the kriegi clade, were believed to inhabit the surroundings of the Laja Lagoon, in the Biobío Region of Chile. Moreover, this Chilean population of Liolaemus kriegi was recently recognized as an undescribed taxon called “Liolaemus sp. A” based on molecular phylogenetics. In this work, we studied these two populations of the Laja Lagoon and provided the morphological diagnosis to describe them as two new species: Liolaemus scorialis sp. n. and Liolaemus zabalai sp. n., previously considered Liolaemus buergeri and “Liolaemus kriegi/Liolaemus sp. A” respectively. Additionally, we identified another population of Liolaemus scorialis in the vicinity of La Mula Lagoon in the Araucanía Region of Chile. Liolaemus scorialis differs from almost all of the species of the elongatus-kriegi complex by its considerably smaller size. Nevertheless, without molecular data we cannot assign it to any particular subclade. Liolaemus zabalai belongs to the kriegi clade based on published molecular phylogenies. Finally, we provide some natural history data on both species and we document for the first time the presence of Liolaemus neuquensis in Chile from a museum specimen from La Mula Lagoon. PMID:25987873

  7. Morphology, chemistry and function of the postpharyngeal gland in the South American digger wasps Trachypus boharti and Trachypus elongatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Herzner

    Full Text Available Microbes pose severe threats to animals as competitors or pathogens and strongly affect the evolution of life history traits like parental care. Females of the European beewolf Philanthus triangulum, a solitary digger wasp, provision their offspring with paralyzed honeybees and embalm them with the secretion from large postpharyngeal glands (PPG that contain mainly unsaturated hydrocarbons. This coating changes the physico-chemical properties of the prey surface, causes a reduction of water condensation and retards growth of mold fungi. Here we examined the closely related South American genus Trachypus, which shows a life-history similar to Philanthus. We investigated whether Trachypus spp. also possess PPGs and embalm larval provisions. Using histological methods and 3D reconstructions we show that Trachypus boharti and T. elongatus possess PPGs that are similar to P. triangulum but somewhat smaller. The ultrastructure of the gland epithelium suggests that the gland content is at least partly sequestered from the hemolymph. Chemical analyses using gas chromatography / mass spectrometry revealed that both the cuticle and PPGs of Trachypus contain mainly unsaturated long-chain hydrocarbons. The gland of T. boharti additionally contains long-chain ketones. The hydrocarbons from the PPG of T. elongatus occurred on prey bees excavated from nests in the field but not on conspecific control bees. While the embalming only slightly elevated the amount of hydrocarbons on prey bees, the proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons, which is crucial for the antifungal effect, was significantly increased. The Trachypus species under study possess PPGs that are very similar to the PPG of P. triangulum with regard to morphology, ultrastructure and chemistry. Moreover, we provide clear evidence that T. elongatus females embalm their prey, presumably as a means of prey preservation. The observed differences among Trachypus and Philanthus in gland size and prey

  8. Integration of DNA barcoding for the initial recordings of Lessepsian fishes: a case study of the Indo-Pacific slender ponyfish Equulites elongatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakinan, S; Karahan, A; Ok, M

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the DNA barcode of a regional Lessepsian sighting of the slender ponyfish Equulites elongatus is integrated with morphometric and meristic descriptors as a case study to address further identification problems in the Mediterranean Sea. The study also aims to contribute to the regional mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I information pool, to support other potential uses. The initial sighting of E. elongatus from the north-eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey is provided from a trawl survey on 3 June 2015, where 76 specimens were captured during a 15 min tow. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. On six species of marine Mollusca from suriname, four of which are new

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren, van C.O.

    1971-01-01

    Four new species are here described in order to have their descriptions published before "Seashells of Wia Wia" by D. J. Green & R. H. Hill and the second part of my paper on the Holocene and Recent marine Mollusca of Suriname will appear. Notes are added on two species for which names are used

  10. On fossil Mollusca from the island of Mandul, East-Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beets, C.

    1950-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the examination of a fairly big collection of mollusca from the island of Mandul, north of Tarakan, East-Borneo. The material was collected by Dr. Van Holst Pellekaan while investigating the geology of Mandul in the service of the “Bataafsche Petroleum

  11. Comparative genomics of vesicomyid clam (Bivalvia: Mollusca chemosynthetic symbionts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girguis Peter R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Vesicomyidae (Bivalvia: Mollusca are a family of clams that form symbioses with chemosynthetic gamma-proteobacteria. They exist in environments such as hydrothermal vents and cold seeps and have a reduced gut and feeding groove, indicating a large dependence on their endosymbionts for nutrition. Recently, two vesicomyid symbiont genomes were sequenced, illuminating the possible nutritional contributions of the symbiont to the host and making genome-wide evolutionary analyses possible. Results To examine the genomic evolution of the vesicomyid symbionts, a comparative genomics framework, including the existing genomic data combined with heterologous microarray hybridization results, was used to analyze conserved gene content in four vesicomyid symbiont genomes. These four symbionts were chosen to include a broad phylogenetic sampling of the vesicomyid symbionts and represent distinct chemosynthetic environments: cold seeps and hydrothermal vents. Conclusion The results of this comparative genomics analysis emphasize the importance of the symbionts' chemoautotrophic metabolism within their hosts. The fact that these symbionts appear to be metabolically capable autotrophs underscores the extent to which the host depends on them for nutrition and reveals the key to invertebrate colonization of these challenging environments.

  12. Carbon-free production of 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose (DOI) in cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoru; Ozawa, Hiroaki; Kato, Hiroaki; Nimura-Matsune, Kaori; Hirayama, Toshifumi; Kudo, Fumitaka; Eguchi, Tadashi; Kakinuma, Katsumi; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi

    2018-01-01

    Owing to their photosynthetic capabilities, there is increasing interest in utilizing cyanobacteria to convert solar energy into biomass. 2-Deoxy-scyllo-inosose (DOI) is a valuable starting material for the benzene-free synthesis of catechol and other benzenoids. DOI synthase (DOIS) is responsible for the formation of DOI from d-glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) in the biosynthesis of 2-deoxystreptamine-containing aminoglycoside antibiotics such as neomycin and butirosin. DOI fermentation using a recombinant Escherichia coli strain has been reported, although a carbon source is necessary for high-yield DOI production. We constructed DOI-producing cyanobacteria toward carbon-free and sustainable DOI production. A DOIS gene derived from the butirosin producer strain Bacillus circulans (btrC) was introduced and expressed in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. We ultimately succeeded in producing 400 mg/L of DOI in S. elongatus without using a carbon source. DOI production by cyanobacteria represents a novel and efficient approach for producing benzenoids from G6P synthesized by photosynthesis.

  13. Age validation and variation in growth, mortality and population structure of Liza argentea and Myxus elongatus (Mugilidae) in two temperate Australian estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, B W; Gray, C A; Bucher, D

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated variation in the rates of growth and mortality, and age and fork-length (L(F)) compositions of two exploited species of Mugilidae, Liza argentea and Myxus elongatus, in two south-east Australian estuaries (Lake Macquarie and St Georges Basin). An ageing protocol was developed by counting opaque growth zones on sectioned otoliths which was validated by periodically examining the otoliths of captive-reared young-of-the-year fishes, and marginal increment analysis of wild fishes. The maximum recorded age was 17 years for L. argentea and 12 years for M. elongatus, which is greater than generally observed in other species of mugilids. Growth models of each species significantly differed between sexes and, except for male L. argentea, between estuaries. Fishes from Lake Macquarie generally had a greater mean L(F) at age than those from St Georges Basin and females of both species generally attained a greater maximum L(F) and age than males. Gillnet catches of L. argentea were of similar L(F) and age compositions in both estuaries, whereas the age composition of catches of M. elongatus in Lake Macquarie contained a greater proportion of younger fish. Estimates of total, natural and fishing mortality were greater for M. elongatus than L. argentea across both estuaries, and estimates of total mortality were greatest for both species in Lake Macquarie. The data indicate that neither species has been overfished in these estuaries.

  14. A numerical investigation of phytoplankton and Pseudocalanus elongatus dynamics in the spring bloom time in the Gdańsk Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierzbicka-Głowacka, Lidia

    2005-01-01

    A nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (1D-NPZD) `phytoplankton {Phyt} and Pseudocalanus elongatus {Zoop} dynamics in the spring bloom time in the Gdańsk Gulf. The 1D-NPZD model consists of three coupled, partial second-order differential equations of the diffusion type for phytoplankton {Phyt}, zooplankton {Zoop}, nutrients {Nutr} and one ordinary first-order differential equation for benthic detritus pool {Detr}, together with initial and boundary conditions. In this model, the {Zoop} is presented by only one species of copepod ( P. elongatus) and {Zoop} is composed of six cohorts of copepods with weights ( Wi) and numbers ( Zi); where Zoop= limit∑i=16W iZ i. The calculations were made for 90 days (March, April, May) for two stations at Gdańsk Gulf with a vertical space step of 0.5m and a time step of 900 s. The flow field and water temperature used as the inputs in the biological model 1D-NPZD were reproduced by the prognostic numerical simulation technique using hydrographic climatological data. The results of the numerical investigations described here were compared with the mean observed values of surface chlorophyll- a and depth integrated P. elongatus biomass for 10 years, 1980-1990. The slight differences between the calculated and mean observed values of surface chlorophyll- a and zooplankton biomass are ca. 10-60 mg C m -3 and ca. 5-23 mg C m -2, respectively, depending on the location of the hydrographic station. The 1D-NPZD model with a high-resolution zooplankton module for P. elongatus can be used to describe the temporal patterns for phytoplankton biomass and P. elongatus in the centre of the Gdańsk Gulf.

  15. Seasonal changes in food quantity and quality of the common North Sea copepods Temora longicornis and Pseudocalanus elongatus: a bioassay approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Dutz, Jörg; Klein Breteler, W.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the food quantity and quality over a seasonal cycle for the development and egg production of the common North Sea copepods Temora longicornis and Pseudocalanus elongatus, using a bioassay approach. Seston was sampled from December to October from a well-mixed water column of the Mar......We evaluated the food quantity and quality over a seasonal cycle for the development and egg production of the common North Sea copepods Temora longicornis and Pseudocalanus elongatus, using a bioassay approach. Seston was sampled from December to October from a well-mixed water column...... with the seston from the spring bloom in March-April. The juveniles of both species were able to complete their development only in spring experiments. A multiple regression analyses and comparison to a good-quality standard food of the same concentration suggested that, in an annual scale, the egg production...

  16. ppGpp Controls Global Gene Expression in Light and in Darkness in S. elongatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Puszynska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial and plant stringent response involves production of the signaling molecules guanosine tetraphosphate and guanosine pentaphosphate ((pppGpp, leading to global reorganization of gene expression. The function of the stringent response has been well characterized in stress conditions, but its regulatory role during unstressed growth is less studied. Here, we demonstrate that (pppGpp-deficient strains of S. elongatus have globally deregulated biosynthetic capacity, with increased transcription rate, translation rate, and cell size in unstressed conditions in light and impaired viability in darkness. Synthetic restoration of basal guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp levels is sufficient to recover transcriptional balance and appropriate cell size in light and to rescue viability in light/dark conditions, but it is insufficient to enable efficient dark-induced transcriptional shutdown. Our work underscores the importance of basal ppGpp signaling for regulation of cyanobacterial physiology in the absence of stress and for viability in energy-limiting conditions, highlighting that basal (pppGpp level is essential in cyanobacteria in the environmental light/dark cycle.

  17. Alcohol-tolerant mutants of cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 obtained by single-cell mutant screening system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Sayuri; Hayashihara, Kayoko; Kanamoto, Yuki; Shimizu, Kazunori; Hirokawa, Yasutaka; Hanai, Taizo; Murakami, Akio; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    Enhancement of alcohol tolerance in microorganisms is an important strategy for improving bioalcohol productivity. Although cyanobacteria can be used as a promising biocatalyst to produce various alcohols directly from CO 2 , low productivity, and low tolerance against alcohols are the main issues to be resolved. Nevertheless, to date, a mutant with increasing alcohol tolerance has rarely been reported. In this study, we attempted to select isopropanol (IPA)-tolerant mutants of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 using UV-C-induced random mutagenesis, followed by enrichment of the tolerant candidates in medium containing 10 g/L IPA and screening of the cells with a high growth rate in the single cell culture system in liquid medium containing 10 g/L IPA. We successfully acquired the most tolerant strain, SY1043, which maintains the ability to grow in medium containing 30 g/L IPA. The photosynthetic oxygen-evolving activities of SY1043 were almost same in cells after 72 h incubation under light with or without 10 g/L IPA, while the activity of the wild-type was remarkably decreased after the incubation with IPA. SY1043 also showed higher tolerance to ethanol, 1-butanol, isobutanol, and 1-pentanol than the wild type. These results suggest that SY1043 would be a promising candidate to improve alcohol production using cyanobacteria. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1771-1778. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Modelling Pseudocalanus elongatus stage-structured population dynamics embedded in a water column ecosystem model for the northern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Andreas; Stegert, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines an approach to couple a structured zooplankton population model with state variables for eggs, nauplii, two copepodites stages and adults adapted to Pseudocalanus elongatus into the complex marine ecosystem model ECOHAM2 with 13 state variables resolving the carbon and nitrogen cycle. Different temperature and food scenarios derived from laboratory culture studies were examined to improve the process parameterisation for copepod stage dependent development processes. To study annual cycles under realistic weather and hydrographic conditions, the coupled ecosystem-zooplankton model is applied to a water column in the northern North Sea. The main ecosystem state variables were validated against observed monthly mean values. Then vertical profiles of selected state variables were compared to the physical forcing to study differences between zooplankton as one biomass state variable or partitioned into five population state variables. Simulated generation times are more affected by temperature than food conditions except during the spring phytoplankton bloom. Up to six generations within the annual cycle can be discerned in the simulation.

  19. Some fossil species of Babylonia seen in ultraviolet light, with description of a new species (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren, van C.O.; Gittenberger, E.

    1972-01-01

    When preparing a revision of the genus Babylonia for "Indo-Pacific Mollusca", edited by Dr. R. Tucker Abbott, we tried ultraviolet light to see the outline of the colour-pattern of some fossil species. Later on we saw the same method described by Mrs. Katherine Krueger (1971). Dr. H. E. Coomans of

  20. The mitochondrial genome of the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii supports its association with Annelida rather than Mollusca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.; Staton, Joseph

    2001-09-01

    We have determined the sequence of about half (7470 nts) of the mitochondrial genome of the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii, the first representative of this phylum to be so studied. All of the 19 identified genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand. The arrangement of these genes is remarkably similar to that of the oligochaete annelid Lumbricus terrestris. Comparison of both the inferred amino acid sequences and the gene arrangements of a variety of diverse metazoan taxa reveals that the phylum Sipuncula is more closely related to Annelida than to Mollusca. This requires reinterpretation of the homology of several embryological features and of patterns of animal body plan evolution.

  1. Distribución del género Diplodon (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Hyriidae en territorio Argentino mediante el uso de Colecciones Biológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Hernán Torres

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Los bivalvos nacaríferos dulciacuícolas (“náyades”, son especies infaunales, endémicas de la RegiónNeotropical, pertenecientes a las familias Hyriidae (Swaison, 1840 y Etheriidae (Swaison, 1840. La alteración del ambiente y la competencia con especies invasoras como Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 y Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857, impactan sobre las poblaciones naturales. En esta comunicación, se presenta el inicio de un Proyecto de investigación sobre la distribución geográfica de las especies del género Diplodon en la Argentina. Estas especies son un componente importante de la infauna de los cuerpos lóticos y lénticos, viviendo en fondos limosos, limo-arenosos, excepcionalmente en sustratos duros, con un régimen nutricio filtrador, teniendo un papel importante como recicladores de materia orgánica. Conocer la distribución de los bivalvos pertenecientes al género Diplodon en el territorio Argentino permitirá el reconocimiento de potenciales áreas prioritarias para su conservación. Sobre la base de la bibliografía disponible y los ejemplares de las especies del genero Diplodon depositados en la Colección Malacológica del Museo de La Plata (FCNyM-UNLP, se confeccionó una matriz de datos que incluye la identificación del ejemplar, la colección en que se encuentra depositado, el número de catálogo, la localidad y la fecha de colecta. Cada localidad fue ubicada mediante el uso de cartas geográficas de Argentina y revisiones bibliográficas en imágenes satelitales de GoogleEarth, asignando las coordenadas para cada punto. Como resultado del trabajo se obtiene la distribución de estas especies nativas y se discute el grado de solapamiento con las dos especies de bivalvos invasores y el impacto de actividades humanas. 

  2. The study of desiccation-tolerance in drying leaves of the desiccation-tolerant grass Sporobolus elongatus and the desiccation-sensitive grass Sporobolus pyramidalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Hamid Reza; Kianian, Jahanbakheshe

    2007-03-01

    Hydrated leaves of the resurrection grass Sporobolus elongatus are not desiccation tolerant (DT), but moderate to severe drought stress can induce their DT with the leaves remain attach to drying intact plants. In vivo protein synthesis was studied with SDS-page of extracts of leaves of intact drying plants of S. elongatus (a desiccation-Tolerant grass (DT)) and S. pyramidalis (a desiccation-sensitive species (DS)). Free proline increased in drying leaves. Soluble sugar contents also increased with drying but were less than fully hydrated leaves at 8% RWC. Total protein also showed an increase with an exception at 8% RWC which showed a decrease. SDS-page of extracts of drying leaves of both DT and DS plants were studied as relative water contents (RWC) decreased. In first phase, DT species at 58% RWC (80-51% RWC range), two proteins increased in contents. In the second phase, at 8% (35-4% RWC range) two new bands increased and two bands decreased. In leaves of DS species some bands decreased as drying progressed. Also, as drying advanced free proline increased in DT species. Total protein increased as drying increased but at 8% RWC decreased. All data of results are consistent with current views about studied factors and their roles during drying and induction of desiccation tolerance in DT plants.

  3. The Transcriptomes of Xiphinema index and Longidorus elongatus Suggest Independent Acquisition of Some Plant Parasitism Genes by Horizontal Gene Transfer in Early-Branching Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchin, Etienne G J; Perfus-Barbeoch, Laetitia; Rancurel, Corinne; Thorpe, Peter; Da Rocha, Martine; Bajew, Simon; Neilson, Roy; Guzeeva, Elena Sokolova; Da Silva, Corinne; Guy, Julie; Labadie, Karine; Esmenjaud, Daniel; Helder, Johannes; Jones, John T; den Akker, Sebastian Eves-van

    2017-10-23

    Nematodes have evolved the ability to parasitize plants on at least four independent occasions, with plant parasites present in Clades 1, 2, 10 and 12 of the phylum. In the case of Clades 10 and 12, horizontal gene transfer of plant cell wall degrading enzymes from bacteria and fungi has been implicated in the evolution of plant parasitism. We have used ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNAseq) to generate reference transcriptomes for two economically important nematode species, Xiphinema index and Longidorus elongatus , representative of two genera within the early-branching Clade 2 of the phylum Nematoda. We used a transcriptome-wide analysis to identify putative horizontal gene transfer events. This represents the first in-depth transcriptome analysis from any plant-parasitic nematode of this clade. For each species, we assembled ~30 million Illumina reads into a reference transcriptome. We identified 62 and 104 transcripts, from X. index and L. elongatus , respectively, that were putatively acquired via horizontal gene transfer. By cross-referencing horizontal gene transfer prediction with a phylum-wide analysis of Pfam domains, we identified Clade 2-specific events. Of these, a GH12 cellulase from X. index was analysed phylogenetically and biochemically, revealing a likely bacterial origin and canonical enzymatic function. Horizontal gene transfer was previously shown to be a phenomenon that has contributed to the evolution of plant parasitism among nematodes. Our findings underline the importance and the extensiveness of this phenomenon in the evolution of plant-parasitic life styles in this speciose and widespread animal phylum.

  4. Distribución geográfica, prevalencia e intensidad de las infecciones de Gregarina ronderosi (Eugregarinorida: Gregarinidae en Dichroplus elongatus (Orthoptera: Acrididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bardi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available regarina ronderosi es un parásito obligado del tracto digestivo del acrídido plaga Dichroplus elongatus y una de las únicas dos eugregarinas de acrídidos argentinos descriptas con su ciclo de vida completo. Dada la falta de conocimiento acerca de aspectos epizootiológicos fundamentales de las infecci- ones causadas por eugregarinas en acrídidos de Argentina, el objetivo de esta contribución es iniciar el registro de la distribución geográfica de G. ronderosi en la región Pampeana, su prevalencia natural y la intensidad de las infecciones en condiciones naturales. Para ello, se colectaron ejemplares de D. elongatus (2008 – 2012 en distintos puntos de la región Pampeana. Se obtuvieron y analizaron un total de 4084 ejemplares provenientes de cuarenta y dos localidades. La prevalen- cia promedio de G. ronderosi para el total de localidades con presencia (diecisiete localidades fue de 29,7 ± EE 6,6% (n = 1071. El total de individuos infectados (n = 396 fue categorizado respecto de la intensidad de las infecciones: tres (0,8% presentaron infecciones muy fuertes, ochenta (20% fuerte, doscientos diez (53% moderadas y ciento tres (26% infecciones leves. Se ha ampliado la distribución ge- ográfica conocida, se han registrado prevalencias elevadas que sugieren la ocur - rencia de epizootias y se han registrado por primera vez en condiciones naturales infecciones de G. ronderosi categorizadas como Fuertes y Muy Fuertes.

  5. The Transcriptomes of Xiphinema index and Longidorus elongatus Suggest Independent Acquisition of Some Plant Parasitism Genes by Horizontal Gene Transfer in Early-Branching Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne G.J. Danchin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes have evolved the ability to parasitize plants on at least four independent occasions, with plant parasites present in Clades 1, 2, 10 and 12 of the phylum. In the case of Clades 10 and 12, horizontal gene transfer of plant cell wall degrading enzymes from bacteria and fungi has been implicated in the evolution of plant parasitism. We have used ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNAseq to generate reference transcriptomes for two economically important nematode species, Xiphinema index and Longidorus elongatus, representative of two genera within the early-branching Clade 2 of the phylum Nematoda. We used a transcriptome-wide analysis to identify putative horizontal gene transfer events. This represents the first in-depth transcriptome analysis from any plant-parasitic nematode of this clade. For each species, we assembled ~30 million Illumina reads into a reference transcriptome. We identified 62 and 104 transcripts, from X. index and L. elongatus, respectively, that were putatively acquired via horizontal gene transfer. By cross-referencing horizontal gene transfer prediction with a phylum-wide analysis of Pfam domains, we identified Clade 2-specific events. Of these, a GH12 cellulase from X. index was analysed phylogenetically and biochemically, revealing a likely bacterial origin and canonical enzymatic function. Horizontal gene transfer was previously shown to be a phenomenon that has contributed to the evolution of plant parasitism among nematodes. Our findings underline the importance and the extensiveness of this phenomenon in the evolution of plant-parasitic life styles in this speciose and widespread animal phylum.

  6. The Transcriptomes of Xiphinema index and Longidorus elongatus Suggest Independent Acquisition of Some Plant Parasitism Genes by Horizontal Gene Transfer in Early-Branching Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchin, Etienne G.J.; Perfus-Barbeoch, Laetitia; Rancurel, Corinne; Thorpe, Peter; Da Rocha, Martine; Bajew, Simon; Neilson, Roy; Sokolova (Guzeeva), Elena; Da Silva, Corinne; Guy, Julie; Labadie, Karine; Esmenjaud, Daniel; Helder, Johannes; Jones, John T.

    2017-01-01

    Nematodes have evolved the ability to parasitize plants on at least four independent occasions, with plant parasites present in Clades 1, 2, 10 and 12 of the phylum. In the case of Clades 10 and 12, horizontal gene transfer of plant cell wall degrading enzymes from bacteria and fungi has been implicated in the evolution of plant parasitism. We have used ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNAseq) to generate reference transcriptomes for two economically important nematode species, Xiphinema index and Longidorus elongatus, representative of two genera within the early-branching Clade 2 of the phylum Nematoda. We used a transcriptome-wide analysis to identify putative horizontal gene transfer events. This represents the first in-depth transcriptome analysis from any plant-parasitic nematode of this clade. For each species, we assembled ~30 million Illumina reads into a reference transcriptome. We identified 62 and 104 transcripts, from X. index and L. elongatus, respectively, that were putatively acquired via horizontal gene transfer. By cross-referencing horizontal gene transfer prediction with a phylum-wide analysis of Pfam domains, we identified Clade 2-specific events. Of these, a GH12 cellulase from X. index was analysed phylogenetically and biochemically, revealing a likely bacterial origin and canonical enzymatic function. Horizontal gene transfer was previously shown to be a phenomenon that has contributed to the evolution of plant parasitism among nematodes. Our findings underline the importance and the extensiveness of this phenomenon in the evolution of plant-parasitic life styles in this speciose and widespread animal phylum. PMID:29065523

  7. Photoautotrophic production of polyhydroxyalkanoates in a synthetic mixed culture of Synechococcus elongatus cscB and Pseudomonas putida cscAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Hannes; Hobmeier, Karina; Moos, Manuel; Kremling, Andreas; Pflüger-Grau, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    One of the major challenges for the present and future generations is to find suitable substitutes for the fossil resources we rely on today. Cyanobacterial carbohydrates have been discussed as an emerging renewable feedstock in industrial biotechnology for the production of fuels and chemicals, showing promising production rates when compared to crop-based feedstock. However, intrinsic capacities of cyanobacteria to produce biotechnological compounds are limited and yields are low. Here, we present an approach to circumvent these problems by employing a synthetic bacterial co-culture for the carbon-neutral production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from CO 2 . The co-culture consists of two bio - modules : Bio - module I , in which the cyanobacterial strain Synechococcus elongatus cscB fixes CO 2 , converts it to sucrose, and exports it into the culture supernatant; and bio - module II , where this sugar serves as C-source for Pseudomonas putida cscAB and is converted to PHAs that are accumulated in the cytoplasm. By applying a nitrogen-limited process, we achieved a maximal PHA production rate of 23.8 mg/(L day) and a maximal titer of 156 mg/L. We will discuss the present shortcomings of the process and show the potential for future improvement. These results demonstrate the feasibility of mixed cultures of S. elongatus cscB and P. putida cscAB for PHA production, making room for the cornucopia of possible products that are described for P. putida . The construction of more efficient sucrose-utilizing P. putida phenotypes and the optimization of process conditions will increase yields and productivities and eventually close the gap in the contemporary process. In the long term, the co-culture may serve as a platform process, in which P. putida is used as a chassis for the implementation of synthetic metabolic pathways for biotechnological production of value-added products.

  8. Proximate composition, mineral content and fatty acid profile of two marine fishes from Cameroonian coast: Pseudotolithus typus (Bleeker, 1863 and Pseudotolithus elongatus (Bowdich, 1825

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Njinkoue

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge of chemical composition of fish from Cameroon is poor. The genera Pseudotolithus are nutritionally and economically important in Cameroon. Thus the knowledge on their chemical composition could help in functional food elaboration. Purpose: In this study, Proximate composition, fatty acid profiles and mineral composition were determined in two fish species, Pseudotolithus typus and Pseudotolithus elongatus from Cameroonian coasts. Basic procedure: AOAC standard method was used. Fatty acids were identified by GC/MS as N-acylpyrolidides. Mineral compositions were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry for Ca, Na, K, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and by UV spectrophotometry for phosphorus (P. Main finding: Results indicated that chemical composition was not similar in the two fish species. Results also showed that water is the main constituent in the edible parts and in the bones with 76.17% to 78.24% and 51.21% to 55.28% respectively. Pseudotolithus typus and Pseudotolithus elongatus were good sources of proteins with 16.17% and 13.4% respectively. All the fish analyzed for fat were lean with fat contents less than 0.5%. These species of fish were poor in ω6PUFA and were rich in ω3PUFA with about one third of total fatty acids. The main ω3 fatty acids were eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The most abundant main elements were the potassium in the edible parts (1.39% and calcium in the bones (18.26%. The most abundant trace elements were Zn and Fe in the edible parts and in the bones. Principal conclusion: The Na/K ratio values and ω3 fatty acids contents suggest that consumption of these two fish species could be recommended to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Keywords: Proximal composition, Mineral content, Fatty acid profiles, Pseudotolithus typus, Pseudotolithus elongates

  9. MOLLUSCA' BIODIVERSITY (GASTROPODA AND BIVALVIA AS A BIO INDICATOR OF QUALITY OF WATER IN THE COASTAL ISLAND OF TUNDA ISLAND, BANTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indria Wahyuni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The research has been done on Juli 2017 in the coastal region of Tunda Island. This study aims to determine the Biodiversity of Mollusca (Gastropoda and Bivalvia As Bioindicator of Water Quality In Coastal Area of Tunda Island, Banten. Sampling consists of 2 observation stations, namely the mangrove coastal area (3 transects and the seagrass coastal area (2 transects determined by purposive sampling. The observation of each station is done by using the quadratic transect method with 100 m transect line distance, and in each transect line there are 5 observation plots measuring 1m2 x 1m2. The data analysis includes density, biodiversity, bio-indicators of water quality based on diversity index. Result of research on 5 transect found 45 type Mollusca which represent 2 class, that is Gastropoda class of 29 species Gastropoda joined in 14 Family. As for Bivalvia class found 16 species incorporated in 9 families. The total density of Mollusca is 541.2 ind / m2 which consists of 392.4 ind / m2 for Gastropoda class and 148.8 ind / m2 for Bivalvia class. Mollusca diversity was calculated using the diversity index of Shannon-Wienner (H '. The results of diversity index ranged from 3.1356 - 3.3314 with high category. Bioindicator of aquatic quality using diversity index indicates that the coastal area of Tunda Island belongs to a very mildly polluted category.

  10. A new species of Leporinus Agassiz, 1829 from the upper Rio Paraná basin (Characiformes, Anostomidae with redescription of L. elongatus Valenciennes, 1850 and L. obtusidens (Valenciennes, 1837

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    Heraldo A. Britski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leporinus obtusidens Valenciennes, 1837 and L. elongatus Valenciennes, 1850 are redescribed based on the type specimens, including those of their junior synonyms, and recently collected specimens. Leporinus obtusidens is considered to be widespread, occuring in the river drainages of La Plata, São Francisco, and Parnaíba. Leporinus aguapeiensis Campos, 1945, described from the upper Rio Paraná, and L. silvestrii Boulenger, 1902, described from the Rio Paraguay, are considered junior synonyms of L. obtusidens. Leporinus elongatus is endemic to the Rio Jequitinhonha and Rio Pardo, two eastern Brazilian river basins, and the locality cited for the lectotype, Rio São Fransico, likely to be erroneous. Leporinus crassilabris Borodin, 1929, and L. crassilabris breviceps Borodin, 1929, both described from the Rio Jequitinhonha, are considered junior synynoms of L. elongatus. A new species of Leporinus, endemic to the upper Rio Paraná, very similar and sometimes mistaken with L. obtusidens, is formally described. In addition, comments on Leporinus pachyurus Valenciennes, 1850 and on L. bimaculatus Castelnau, 1855 are provided, and a lectotype for L. bimaculatus is selected.

  11. The Histopathology of the Infection of Tilapia rendalli and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes by Lasidium Larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia

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    Ângela Teresa Silva-Souza

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available It is described the histopathology of the infection of Tilapia rendalli (Osteichthyes, Perciformes, Cichlidae and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes, Loricariidae by lasidium larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mycetopodidae. The larvae were encysted within the epidermis of the host, being surrounded by a thin hyaline membrane, 3-6 µm thick, of parasite origin. A proliferative host cell reaction did not occur. The histopathology of the infection shows that the lesions induced by the parasites are minimal. However, the numerous small lesions produced by the release of the larvae may provide optimal conditions for the infection by opportunistic pathogens, namely fungus, which may eventually cause the death of the host.

  12. Quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora de El Salvador, América Central

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    Cedar I García-Ríos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available En El Salvador se habían registrado los poliplacóforos Chaetopleura lurida (Sowerby, 1832; Ischnochiton guatemalensis (Thiele, 1910; Ceratozona angusta (Thiele, 1909; Chiton stokesii (Broderip, 1832 y Acantochitona exquisita (Pilsbry, 1893. Recolectamos quitones en aguas someras de El Salvador en julio del 2002, agragando a la lista a Lepidochitona beanii (Carpenter, 1857; Ischnochiton dispar (Sowerby, 1832; Stenoplax limaciformis (Sowerby, 1832; Callistochiton expressus (Carpenter, 1865; Acanthochitona arragonites (Carpenter, 1867; Acanthochitona ferreirai (Lyons, 1988 y Acanthochitona hirudiniformis (Sowerby, 1832. Ampliamos la distribución documentada de I. dispar hacia el norte y describimos brevemente una especie innominada de Lepidochitona.Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora from El Salvador, Central America. Collections of 11 species of shallow water Polyplacophora from El Salvador were made in July 2002. Previously only five species had been documented in El Salvador: Chaetopleura lurida (Sowerby, 1832; Ischnochiton guatemalensis (Thiele, 1910; Ceratozona angusta (Thiele, 1909; Chiton stokesii (Broderip, 1832 and Acantochitona exquisita (Pilsbry, 1893. Of these, I. guatemalensis and A. exquisita were not collected in this census. Seven other species are reported here for El Salvador for the first time: Lepidochitona beanii (Carpenter, 1857; Ischnochiton dispar (Sowerby, 1832; Stenoplax limaciformis (Sowerby, 1832; Callistochiton expressus (Carpenter, 1865; Acanthochitona arragonites (Carpenter, 1867; A. ferreirai (Lyons, 1988 and A. hirudiniformis (Sowerby, 1832. The known geographic distribution of I. dispar is extended to the north. An un-named species of Lepidochitona is briefly described. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 171-176. Epub 2007 March. 31.

  13. Mollusca from a species-rich deep-water Leptometra community in the Alboran Sea

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    Serge Gofas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An exceptional species richness for Mollusca was found on Avempace bank (349-365 m, Djibouti group, Alboran Sea, where the most abundant species was the crinoid Leptometra phalangium. A sample of sediment sieved on a 0.5-mm mesh yielded 156 species of molluscs (83 live-taken, 1772 specimens with a high Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H’(log2=3.60. The dominant mollusc was Limopsis aurita and the six most common species accounted for 77% of the specimens. On the other hand, 42 species were represented by only one or two specimens. Two species are described as new, three more are first findings in the Mediterranean and two are first findings in Iberian waters. One-third of the species have not been reported from the neighbouring, well-explored Alboran Island platform. There is a considerable balance between the trophic groups, denoting a stable and structured community. Most of the species have an extensive Atlantic range, and most have a planktonic larval stage. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that the fauna benefits from a diverse influx of larvae carried in by the more superficial incoming Atlantic current. Because of its exceptional richness, this type of bathyal community with Leptometra and Limopsis should be considered a high priority for habitat conservation in the Mediterranean deep sea.

  14. Isolation, one-step affinity purification, and characterization of a polyextremotolerant laccase from the halophilic bacterium Aquisalibacillus elongatus and its application in the delignification of sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Shahla; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the ability of a halophilic bacterial laccase to efficient delignification in extreme conditions. Here, a highly stable extracellular laccase showing ligninolytic activity from halophilic Aquisalibacillus elongatus is described. The laccase production was strongly influenced by NaCl and CuSO 4 and under optimal conditions reached 4.8UmL -1 . The monomeric enzyme of 75kDa was purified by a synthetic affinity column with 68.2% yield and 99.8-fold purification. The enzyme showed some valuable features viz. stability against a wide range of organic solvents, salts, metals, inhibitors, and surfactants and specificity to a wide spectrum of substrates diverse in structure and redox potential. It retained more than 50% of the original activity at 25-75°C and pH 5.0-10.0. Furthermore, the enzyme was found to be effective in the delignification of sugar beet pulp in an ionic liquid that makes it useful for industrial applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The NADPH thioredoxin reductase C functions as an electron donor to 2-Cys peroxiredoxin in a thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueoka, Keigo; Yamazaki, Teruaki; Hiyama, Tetsuo; Nakamoto, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    An NADPH thioredoxin reductase C was co-purified with a 2-Cys peroxiredoxin by the combination of anion exchange chromatography and electroelution from gel slices after native PAGE from a thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus as an NAD(P)H oxidase complex induced by oxidative stress. The result provided a strong evidence that the NADPH thioredoxin reductase C interacts with the 2-Cys peroxiredoxin in vivo. An in vitro reconstitution assay with purified recombinant proteins revealed that both proteins were essential for an NADPH-dependent reduction of H 2 O 2 . These results suggest that the reductase transfers the reducing power from NADPH to the peroxiredoxin, which reduces peroxides in the cyanobacterium under oxidative stress. In contrast with other NADPH thioredoxin reductases, the NADPH thioredoxin reductase C contains a thioredoxin-like domain in addition to an NADPH thioredoxin reductase domain in the same polypeptide. Each domain contains a conserved CXYC motif. A point mutation at the CXYC motif in the NADPH thioredoxin reductase domain resulted in loss of the NADPH oxidation activity, while a mutation at the CXYC motif in the thioredoxin-like domain did not affect the electron transfer, indicating that this motif is not essential in the electron transport from NADPH to the 2-Cys peroxiredoxin.

  16. Homology and homoplasy of swimming behaviors and neural circuits in the Nudipleura (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, James M.; Sakurai, Akira; Lillvis, Joshua L.; Gunaratne, Charuni A.; Katz, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    How neural circuit evolution relates to behavioral evolution is not well understood. Here the relationship between neural circuits and behavior is explored with respect to the swimming behaviors of the Nudipleura (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opithobranchia). Nudipleura is a diverse monophyletic clade of sea slugs among which only a small percentage of species can swim. Swimming falls into a limited number of categories, the most prevalent of which are rhythmic left–right body flexions (LR) and rhythmic dorsal–ventral body flexions (DV). The phylogenetic distribution of these behaviors suggests a high degree of homoplasy. The central pattern generator (CPG) underlying DV swimming has been well characterized in Tritonia diomedea and in Pleurobranchaea californica. The CPG for LR swimming has been elucidated in Melibe leonina and Dendronotus iris, which are more closely related. The CPGs for the categorically distinct DV and LR swimming behaviors consist of nonoverlapping sets of homologous identified neurons, whereas the categorically similar behaviors share some homologous identified neurons, although the exact composition of neurons and synapses in the neural circuits differ. The roles played by homologous identified neurons in categorically distinct behaviors differ. However, homologous identified neurons also play different roles even in the swim CPGs of the two LR swimming species. Individual neurons can be multifunctional within a species. Some of those functions are shared across species, whereas others are not. The pattern of use and reuse of homologous neurons in various forms of swimming and other behaviors further demonstrates that the composition of neural circuits influences the evolution of behaviors. PMID:22723353

  17. Diversidad y microestructura de quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora del Caribe de Costa Rica

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    Cedar I García-Ríos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los poliplacóforos asociados a los arrecifes de coral en la costa caribeña de Costa Rica han sido poco estudiados. El examen del cascajo de coral acumulado en el sublitoral somero, en cuatro estaciones de colección, localizadas en la Provincia de Limón reveló una diversidad de quitones mayor a la documentada. Anteriormente se habían registrado ocho especies para el Caribe costaricense: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams, 1845; Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840; Stenoplax boogii (Haddon, 1886; S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams, 1845; Acanthopleura granulata (Gmelin, 1791; Chiton marmoratus Gmelin, 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus, 1758; Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry, 1893. Otras cinco se registran aquí por primera vez: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954; Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889.Diversity and microstructure of quitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora from the Caribbean of Costa Rica. The polyplacophorans of the coral reef on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica have been insufficiently studied. The examination of coral rubble accumulated in the shallow sublitoral waters on four collection stations in Provincia Limón revealed a higher diversity of chitons than was documented. From the country eight species were previously known: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams 1845; Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840; Stenoplax boogii (Haddon 1886; S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams 1845; Acanthopleura granulate (Gmelin 1791; Chiton marmoratus Gmelin 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus 1758 and Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry 1893. This study added five more species that are reported here for the first time: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954 and Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 129-136. Epub 2011 March 01.

  18. Volutidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Lakhra Formation (Earliest Eocene, Sindh, Pakistan): systematics, biostratigraphy and paleobiogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Didier; Pacaud, Jean-Michel; Métais, Grégoire; Bartolini, Annachiara; Lashari, Rafiq A; Brohi, Imdad A; Solangi, Sarfraz H; Marivaux, Laurent; Welcomme, Jean-Loup

    2014-06-27

    The paleobiodiversity of the Volutidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of the Ranikot Group (Sindh, Pakistan) and particularly of the Lakhra Formation (SBZ 5 biozone, Earliest Eocene), is reconsidered on the basis of new material collected during recent field trips. Ten new species are described (Mitreola brohii sp. nov., Lyrischapa vredenburgi sp. nov., L. brevispira sp. nov., Athleta (Volutopupa) citharopsis sp. nov., A. (Volutocorbis) lasharii sp. nov., Volutilithes welcommei sp. nov., V. sindhiensis sp. nov., Pseudaulicina coxi sp. nov., Sindhiluta lakhraensis sp. nov. and Pakiluta solangii sp. nov.) and one species is in open nomenclature (Lyria sp.). Three new genera are described: Lyriopsis gen. nov. [Volutinae, ?Lyriini, type species: Lyriopsis cossmanni (Vredenburg, 1923)], Sindhiluta gen. nov. [Volutilithinae, type species: Sindhiluta lakhraensis n. sp.] and Pakiluta gen. nov. [?Volutodermatinae, type species: Pakiluta solangii n. sp.]. Two new combinations are proposed: Lyriopsis cossmanni (Vredenburg, 1923) comb. nov. and Athleta (Volutopupa) intercrenatus (Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909) comb. nov. Lectotypes are designated for Lyria cossmanni Vredenburg, 1923, L. feddeni Vredenburg, 1923, Volutospina noetlingi Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909, V. intercrenata Cossmann & Pissarro, 1909 and Athleta (Volutocorbis) victoriae Vredenburg, 1923. With 21 species, this volutid fauna is the most diverse recorded from the Tethys Ocean during Earliest Eocene time. The assemblage is characterized by a strong turnover marked by regional speciation and the appearance of many western Tethyan invaders. Although at the species level, the assemblage documents a strong provincialism, at the genus level, the high number of shared genera between Eastern Tethyan and Old World Tethyan realms begins a phase of long-term homogeneity of volutid assemblages from the Tethyan paleobiogeographic province.

  19. The Complete Sequence of the Mitochondrial Genome of the Chamberednautilus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-12-01

    Background: Mitochondria contain small genomes that arephysically separate from those of nuclei. Their comparison serves as amodel system for understanding the processes of genome evolution.Although complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported formore than 600 animals, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased towardvertebrates and arthropods, leaving much of the diversity yetuncharacterized. Results: The mitochondrial genome of a cephalopodmollusk, the Chambered Nautilus, is 16,258 nts in length and 59.5 percentA+T, both values that are typical of animal mitochondrial genomes. Itcontains the 37 genes that are typical for animal mtDNAs, with 15 on oneDNA strand and 22 on the other. The arrangement of these genes can bederived from that of the distantly related Katharina tunicata (Mollusca:Polyplacophora) by a switch in position of two large blocks of genes andtranspositions of four tRNA genes. There is strong skew in thedistribution of nucleotides between the two strands. There are an unusualnumber of non-coding regions and their function, if any, is not known;however, several of these demark abrupt shifts in nucleotide skew,suggesting that they may play roles in transcription and/or replication.One of the non-coding regions contains multiple repeats of a tRNA-likesequence. Some of the tRNA genes appear to overlap on the same strand,but this could be resolved if the polycistron were cleaved at thebeginning of the downstream gene, followed by polyadenylation of theproduct of the upstream gene to form a fully paired structure.Conclusions: Nautilus sp. mtDNA contains an expected gene content thathas experienced few rearrangements since the evolutionary split betweencephalopods and polyplacophorans. It contains an unusual number ofnon-coding regions, especially considering that these otherwise often aregenerated by the same processes that produce gene rearrangements. Thisappears to be yet another case where polyadenylation of mitochondrialtRNAs restores

  20. In vitro kinetics of P700+ reduction of Thermosynechococcus elongatus trimeric Photosystem I complexes by recombinant cytochrome c 6 using a Joliot-type LED spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khoa; Vaughn, Michael; Frymier, Paul; Bruce, Barry D

    2017-01-01

    The reduction rate of photo-oxidized Photosystem I (PSI) with various natural and artificial electron donors have been well studied by transient absorption spectroscopy. The electron transfer rate from various donors to P 700 + has been measured for a wide range of photosynthetic organisms encompassing cyanobacteria, algae, and plants. PSI can be a limiting component due to tedious extraction and purification methods required for this membrane protein. In this report, we have determined the in vivo, intracellular cytochrome c 6 (cyt c 6 )/PSI ratio in Thermosynechococcus elongatus (T.e.) using quantitative Western blot analysis. This information permitted the determination of P 700 + reduction kinetics via recombinant cyt c 6 in a physiologically relevant ratio (cyt c 6 : PSI) with a Joliot-type, LED-driven, pump-probe spectrophotometer. Dilute PSI samples were tested under varying cyt c 6 concentration, temperature, pH, and ionic strength, each of which shows similar trends to the reported literature utilizing much higher PSI concentrations with laser-based spectrophotometer. Our results do however indicate kinetic differences between actinic light sources (laser vs. LED), and we have attempted to resolve these effects by varying our LED light intensity and duration. The standardized configuration of this spectrophotometer will also allow a more uniform kinetic analysis of samples in different laboratories. We can conclude that our findings from the LED-based system display an added total protein concentration effect due to multiple turnover events of P 700 + reduction by cyt c 6 during the longer illumination regime.

  1. Development of a high-frequency in vivo transposon mutagenesis system for Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Kazuyuki; Mimuro, Mamoru; Tsuchiya, Tohru

    2014-11-01

    Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Synechocystis) is the first sequenced photosynthetic organism and has two advantages: natural transformation and light-activated heterotrophic growth. Such characteristics have mainly promoted reverse genetic analysis in this organism, however, to date approximately 50% of genes are still annotated as 'unknown protein' or 'hypothetical protein'. Therefore, forward genetic analysis is required for the identification of significant genes responsible for photosynthesis and other physiological phenomena among the genes of unknown function. The in vivo transposon mutagenesis system is one of the major methods for random mutagenesis. However, present in vivo transposon mutagenesis systems for cyanobacteria face problems such as relatively low frequency of transposition and repeated transposition in the host cells. In this study, we constructed vectors based on a mini-Tn5-derived vector that was designed to prevent repeated transposition. Our vectors carry a hyperactive transposase and optimized recognition sequence of transposase, which were reported to enhance frequency of transposition. Using the vector, we succeeded in highly frequent transposition (9×10(-3) per recipient cell) in Synechocystis. Transposon insertion sites of 10 randomly selected mutants indicated that the insertion sites spread throughout the genome with low sequence dependency. Furthermore, one of the 10 mutants exhibited the slow-growing phenotype, and the mutant was functionally complemented by using our expression vector. Our system also worked with another model cyanobacterium, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, with high frequency. These results indicate that the developed system can be applied to the forward genetic analysis of a broad range of cyanobacteria. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Recombinant thermoactive phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) from Thermosynechococcus elongatus and its coupling with mesophilic/thermophilic bacterial carbonic anhydrases (CAs) for the conversion of CO2 to oxaloacetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prete, Sonia; De Luca, Viviana; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T; Carginale, Vincenzo

    2016-01-15

    With the continuous increase of atmospheric CO2 in the last decades, efficient methods for carbon capture, sequestration, and utilization are urgently required. The possibility of converting CO2 into useful chemicals could be a good strategy to both decreasing the CO2 concentration and for achieving an efficient exploitation of this cheap carbon source. Recently, several single- and multi-enzyme systems for the catalytic conversion of CO2 mainly to bicarbonate have been implemented. In order to design and construct a catalytic system for the conversion of CO2 to organic molecules, we implemented an in vitro multienzyme system using mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes. The system, in fact, was constituted by a recombinant phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus, in combination with mesophilic/thermophilic bacterial carbonic anhydrases (CAs), for converting CO2 into oxaloacetate, a compound of potential utility in industrial processes. The catalytic procedure is in two steps: the conversion of CO2 into bicarbonate by CA, followed by the carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate with bicarbonate, catalyzed by PEPC, with formation of oxaloacetate (OAA). All tested CAs, belonging to α-, β-, and γ-CA classes, were able to increase OAA production compared to procedures when only PEPC was used. Interestingly, the efficiency of the CAs tested in OAA production was in good agreement with the kinetic parameters for the CO2 hydration reaction of these enzymes. This PEPC also revealed to be thermoactive and thermostable, and when coupled with the extremely thermostable CA from Sulphurhydrogenibium azorense (SazCA) the production of OAA was achieved even if the two enzymes were exposed to temperatures up to 60 °C, suggesting a possible role of the two coupled enzymes in biotechnological processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic variability of wild populations of Leporinus elongatus in the São Domingos River - MS Brazil: a preliminary view on the construction of the hydroelectric plant

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    Ricardo Pereira Ribeiro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the electricity used in Brazil comes from hydroelectric plants, mainly due to the great availability of its water resources. However, the construction of these plants denotes serious problems related to migration of native fish and the genetic conservation of stocks. Current study evaluates two wild population of Leporinus elongatus (piapara located downstream (Population A - PopA and upstream (Population B - PopB of the Cachoeira Branca before the construction of the São Domingos hydroelectric plant (HPP in the Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Thirty samples from caudal fins were collected and analyzed for each population. Eighty-nine fragments, including 72 polymorphic ones (80.9%, were analyzed. Low fragments (less than 0.100 in both populations (PopA = 2 and PopB = 3 were identified. Nine fixed fragments (frequency 1.000 (PopA = 3 and PopB = 6, and four exclusive fragments (PopA = 3 and PopB = 1 were also reported. The genetic variability within populations, calculated by Shannon Index and by percentage of polymorphic fragments, indicated high rates of intrapopulation variability (PopA = 0.309 and 61.80% and PopB = 0.392 and 71.90%, respectively. Genetic distance and identity rates (0.089 and 0.915, respectively were different between populations, whilst AMOVA showed that most variations lie within the populations and not between them. Fst and Nm rates showed moderate genetic differentiation with low numbers of migrants. Results reveal populations with high intra-population genetic variability and genetic differentiation, with low gene flow. The passage ladders of São Domingos HPP should control fish transposition to preserve genetic variability.

  4. First record of Stibarobdella moorei (Annelida, Hirudinea, Piscicolidae) a marine leech parasitizing Octopus bimaculatus (Mollusca: Octopodidae) from the Mexican Pacific coast

    OpenAIRE

    López-Peraza D. J.; Hernández-Rodríguez M.; Barón-Sevilla B.; Bückle-Ramírez L. F.; Grano-Maldonado M. I.

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of the parasitic marine leech Stibarobdella moorei (Oka, 1910) (Hirudinea: Piscicolidae) along the northwest Mexican Pacific coast is described for the first time. This ectoparasite was collected from the skin of the Octopus bimaculatus (Verril, 1983) (Mollusca: Octopodidae). Stibarobdella loricata (Hardig, 1924) is synonymized with S. moorei as this species resembles other species of the genus based on tubercle patterns and the presence of papillae and a marginal fringe on the...

  5. Nervous system development in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Olga V; Skiteva, Olga I; Voronezhskaya, Elena E; Dyachuk, Vyacheslav A

    2018-01-01

    have not been observed previously in molluscs. Finally, we performed a morphology-based comparative analysis of neuronal structures among bivalve, conchiferan, and aculiferan species. We described the development of the nervous system during the larval development in Crassostrea gigas . These data greatly advance the currently limited understanding of neurodevelopment in bivalves and mollusks, which has hampered the generation of a ground pattern reconstruction of the last common ancestor of Mollusca. Our morphological data support phylogenomic data indicating a closer Bivalvia-Gastropoda sister group relationship than the Bivalvia-Scaphopoda (Diasoma) group relationship.

  6. Characterization of mutants expressing thermostable D1 and D2 polypeptides of photosystem II in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Norihisa; Kaseda, Jun; Nakayama, Yasumune; Nagahama, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Takahira; Matsuoka, Masayoshi

    2018-06-08

    Photosystem II complex embedded in thylakoid membrane performs oxygenic photosynthesis where the reaction center D1/D2 heterodimer accommodates all components of the electron transport chain. To express thermostable D1/D2 heterodimer in a cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, we constructed a series of mutant strains whose psbA1 and psbD1 genes encoding, respectively, the most highly expressed D1 and D2 polypeptides were replaced with those of a thermophilic strain, Thermosynechococcus vulcanus. Because the C-terminal 16 amino acid sequences of D1 polypeptides should be processed prior to maturation but diverge from each other, we also constructed the psbA1ΔC-replaced strain expressing a thermostable D1 polypeptide devoid of the C-terminal extension. The psbA1/psbD1-replaced strain showed decreased growth rate and oxygen evolution rate, suggesting inefficient photosystem II. Immunoblot analyses for thermostable D1, D2 polypeptides revealed that the heterologous D1 protein was absent in thylakoid membrane from any mutant strains with psbA1, psbA1ΔC, and psbA1/psbD1-replacements, whereas the heterologous D2 protein was present in thylakoid membrane as well as purified photosystem II complex from the psbA1/psbD1-replaced strain. In the latter strain, the compensatory expression of psbA3 and psbD2 genes was elevated. These data suggest that heterologous D2 polypeptide could be combined with the host D1 polypeptide to form chimeric D1/D2 heterodimer, whereas heterologous D1 polypeptide even without the C-terminal extension was unable to make complex with the host D2 polypeptide. Since the heterologous D1 could not be detected even in the whole cells of psbA1/psbD1-replaced strain, the rapid degradation of unprocessed or unassembled heterologous D1 was implicated. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Seasonal dynamics of Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus and Acartia spp. in the southern Baltic Sea (Gdańsk Deep – numerical simulations

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    L. Dzierzbicka-Głowacka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A population dynamics model for copepods is presented, describing the seasonal dynamics of Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus and Acartia spp. in the southern Baltic Sea (Gdańsk Deep. The copepod model was coupled with a one-dimensional physical and biological upper layer model for nutrients (total inorganic nitrogen, phosphate, phytoplankton, microzooplankton, and an early juvenile of herring as a predator. In this model, mesozooplankton (herbivorous copepods has been introduced as an animal having definite patterns of growth in successive stages, reproduction and mortality. The populations are represented by 6 cohorts in different developmental stages, thus assuming that recruitment of the next generation occurs after a fixed period of adult life. The copepod model links trophic processes and population dynamics, and simulates individual growth within cohorts and the changes in biomass between cohorts. The simulations of annual cycles of copepods contain one complete generation of Pseudocalanus and two generations of Acartia in the whole column water, and indicate the importance of growth in the older stages of 6 cohorts of each species, to arrive at a total population biomass. The peaks of copepods' biomass are larger at the turn of June and July for Pseudocalanus and smaller in July for Acartia, lagging that of phytoplankton by ca. two mouths, due to the growth of cohorts in successive stages and egg production by females. The numerical results show that the investigated species could not be the main factor limiting the spring phytoplankton bloom in the Gdańsk Deep, because the initial development was slow for Acartia and faster for Pseudocalanus, but the main development formed after the bloom, in both cases. The phytoplankton bloom is very important in the diet of the adults of the copepods, but it is not particularly important for the youngest part of new generation (early nauplii. However, the simulated microzooplankton biomass was

  8. On Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae Sobre Pomacea sordida (Swaison, 1823 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae

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    Silvana Carvalho Thiengo

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available A description of Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823 collected in Caxias and Nova Iguaçu, state of Rio de Janeiro, is presented. The shell is globose, heavy, whith greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spinal bands; apex subelevated, 4-5 moderately shoudered whorls, increasing rather rapidly and separated by deep suture. Aperture large, moderately round, yellowish or violaceous; lip thick and sometimes dark brown; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous and heavy, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.81-0.91 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.66-0.75 (mean 0.70. Testis, spermiduct and penis pouch as in Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827. Seminal vesicle whitish and bean-shaped. Prostate cylindric and narrow, cream in coloar as the testis. Penis whiplike whith a closed circular spermiduct. Penial sheath elongated and tapered, with its distal tip turned to the right; outer basal gland situated on the left; inner median gland rounded; apical gland elongated and wrinkled. Ovary composed of branched whitish tubules lying superficially on the digestive gland; oviduct and seminal receptacle as in P. lineata; albumen gland yellowish - orange. Vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.Nesse trabalho é apresentada a descrição de Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823, coletada em Caxias e Nova Iguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Concha globosa, espessa, com perióstraco esverdeado ou castanho e com faixas espirais escuras; ápice pouco elevado, 4-5 giros moderadamente arredondados, crescendo relativamente rápido, separados por suturas profundas. Abertura grande, moderadamente arredondada, amarelada ou violácea; lábio espesso e algumas vezes marrom escuro; umbílico grande e profundo; opérculo córneo e espesso, fechando completamente a abertura. Razões: largura da concha/comprimento da concha=0.81-0.91 (média 0.86; comprimento da abertura/comprimento da concha=0.66-0.75 (média 0.70. Testículo, espermiduto e bolsa do pênis como em Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827. Vesícula seminal esbranquiçada e em forma de feijão. Próstata cilíndrica e estreita, de cor creme como o testículo. Pênis em forma de chicote, com espermiduto circular e fechado. Bainha do pênis alongada tendo sua largura diminuída da base para a extremidade, sendo esta última voltada para a direita; glândula basal extrema situada à esquerda; glândula mediana interna arredondada; glândula apical alongada e com sulcos. Ovário composto de túbulos brancos ramificados dispostos superficialmente sobre a glândula digestiva verde. Oviduto e receptáculo seminal como em P. lineata; glândula de albume de cor alaranjada; ovos prismáticos e calcáreos de cor alaranjada. Aparelho copulador masculino vestigial (pênis e sua bainha presente em todas as fêmeas examinadas.

  9. Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin

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    Abraham Breure

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The type status is described of 96 taxa classified within the superfamily Orthalicoidea and present in the Mollusca collection of the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Orthalicus elegans Rolle, 1895; Bulimus maranhonensis Albers, 1854; Orthalicus nobilis Rolle, 1895; Orthalichus tricinctus Martens, 1893. Orthalicus sphinx tresmariae is introduced as new name for Zebra sphinx turrita Strebel, 1909, not Z. quagga turrita Strebel, 1909. The following synonyms are established: Zebra crosseifischeri Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus princeps fischeri Martens, 1893; Orthalicus isabellinus Martens, 1873 = O. bensoni (Reeve, 1849; Zebra zoniferus naesiotes Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus undatus (Bruguière, 1789; Porphyrobaphe (Myiorthalicus dennisoni pallida Strebel, 1909 = Hemibulimus dennisoni (Reeve, 1848; Zebra delphinus pumilio Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus delphinus (Strebel, 1909; Orthalicus (Laeorthalicus reginaeformis Strebel, 1909 = Corona perversa (Swainson, 1821; Bulimus (Eurytus corticosus Sowerby III, 1895 = Plekocheilus (Eurytus stuebeli Martens, 1885. The taxon Bulimus (Eudioptus psidii Martens, 1877 is now placed within the family Sagdidae, tentatively in the genus Platysuccinea. Appendices are included with an index to all the types of Orthalicoidea extant (including those listed by Köhler 2007 and a partial list of letters present in the correspondence archives.

  10. Assessing metal contamination from construction and demolition (C&D) waste used to infill wetlands: using Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, John A; Mc Donnell, Rory J; Gormally, Michael J; Williams, Chris D; Henry, Tiernan; Morrison, Liam

    2014-11-01

    Large quantities of construction and demolition waste (C&D) are produced globally every year, with little known about potential environmental impacts. In the present study, the slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Mollusca: Gastropoda) was used as the first biomonitor of metals (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) on wetlands post infilling with construction and demolition (C&D) waste. The bioaccumulation of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Sb, Se and Tl were found to be significantly elevated in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to unimproved pastures (control sites), while Mo, Se and Sr had significantly higher concentrations in slugs collected on C&D waste when compared to known contaminated sites (mining locations), indicating the potential hazardous nature of C&D waste to biota. Identifying exact sources for these metals within the waste can be problematic, due to its heterogenic nature. Biomonitors are a useful tool for future monitoring and impact studies, facilitating policy makers and regulations in other countries regarding C&D waste infill. In addition, improving separation of C&D waste to allow increased reuse and recycling is likely to be effective in reducing the volume of waste being used as infill, subsequently decreasing potential metal contamination.

  11. Comunidades de quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora de la Bahía de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México

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    Cedar I García Ríos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A las ocho especies de poliplacóforos registradas en Bahía de la Paz, Baja California Sur, México, o cerca de ella, agregamos a Lepidochitona beanii, Chaetopleura lurida, Stenoplax limaciformis, S. mariposa, Lepidozona clathrata, L. serrata y Acanthochitona arragonites. El análisis de las comunidades estudiadas usando técnicas de ordenación sugiere que podría relacionarse la exposición al oleaje con la riqueza y la diversidad de especies. La comunidad recolectada en condiciones intermedias de exposición al oleaje presentó mayor número de especies y mayor diversidad de acuerdo con el índice de Shannon.Polyplacophoran communities (Mollusca: Polyplacophora at Bahía de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México. Eight species of polyplacophorans have been reported from La Bahía de la Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. We add Lepidochitona beanii, Chaetopleura lurida, Stenoplax limaciformis, S. mariposa, Lepidozona clathrata, L. serrata and Acanthochitona arragonites, increasing the known number of species to 15. Ordination analysis of five chiton communities at the site suggests a correlation of wave exposure to species composition and diversity: communities with intermediate wave exposure have more species (richness and higher diversity (Shannon’s index. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 177-182. Epub 2007 March. 31.

  12. Biochemical profile of Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) after infection by different parasitic loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Metastrongylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Amaral, Ludimila Santos; Mota, Esther Maria; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo; Pinheiro, Jairo; Garcia, Juberlan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of experimental infection by different parasitic loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematode, Metastrongylidae) on the activities of the aminotransferases and concentration of total proteins, uric acid and urea in the hemolymph of Achatina fulica (Mollusca, Gastropoda) were investigated. There was a significant decrease in the concentration of total proteins in the exposed snails to 5000 or more larvae. This change was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of urea and uric acid in the hemolymph, suggesting a higher rate of deamination of the amino acids. Besides this, variations in the activities of the aminotransferases were also observed, with the highest values recorded in the groups exposed to greater parasite load. These results suggest an increase in the use of total proteins, since there was increased formation of nitrogenous catabolites, in conformity with an increase in the aminotransferase activities. Infection was verified by the fact that L3 larvae recovered from the snails was proportion to the exposure dose of L1 larvae. Histopathological results also indicated presence of an inflammatory cell infiltrate, favoring an increase of both transaminases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breure, Abraham S H

    2013-01-01

    The type status is described of 96 taxa classified within the superfamily Orthalicoidea and present in the Mollusca collection of the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Orthalicus elegans Rolle, 1895; Bulimus maranhonensis Albers, 1854; Orthalicus nobilis Rolle, 1895; Orthalichus tricinctus Martens, 1893. Orthalicus sphinx tresmariae is introduced as new name for Zebra sphinx turrita Strebel, 1909, not Zebra quagga turrita Strebel, 1909. The following synonyms are established: Zebra crosseifischeri Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus princeps fischeri Martens, 1893; Orthalicus isabellinus Martens, 1873 = Orthalicus bensoni (Reeve, 1849); Zebra zoniferus naesiotes Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus undatus (Bruguière, 1789); Porphyrobaphe (Myiorthalicus) dennisoni pallida Strebel, 1909 = Hemibulimus dennisoni (Reeve, 1848); Zebra delphinus pumilio Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus delphinus (Strebel, 1909); Orthalicus (Laeorthalicus) reginaeformis Strebel, 1909 = Corona perversa (Swainson, 1821); Bulimus (Eurytus) corticosus Sowerby III, 1895 = Plekocheilus (Eurytus) stuebeli Martens, 1885. The taxon Bulimus (Eudioptus) psidii Martens, 1877 is now placed within the family Sagdidae, tentatively in the genus Platysuccinea. Appendices are included with an index to all the types of Orthalicoidea extant (including those listed by Köhler 2007) and a partial list of letters present in the correspondence archives.

  14. ON THE PALEOFAUNA INVERTEBRATES (MOLLUSCA, ARTROPODA; INSECTA OF DIATOMITE DEPOSITS OF SHAMB–1 LOCALITY (SISIAN SUITE, EARLY PLEISTOCENE, ARMENIA

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    М. A. Маrjanyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The study of fossil insects from diatomaceous sediments of Shamb-1 locality of Sisian Suite (Early Pleistocene. The collection of fossils plants and animals of Institute of Botany of NAS RA and authors' findings served as material for study.Methods. The material is processed and prepared for study by conventional methods in paleontology for prints and fossils of insects from diatomaceous sediments. There are 654 samples studied: 2 samples were with mollusks’ imprints and 652 samples with imprints of insects, from which preserved marks on 291samples allowed to identify them up to order, family, genus and species.Results. The studied material refers to the Mollusca and Arthropoda (Insecta types. Insects are represented by species of orders Orthoptera (2 fam., Homoptera (1 fam., Heteroptera (2 fam., Coleoptera (15 fam., Hymenoptera (2 fam., Diptera (1 fam.. Coleopteras dominate among them and are presented with following species of the family – Carabidae, Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae, Histeridae, Staphylinidae, Silphidae, Elateridae, Buprestidae, Lampyridae, Scarabaeidae, Chrysomelidae, Tenebrionidae, Coccinellidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionidae.Main conclusions. An analysis of the taxonomic composition of paleofauna was done, which corresponds to the recent fauna and with considering modern ecological characteristics of systematical groups and species. In the investigated location of Shamb-1 a version is suggested about the palaeolandscapes and palaeoclimate in the Early Pleistocene.

  15. Diversidade genética de três estoques de piapara (Leporinus elongatus, utilizando RAPD - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4710 Genetic diversity of three stocks of piapara (Leporinus elongatus, using RAPD - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4710

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    Lauro Vargas

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Recentemente a produção aquícola brasileira tem apresentado grande progresso. Dentre as espécies nativas cultivadas no Brasil, a piapara (Leporinus elongatus tem sido amplamente preconizada. Com objetivo de avaliar os programas de repovoamento, foram analisadas a variabilidade e a divergência genética de três estoques de piapara com a técnica de RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic. O primeiro estoque pertence à Estação de Aquicultura e Hidrologia da Duke Energy International (A; o segundo, à piscicultura de Rolândia (B e o terceiro, ao Programa de Repovoamento dos Rios do Paraná (C. Os dez primers para RAPD utilizados produziram 105 fragmentos polimórficos, conferindo um polimorfismo de 98,1% para os três estoques avaliados. A porcentagem de locos polimórficos e índice de Shannon foi superior para o estoque A. Porém, todos valores foram elevados, indicando alta diversidade intrapopulacional. Os valores de indicam que houve baixa diferenciação genética entre os estoques A x B e moderada diferenciação entre os demais. O Nm foi maior entre os estoques A x B. A distância genética e o dendrograma indicam que os estoques A x B são menos distantes geneticamente.Latelly, aquiculture production in Brazil has made great strides. Among the native species cultivated in Brazil, piapara (Leporinus elogatus has been widely praised. With the objective of evaluating restocking programs, the variability and genetic divergence of three piapara stocks were analyzed using the RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA technique. The first stock belongs to the Aquiculture and Hydrology Station of Duke Energy International (A; the second one belongs to a fish farm in the city of Rolândia (B; and the third to the River Restocking Program of Paraná (C. The ten primers used for RAPD produced 105 polymorphic loci, conferring a polymorphism of 98.1% for the three evaluated stocks. Polymorphic loci percentage and Shannon index were higher for stock A

  16. Molecular phylogenetic analysis supports a Gondwanan origin of the Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) and the paraphyly of Australasian taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Daniel L; Jones, Hugh; Geneva, Anthony J; Pfeiffer, John M; Klunzinger, Michael W

    2015-04-01

    The freshwater mussel family Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) has a disjunct trans-Pacific distribution in Australasia and South America. Previous phylogenetic analyses have estimated the evolutionary relationships of the family and the major infra-familial taxa (Velesunioninae and Hyriinae: Hyridellini in Australia; Hyriinae: Hyriini, Castaliini, and Rhipidodontini in South America), but taxon and character sampling have been too incomplete to support a predictive classification or allow testing of biogeographical hypotheses. We sampled 30 freshwater mussel individuals representing the aforementioned hyriid taxa, as well as outgroup species representing the five other freshwater mussel families and their marine sister group (order Trigoniida). Our ingroup included representatives of all Australian genera. Phylogenetic relationships were estimated from three gene fragments (nuclear 28S, COI and 16S mtDNA) using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference, and we applied a Bayesian relaxed clock model calibrated with fossil dates to estimate node ages. Our analyses found good support for monophyly of the Hyriidae and the subfamilies and tribes, as well as the paraphyly of the Australasian taxa (Velesunioninae, (Hyridellini, (Rhipidodontini, (Castaliini, Hyriini)))). The Hyriidae was recovered as sister to a clade comprised of all other Recent freshwater mussel families. Our molecular date estimation supported Cretaceous origins of the major hyriid clades, pre-dating the Tertiary isolation of South America from Antarctica/Australia. We hypothesize that early diversification of the Hyriidae was driven by terrestrial barriers on Gondwana rather than marine barriers following disintegration of the super-continent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration area, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Mollusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Helena; Taylor, John D; Dahlgren, Thomas G; Todt, Christiane; Ikebe, Chiho; Rabone, Muriel; Glover, Adrian G

    2017-01-01

    We present the first DNA taxonomy publication on abyssal Mollusca from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific ocean, using material collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise 'AB01' to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration area 'UK-1' in the eastern CCZ. This is the third paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules. Taxonomic data are presented for 21 species from 42 records identified by a combination of morphological and genetic data, including molecular phylogenetic analyses. These included 3 heterodont bivalves, 5 protobranch bivalves, 4 pteriomorph bivalves, 1 caudofoveate, 1 monoplacophoran, 1 polyplacophoran, 4 scaphopods and 2 solenogastres. Gastropoda were recovered but will be the subject of a future study. Seven taxa matched published morphological descriptions for species with deep Pacific type localities, and our sequences provide the first genetic data for these taxa. One taxon morphologically matched a known cosmopolitan species but with a type locality in a different ocean basin and was assigned the open nomenclature ' cf ' as a precautionary approach in taxon assignments to avoid over-estimating species ranges. One taxon is here described as a new species, Ledella knudseni sp. n. For the remaining 12 taxa, we have determined them to be potentially new species, for which we make the raw data, imagery and vouchers available for future taxonomic study. The Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a region undergoing intense exploration for potential deep-sea mineral extraction. We present these data to facilitate future taxonomic and environmental impact study by making both data and voucher materials available through curated and accessible biological collections.

  18. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration area, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Mollusca

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    Helena Wiklund

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We present the first DNA taxonomy publication on abyssal Mollusca from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ, central Pacific ocean, using material collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE environmental survey cruise ‘AB01’ to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL polymetallic-nodule exploration area ‘UK-1’ in the eastern CCZ. This is the third paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules. Taxonomic data are presented for 21 species from 42 records identified by a combination of morphological and genetic data, including molecular phylogenetic analyses. These included 3 heterodont bivalves, 5 protobranch bivalves, 4 pteriomorph bivalves, 1 caudofoveate, 1 monoplacophoran, 1 polyplacophoran, 4 scaphopods and 2 solenogastres. Gastropoda were recovered but will be the subject of a future study. Seven taxa matched published morphological descriptions for species with deep Pacific type localities, and our sequences provide the first genetic data for these taxa. One taxon morphologically matched a known cosmopolitan species but with a type locality in a different ocean basin and was assigned the open nomenclature ‘cf’ as a precautionary approach in taxon assignments to avoid over-estimating species ranges. One taxon is here described as a new species, Ledella knudseni sp. n. For the remaining 12 taxa, we have determined them to be potentially new species, for which we make the raw data, imagery and vouchers available for future taxonomic study. The Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a region undergoing intense exploration for potential deep-sea mineral extraction. We present these data to facilitate future taxonomic and environmental impact study by making both data and voucher materials available through curated and accessible biological collections.

  19. Evaluation of uptake and chronic toxicity of virgin polystyrene microbeads in freshwater zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Stefano; Gagné, François; André, Chantale; Della Torre, Camilla; Auclair, Joëlle; Hanana, Houda; Parenti, Camilla Carla; Bonasoro, Francesco; Binelli, Andrea

    2018-08-01

    Microplastics (MPs), plastic debris smaller than 5mm, are widely found in both marine and freshwater ecosystems. However, few studies regarding their hazardous effects on inland water organisms, have been conducted. For this reason, the aim of our research was the evaluation of uptake and chronic toxicity of two mixtures (MIXs) of virgin polystyrene microbeads (PMs) of 10μm and 1μm in size (MIX 1, with 5×10 5 of 1μmsizePMs/L and 5×10 5 of 10μmsizePMs/L, and MIX 2 with 2×10 6 of 1μmsizePMs/L and 2×10 6 of 10μmsizePMs/L) on freshwater zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Mollusca: Bivalvia) during 6 exposure days. The PM uptake in the mussel body and hemolymph was assessed using confocal microscopy, while the chronic toxicity of PMs was evaluated on exposed mussels using a comprehensive battery of biomarkers of cellular stress, oxidative damage and neuro- genotoxicity. Confocal microscopy analyses showed that MPs concentrated in the gut lumen of exposed mussels, absorbed and transferred firstly in the tissues and then in the hemolymph. The results revealed that PMs do not produce oxidative stress and genetic damage, with the exception of a significant modulation of catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in mussels exposed to MIX 1. Regarding neurotoxicity, we observed only a significant increase of dopamine concentration in mussels exposed to both MIXs, suggesting a possible implication of this neurotransmitter in an elimination process of accumulated PMs. This research represents a first study about the evaluation of virgin MP toxicity in zebra mussel and more research is warranted concerning the long term neurological effects of virgin MPs. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. First record of Stibarobdella moorei (Annelida, Hirudinea, Piscicolidae a marine leech parasitizing Octopus bimaculatus (Mollusca: Octopodidae from the Mexican Pacific coast

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    López-Peraza D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of the parasitic marine leech Stibarobdella moorei (Oka, 1910 (Hirudinea: Piscicolidae along the northwest Mexican Pacific coast is described for the first time. This ectoparasite was collected from the skin of the Octopus bimaculatus (Verril, 1983 (Mollusca: Octopodidae. Stibarobdella loricata (Hardig, 1924 is synonymized with S. moorei as this species resembles other species of the genus based on tubercle patterns and the presence of papillae and a marginal fringe on the oral sucker. The present finding throws new light on the biodiversity and host preference of the ectoparasite and suggests a successful migration to unusual host. The coast of the Pacific Ocean, particularly in the Bay of Los Angeles, Baja California, Mexico is a new geographical distribution area for S. moorei, and O. bimaculatus is a new host reported for this leech. The morphology of this ectoparasite is briefly described.

  1. Structural determinants of the outer shell of β-carboxysomes in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942: roles for CcmK2, K3-K4, CcmO, and CcmL.

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    Benjamin D Rae

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial CO(2-fixation is supported by a CO(2-concentrating mechanism which improves photosynthesis by saturating the primary carboxylating enzyme, ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO, with its preferred substrate CO(2. The site of CO(2-concentration is a protein bound micro-compartment called the carboxysome which contains most, if not all, of the cellular RuBisCO. The shell of β-type carboxysomes is thought to be composed of two functional layers, with the inner layer involved in RuBisCO scaffolding and bicarbonate dehydration, and the outer layer in selective permeability to dissolved solutes. Here, four genes (ccmK2-4, ccmO, whose products were predicted to function in the outer shell layer of β-carboxysomes from Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, were investigated by analysis of defined genetic mutants. Deletion of the ccmK2 and ccmO genes resulted in severe high-CO(2-requiring mutants with aberrant carboxysomes, whilst deletion of ccmK3 or ccmK4 resulted in cells with wild-type physiology and normal ultrastructure. However, a tandem deletion of ccmK3-4 resulted in cells with wild-type carboxysome structure, but physiologically deficient at low CO(2 conditions. These results revealed the minimum structural determinants of the outer shell of β-carboxysomes from this strain: CcmK2, CcmO and CcmL. An accessory set of proteins was required to refine the function of the pre-existing shell: CcmK3 and CcmK4. These data suggested a model for the facet structure of β-carboxysomes with CcmL forming the vertices, CcmK2 forming the bulk facet, and CcmO, a "zipper protein," interfacing the edges of carboxysome facets.

  2. A massive ingression of the alien species Mytilus edulis L. (Bivalvia: Mollusca into the Mediterranean Sea following the Costa Concordia cruise-ship disaster

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    E. CASOLI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Costa Concordia cruise-ship disaster occurred just off the coast of Italy on January 13th, 2012, and entailed the largest marine salvage operation in history. The salvage employed vessels from different European harbours, providing an unexpected means for transporting alien species into the Mediterranean. In this work we identified mussel species using fragments length polymorphism of a nuclear locus and report the first evidence of the transport of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 (Bivalvia: Mollusca, into the Mediterranean Sea, as a part of the fouling community of the hull of an accommodation barge arrived from a NE Atlantic location in October 2012. Furthermore, we describe the rapid growth of this species, under the ASV Pioneer, until its almost total extinction during the summer of 2013, which left a covering of mussel shells on the underlying Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus Delile, 1813. meadow. This high mortality rate indicated that M. edulis had been exposed to high stress conditions, probably due to different salinity, temperature, and oligotrophic conditions from its place of origin, and there was no spawning event or known settlement on the nearest infralittoral natural habitats. This event reminds us of how the Mediterranean Sea is constantly under alien-species pressure, due to human activities.

  3. The influence of fish cage culture on δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N of filter-feeding Bivalvia (Mollusca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedito, E.; Takeda, A.M., E-mail: eva@nupelia.uem.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia, Ictiologia e Aquicultura; Figueroa, L. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquaticos Continentais; Manetta, GI. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Comparada

    2013-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Oreochromis niloticus cage culture promoted variations in the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca; Bivalvia) and in the sediment of an aquatic food web. Samples were taken before and after net cage installation in the Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples of specimens of the bivalve filter C. fluminea and samples of sediment were collected using a modified Petersen grab. All samples were dried in an oven (60 °C) for 72 hours, macerated to obtain homogenous fine powders and sent for carbon (δ{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (δ{sup 15}N) isotopic value analysis in a mass spectrometer. There were significant differences in the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of the invertebrate C. fluminea between the beginning and the end of the experiment. There were no differences between the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of sediment. These results indicate that the installation of fish cage culture promoted impacts in the isotopic composition of the aquatic food web organisms, which could exert influence over the native species and the ecosystem. (author)

  4. (Lamark) (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Figure 2 Mean monthly surface water temperature and salinity values ..... Excluding the effect of the flood, the progression of the .... Growth and metabolism of Mactra lilacea. Abstract ... tolerance and osmoregulation in some estuarine bivalves.

  5. The linked units of 5S rDNA and U1 snDNA of razor shells (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pharidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierna, J; Jensen, K T; Martínez-Lage, A; González-Tizón, A M

    2011-08-01

    The linkage between 5S ribosomal DNA and other multigene families has been detected in many eukaryote lineages, but whether it provides any selective advantage remains unclear. In this work, we report the occurrence of linked units of 5S ribosomal DNA (5S rDNA) and U1 small nuclear DNA (U1 snDNA) in 10 razor shell species (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pharidae) from four different genera. We obtained several clones containing partial or complete repeats of both multigene families in which both types of genes displayed the same orientation. We provide a comprehensive collection of razor shell 5S rDNA clones, both with linked and nonlinked organisation, and the first bivalve U1 snDNA sequences. We predicted the secondary structures and characterised the upstream and downstream conserved elements, including a region at -25 nucleotides from both 5S rDNA and U1 snDNA transcription start sites. The analysis of 5S rDNA showed that some nontranscribed spacers (NTSs) are more closely related to NTSs from other species (and genera) than to NTSs from the species they were retrieved from, suggesting birth-and-death evolution and ancestral polymorphism. Nucleotide conservation within the functional regions suggests the involvement of purifying selection, unequal crossing-overs and gene conversions. Taking into account this and other studies, we discuss the possible mechanisms by which both multigene families could have become linked in the Pharidae lineage. The reason why 5S rDNA is often found linked to other multigene families seems to be the result of stochastic processes within genomes in which its high copy number is determinant.

  6. Megafauna of the UKSRL exploration contract area and eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the Pacific Ocean: Annelida, Arthropoda, Bryozoa, Chordata, Ctenophora, Mollusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Diva J; Ziegler, Amanda F; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Grischenko, Andrei V; Leitner, Astrid B; Lindsay, Dhugal J; Voight, Janet R; Wicksten, Mary K; Young, Craig M; Smith, Craig R

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in mining polymetallic nodules from the abyssal Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Despite having been the focus of environmental studies for decades, the benthic megafauna of the CCZ remain poorly known. To predict and manage the environmental impacts of mining in the CCZ, baseline knowledge of the megafauna is essential. The ABYSSLINE Project has conducted benthic biological baseline surveys in the UK Seabed Resources Ltd polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area (UK-1). Prior to ABYSSLINE research cruises in 2013 and 2015, no biological studies had been done in this area of the eastern CCZ. Using a Remotely Operated Vehicle and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (as well as several other pieces of equipment), the megafauna within the UK Seabed Resources Ltd exploration contract area (UK-1) and at a site ~250 km east of the UK-1 area were surveyed, allowing us to make the first estimates of megafaunal morphospecies richness from the imagery collected. Here, we present an atlas of the abyssal annelid, arthropod, bryozoan, chordate, ctenophore and molluscan megafauna observed and collected during the ABYSSLINE cruises to the UK-1 polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area in the CCZ. There appear to be at least 55 distinct morphospecies (8 Annelida, 12 Arthropoda, 4 Bryozoa, 22 Chordata, 5 Ctenophora, and 4 Mollusca) identified mostly by morphology but also using molecular barcoding for a limited number of animals that were collected. This atlas will aid the synthesis of megafaunal presence/absence data collected by contractors, scientists and other stakeholders undertaking work in the CCZ, ultimately helping to decipher the biogeography of the megafauna in this threatened habitat.

  7. Tolerance to air exposure of the New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca as a prerequisite to survival in overland translocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Alonso

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Spreading throughout a new ecosystem is the last step of an exotic species to become invasive. In the case of invasive aquatic molluscs, tolerance to air exposure is one of the main mechanisms allowing overland translocation and spreading. The mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca is native to New Zealand but it has spread worldwide, invading ecosystems in Europe, Australia, America and Asia. The aim of our study is to assess mudsnail tolerance to air exposure, which may contribute to the successful overland translocation of this species. We conducted a laboratory experiment with four levels of air exposure (9, 18, 24 and 36 hours in a controlled climatic chamber. Snails were placed for 60 seconds in a laboratory paper filter to remove surface snail water. Then they were placed back in empty vessels during the four periods of air exposure, except the control group, which was immediately returned to water. At the end of each period of air exposure all vessels were filled with water and the cumulative mortality was monitored after 24, 96, 168 and 264 hours of rehydration. The calculated Lethal Times (i.e. the time of air exposure (in hours necessary to cause the death of 50% (LT50 or 99% (LT99 of the population and their 95% confidence limits at 24, 96, 168 and 264 hours were 28.1 (25.2–31.9, 26.9 (24.2–30.1, 25.9 (23.4–28.9 and 25.9 (23.4–28.9 hours, respectively for LT50, and 49.6 (42.7–63.3, 45.6 (39.9–56.5, 43.2 (38.0–53.0 and 43.2 (38.0–53.0 hours, respectively for LT99. Therefore an air exposure time over 43 hours caused the death of all studied individuals during all monitoring periods. Extending the monitoring period beyond 24 hours did not significantly change lethal times. Therefore, we recommend exposing fishing tools or boats at open air during at least 53 hours as a low cost measure to control mudsnail spread in early stages of invasion.

  8. Marine mollusca of oxygen isotope stages of the last 2 million years in New Zealand. Part 1, Revised generic positions and recognition of warm-water and cool-water migrants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beu, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Warm-water molluscs were transported to Wanganui Basin from the northeastern North Island during Pleistocene time as planktotrophic larvae. This is not possible at present, so their occurrence in Wanganui Basin correlates with breaches of the Auckland isthmus during high sea levels. The end of Nukumaruan time is clearly defined by the extinction of 29 genera of molluscs (most only locally) during this stage, including 15 at the end. The extinction likely was caused by the initial closure of the Auckland isthmus. Migrants to Wanganui from the northeastern North Island indicate that breaches of the isthmus during interglacials commenced in oxygen isotope stage (OIS) 25, just before the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT). Appearances of taxa from Australia at Wanganui during OIS 17-9 therefore indicate that warm-water taxa were transported to New Zealand during interglacial maxima after the MPT. The migrants provide the first molluscan biostratigraphy at the OIS scale. The Castlecliffian/Nukumaruan boundary, at the base of Ototoka tephra at Ototoka Beach, Wanganui, falls within OIS 57, with an age of c. 1.63 Ma. It is also dated at 1.63 Ma by the position with respect to the geomagnetic polarity time-scale of three chemically indistinguishable tephra in ODP core 1123. This paper presents the first results of a reassessment of the taxonomy and time ranges of the fossil marine molluscan fauna that occupied New Zealand during the last 2 m.y. (latest Pliocene-Holocene). Time ranges are compiled in oxygen isotope stages rather than in the traditional 'local' (or regional) stages in use in New Zealand. This should provide precision in time ranges of the order of 40,000-100,000 yr, rather than the 0.34-1.3 m.y. duration of New Zealand local stages of the latest Neogene (Nukumaruan, Castlecliffian, and Haweran Stages). The reassessment is aimed also, though, at providing evidence from Mollusca of climate change over this period. Much useful information on paleoclimates can be

  9. Pectinoidea (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.; Waren, A.; Gudmundsson, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Icelandic pectinoid fauna is reviewed, based on material from the benthic survey programme BIOICE and 17 species are recorded. Similipecten oskarssoni is proposed as a replacement name for Pecten groenlandicus var. minor Locard, 1898 (Propeamussiidae), which is considered a valid species.

  10. Fauna Europaea: Mollusca – Bivalvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Araujo

    2015-07-01

    European freshwater bivalves belong to the Orders Unionoida and Cardiida. All the European unionoids are included in the superfamily Unionoidea, the freshwater mussels or naiads. The European cardiids belong to the following three superfamilies: Cardioidea, Cyrenoidea and Dreissenoidea. Among the Unionoidea there are the most imperilled animal groups on the planet while the Cardioidea includes the cosmopolitan genus Pisidium, the Cyrenoidea the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea and the Dreissenoidea the famous invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha. Basic information is summarized on their taxonomy and biology. Tabulations include a complete list of the current estimated families, genera and species.

  11. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms

  12. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms was performed in all

  13. ’n Vergelyking van die Mollusca-diversiteit in die Mooirivier (Noordwes-Provinsie soos gevind met opnames wat gemaak is in 1963 en weer 50 jaar later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius T. Wolmarans

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Die hoogste getal gedokumenteerde uitsterwings van enige belangrike taksonomiese groepword aan die Mollusca toegedig. Faktore wat hoofsaaklik hiervoor verantwoordelik is, sluitonder meer omgewingsveranderinge en antropogeniese impakte in wat tot die tot niet gaanvan die habitat aanleiding gee. Daarbenewens is die bewaringstatus van minder as 2% van dieongeveer 7000 molluskspesies wêreldwyd bekend tot dusver nog nie behoorlik geassesseernie. Die doel van die huidige ondersoek wat in 2014 uitgevoer is, was om die molluskdiversiteitvan die Mooirivier met die resultate van 1963 te vergelyk. Dit is gedoen deur ’n opnameuit te voer van die molluskdiversiteit by dieselfde lokaliteite as in 1963. Twee opnames isgemaak tydens ’n vroeë- en laatlaagvloeiperiode in 2014 by agt lokaliteite wat met dié vandie 1963-opnames ooreenstem. Die pH, elektriese geleiding (EG en temperatuur is ook byelk van die lokaliteite gemeet. Die identiteit van die 14 slakspesies wat in 1963 gevind is, hetooreengestem met 14 van die 15 in 2014. Die uitheemse indringerspesie Physa acuta is tydensdie 2014-opname vir die eerste keer in hierdie rivier gevind, waarskynlik weens ’n toename inorganiese verryking. In die 1963-opname is Burnupia mooiensis en Pisidium langlyanum by diemeeste lokaliteite gevind, en in 2014 Gyraulus connollyi en Ferrissia cawstoni. Die meeste van diemolluske uit hierdie gebied wat voorheen op rekord gestel is, is in 2014 gevind. Die pH watin 2014 ’n geringe tot aansienlike verlaging getoon het, word aan mynversuring toegeskryfen het nie ’n merkbare invloed op die molluskdiversiteit gehad nie. Die hoër elektriesegeleiding wat tydens die 2014-opname gemeet is, het vanweë die verdraagsaamheid vanvarswatermolluske in hierdie verband, ook geen verandering in die molluskdiversiteit teweeggebring nie. Die temperatuur was in die laatlaagvloei deurgaans hoër. Ondanks die feit dathierdie studies vyf dekades uitmekaar gedoen is en antropogeniese impakte

  14. Intragenomic sequence variation at the ITS1 - ITS2 region and at the 18S and 28S nuclear ribosomal DNA genes of the New Zealand mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae: mollusca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Marshal S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular genetic analysis was conducted on two populations of the invasive non-native New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), one from a freshwater ecosystem in Devil's Lake (Oregon, USA) and the other from an ecosystem of higher salinity in the Columbia River estuary (Hammond Harbor, Oregon, USA). To elucidate potential genetic differences between the two populations, three segments of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), the ITS1-ITS2 regions and the 18S and 28S rDNA genes were cloned and sequenced. Variant sequences within each individual were found in all three rDNA segments. Folding models were utilized for secondary structure analysis and results indicated that there were many sequences which contained structure-altering polymorphisms, which suggests they could be nonfunctional pseudogenes. In addition, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) was used for hierarchical analysis of genetic variance to estimate variation within and among populations and within individuals. AMOVA revealed significant variation in the ITS region between the populations and among clones within individuals, while in the 5.8S rDNA significant variation was revealed among individuals within the two populations. High levels of intragenomic variation were found in the ITS regions, which are known to be highly variable in many organisms. More interestingly, intragenomic variation was also found in the 18S and 28S rDNA, which has rarely been observed in animals and is so far unreported in Mollusca. We postulate that in these P. antipodarum populations the effects of concerted evolution are diminished due to the fact that not all of the rDNA genes in their polyploid genome should be essential for sustaining cellular function. This could lead to a lessening of selection pressures, allowing mutations to accumulate in some copies, changing them into variant sequences.                   

  15. Comunidad de moluscos asociados al mejillón verde Perna viridis (Mollusca: Bivalvia y sus relaciones tróficas en la costa norte de la Península de Araya, Estado Sucre, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sioliz Villafranca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Perna viridis es un bivalvo procedente del Indo-Pacífico que habita en la zona intermareal y ha invadido varios ecosistemas de la costa norte del estado Sucre, Venezuela. Con la finalidad de realizar un estudio sobre las comunidades de moluscos asociadas a esta especie y sus relaciones tróficas, se llevaron a cabo muestreos bimensuales entre octubre/97 y agosto/98, en un banco natural de mejillones a dos metros de profundidad en la costa norte de la península de Araya (10°40’N -48°63’W. Los organismos fueron recolectados delimitando el área con una cuadrícula de 0.25 m². Se identificaron los organismos hasta la categoría de especies utilizando claves específicas para moluscos y bibliográficamente se les determinó categoría trófica.Se capturó un total de 1 235 individuos de P. viridis y asociados a la especie 3 163 especímenes pertenecientes al phylum Mollusca, contenidos en tres clases: Bivalvia,Gastropoda y Polyplacophora. Éstas estuvieron representadas por 50 especies correspondientes a 10 órdenes, 24 familias; para los gasterópodos se contabilizaron 25 especies, para los bivalvos 22 y tres para los poliplacóforos. Del total de las especies, 40% fueron filtradoras, 26% carnívoras, 24% herbívoras y el 10% restante presentó dos categorías.De las filtradoras las más representativas fueron: Perna perna, Musculus lateralis, Crassostrea rhizophorae y Ostrea equestris; en el grupo de los carnívoros dominaron tres especies de la familia Columbellidae:Mitrella lunata, Anachis obesa y Nitidella ocellata y para el grupo de los herbívoros destacaron dos especies de la familia Fisurellidae: Diodora cayenensis y D. minuta. Se registraron dos especies filtradoras-detritívoras, y tres especies herbívoras-filtradoras representantes del género C repidula. El alto porcentaje de filtradores sería un indicativo de que dentro de este sistema probablemente hay una mayor disponibilidad de fracciones alimenticias para este grupo

  16. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of São Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in São Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23º 37'S - 45° 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23º 57'S - 46º 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms was performed in all seasons of the year, beginning in spring 2008 and ending in winter 2009. The samples

  17. Perfil de lípidos y ácidos grasos de Perna viridis, mejillón verde (Mollusca: Bivalvia en el oriente venezolano y la costa oeste de Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Koftayan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los lípidos totales fueron extraídos, identificados y cuantificados por gravimetría, mediante TLC/FID (sistema Iatroscan. Los ácidos grasos de los lípidos totales, fosfolípidos y triacilgliceroles fueron identificados y cuantificados por cromatografía de gases. Las mayores concentraciones de lípidos totales se presentaron en las muestras de Los Cedros, La Brea y Chaguaramas con valores de 7.92, 7.74 y 7.53%; respectivamente y los valores mínimos en las de La Restinga (6.08%. En la composición lípidica, las muestras de Chacopata presentaron la menor concentración de fosfolípidos (48.86% y los máximos valores de colesterol (38.87% y triacilgliceroles (12.26%, y las muestras de La Esmeralda y Río Caribe exhibieron concentraciones máximas de fosfolípidos (88.71-84.93%, respectivamente y mínimas de colesterol (6.50-4.42%. En los lípidos totales, los ácidos grasos saturados se encontraron entre 15.04 y 65.55%, con máximos en muestras de La Esmeralda y mínimos en Chacopata y los poliinsaturados estuvieron entre 7.80 y 37.18%, con máximos valores en la Brea y mínimos en la Esmeralda. En los fosfolípidos, la concentración de ácidos grasos saturados estuvo entre 38.81 y 48.68% para las muestras de Chaguaramas y Chacopata, respectivamente; los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados se encontraron entre no detectado y 34.51%, con altas concentraciones en muestras de Los Cedros (27.97% y Chaguaramas (34.51%. En los triacilgliceroles, la composición de ácidos grasos saturados variaron entre 14.27 y 53.80%, con baja concentración en Chacopata y alta concentración en La Restinga; los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados estuvieron entre 4.66 y 35.55%, con valores menores en las muestras de Chacopata (4.66% y mayores en Chaguaramas. El consumo frecuente de Perna viridis es recomendable, debido a su alto contenido de fosfolípidos y ácidos grasos insaturados.Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, Green Mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia in

  18. Miocene freshwater Mollusca from western Brazilian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Ranzi, A.; Räsänen, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen species of fossil molluscs are reported from the Solimões Formation of western Brazilian Amazonia. Based on mammalian chronology of the Solimões Formation and radiometric ages reported from coeval deposits in adjacent Peru, the age of the fauna is established as Late Miocene. The fauna

  19. Lorentz Spengler's descriptions of chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaas, P.; Knudsen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper deals with an important Danish paper on the Polyplacophora, published in 1797 by Lorentz Spengler: Udförlig Beskrivelse over det mangeskallede Konkylie-Slaegt, af Linnaeus kaldet Chiton; med endeel nye Arter og Varieteter. -Skrivter af Naturhistorie-Selskabet, 4e Bind, Ie Hefte,

  20. Short Communication Myosotella myosotis (Mollusca: Ellobiidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Myosotella myosotis is shown to be a well-established alien species in South Africa. Discovered in Port Elizabeth more than 100 years ago, it was initially thought to be indigenous and was described under two different names, but subsequent taxonomic work has demonstrated that these are synonyms of the variable and ...

  1. Coprorhexy, coprophagy, and coprochaly in the copepods Calanus helgolandicus, Pseudocalanus elongatus, and Oithona similis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Morten; Poulsen, Louise K.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of fecal pellet flux show that a large percentage of pellets produced in the upper ocean is degraded within the surface waters. It is therefore important to investigate these degradation mechanisms to understand the role of fecal pellets in the oceanic carbon cycle. Degradation of pellets...

  2. Development of a sperm cryopreservation protocol for redside dace, Clinostomus elongatus: implications for genome resource banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butts, Ian A.E.; Mokdad, A.; Trippel, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    of extirpation.We developed cryopreservation protocols by testing the effects of diluent (buffered sperm motility-inhibiting saline solution [BSMIS]; BSMIS + glycine; sucrose; and Hanks’ balanced salt solution [HBSS]), cryoprotectant (dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO]; propylene glycol [PG]; N,N-dimethylacetamide [DMA...... rate was not significant for BSMIS + glycine or for HBSS, but an effect was detected for sucrose, with sperm frozen at 5◦C/min or 10◦C/min having higher motility than sperm frozen at 1◦C/min. The effect of extender was not significant at 1◦C/min or 5◦C/min, but an effect was detected at 10◦C...

  3. Cd2+ Effect on Photosynthetic Apparatus in Synechococcus elongatus and Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Marie; Matějová, E.; Sofrová, D.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 3 (2004), s. 425-430 ISSN 0300-3604 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/02/0301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : cyanobacteria * heavy metals * photochemical activity Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.734, year: 2004

  4. Blind dating - mate finding in planktonic copepods. II. The pheromone cloud of Pseudocalanus elongatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Bagøien, E.; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2005-01-01

    mm away from her. The multiple excursions define a near-spherical volume around the female within which he is capable of navigating back to her. During courtship the female hovers, but she frequently changes her body orientation and, thus, the direction of her feeding current, which also causes her...

  5. Effects of Irregular Bimetallic Nanostructures on the Optical Properties of Photosystem I from Thermosynechococcus elongatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Ashraf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The fluorescence of photosystem I (PSI trimers in proximity to bimetallic plasmonic nanostructures have been explored by single-molecule spectroscopy (SMS at cryogenic temperature (1.6 K. PSI serves as a model for biological multichromophore-coupled systems with high potential for biotechnological applications. Plasmonic nanostructures are fabricated by thermal annealing of thin metallic films. The fluorescence of PSI has been intensified due to the coupling with plasmonic nanostructures. Enhancement factors up to 22.9 and 5.1 are observed for individual PSI complexes coupled to Au/Au and Ag/Au samples, respectively. Additionally, a wavelength dependence of fluorescence enhancement is observed, which can be explained by the multichromophoric composition of PSI.

  6. Chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) from Alacranes Reef, Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Gómez, Adriana; Ortigosa, Deneb; Simões, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study represents the first comprehensive chiton study from Alacranes Reef, the largest reef system in the Gulf of Mexico. Nine chiton species were found in seven localities within the area, in the intertidal and subtidal to 12 m depth. SEM examination of C. janeirensis, A. hemphilli, T. schrammi and C. floridanus, showed variations in the sculpture and radular teeth morphology when compared to specimens of the same species from Florida Keys, Bahamas and Puerto Rico. The distribution ranges of T. schrammi, L. liozonis and S. floridana are extended into the south-western area of the Gulf of Mexico. Altogether, combining previous literature and the present survey, reports eleven chiton species which have now been recorded within the Alacranes reef area. PMID:28769624

  7. Planaxidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyun; Zhang, Junlong; Lian, Xiping; Tan, Yehui

    2018-03-01

    Planaxidae is a family of tropical and subtropical marine gastropods that are adapted to an intertidal, rocky environment. The present study deals with three species in the family Planaxidae from the South China Sea: Planaxis sulcatus (von Born, 1778), Angiola longispira (Smith, 1872), and Supplanaxis niger (Quoy and Gaimard, 1833), based on specimens deposited in the Marine Biodiversity Collections of the South China Sea, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The taxonomic status, main morphological characteristics of the shell and radula, distribution, and habitat of these three planaxid species are presented. We also briefly discuss their morphological differences and the biogeographic distribution.

  8. Vanadium, rubidium and potassium in Octopus vulgaris (Mollusca: Cephalopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Seixas

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The levels of vanadium, rubidium and potassium were determined in Octopus vulgaris caught during commercial fishing activities at three locations (Cascais, Santa Luzia and Viana do Castelo in Portugal in autumn and spring. We determined the concentration of these elements in digestive gland, branchial heart, gills, mantle and arms in males and females. At least five males and five females were assessed for each season/location combination. Elemental concentrations were determined by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE. Vanadium was detectable only in digestive gland and branchial heart samples. Its concentration was not correlated with total weight, total length or mantle length. There were no differences in concentrations of V, Rb and K between sexes. There were significant differences in vanadium concentrations in branchial hearts in autumn between samples from Viana do Castelo and those from the other two sites. We found a significant positive relationship between the concentration of vanadium and those of potassium and rubidium in branchial hearts. Branchial hearts appear to play an important role in decontamination of V.

  9. Clio pyramidata Linnaeus, 1767 forma convexa (Boas, 1886) (Mollusca, Pteropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoel, van der S.

    1973-01-01

    The pelagic fauna of the Red Sea shows special variation induced by its isolated character (Van der Spoel, 1971). Clio pyramidata from the Red Sea is usually incorrectly referred to as the tropical forma lanceolata (Lesueur, 1813) or the typical forma pyramidata Linnaeus, 1767. Some large samples

  10. Parasitism by a Digenea in Lucina pectinata (Mollusca: Lucinidae

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    M. M. Ribeiro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lucina pectinata is an important economic resource in the Brazilian coast. This study reports parasitism caused by a Digenea in this species. The specimens (n = 470 were collected in December 2012 in a mangrove swamp of the Cachoeira River estuary, Bahia, Brazil. They were measured along the anterior-posterior axis (length, and after macroscopic analysis for parasites and diseases cuts of 5 mm were fixated in Carnoy’s solution and processed by routine histology technique wherein sessions of 7 μm were stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin (H&E. The tissues were examined using an optical microscope. The mean length of L. pectinata was 4.0 ± 0.53 cm. Microscopic analysis showed sporocysts containing both germ balls as cercariae of an unidentified Digenea (Platyhelminthes, these in various stages of development. The prevalence was 1.48% (7/470. In a parasitized specimen was macroscopic evidence of tissue densification of gills. The sporocysts were observed in mantle, gills, digestive gland and gonads, with evident alteration/destruction of tissues, including parasitic castration. There were no other parasites found, which is probably related to inaccessibility and chemical conditions in which lives L. pectinata, i.e., between 10 and 20 cm in mangrove sediment.

  11. Octopus tetricus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda as an ecosystem engineer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Scheel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sydney octopus (Octopus tetricus occurs in unusual numbers on a shell bed of its prey remains that have accumulated as an extended midden where additional octopuses excavate dens. Here, O tetricus are ecosystem engineers, organisms that modulate availability of resources to other species and to their own species by causing physical state changes in materials. A community of invertebrate grazers and scavengers has developed on the shell bed. Fishes are attracted to the shell bed in numbers significantly greater than in nearby habitats. Large predators, including wobbegong sharks, were attracted to and fed on concentrations of fish, inhibiting the activities of the original engineers, the octopuses. Positive feedbacks included the accumulation of shell debris, increasing shelter availability for additional octopuses and aggregating fish. Negative feedbacks included reductions of nearby prey size and availability, aggression among octopuses, and predator limitation to octopus activity that would otherwise maintain the shell bed.

  12. On Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca; Pilidae: Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana C. Thiengo

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the morphology of Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck, 1822 collected at Corrientes, Argentina. Comparison is made with Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. The shell is globose, heavy, with greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spiral bands; apex subelevated, 5-6 whorls increasing rather rapidly and separated by very deep suture. Aperture large, rounded to subelongated; lip sometimes reddish; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.78-0.96 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.68-0.77 (mean 0.72. Radula similar to other congeneric species. Testis and spermiduct as in P. lineata and P. sordida; prostate cylindric and short, cream in color as the testis. Penial sheath straight bearing a central outer gland deeply embedded in the tissue of its basal portion and a large wrinkled gland occupying 2/3 of the distal tip of its inner surface; the rigth margin of the sheath overlaps the left one until 2/3 of its proximal end. Female reproductive apparatus similar to that P. lineata; vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.

  13. Gundlachia dutrae: n. sp. from northwest Brazil (Mollusca: Basommatophora: Ancylidae

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    Sonia Barbosa dos Santos

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Gundlachia, Gundlachia dutrae is described from northwest Brazil. It is distinguishable from other congenerie species by characteristics of the shell, radula and internal organs. Shell relatively high. Aperture near-circular; periostracum dark brown without periostracal hairs. Apex slightly inclined to the right, projected but not hooked, with an apical depression surrounted by a sculpture of well-marked irregular punctations. Shell surface with prominent radial sculpture. No septate specimens were observed. Ratios (n= 59: shell width/shell lenght = 0,66- 0,79 (mean 0,73; shell height/shell length = 0,32- 0,45 ( mean 0,37; shell height/shell width = 0,43- 0,63 (mean 0,51. Body of normal ancylid type; mantle pigmentation dark brown or black, concentrated along the mantle collar. The dorsal surface of the right anterior muscle is elongated and medially constricted. The left anterior and the posterior muscles are almost elliptical. Adhesive area is V-shaped. Pseudobranch unpigmented bearing a very small and thin dorsal lobe. Ovotestis with more than 25 unbranched diverticula. Ovispermiduct with seminal vesicle rather developed. Elongated nidamental gland continous with the glandular wall of the uterus. Nidamental gland appendix ending into a bulbous swelling Spermathecal body almost rounded. Well-developed prostate with five long diverticula. Ejaculatory complex with long glandular flagellum, without a penis or true ultra-penis. "Penis sheath" developed. "Ultra-penis" projected as a tube inside the lumem of prepuce, with a slit between "ultra-penis" and "penis sheath". Rachidian tooth tetracuspid, with two median cusps assymmetrical and aculeated. Lateral teeth tricuspid, with a reduced endocon and a prominent mesocon. A well marked gap occurs between meso and ectocon. Marginal teeth similar to lateral ones. Jaw T-shaped, with about 28 dorsal plates.

  14. Variation in foraging activity of Acanthochitona garnoti (Mollusca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foraging activity of Acanthochitona gamoti was studied during spring and neap tides in three different habitats: an aeolian sandstone ... mm) during a spring tide new moon and least on a spring tide full moon (x = 4.0 h; x = 182 rnm). Chitons on the boulder ..... BECKLEY, L.E. 1994. Two Oceans: A guide to Marine Life of.

  15. Imposex in endemic volutid from Northeast Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Braga de Castro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Imposex is characterized by the development of masculine sexual organs in neogastropod females. Almost 120 mollusk species are known to present imposex when exposed to organic tin compounds as tributyltin (TBT and triphenyltin (TPT. These compounds are used as biocide agents in antifouling paints to prevent the incrustations on boats. Five gastropod species are known to present imposex in Brazil: Stramonita haemastoma, Stramonita rustica, Leucozonia nassa, Cymathium parthenopeum and Olivancillaria vesica. This paper reports the first record of imposex observed in the endemic gastropod Voluta ebraea from Pacheco Beach, Northeast Brazil. Animals presenting imposex had regular female reproductive organs (capsule gland, oviduct and sperm-ingesting gland and an abnormal penis. As imposex occurs in mollusks exposed to organotin compounds typically found at harbors, marinas, shipyards and areas with high shipping activities, probably contamination of Pacheco Beach is a consequence of a shipyard activity located in the nearest areas.O imposex caracteriza-se pelo surgimento de estruturas sexuais masculinas, em fêmeas de gastrópodes. Cerca de 120 espécies de moluscos que exibem o fenômeno quando expostas a contaminação por compostos orgânicos de estanho tais como o Tributilestanho (TBT e o Trifenilestanho (TPT. Esses compostos são utilizados, sobretudo em embarcações, no intuito de evitar a bioincrustração que danifica as embarcações e eleva os custos das viagens marítimas. No Brasil se conhecem 5 espécies de moluscos gastrópodes que manifestam imposex, são elas: Stramonita haemastoma, Stramonita rustica, Leucozonia nassa, Cymathium parthenopeum e Olivancillaria vesica. No Nordeste, monitoramentos da contaminação por organoestânicos foram realizados utilizando o imposex em gastrópodes como biomarcador. O presente estudo tem por objetivo notificar a primeira ocorrência de imposex na espécie endêmica do Nordeste brasileiro, Voluta ebraea. De um total de 11 animais observados, duas fêmeas apresentaram imposex, provenientes da Praia do Pacheco no litoral do Ceará. Observou-se nesses indivíduos a presença de glândula de cápsulas, ovidutos e receptáculo seminal concomitantemente ao pênis o que caracteriza o imposex. Como o imposex só se manifesta em moluscos expostos a compostos organoestânicos tipicamente encontrados em portos, marinas, estaleiros e locais com grande fluxo de embarcações atribui-se a origem dessa contaminação provavelmente a um estaleiro localizado nas proximidades da área de coleta.

  16. The non-marine Mollusca of St. Martin (Lesser Antilles)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomans, H.E.

    1967-01-01

    After our studies about the marine mollusks of St. Martin, (COOMANS 1963a, 1963b), this publication will deal with the land and freshwater shells of the island. The non-marine mollusks of St. Martin were already fairly well known at the end of the last century (MAZÉ 1890, p. 22—34), who mentioned 36

  17. Chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora from Alacranes Reef, Yucatan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Reyes-Gómez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study represents the first comprehensive chiton study from Alacranes Reef, the largest reef system in the Gulf of Mexico. Nine chiton species were found in seven localities within the area, in the intertidal and subtidal to 12 m depth. SEM examination of C. janeirensis, A. hemphilli, T. schrammi and C. floridanus, showed variations in the sculpture and radular teeth morphology when compared to specimens of the same species from Florida Keys, Bahamas and Puerto Rico. The distribution ranges of T. schrammi, L. liozonis and S. floridana are extended into the south-western area of the Gulf of Mexico. Altogether, combining previous literature and the present survey, reports eleven chiton species which have now been recorded within the Alacranes reef area.

  18. The Genus Theba (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Helicidae), Systematics and Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.; Ripken, Th. E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Our knowledge concerning taxonomy and zoogeography of the fossil and recent species of the helicid genus Theba is summarized and enlarged. The fossil T. arinagae spec. nov. is described from Gran Canaria. The recent T. andalusica spec. nov. and T. sacchii spec. nov. are described from the

  19. Nematodes from Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe the nematode cysts and larvae found in Achatina fulica, the giant African snail, in the northeast of Argentina. A total of 373 snails were collected from the cities of Puerto Iguazú and Corrientes. Cysts (N= 2958 containing nematodes identified as L3 Strongyluris sp. were found in the mantle cavity of 87 snails from Puerto Iguazú City (Prevalence 23 %; Mean Intensity= 34; Mean Abundance= 8. The shell size correlated with prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance (p < 0.05 indicating that there is an exposure-infection constant rather than an accidental one. In other hand, the absence of infection in the smallest shell size suggests a threshold of size to be infected. Taking into account that there exist records of A. fulica infected by nematodes of medical and veterinary importance such as Angiostrongylus and Aelurostrongylus in some Brazilian states near Puerto Iguazú, we emphasize the need for snail surveillance.

  20. A new species of Indo-Pacific Modulidae (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozouet, Pierre; Krygelmans, Anouchka

    2016-04-12

    Modulidae is a littoral cerithioid family exclusively encountered in tropical and subtropical regions. It contains 12 to 15 living species (some species are not clearly delimited). Only one species is known to occur in the vast Indo-Pacific region (Bouchet 2015) and two species in the eastern Atlantic. By comparison, the tropical American regions are relatively rich with at least eleven living species (two or three species in the eastern Pacific and nine or more in the western Atlantic), and an equivalent number or more of fossil species (Landau et al. 2014).

  1. Diversity of Indo-West Pacific Siphonaria (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Euthyneura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayrat, Benoît; Goulding, Tricia C; White, Tracy R

    2014-03-14

    Species of the limpet genus Siphonaria (Gastropoda: Euthyneura) are commonly found in the rocky intertidal, worldwide, except in the Arctic. In total, 205 species-group names are available and not permanently invalid. However, estimating the actual species diversity of Siphonaria has remained challenging, mainly because past authors have interpreted differently the variation of shell characters, resulting in different taxonomic accounts. Species diversity of Siphonaria is evaluated for the first time here based on DNA sequence data (three mitochondrial gene fragments: COI, 12S, and 16S) and a large sampling focusing on the tropical and subtropical Indo-West Pacific (from eastern Africa to Hawaii): new sequences are provided for 153 individuals, 123 of which were collected from 93 locations throughout the Indo-West Pacific. In total, 41 species (molecular units) are recognized worldwide (31 from the Indo-West Pacific), all of which are strongly supported. Potential names are discussed for those 41 species, based on traditional taxonomy. The shells of 66 of the individuals from which DNA was extracted are illustrated: intra- and inter-specific variation is documented in detail and discussed in the light of new molecular results. It is shown that many species could hardly be identified based on the shell only, because the variation of shell characters is too high and overlaps between species. Geographically, no species is found across the entire Indo-West Pacific, where quite a few species seem to be endemic to restricted areas. The biogeography of Siphonaria in the Indo-West Pacific is compared to other groups.

  2. Intramantle Inking: A Stress Behavior in Octopus bimaculoides (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Ronald B

    2011-01-01

    Several Pacific 2-spot octopuses (Octopus bimaculoides) shipped from California and held in a recirculating seawater system at Illinois College exhibited an unusual postshipping stress behavior not previously documented in the literature. Ink, normally ejected into the surrounding seawater, was uncharacteristically retained in the mantle cavity. We describe the resulting behaviors, discuss successful resuscitation efforts, and briefly consider the possible role(s) that ink may have played in the death of one octopus. PMID:22330791

  3. Photophysiological and photosynthetic complex changes during iron starvation in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared M Fraser

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential component in many protein complexes involved in photosynthesis, but environmental iron availability is often low as oxidized forms of iron are insoluble in water. To adjust to low environmental iron levels, cyanobacteria undergo numerous changes to balance their iron budget and mitigate the physiological effects of iron depletion. We investigated changes in key protein abundances and photophysiological parameters in the model cyanobacteria Synechococcus PCC 7942 and Synechocystis PCC 6803 over a 120 hour time course of iron deprivation. The iron stress induced protein (IsiA accumulated to high levels within 48 h of the onset of iron deprivation, reaching a molar ratio of ~42 IsiA : Photosystem I in Synechococcus PCC 7942 and ~12 IsiA : Photosystem I in Synechocystis PCC 6803. Concomitantly the iron-rich complexes Cytochrome b6f and Photosystem I declined in abundance, leading to a decrease in the Photosystem I : Photosystem II ratio. Chlorophyll fluorescence analyses showed a drop in electron transport per Photosystem II in Synechococcus, but not in Synechocystis after iron depletion. We found no evidence that the accumulated IsiA contributes to light capture by Photosystem II complexes.

  4. Nitrogen Starvation Acclimation in Synechococcus elongatus: Redox-Control and the Role of Nitrate Reduction as an Electron Sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Klotz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen starvation acclimation in non-diazotrophic cyanobacteria is characterized by a process termed chlorosis, where the light harvesting pigments are degraded and the cells gradually tune down photosynthetic and metabolic activities. The chlorosis response is governed by a complex and poorly understood regulatory network, which converges at the expression of the nblA gene, the triggering factor for phycobiliprotein degradation. This study established a method that allows uncoupling metabolic and redox-signals involved in nitrogen-starvation acclimation. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase (GS by a precise dosage of l-methionine-sulfoximine (MSX mimics the metabolic situation of nitrogen starvation. Addition of nitrate to such MSX-inhibited cells eliminates the associated redox-stress by enabling electron flow towards nitrate/nitrite reduction and thereby, prevents the induction of nblA expression and the associated chlorosis response. This study demonstrates that nitrogen starvation is perceived not only through metabolic signals, but requires a redox signal indicating over-reduction of PSI-reduced electron acceptors. It further establishes a cryptic role of nitrate/nitrite reductases as electron sinks to balance conditions of over-reduction.

  5. Nitrogen Starvation Acclimation in Synechococcus elongatus: Redox-Control and the Role of Nitrate Reduction as an Electron Sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Alexander; Reinhold, Edgar; Doello, Sofía; Forchhammer, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen starvation acclimation in non-diazotrophic cyanobacteria is characterized by a process termed chlorosis, where the light harvesting pigments are degraded and the cells gradually tune down photosynthetic and metabolic activities. The chlorosis response is governed by a complex and poorly understood regulatory network, which converges at the expression of the nblA gene, the triggering factor for phycobiliprotein degradation. This study established a method that allows uncoupling metabolic and redox-signals involved in nitrogen-starvation acclimation. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase (GS) by a precise dosage of l-methionine-sulfoximine (MSX) mimics the metabolic situation of nitrogen starvation. Addition of nitrate to such MSX-inhibited cells eliminates the associated redox-stress by enabling electron flow towards nitrate/nitrite reduction and thereby, prevents the induction of nblA expression and the associated chlorosis response. This study demonstrates that nitrogen starvation is perceived not only through metabolic signals, but requires a redox signal indicating over-reduction of PSI-reduced electron acceptors. It further establishes a cryptic role of nitrate/nitrite reductases as electron sinks to balance conditions of over-reduction. PMID:25780959

  6. Integrity and activity of photosystem 2 complexes isolated from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus using various detergents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šetlíková, Eva; Sofrová, D.; Prášil, Ondřej; Budáč, Petr; Koblížek, Michal; Šetlík, Ivan

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 2 (1999), s. 183-200 ISSN 0300-3604. [Regional Photosynthesis Workshop /2./. Lipno, 31.01.1999-03.02.1999] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/96/1266; GA ČR GA206/98/P110; GA MŠk VS96085; GA MŠk ME 138 Grant - others:NATO(EC) LG970388 Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.734, year: 1999

  7. Observations on the morphology of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 (Mollusca, Ampullariidae Observações sobre a morfologia de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 (Mollusca, Ampullaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Carvalho Thiengo

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the morpholgy of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 collected at its type locality. The shell is globose, moderately heavy, horn-colored with brown spiral bands; apex subelevated; 4 - 5 rounded whorls increasing in diameter rather rapidly, separated by deep suture. Aperture large and ovoid; outer lip sharp; umbilicus narrow and deep; operculum concentric, corneous. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.74 - 0.83 (mean 0.78; spire length/shell length = 0.10 - 0.18 (mean 0.13; aperture length/shell length = 0.70 - 0.77 (mean 0.73. The animal is longisiphonate. Renal organ brownish with marked invagination at its right edge. Ureter elongated with its long axis transverse to the main axis of the kidney. The radula is taenioglossate (2.1.1.1.2 and has on average 35 transverse rows of teeth. The form and arrangement of the radula teeth are nearly the same as in other Ampullariidae. The testis is cream-colored and lies in the first three whorls of the spire. Spermiduct uniformly narrow, running to the base of the spire. Seminal vesicle whitish, slightly pressed dorsoventrally. Prostate cylindric and thick, similar in color to the testis. Penis whiplike, with a closed circular spermiduct. Penis pouch ovoid completely envelping the penis. Penis sheath elongated, broad prosimally, tapering distally. Its inner surface shows a longitudinal channel along its proximal half and two glands, one on the middle and the other apical. Ovary composed of branched whitish tubules situated on the surface of the digestive gland. Oviduct slender running along the columellar axis toward the base of the spire. Seminal receptalble tubiform, thick-walled and rounded proximally. Albumen gland large, pink, enclosing the receptacle and the spiral capsule gland. Vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.Neste trabalho e estudada a morfologia de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 baseada em material coletado na localidade-tipo. Concha com espessura moderada, globosa, castanha, com faixas espirais castanhas-escuras; ápice pouco elevado, 4-5 giros arredondados crescendo rapidamente em diâmetro, separados por suturas profundas. Abertura grande oval; lábio externo simples; umbigo pequeno e profundo; opérculo concêntrico, córneo. Razão: largura da concha/comprimento da concha = 0.74 - 0.83 (média 0.78; comprimento da espira/comprimento da concha = 0.10 - 0.18 (média 0.13; comprimento da abertura/comprimento da concha = 0.70 - 0.77 (média 0.73. Animal com sifão bem desenvolvido. A rádula é tenioglossa (2.1.1.1.2 e tem em média 35 fileiras transversais de dentes. A forma e a disposição dos dentes radulares são semelhantes ao padrão dos ampularídeos. Rim de cor castanha apresentando uma invaginação acentuada na parede direita. Ureter alongado e transversal ao eixo principal do rim. Testículo constituído por uma massa cor creme, ocupando as três primeiras voltas da espira. Espermiduto estreito e uniforme, correndo para a base da espira. Vesícula seminal esbranquiçada levemente achatada dorso-ventralmente. Próstata cilíndrica e compacta com coloração semelhante à do testículo. Pênis em forma de chicote com canal espermático fechado e de contorno circular. Bolsa do pênis ovalada, envolvendo-o completamente. Bainha do pênis alongada tendo sua largura diminuída gradualmente da base para a extremidade; sua superfície interna apresenta um canal mediano em sua metade proximal e duas glândulas, uma mediana e outra apical. Ovário constituído por túbulos ramificados branco-amarelados situados superficilamente sobre a glândula digestiva. Oviduto estreito correndo pelo eixo columelar até a base da espira. Receptáculo seminal tubular com parede espessa e extremidade proximal alargada. Glândula de albume volumosa e rosada envolvendo o receptáculo seminal e a glândula da casca em espiral. Vestígio do aparelho copulador masculino (pênis e sua bainha presente em todas as fêmeas examinadas.

  8. Distribucion arborea de los gastropodos cerithidea montagnei (mollusca potamidae y littorina Spp. (Mollusca, Littorinidae en el manglar de Mata de Limón, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édgar Suarez B

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available En el manglar de Mata de Limón, Puntarenas, Costa Rica, se estudió la distribución y preferencia por el susbtrato arbóreo de gastrópodos C. montagnei y Littorina spp. en cuatro especies de mangle, según la cantidad de moluscos observados en cada árbol y la cantidad de árboles con presencia o ausencia de ellos, en el período de setiembre de 1982 a junio de 1983. El orden de preferencia mostrado por ambos grupos de moluscos fue: 1 Rhizophora mangle, 2 Avicennia germinans, 3Pelliciera rhizophorae y 4 Laguncularia racemosa. Se discuten las posibles razones de esta preferencia. Cerithidea montagnei presentó una mayor distribución horizontal, así como una mayor abundancia respecto de Littorina spp.

  9. Ocorrência do bivalve exótico Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad (Mollusca, Bivalvia, no Brasil Occurrence of exotic bivalve Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad (Mollusca, Bivalvia, in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. B. de Souza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O molusco Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad, 1831, natural da América do Norte, foi localizado no litoral de Pernambuco, Brasil, em 2004, trazido provavelmente por água de lastro de navios. Na região, sua distribuição atualmente abrange zonas estuarinas adjacentes ao Porto do Recife. Os organismos foram encontrados restritos à região entre-marés, formando agregados densos com até 176.800 ind./m².The mussel Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad, 1831 is native to North America. It was found at Pernambuco Coast, northeastern Brazil, in 2004, probably brought by ships' ballast water. The distribution of this species has been now spread to estuarial area near Recife Harbour. They showed a clumped distribution with a maximum of 176,800 ind./m² only in the intertidal zone.

  10. Comportamento agregativo em Subulina octona (Brugüière (Mollusca, Subulinidae Aggregative behavior in Subulina octona (Brugüière (Mollusca, Subulinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthefane D'ávila

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a existência de comportamento agregativo na espécie Subulina octona (Brugüière, 1789 e obter evidências da mediação química desse comportamento. Foram utilizados 150 animais adultos, distribuídos em 15 caixas com terra vegetal (10 animais por caixa. Em cada caixa foram colocados quatro discos plásticos identificados, em posição eqüidistante, os quais serviram como abrigos para os animais. No experimento I, foram colocados 10 animais no centro de cada caixa. Após 24, 48, 96, 120, 144 e 168 horas foram observados o número de agregados formados, a posição dos agregados (sob qual abrigo, o número de indivíduos por agregado e o número de indivíduos isolados. No experimento II, todos os indivíduos foram transferidos para outras caixas contendo terra vegetal, três novos discos e o disco que continha o maior agregado após as 168 horas do experimento I (denominado disco condicionado. Foi verificado, após 24 e 48 horas, o número de indivíduos sob o disco condicionado. Em todas as caixas utilizadas e em todos os intervalos de tempo observados no experimento I, houve a formação de agregados. Houve um aumento significativo do número de indivíduos por agregado e uma diminuição do número de indivíduos isolados com o passar do tempo (ANOVA, p The current study aimed to verify the existence of aggregative behavior in Subulina octona (Brugüière, 1789 and to obtain behavioral evidence of chemical mediation of this behavior. We used 150 adult animals allocated in 15 boxes with humus (10 animals per box. In each box we placed four identified plastic disks in an equidistant position. These disks worked as shelters for the animals. In experiment I, 10 animals were put in the middle of each box. After 24, 48, 96, 120, 144, and 168 hours we observed the number of formed aggregations, as well as the position of the aggregates (in each shelter, the number of individual per aggregation and the number of isolated individuals. In order to test the hypothesis of conditioning of disks by chemicals compounds, the experiment II was carried out. All the individuals were transferred to other boxes with humus, three new disks and the disk containing the larger aggregate after the 168 hours of the experiment I (denominated conditioned disk. We verified, after 24 and 48 hours, the number of individuals below the conditioned disk. In experiment I, aggregations were observed in every used box and in every time intervals. In all boxes, there was a significant increase in the number of individuals per aggregation and a reduction in the number of isolated individuals until the end of the experiment (ANOVA, p < 0.005. In experiment II, after 24 hours, six from 15 boxes presented aggregations under the conditioned disk, and after 48 hours, seven boxes presented aggregations under conditioned disk. These were the aggregations with a larger quantity of individuals, which suggests the conditioning of the used disks by some factor, possibly a chemical compound.

  11. Especies nuevas del género Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae de Cuba y Venezuela New species of the genus Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae from Cuba and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Espinosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 3 especies nuevas de moluscos marinos: Gibberula palmasola sp. n., recolectada en la vegetación asociada a rocas rodeadas de sedimentos blandos en una laguna costera cercada por mangle en la península de Guanahacabibes, Cuba, y caracterizada por presentar, el animal vivo, la cabeza negra y una distribución típica de bandas negras y pardas con lunares anaranjados en el manto bajo la concha; Gibberula dosmosquises sp. n., recolectada en fondos rocosos del Caribe insular de Venezuela, se caracteriza por una discreta coloración del manto y un patrón de manchas en el pie, y Gibberula thetisae sp. n, proveniente de los pastos marinos del golfo de Batabanó, Cuba, con 3 pliegues en la columela, el último muy débil, y un labio externo casi cortante, caracteres que permiten separarla de todas las demás especies conocidas en el área antillana, aunque se desconozca la anatomía del animal. Se discute la lista de especies válidas del género para Cuba y Venezuela, y se hacen adiciones y consideraciones al complejo de especies en torno a Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000.Three new species of marine molluscs are described. Gibberula palmasola new species, collected in vegetation associated with rocks surrounded by soft sediments in a coastal lagoon surrounded by mangroves in Guanahacabibes Peninsula, Cuba, and characterized by a black head and typical distribution of black and brown bands and orange spots in the mantle. Gibberula dosmosquises new species, collected in rocky bottoms of a Caribbean island from Venezuela, characterized by a simple staining in the mantle and a pattern of spots on the foot, and Gibberula thetisae new species, from sea grass in the gulf of Batabano, Cuba, with shell having 3 columellar folds, the last very weak, and a sharp outer lip; although, its anatomy is not known, these conchological characters separate it from all other known species in the Antilles. Aditionally, the list of valid species for Cuba and Venezuela is discussed and some considerations about Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000 species complex are given.

  12. ORF Sequence: NC_006576 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ferase [Synechococcus elongatus PCC 6301] MSDYSDRSDFSERQDRSSDDRPNFRRFDRDRPSEGRRLEGRSEGGYRGRDDRGGSGGYRQNRDDRGGFRGRDDRG...GYRGGDRDRPSEGRRFEGRSEGGYRGRDDRGGSGGYRQNRDDRGGFRGRDDRGGYRGGDRDRPSEGRRFEGRSEGGFRGRDDRGGSGGYRGRDDRGGFRGRDDRGGFRGRDDRG...SSGSYRGRDDRGGFRGRDDRRDDRDNFRPSRDRELNREVNTSPAGDQEATDHELIYGRHAVLAALQ

  13. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 71044 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available erase Synechococcus elongatus PCC 6301 MSDYSDRSDFSERQDRSSDDRPNFRRFDRDRPSEGRRLEGRSEGGYRGRDDRGGSGGYRQNRDDRGGFRGRDDRG...GYRGGDRDRPSEGRRFEGRSEGGYRGRDDRGGSGGYRQNRDDRGGFRGRDDRGGYRGGDRDRPSEGRRFEGRSEGGFRGRDDRGGSGGYRGRDDRGGFRGRDDRGGFRGRDDRGSSGSYRGRDDRG

  14. Systematic reviews on the Mesodesmatidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) I. The Genus Monterosatus Beu, 1971

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij-Schuiling, de L.A.

    1977-01-01

    In trying to identify a small Mesodesma from West Irian, New Guinea, much material in the collections of several museums was studied. As a guide for the identification I at first used the revision of the Mesodesmatidae by Lamy (1914), which is based exclusively on the collections of the Parisian

  15. A biomechanical model of rock drilling in the piddock Barnea candida (Bivalvia; Mollusca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederlof, R.; Muller, M.

    2012-01-01

    The bivalve Barnea candida (Pholadacea) makes its burrow in clay, soft rock and peat. Barnea has developed a number of adaptations to accommodate this lifestyle. Four muscles enable burrowing. These are situated around a dorsal pivot in such a way that the piddock is able to rotate the shells around

  16. The influence of thymol+DMSO on survival, growth and reproduction of Bradybaena similaris (Mollusca: Bradybaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ferreira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821, commonly known as the Asian trampsnail, is a terrestrial snail native to Asia, introduced in other regions of the world. In Brazil, populations of this land snail are distributed from the state of Amapá in the North to Rio Grande do Sul in the South. This species acts as an intermediate host for parasites and is a difficult-to-control agricultural pest as well, causing great losses to crops and ornamental plant cultivation. This land snail is easily reared in the laboratory and has been successfully used as a biological model in studies that aim at verifying molluscicidal effects of plant extracts. Several studies have demonstrated that B. similaris, like many other species of land and freshwater snails, is physiologically adapted to survival over transitory unfavorable environmental conditions. Moreover, this species seems to have a life history strategy characterized by a short life span and a maximal opportunistic reproductive effort during transient favorable periods. Such biological features may potentially lead to the inefficacy of control attempts and, simultaneously, make this species able to repopulate sites previously treated with biocides. For this reason, studies that aim at verifying the effect of molluscicides on the reproduction, growth and survival of molluscs are greatly required. Molluscicides of plant origin may represent a safe and effective way of controlling these animals. Thymol is a substance of plant origin which has bactericidal, fungicidal and anti-inflammatory properties and has been presented as a promissory biocide of mollusc species. The aim of this work was to assess the molluscicidal property of thymol in combination with DMSO against eggs and adults of B. similaris. During 120 days, we evaluated the effect of thymol+DMSO at different concentrations (2.5 g/L and 5 g/L on the hatching success, hatchling survival, growth and reproduction of B. similaris under laboratory conditions. We tested thymol+DMSO on 160 eggs, 160 10-day-old and 160 30-day-old juveniles. The results showed that thymol+DMSO (5 g/L and 2.5 g/L affected hatching success, acting as an ovicide. The tests with 10-day-old juveniles showed that thymol+DMSO at 2.5 g/L and 5 g/L caused 90 and 100% of mortality, respectively. For the 30-day-old juveniles, thymol+DMSO caused 87.5% of mortality at 5 g/L, and 75% at 2.5 g/L. With regard to growth, the results were not significant. The 10-day-old individuals treated with thymol+DMSO showed only one reproductive event during the 120 days of the experiment. Thymol+DMSO showed molluscicidal and residual activity, which makes evident its potential for controlling snails, and consequently, snail-borne diseases.

  17. Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849: a study of topotypic specimens (Mollusca: pulmonata: planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A description of Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849, based on specimens collected at its type locality - isla del carmen, state of Campeche, Mexico - is presented. The Shell is small, 13 mm in diameter, 3.5 mm in width and with 5.75 whorls in the largest specimen, thin, moderately lustrous and translucent, horn-colored. Whorls increasing regularly (neither slowly nor rapidly in diameter, rounded on the periphery side, bluntly angular on the left. Suture well-marked, deeper on the left. Right side widely concave, with first whorl deeply situated and partly hidden by the next. Left side shallower than right one, largely flattened, with first whorl plaintly visible. Aperture roundly heart-shaped, usually in the same plane as the body whorl but somewhat deflected to the left (less frequently to the right in some specimens. Peristome sharp, seldom blunt; a distinct callus on the parietal wall. A number of young shells develop one set (seldom more of apertural lamellae which tend to be resorbed as the shell grows. Absence of renal ridge. Ovotestis with about 70 mostly unbrached diverticula. Seminal vesicle beset with well-developed knoblike to fingerlike diverticula. Vaginal pouch more or less developed. Spermatheca club-shaped when empty, egg-shaped when full, and with intermediate forms between those extremes. Spermathecal body usually somewhat longer than the duct. Prostate with 7 to 20 (mean 12.06 ± 2.51 usually short diverticula which give off plumpish branches spreading out in a fan shape and overlapping to some extent their immediate neighbors. Foremost prostatic diverticulum nearly always partially or completely inserted between the spermathecal body and the uterine wall. Penial sheath consistently narrower and shorter than the prepuce. Muscular coat of the penis consisting of an inner longitudinal and an outer circular layers. Ratios between organ lengths: caudal to cephalic parts of female duct = 0.55 to 1.37 (mean 0.85 +- 0.17; cephalic parte of female duct to penial complex = 1.36 to 2.81 ((mean 1.90 +- 0.33; penial sheath to prepuce = 042 to 0.96 (mean 0.67 +- 0.13. Comparison with Morelet’s type specimens of Planorbis orbiculus and P. retusus points to the identity of those nominal species with B. obstructa.

  18. New records and new species of cones from deeper water off Fiji (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Conidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Röckel, D.; Bouchet, P.

    2008-01-01

    A little less than 100 species of cones are known in the literature from waters around the Fiji islands, all intertidal to subtidal. We report here on the species taken by recent offshore and deep-water benthic sampling expeditions. Samples were taken to depths of 1300 m, although cones were taken

  19. Pseudoglessula Libera, a new Subulinid land snail from Guinea, West Africa (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solem, A.; Bruggen, van A.C.

    1976-01-01

    Study of some land snails collected in Guinea, West Africa, by Ms. Diane deVry has led to the description of a new species, Pseudoglessula libera. It is currently known only from several localities near Conakry, but probably has a wide distribution. Detailed comparisons with previously described

  20. Histofisiología del epitelio renal de helix aspersa (mollusca, gastropoda, pulmonata, stylommatophora)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Aguayo, Inmaculada

    1983-01-01

    La excreción es, por definición, la separación de los productos de desecho de los fluidos tisulares y corporales, y su eliminación del organismo. Además, se considera como el resultado de la filtración del líquido de la sangre, de la reabsorción de ciertos compuestos y de la secreción de sustancias en el interior de túbulos excretores. Los productos de desecho son el resultado del metabolismo celular. Aunque en general son productos finales de procesos catabólicos, también pueden incluir ...

  1. Is Galba schirazensis (Mollusca, Gastropoda) an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Digenea) in Ecuador?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Yannick; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Hurtrez-Boussès, Sylvie; Lounnas, Mannon; Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Saegerman, Claude; Losson, Bertrand; Benítez-Ortíz, Washington

    2017-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a widely distributed disease in livestock in South America but knowledge about the epidemiology and the intermediate hosts is relatively scarce in Ecuador. For three months, lymnaeid snails were sampled (n = 1482) in Pichincha Province at two sites located in a highly endemic area. Snails were identified (based on morphology and ITS-2 sequences) and the infection status was established through microscopic dissection and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technique. Techniques based on morphology were not useful to accurately name the collected snail species. Comparison with available DNA sequences showed that a single snail species was collected, Galba schirazensis. Live rediae were observed in 1.75% (26/1482) and Fasciola sp. DNA was detected in 6% (89/1482) of collected snails. The COX-1 region permitted identification of the parasite as Fasciola hepatica. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the microscope study, compared to PCR results, were 25.84% and 99.78%, respectively. The mean size of the snails recorded positive for F. hepatica through crushing and microscopy was significantly higher than the mean size of negative snails, but there was no such difference in PCR-positive snails. The role of G. schirazensis as an intermediate host of F. hepatica in Ecuador is discussed and the hypothesis of an adaptation of the parasite to this invasive snail is proposed. For the first time, an epidemiological survey based on molecular biology-based techniques assessed the possible role of lymnaeid snails in the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Ecuador. © Y. Caron et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  2. Is Galba schirazensis (Mollusca, Gastropoda an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Digenea in Ecuador?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caron Yannick

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a widely distributed disease in livestock in South America but knowledge about the epidemiology and the intermediate hosts is relatively scarce in Ecuador. For three months, lymnaeid snails were sampled (n = 1482 in Pichincha Province at two sites located in a highly endemic area. Snails were identified (based on morphology and ITS-2 sequences and the infection status was established through microscopic dissection and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based technique. Techniques based on morphology were not useful to accurately name the collected snail species. Comparison with available DNA sequences showed that a single snail species was collected, Galba schirazensis. Live rediae were observed in 1.75% (26/1482 and Fasciola sp. DNA was detected in 6% (89/1482 of collected snails. The COX-1 region permitted identification of the parasite as Fasciola hepatica. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the microscope study, compared to PCR results, were 25.84% and 99.78%, respectively. The mean size of the snails recorded positive for F. hepatica through crushing and microscopy was significantly higher than the mean size of negative snails, but there was no such difference in PCR-positive snails. The role of G. schirazensis as an intermediate host of F. hepatica in Ecuador is discussed and the hypothesis of an adaptation of the parasite to this invasive snail is proposed. For the first time, an epidemiological survey based on molecular biology-based techniques assessed the possible role of lymnaeid snails in the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Ecuador.

  3. Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya (Mollusca: Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Colin-Flores, Rafael Francisco; Rosas, Carlos

    2009-02-01

    Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya is described in terms of histological, morphometric, oocytes growth, and somatic-oocyte relationship data obtained from octopus cultured at the UMDI-UNAM, in Sisal, Yucatan, Mexico. This study is the first publication on gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya. A total of 83 O. maya specimens were used; their sizes ranged from 6.5 to 76 mm of total length (TL), 4 to 28 mm of dorsal mantle length (DML), 2.5 to 20 mm of ventral mantle length (VML), and 0.0180 to 7.2940 g of fixed body weight (fBW). Animals were weighed and measured only after preservation. A loss of 10% of living weight was estimated for juvenile octopuses after formalin preservation. The relation of length to weight (VML, DML, TL/fBW) pooled for both sexes had a strong positive correlation (r), as shown by a potential power function that was quite close to 1. Compound images were produced from numerous microscopic fields. The histological examination revealed that, 4 months after hatching, male octopus (24.5 mm DML and 7.2940 g fBW) were in gonad stages 2 (maturing) to 3 (mature), with spermatogonia and spermatocytes in the tubule wall and abundant spermatids and spermatozoa in the central lumen of the seminiferous tubules, suggesting the occurrence of different phases of gonad development at different maturity stages. In contrast, females (22.5 mm DML and 4.8210 g fBW) at the same time since hatching were immature (stage 1), with many oogonia, few oocytes, and germinal epithelium. This suggests that males reach maturity earlier than females, indicating a probable onset of maturity for males at around 4 months of culture or 8 g of wet body weight. Our results indicate the possibility that the size-at-weight can be recognized early with a degree of certainty that allows the sexes to be separated for culture purposes; but more detailed studies on reproduction in relation to endocrinology and nutrition are needed.

  4. High accumulation of cobalt-60 by the particular organ or part of some species in mollusca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Katsuhiko

    1981-01-01

    A large amounts of samples in marine Cephalopoda and Tridacna were sampled in north west pacific ocean, near Japan. The samples were separated into organs or parts for determination of Co-60 concentration. A peculiar accumulation of Co-60 by the branchial heart of Octopus was also recognized in field condition, but it had become apparent that branchial heart of squid had not same ability. Liver of Cephalopoda had the ability to highly accumulate the Co-60 and specific activity of squid was one order highter than Octopus. The concentration of Cobalt-60 in visceral muss kidney of Tridacna maxima lineally increased with increasing shell length but that in other soft parts was kept constant. After examination of the other papers it was assumed that Co-60 highly accumulated in these organs was transfered by the food chain. (author)

  5. Vestigial phragmocone in the gladius points to a deepwater origin of squid (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipkin, Alexander I.; Bizikov, Vyacheslav A.; Fuchs, Dirk

    2012-03-01

    The microstructure of the gladius cone was investigated in six species of nektonic squid: shallow-water Loligo gahi (Loliginidae), pelagic eurybathic Illex argentinus, Todarodes pacificus, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), and deepwater Onykia ingens (Onychoteuthidae) and Gonatus antarcticus (Gonatidae) using state-of-the-art microscopy. Apart from L. gahi, all other species had septa-like layers in the gladius cone, which for the first time were investigated in detail and compared with those in extinct Cretaceous belemnites Hibolithes sp. and Pachyteuthis sp., and spirulid Cyrtobelus sp. It was found that the organic layers of the gladius cone in recent squid can be homologized with the organic components of the shell in fossil phragmocone-bearing coleoids. The septa-like layers in modern gladius cones therefore represent a vestigial phragmocone composed of organic septal rudiments of the ancestral phragmocone that has lost the siphuncle and gas-filled chambers. The well-developed rostrum in onychoteuthids and small rostrum of the gladius in ommastrephids and gonatids can be seen as homologous with the belemnoid rostrum, which may indicate a close phylogenetic relationship between belemnites and at least some squid. Possible evolutionary pathways of the reduction of the functional phragmocone in squid ancestors are discussed. Several features such as the loss of shell calcification, deep water speciation, and the structure of the equilibrium organ point to a deep-water origin of squids.

  6. Alien Planorbid (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata) from South West Africa erroneously recorded as Biomphalaria Pfeifferi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1974-01-01

    In 1970 I published a record of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1848) (fam. Planorbidae) for South West Africa: "Sandamap Farm, Spitzkoppe" (Van Bruggen, 1970: 45, figs. 1-13). Dr. D. S. Brown of the Medical Research Council (London) kindly drew my attention to the fact that

  7. Genetics and shell morphometrics of assimineids (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Truncatelloidea) in the St Lucia Estuary, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Nelson A F; van Rooyen, Ryan; MacDonald, Angus; Ponder, Winston; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    The Assimineidae are a family of amphibious microgastropods that can be mostly found in estuaries and mangroves in South Africa. These snails often occur in great numbers and are ecologically important to the St Lucia Estuary, which forms a crucial part of the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Genetic and shell morphometric analyses were conducted on individuals collected from nine localities distributed from the northern lake regions to the southern lake and the mouth of the St Lucia estuarine lake. Mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (28S) DNA was used to construct Bayesian Inference, Neighbour-joining, Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood trees. Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis were performed on standard shell parameter data. Results indicate that two different taxa are present in St Lucia. The taxon comprising individuals from the South Lake and St Lucia Estuary Mouth is identified as Assiminea cf. capensis Bartsch, in accordance with the latest taxonomic consensus. The taxon comprising assimineid individuals from False Bay, North Lake and South Lake, is here tentatively named "Assiminea" aff. capensis (Sowerby). These two taxa exhibit patterns of spatial overlap that appear to vary depending on environmental parameters, particularly salinity. The need to resolve the complex taxonomy of assimineids is highlighted.

  8. Neuromuscular development of Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristof, Alen; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Studies on the development of the nervous system and the musculature of invertebrates have become more sophisticated and numerous within the last decade and have proven to provide new insights into the evolutionary history of organisms. In order to provide new morphogenetic ...

  9. The Bulimulidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata) from the Región de Atacama, northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Juan Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The bulimulid genus Bostryx Troschel, 1847 is the most species-rich genus of land snails found in Chile, with the majority of its species found only in the northern part of the country, usually in arid coastal zones. This genus has been sparsely studied in Chile and there is little information on their distribution, diversity or ecology. Here, for the first time, a formal analysis of the diversity of bulimulids in the Región de Atacama, northern Chile, is reported. Of the seventeen species recorded for the area, most of them were efectively found in the field collections and one record was based on literature. Five taxa are described as new: Bostryx ancavilorum sp. nov., Bostryx breurei sp. nov., Bostryx calderaensis sp. nov., Bostryx ireneae sp. nov. and Bostryx valdovinosi sp. nov., and the known geographic distribution of seven species is extended. Results reveal that the Región de Atacama is the richest region in terrestrial snails in Chile, after the Juan Fernández Archipelago. All of the terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile, most of them with restricted geographic distributions along the coastal zones, and none of them are currently protected by law. Further sampling in northern Chile will probably reveal more snail species to be discovered and described.

  10. Invertebrate shells (mollusca, foraminifera) as pollution indicators, Red Sea Coast, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mohamed; Madkour, Hashem; Mansour, Abbas; Alharbi, Wedad; El-Taher, Atef

    2017-09-01

    To assess the degree of pollution and its impact on the environment along the Red Sea Coast, the most abundant nine species of recent benthic foraminifera and three species of molluscan shells have been selected for the analysis of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Co, and Cd concentrations. The selected foraminiferal species are: Textularia agglutinans, Amphispsorus hemprichii, Sorites marginalis, Peneroplis planatus, Borelis schlumbergeri, Amphistegina lessonii, Ammonia beccarii, Operculina gaimairdi, and Operculinella cumingii. The selected molluscan shells are: Lambis truncata and Strombus tricornis (gastropods) and Tridacana gigas (bivalves). The inorganic material analysis of foraminifera and molluscs from the Quseir and Safaga harbors indicates that foraminifera tests include higher concentrations of heavy metals such as Fe and Mn than molluscan shells. These results are supported by the black tests of porcelaneous foraminifera and reflect iron selectivity. The Cd and Pb concentrations in molluscan shells are high in the El Esh Area because of oil pollution at this site. The Cu, Zn, and Ni concentrations in the studied invertebrates are high at Quseir Harbor and in the El Esh Area because of the strong influence of terrigenous materials that are rich in these metals. The heavy metal contamination is mostly attributed to anthropogenic sources.

  11. Molecular phylogeny of pearl oysters and their relatives (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pterioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tëmkin Ilya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superfamily Pterioidea is a morphologically and ecologically diverse lineage of epifaunal marine bivalves distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical continental shelf regions. This group includes commercially important pearl culture species and model organisms used for medical studies of biomineralization. Recent morphological treatment of selected pterioideans and molecular phylogenetic analyses of higher-level relationships in Bivalvia have challenged the traditional view that pterioidean families are monophyletic. This issue is examined here in light of molecular data sets composed of DNA sequences for nuclear and mitochondrial loci, and a published character data set of anatomical and shell morphological characters. Results The present study is the first comprehensive species-level analysis of the Pterioidea to produce a well-resolved, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for nearly all extant taxa. The data were analyzed for potential biases due to taxon and character sampling, and idiosyncracies of different molecular evolutionary processes. The congruence and contribution of different partitions were quantified, and the sensitivity of clade stability to alignment parameters was explored. Conclusions Four primary conclusions were reached: (1 the results strongly supported the monophyly of the Pterioidea; (2 none of the previously defined families (except for the monotypic Pulvinitidae were monophyletic; (3 the arrangement of the genera was novel and unanticipated, however strongly supported and robust to changes in alignment parameters; and (4 optimizing key morphological characters onto topologies derived from the analysis of molecular data revealed many instances of homoplasy and uncovered synapomorphies for major nodes. Additionally, a complete species-level sampling of the genus Pinctada provided further insights into the on-going controversy regarding the taxonomic identity of major pearl culture species.

  12. Molecular phylogeny of pearl oysters and their relatives (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pterioidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The superfamily Pterioidea is a morphologically and ecologically diverse lineage of epifaunal marine bivalves distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical continental shelf regions. This group includes commercially important pearl culture species and model organisms used for medical studies of biomineralization. Recent morphological treatment of selected pterioideans and molecular phylogenetic analyses of higher-level relationships in Bivalvia have challenged the traditional view that pterioidean families are monophyletic. This issue is examined here in light of molecular data sets composed of DNA sequences for nuclear and mitochondrial loci, and a published character data set of anatomical and shell morphological characters. Results The present study is the first comprehensive species-level analysis of the Pterioidea to produce a well-resolved, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for nearly all extant taxa. The data were analyzed for potential biases due to taxon and character sampling, and idiosyncracies of different molecular evolutionary processes. The congruence and contribution of different partitions were quantified, and the sensitivity of clade stability to alignment parameters was explored. Conclusions Four primary conclusions were reached: (1) the results strongly supported the monophyly of the Pterioidea; (2) none of the previously defined families (except for the monotypic Pulvinitidae) were monophyletic; (3) the arrangement of the genera was novel and unanticipated, however strongly supported and robust to changes in alignment parameters; and (4) optimizing key morphological characters onto topologies derived from the analysis of molecular data revealed many instances of homoplasy and uncovered synapomorphies for major nodes. Additionally, a complete species-level sampling of the genus Pinctada provided further insights into the on-going controversy regarding the taxonomic identity of major pearl culture species. PMID:21059254

  13. Variações anatômicas em Lymnaea columella (Mollusca, Gastropoda

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    Marlene T. Ueta

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas variações anatômicas de espécimes de L. columella coletados de diferentes criadouros situados em diversos Municípios do Estado de São Paulo: Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava e Taubaté. As comparações morfométricas foram baseadas em estudos do aparelho genital, rim e rádula. Foram medidos, para cada criadouro, os comprimentos do conjunto útero-vagina, dueto da espermateca, prepúcio e bainha do pênis. Foram ainda calculados os índices de relação entre bainha do pênis/prepúcio e estabelecidos os coeficientes de correlação entre comprimento da concha e comprimento do prepúcio. Cortes longitudiais do complexo peniano foram também objeto de estudo. Em relação a rádula foram determinados o número de fileiras transversais e o número de dentes por fileira, e estabelecida uma fórmula radular aproximada para os diversos criadouros.Soft parts of Lymnaea columella from ten populations from the State of São Paulo were studied in order to determine morphometric variations. These morphometric cornparisons were made upon reproductive system, kidney and radula of snail samples collected in different municipalities: Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava and Taubaté. Length measurementes of uterus, duct of spermatheca, prepuce and penis sheath were taken; the ratio penis sheath/prepuce and correlation coefficients between length of shell and length of prepuce were established. Longitudinal sections of penial complex were also studied. The number of trans verse rows, number of teeth per rows and the length of shell were determined. For each sample, the radular formula was indicated.

  14. Studies on the physiology and endocrinology of reproduction of Helisoma duryi (Mollusca: Pulmonata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miksys, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Helisoma duryi is a hermaphroditic, freshwater, pulmonate snail native to North America. It has been proposed as a biological control agent against snail intermediate hosts of Schistosoma sp., a parasitic trematode in man. Very little is known of the physiology and endocrinology of reproduction of H. duryi. This thesis investigates vitello-genesis, endocrine control of the synthesis of albumen, a nutrient-rich fluid catabolized by developing embryos, and the possible endocrine role of the gonad. Light and electron microscopy, chemical extraction, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and radioimmunoassay are used to identify the yolk protein ferritin. It is proposed that ferritin synthesis, and its circulating levels, are regulated, probably indirectly, by a gonadal factor released into the blood. The rate of synthesis of albumen polysaccharides can be monitored in vitro by providing albumen gland explants with the precursor /sup 14/C-glucose and measuring /sup 14/C-polysaccharide produced. The basal synthetic activity of the gland reflects the reproductive activity of the snail.

  15. Stunting of the penis in Heleobia parchappii (Mollusca: Cochliopidae) and its relationship with parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Matías J; Parietti, Manuela; Etchegoin, Jorge A

    2017-02-08

    Penis anatomy is used to discriminate species of gastropods belonging to the family Cochliopidae; however, this characteristic may be affected by the presence of parasites. To evaluate the possible effect of parasites on penis length and number of papillae in Heleobia parchappii, 195 males were collected from the Nahuel Rucá Lagoon, Argentina. Male snails were only infected by trematode digeneans (total prevalence 45.13%). Three out of 9 species of digeneans registered showed prevalence values higher than 10%: Microphallus szidati, M. simillimus, and Notocotylidae sp. 1. The penis length of non-parasitized males and those parasitized by M. szidati and M. similimus increased with increased snail length; however, this increase was lower in infected snails. In the case of snails infected with Notocotylidae sp. 1, no relationship between shell length and penis length was apparent. Differences in the life cycles of these 3 digeneans could explain the null or lower penis growth rate in relation to host body growth. In contrast, no change was observed in the number of penial papillae of H. parchappii when these snails were infected by larval digeneans compared to those that were not infected. This indicates that penial papillae may be a more stable characteristic than penis length to discriminate between species within the Cochliopidae. The study of penial papillae should be central in the taxonomy and identification of new species within the Cochliopidae, as well as in previously described species.

  16. A new record of marine wood-borer (Mollusca: Teredinidae) from waters off Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, T.V.; Wagh, A.B.

    The occurrence of Teredona princesae (Sivickis) has been reported for the first time from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off Bombay. A brief description of the pallet and distribution of this species is presented...

  17. Integrative taxonomy of the genus Onchidium Buchannan, 1800 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Onchidiidae

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    Benoît Dayrat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to clarify the species diversity of onchidiid slugs, the taxonomy of the genus Onchidium Buchannan, 1800 is revised using an integrative approach. New, fresh specimens were collected in a large number of places, including type localities. The genus Onchidium is redefined here as a clade including only three species which are strongly supported by both morphological and molecular data. All three species were already named: the type species O. typhae Buchannan, 1800, O. stuxbergi (Westerlund, 1883, and O. reevesii (J.E. Gray, 1850. With the exception of a re-description of O. typhae published in 1869, all three species are re-described here for the first time. First-hand observations on the color variation of live animals in their natural habitat are provided. The anatomy of each species is described. Important nomenclatural issues are addressed. In particular, Labella Starobogatov, 1976 is regarded as a junior synonym of Onchidium and Labella ajuthiae (Labbé, 1935 and O. nigrum (Plate, 1893 are regarded as junior synonyms of O. stuxbergi. The nomenclatural status of several other species names is discussed as well. Many new records are provided across South-East Asia and precise ranges of geographic distributions are provided for the genus Onchidium and its three species. Distinctive features that help distinguish the genus Onchidium from other onchidiids are provided, as well as an identification key for the three species.

  18. THE BIOLOGY OF FISSURELLA MAXIMA SOWERBY (MOLLUSCA: ARCHAEOGASTROPODA) IN NORTHERN CHILE. 2. NOTES ON ITS REPRODUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretos, Marta; Tesorieri, Italo; Alvarez, Luis

    1983-12-01

    For 14 months, monthly samples were collected to study reproduction in Fissurella maxima at Huayquique. Results indicate that F. maxima is a dioecious species; no sign of hermaphroditism has been observed. The sex ratio is 1:1 in the different size classes analyzed. Ovaries are green and testis are median brown to yellowish white. Eggs in the ovary measure from 120-280 µ without envelopes. The gonads are parasitized by adult digenea trematods of the genus Proctoeces. Some effects of parasitism are discussed. Variations in mean monthly gonadosomatic index suggest that there is a main spawning period in late November-December (late spring-early summer) and a secondary period in July-August (winter). Fluctuations in mean gonad index show a close correlation with sea water temperature variations. The youngest mature specimens detected were about 5 cm in shell length (over two years old), but the majority of mature animals were over 6.5 cm.

  19. Cellular biomarker responses of limpets (Mollusca as measure of sensitivity to cadmiumcontamination

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    Koot Reinecke

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the availability and chemical nature of some heavy metals, sub-lethal toxicant levels may persist in the ocean waters and may cause physiological problems and toxicity in invertebrates and other marine organisms. Although studies of metal concentrations in False Bay showed relatively low mean concentrations of Cd, invertebrates such as molluscs, crustaceans and many other groups are able to accumulate high levels of heavy metals in their tissues and still survive in the heaviest polluted areas. They can accumulate numerous pollutants from natural waters in quantities that are many orders of magnitude higher than background levels. Bioaccumulation ofcadmium in intertidal species could cause stress which may be measurable at the cellular level. A variety of limpet species that may serve as suitable ecotoxicological monitoring species occur in abundance on rocky shores along the South African coastline. The aim of this study was to obtain sensitivity data which could contribute to the selection of a suitable monitoring species and the eventual establishment of a species sensitivity distribution model (SSD with a biomarker responseas endpoint. The limpets Cymbula oculus, Scutellastra longicosta, Cymbula granatina and Scutellastragranularis as well as water samples were collected at two localities in False Bay, South Africa. Analysis of water and biological samples were done by atomic absorption spectrometry. Exposures were done to three different sublethal concentrations of cadmium in the laboratory in static flow tanks over three days. There was a moderate increase in cadmium body concentrations over time. Results obtained at three exposure concentrations showed no significant differences in metal concentrations between the different C. oculus samples. Significant differences were obtained between the control and the exposure groups for each exposure time except between the control and the 1mg/L CdCl2 exposure group after 24 and 72 hours of exposure. Cd body concentrations(soft tissue varied between 4.56 and 21.41µg/g (wet mass.Mean Cd concentrations in soft tissue of S. longicosta was considerably lower (varying between 1.18 and 19.58 µg/g Cd than in the tissues of C. oculus. The control group differed significantly from the 0.8 and 1 mg/L CdCl2 exposures after 48 and 72 hours. Mean Cd body concentrations in S. granular is were the highest of all exposed species, reaching a level of 148 µg/g Cd at the highest exposure concentration and differed significantly from the means of the other samples of the 0.8 mg/L CdCl2 exposure group after 72 hours and from the 1 mg/L CdCl2 group after 24 hours. Significant differences were also obtained between theCd body concentrations of C. granatina for the three exposure concentrations and three exposure times. Lysosomal membrane integrity was determined for both exposed and control animals, using the neutral red retention assay. Three of the four species showed a significant decrease in retention times with an increase in Cd concentration. Inter-species differences in sensitivity to environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations were reflected in the biomarker responses. Based on reduction of NRR times, the order of relative sensitivity to cadmium was S. granularis >C. oculus> S. longicosta.> C.granatina. 

  20. One hundred years after Pinctada: an update on alien Mollusca in Tunisia

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    M. ANTIT

    2011-04-01

    The occurrence of aliens in Tunisia is balanced between presumably Lessepsian species of tropical Indo-Pacific origin, and species from other sources including species from the Tropical Atlantic introduced through shipping. Nevertheless there is a prevalence of Lessepsian species towards the Gulf of Gabes in the south, whereas the shipping activity in Tunis harbour may be the main pathway of introduction in the north.

  1. Comparative morphology among representatives of main taxa of Scaphopoda and basal protobranch Bivalvia (Mollusca

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    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with detailed morphology and anatomy of 4 species of Scaphopoda and 5 species of protobranch Bivalvia. Both classes are traditionally grouped in the taxon Diasoma, which has been questioned by different methodologies, such as molecular and developmental. This study is developed under a phylogenetic methodology with the main concern in performing it in an intelligible and testable methodology. The analyzed Scaphopoda species came from the Brazilian coast and belong to the family Dentaliidae [(1 Coccodentalium carduus; (2 Paradentalium disparile] and Gadiliidae; [(3 Polyschides noronhensis, n. sp. from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago; (4 Gadila braziliensis]. These species represent the main branches of the class Scaphopoda. From protobranch bivalves, representatives of the families Solemyidae [(5 Solemya occidentalis, from Florida; S. notialis, n. sp. from S.E. Brazil], Nuculanidae [(6 Propeleda carpentieri from Florida], and Nuculidae [(7 Ennucula puelcha, from south Brazil] are included. These species represent the main branches of the basal Bivalvia. The descriptions on the anatomy of S. occidentalis and of P. carpentieri are published elsewhere. The remaining are included here, for which a complete taxonomical treatment is performed. Beyond these species, representatives of other taxa are operationally included as part of the ingroup (indices are then shared with them, as a procedure to test the morphological monophyly of Diasoma. These taxa are: two lamellibranch bivalves [(8 Barbatia - Arcidae; (9 Serratina - Tellinidae; both published elsewhere;, and Propilidium (10 Patellogastropoda, and (11 Nautilus, basal Cephalopoda, based on basal taxa. The effective outgroups are (12 Neopilina (Monoplacophora and (13 Hanleya (Polyplacophora. The phylogenetic analysis based on morphology revealed that the taxon Diasoma is supported by 14 synapomorphies, and is separated from Cyrtosoma (Gastropoda + Cephalopoda. Although they are not the main goal of this paper, the taxa Scaphopoda and Bivalvia are supported by 8 and by 7 synapomorphies respectively. The taxon Protobranchia resulted paraphyletic. Both scaphopod orders resulted monophyletic. The obtained cladogram is: ((((Coccodentalium carduus - Paradentalium disparile (Polyschides noronhensis - Gadila brasiliensis ((Solemya occidentalis - S. notialis (Propeleda carpenteri (Ennucula puelcha (Barbatia cancellaria - Serratina capsoides (Propilidium curumim - Nautilus pompilius - Lolliguncula brevis.Este estudo analisa a morfologia e anatomia detalhadas de 4 espécies de Scaphopoda e 5 espécies de bivalves protobrânquios. Ambas as classes são tradicionalmente agrupadas no táxon Diasoma, o qual vem sendo questionado por diferentes metodologias, tais como molecular e de desenvolvimento. Este estudo é desenvolvido sob uma metodologia filogenética, a qual a maior preocupação é fornecer um procedimento inteligível e testável. As espécies de Scaphopoda analisadas provieram da costa brasileira e pertencem à família Dentaliidae [(1 Coccodentalium carduus; (2 Paradentalium disparile] e Gadilidae [(3 Polyschides noronhensis, n. sp. do Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha; (4 Gadila braziliensis]. Estas espécies representam os ramos principais da classe Scaphopoda. Dos bivalves protobrânquios, representantes das famílias Solemyidae [(5 Solemya occidentalis, da Flórida; S. notialis, n. sp. do S.E. Brasil], Nuculanidae [(6 Propeleda carpentieri, da Flórida] e Nuculidae [(7 Ennucula puelcha, do sul do Brasil] são incluídos. Estas espécies representam os principais ramos dos bivalves basais. As descrições anatômicas de S. occidentalis e de P. carpentieri estão sendo publicadas em outro artigo, as das demais espécies estão incluídas neste, o qual também inclui um completo tratamento taxonômico. Além dessas espécies, representantes de outros táxons são operacionalmente incluídos como parte do ingroup (então os índices são compartilhados com eles, um procedimento visando testar a monofilia morfológica de Diasoma. Esses táxons são 2 bivalves lamelibrânquios [(8 Barbatia - Arcidae; (9 Serratina - Tellinidae; ambos publicados em artigos a parte]; Propilidium (10 Patellogastropoda e (11 Nautilus, Cephalopoda basal, baseados em táxons basais. Os outgroups efetivos são (12 Neopilina (Monoplacophora e (13 Hanleya (Polyplacophora. A análise filogenética baseada na morfologia revelou que o táxon Diasoma é suportado por 14 sinapomorfias, sendo separada de Cyrtosoma (Gastropoda + Cephalopoda. Embora não sendo o principal enfoque do presente artigo, os táxons Scaphopoda e Bivalvia são suportados por 8 e por 7 sinapomorfias respectivamente. O táxon Protobranchia resultou parafilético. O cladograma obtido é: ((((Coccodentalium carduus - Paradentalium disparile (Polyschides noronhensis - Gadila brasiliensis ((Solemya occidentalis - S. notialis (Propeleda carpenteri (Ennucula puelcha (Barbatia cancellaria - Serratina capsoides (Propilidium curumim - Nautilus pompilius - Lolliguncula brevis.

  2. [Reproductive aspects of Pomacea flagellata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae) at Bacalar lagoon, Quintana Roo, México].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Rivera, José J; Ocaña, Frank A; Navarrete, Alberto de Jesús; Carrillo, Rosa M de Jesús; Vargas-Espósitos, Abel A

    2016-12-01

    The freshwater snail Pomacea flagellata is native from Southeastern Mexico. Studies about this species are scarce and none has treated their reproduction. This snail has been exploited at Bacalar lagoon for many years, leading to a significant decrease in their abundance and currently, a permanent ban was proposed by the government. This work aimed to assess the temporal variations of mating frequency and the abundance of egg clutches of P. flagellata at Bacalar lagoon, as well as their relation with snails density and environmental variables. Sampling was done during the three climatic seasons: Rainy (July, August and September/2012), North or Cold fronts (December/2012 and January and February/2013) and Dry (March, April and May/2013) in 12 sampling stations located along the Bacalar lagoon. On each station a transect of 100 m length was set parallel to the edge, and the number of fresh egg clutches (pink color) laid over vegetation, rocks or manmade structures, were counted. In the water, three 50 x 2 m transects were set and the number of snails were counted as well as the mating frequency. Density of snails varied significantly among seasons, decreasing from the rainy to the dry season. There were no significant differences of snail abundance among months, nested in climatic seasons (ANOVA, p>0.05). During the rainy season the mating frequency was significantly higher than in the Norths, meanwhile in the dry season no mating were registered (Kruskal-Wallis, p˂0.05). Eggs clutches appeared from July to March. Density of egg clutches presented no differences between the Rainy and the North seasons (2.72 and 2.93 clutches/m, respectively), nonetheless during the dry season abundance of egg masses was significantly lower (0.1 clutches/m) (H, p˂0.05). Mating frequency was related with snail abundance (rs= 0.26; p<0.05) and water temperature (rs= 0.34; p<0.05) and the abundance of egg masses is related with snail abundance (rs= 0.46; p<0.05). In general, we observed that reproductive activity of P. flagellata at Bacalar lagoon is related with the warmer months and with higher rainfall. This finding is relevant to support the management of this resource in the region, so that to implement any management arrangement they must be aware that a temporal ban is necessary during the reproductive season at least.

  3. A molecular method to detect and identify the native species of southwestern Atlantic Crassostrea (Mollusca: Ostreidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ludwig

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Among oysters, species of Crassostrea (Sacco, 1897 are the most attractive to aquaculture. In Brazil, the genus is represented by C. rhizophorae (Guilding, 1828 and C. brasiliana (Lamarck, 1819. Because the maturation and breeding technology is not well developed for these species, aquaculturists need a reliable method to decide the correct time to place spat collectors in the field, and to identify both species, which are morphologically similar. In this study a specific Multiplex PCR protocol was developed, using one pair of universal primers from 18S rDNA as a positive control and a pair of specific primers for each target species. The sensitivity and specificity of the protocol was evaluated. It detected C. rhizophorae DNA in low concentrations, and C. brasiliana DNA in even lower concentrations. Further, the Multiplex PCR proved efficient in detecting DNA in concentrations equivalent to that of a single larva of each species, either separated or combined, when mixed with total DNA extract of a plankton sample representing 1000 L of filtered water. Field tests confirmed the applicability of the protocol, which holds the promise to become an important tool for aquaculture or conservation programs, allowing for the continuous monitoring of the life cycle of C. brasiliana and C. rhizophorae, by detecting the right periods of larval release and settlement.

  4. New species of Rissoidae from the Cape Verde Islands (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Rolán, E.

    1988-01-01

    Sediment samples collected at the Cape Verde Islands contained many interesting micromolluscs. Amongst them, four new species of the family Rissoidae ( Alvania peli, A. nicolauensis, A. stocki and A. planciusi).

  5. Patterns of Diversity of the Rissoidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Region

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio P. Ávila; Jeroen Goud; António M. de Frias Martins

    2012-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Rissoidae in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea was compiled and is up-to-date until July 2011. All species were classified according to their mode of larval development (planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic), and bathymetrical zonation (shallow species—those living between the intertidal and 50 m depth, and deep species—those usually living below 50 m depth). 542 species of Rissoidae are presently reported to the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean...

  6. Patterns of diversity of the Rissoidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Sérgio P; Goud, Jeroen; de Frias Martins, António M

    2012-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Rissoidae in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea was compiled and is up-to-date until July 2011. All species were classified according to their mode of larval development (planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic), and bathymetrical zonation (shallow species--those living between the intertidal and 50 m depth, and deep species--those usually living below 50 m depth). 542 species of Rissoidae are presently reported to the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, belonging to 33 genera. The Mediterranean Sea is the most diverse site, followed by Canary Islands, Caribbean, Portugal, and Cape Verde. The Mediterranean and Cape Verde Islands are the sites with higher numbers of endemic species, with predominance of Alvania spp. in the first site, and of Alvania and Schwartziella at Cape Verde. In spite of the large number of rissoids at Madeira archipelago, a large number of species are shared with Canaries, Selvagens, and the Azores, thus only about 8% are endemic to the Madeira archipelago. Most of the 542-rissoid species that live in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean are shallow species (323), 110 are considered as deep species, and 23 species are reported in both shallow and deep waters. There is a predominance of nonplanktotrophs in islands, seamounts, and at high and medium latitudes. This pattern is particularly evident in the genera Crisilla, Manzonia, Onoba, Porosalvania, Schwartziella, and Setia. Planktotrophic species are more abundant in the eastern Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. The results of the analysis of the probable directions of faunal flows support the patterns found by both the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and the geographical distribution. Four main source areas for rissoids emerge: Mediterranean, Caribbean, Canaries/Madeira archipelagos, and the Cape Verde archipelago. We must stress the high percentage of endemics that occurs in the isolated islands of Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Cape Verde archipelago and also the Azores, thus reinforcing the legislative protective actions that the local governments have implemented in these islands during the recent years.

  7. A new Indo-Pacific Zebina species (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Rissoidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sleurs, W.J.; Van Goethem, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    A new, widespread, but uncommon Indo-Pacific rissoinine species, Zebina ( ? Zebina) malagazzae sp. nov. is described. It is compared with its morphologically closest relative, the tropical Eastern Pacific species Zebina axeliana (STRONG & HERTLEIN, 1951 ), with the holotype of Zebina constricta LASERON, 1956 from Christmas Island and with Zebina ( ?Zebina) japonica (WEINKAUFF, 1881).

  8. Diversity and biogeography of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the limestone hills of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foon, Junn Kitt; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Liew, Thor-Seng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Limestone hills are now gaining global conservation attention as hotspots for short-range endemic species. Levels of land snail endemism can be high at limestone hills, especially at hill clusters that are geographically isolated. In the State of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia, limestone hills have been opportunistically surveyed for land snails in the past, but the majority have yet to be surveyed. To address this knowledge gap, we systematically surveyed the terrestrial malacofauna of 12 limestone hills that, based on our opinion, are a representation of the limestone land snail assemblages within the State. Our inventory yielded high sampling completeness (>85%). We found 122 species of land snails, of which 34 species were unique to one of the surveyed hills. We identified 30 species that are potentially new to science. The number of land snail species recorded at each hill ranged between 39 and 63 species. Four of the sampled limestone hills namely, Prk 01 G. Tempurung, Prk 55 G. Pondok, Prk 47 Kanthan, and Prk 64 Bt Kepala Gajah, have high levels of species richness and unique species, representing 91% of the total species recorded in this study. We identified two clusters of limestone hills in central Perak with distinct differences in land snail species composition – a northern hill cluster on elevated granite bedrock and southern hill cluster in a low-lying valley surrounded by alluvial soils. As limestone hills continue to be quarried to meet the cement demand, the four identified limestone hills, along with other hills from the two clusters, warrant urgent conservation attention in order to maintain high species diversity within Perak’s terrestrial malacofauna. PMID:28769723

  9. Acanthochitona terezae sp. n., um novo poliplacóforo da costa brasileira (Mollusca, Polyplacophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Guerra Júnior

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available O autor descreve uma nova espécie de poliplacóforo (Acanthochitona terezae para o litoral brasileiro, apresenta dados sobre sua morfologia e discute aspectos biogeográficos.The author describes a new species of chiton (Acanthochitona terezae from the coast of Brazil, adducing data on its morphology and biogeographic aspects.

  10. Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from the Seychelles with description of a new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaast, P.

    1996-01-01

    Notes are given on nine chiton species, collected mainly during the 'Oceanic Reefs' Expedition to the Seychelles (1992-1993), with some biogeographical observations. Ischnochiton goudi (family Ischnochitonidae) is described as a new species.

  11. Diversidad y microestructura de quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora del Caribe de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedar I García-Ríos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los poliplacóforos asociados a los arrecifes de coral en la costa caribeña de Costa Rica han sido poco estudiados. El examen del cascajo de coral acumulado en el sublitoral somero, en cuatro estaciones de colección, localizadas en la Provincia de Limón reveló una diversidad de quitones mayor a la documentada. Anteriormente se habían registrado ocho especies para el Caribe costaricense: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams, 1845; Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840; Stenoplax boogii (Haddon, 1886; S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams, 1845; Acanthopleura granulata (Gmelin, 1791; Chiton marmoratus Gmelin, 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus, 1758; Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry, 1893. Otras cinco se registran aquí por primera vez: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954; Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889.

  12. New records for the shallow-water chiton fauna (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of the Azores (NE Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Ávila

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Published records, original data from recent field work on all of the islands of the Azores (NE Atlantic, and a revision of the entire mollusc collection deposited in the Department of Biology of the University of the Azores (DBUA were used to compile a checklist of the shallow-water Polyplacophora of the Azores. Lepidochitona cf. canariensis and Tonicella rubra are reported for the first time for this archipelago, increasing the recorded Azorean fauna to seven species.

  13. The first observations of Ischnochiton (Mollusca, Polyplacophora movement behaviour, with comparison between habitats differing in complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Liversage

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most species of Ischnochiton are habitat specialists and are almost always found underneath unstable marine hard-substrata such as boulders. The difficulty of experimenting on these chitons without causing disturbance means little is known about their ecology despite their importance as a group that often contributes greatly to coastal species diversity. In the present study we measured among-boulder distributional patterns of Ischnochiton smaragdinus, and used time-lapse photography to quantify movement behaviours within different habitat types (pebble substrata and rock-platform. In intertidal rock-pools in South Australia, I. smaragdinus were significantly overdispersed among boulders, as most boulders had few individuals but a small proportion harboured large populations. I. smaragdinus individuals emerge from underneath boulders during nocturnal low-tides and move amongst the inter-boulder matrix (pebbles or rock-platform. Seventy-two percent of chitons in the pebble matrix did not move from one pebble to another within the periods of observation (55–130 min but a small proportion moved across as many as five pebbles per hour, indicating a capacity for adults to migrate among disconnected habitat patches. Chitons moved faster and movement paths were less tortuous across rock-platform compared to pebble substrata, which included more discontinuities among substratum patches. Overall, we show that patterns of distribution at the boulder-scale, such as the observed overdispersion, must be set largely by active dispersal of adults across the substratum, and that differing substratum-types may affect the degree of adult dispersal for this and possibly other under-boulder chiton species.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of the giant African snail Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Achatinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huirong; Zhang, Jia-En; Guo, Jing; Deng, Zhixin; Luo, Hao; Luo, Mingzhu; Zhao, Benliang

    2016-05-01

    We present the complete mitochondrial genome of the Achatina fulica in this study. The results show that the mitochondrial genome is 15,057 bp in length, which is comprised of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 21 tRNA genes. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 35.47% of A, 27.97% of T 19.46% of C, and 17.10% of G. Except the ND3, 7 tRNA, ATP6, ATP8, COX3 and 12S-rRNA on the light strand, the rest are encoded on the heavy strand. Five types of inferred initiation codons are ATA (ND1, ND5), GTG (ND6), ATG (COX3, COX2), ATT (ND4) and TTG (COX1, ND2, ND3, ND4L, ATP6, ATP8, Cytb), and 3 types of inferred termination codons are T (COX3, ND2), TAA (ND1, ND4L, ND5, ND6, ATP6), and TAG (ND3, ND4, COX1, COX2, Cytb, ATP8). There are 24 intergenic spacers and 6 gene overlaps. The tandem repeat sequence (total 52 bp) of (AATAATT)n is observed in 16S-rRNA. Gene arrangement and distribution are inconsistent with the typical vertebrates.

  15. [Occurrence of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in Brazil: intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, H M; Vaz, J F; Fontes, L R; Domingos, M de F

    1997-06-01

    Achatina fulica, the intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis and also an agricultural pest, is being bred in Brazil for human consumption as "escargot". The snail has escaped from its artificial breeding sites and its dispersal in Itariri country, State of S. Paulo, is reported here for the first time. A. fulica is a transmitter of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematode which causes meningoencephalic angiostrongyliasis; the risks of human contamination are commented on.

  16. Unveiling the oxidative metabolism of Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) experimentally infected to Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Garcia, Juberlan; Mota, Esther Maria; Castro, Rosane Nora; Pontes, Emerson Guedes; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2018-06-01

    For the first time, alterations in the oxidative metabolism of Achatina fulica experimentally infected with different parasite loads of Angiostrongylus cantonensis were determined. For this, the hemolymph activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and hexokinase and the glucose concentrations in the hemolymph, as well as the polysaccharide reserves in the digestive gland and cephalopedal mass, were assessed. Additionally, the contents of some carboxylic acids in the hemolymph of infected and uninfected snails were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), permitting a better understanding of the alterations related to the host's oxidative metabolism. As the main results, activation of oxidative pathways, such as the glycolytic pathway, was demonstrated in response to the increase in the activity of hexokinase. This tendency was confirmed by the decrease in the contents of glucose in the hemolymph of parasitized snails, indicating that the infection by A. cantonensis alters the host's metabolism, and that these changes are strongly influenced by the parasite load. This metabolic scenario was accompanied by activation of the anaerobic fermentative metabolism, indicated not only by an increase in the activity of (LDH), but also by a reduction of the content of pyruvic acid and accumulation of lactic acid in the hemolymph of parasitized snails. In this circumstance, maintenance of the host's redox balance occurs through activation of the fermentative pathways, and LDH plays a central role in this process. Together, the results indicate that A. cantonensis infection induces activation of the anaerobic metabolism of A. fulica, characterized not only by the accumulation of lactic acid, but also by a reduction in the pyruvic acid and oxalic acid contents in the hemolymph of the infected snails.

  17. How well-known is the Cephalaspidean fauna (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) in the Indo-Pacific region?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1998-01-01

    The gastropod group Cephalaspidea contains about 700 recent species worldwide. The status of the research on the group, indicated as the number of described species, in the tropical Indo-Pacific region is compared with other areas. The number ofspecies are 118 in the Indo-Pacific, 168 in Japan...

  18. Using DNA barcoding to differentiate invasive Dreissena species (Mollusca, Bivalvia

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    Jonathan Marescaux

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha and the quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis are considered as the most competitive invaders in freshwaters of Europe and North America. Although shell characteristics exist to differentiate both species, phenotypic plasticity in the genus Dreissena does not always allow a clear identification. Therefore, the need to find an accurate identification method is essential. DNA barcoding has been proven to be an adequate procedure to discriminate species. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 mitochondrial gene (COI is considered as the standard barcode for animals. We tested the use of this gene as an efficient DNA barcode and found that it allow rapid and accurate identification of adult Dreissena individuals.

  19. Using DNA barcoding to differentiate invasive Dreissena species (Mollusca, Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marescaux, Jonathan; Van Doninck, Karine

    2013-12-30

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and the quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) are considered as the most competitive invaders in freshwaters of Europe and North America. Although shell characteristics exist to differentiate both species, phenotypic plasticity in the genus Dreissena does not always allow a clear identification. Therefore, the need to find an accurate identification method is essential. DNA barcoding has been proven to be an adequate procedure to discriminate species. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit I mitochondrial gene (COI) is considered as the standard barcode for animals. We tested the use of this gene as an efficient DNA barcode and found that it allow rapid and accurate identification of adult Dreissena individuals.

  20. Phylogenetic Diversity of Cephalopoda (Animalia:Mollusca) Along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea Coastline

    KAUST Repository

    Byron, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    ecosystems, serving as part of the food chain and exhibiting population increases due to targeted teleost fisheries and global climate change. In order to assess the biodiversity of Cephalopoda in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, 87 specimens were collected from 25

  1. Nonhemocyte sources of selected lysosomal enzymes in Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea (Mollusca: Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E. Rodrick

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, β-glucuronidase, lysozymes, glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminate were determined in the head-foot and digestive gland of Brazilian Biomphalaria glabrata (Touros, B. tenagophila (Caçapava and B. straminea (Monsenhor Gil. All six enzymes were detected inthe 3000g supernatant. Both cytoplasmic enzymes, glutamate-oxalacetate and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase exhibited the highest specific activities. In the case of the four hydrolytic enzymes assayed, β-glucuronidase exhibited the highest specific activity while lysozyme showed the lowest activity. All six enzymes are thought to be produced by cells within the head-foot and digestive gland of B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea.Foram determinadas, na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva de Biomphalaria glabrata de Touros (Rio Grande do Norte B. tenagophila de Cacapava (Sao Paulo e B. straminea de Monsenhor Gil (Piauí, as atividades específicas das seguintes enzimas: fosfatase acida, fosfatase alcalina, beta-glucuronidase, lisozima, transaminase glutâmico-oxalacetica e transaminase glutâmico-piruvica. As seis enzimas referidas foram detectadas no sobrenadante a 3000g. Ambas as enzimas citoplasmaticas - transaminases glutamico-oxalacetica e glutamico-piruvica - mostraram as atividades específicas mais altas. No caso das quatro enzimas hidrolíticas, a beta-glucuronidase revelou a mais alta atividade específica, enquanto a lisozima revelou a mais baixa. E admitido que todas as seis enzimas sao produzidas por celulas presentes na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva das tres especies de moluscos examinadas.

  2. Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples

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    Claudio Ghiglione

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP on board the R/V “Italica” in the Ross Sea (Antarctica in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500µm. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data. Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species, 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species, 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species, 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species, 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species. This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA, Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project “BAMBi” (PNRA 2010/A1.10.

  3. Deep-water Drilliinae, Cochlespirinae and Oenopotinae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Turridae from the Campos Basin, southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Medeiros Andrade Figueira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Samples of a soft-bottom community from the continental slope of Campos Basin, off southeast Brazil, were obtained between 2001 and 2003 by the Research Vessel “Astro-Garoupa” with a 0.25 m2 box corer or by dredging with a Charcot dredge. A total of 177 samples were taken at depths ranging from 700 to 1950 m. Mollusks were present at all of the stations and among Gastropoda the Turridae showed the highest diversity. Within the family Cochlespirinae we found: Leucosyrinx tenoceras (Dall, 1889, L. verrillii (Dall, 1881, expanding the known distribution of the latter species farther south, and L.? subgrundifera (Dall, 1888, which is the first record of this species for the South Atlantic and the shallowest depth at which it has ever been found. Within the family Drilliinae we found Splendrillia centimata (Dall, 1889, also the first record of this species for the South Atlantic and its shallowest depth. Within the subfamily Oenopotinae we describe here three new species in the genus Oenopota Mörch, 1852: O. seraphina n. sp., O. diabula n. sp. and O. carioca n. sp.

  4. Three New Records of Gastropoda (Mollusca) from the Nansha Islands, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyun; Shi, Wei; Gong, Li

    2018-04-01

    The Nansha Islands, China, have extremely high marine biodiversity and hundreds of mollusks have been reported there. Benthos resources investigations of the intertidal and subtidal zone around the Nansha Islands have been continuously performed for decades, and recently, dozens of new species and new records of mollusks have been reported from this area. This paper dealt with three new record species of the Gastropoda from Chinese waters: Cerithium salebrosum Sowerby II, 1855, Vexillum militare (Reeve, 1845) and Vexillum bizonale (Dautzenberg et Bouge, 1923), respectively belonging to three families: Cerithiidae Fleming, 1822, and Costellariidae MacDonald, 1860. All specimens were collected from the Nansha Islands during the benthos resources investigations on the intertidal zone of islands and reefs in the South China Sea in recent years. Diagnosis and geographic descriptions of both genus and species, illustrations of each species were given in this contribution, and discussion of taxonomy, identification features and faunal characteristics were presented. All examined specimens were deposited in the Marine Biodiversity Collections of South China Sea, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. Especies bentónicas de Opisthobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda presentes en el litoral del norte peruano

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    Katia Nakamura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo muestra las especies bentónicas de Opisthobranchia registradas para el norte del Perú. El trabajo se basa en la recopilación de la literatura científica disponible para el área de interés. Se presentan las 17 especies reportadas para dicha zona, clasificadas dentro del Grupo Informal Opisthobranchia en 6 clados, 12 familias y 14 géneros. A pesar del alto potencial de diversidad que se le otorga a la costa norte peruana, el número de especies registradas es bajo, debido principalmente al escaso número de exploraciones e investigaciones realizadas.

  6. The shallow-water chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of Caldera, Region of Atacama, northern Chile

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    Juan Francisco Araya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Molluscan species of the northern littoral of Chile have been sparsely studied. This work reviews for the first time the diversity of polyplacophoran molluscs around the port of Caldera, in the Region of Atacama (26°45’49”S; 70°45’17”W to 27°20’23”S; 70°56’46”W, northern Chile. Eleven species were found in this study: Acanthopleura echinata (Barnes, 1824; Callistochiton pulchellus (Gray, 1828; Calloplax vivipara (Plate, 1899, Chaetopleura peruviana (Lamarck, 1819; Chiton cumingsii Frembly, 1827; Chiton granosus Frembly, 1827; Chiton magnificus Deshayes, 1827; Enoplochiton niger (Barnes, 1824, Radsia barnesii (Gray, 1828, Tonicia atrata (G. B. Sowerby II, 1840 and Tonicia chilensis (Frembly, 1827. All of the species occurring in the area have distributions in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, from Ecuador to central Chile, and three of them are species endemic to the Chilean coasts (Calloplax vivipara, Radsia barnesii, and Tonicia atrata. This diversity of species is comparable to that of better surveyed faunas of central and southern Chile or Patagonia. Of the eleven species recorded, the geographic distribution records for Callistochiton pulchellus, Radsia barnesii and Tonicia atrata are extended, and Calloplax vivipara is found alive again after 40 years, filling a gap in its known distribution. Illustrations of living specimens in their habitat, distribution records and a taxonomic key for all the studied taxa are also provided.

  7. Ueber den begriff "Kinoplasma" in der spermiogenese von Australorbis Glabratus Olivaceus (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1960-11-01

    Full Text Available Zur Klaerung der Frage, ob der Begriff "Kinoplasma" fuer gewisse, von MERTON (1924,1926, 1930 beobachtete Bildungen an den reifenden Spermiden von pulmonaten Mollusken oder fuer Bestandteile des Cytoplasmas im Sinne von STRASBURGER und SCARTH zu verwenden ist, werden in der vorliegenden Mitteilung die Vorgaenge bei der Spermiohistogenese von Australorbis glabratus olivaceus untersucht. Es ergibt sich: 1. Das von MERTON bezeichnete "Kinoplasma" existiert nicht als solches, es handelt sich bei den von ihm dargestellten Protoplasmabildungen um kugelige, von den Spermiden abgeschnuerte Restkoerper nicht verwendeten Baumaterials, bestehend aus Protoplasma und einigen Mitochondrien. Sie werden von den Naehr- oder Bazalzellen phagozytiert. Der Ausdruck "Kinoplasma" kann nur fuer die submikroskopischen, geformten, faedigen Elemente des Cytoplasmas reserviert bleiben, die den geradlinigen Fall der uebrigen nicht geformten Komponenten bremst oder ablenkt; damit muss das Kinoplasma aber aus dem Begriff des Cytoplasmas herausgenommen werden, da es, wenn auch vermutlich reversibel, eine Differenzierung darstellt. 2. Der Spermienfaden wird von den Centriolen (Axialfilament und den Mitochondrien (zwei peripher gelegene Spiralfilamente, sowie einem Plasmamantel gebildet. 3. Nach Beendigung des Auswachsens der Spermiengeissel, die zu diesem Zeitpunkt nur aus dem Achsenfaden und dem Protoplasmazylinder besteht, setzt sich eine Protoplasmamasse vom Kopf in Richtung zum Geisselende in Bewegung. Sie fuehrt den Golgi-Koerper und sehr viele Mitochondrien mit sich. Aus diesen entwickeln sich Fibrillen, die sich zu den beiden Spiralfilamenten zusammenfuegen. Diese Masse entspricht der von MERTON in seiner Theorie als Kinoplasma bezeichneten Komponente. 4. Die Bewegung dieses Protoplasmateils wird auf den Schub zurueckgefuehrt, den die sich bildenden Fibrillen auf die Mitochondrien ausueben. 5. Die Rueckwaertsbewegung dieses Protoplasmakoerpers beruht wahrscheinlich auf Elastizitaet und Kontraktilitaet des Plasmalemmas. 6. Das zum Kopf zurueckgekehrte Protoplasma wird mit restlichen Mitochondrien als Kugel ausgeschieden und von den Naehrzellen phagocytiert. 7. Der Golgi-Koerper wird vor Beendigung der Protoplasmawanderung bereits in der letzten Haelfte der Geissel eliminiert.

  8. Sea Hare Aplysia punctata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Can Maintain Shell Calcification under Extreme Ocean Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Nicholas; Dupont, Sam; Sigwart, Julia D

    2016-10-01

    Ocean acidification is expected to cause energetic constraints upon marine calcifying organisms such as molluscs and echinoderms, because of the increased costs of building or maintaining shell material in lower pH. We examined metabolic rate, shell morphometry, and calcification in the sea hare Aplysia punctata under short-term exposure (19 days) to an extreme ocean acidification scenario (pH 7.3, ∼2800 μatm pCO 2 ), along with a group held in control conditions (pH 8.1, ∼344 μatm pCO 2 ). This gastropod and its congeners are broadly distributed and locally abundant grazers, and have an internal shell that protects the internal organs. Specimens were examined for metabolic rate via closed-chamber respirometry, followed by removal and examination of the shell under confocal microscopy. Staining using calcein determined the amount of new calcification that occurred over 6 days at the end of the acclimation period. The width of new, pre-calcified shell on the distal shell margin was also quantified as a proxy for overall shell growth. Aplysia punctata showed a 30% reduction in metabolic rate under low pH, but calcification was not affected. This species is apparently able to maintain calcification rate even under extreme low pH, and even when under the energetic constraints of lower metabolism. This finding adds to the evidence that calcification is a largely autonomous process of crystallization that occurs as long as suitable haeomocoel conditions are preserved. There was, however, evidence that the accretion of new, noncalcified shell material may have been reduced, which would lead to overall reduced shell growth under longer-term exposures to low pH independent of calcification. Our findings highlight that the chief impact of ocean acidification upon the ability of marine invertebrates to maintain their shell under low pH may be energetic constraints that hinder growth of supporting structure, rather than maintenance of calcification.

  9. Effekte von Xenohormonen auf die limnischen Invertebraten Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea, Amphipoda) und Marisa cornuarietis (Mollusca, Prosobranchia)

    OpenAIRE

    Schirling, Martin

    2005-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit werden Effekte von Xenohormonen auf Gammarus fossarum und Marisa cornuarietis anhand verschiedener Parameter, auf unterschiedlichen biologischen Ebenen dargestellt. In einem Laborexperiment mit G. fossarum, das Grundlage für weitere Untersuchungen im Rahmen dieser Arbeit war, konnte gezeigt werden, dass sich die Stressproteine hsp90 und hsp70 im Laufe der Oocytenreifung gegenläufig verhalten. Sowohl in einem Freilandversuch, bei dem der Einfluss von Kläranlageneinleitern ...

  10. A new alien snail species from the Eger stream, Hungary (Mollusca, Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frisóczki, B.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our macrozoobenthon samplings carried out in the Eger stream during 2015–2016 resulted in recording an alien species Marisa cornuarietis (Linneaus, 1758 the giant ramshorn snail which has not been reported so far from outdoorwaters in Hungary. Here we report on collecting several specimens from the urban section of the stream close to the outflow of the Eger thermal spa.

  11. The genus Alvania on the Canary islands and Madeira (Mollusca: Gastropoda), part 2 [final part

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Hoenselaar, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Five Alvania species from the Canary Islands and the Madeira Archipelago are revised. A new species to science, A. johannae is described and for three species lectotypes are designated. Altogether 13 littoral alvaniids are presently known from this area. Doubtful records are enumerated and a list of

  12. The genus Alvania on the Canary Islands and Madeira (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Hoenselaar, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    Micromolluscs of the family Rissoidae and belonging to the genus Alvania s.l. from the Canary Islands and the Madeira archipelago are revised. For several species the type locality is restricted and lectotypes are designated for Rissoa canadensis d’Orbigny, 1839, R. euchila Watson, 1886, R.

  13. Estudo morfométrico da concha de Lymnaea columella say, 1817 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata

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    Marlene T. Ueta

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas variações morfométricas de conchas de L. columella, provenientes de dez criadouros localizados nos seguintes municípios do Estado de São Paulo: - Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava e Taubaté. Foram analisados os diferentes tipos de ambientes onde as limneas são encontradas com maior freqüência, estabelecendo-se a época do ano com maior abundância em espécimes, que correspondeu aos meses de julho a outubro. As medidas nas conhas dos diferentes criadouros referiram-se ao comprimento e largura da concha, comprimento e largura da abertura, comprimento da espira e número de voltas. Foram estabelecidos os coeficientes de correlação e de regressão e realizadas análises de variância entre as medidas tomadas e os índices obtidos da relação entre largura/comprimento da concha. Estas conchas foram comparadas com as de L. columella, L. viator, L. cubensis da coleção do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Para a maioria das medidas as conchas mostraram proporções constantes, embora apresentassem diferenças em relação ao desenvolvimento. A maior variação foi observada em relação ao comprimento da espira. As variações morfométricas das conchas foram relacionadas com alguns fatores externos como pH, alcalinidade, dureza e teor da água. Aparentemente apenas a dureza total da água influiu na consistência das conchas.Shells of Lymnaea columella from ten populations from the State of São Paulo were studied to determine morphometric variation. Samples were collected in the following municipalities: Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava and Taubaté. Five measurements were taken from each shell: length and width of the shell, length and width of the aperture and lenght of the spire. Two ratios were also established: width/lenght of the shell and length of the aperture /length of the shell. The numbers of whorls and the length of the shell were also determined. Statistical tests (correlation coeficients, regression, and analysis of variance were used to compare the different samples. Also, com parisons of L. columella shells collected by us were made with those of L. columella, L. viator and L. cubensis from collections deposited in the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. The results of these studies revealed that in most of the cases the snail populations of different areas were similar, showing constant proportions, but they diverged in their absolute dimensions. Data on aquatic environmental conditions (pH, alkalinity, hardness, and calcium concentration were also obtained. These Chemical factors were examined with respect to shell morphology. Our results revealed that only hardness of water was associated with the robustness of the shells.

  14. Great Lakes DNA barcode reference library: Mollusca, annelida, and minor phyla

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, the research and development of DNA-based tools has improved both their sensitivity and costs. This technology has the potential to be useful in the early detection of aquatic invasive species, and can increase the scope of surveillance compared with traditional ...

  15. The Recent Pectinoidea of the New Zealand region (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Propeamussiidae, Pectinidae and Spondylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.; Marshall, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    The Recent Pectinoidea of the New Zealand region are reviewed. Eight new species are described from the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone: Parvamussium cancellorum, Cyclochlamys austrina, Cc. delli, Cc. irregularis, Cc. munida, Cc. pileolus, Cyclopecten fluctuosus, and Catillopecten tasmani. Nine

  16. Changes in energetic metabolism of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca, Planorbidae in response to exogenous calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium is considered an essential element for the metabolism of aquatic snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 in Brazil, and represents a limiting factor to its distribution and adaptation to the environment. This study investigated the effect of different concentrations of exogenous CaCO3 on the energetic metabolism of B. glabrata for better understanding the physiological interference of chemical elements dissolved in the environment with the physiology of this species. Sixty-day-old snails were distributed into six groups, five exposed to different concentrations of CaCO3 (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/L and a control group. The exposure to CaCO3 was assessed over time, with analysis of 15 snails of each group in the following intervals: 1, 14, 21 or 30 days for hemolymph extraction. Concentrations of calcium and glucose in the hemolymph were determined by commercial kits, and organic acids were extracted using an ion exchange column and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Concentration of calcium in the hemolymph showed no significant difference (p>0.05 from the control group and between the concentrations tested. Concentration of glucose decreased (p<0.05 in the treatments of exposure to 20 and 40 mg/L and increased when exposed to 80 and 100 mg/L CaCO3 compared to control and to other concentrations tested over 30 days. The organic acids pyruvate, oxaloacetate, citrate, succinate, fumarate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and lactate presented increased concentrations, while propionate and acetoacetate, decreased concentrations, when exposed to CaCO3 compared to control. Considering the influence of different periods of exposure to CaCO3, on the 14th day, there were stronger alterations in the metabolism of B. glabrata. In conclusion, exposure to CaCO3 reduced the concentration of glucose, which is metabolized into pyruvate, the final product of glycolysis, and also influenced the energetic metabolism pathways, indicating an aerobic or partially anaerobic functioning.

  17. Patterns of Diversity of the Rissoidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Sérgio P.; Goud, Jeroen; de Frias Martins, António M.

    2012-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Rissoidae in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea was compiled and is up-to-date until July 2011. All species were classified according to their mode of larval development (planktotrophic and nonplanktotrophic), and bathymetrical zonation (shallow species—those living between the intertidal and 50 m depth, and deep species—those usually living below 50 m depth). 542 species of Rissoidae are presently reported to the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, belonging to 33 genera. The Mediterranean Sea is the most diverse site, followed by Canary Islands, Caribbean, Portugal, and Cape Verde. The Mediterranean and Cape Verde Islands are the sites with higher numbers of endemic species, with predominance of Alvania spp. in the first site, and of Alvania and Schwartziella at Cape Verde. In spite of the large number of rissoids at Madeira archipelago, a large number of species are shared with Canaries, Selvagens, and the Azores, thus only about 8% are endemic to the Madeira archipelago. Most of the 542-rissoid species that live in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean are shallow species (323), 110 are considered as deep species, and 23 species are reported in both shallow and deep waters. There is a predominance of nonplanktotrophs in islands, seamounts, and at high and medium latitudes. This pattern is particularly evident in the genera Crisilla, Manzonia, Onoba, Porosalvania, Schwartziella, and Setia. Planktotrophic species are more abundant in the eastern Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea. The results of the analysis of the probable directions of faunal flows support the patterns found by both the Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and the geographical distribution. Four main source areas for rissoids emerge: Mediterranean, Caribbean, Canaries/Madeira archipelagos, and the Cape Verde archipelago. We must stress the high percentage of endemics that occurs in the isolated islands of Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Cape Verde archipelago and also the Azores, thus reinforcing the legislative protective actions that the local governments have implemented in these islands during the recent years. PMID:22693430

  18. The sensorial structures of Spondylus americanus Hermann,1781 (Mollusca: Bivalvia, Spondylidae

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    Marina Gomes Viana

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Adult animals of Spondylus americanus were analyzed and specialized sensorial structures, the sensorial papillae and the eyes, were characterized. The sensorial papillae were projections on the edge of the mantle in form of light brown fingers which had function of percepting stimulus coming from the medium. They were constituted by loose conjunctive tissues with longitudinal muscular fibers and externally covered by ciliated cubic epithelium, which presented high amount of melanocytes that gave the coloration of the papillae. The eyes were more complex, being on small stalks histologically similar to the papillae. They exhibited a circular formate and had a metallic blue color. Theses structures were constituted by a corneo epithelium, cornea, lens, retina, basal stalk, periocular band and optical nerve. The eyes were distributed asymmetrically to both valves related with the sedentarism of the species. Right valve presented a smaller number of eyes when compared to left one.Foram examinados exemplares adultos de Spondylus. americanus Hermann, 1781 e estruturas especializadas na percepção de estímulos foram caracterizadas: as papilas sensoriais e os ocelos. As papilas sensoriais são projeções do bordo manto em forma de dedos de cor castanha e com a função de perceber estímulos vindo do meio, são constituídas por tecido conjuntivo frouxo contendo fibras musculares longitudinais e revestidas externamente por epitélio cúbico ciliado, o qual apresenta grande quantidade de melanócitos, que dão a coloração das papilas. Os ocelos são mais complexos, estando sobre pequenos pedúnculos histologicamente semelhante às papilas, têm formato circular e possui cor azul metálica. Constituí-se por um epitélio córneo, córnea, lente, retina, pedúnculo basal, banda periocular e nervo óptico. Os ocelos distribuem-se assimetricamente por ambas as valvas, o que está relacionado com o sedentarismo da espécie. A valva direita apresenta menor número de ocelos quando comparada a esquerda.

  19. Anatomia e histologia do aparelho reprodutor masculino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the male reproductive system of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the testis is better evidentiated than the ovary. In the structure of the testis a great number of very small channels converges to a single one. The male copulatory organs result of transformations that take place in the inner surface on the palial membrane. Histologically, the testis of immature males shows seminiferous ducts with round egg-shaped forms. In their lumens we could notice masses of cells that will originate spermatozoids. The penis has a conjunctive muscular sheath that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  20. Phylogenetic Diversity of Cephalopoda (Animalia:Mollusca) Along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea Coastline

    KAUST Repository

    Byron, Gordon

    2016-12-01

    Although the Red Sea presents a unique environment with high temperature and salinity, it remains an area that is understudied. This lack of information is reflected in many areas, one which is biodiversity. Despite increasing work on biodiversity throughout the Red Sea and an increase in Cephalopoda studies, Cephalopoda in the Red Sea remain underrepresented, which is especially pronounced in molecular analyses. Members of the class Cephalopoda are considered to be major contributors to coral reef ecosystems, serving as part of the food chain and exhibiting population increases due to targeted teleost fisheries and global climate change. In order to assess the biodiversity of Cephalopoda in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea, 87 specimens were collected from 25 reef locations between 17°N and 28°N latitude, as well as from the largest fish market in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Taxonomic identification of specimens was determined using morphological comparisons with previously reported species in the Red Sea and the molecular barcoding region Cytochrome Oxidase I. 84 Red Sea sequences were compared with sequences from GenBank and analyzed using a complement of Neighbor-Joining, Maximum-Likelihood, and Bayesian inference trees. Species complexes were also investigated for Sepia pharaonis and Sepioteuthis lessoniana, which had been previously reported. From 17 cuttlefish, our study yielded three species, two of which matched previously reported species in GenBank. In addition, two distinct clades of Sepia pharaonis were identified. Of 35 squid collected, four species were identified, one of which did not match any other accepted species in literature, while Sepioteuthis lessoniana in the Red Sea formed a distinct clade. From 30 different specimens a total of five genera of Octopoda were present, forming six distinct species. Five Octopoda species collected did not match previously reported species, although many specimens were paralarvae or juveniles, so morphologically we could not compare to previously described species in the Red Sea. Cephalopoda fisheries in the Red Sea is low, and as their populations increase worldwide, this could be a viable fishery for Saudi Arabia. As such, further investigation into the role which cephalopods play in supporting biodiversity in the Red Sea is essential.

  1. Fine structure of the mineralized teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata (Mollusca: Polyplacophora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wealthall, Rosamund J; Brooker, Lesley R; Macey, David J; Griffin, Brendan J

    2005-08-01

    The major lateral teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata are composite structures composed of three distinct mineral zones: a posterior layer of magnetite; a thin band of lepidocrocite just anterior to this; and apatite throughout the core and anterior regions of the cusp. Biomineralization in these teeth is a matrix-mediated process, in which the minerals are deposited around fibers, with the different biominerals described as occupying architecturally discrete compartments. In this study, a range of scanning electron microscopes was utilized to undertake a detailed in situ investigation of the fine structure of the major lateral teeth. The arrangement of the organic and biomineral components of the tooth is similar throughout the three zones, having no discrete borders between them, and with crystallites of each mineral phase extending into the adjacent mineral zone. Along the posterior surface of the tooth, the organic fibers are arranged in a series of fine parallel lines, but just within the periphery their appearance takes on a "fish scale"-like pattern, reflective of the cross section of a series of units that are overlaid, and offset from each other, in adjacent rows. The units are approximately 2 microm wide and 0.6 microm thick and comprise biomineral plates separated by organic fibers. Two types of subunits make up each "fish scale": one is elongate and curved and forms a trough, in which the other, rod-like unit, is nestled. Adjacent rod and trough units are aligned into large sheets that define the fracture plane of the tooth. The alignment of the plates of rod-trough units is complex and exhibits extreme spatial variation within the tooth cusp. Close to the posterior surface the plates are essentially horizontal and lie in a lateromedial plane, while anteriorly they are almost vertical and lie in the posteroanterior plane. An understanding of the fine structure of the mineralized teeth of chitons, and of the relationship between the organic and mineral components, provides a new insight into biomineralization mechanisms and controls. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. A checklist of land snails from the west coast islands of Sabah, Borneo (Mollusca, Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee-Chean Phung

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sabah, situated in one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots, has the largest number of islands in Malaysia with more than 500 of various sizes and degrees of isolation. However, information on the islands’ biodiversity is limited. This study provides an up-to-date checklist of land snail species found on 24 west coast islands in Sabah. A total of 67 species (nearly 20% of the total number of land snail species in the state representing 37 genera and 19 families is enumerated based on systematic field surveys of 133 sampling plots, BORNEENSIS database records and species checklists published between 2000 and 2016. The number of species on the islands ranges from four to 29. Labuan Island has the highest number of species (29, followed by Tiga Island (25, Mantanani Besar Island (24 and Gaya Island (23. However, the populations of some land snail species may have declined as several previously recorded species on the islands were not found in a recent systematic field sampling. This checklist is provided as a baseline inventory for future island land snail studies and to better inform biodiversity conservation plans of marine parks and other islands on the Sabah west coast.

  3. Biogeographical homogeneity in the eastern Mediterranean Sea - I: the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda from Lebanon

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    F. CROCETTA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A reviewed knowledge of the opisthobranch species from Lebanon (eastern Mediterranean Sea, based on literature records (scattered throughout various papers published over a period of more than 150 years and recently collected material (1999-2002 within the CEDRE framework and other samples, is presented, yielding a total number of 35 taxa recorded from the Lebanese shores identified to species level. Special emphasis has mainly been given to the alien species, for which scattered notes are also given. The known opisthobranch biota is composed of 22 native (~ 63%, 12 alien (~ 34% and one cryptogenic (~ 3% taxa. Eleven of these (Berthella aurantiaca, B. ocellata, Aplysia fasciata, Felimare picta, Felimida britoi, F. luteorosea, F. purpurea, Phyllidia flava, Dendrodoris grandiflora, D. limbata and Aeolidiella alderi constitute new records for the Lebanese fauna, whilst the examined material of a further seven species (Elysia grandifolia, Pleurobranchus forskalii, Aplysia dactylomela, Bursatella leachii, Syphonota geographica, Goniobranchus annulatus, Flabellina rubrolineata anecdotally cited from Lebanon on the basis of the samples here studied, is here first explained. One additional taxon belonging to the genus Haminoea has been identified to genus level only. Despite the searching effort poning the basis of the material analyzed here, data reported clearly suggest that strong investments are still needed for a better understanding of the eastern Mediterranean opisthobranch fauna.

  4. Evolutionary position of Peruvian land snails (Orthalicidae among Stylommatophora (Mollusca: Gastropoda

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    Jorge Ramirez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The genera Bostryx and Scutalus (Orthalicidae: Bulimulinae are endemics from South America. They are mainly distributed on the western slopes of the Peruvian Andes. The goal of the present work was to assess their evolutionary position among the stylommatophoran gastropods based on the 16S rRNA mitochondrial marker. Four sequences were obtained, and along with 28 sequences of other Stylommatophora retrieved from the GenBank, were aligned with ClustalX. The phylogenetic reconstruction was carried out using the methods of Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference. The multiple sequence alignment had 371 sites, with indels. The two genera of the family Orthalicidae for the first time included in a molecular phylogeny (Bostryx and Scutalus, formed a monophyletic group along with another member of the superfamily Orthalicoidea (Placostylus, result that is comparable with that obtained with nuclear markers. Their evolutionary relationship with other land snails is also discussed.

  5. Caloric variability of Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca, Bivalvia in Rosana Reservoir, Brazil

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    Yara Moretto Bagatini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate temporal and longitudinal variation of caloric density of Corbicula fluminea in Rosana Reservoir. Significant differences concerning the caloric density of C. fluminea were observed throughout the year at the three reservoir sites. The caloric density variation during the year was probably related to reproductive activity, which demanded higher allocation of energy in certain period. The food source used by this species might be an important factor in the caloric value temporal and spatial variation of C. fluminea in Rosana Reservoir.O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a variação temporal e longitudinal da densidade calórica de C. fluminea no reservatório de Rosana. Diferenças significativas na densidade calórica de C. fluminea foram observadas ao longo do ano e nas três estações do reservatório. A variação na densidade calórica de C. fluminea, durante o ano, provavelmente foi relacionada à atividade reprodutiva, que exige uma maior alocação de energia em determinado período. O recurso alimentar utilizado por esta espécie pode ser um importante fator na variação temporal e espacial do valor calórico de C. fluminea no reservatório de Rosana.

  6. Fine structure and immunocytochemistry of a new chemosensory system in the Chiton larva (Mollusca: Polyplacophora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haszprunar, Gerhard; Friedrich, Stefan; Wanninger, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    symmetrically situated pairs lying dorsolaterally and ventrolaterally in the pretrochal part of the trochophore-like larva and they send axons into the cerebral commissure. They are lost at metamorphosis. The fine structure of these cells strongly resembles that of so-called "ampullary cells" known from various...

  7. Geochemical and Crystallographic Study of Turbo Torquatus (Mollusca: Gastropoda) From Southwestern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, L. M.; George, A. D.; Shaw, J.; Hart, R. D.; Roberts, M. P.; Becker, T.; Evans, N. J.; McDonald, B. J.

    2018-01-01

    Shells of the marine gastropod Turbo torquatus were sampled from three different locations along the Western Australian coastline, namely Marmion Lagoon (31°S), Rottnest Island (32°S), and Hamelin Bay (34°S). Marmion Lagoon and Rottnest Island have similar sea surface temperature ranges that are ˜1°C warmer than Hamelin Bay, with all sites influenced by the warm southward flowing Leeuwin Current. The shells were characterized using crystallographic, spectroscopic, and geochemical analyses. Shell mineral composition varies between the three sites suggesting the influence of sea surface temperature, oxygen consumption, and/or bedrock composition on shell mineralogy and preferential incorporation and/or elemental discrimination of Mg, P, and S. Furthermore, T. torquatus was found to exert control over the incorporation of most, if not all, the elements measured here, suggesting strong biological regulation. At all levels of testing, the concentrations of Li varied significantly, which indicates that this trace element may not be a suitable environmental proxy. Variation in Sr concentration between sites and between specimens reflects combined environmental and biological controls suggesting that Sr/Ca ratios in T. torquatus cannot be used to estimate sea surface temperature without experimentally accounting for metabolic and growth effects. The mineral composition and microstructure of T. torquatus shells may help identify sea surface temperature variations on geological time scales. These findings support the previously hypothesized involvement of an active selective pathway across the calcifying mantle of T. torquatus for most, if not all, the elements measured here.

  8. An annotated list of the species of the genus Corbicula from Indonesia (Mollusca: Corbiculidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djajasasmita, Machfudz

    1977-01-01

    The species of the genus Corbicula known from Indonesia are alphabetically listed and noted. Sixteen out of the 35 described species are considered valid, i.e. C. gustaviana, C. moltkiana, C. sumatrana, C. tobae and C. tumida from Sumatra; C. javanica, C. pulchella and C. rivalis from Java; C.

  9. Wood-Boring Bivalves (Mollusca: Teredinidae, Pholadidae) of Pacific coast of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantera K, Jaime R

    2010-01-01

    Twelve species of wood-boring bivalves, ten of the family Teredinidae and two of family Pholadidae were collected in mangroves at 6 locations of the Pacific coast of Colombia. This paper presents a brief escription of these species, including size, ecological notes and geographical distribution.

  10. On the morphology of Laevapex vazi n. sp. from Brazil (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Basommatophora: Ancylidae

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    Sonia Barbosa dos Santos

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A description of Laevapex vazi n. sp. based on 8 specimens collectec in Ourinhos, state of São Paulo, is presented. Shell thin, diaphanous, with a light brown periostracum and moderately elliptical opening. Apex not pointed, smooth, situated on the right posterior region of the shell, inclined to the right often reaching the edge of the shell or extending beyond it. Concentric lines clearly visible; radial striation not visible or when perceptible very thin, here and there. Ratios: shell width/shell lenght = 0,60 - 0,67 (mean = 0,63; shell height/shell length = 0,50 - 0,61 (mean = 0,55; shell height/shell width = 0,33 - 0,40 (mean = 0,35. Body of normal ancylid type; mantle pigmentation concentrated on the left side; three muscles are seen: a round posterior one on the left side, an elliptical muscle on the right anterior side and an almost almond-shaped one on the left anterior side. Tentacles with a medium core of black pigment. Pseudobranch two-lobed and folded, the dorsal lobe smaller than the vetral one. Ovotestis with 20 unbranched diverticula, around a short collecting canal. Ovispermiduct with an enlargement with several round outpocketings constituting the seminal vesicle. Carrefour as a round sac. Albumen gland almost cylindrical with several acinous diverticula. Elongated nidamental gland continous with the galndular wall of the uterus; uterus flattened and thin-walled. Spermathecal body almost rounded. Pear-shaped prostate without diverticula. Penial complex without flagellum but with well-developed ultra-penis and penis. Jaw horseshoe shaped. Radular forma 20.1.20; raquidian tooth quadricuspid, asymmetrical. The genus Laevapex Walker, 1903 is recorded for the first time in Brazil. It is easily distinguished from South American Gundlachia Pfeiffer, 1849 by its penial complex. Laevapex vazi is dedicated to Dr. Jorge Faria Vaz, from SUCEN-SP, who have been sent to me the specimens.

  11. The Transcriptomes of Xiphinema index and Longidorus elongatus Suggest Independent Acquisition of Some Plant Parasitism Genes by Horizontal Gene Transfer in Early-Branching Nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danchin, Etienne G.J.; Perfus-Barbeoch, Laetitia; Rancurel, Corinne; Thorpe, Peter; Rocha, Da Martine; Bajew, Simon; Neilson, Roy; Sokolova, Elena; Silva, Da Corinne; Guy, Julie; Labadie, Karine; Esmenjaud, Daniel; Helder, Hans; Jones, John T.; Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Nematodes have evolved the ability to parasitize plants on at least four independent occasions, with plant parasites present in Clades 1, 2, 10 and 12 of the phylum. In the case of Clades 10 and 12, horizontal gene transfer of plant cell wall degrading enzymes from bacteria and fungi has been

  12. Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae as an intermediate host of Centrocestus formosanus (Trematoda: Heterophyidae in Brazil Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae como hospedeiro intermediário de Centrocestus formosanus (Trematoda: Heterophyidae no Brasil

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    Hudson Alves Pinto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pleurolophocercous cercariae emerged from naturally infected Melanoides tuberculata from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were used to perform experimental infection of laboratory-reared Poecilia reticulata. Mature metacercariae were obtained from the gills of fishes and force-fed to Mus musculus. The adult parasites which recovered from small intestines of mice were identified as Centrocestus formosanus. This is the first report of M. tuberculata as intermediate host of this heterophyid in Brazil.Cercárias do tipo pleurolofocerca emergidas de Melanoides tuberculata naturalmente infectados coletados na represa da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, foram utilizadas para a infecção experimental de Poecilia reticulata criados em laboratório. Metacercárias maduras foram obtidas nas brânquias dos peixes e administradas por via oral a Mus musculus. Parasitos adultos recuperados no intestino delgado dos camundongos foram identificados como Centrocestus formosanus. Este é o primeiro relato de M. tuberculata como hospedeiro intermediário deste parasito no Brasil.

  13. Desarrollo morfológico e histológico del sistema reproductor de Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922 (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae Morphological and histological development of the reproductive system of Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922 (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AURA CARREÓN-PALAU

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El "tegogolo" Pomacea patula catemacensis es un gasterópodo dulceacuícola comestible, endémico del Lago de Catemaco en Veracruz, México. En los últimos años las poblaciones naturales se han visto diezmadas debido a que su captura se realiza sin control, a lo que se suma el alto grado de deterioro ambiental que presenta el lago, producto del "azolvamiento", así como por la contaminación por plaguicidas y detergentes. El objetivo del presente estudio fue caracterizar histológica y morfológicamente el sistema reproductor de P. patula catemacensis y determinar las etapas de madurez gonádica en condiciones de laboratorio. Se determinó que la maduración depende de la talla y no de la edad de los organismos, y se identificaron cuatro etapas principales en el desarrollo de machos y hembras: Los estadios y sus longitudes promedio ± intervalo de confianza del 95 % son (1 inmadura o indiferenciada (talla de 0,72 a 7 mm, (2 maduración temprana (18,95 ± 1,96 mm, (3 maduración intermedia (29,29 ± 4,9 mm y (4 madurez total (35,89 ± 3,92 mm. En este molusco los sexos están separados, la fertilización es interna y el desarrollo es ovovivíparo. En las hembras la secreción de albúmina y de carbonato de calcio se realiza en la glándula de la albúmina, característica en la que difiere de otras especies como P. paludosa y P. canaliculata, las cuales poseen además glándula de la cápsula. Es posible identificar el grado de madurez de los caracoles utilizando criterios anatómicos visuales, como la glándula de la albúmina, en el caso de la hembra, y el órgano copulador en el machoThe "apple snail" Pomacea patula catemacensis is an edible freshwater mollusc, endemic to the Catemaco Lake in Veracruz, Mexico. During the past few years, the natural populations of this species have been depleted mainly by uncontrolled fishery, and because of environmental degradation and pollution by pesticides and detergents. In the present study, we carried out the histological and morphological characterization of the reproductive system of P. patula catemacensis under laboratory conditions. We found that the reproductive development of this snail depended more on the size than on the age the animals, and identified four development main stages, both for males and females. The main stages and their mean lengths ± confidence interval at P < 0.05 were (1 immature or not differenced (from 0.72 to 7 mm, (2 early maturation (from 18.95 ± 1.96 mm, (3 intermediate maturation (from 29.29 ± 4.9 mm, and (4 full maturity (from 35.89 ± 3.92 mm. This species is ovoviviparous, both sexes are separated, and fertilization is internal. Albumin and calcium carbonate secretion in females are performed through the albumin gland, a trait that distinguishes this species from others, such as P. paludosa and P. canaliculata. The stage of development can be identified by means of using anatomical traits, such as the albumin gland (in the case of females, or the intromittent organ (in males

  14. Os gêneros Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 e Leucozonia Gray, 1847 no nordeste brasileiro (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 in the northeastern Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Matthews-Cascon

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 are represented in Northeastern Brazil by three species. Fasciolaria aurantiaca Lamarck, 1816; Leucozonia ocellata (Gmelin, 1791 and Leucozonia nassa (Gmelin, 1791. The three species are described and illustrated. An identification key for all the above mentioned taxa is included, together with some ecological data. The anatomy and radula of Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa are described and illustrated. Polimorfism in Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa is discussed.

  15. Algumas observações de campo sobre biologia e ecologia de Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856 (Mollusca, Pilidae Some field observation on biology and ecology of Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856 (Mollusca, Pilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Tito Guimarães

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Algumas observações de campo sobre o pilídeo Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856, predador-competidor de planorbíneos hospedeiros intermediários da esquistossomose mansoni mostraram que: Cópula e oviposição são realizadas, preferencialmente, à noite e de madrugada. As desovas - cujas dimensões e formas dependem do número de ovos e tipos dos suportes - sao ovipostas, na maioria das vezes, de 6 a 10 cm acima do nível da água eclodindo após 9 a 30 dias de incubação; o número médio de ovos por desova foi de 236. A alimentação habitual deste molusco consiste de algas confervóides, além de vegetais aquáticos natantes e submersos; entretanto, e comum a utilização de outros materiais como alimento.Tem como habitat a zona marginal mais rasa das coleções hídricas onde e encontrado, predominando, aparentemente, nos ambientes lênticos. A distribuição espacial esta condicionada por determinadas características dos biótopos. Algumas aves aquáticas - anatídeos, ralídeos, etc.- revelaram-se importantes inimigos naturais, atacando além das desovas exemplares jovens e adultos; em determinadas condições podem constituir fator impeditivo da implantação e colonização de novos biótopos.Some field observations on the pilid Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856, predator-competitor of schistosomiasis mansoni planorbid intermediate hosts have shown that: Copula and oviposition are preferably carried out at night or at dawn. Eggmasses - whose dimension and shape depend on the number of eggs and types of supports - are often laid from 6 to 10 com above the water level and hatched 9 to 30 days after incubation; the average number of eggs/egg-mass was 236. Habitual food consist of confervoid algae, besides natant and submerged aquatic vegetation; it is common, however, the utilization of the other material as food. Its habitat is the shallower marginal zone of hidric collections, predominatly in lentic surrounding. Its spacial distribution is conditioned to the biotipe special characteristics. Some aquatic birds - anatid, ralid, etc. - reveal important natural enemies, attacking both young and adult specimens, besides the egg-masses; under certain conditions they may be an impedictive factor to the establishment and colonization of this pilid in new biotopes.

  16. A new species of Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida commensal of Pomella megastoma (Mollusca, Ampullariidae from Misiones, Argentina Una especie nueva de Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida comensal de Pomella megastoma (Mollusca, Ampullariidae de Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Damborenea

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Temnocephala lamothei n. sp., a commensal of Pomella megastoma (Sowerby, 1825, is described herein from specimens collected at Arroyo Yabotí-Miní (Misiones province, Argentina. Juveniles and adults were removed from the mantle cavity by host relaxation. Distinctive characters of the new species are: non-partitioned intestine; conical cirrus with 1 face flat and another concave; distal area with spines, as evidenced by a strong, oblique sclerotized ring, and 2 rows of long spines, an internal one with long spines arising from base of introvert and an external one arising from distal end of the introvert. The closest species are T. iheringi, T. rochensis and T. haswelli, which are also commensals of mollusc species. The presence of this new species of Temnocephala, and its similarity to the other species that are commensals of molluscan species, suggest the existence of a morphologically homogeneous group.Temnocephala lamothei n. sp., comensal de Pomella megastoma (Sowerby, 1825, se describe para el arroyo Yabotí-Miní, provincia de Misiones, Argentina. Se extrajeron ejemplares juveniles y adultos de la cavidad paleal, por relajación de los hospederos. Las características distintivas de la nueva especie son: intestino no septado, cirro de forma cónica, con una cara plana y otra cóncava, zona distal con espinas evidente por un fuerte anillo oblicuo esclerosado. Dos hileras de espinas se reconocen en el extremo distal, 1 interna de espinas largas, que surge desde la base del introverso, y 1 externa, que surge del extremo distal del mismo. Las especies más semejantes son T. iheringi, T. rochensis y T. haswelli, especies comensales de moluscos con las que es comparada. El hallazgo de esta nueva especie de Temnocephala y sus características semejantes a las restantes especies del género comensales de moluscos, sugieren que las especies conocidas hasta la fecha formen un grupo morfológicamente homogéneo.

  17. Registro de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda no Brasil: caramujo hospedeiro intermediário da angiostrongilíase Occurrence of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda in Brazil: intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horácio Manuel Santana Teles

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de Achatina fulica é assinalada em Itariri, SP, Brasil. Essa espécie de caramujo terrestre foi importada para cultivo, visando à comercialização para consumo humano como "escargot". O encontro de exemplares em vida livre mostra a dispersão de A. fulica e, conseqüentemente, o risco de transmissão de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematóide parasita do homem e de outros vertebrados. Além disso, o caramujo é uma praga importante da agricultura.Achatina fulica, the intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis and also an agricultural pest, is being bred in Brazil for human consumption as "escargot". The snail has escaped from its artificial breeding sites and its dispersal in Itariri county, State of S. Paulo, is reported here for the first time. A. fulica is a transmitter of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematode which causes meningoencephalic angiostrongyliasis; the risks of human contamination are commented on.

  18. Desarrollo morfológico e histológico del sistema reproductor de Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922) (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae) Morphological and histological development of the reproductive system of Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922) (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae)

    OpenAIRE

    AURA CARREÓN-PALAU; ESTHER URIA-GALICIA; FÉLIX ESPINOSA-CHÁVEZ; FERNANDO MARTÍNEZ-JERÓNIMO

    2003-01-01

    El "tegogolo" Pomacea patula catemacensis es un gasterópodo dulceacuícola comestible, endémico del Lago de Catemaco en Veracruz, México. En los últimos años las poblaciones naturales se han visto diezmadas debido a que su captura se realiza sin control, a lo que se suma el alto grado de deterioro ambiental que presenta el lago, producto del "azolvamiento", así como por la contaminación por plaguicidas y detergentes. El objetivo del presente estudio fue caracterizar histológica y morfológicame...

  19. Spermatozoan ultrastructure in the trigonioid bivalve Neotrigonia margaritacea Lamarck (Mollusca): Comparison with other bivalves, especially Trigonioida and Unionoida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, J. M.

    1996-06-01

    Spermatozoa of the trigonioid bivalve Neotrigonia margaritacea (Lamarck) (Trigoniidae, Trigonioida) are examined ultrastructurally. A cluster of discoidal, proacrosomal vesicles (between 9 to 15 in number) constitutes the acrosomal complex at the nuclear apex. The nucleus is short (2.4 2.6 μm long, maximum diameter 2.2 μm), blunt-conical in shape, and exhibits irregular lacunae within its contents. Five or sometimes four round mitochondria are impressed into shallow depressions in the base of the nucleus as is a discrete centriolar fossa. The mitochondria surround two orthogonally arranged centrioles to form, collectively, the midpiece region. The distal centriole, anchored by nine satellite fibres to the plasma membrane, acts as a basal body to the sperm flagellum. The presence of numerous proacrosomal vesicles instead of a single, conical acrosomal vesicle sets Neotrigonia (and the Trigonioida) apart from other bivalves, with the exception of the Unionoida which are also known to exhibit this multivesicular condition. Spermatozoa of N. margaritacea are very similar to those of the related species Neotrigonia bednalli (Verco) with the exception that the proacrosomal vesicles of N. margaritacea are noticeably larger than those of N. bednalli.

  20. Opisthobranchs from the western Indian Ocean, with descriptions of two new species and ten new records (Mollusca, Gastropoda

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    Nathalie Yonow

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Seventy species of opisthobranchs are described in this work based on collections from the Persian Gulf, Socotra, Kenya, Zanzibar, Madagascar, La Réunion, Mauritius, the Seychelles, the Maldives, and Sri Lanka. Ten species are newly recorded from the western Indian Ocean and four species are recorded in the scientific literature for the first time since their original descriptions. Two species are described as new: Cyerce bourbonica sp. n. from La Réand Doriopsilla nigrocera sp. n. from the Persian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia. Chromodoris cavae is removed from its synonymy with C. tennentana and redescribed from specimens from La Réunion, while several new synonyms are proposed for some commonly occurring species. Risbecia bullockii is recorded for the second time from the Indian Ocean and assigned to its correct genus.

  1. Seasonal variations in metal content of two Unio pictorum mancus (Mollusca, Unionidae populations from two lakes of different trophic state

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    Pier Renato TRINCHERINI

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available To assess the impact of lake trophy on trace element accumulation by Unio pictorum mancus, a population from the mesooligotrophic Lake Maggiore was compared with a population from the eutrophic Lake Candia. The element content in soft tissue and shell biomass, the seasonal variations of element concentrations in soft tissues and shell, and the relationship between element concentrations in the water and those in the tissues were estimated in pursuit of this objective. Thirteen mussel samplings were performed in Lake Maggiore between May 2003 and September 2004 and in Lake Candia between June 2003 and August 2004. Filtered water samples were collected seasonally. Water, shell and soft tissue samples were analysed by ICP-OES and ICP-MS for the measurement of following elements: Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, As, Pb, Co, Cr, Mo, V, Cd, Be and Ca. The element concentrations in the mussel tissues and shell from Lake Maggiore were higher than those from Lake Candia. Due to the higher population density and higher element concentrations in the mussels of Lake Maggiore, the element content in the biomass per m2 in this lake far exceeded that in Lake Candia. The element concentrations in the mussel tissues, but not in their shells, of both lakes showed a seasonal pattern of variation; this was to be expected as a result of the slower turnover time of the elements in the shell than in the tissues. For all the elements, except Mo, Cr and Be, the "concentration factor" (C.F. value was higher in Lake Maggiore than in Lake Candia mussels, ranging from 10 to 104 and 10 to 103 respectively. The higher concentrations in the mussel tissues from Lake Maggiore were justified not merely by the higher element concentrations in the lake water, but probably also because other causes, such as element concentrations in food and element abundance in available forms, combine to affect the concentrations of the elements in the tissues.

  2. The effects of mercury exposure on the surface morphology of gill filaments in Perna perna (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gregory, MA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available each animal were analysed for mercury using an atomic absorption spectrometer. Mercury concentration increased from 0.13 (pre-immersion) to 87 mu g/g after day 24. Surface morphology remained normal for all animals in tank 2 and for those exposed to Hg...

  3. Detection and genetic distance of resistant populations of Pseudosuccinea columella (Mollusca: Lymnaeidae) to Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda: Digenea) using RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calienes, Aymé Fernandez; Fraga, Jorge; Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Yong, Mary; Sanchez, Jorge; Coustau, Christine; Gutiérrez, Alfredo; Théron, André

    2004-09-01

    Twelve natural populations of Pseudosuccinea columella snails, sampled in the western and central regions of Cuba, were analyzed using the RAPD-PCR technique to screen for resistance to Fasciola hepatica. Ten OPA primers previously shown to produce marker bands for resistance and susceptibility were tested. A new population of P. columella (El Azufre, Pinar del Río) exhibited the amplification patterns of resistant snails, and its resistant status was confirmed after experimental exposure to miracidia. No genetic variability was detected across or within the susceptible isolates. Similarly, the novel resistant isolate displayed an RAPD profile identical to the profile of two other isolates previously identified as resistant to F. hepatica. However, clear differences in RAPD banding patterns and genetic distance were observed between resistant and susceptible isolates.

  4. Marine Mollusca of isotope stages of the last 2 million years in New Zealand. Part 3, Gastropoda (Vetigastropoda - Littorinimorpha)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beu, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Three new species: Grandicrepidula hemispherica (Nukumaruan, S Hawke's Bay), Pelicaria Granttaylori (Mangapanian-early Nukumaruan, Wanganui-Hawke's Bay), Pelicaria arahura (Waipipian-early Mangapanian, Westland and Hawke's Bay). Drawings of marine species in Smith's (1874) three plates of New Zealand molluscan types are republished. Further Australian molluscs in Wanganui Basin: Sabia australis (Lamarck), Clanculus plebejus (Philippi), both early Nukumaruan. Further northern New Zealand molluscs in Wanganui Basin: Stephopoma roseum (Quoy and Gaimard), OIS 13, 9. Distinctive gastropods extinct at end Nukumaruan: Struthiolaria frazeri (Hutton), Taxonia suteri (Marwick). Taniella planisuturalis (Marwick) (Opoitian-Nukumaruan, southern NZ) and Trivia (Ellatrivia) zealandica (Kirk) (Nukumaruan, Hawke's Bay-Wanganui; Castlecliffian, North Canterbury) occur in Castlecliffian (OIS 15?) rocks at Whakatane. Cantharidella tessellate (A. Adams) and Risellopsis varia (Hutton), formerly Haweran, are recorded from Nukumaruan and Castlecliffian rocks, respectively. New fossil late Nukumaruan-early Castlecliffian records listed from Mikonui-1 offshore well, Westland, include Malluvium calcareum (Suter) and 10 other species. Other biostratigraphically useful gastropods: Calliostoma (Maurea) nukumaruense (Laws) (Mangapanian-OIS 17); Argobuccinum pustulosum (Lightfoot), Semicassis labiate (Perry) (both earliest in OIS 7). New synonymy: Zeacumantus perplexus (Marshall and Murdoch) =Z. lutulentus (Kiener); Pelicaria vermis (Martyn) =all named Nukumaruan-Recent forms (other than P. rugosa (Marwick) and P. granttaylori n. sp.); Trivia flora Marwick =T.zealandica Kirk. Taxonomy revised: Zelippistes benhami (Suter) (OIS 13 and 9 at Wanganui), distinguished from Lippistes and Separatista; Stiracolpus species, informally; Maoricrypta profunda (Hutton), Waipipian-early Castlecliffian (- OIS 19); M. radiata (Hutton) (=incurva Zittel,=hochetteriana Woods, =wilckensi Finlay), (Middle Miocene?) Tongaporutuan-Opoitian; Eunaticina cincta (Hutton), holotype illustrated. (author). 427 refs., 22 figs.

  5. Genetics and shell morphometrics of assimineids (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Truncatelloidea in the St Lucia Estuary, South Africa

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    Nelson Miranda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Assimineidae are a family of amphibious microgastropods that can be mostly found in estuaries and mangroves in South Africa. These snails often occur in great numbers and are ecologically important to the St Lucia Estuary, which forms a crucial part of the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Genetic and shell morphometric analyses were conducted on individuals collected from nine localities distributed from the northern lake regions to the southern lake and the mouth of the St Lucia estuarine lake. Mitochondrial (COI and nuclear (28S DNA was used to construct Bayesian Inference, Neighbour-joining, Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood trees. Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis were performed on standard shell parameter data. Results indicate that two different taxa are present in St Lucia. The taxon comprising individuals from the South Lake and St Lucia Estuary Mouth is identified as Assiminea cf. capensis Bartsch, in accordance with the latest taxonomic consensus. The taxon comprising assimineid individuals from False Bay, North Lake and South Lake, is here tentatively named “A.” aff. capensis (Sowerby. These two taxa exhibit patterns of spatial overlap that appear to vary depending on environmental parameters, particularly salinity. The need to resolve the complex taxonomy of assimineids is highlighted.

  6. Seasonal variation in the abundance and distribution of Anomalocardia flexuosa (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae in an estuarine intertidal plain

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    Jacqueline S. Silva-Cavalcanti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal density and biomass of the infaunal mollusk Anomalocardia flexuosa (Linnaeus, 1767 evaluated a tidal plain at Goiana estuary (Northeast Brazil. Three hundred and sixty core samples were taken during an annual cycle from three intertidal habitats (A, B and C. Shell ranged from 2.20 to 28.48 mm (15.08 ± 4.08 mm. Recruitment occurred more intensely from January to March. Total (0–1,129 g m−2 differed seasons (rainy and dry, with highest values in the early rainy season (221.0 ± 231.44 g m−2; and lowest values in the late dry season (57.34 ± 97 g m−2. The lowest occurred during the late rainy (319 ± 259 ind m−2 and early dry (496 ± 607 ind m−2 seasons. Extreme environmental situations (e.g., river flow, salinity and water temperature at the end of each season also affected density ranges (late dry: 0–5,798 ind m−2; late rainy: 0–1,170 ind m−2. A. flexuosa in the Goiana estuary presented a dominance of juvenile individuals (shell length < 20 mm, with high biomass main the recruitment period. Average shell length, density and biomass values suggest overfishing of the stock unit. A. flexuosa is an important food and income resource along its whole distribution range. The species was previously also known as Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791.

  7. Myogenesis in Aplysia californica (Cooper, 1863) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) with special focus on muscular remodeling during metamorphosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2008-01-01

    To date only few comparative approaches tried to reconstruct the ontogeny of the musculature in invertebrates. This may be due to the difficulties involved in reconstructing three dimensionally arranged muscle systems by means of classical histological techniques combined with light or transmissi...

  8. Detection of Bioactive Compounds in the Mucus Nets of Dendropoma maxima, Sowerby 1825 (Prosobranch Gastropod Vermetidae, Mollusca

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    Anne Klöppel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sessile suspension-feeding wormsnail Dendropoma maxima, Sowerby 1825 (Vermetidae secretes a mucus net to capture planktonic prey. The nets are spread out over the corals and often have remarkable deleterious effects on them like changes in growth form and pigmentation shifts not uncommonly resulting in tissue necrosis. Until now, there is no explanation for this phenomenon although the indication as well as theories about its genesis is mentioned in several publications. Vermetids are well studied concerning the intraspecific competition with neighboring individuals but not in their interaction with other taxa like corals or fish. We did extensive in situ video recording and observed that fish avoided the plankton-load nets although several specialized taxa are known to be molluscivores, mucivores, and/or feed on plankton. As many molluscs use chemical weapons to combat feeding pressure and to defend themselves against predators, we screened empty and plankton-load mucus nets for potential bioactive metabolites. Bioactivity testing was performed with a recently developed system based on a chromatographic separation (high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC and a bioassay with luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. Thus, we found at least two active compounds exclusively accumulated by the wormsnails themselves. This is the first record of bioactive properties in the whole family of Vermetidae.

  9. Effect of zinc and benzene on respiration and excretion of mussel larvae (Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca; Bivalvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADLVC. Jorge

    Full Text Available The presence of pollutants in the ocean may affect different physiological parameters of animals. Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion were evaluated in D-shaped larvae of mussels (Perna perna exposed to zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 and benzene (C6H6. When compared to the control group, both pollutants presented a significant reduction in oxygen consumption. A reduction in the ammonia excretion was also observed, both for ZnSO4 and C6H6 and also in the oxygen consumption. The results indicate that anaerobic metabolism may occur at the beginning of P. perna mussels development, as observed in veliger larvae. The O:N ratio under experimental conditions showed low values indicating that catabolism in veliger larvae was predominantly proteic.

  10. Metal concentrations in Unio pictorum mancus (Mollusca, Lamellibranchia from of 12 Northern Italian lakes in relation to their trophic level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo LODIGIANI

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to test the reliability of environmental monitoring by bioaccumulators of pollutants; that is to establish a positive relationship between the pollutant concentrations in the bioaccumulator and those in the water in which it lives. To this end we analysed the contents of Al, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Ca in the soft tissues and shell of Unio pictorum mancus. The filtered water samples from the mussel habitat were analysed for the same metals. The mussels were collected from 15 stations settled in 12 Northern Italian lakes during the first two weeks of July 2001. These results were obtained: a metal concentrations varied widely with mussel size and among stations; b a significant positive correlation between the concentration of calcium in the water and in the mussel tissues, but no relationship emerged for the other metals; c no relationship between the metal concentrations in the tissues and those in the shell was found; d there was a certain tendency for Mn, Fe and Zn concentrations in the soft tissues to increase with shell size; e the sequence of the decreasing metal concentrations arranged for the tissues was similar to that of the shell, but rather different from that in the water; and f the concentration factor values of the trace metals were high for the shell and soft tissues. In highly productive lakes large size mussels dominated, whereas small mussels were more abundant in low productive lakes. Although the metal concentrations in the water of productive lakes were greater than in low productive ones, the metal concentrations in the tissues of the mussels from the latter were generally higher than those in the mussels from the former. We propose some hypotheses to explain this paradox. Finally, our results show that the metal concentrations in the mussels do not reflect the metal concentrations in the water in which they live. It follows that this commonly used but oversimplified monitoring system cannot be recommended. On the other hand mussels may be very useful for other purposes, such as identifying new pollutants or pollutants present in such low concentrations that they cannot be measured with the commonly used methods. The pollutant content of mussels may enable the variations in time of the pollutant level of an environment to be monitored. In addition, the transplantation of mussels from a clean site to a polluted one may be a useful tool for identify the pollutants of the receiving environment.

  11. Isolation and Characterization of the First Microsatellite Markers for the Endangered Relict Mussel Hypanis colorata (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Cardiidae

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    Luis Ovidiu Popa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypanis colorata (Eichwald, 1829 (Cardiidae: Lymnocardiinae is a bivalve relict species with a Ponto-Caspian distribution and is under strict protection in Romania, according to national regulations. While the species is depressed in the western Black Sea lagoons from Romania and Ukraine, it is also a successful invader in the middle Dniepr and Volga regions. Establishing a conservation strategy for this species or studying its invasion process requires knowledge about the genetic structure of the species populations. We have isolated and characterized nine polymorphic microsatellite markers in H. colorata. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 28 and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.613 to 1.000. The microsatellites developed in the present study are highly polymorphic and they should be useful for the assessment of genetic variation within this species.

  12. Abyssal Solenogastres (Mollusca, Aplacophora from the Northwest Pacific: Scratching the Surface of Deep-Sea Diversity Using Integrative Taxonomy

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    Franziska S. Bergmeier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Solenogastres (Aplacophora is a small clade of marine, shell-less worm-molluscs with close to 300 valid species. Their distribution ranges across all oceans, and whereas the vast majority of species has been collected and described from the continental shelf and slope, only few species are known from depths below 4,000 m. Following traditional taxonomy, identification of specimens to species level is complex and time-consuming and requires detailed investigations of morphology and anatomy—often resulting in the exclusion of the clade in biodiversity or biogeographic studies. During the KuramBio expedition (Kuril-Kamchatka Biodiversity Studies to the abyssal plain of the Northwest Pacific and the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench, 33 solenogaster specimens were sampled from 4,830 m to 5,397 m. Within this study we present an efficient workflow to address solenogaster diversity, even when confronted with a high degree of singletons and minute body sizes, hampering the use of single individuals for multiple morphological and molecular approaches. We combine analyses of external characters and scleritome with molecular barcoding based on a self-designed solenogaster specific set of mitochondrial primers. Overall we were able to delineate at least 19 solenogaster lineages and identify 15 species to family level and beyond. Based on our approach we identified three key lineages from the two regionally most species-rich families (Acanthomeniidae and Pruvotinidae for deeper taxonomic investigations and describe the novel abyssal species Amboherpia abyssokurilensis sp. nov. (Cavibelonia, Acanthomeniidae using microanatomical 3D-reconstructions. Our study more than doubles the previous records of solenogaster species from the Northwest Pacific and its marginal seas. Almost all lineages are reported for the first time from the region of the (Northwest Pacific, vastly expanding distribution ranges of the respective clades. Moreover it doubles the number of Solenogastres collected from abyssal depths on a global scale and underlines the lack of exploratory α-diversity work in the abyssal zone for reliable species estimates in marine biodiversity.

  13. Conservational status and demographic characteristics of Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) on the Alboran Island (Western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Paracuellos, M.; Nevado, J. C.; Moreno, D.; Giménez, A.; Alesina, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Due to the high risk of the global extinction in which Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is found, it is considered of great interest to describe and quantify its demographic characteristics in those sites where it still persists, as well as to evaluate the reasons which have led this limpet to be one of the most threatened marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Over the study period (2000-2002), systematic census were made on the perimeter of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, westernmost area...

  14. Conservational status and demographic characteristics of Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca, Gastropoda on the Alboran Island (Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paracuellos, M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high risk of the global extinction in which Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is found, it is considered of great interest to describe and quantify its demographic characteristics in those sites where it still persists, as well as to evaluate the reasons which have led this limpet to be one of the most threatened marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Over the study period (2000-2002, systematic census were made on the perimeter of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, westernmost area of the Mediterranean Sea with the object to quantify the abundance of the species in the locality, as well as their external biometry and spatial distribution. As a result, the presence of a probable reproductive population of P. ferruginea was found on the island. The negative effect provoked by the continuous presence of man was proved, prejudicing the population in those zones which were more accessible for their harvesting. For this reason, it is necessary to regulate the use of the natural resources of the island to favour the conservation and spontaneous recolonisation of the zone by P. ferruginea.

  15. Conservational status and demographic characteristics of Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) on the Alboran Island (Western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Paracuellos, M.; Nevado, J. C.; Moreno, D.; Giménez, A.; Alesina, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Due to the high risk of the global extinction in which Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is found, it is considered of great interest to describe and quantify its demographic characteristics in those sites where it still persists, as well as to evaluate the reasons which have led this limpet to be one of the most threatened marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Over the study period (2000–2002), systematic census were made on the perimeter of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, westernmost area...

  16. Recrutamento larval e crescimento de teredinidae (mollusca-bivalvia em região entremarés de manguezais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Godoy Bueno Carvalho Lopes

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available O recrutamento larval e o crescimento de Teredinidae na região entremarés do manguezal da Praia Dura, Ubatuba, SP, foi acompanhado durante doze meses (08/84 a 08/85 utilizando coletores construídos com madeira de mangue. O tempo decorrido para se detectar a presença dos primeiros Teredinidae foi de aproximadamente sete meses após o início do experimento e o número de indivíduos por coletor foi muito reduzido no período de amostragem. Esses resultados contrastam com os obtidos por outros autores que instalaram coletores em ambiente marinho, mas são semelhantes aos obtidos por autores que instalaram coletores em regiões estuarinas do litoral brasileiro. Essas diferenças nos resultados talvez possam ser explicadas pelo fato da salinidade ser mais baixa e mais variável nos estuários que no ambiente marinho. A análise dos dados sobre o recrutamento larval, permite concluir que a espécie mais abundante foi Nausitora fustieula (Jeffreys, 1860, com principal época de instalação em março e taxa inicial de crescimento de 1,86 mm/day. As outras espécies de Teredinidae, Bankiaflmbriatula Moll & Roch, 1931, Bankia roehi Moll, 1931 e Neoteredo reynei (Bartsch, 1920, apresentaram pequeno número de indivíduos e em função disso, não foi possível determinar suas épocas de instalação e respectivas taxas de crescimento.The larval settlement and growth of Teredinidae in the intertidal region of the Praia Dura mangrove, Ubatuba, SP, were undertaken during one year (08/84 to 08/85 using colectors made from mangrove wood. The presence of the first Teredinidae was detected approximately seven month after the inicial experiment and the number of specimens per coletor was small during the sampling period. These results contrast with those obtained by other authors working in a marine environment, but are similar to those obtained in experiments developed in Brazilian estuaries. The differences between data obtained in marine and estuarine environments, might be explained by the lower and more variable salinity gradient in estuaries. Larval settlement data revealed that the most abundant species was Nausitora fustieula (Jeffreys,1860, which settles on wood prefrerably in March, and has an initial growth rate of 1.86 mm/day. The other Teredinidae species Banida fimbriatula Moll & Roch, 1931, Bankia rochi Moll, 1931 and Neoteredo reynei (Bartsch, 1920, occurred in a very small number of specimens and therefore, their time of settlement and growth rates could not be determined.

  17. Comparative studies on the histology and ultrastructure of the siphons of two species of Tellinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João E.V.V. Vitonis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great importance of the siphons for infaunal bivalves, only a few studies have examined their tissues using histology techniques or scanning electron microscopy. In the present study, the siphons of Tellina lineata Turton, 1819 and Macoma biota Arruda & Domaneschi, 2005 were investigated. The siphon walls are composed by a series of muscle sheets of longitudinal ("L", circular ("C" and radial ("R" fibers, with a clear pattern common to both species: there is a main median longitudinal layer (Lm, and two peripheral circular layers, one inner (Ci and one outer (Co, near the epithelia. A median circular layer (Cm separates an internal (Lmi from an outer (Lmo median longitudinal layer. Further, the Co is split by a thin outer longitudinal layer (Lo, forming Coi and Coo layers, the former being obliquely oriented. Thin radial fibers (R delimit clear packages of Lmi and Lmo fibers. In each siphon, there are six longitudinal nerve cords, running within the Lmi layer, adjacent to the Cm. The inhalant and exhalant siphons of M. biota are very similar in structure, but the Lmo of the exhalant siphon is almost twice as thick as its Lmi, while in the inhalant siphon these layers have similar thicknesses; the Coi is very thick, especially in the exhalant siphon. The inhalant siphon of T. lineata is very similar to that of M. biota, differing only with respect to the thickness of the Coi, which in the former species is not as well developed as in the latter. The Lmo of the exhalant siphon of T. lineata is by far the most developed layer, with the Lmi represented only by uniseriate small cells; in the vicinities of the nerve cords, the Cm is split in two layers. The epithelia of both siphons of M. biota and T. lineata bear ciliated receptors, which were difficult to observe as they were frequently covered with mucus. It was possible to observe that cilia are present in both species, differing in length and in the number per receptor between the inhalant and exhalant siphons, and between the species. Detailed comparisons among the siphons of M. biota and T. lineata and other bivalve species are very difficult, because of at least two reasons. First, each investigator has used different methods to prepare and observe the siphons through histological sections; and second, different nomenclatural schemes are used to describe the musculature of the siphons, causing confusion when the same layers are compared among different species. In order to unify the nomenclature of tissue layers of the bivalve siphons, we now propose a scheme to name these layers based on topological homology.

  18. The Japanese oyster drill Ocinebrellus inornatus (Récluz, 1851) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae), introduced to the Limfjord, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jørgen; Faasse, Marco; Gittenberger, Adriaan

    2012-01-01

    The predatory neogastropod Ocinebrellus inornatus was first reported from Europe in W France in 1995 and has since been detected at other sites in NW and N France and The Netherlands. It is native to the North Pacific where it preys on the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Here we report on the o......The predatory neogastropod Ocinebrellus inornatus was first reported from Europe in W France in 1995 and has since been detected at other sites in NW and N France and The Netherlands. It is native to the North Pacific where it preys on the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Here we report...... on the occurrence of the species in beds of European oysters (Ostrea edulis) in the Limfjord, NW Jutland, Denmark. The morphology-based identification has been confirmed by genetic analysis. The species was probably introduced with oysters imported from France in the 1970s and 1980s. The invasion is still...... relatively localized but as the species has established a reproductive population, it may eventually spread to other parts of the fjord and in time pose a problem to the oyster fishery. The species’ invasion history is reviewed...

  19. In situ distribution and characterization of the organic content of the oyster shell Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca, Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphin, Yannicke; Ball, Alexander D; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Chevallard, Corinne; Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Farre, Bastien; Pouvreau, Stéphane; Salomé, Murielle

    2013-01-01

    Cultivation of commercial oysters is now facing the possible influence of global change in sea water composition, commonly referred to as "ocean acidification". In order to test the potential consequence of the predicted environmental changes, a cultivation experiment was carried out. The left and right valves of the oyster shell Crassostrea gigas differ in their structure; moreover, lenses of non compact layers are irregular. The shell layers of juvenile C. gigas are studied using a variety of highly spatially resolved techniques to establish their composition and structure. Our results confirm the presence of three different calcitic structural types. The role of the lenses of chalky layers is not yet deciplered. Despite a common mineralogy, the elemental composition of the layers differs. The sulphur aminoacids and sulphated polysaccharide contents of the intracrystalline and intercrystalline matrices differ, as well as those of the structural types. The possible different sensitivity of these structures to environmental changes is still unknown. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Anisospira velascorum, a new land snail from Mexico, with notes on the anatomy and histology (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Urocoptidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breure, A.S.H.

    1977-01-01

    During a collecting trip through southern and central Mexico (Breure, 1974) special attention has been paid to Bulimulidae and Urocoptidae. Among the material of urocoptids a new species has been found. Anisospira velascorum sp. n. (figs. 1-10, pl. 1) Description. — Shell up to 30.5 mm, 2.39 times

  1. Thais (Stramonita rustica (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Thaididae, a potential bioindicator of contamination by organotin northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Braga de Castro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of antifouling paints containing the biocide compound tributyltin (TBT has been shown as an inductor of imposex in neogastropods mollusks. Imposex is characterized by the development of male features in females, mainly the appearance of a no functional vas deferens and penis. Samples of Thais rustica were collected in eight sites in the metropolitan area of Natal city, Rio Grande do Norte state, northeast Brazil, and examined for occurrence of imposex, which was found in many females. The higher imposex levels were presented by samples from sites near city harbor.A utilização de tintas antiincrustrantes contendo o composto biocida tributilestanho (TBT tem induzido moluscos neogastrópodes ao imposex. O imposex é caracterizado pelo surgimento de caracteres sexuais masculinos, sobretudo, pênis e vaso deferente não funcionais em fêmeas desses moluscos. Foram coletadas amostras de Thais rústica em oito estações ao longo da costa da cidade de Natal no Rio Grande do Norte. Esses animais foram analisados quanto a presença e o grau de imposex que apresentavam. Os níveis mais elevados de imposex foram observados na estação mais próxima ao porto.

  2. Bioindicator Thais carinifera (mollusca, gastropoda: imposex response and consequences along the Pakistan coast during the period from 1993 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuzhat Afsar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Endocrine mediated "imposex" phenomenon was investigated and recorded in the muricoid gastropod species Thais carinifera during the two decades from 1993 to 2012 at three (3 sites out of six (6 localities investigated along the Sindh and Balochistan coast, Pakistan. The VDS stages 1 to 4 were apparent in Thais carinifera. The intensity of imposex has remained comparatively low in the populations of harbours in close proximity to port Mohammad Bin-Qasim, namely; Old Korangi Fish Harbour (OKFH and New Korangi Fish Harbour (NKFH where shipping activities are sporadic as compared to those in Manora Channel and the adjoining Karachi Port area where intensive shipping activity is rather frequent. Target species found to be good bioindicators have shown a marked decrease over the prolonged study period. Investigations show that this decrease is solely due to globally imposed effective bans on tributyltin (TBT based antifouling paints over the past decade.

  3. Assessment of tributyltin contamination based on imposex in Stramonita rustica (Mollusca: Gastropoda along southern Bahia coast, northeastern Brazil

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    G. C. Zeidan

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of tributyltin (TBT on the morphology of the genital system of the gastropod Stramonita rustica in southern Bahia, Brazil. For this, 330 specimens were collected during the summer of 2014 at eight sampling points to ascertain whether male sex organs had developed in addition to the complete female genital tract in females (= imposex. The analyses were made under a stereoscopic microscope. Imposex and their associated indexes, and the sterile females, exhibited the highest rates in harbors and shipyards areas. Despite the total ban of TBT in anti-fouling paints on a global scale since 2003, the results of this and other studies indicate the continued use of those paints on the Brazilian coast. This shows the inefficiency of existing legislation and the need to strengthen enforcement of the ban.

  4. Assessment of tributyltin contamination based on imposex in Stramonita rustica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) along southern Bahia coast, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, G C; Boehs, G

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of tributyltin (TBT) on the morphology of the genital system of the gastropod Stramonita rustica in southern Bahia, Brazil. For this, 330 specimens were collected during the summer of 2014 at eight sampling points to ascertain whether male sex organs had developed in addition to the complete female genital tract in females (= imposex). The analyses were made under a stereoscopic microscope. Imposex and their associated indexes, and the sterile females, exhibited the highest rates in harbors and shipyards areas. Despite the total ban of TBT in anti-fouling paints on a global scale since 2003, the results of this and other studies indicate the continued use of those paints on the Brazilian coast. This shows the inefficiency of existing legislation and the need to strengthen enforcement of the ban.

  5. Imposex induction in Stramonita haemastoma floridana (Conrad, 1837 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Muricidae submitted to an organotin-contaminated diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Fernandes Alves de Lima

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine organisms are affected by organotin compounds due to the cumulative, deleterious effects of these latter. The most evident and well known consequence of organotin contamination is imposex, a hormonal disruption that causes a superimposition of sexual male features in females of prosobranchia neogastropod molluscs such as Stramonita haemastoma floridana. Molluscs accumulate organotins mainly because of their poor ability to eliminate TBT and DBT from their tissues. The aim of this study was to analyze organotin uptake by ingestion experimentally, using uncontaminated subjects (S. haemastoma floridana fed with organotin-contaminated oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae. A total of 248 gastropods, distributed in 7 tanks with uncontaminated water and contaminated food, were used in this study, a control group being fed uncontaminated oysters. Every 15 days, the individuals of one of the tanks were examined for the presence of imposex. Development of imposex was measured using the VDSI, RPSI and RPLI indexes. The animals had already developed imposex within the first 15 days, all the indexes measured (RPLI, RPSI and VDSI having increased significantly with duration of exposure, indicating that the animals were probablycontaminated by the food and had accumulated the pollutant. New paths of imposex development were also observed.Organismos marinhos são afetados por compostos organoestânicos que causam uma série de efeitos deletérios aos mesmos. O mais conhecido efeito da contaminação por organoestânicos é o imposex. Esse fenômeno consiste na masculinização de fêmeas de moluscos neogastrópodes tais como Stramonita haemastoma floridana. Esses compostos tendem a se acumular em moluscos devido a sua baixa capacidade de eliminá-los. Um total de 248 indivíduos de S. haemastoma floridana foram coletados de uma população livre qualquer indício de imposex. Esses animais foram mantidos em 7 aquários, com aproximadamente 30 indivíduos cada, 1 desses aquários foi considerado como controle e os animas do mesmo alimentados com ostras obtidas de locais onde não se verificou a ocorrência de imposex em neogastrópodes nativos. Os animais nos outros 6 aquários foram alimentados com ostras obtidas em local onde a incidência de imposex entre os gastrópodes nativos revelou-se muito alta. A cada 15 dias, por um período total de 90 dias, os animais de um dos tanques eram retirados e analisados quanto à presença de imposex. Os níveis de imposex foram quantificados através da % de imposex e dos índices: RPLI, RPSI e VDSI. Observou-se a indução de imposex em S. haemastoma floridana através da dieta a partir de Crassostrea rhizophora e um aumento significativo dos índices com o decorrer do tempo de exposição. Os animais do aquário controle foram analisados ao fim do experimento não revelando qualquer indício de imposex.

  6. Comparative sensitivity of juvenile and adult Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Mollusca: Hydrobiidae) under chronic exposure to cadmium and tributyltin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Katharina; Geiß, Cornelia; Ostermann, Sina; Theis, Christina; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2016-07-28

    To investigate a potential extension of a partial life cycle test protocol to a full life cycle test design, a comparative sensitivity analysis with juvenile and adult Potamopyrgus antipodarum was performed. Neonates and adult snails were exposed to the metal cadmium (Cd) and the endocrine disruptor tributyltin (TBT) at nominal concentrations ranging from 1.56 to 50 μg Cd/L and from 25 to 1,000 ng TBT-Sn/L. The experiments were performed over 28 days at 16°C in a semi-static test design. Mortality was assessed for both life stages. Juvenile snails' specific growth rate and reproduction of adults were investigated as main endpoints. We determined effects on snails' survival, juvenile growth and embryo numbers in the brood pouch of adult snails under exposure to both chemicals. Juvenile control mortality was between 25% and 30% and significantly higher than in the control groups with adult snails. A higher sensitivity of juvenile snails compared to adults was observed for the endpoint mortality. Calculated LC50 in Cd exposed snails was 38.2 μg/L for adults and 15.0 μg/L for juvenile snails. Significant effects on mortality in TBT exposed adult snails occurred at the highest test concentration only with a LC50 of 535 ng Sn/L. Juvenile survival was significantly affected at 50.8 ng Sn/L and higher concentrations. Effect concentrations for the main endpoints reproduction and juvenile growth show comparable sensitivities. For Cd exposed groups, EC50 values were 11.3 μg/L for the endpoint reproduction in adult snails and 3.82 μg/L for juvenile growth with overlapping confidence intervals. TBT also significantly affected juvenile snails' growth (EC50: 178 ng Sn /L). EC50 for embryo numbers was 125 ng TBT-Sn/L. Results indicate the manageability of a FLC test starting with newly hatched snails. Precautions have to be taken to guarantee a sufficient number of surviving snails until adulthood so that reproduction can be assessed. For final decision for the practicability of a FLC, further tests are needed.

  7. Development and validation of an OECD reproductive toxicity test guideline with the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Katharina; Geiß, Cornelia; Askem, Clare; Benstead, Rachel; Brown, Rebecca; Coke, Maira; Ducrot, Virginie; Egeler, Philipp; Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Kinnberg, Karin L; Lagadic, Laurent; Le Page, Gareth; Macken, Ailbhe; Matthiessen, Peter; Ostermann, Sina; Schimera, Agnes; Schmitt, Claudia; Seeland-Fremer, Anne; Smith, Andy J; Weltje, Lennart; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2017-08-01

    Mollusks are known to be uniquely sensitive to a number of reproductive toxicants including some vertebrate endocrine disrupting chemicals. However, they have widely been ignored in environmental risk assessment procedures for chemicals. This study describes the validation of the Potamopyrgus antipodarum reproduction test within the OECD Conceptual Framework for Endocrine Disrupters Testing and Assessment. The number of embryos in the brood pouch and adult mortality serve as main endpoints. The experiments are conducted as static systems in beakers filled with artificial medium, which is aerated trough glass pipettes. The test chemical is dispersed into the medium, and adult snails are subsequently introduced into the beakers. After 28 days the reproductive success is determined by opening the brood pouch and embryo counting. This study presents the results of two validation studies of the reproduction test with eleven laboratories and the chemicals tributyltin (TBT) with nominal concentrations ranging from 10 to 1000 ng TBT-Sn/L and cadmium with concentrations from 1.56 to 25 μg/L. The test design could be implemented by all laboratories resulting in comparable effect concentrations for the endpoint number of embryos in the brood pouch. After TBT exposure mean EC 10 , EC 50 , NOEC and LOEC were 35.6, 127, 39.2 and 75.7 ng Sn/L, respectively. Mean effect concentrations in cadmium exposed snails were, respectively, 6.53, 14.2, 6.45 and 12.6 μg/L. The effect concentrations are in good accordance with already published data. Both validation studies show that the reproduction test with P. antipodarum is a well-suited tool to assess reproductive effects of chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Symbiotic relationship between the carapid fish Onuxodon fowleri (Ophidiiformes: Carapidae and the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pteriidae

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    Orphal Colleye

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available At Makemo Atoll (French Polynesia, the carapid fish Onuxodon fowleri lives in symbiosis with the black-lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera. Although the symbiont seems to live inside its host bivalve by using it as a shelter, additional data are still needed to better understand the exact nature of this association. For this purpose, we implemented an approach using stable isotope ratios of carbon (13C/12C and nitrogen (15N/14N. The δ13C and δ15N values were measured in tissues of the pearl oyster (gonads, gills, mantle and muscles, white muscle tissue from the fish and other food sources. This stable isotope approach was also complemented by the analysis of stomach contents in the carapid fish. Overall, the isotopic compositions measured in the present study support a commensal relationship between O. fowleri and P. margaritifera. In addition, our isotopic data bring new information about another guest living inside P. margaritifera, namely the palaemonid shrimp Conchodytes meleagrinae. Based on the δ13C and δ15N values, it appears that the shrimp might feed on the bivalve gonads.

  9. Phytochemical and molluscicidal activity of Mikania glomerata Sprengel (Asteraceae in different lifestages of Subulina octona (Mollusca, Subulinidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Aparecida de Souza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the molluscicidal activity of aqueous extract of Mikania glomerata on the land snail Subulina octona and to assess the changes caused on the snail's fecundity, growth, hatchability and the offspring produced after exposure. Eggs, newly hatched and 30 day old snails were exposed to the sublethal concentration of M. glomerata extract for 24 and 48 h and the observations were made for 120 days. The presence of tannins, flavonoids and saponins were shown by phytochemical tests. The extract reduced significantly the hatchability and the survival of the offspring hatched from the exposed eggs. The eggs exposed for 48 h presented lower hatchability rates. There was a reduction on survival and growth of newly hatched and 30-days old snails exposed to the extract. These results indicated that the aqueous extract of M. glomerata could be applied as an alternative molluscicide for the control of this snail species efficiently.

  10. Diversidade e distribuição do gênero Alvania (Mollusca, Gastropoda: Rissoidae) no litoral brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, Luciana Soares da

    2012-01-01

    Os Rissoidae Gray, 1847 são compostos por conchas pequenas ou micro-conchas, abundantes nos mares de todo mundo. Uma grande diversidade das espécies desse grupo é encontrada nas zonas de maré baixa e ao longo do litoral, onde há a maior ocorrência de algas, rochas, corais e outros locais que fornecem abrigo, todavia muitos ocorrem também em zonas de mar profundo. Em Rissoidae, Alvania é um dos mais diversos quanto ao número de espécies, sendo frequentes as descrições ou re-descrições de...

  11. Size and metal concentration in the mangrove mussel Mytella guyanensis (Mollusca: Bivalva) from Baia de Sepetiba, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Lacerda, L.D.; Lima, N.R.W.; Pfeiffer, W.C.; Fiszman, M.

    1983-11-01

    The natural variability of metal concentrations in M. guyanensis was estimated. The chosen parameter was size, as it is well correlated with most other metabolic functions and is of major concern in developing monitoring programs. The sampled area is in the mangrove swamp of Itingussu, Baia de Sepetiba, Rio de Janerio State, an area with increasing industrial activity and consequently with moderate levels of heavy metals in the aquatic environment. The analysis of metals in shells showed a significant inverse relationship for all metals, presenting a constant trend not observed in soft tissues. As the mechanisms of metal uptake and excretion in shells are slower than those of soft tissues, shells should be used as monitoring instruments. The results suggest that the relation between metal concentration and size in mollusks is a significant factor to be considered in monitoring programs. These relationships vary with species, and care should be taken in considering results obtained in species from temperature regions and those from the tropics, even when the species are closely related. 7 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  12. A Carboniferous chiton (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) at the end of its trail: a unique find from the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuláš, Radek; Rindsberg, A. K.; Santos, A.; Pavela, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2017), s. 171-179 ISSN 0375-7633 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Viséan * Recent * locomotion traces * tracemakers * Proleptochiton Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Paleontology Impact factor: 0.903, year: 2016

  13. Imposex in Thais rustica (Mollusca: Neogastropoda (Lamark, 1822 as an indicator of organotin compounds pollution at Maceio coast (Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Camillo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of OTC (organotin compounds as biocides in naval antifouling paints causes impacts on non-target organisms. One of these impacts is a syndrome called imposex in gastropod molluscs. Imposex is the imposition of male secondary sexual characteristics in female gastropods as result of endocrine disruption. In this preliminary study, imposex was observed in four out of ten sampled stations in Maceió: the city Port (100% females exhibited imposex, the Marine Emissary (23% females exhibited imposex, the Marine Terminal (35% females exhibited imposex and Saco da Pedra beach (12% females exhibited imposex. These stations were distributed in a NE-SW orientation from the Port southwards along the coastline, following the general circulation pattern of the area. The low values of VDSI, RPSI and RPLI indicate that Maceió Coast is a less contaminated area, probably because of low shipping activities together with the fact that the sampling zone is an open coastal system and not an enclosed bay. These results suggest that the imposex development in Thais rustica may be used as a biological indicator of OTC pollution.O uso de COE (compostos orgânicos de estanho como biocida em tintas antiincrustantes para embarcações causa impactos em organismos não-alvos. Um destes impactos é a síndrome chamada imposex, em moluscos gastrópodos. Imposex é a imposição de caracteres sexuais secundários masculinos em fêmeas de gastrópodos como resultado de desregulação endócrina. Neste estudo preliminar, o imposex foi observado em quatro de dez estações de amostragem em Maceió: o Porto de Maceió (100% de fêmeas imposexadas, o Emissário Submarino (23% de fêmeas imposexadas, o Terminal Marítimo (35% de fêmeas imposexadas e a praia do Saco da Pedra (12% de fêmeas imposexadas. Estas estações estão distribuídas no litoral no sentido NE/SW a partir do Porto, seguindo o padrão de circulação local. Os valores relativamente baixos dos índices VDSI, RPSI e RPLI indicam que a costa de Maceió é uma área moderadamente impactada. Isto poderia ser explicado pelo fato da costa não ser um sistema abrigado e pelo pequeno movimento de sua zona portuária. Estes resultados sugerem que o desenvolvimento do imposex em Thais rustica pode ser usado como indicador da poluição por COEs.

  14. On growth and form of irregular coiled-shell of a terrestrial snail: Plectostoma concinnum (Fulton, 1901) (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda: Diplommatinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Thor-Seng; Kok, Annebelle C M; Schilthuizen, Menno; Urdy, Severine

    2014-01-01

    The molluscan shell can be viewed as a petrified representation of the organism's ontogeny and thus can be used as a record of changes in form during growth. However, little empirical data is available on the actual growth and form of shells, as these are hard to quantify and examine simultaneously. To address these issues, we studied the growth and form of a land snail that has an irregularly coiled and heavily ornamented shell-Plectostoma concinnum. The growth data were collected in a natural growth experiment and the actual form changes of the aperture during shell ontogeny were quantified. We used an ontogeny axis that allows data of growth and form to be analysed simultaneously. Then, we examined the association between the growth and the form during three different whorl growing phases, namely, the regular coiled spire phase, the transitional constriction phase, and the distortedly-coiled tuba phase. In addition, we also explored the association between growth rate and the switching between whorl growing mode and rib growing mode. As a result, we show how the changes in the aperture ontogeny profiles in terms of aperture shape, size and growth trajectory, and the changes in growth rates, are associated with the different shell forms at different parts of the shell ontogeny. These associations suggest plausible constraints that underlie the three different shell ontogeny phases and the two different growth modes. We found that the mechanism behind the irregularly coiled-shell is the rotational changes of the animal's body and mantle edge with respect to the previously secreted shell. Overall, we propose that future study should focus on the role of the mantle and the columellar muscular system in the determination of shell form.

  15. Potentiality of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda as intermediate host of the Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes 1971

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Omar dos Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of Achatina fulica were experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae, etiological agent of abdominal angiostrongyliasis, showing that A. fulica is susceptible to the parasite. Achatina fulica may be a risk to urbanization of abdominal angiostrongyliasis presumably due to its high proliferation, continuous dispersion and remarkable adaptation in several Brazilian towns.

  16. First record of a nematode Metastrongyloidea (Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae) in Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica (Mollusca, Achatinidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiengo, Silvana C; Fernandez, Monica A; Torres, Eduardo J L; Coelho, Pablo M; Lanfredi, Reinalda M

    2008-05-01

    Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica was introduced in Brazil in the 1980s for commercial purposes ("escargot" farming) and nowadays, mainly by human activity, it is widespread in at least 23 out of 26 Brazilian states and Brasília, including the Amazonian region and natural reserves, where besides a general nuisance for people it is a pest and also a public health concern, since it is one of the natural intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, ethiological agent of the meningoencephalitis in Asia. As Brazil is experiencing the explosive phase of the invasion, the Laboratório de Malacologia do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz has been receiving samples of these molluscs for identification and search for Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae. While examining samples of A. fulica different nematode larvae were obtained, including Aelurostrongylus, whose different species are parasites of felids, dogs, primates, and badger. Morphological and morphometric analyses presented herein indicated the species Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, as well as the occurrence of other nematode larvae (Strongyluris-like) found in the interior of the pallial cavity of A. fulica. This is the first report in Brazil of the development of A. abstrusus infective larvae in A. fulica evidencing the veterinary importance of this mollusc in the transmission of A. abstrusus to domestic cats. Since the spread of A. fulica is pointed out in the literature as one of the main causative spread of the meningoencephalitis caused by A. cantonensis the authors emphasize the need of sanitary vigilance of snails and rats from vulnerable areas for A. cantonensis introduction as the port side areas.

  17. First report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae in Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda from Southeast and South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Maldonado Júnior

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a worldwide-distributed zoonotic nematode that can cause human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Here, for the first time, we report the isolation of A. cantonensis from Achatina fulica from two Brazilian states: Rio de Janeiro (specifically the municipalities of Barra do Piraí, situated at the Paraiba River Valley region and São Gonçalo, situated at the edge of Guanabara Bay and Santa Catarina (in municipality of Joinville. The lungworms were identified by comparing morphological and morphometrical data obtained from adult worms to values obtained from experimental infections of A. cantonensis from Pernambuco, Brazil, and Akita, Japan. Only a few minor morphological differences that were determined to represent intra-specific variation were observed. This report of A. cantonensis in South and Southeast Brazil, together with the recent report of the zoonosis and parasite-infected molluscs in Northeast Brazil, provide evidence of the wide distribution of A. cantonensis in the country. The need for efforts to better understand the role of A. fulica in the transmission of meningoencephalitis in Brazil and the surveillance of molluscs and rodents, particularly in ports, is emphasized.

  18. Potentiality of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) as intermediate host of the Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Omar dos Santos; Teles, Horácio M; Mota, Ester Maria; Lafetá, Cristiane; de Mendonça, Gomes Furtado; Lenzi, Henrique Leonel

    2003-01-01

    Samples of Achatina fulica were experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae, etiological agent of abdominal angiostrongyliasis, showing that A. fulica is susceptible to the parasite. Achatina fulica may be a risk to urbanization of abdominal angiostrongyliasis presumably due to its high proliferation, continuous dispersion and remarkable adaptation in several Brazilian towns.

  19. First report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) in Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Southeast and South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Arnaldo; Simões, Raquel O; Oliveira, Ana Paula M; Motta, Esther M; Fernandez, Mônica A; Pereira, Zilene M; Monteiro, Simone S; Torres, Eduardo J Lopes; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho

    2010-11-01

    The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a worldwide-distributed zoonotic nematode that can cause human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Here, for the first time, we report the isolation of A. cantonensis from Achatina fulica from two Brazilian states: Rio de Janeiro (specifically the municipalities of Barra do Piraí, situated at the Paraiba River Valley region and São Gonçalo, situated at the edge of Guanabara Bay) and Santa Catarina (in municipality of Joinville). The lungworms were identified by comparing morphological and morphometrical data obtained from adult worms to values obtained from experimental infections of A. cantonensis from Pernambuco, Brazil, and Akita, Japan. Only a few minor morphological differences that were determined to represent intra-specific variation were observed. This report of A. cantonensis in South and Southeast Brazil, together with the recent report of the zoonosis and parasite-infected molluscs in Northeast Brazil, provide evidence of the wide distribution of A. cantonensis in the country. The need for efforts to better understand the role of A. fulica in the transmission of meningoencephalitis in Brazil and the surveillance of molluscs and rodents, particularly in ports, is emphasized.

  20. Potentiality of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) as intermediate host of the Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes 1971

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Omar dos Santos; Teles, Horácio MS; Mota, Ester Maria; Mendonça, Cristiane Lafetá Gomes Furtado de; Lenzi, Henrique Leonel

    2003-01-01

    Samples of Achatina fulica were experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae, etiological agent of abdominal angiostrongyliasis, showing that A. fulica is susceptible to the parasite. Achatina fulica may be a risk to urbanization of abdominal angiostrongyliasis presumably due to its high proliferation, continuous dispersion and remarkable adaptation in several Brazilian towns. Exemplares de Achatina fulica foram experimentalmente infectados com larvas de Angiostrongylu...

  1. Immunochemical localization of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in the symbiont-containing gills of Solemya velum (Bivalvia : Mollusca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavanaugh, Colleen M.; Abbott, Marilyn S.; Veenhuis, Marten

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of the Calvin cycle enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RbuP2Case; EC 4.1.1.39) was examined by using two immunological methods in tissues of Solemya velum, an Atlantic coast bivalve containing putative chemoautotrophic symbionts. Antibodies elicited by the purified large

  2. Immunochemical localization of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in the symbiont-containing gills of Solemya velum (Bivalvia: Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, C M; Abbott, M S; Veenhuis, M

    1988-10-01

    The distribution of the Calvin cycle enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RbuP(2)Case; EC 4.1.1.39) was examined by using two immunological methods in tissues of Solemya velum, an Atlantic coast bivalve containing putative chemoautotrophic symbionts. Antibodies elicited by the purified large subunit of RbuP(2)Case from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cross-reacted on immunoblots with a protein of similar molecular mass occurring in extracts of the symbiont-containing gill tissue of S. velum. No cross-reactivity was detected in symbiont-free tissue extracts. The antiserum also cross-reacted in immunoblots with proteins of Thiobacillus neapolitanus, a free-living sulfuroxidizing chemoautotroph whose RbuP(2)Case has been well characterized. In protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopy studies, this antiserum consistently labeled the symbionts but not surrounding host gill tissue, indicating that the symbionts are responsible for the RbuP(2)Case activity.

  3. Microsatellite loci for dreissenid mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Dreissenidae) and relatives: markers for assessing exotic and native populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldheim, Kevin A; Brown, Joshua E; Murphy, Douglas J; Stepien, Carol A

    2011-07-01

    We developed and tested 14 new polymorphic microsatellite loci for dreissenid mussels, including the two species that have invaded many freshwater habitats in Eurasia and North America, where they cause serious industrial fouling damage and ecological alterations. These new loci will aid our understanding of their genetic patterns in invasive populations as well as throughout their native Ponto-Caspian distributions. Eight new loci for the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha polymorpha and six for the quagga mussel D. rostriformis bugensis were compared with new results from six previously published loci to generate a robust molecular toolkit for dreissenid mussels and their relatives. Taxa tested include D. p. polymorpha, D. r. bugensis, D. r. grimmi, D. presbensis, the 'living fossil'Congeria kusceri, and the dark false mussel Mytilopsis leucophaeata (the latter also is invasive). Overall, most of the 24 zebra mussel (N = 583) and 13 quagga mussel (N = 269) population samples conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations for the new loci following sequential Bonferroni correction. The 11 loci (eight new, three previously published) evaluated for D. p. polymorpha averaged 35.1 alleles and 0.72 mean observed heterozygosity per locus, and 25.3 and 0.75 for the nine loci (six new, three previously published) developed for D. r. bugensis. All but three of these loci successfully amplified the other species of Dreissena, and all but one also amplified Congeria and Mytilopsis. All species and populations tested were significantly divergent using the microsatellite data, with neighbour-joining trees reflecting their evolutionary relationships; our results reveal broad utility for resolving their biogeographic, evolutionary, population and ecological patterns. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Effects of food type, feeding frequency, and temperature on juvenile survival and growth of Marisa cornuarietis (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selck, Henriette; Aufderheide, John; Pounds, Nadine; Staples, Charles; Caspers, Norbert; Forbes, Valery

    2006-06-01

    The present experiments are part of a larger study designed to investigate the influence of husbandry parameters on the life history of the ramshorn snail, Marisa cornuarietis, in order to identify suitable husbandry conditions for maintaining multi-generation populations in the laboratory for use in ecotoxicological testing. In this paper we focus on the effects of a combination of food types and feeding frequencies (i.e., the frequency with which the snails were offered food) on juvenile growth and survival at different temperatures. Offspring produced in the laboratory by wild specimens of M. cornuarietis, from Puerto Rico, were used to test the effects of three types of food (lettuce, alginate with fish food, alginate with snail mix) fed at three frequencies (given ad libitum on 4/4, 2/4, or 1/4 d) on juvenile survival and growth. The 4-d feeding regimens were repeated four times, giving a total of 16 d for the experiments. The experiments were conducted at two temperatures (22 degrees and 25 degrees C) under a 12 h light:12 h dark photoperiod. Juvenile growth rates increased with increasing feeding frequency for all food types. The most rapid growth rates occurred in the high-frequency lettuce treatments and the slowest growth rates in the low-frequency lettuce and alginate with snail mix treatments. Juvenile snails grew faster at 25 degrees than at 22 degrees C, and mortality was about twice as high at the lower temperature. Growth rates were used to provide a rough estimate of time to maturity, which was determined to take about twice as long at 22 degrees than at 25 degrees C. The results showed that lettuce is the best food if supplied in abundance, but effects on growth are very dependent on feeding frequency and temperature. We conclude that 25 degrees C is a more appropriate temperature for maintaining populations than 22 degrees C, that lettuce provides a suitable food source, and that food should be supplied continuously for husbandry and toxicity testing of populations of M. cornuarietis.

  5. Effects of food type, feeding frequency, and temperature on juvenile survival and growth of Marisa cornuarietis (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Selck, Henriette; Aufderheide, John; Pounds, Nadine; Staples, Charles; Caspers, Norbert; Forbes, Valery

    2006-01-01

    The present experiments are part of a larger study designed to investigate the influence of husbandry parameters on the life history of the ramshorn snail, Marisa cornuarietis, in order to identify suitable husbandry conditions for maintaining multi-generation populations in the laboratory for use in ecotoxicological testing. In this paper we focus on the effects of a combination of food types and feeding frequencies (i.e., the frequency with which the snails were offered food) on juvenile gr...

  6. Development and validation of an OECD reproductive toxicity test guideline with the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruppert, Katharina; Geiß, Cornelia; Askem, Clare

    2017-01-01

    Mollusks are known to be uniquely sensitive to a number of reproductive toxicants including some vertebrate endocrine disrupting chemicals. However, they have widely been ignored in environmental risk assessment procedures for chemicals. This study describes the validation of the Potamopyrgus ant...

  7. Development and validation of an OECD reproductive toxicity test guideline with the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Askem, Clare; Azam, Didier; Brettschneider, Denise; Brown, Rebecca; Charles, Sandrine; Coke, Maïra; Collinet, Marc; Delignette-Muller, Marie-Laure; Forfait-Dubuc, Carole; Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Thomas; Jach, Arne; Kinnberg, Karin L; Lacoste, Cédric; Le Page, Gareth; Matthiessen, Peter; Oehlmann, Jörg; Rice, Lynsey; Roberts, Edward; Ruppert, Katharina; Davis, Jessica Elphinstone; Veauvy, Clemence; Weltje, Lennart; Wortham, Ruth; Lagadic, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    The OECD test guideline development program has been extended in 2011 to establish a partial life-cycle protocol for assessing the reproductive toxicity of chemicals to several mollusk species, including the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. In this paper, we summarize the standard draft protocol for a reproduction test with this species, and present inter-comparison results obtained in a 56-day prevalidation ring-test using this protocol. Seven European laboratories performed semi-static tests with cultured snails of the strain Renilys® exposed to nominal concentrations of cadmium chloride (from 53 to 608μgCdL(-1)). Cd concentrations in test solutions were analytically determined to confirm accuracy in the metal exposure concentrations in all laboratories. Physico-chemical and biological validity criteria (namely dissolved oxygen content >60% ASV, water temperature 20±1°C, control snail survival >80% and control snail fecundity >8 egg-masses per snail over the test period) were met in all laboratories which consistently demonstrated the reproductive toxicity of Cd in snails using the proposed draft protocol. Effect concentrations for fecundity after 56days were reproducible between laboratories (68

  8. Genetic differentiation of Octopus minor (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) off the northern coast of China as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J M; Sun, G H; Zheng, X D; Ren, L H; Wang, W J; Li, G R; Sun, B C

    2015-12-02

    Octopus minor (Sasaki, 1920) is an economically important cephalopod that is found in the northern coastal waters of China. In this study, we investigated genetic differentiation in fishery populations using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). A total of 150 individuals were collected from five locations: Dalian (DL), Yan-tai (YT), Qingdao (QD), Lianyungang (LY), and Zhoushan (ZS), and 243 reproducible bands were amplified using five AFLP primer combinations. The percentage of polymorphic bands ranged from 53.33 to 76.08%. Nei's genetic identity ranged from 0.9139 to 0.9713, and the genetic distance ranged from 0.0291 to 0.0900. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean, based on the genetic distance. The DL and YT populations originated from one clade, while the QD, LY, and ZS populations originated from another. The results indicate that the O. minor stock consisted of two genetic populations with an overall significantly analogous FST value (0.1088, P octopus fisheries, so that this marine resource can be conserved for its long-term utilization.

  9. Fine structure of the creeping larva of Loxosomella murmanica: additional evidence for a clade of Kamptozoa (Entoprocta) and Mollusca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haszprunar, Gerhard; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2008-01-01

    . The prototroch consists of two ciliary rings; a downstream collecting system is not present. Although there is a one-way gut with a lumen throughout, the larva obviously does not feed. A single pair of protonephridia is present. The foot sole shares distinct similarities with basic molluscs, particularly...

  10. Annotated type catalogue of the Megaspiridae, Orthalicidae, and Simpulopsidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea in the Natural History Museum, London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham S.H. Breure

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The type status is described for 65 taxa of the Orthalicoidea, classified within the families Megaspiridae (14, Orthalicidae (30, and Simpulopsidae (20; one taxon is considered a nomen inquirendum. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Helix brephoides d’Orbigny, 1835; Simpulopsis cumingi Pfeiffer, 1861; Bulimulus (Protoglyptus dejectus Fulton, 1907; Bulimus iris Pfeiffer, 1853. The type status of Bulimus salteri Sowerby III, 1890, and Strophocheilus (Eurytus subirroratus da Costa, 1898 is now changed to lectotype according Art. 74.6 ICZN. The taxa Bulimus loxostomus Pfeiffer, 1853, Bulimus marmatensis Pfeiffer, 1855, Bulimus meobambensis Pfeiffer, 1855, and Orthalicus powissianus var. niveus Preston 1909 are now figured for the first time. The following taxa are now considered junior subjective synonyms: Bulimus marmatensis Pfeiffer, 1855 = Helix (Cochlogena citrinovitrea Moricand, 1836; Vermiculatus Breure, 1978 = Bocourtia Rochebrune, 1882. New combinations are: Kuschelenia (Bocourtia Rochebrune, 1882; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia aequatoria (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia anthisanensis (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia aquila (Reeve, 1848; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia badia (Sowerby I, 1835; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia bicolor (Sowerby I, 1835; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia caliginosa (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia coagulata (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia cotopaxiensis (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia filaris (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kara indentata (da Costa, 1901; Clathrorthalicus magnificus (Pfeiffer, 1848; Simpulopsis (Eudioptus marmartensis (Pfeiffer, 1855; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia nucina (Reeve, 1850; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia ochracea (Morelet, 1863; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia peaki (Breure, 1978; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia petiti (Pfeiffer, 1846; Clathrorthalicus phoebus (Pfeiffer, 1863; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia polymorpha (d’Orbigny, 1835; Scholvienia porphyria (Pfeiffer, 1847; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia purpurata (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia quechuarum Crawford, 1939; Quechua salteri (Sowerby III, 1890; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia subfasciata Pfeiffer, 1853; Clathrorthalicus victor (Pfeiffer, 1854. In an addedum a lectotype is being designated for Bulimulus (Drymaeus interruptus var. pallidus Preston, 1909. An index is included to all taxa mentioned in this paper and the preceding ones in this series (Breure and Ablett 2011, 2012, 2014.

  11. Biomonitoring study of an estuarine coastal ecosystem, the Sacca di Goro lagoon, using Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacchi, Angela; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Bolognesi, Claudia; Sciutto, Andrea; Roggieri, Paola; Fusi, Marco; Beone, Gian Maria; Capri, Ettore

    2013-01-01

    Coastal lagoons are constantly subjected to releases of chemical pollutants, and so organisms may be exposed to such toxicants. This study investigated through a multivariate approach the physiological status of bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum, farmed in Sacca di Goro lagoon. Biomarkers at different levels of biological organization (catalase, superoxide dismutase, genotoxicity, reburrowing behavior) were evaluated at three sites exposed to different environmental conditions. A seasonal trend was observed, and micronucleus frequency was significantly lowest at the relatively pristine reference site. Enzymatic activity toward oxyradicals be quite efficient since variations in responsiveness were not consistent. However, behavioral impairment was observed in reburrowing rates. Sediment concentrations showed low PAH levels and high natural levels of trace metals Cr and Ni. DistLM statistical analysis revealed a non-significant relationship between selected biomarkers and xenobiotics. Therefore other potentially toxic compounds in admixture at low doses may be involved in driving differing spatial distribution of physiological impairment. -- Highlights: ► Health status assessment of bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum, from lagoon of Sacca di Goro. ► Multiparametric approach (chemical analysis, biochemical and behavioral biomarkers). ► Impairments of burrowing kinetics in the contaminated site. ► Micronucleus genotoxicity test to detect effects of contaminants complex mixture. ► Multiple stress of chemicals in estuarine costal ecosystem. -- The bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum as a bioindicator in monitoring pollution of estuaries

  12. Deep-water Mangeliinae, Taraninae and Clathurellinae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Conoidea: Turridae from the Campos Basin, southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Medeiros Andrade Figueira

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available During the program “Environmental Characterization of the Campos Basin, RJ, Brazil”, from 2001 to 2003, samples were taken of soft bottoms from the continental slope of Campos Basin (off southeast Brazil by the Research Vessel “Astro-Garoupa” with a 0.25 m2 box corer or by dredging with a Charcot dredge; 117 stations with depths from 700 to 1950 m were sampled. There were molluscs in all samples, and among Gastropoda the Turridae showed the highest diversity. Here we present the results obtained for the subfamilies Mangeliinae, Taraninae and Clathurellinae. Two species were found within Mangeliinae: Benthomangelia cf. macra (Watson, 1881 and Benthomangelia enceladus n. sp. Within Taraninae only one undescribed species was found: Taranis tanata n. sp. Within Clathurellinae we found four species: Corinnaeturris leucomata (Dall, 1881, recorded for the first time in the South Atlantic; Corinnaeturris rhysa (Watson, 1881, extending its described depth range; Corinnaeturris angularis n. sp., Typhlomangelia nivalis (Lovén, 1846, expanding its known distribution farther south; and Drilliola pulchella (Verrill, 1880. The type material of Drilliola loprestiana (Calcara, 1841, previously considered lost, has been located and is illustrated here. Drilliola crispata (Cristofori and Jan, 1832 is considered to be a nomen dubium.

  13. Dynamics and ecology of an Indo-Pacific conch,Conomurex persicus (Mollusca: Gastropoda in southeastern Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Mutlu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Conomurex persicus, one of the tropical conchs, has been introduced to one of the subtropical regions, the northeastern Mediterranean Sea, and invaded sandy bottoms between 1 and 10 m deep. Population dynamics were studied from specimens collected with a standard dredge (60 x 15 cm mouth opening, 0.5 x 0.5 cm eye opening of net. Samples of C. persicus were collected monthly along the 5 and 10 m depth contours off Erdemli, Mersin, Turkey, in February and May 2000. Intra-annual density depended on salinity levels, while inter-annual density was correlated with bottom water temperature. Specimens underwent spring emergences and winter burial and sheltering (disappearance. Emergence took place in March when temperatures rose and the disappearance occurred in October-November when temperatures dropped. Adults live at 10 m, juveniles are recruited at a 5 m depth. Recruitment began in April and continued for the next 6 months. In contrast to shell width or shell lip thickness, shell length was not a convenient index for estimation of growth parameters. Annual production and mortality were calculated to be 7.86 g m-2 and 3.80 g m-2, respectively, in April-November. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (1: 117-129. Epub 2006 Mar 31.El gastrópodo tropical Conomurex persicurs, ha sido introducido a una región subtropical, el noreste del Mar Mediterráneo, y ha invadido los fondos arenosos en un rango de profundidad de 1 a 10 m. Se estudiarion las dinámicas poblacionales a partir de especímenes recolectados mediante un dragado estándard (60 x 15 cm de apertura de entrada y 0.5 x 0.5 cm de tramado. Muestras de C. persicus fueron recolectadas mensualmente a produndidades de 5 y 10 m en las cercanías de Erdemil, Mersin, Turkey, en los meses de febrero y mayo del año 2000. La densidad dentro de un mismo año depende de los niveles de salinidad, mientras que al comparar años distintos está correlacionada con la temperatura del agua.

  14. Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda – more than just slimy slugs. Shell reduction and its implications on defence and foraging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wägele Heike

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In general shell-less slugs are considered to be slimy animals with a rather dull appearance and a pest to garden plants. But marine slugs usually are beautifully coloured animals belonging to the less-known Opisthobranchia. They are characterized by a large array of interesting biological phenomena, usually related to foraging and/or defence. In this paper our knowledge of shell reduction, correlated with the evolution of different defensive and foraging strategies is reviewed, and new results on histology of different glandular systems are included. Results Based on a phylogeny obtained by morphological and histological data, the parallel reduction of the shell within the different groups is outlined. Major food sources are given and glandular structures are described as possible defensive structures in the external epithelia, and as internal glands. Conclusion According to phylogenetic analyses, the reduction of the shell correlates with the evolution of defensive strategies. Many different kinds of defence structures, like cleptocnides, mantle dermal formations (MDFs, and acid glands, are only present in shell-less slugs. In several cases, it is not clear whether the defensive devices were a prerequisite for the reduction of the shell, or reduction occurred before. Reduction of the shell and acquisition of different defensive structures had an implication on exploration of new food sources and therefore likely enhanced adaptive radiation of several groups.

  15. Analysis of the first and second internal transcribed spacer sequences of the ribosomal DNA in Biomphalaria tenagophila complex (Mollusca: Planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teofânia HDA Vidigal

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The first and second internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2 of the ribosomal DNA of Biomphalaria tenagophila complex (B. tenagophila, B. occidentalis, and B. t. guaibensis were sequenced and compared. The alignment lengths of these regions were about 655 bp and 481 bp, respectively. Phylogenetic relationships among the Biomphalaria species were inferred by Maximum Parsimony and Neighbor-joining methods. The phylogenetic trees produced, in most of the cases, were in accordance with morphological systematics and other molecular data previously obtained by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The present results provide support for the proposal that B. tenagophila represents a complex comprising B. tenagophila, B. occidentalis and B. t. guaibensis.

  16. Effects of endocrine disruptors on prosobranch snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the laboratory. Part III: Cyproterone acetate and vinclozolin as antiandrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, M; Schulte-Oehlmann, U; Duft, M; Markert, B; Oehlmann, J

    2001-12-01

    The effects of suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals on freshwater and marine prosobranch species were analysed in laboratory experiments. In this last of three publications, the responses of the fresh water snail Marisa cornuarietis and of two marine prosobranchs (Nucella lapillus, Nassarius (Hinia) reticulatus) to the antiandrogenic model compounds cyproterone acetate (CPA) and vinclozolin (VZ) are presented. The snails were exposed to nominal CPA concentrations of 1.25 mg/L alone and simultaneously to a potent synthetic estrogen (ethinylestradiol), androgen (methyltestosterone) or an indirectly acting xeno-androgen (tributyltin) in experiments with adult specimens and in a life cycle test for 12 months. Marisa and Nucella were furthermore exposed to nominal concentrations of 0.03-1.0 microgram VZ/L for up to 5 months. The antiandrogens induced a number of biological responses in all three species. The length of the penis and of accessory male sex organs (e.g., penis sheath, prostate) were significantly reduced. For Marisa, this effect occurred only in sexually immature specimens and was reversible as the males attained puberty. Typical androgen-mediated responses (imposex development, delayed spermatogenesis, tubulus necrosis of the testis with orchitis and Leydig cell hyperplasia) were partially or totally suppressed by a simultaneous administration of CPA. In the two marine species even adult, sexually mature males responded to antiandrogens with a reduction of the male sex organs and an advancement of the sexual repose phase. The results for CPA and VZ are compared with the effects of an exposure to xeno-estrogens (bisphenol A, octylphenol) and xeno-androgens (triphenyltin, tributyltin) in the same species. Each group of endocrine disruptors induces a characteristic set of toxicological effects in prosobranch snails which can be used as endpoints in an organismic invertebrate test for the identification of endocrine mimetic test compounds. Estrogens cause primarily an induction of superfemales resulting in an increased female mortality by the enhancement of spawning mass and egg production. The main effects of androgens are a virilization of females by imposex development and a marked decrease of the fecundity. Compared with estrogens and androgens, the antiandrogen responses seem to be less drastic and might have--in contrast to the two other disruptor classes--no biologically significant effects at the population level.

  17. Effects of endocrine disruptors on prosobranch snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the laboratory. Part II: Triphenyltin as a xeno-androgen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Oehlmann, U; Tillmann, M; Markert, B; Oehlmann, J; Watermann, B; Scherf, S

    2000-12-01

    In laboratory experiments the effects of suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals on freshwater and marine prosobranch species were analysed. In this second of three publications the responses of the freshwater ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis and of two marine prosobranchs (the dogwhelk Nucella lapillus and the netted whelk Hinia reticulata) to the xeno-androgenic model compound triphenyltin (TPT) are presented. Marisa and Nucella were exposed via water (nominal concentrations 5-500 ng TPT-Sn/L) and Hinia via sediments (nominal concentrations 50-500 micrograms TPT-Sn/kg dry wt.) for up to 4 months. Female ramshorn snails but not the two marine species developed imposex in a time and concentration dependent manner (EC10 4 months: 12.3 ng TPT-Sn/L) with a comparable intensity as described for tributyltin. TPT reduced furthermore the fecundity of Marisa at lower concentrations (EC10 4 months: 5.59 ng TPT-Sn/L) with a complete inhibition of spawning at nominal concentrations > or = 250 ng TPT-Sn/L (mean measured +/- SD: > or = 163 +/- 97.0 ng TPT-Sn/L). The extension of the pallial sex organs (penis with accessory structures and prostate gland) of male ramshorn snails and dogwhelks were reduced by up to 25% compared to the control but not in netted whelks. Histopathological analyses for M. cornuarietis and H. reticulata provide evidence for a marked impairment of spermatogenesis (both species) and oogenesis (only netted whelks). The test compound induced a highly significant and concentration independent increase in the incidence of hyperplasia on gills, osphradia and other organs in the mantle cavity of N. lapillus indicating a carcinogenic potential of TPT. The results show that prosobranchs are sensitive to endocrine disruption at environmentally relevant concentrations of TPT. Also, M. cornuarietis is a promising candidate for a future organismic invertebrate system to identify endocrine-mimetic test compounds.

  18. Inhibition of dye-coupling in Patella (mollusca) embryos by microinjection of antiserum against Nephrops (arthropoda) gap junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serras, F.; Buultjens, T.E.J.; Finbow, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Antiserum raised against Nephrops gap junctions was injected into single cells of the 2-, 4-, 8-, 16-, and 32-cell stage of the Patella vulgata embryos. The pattern of junctional communication by iontophoresis of Lucifer Yellow CH was tested at the 32-cell stage. The results show that the normal

  19. Effect of temperature on growth, mortality, reproduction, and production of adult Lymnaea obrussa Say (Mollusca:Gastropoda)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattice, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    Shell lengths and egg production were measured weekly under constant (K; 10, 15, 20, 25 0 C) and varying temperature regimes during the reproductive period. Varying regimes included natural field temperature in a pond (F; diurnal and seasonal), mean daily field temperature (anti F; seasonal) and 5 and 10 0 C above anti F. Growth rate of large snails (>10 mm) was unaffected by temperature, but small snails (6 to 10 mm) grew fastest at 15 0 C(K). Growth and reproductive periods were longest, production was highest, and mortality rate was lowest at 15 0 C(K). Rate (per snail) of egg production increased with temperature. At equal mean temperature, regime affected growth rate only at anti F. Regime affected the following values as shown: mortality rate,F > anti F = K; rate of reproduction, F > K > anti F; and total production, K > anti F = F. The validity of extrapolation of energetic data from laboratory to field is discussed. Data relating production and temperature are valuable in thermal impact analysis. (U.S.)

  20. Effect of heavy metals (Cu, Cd and Pb) on aspartate and alanine aminotransferase in Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasco, J.; Puppo, J.

    1999-01-01

    The accumulation of cadmium, copper and lead and their effects on aspartate and alanine aminotransferases in digestive gland, gills, foot and soft body in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum were examined. The animals were exposed to different concentrations: Cd (200-600 μg·l -1 ), Pb (350-700 μg·l -1 ) and Cu (10-20 μg·l -1 ) for 7 days. The highest concentrations were found in digestive gland for cadmium and copper, and in gills for lead, and the lowest values were observed in the foot. Aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST), in general, was not inhibited by cadmium, lead or copper during the exposure. Only in clams exposed to cadmium (600 μg·l -1 , 7 days) and copper (20 μg·l -1 , 5 days) were observed significant differences (P -1 . A significant correlation (P<0.05) was observed between ALT and metal accumulation for cadmium, copper and lead in gills. In the case of soft body, only cadmium and lead showed a significant correlation. In summary, R. philippinarum can be considered a bioindicator species for cadmium and lead accumulation and ALT could be useful as biomarker of sublethal stress for these metals in soft tissues and gills. Only gills can be considered an adequate target tissue for copper. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. Annotated type catalogue of the Bulimulidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea in the Natural History Museum, London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Breure

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The type status is described of 404 taxa classified within the family Bulimulidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea and kept in the London museum. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus aurifluus Pfeiffer, 1857; Otostomus bartletti H. Adams, 1867; Helix cactorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus caliginosus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus chemnitzioides Forbes, 1850; Bulimus cinereus Reeve, 1849; Helix cora d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus fallax Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus felix Pfeiffer, 1862; Bulimus fontainii d’Orbigny, 1838; Bulimus fourmiersi d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus (Mesembrinus gealei H. Adams, 1867; Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimus humboldtii Reeve, 1849; Helix hygrohylaea d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus jussieui Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895; Helix lichnorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus lucidus da Costa, 1898; Bulimus luridus Pfeiffer, 1863; Bulimus meleagris Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus monachus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimus montagnei d’Orbigny, 1837; Helix montivaga d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus muliebris Reeve, 1849; Bulimus nigrofasciatus Pfeiffer in Philippi 1846; Bulimus nitelinus Reeve, 1849; Helix oreades d’Orbigny, 1835; Helix polymorpha d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus praetextus Reeve, 1849; Bulinus proteus Broderip, 1832; Bulimus rusticellus Morelet, 1860; Helix sporadica d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus sulphureus Pfeiffer, 1857; Helix thamnoica var. marmorata d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus translucens Broderip in Broderip and Sowerby I 1832; Helix trichoda d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus ustulatus Sowerby I, 1833; Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847; Bulimus yungasensis d’Orbigny, 1837.The type status of the following taxa is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Bulimulus (Drymaeus caucaensis da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus exoticus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus (Drymaeus hidalgoi da Costa, 1898; Bulimulus (Drymaeus interruptus Preston, 1909; Bulimulus (Drymaeus inusitatus Fulton, 1900; Bulimulus latecolumellaris Preston, 1909; Bulimus (Otostomus napo Angas, 1878; Drymaeus notabilis da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus notatus da Costa, 1906; Bulimulus (Drymaeus nubilus Preston, 1903; Drymaeus obliquistriatus da Costa, 1901; Bulimus (Drymaeus ochrocheilus E.A. Smith, 1877; Bulimus (Drymaeus orthostoma E.A. Smith, 1877; Drymaeus expansus perenensis da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus pergracilis Rolle, 1904; Bulimulus (Drymaeus plicatoliratus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus prestoni da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus punctatus da Costa, 1907; Bulimus (Leptomerus sanctaeluciae E.A. Smith, 1889; Bulimulus (Drymaeus selli Preston, 1909; Drymaeus subventricosus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus ( Drymaeus tigrinus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus volsus Fulton, 1907; Drymaeus wintlei Finch, 1929; Bulimus zhorquinensis Angas, 1879; Bulimulus (Drymaeus ziczac da Costa, 1898.The following junior subjective synonyms are established: Bulimus antioquensis Pfeiffer, 1855 = Bulimus baranguillanus Pfeiffer, 1853; Drymaeus bellus da Costa, 1906 = Drymaeus blandi Pilsbry, 1897; Bulimus hachensis Reeve 1850 = Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846 = Bulimus columbianus Lea, 1838; Bulimus (Otostomus lamas Higgins 1868 = Bulimus trujillensis Philippi, 1867; Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895 = Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis E.A. Smith, 1895; Drymaeus multispira da Costa, 1904 = Helix torallyi d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus plicatoliratus Da Costa, 1898 = Bulimus convexus Pfeiffer, 1855; Bulimus sugillatus Pfeiffer, 1857 = Bulimus rivasii d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus meridionalis Reeve 1848 [June] = Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847.New combinations are: Bostryx montagnei (d’Orbigny, 1837; Bostryx obliquiportus (da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus heloicus (d’Orbigny, 1835; Drymaeus (Drymaeus lusorius (Pfeiffer, 1855; Drymaeus (Drymaeus trigonostomus (Jonas, 1844; Drymaeus (Drymaeus wintlei Finch, 1929; Drymaeus (Mesembrinus conicus da Costa, 1907; Kuschelenia (Kuschelenia culminea culminea (d’Orbigny, 1835; Kuschelenia (K. culmineus edwardsi (Morelet, 1863; Kuschelenia (K. gayi (Pfeiffer, 1857; Kuschelenia (K. tupacii (d’Orbigny, 1835; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus anthisanensis (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus aquilus (Reeve, 1848; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus bicolor (Sowerby I, 1835; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus caliginosus (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus cotopaxiensis (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus filaris (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus ochracea (Morelet, 1863; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus petiti (Pfeiffer, 1846; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus purpuratus (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus quechuarum (Crawford, 1939; Naesiotus cinereus (Reeve, 1849; Naesiotus dentritis (Morelet, 1863; Naesiotus fontainii (d’Orbigny, 1838; Naesiotus orbignyi (Pfeiffer, 1846; Protoglyptus pilosus (Guppy, 1871; Protoglyptus sanctaeluciae (E.A. Smith, 1889.Type material of the following taxa is figured herein for the first time: Bulimus cinereus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus coriaceus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimulus laxostylus Rolle, 1904; Bulimus pliculatus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimus simpliculus Pfeiffer, 1855.

  2. Crecimiento y mortalidad de Pinctada imbricata (Mollusca: Pteridae en Guamachito, Península de Araya, Estado Sucre, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el crecimiento, la distribución de tallas y la mortalidad de una población de Pinctada imbricata en Guamachito, Península de Araya, Venezuela, entre enero y diciembre de 2000. Los muestreos se realizaron mensualmente sobre transeptos perpendiculares a la línea de la costa con una rastra artesanal, tomando también datos sobre temperatura, oxígeno disuelto y salinidad de la columna de agua. La distribución de tallas fue variable con un predominio de tallas entre 50 y 70 mm, que constituyeron el 75% de la población. La mayor cantidad de juveniles fue observada en marzo, cuando la longitud media en la población fue de 55.8 mm. Los promedios de los pesos húmedo y seco siguieron la misma tendencia, con valores mínimos en junio, julio, septiembre y octubre de 2000. Las relaciones longitud-peso húmedo y longitud-peso seco fueron altamente significativas (P < 0.05. Los parámetros de la ecuación de crecimiento estacionalizada de von Bertalanffy fueron L∞ = 85.15 mm; K = 1.42 año–1, ts = 0.2, y C = 0.20; indicando un crecimiento lento (WP = 0.42 en el periodo de julio a noviembre, asociado con los parámetros ambientales del área con una longevidad estimada en 3 años. La mortalidad total fue de 14.35 año para los individuos pequeños (10–36 mm y 3.45 año, para los individuos grandes (36–84 mm. La alta tasa de crecimiento de P. imbricata muestra ser una ventaja para considerarla como una especie con potencial para actividades de acuicultura en la región. El banco ostrícola presenta buenas condiciones para mantener una explotación pesquera sostenida, tomando en consideración parámetros pesqueros como la captura registrada, el esfuerzo óptimo, la talla mínima de extracción, la mortalidad por pesca y la mortalidad natural.

  3. A high molecular weight proteoglycan is differentially expressed during development of the mollusc Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca; Gastropoda; Muricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandan, E; González, M; Inestrosa, N C; Tremblay, C; Urrea, R

    1992-12-15

    Incorporation of radioactive sulfate to hatched veliger larvae of the gastropod muricid Concholepas concholepas indicated that over 87% of the sulfated macromolecules were found in the detergent insoluble fraction, rich in extracellular matrix (ECM) components. The sulfated material was solubilized with guanidine salt followed by urea dialysis and fractionated by DEAE-Sephacel chromatography. Three sulfated compounds eluting at 0.7, 1.1, and 3.0 M NaCl, called peaks I, II, and III, respectively, were obtained. The sulfated compound present in peak I was degraded by pronase or sodium alkaline treatment to a small sulfated resistant material, suggesting the presence of a proteoglycan (PG). Filtration analysis on Sephacryl S-500 and SDS-PAGE of the intact PG indicates that it has a high molecular weight (360,000 to over 1 x 10(6)). Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against this PG were produced. The specificity of one mAb, the 6H2, was demonstrated by size chromatography and ELISA analysis. The epitope recognized by this mAb seems to be present in the core protein of the PG. Both the extent of sulfation and the presence of different sulfated species of PGs were evaluated during the development of this mollusc. A twelvefold increase in the incorporation of sulfate to PGs per milligram of protein was found in veliger larvae compared to blastula-glastula stages. This change correlated well with the differential expression of the sulfated PG present in peak I. Biochemical and immunological analysis indicate that high levels of this PG are found in veliger and trocophore larvae in comparison with blastula-gastrula and early juveniles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Ecotoxicological studies with newly hatched larvae of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda): bioassay with secondary-treated kraft pulp mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez, Patricio H; Llanos-Rivera, Alejandra; Galaz, Sylvana; Camaño, Andrés

    2013-12-01

    The Chilean abalone or "loco" (Concholepas concholepas, Bruguière 1789) represent the most economically important marine recourse exploited from inner inshore Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources along the Chilean coast. In this study, newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas were investigated as a potential model species for marine ecotoxicological studies. The study developed a behavioral standard protocol for assessing the impact that kraft pulp mill effluents after secondary treatment have on C. concholepas larvae. Under controlled laboratory conditions, newly-hatched larvae were exposed to a series of different concentrations of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment (Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp.), potassium dichromate as standard reference toxicant and effluent-free control conditions. Regardless of the type of effluent the results indicated that diluted kraft pulp effluent with secondary treatment had reduced effect on larval survival. Low larval survivals were only recorded when they were exposed to high concentrations of the reference toxicant. This suggests that C. concholepas larval bioassay is a simple method for monitoring the effects of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment discharged into the sea. The results indicated that dilution of ca. 1% of the effluent with an elemental chlorine free (ECF) secondary treatment is appropriate for achieving low larval mortalities, such as those obtained under control conditions with filtered seawater, and to minimize their impact on early ontogenetic stages of marine invertebrates such as newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas. The methodological aspects of toxicological testing and behavioral responses described here with newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas can be used to evaluate in the future the potential effects of other stressful conditions as other pollutants or changes in seawater pH associated with ocean acidification. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cytogenetic characterisation of the razor shells Ensis directus (Conrad, 1843) and E. minor (Chenu, 1843) (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Tizón, Ana M.; Rojo, Verónica; Vierna, Joaquín; Jensen, K. Thomas; Egea, Emilie; Martínez-Lage, Andrés

    2013-03-01

    The European razor shell Ensis minor (Chenu 1843) and the American E. directus (Conrad 1843) have a diploid chromosome number of 38 and remarkable differences in their karyotypes: E. minor has four metacentric, one metacentric-submetacentric, five submetacentric, one subtelocentric and eight telocentric chromosome pairs, whereas E. directus has three metacentric, two metacentric-submetacentric, six submetacentric, six subtelocentric and two telocentric pairs. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) using a major ribosomal DNA probe located the major ribosomal genes on one submetacentric chromosome pair in both species; FISH with a 5S ribosomal DNA (5S rDNA) probe rendered one chromosomal (weak) signal for E. minor and no signal for E. directus, supporting a more dispersed organisation of 5S rDNA compared to the major ribosomal genes. The vertebrate telomeric sequence (TTAGGG) n was located on both ends of each chromosome, and no interstitial signals were detected. In this work, a comparative karyological analysis was also performed between the four Ensis species analysed revealing that the three European species studied so far, namely E. minor, E. siliqua (Linné 1758) and E. magnus Schumacher 1817 show more similarities among them than compared to the American species E. directus. In addition, clear karyotype differences were found between the morphologically similar species E. minor and E. siliqua.

  6. Molecular discrimination of Perna (Mollusca: Bivalvia) species using the polymerase chain reaction and species-specific mitochondrial primers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blair, D.; Waycott, M.; Byrne, L.

    2006-01-01

    This work was prompted by the need to be able to identify the invasive mussel species, Perna viridis, in tropical Australian seas using techniques that do not rely solely on morphology. DNA-based molecular methods utilizing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach were developed to distinguish...

  7. A cybertaxonomic revision of the micro-landsnail genus Plectostoma Adam (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae), from Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Indochina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Thor-Seng; Vermeulen, Jaap Jan; Marzuki, Mohammad Effendi bin; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Plectostoma is a micro land snail restricted to limestone outcrops in Southeast Asia. Plectostoma was previously classified as a subgenus of Opisthostoma because of the deviation from regular coiling in many species in both taxa. This paper is the first of a two-part revision of the genus Plectostoma, and includes all non-Borneo species. In the present paper, we examined 214 collection samples of 31 species, and obtained 62 references, 290 pictures, and 155 3D-models of 29 Plectostoma species and 51 COI sequences of 19 species. To work with such a variety of taxonomic data, and then to represent it in an integrated, scaleable and accessible manner, we adopted up-to-date cybertaxonomic tools. All the taxonomic information, such as references, classification, species descriptions, specimen images, genetic data, and distribution data, were tagged and linked with cyber tools and web servers (e.g. Lifedesks, Google Earth, and Barcoding of Life Database). We elevated Plectostoma from subgenus to genus level based on morphological, ecological and genetic evidence. We revised the existing 21 Plectostoma species and described 10 new species, namely, P. dindingensis sp. n., P. mengaburensis sp. n., P. whitteni sp. n., P. kayiani sp. n., P. davisoni sp. n., P. relauensis sp. n., P. kubuensis sp. n., P. tohchinyawi sp. n., P. tenggekensis sp. n., and P. ikanensis sp. n. All the synthesised, semantic-tagged, and linked taxonomic information is made freely and publicly available online. PMID:24715783

  8. On growth and form of irregular coiled-shell of a terrestrial snail: Plectostoma concinnum (Fulton, 1901 (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda: Diplommatinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor-Seng Liew

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The molluscan shell can be viewed as a petrified representation of the organism’s ontogeny and thus can be used as a record of changes in form during growth. However, little empirical data is available on the actual growth and form of shells, as these are hard to quantify and examine simultaneously. To address these issues, we studied the growth and form of a land snail that has an irregularly coiled and heavily ornamented shell–Plectostoma concinnum. The growth data were collected in a natural growth experiment and the actual form changes of the aperture during shell ontogeny were quantified. We used an ontogeny axis that allows data of growth and form to be analysed simultaneously. Then, we examined the association between the growth and the form during three different whorl growing phases, namely, the regular coiled spire phase, the transitional constriction phase, and the distortedly-coiled tuba phase. In addition, we also explored the association between growth rate and the switching between whorl growing mode and rib growing mode. As a result, we show how the changes in the aperture ontogeny profiles in terms of aperture shape, size and growth trajectory, and the changes in growth rates, are associated with the different shell forms at different parts of the shell ontogeny. These associations suggest plausible constraints that underlie the three different shell ontogeny phases and the two different growth modes. We found that the mechanism behind the irregularly coiled-shell is the rotational changes of the animal’s body and mantle edge with respect to the previously secreted shell. Overall, we propose that future study should focus on the role of the mantle and the columellar muscular system in the determination of shell form.

  9. Aspects of the biology of Mya arenaria and Ensis spp. (Mollusca; Bivalvia) in the Irish Sea and adjacent areas

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Maud E.

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the general biology, including the reproductive cycle and health status, of two clam taxa in Irish waters, with particular reference to the Irish Sea area. Monthly samples of the soft shell clam, Mya arenaria, were collected from Bannow Bay, Co. Wexford, Ireland, for sixteen months, and of the razor clam, Ensis spp. from the Skerries region (Irish Sea) between June 2010 and September 2011. In 2010, M. arenaria in Bannow Bay matured over the summer mont...

  10. The Effects of Mercury Exposure on the Surface Morphology of Gill Filaments in Perna perna (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, M.A.; George, R.C.; Marshall, D.J.; Anandraj, A.; McClurg, T.P.

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility that changes in the surface morphology of mussel (Perna perna) gill filaments may be used to indicate the relative toxicity of pollutants in the marine environment. Healthy, adult P. perna were collected and immersed in 2 free-flow tanks. Mercury was added to seawater as it entered tank 1 to achieve a constant level of 50 μg/l -1 over 24 days. Uncontaminated seawater was circulated over the mussels in tank 2 (control) for the same period. A 25 mm 2 area of gill filament was removed from each of the 5 specimens before and after 24 days immersion in tank 2, and after immersion for 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 days in tank 1. These were examined using a scanning electron microscope. The remaining soft tissues from each animal were analysed for mercury using an atomic absorption spectrometer. Mercury concentration increased from 0.13 (pre-immersion) to 87 μg/g after day 24. Surface morphology remained normal for all animals in tank 2 and for those exposed to Hg for up to 8 days. However, from 16 to 24 days exposure there was a gradual increase in the diameters of microvilli, a depletion of abfrontal cilia, an increase in abnormal, perhaps necrotic cells and an unusual increase in the number of cilia on the lateral surfaces. These results confirm that P. perna is an efficient bio-accumulator and suggest that their gill pathomorphology may be a useful indicator of toxicity

  11. Cutaneous application of an accessory-gland secretion after sperm exchange in a terrestrial slug (Mollusca : Pulmonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benke, Mandy; Reise, Heike; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Koene, Joris M

    Competition for fertilisation in hermaphroditic animals seems to have led to many odd behaviours and complex morphologies involved in the transfer of accessory-gland products to the partner. Terrestrial slugs of the genus Deroceras show remarkably elaborate and interspecifically diverse penis

  12. Putative midkine family protein up-regulation in Patella caerulea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) exposed to sublethal concentrations of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanucci, Silvana; Minerdi, Daniela; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Mengoni, Alessio; Bazzicalupo, Marco

    2005-01-01

    A cDNA sequence of a putative midkine (MK) family protein was identified and characterised in the mollusc Patella caerulea. The midkine family consists of two members, midkine and pleiotrophin (PTN), and it is one of the recently discovered cytokines. Our results show that this putative midkine protein is up-regulated in specimens of P. caerulea exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations (i.e. 0.5 and 1 mg l -1 Cd) over a 10-day exposure period. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and quantitative Real time RT-PCR estimations indicate elevated expression of midkine mRNA in exposed specimens compared to controls. Moreover, RT-PCR Real time values were higher in the viscera (here defined as the part of the soft tissue including digestive gland plus gills) than in the foot (i.e. foot plus head plus heart) of the limpets. At present, information on the functional signalling significance of the midkine family proteins suggests that the up-regulation of P. caerulea putative midkine family protein is a distress signal likely with informative value on health status of the organism and with potential prognostic capability

  13. ORF Alignment: NC_004113 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... elongatus BP-1] ... Length = 211 ... Query: 1 ... MATLEFLTFPDPAIAADHTLLLLHGWGANAADLISLGPLLAPHAQIYAAEAPF...PHPYVAQ 60 ... MATLEFLTFPDPAIAADHTLLLLHGWGANAADLISLGPLLAPHAQIYAAEAPFPHPYVA...Q Sbjct: 1 ... MATLEFLTFPDPAIAADHTLLLLHGWGANAADLISLGPLLAPHAQIYAAEAPFPHPYVAQ 60 ... Query: 121 AVGLRLPLAGLLVFSGYLV

  14. ORF Alignment: NC_006576 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ECEASDVKSLLEALEQSFPGIKARLCDEQGQLRRFLNVYVN 62 ... ITVLIPTPLQKFTNNQASLECEASDVKS...LLEALEQSFPGIKARLCDEQGQLRRFLNVYVN Sbjct: 1 ... ITVLIPTPLQKFTNNQASLECEASDVKSLLEALEQSFPGIKARLCDEQGQLRRFLNVYVN 60 ... ...subunit ... [Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942] ... Length = 89 ... Query: 3 ... ITVLIPTPLQKFTNNQASL

  15. ORF Alignment: NC_006576 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available occus ... elongatus PCC 6301] ... Length = 168 ... Query: 361 RTIAERQRAIILRSDAVRKHLAGISLLERGGPEIY...SPEMSDRTXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 420 ... RTIAERQRAIILRSDAVRKHLAGISLLERGGPEIYSPEMS...DRT ... Sbjct: 17 ... RTIAERQRAIILRSDAVRKHLAGISLLERGGPEIYSPEMSDRTYGRLLYLGLGLAQAGYR 76 ... Query: 481

  16. ORF Alignment: NC_006576 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ccus ... elongatus PCC 6301] ... Length = 155 ... Query: 2 ... AKTASTMLALGTAAPDFALPDVVSGRTVQLADFSDR...AGLLVMFICQHCPFVKHVEEELAA 61 ... AKTASTMLALGTAAPDFALPDVVSGRTVQLADFSDRAGLLVM...FICQHCPFVKHVEEELAA Sbjct: 1 ... AKTASTMLALGTAAPDFALPDVVSGRTVQLADFSDRAGLLVMFICQHCPFVKHVEEELAA 60 ... Query: 122 DF

  17. ORF Alignment: NC_004113 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se ... [Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1] ... Length = 99 ... Query: 9 ... PWKRTPVKTWRFPIKTTIRIGRAADNDVI...LNDILVSRYHAELSCYRDPENLGRWFLKSLG 68 ... PWKRTPVKTWRFPIKTTIRIGRAADNDVI...LNDILVSRYHAELSCYRDPENLGRWFLKSLG Sbjct: 1 ... PWKRTPVKTWRFPIKTTIRIGRAADNDVILNDILVSRYHAELSCYRDPENLGRWFLKSLG 60 ...

  18. Emergence, development, and maturity of the gonad of two species of chitons "sea cockroach" (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) through the early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Abadia-Chanona, Quetzalli Yasú

    2013-01-01

    This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or "early life stages" were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y = aX(b) . A total of 125 chitons (4≤TL≤40 mm, in total length "TL") were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r), close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods ("Pw" without gonad, "Pe" gonad emergence, and "Pf" gonadal sac formed) and four stages ("S0" gametocytogenesis, "S1" gametogenesis, "S2" mature, and "S3" spawning), respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13-14.32 mm, Pe 10.32-16.93 mm, Pf 12.99-25.01 mm, S0 16.08-24.34 mm (females) and 19.51-26.60 mm (males), S1 27.15-35.63 mm (females) and 23.45-32.27 mm (males), S2 24.48-40.24 mm (females) and 25.45-32.87 mm (males). Sexual differentiation (in S0) of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult) are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management.

  19. Toxicological perspective on the osmoregulation and ionoregulation physiology of major ions by freshwater animals: Teleost fish, crustacea, aquatic insects, and Mollusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Michael B

    2017-03-01

    Anthropogenic sources increase freshwater salinity and produce differences in constituent ions compared with natural waters. Moreover, ions differ in physiological roles and concentrations in intracellular and extracellular fluids. Four freshwater taxa groups are compared, to investigate similarities and differences in ion transport processes and what ion transport mechanisms suggest about the toxicity of these or other ions in freshwater. Although differences exist, many ion transporters are functionally similar and may belong to evolutionarily conserved protein families. For example, the Na + /H + -exchanger in teleost fish differs from the H + /2Na + (or Ca 2+ )-exchanger in crustaceans. In osmoregulation, Na + and Cl - predominate. Stenohaline freshwater animals hyperregulate until they are no longer able to maintain hypertonic extracellular Na + and Cl - concentrations with increasing salinity and become isotonic. Toxic effects of K + are related to ionoregulation and volume regulation. The ionic balance between intracellular and extracellular fluids is maintained by Na + /K + -adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), but details are lacking on apical K + transporters. Elevated H + affects the maintenance of internal Na + by Na + /H + exchange; elevated HCO 3 - inhibits Cl - uptake. The uptake of Mg 2+ occurs by the gills or intestine, but details are lacking on Mg 2+ transporters. In unionid gills, SO 4 2- is actively transported, but most epithelia are generally impermeant to SO 4 2- . Transporters of Ca 2+ maintain homeostasis of dissolved Ca 2+ . More integration of physiology with toxicology is needed to fully understand freshwater ion effects. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:576-600. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  20. Los moluscos terrestres (Mollusca: Gastropoda de Costa Rica: clasificación, distribución y conservación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaidett Barrientos Llosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los moluscos terrestres son un grupo muy poco estudiado a nivel mundial. Hay 183 especies reportadas para Costa Rica, 30% son endémicas y 7% posiblemente están extintas. Se espera que en el país haya alrededor de 400 especies, de más del 95% se desconoce su biología, ecología, distribución, genética y otros campos de estudio. En Costa Rica las familias con mayor número de especies son Spiraxidae, Orthalicidae y Subulinidae. No obstante, es posible que Euconulidae sea aun más diversa, pues habitan las zonas altas del país que es en donde menos trabajo se ha hecho. El estudio de regiones altas aumentará el porcentaje de endemismo. Los futuros trabajos malacológicos taxonómicos, biológicos y ecológicos deben considerar la poca movilidad de este grupo, su tendencia a formar especies nuevas en simpatría, la especificidad de requerimientos de microhábitat, el hermafroditismo, la alta tasa de evolución (10% por millón de años y la divergencia entre especies (2-30%. Para proteger adecuadamente la biodiversidad de la malacofauna costarricense, se requiere de estudios que determinen la distribución y abundancia de las especies y el efecto del uso de la tierra y del climático.

  1. On the identities of the molluscan names described in A Short Zoology of Tahiti in the Society Islands by Anthony Curtiss in 1938 (Mollusca: Cephalopoda, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Martyn E Y; Tan, Siong Kiat

    2014-02-11

    Anthony Curtiss described two species of cephalopod and nine species of gastropod molluscs from Tahiti. Herein, we discuss and determine the identities of these eleven names. Ten of these names are considered to be junior subjective synonyms of well-known taxa, and one an unavailable name.

  2. Nueva especie de Planorbidae (Gastropoda: Basommatophora en la Patagonia chilena: Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov. First record of Planorbidae (Mollusca: Basommatophora in Chilean Patagonia: Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Fuentealba

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En Chile la familia Planorbidae está representada por el género Biomphalaria Preston, 1910, compuesta por siete especies distribuidas desde Isluga hasta el río Puelo. De estas especies, solo B.peregrina, ampliamente distribuida en el neotrópico, y Biomphalaria aymara de Isluga, han sido reconocidas sobre la base de la morfología del sistema reproductor y la rádula, caracteres que fueron utilizados en el presente estudio para diferenciar a Biomphalaria cristiani como nueva especie del grupo y primer registro de la familia en la Patagonia chilena, ampliando su actual rango de distribución. Los caracteres que permiten la diagnosis de B. cristiani son el saco vaginal vestigial truncado, ausencia del desarrollo de los músculos suspensores del pene, vaina del pene corta en relación al prepucio, oviducto largo en relación al espermioducto y vaso deferente más delgado y largo que la vaina del pene, de tamano similar al prepucio. La localidad tipo de Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov. es Laguna Cisnes (47°7'10.02"S, 72°27'40.65"W, región de Aysén.The family Planorbidae in Chile is represented by the genus Biomphalaria Preston, 1910, consisting of seven species distributed from Isluga to Puelo River. Of these species, only Biomphalaria peregrina widely distributed in the neotropical and Biomphalaria aymara from Isluga are recognized based on the morphology of the reproductive system and radula, characters that were used in the following study to differentiate Biomphalaria cristiani as a new species of this group and first record of the family in Chilean Patagonia, extending its current distribution range. The characters for the diagnosis of B. cristiani are: truncated vestigial vaginal pouch, lack of development of the penis retractor muscles, penis sheath shorter than the prepuce, oviduct longer than the spermiduct and vas deferens thinner and longer than the penis sheath, similar size to the prepuce. The type locality of B. cristiani nov. sp. is Laguna Cisnes (47°7'10.02"S; 72°27'40.65"W, Aysén region.

  3. Observations on the symbiosis between Colus gracilis (Da Costa, 1778) (Mollusca: Gastropoda) and Hormathia digitata (O.F. Müller, 1776) (Cnidaria: Actiniaria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ates, R.M.L.

    1998-01-01

    Aquarium observations of the behaviour of the actinian Hormathia digitata when mounting live specimens of the gastropod Colus gracilis are fully described for the first time. C. gracilis actively initiates an association with H. digitata by approaching and remaining stationary near the actinian.

  4. Reproductive activity and biochemical composition of the pullet carpet shell Venerupis senegalensis (Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca: Bivalvia from Ria de Aveiro (northwestern coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Joaquim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study characterizes the reproductive cycle of Venerupis senegalensis (=V. pullastra from Ria de Aveiro (Portugal as well as its nutrient storage and exploitation strategy. The reproductive cycle followed a seasonal cycle that correlated negatively with sea surface temperature, and comprised a ripe stage in winter followed by a spawning period that began in late winter and ended in the early summer. This extended spawning may be an advantageous strategy for the species because it ensures a continuous supply of settlers. Gametogenesis began in late summer/early autumn and intensified with the decrease in temperature during autumn. The condition index increased even during the spawning period, which indicates that there is rapid recovery and that reserves are accumulated during late summer and used later in the gametogenic process. Proteins did not contribute significantly to gametogenesis and the glycogen pattern is typical of conservative species, since gametogenesis depends largely on the amount of glycogen stored. The lipid storage and utilization cycle showed that gametogenesis took place in autumn/winter and that energy reserves were accumulated in summer.

  5. The population density of Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817) (Mollusca, Lymnaeidae) an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758), in the Caparaó microregion, ES, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Almeida, S C G; Freitas, D F; Carneiro, M B; Camargo, P F; Azevedo, J C; Martins, I V F

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the population density of Lymnaea columella, an intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, in various aquatic habitats and in drinking water in the area of the Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Espírito Santo, on Caparaó Microregion, municipality of Alegre, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Monthly samplings were performed at certain points between drainage areas and drinking water in cattle and goat production systems during the years 2010 to 2013. The mean temperature, precipitation and the frequency of samples of L. columella were analysed graphically according the monthly average during the study period. A total of 2,038 molluscs were collected, 1558 of which were L. columella, that predominated in all sampled points. The highest average of specimens observed for L. columella was in the years 2010 and 2013 (51.0), and occurred decreased in 2011 (19.8). The temperature and precipitation averaged is 23.7 °C and 141 mm/year, respectively. Rainfall peak occurred in March (2011, 2013) and November (2012), during these periods the population of L. columella growth. There was no significant difference in the relationship between the specimens observed with seasons (dry-wet), thus the population of L. columella remained stable and can be found throughout the year.

  6. Evaluation of magnesium and manganese in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: mollusca, bivalvia) collected in the cost of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Daniele; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Cathartino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G.; Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate magnesium and manganese concentrations in Perna perna mussels by applying instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The mussels were collected seasonally from September 2008 to July 2009 at Cocanha Beach in the city of Caraguatatuba (clean region), and at two sites in Santos Bay (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island). The mussel samples were cleaned, grinded, homogenized, lyophilized and then analyzed by INAA. The INAA procedure consisted in the irradiation of the samples and synthetic elemental standards for 10 s, under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 in the nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The measurements of the gamma radioactivity of the samples and standards were carried out using a hyperpure semiconductor Ge detector, coupled to Digital Spectral Analyzer. The elemental concentrations were calculated by the comparative method. For quality control of analytical results, certified reference materials NIST SRM 1566b oyster tissue and NRC DORM-2 Dogfish Muscle were analyzed and their results indicated good accuracy. The element concentrations in mussels on dry mass basis varied from 2734 ± 205 to 5138 ± 507 mg kg -1 for Mg and from 7.35±0.57 to 29.06±3.35 mg kg -1 for Mn. The results obtained in mussel analysis indicated that the samples collected in Itaipu in the winter season presented higher accumulation of Mg than the other sites. For Mn, the highest concentrations were obtained for the mussels collected in Palmas in summer time. (author)

  7. Threatened freshwater and terrestrial molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda et Bivalvia of Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil: check list and evaluation of regional threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of nineteen continental native mollusc species are confirmed for the Santa Catarina State (SC(organized in ten Genera and seven Families, one aquatic Prosobranchia/Caenogastropoda (Ampullariidae,six Pulmonata terrestrial gastropods (one Ellobiidae, three Megalobulimidae and two micro-snails –Charopidae and Streptaxidae and twelve freshwater mussels (eight Mycetopodidae and four Hyriidae. Thesespecies are designated by the International Union for Conservation of the Nature – IUCN as follows: seven as"Vulnerable", six "In Danger" and six “Without Category Established”. The general regional threats that thesespecies are subjected to are briefly analyzed.

  8. Description of two new species of Rissoella Gray, 1847 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Heterobranchia from Venezuela, with a key to the Caribbean species known for the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Caballer Gutierrez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Rissoella Gray, 1847 are described from Venezuela, one from the National Park Morrocoy, Rissoella morrocoyensis sp. n. and the other from the Wildlife Refuge Isla de Aves, Rissoella venezolanicola sp. n. R. morrocoyensis sp. n. has a deep umbilicus (partly closed, preumbilical cord, black head, hypobranchial gland marked by a pale yellow boomerang-shaped ribbon and it lives on the leaves of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum Banks & König, 1805. R. venezolanicola sp. n. has an angled preumbilical cord which extends to the columella delimiting a trapezoid, a hypobranchial gland marked by a yellow quaver-shaped ribbon and protoconch with fuchsia highlights. It lives on the brown alga Dictyota spp. The records of Rissoella in the Caribbean are revised and illustrations, a comparative table and a key to the Caribbean species known for the genus are provided.

  9. Biodiversidad de gasterópodos terrestres (Mollusca en el Parque Biológico Sierra de San Javier, Tucumán, Argentina

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    María José Miranda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un inventario y se analizaron parámetros de diversidad de la malacofauna terrestre del Parque Biológico Sierra de San Javier. Se llevaron a cabo muestreos cualitativos y cuantitativos en parcelas de 10x10m tomadas en transectas altitudinales, para un total de 22 169 especímenes recolectados. Las identificaciones taxonómicas se llevaron a cabo a nivel de especie. Se construyó una matriz de especies por parcela para analizar patrones de diversidad y se utilizaron estimadores no paramétricos (ICE, ACE, Chao 1 y Chao 2 para calcular la diversidad del Parque, el grado de completitud del muestreo y la agregación espacial de los datos. Se calcularon los índices de Shannon, Simpson, Whittaker y Jaccard. La riqueza del Parque fue estimada en 32 especies distribuidas en 21 géneros y 13 familias. Solo una especie pertenece a Caenogastropoda, el resto son Pulmonados Stylommatophora y Systellommatophora. La familia más representada fue Charopidae mientras que la especie con mayor abundancia relativa fue Adelopoma tucma. La riqueza y diversidad fue levemente mayor en chaco seco que en bosque húmedo de Yungas. Los valores de diversidad obtenidos fueron elevados en comparación con estudios previos realizados en el noroeste Argentino.

  10. The Neotropical land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda collected by the ‘Comisión Científica del Pacífico’

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    Abraham S.H. Breure

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The land snails collected by the ‘Comisión Científica del Pacifíco’ (CCP, a Spanish expedition to South and Central America from 1862–1866, are restudied and revised. The historical context of the expedition and the study of its collected material are described. Biographical data is given for the main persons involved. The land snails were previously studied by Joaquin Hidalgo between 1867 and 1893. A total of 3,470 specimens belonging to 211 species are treated in this paper. Of 34 species mentioned by Hidalgo is his catalogue, the corresponding material could not be located. Bulimus visendus Hidalgo, 1869 is now placed in the genus Synapterpes Pilsbry, 1896, a new combination.

  11. Single cell gel electrophoresis as a tool to assess genetic damage in Heleobia cf. australis (Mollusca: Gastropoda as sentinel for industrial and domestic pollution in Montevideo bay (Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Villar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe knowledge of the extent of DNA damage in aquatic organisms in polluted areas is an important issue because contamination may alter their health at sublethal levels. Although molluscs have been widely used to monitor water pollution, there are no records of in vivo genotoxicity studies. Heleobia cf. australis, is distributed in almost all Uruguayan coastal ecosystems, including highly polluted sites. The comet assay is a damage genetic biomarker based on the migration of negatively charged DNA fragments produced by mutagenic agents in individual cells. Live individuals were collected in the Montevideo Bay (impacted area and Laguna Garzón (control to analyze the presence of mutagenic agents in the former site through comet assay. Cells from organisms of the impacted area showed significantly higher levels of genetic damage than those obtained in the control population, measured by percentage of DNA in the tail. Although preliminary, this approach supports the idea that H. cf. australis could be used as a sentinel to evaluate the presence of mutagenic agents in estuarine environments, alerting to the impact of contamination in its early stages.

  12. An annotated catalogue of Recent Pectinoidea (Mollusca, Pectinidae and Propeamussiidae) type material in the Museum of Natural History, Humboldt University, Berlin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.; Köhler, F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper lists 22 pectinoid types (21 primary and one secondary) and three potential syntypes in the Museum of Natural History (ZMB) in Berlin. Eight lectotypes are designated herein for the stabilization of taxonomic names: Pecten aequatorialis, Pecten australis, Pecten clathratus, Camptonectes

  13. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna Mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coast of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Daniele; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiki; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G.; Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de

    2013-01-01

    In this study the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V was evaluated in samples of Perna perna mussels collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos) subjected to anthropogenic contamination, to compare these values with those of mussels from reference site of Cocanha Beach (in Caraguatatuba). The mussels were collected seasonally from September 2008 to July 2009. They were cleaned, ground, homogenized, lyophilized and then analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The INAA procedure consisted in the irradiation of the samples and synthetic elemental standards for 8 and 10 s, under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. For quality control of analytical results, certified reference materials NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 2876 Mussel Tissue were analyzed and their results indicated good accuracy. The ranges of concentrations (dry basis) of the elements obtained in mussels collected for the four seasons of the year were: 173.80 to 358.99 mg kg -1 for Br; 45658 ± 1811 to 109166 ± 824 mg kg -1 for Cl; 7043 ± 856 to 12506 ± 675 mg kg -1 for K; 2774 ± 211 to 5691 ± 717 mg kg -1 for Mg; 7.01 ± 0.30 to 29.74 ± 3.32 mg kg -1 for Mn and 0.77 ± 0.02 to 3.43 ± 0.28 mg kg -1 for V. The seasonal and spatial variations of these element concentrations were in this study. (author)

  14. Evaluation of magnesium and manganese in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: mollusca, bivalvia) collected in the cost of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Cathartino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de, E-mail: edvinett@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Ecotoxicologia Marinha e Microfitobentos

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate magnesium and manganese concentrations in Perna perna mussels by applying instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The mussels were collected seasonally from September 2008 to July 2009 at Cocanha Beach in the city of Caraguatatuba (clean region), and at two sites in Santos Bay (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island). The mussel samples were cleaned, grinded, homogenized, lyophilized and then analyzed by INAA. The INAA procedure consisted in the irradiation of the samples and synthetic elemental standards for 10 s, under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The measurements of the gamma radioactivity of the samples and standards were carried out using a hyperpure semiconductor Ge detector, coupled to Digital Spectral Analyzer. The elemental concentrations were calculated by the comparative method. For quality control of analytical results, certified reference materials NIST SRM 1566b oyster tissue and NRC DORM-2 Dogfish Muscle were analyzed and their results indicated good accuracy. The element concentrations in mussels on dry mass basis varied from 2734 {+-} 205 to 5138 {+-} 507 mg kg{sup -1} for Mg and from 7.35{+-}0.57 to 29.06{+-}3.35 mg kg{sup -1} for Mn. The results obtained in mussel analysis indicated that the samples collected in Itaipu in the winter season presented higher accumulation of Mg than the other sites. For Mn, the highest concentrations were obtained for the mussels collected in Palmas in summer time. (author)

  15. Diet and stable isotope analyses reveal the feeding ecology of the orangeback squid Sthenoteuthis pteropus (Steenstrup 1855 (Mollusca, Ommastrephidae in the eastern tropical Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Merten

    Full Text Available In the eastern tropical Atlantic, the orangeback flying squid Sthenoteuthis pteropus (Steenstrup 1855 (Cephalopoda, Ommastrephidae is a dominant species of the epipelagic nekton community. This carnivore squid has a short lifespan and is one of the fastest-growing squids. In this study, we characterise the role of S. pteropus in the pelagic food web of the eastern tropical Atlantic by investigating its diet and the dynamics of its feeding habits throughout its ontogeny and migration. During three expeditions in the eastern tropical Atlantic in 2015, 129 specimens were caught by hand jigging. Stomach content analyses (via visual identification and DNA barcoding were combined with stable isotope data (∂15N and ∂13C of muscle tissue to describe diet, feeding habits and trophic ecology of S. pteropus. Additionally, stable isotope analyses of incremental samples along the squid's gladius-the chitinous spiniform structure supporting the muscles and organs-were carried out to explore possible diet shifts through ontogeny and migration. Our results show that S. pteropus preys mainly on myctophid fishes (e.g. Myctophum asperum, Myctophum nitidulum, Vinciguerria spp., but also on other teleost species, cephalopods (e.g. Enoploteuthidae, Bolitinidae, Ommastrephidae, crustaceans and possibly on gelatinous zooplankton as well. The squid shows a highly opportunistic feeding behaviour that includes cannibalism. Our study indicates that the trophic position of S. pteropus may increase by approximately one trophic level from a mantle length of 15 cm to 47 cm. The reconstructed isotope-based feeding chronologies of the gladii revealed high intra- and inter-individual variability in the squid's trophic position and foraging area. These findings are not revealed by diet or muscle tissue stable isotope analysis. This suggests a variable and complex life history involving individual variation and migration. The role of S. pteropus in transferring energy and nutrients from lower to higher trophic levels may be underestimated and important for understanding how a changing ocean impacts food webs in the eastern Atlantic.

  16. The influence of caffeine and thymol on the survival, growth and reproduction of Subulina octona (Brugüière, 1789 (Mollusca, Subulinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ferreira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Subulina octona is a terrestrial snail which serves as an intermediate host for the parasites. It is also an agricultural pest. The aim of this work was to assess, during 120 days, the effects of caffeine and thymol at 2.5 g/L and 5 g/L on the hatchability, survival after hatching, growth and reproduction of S. octona under the laboratory conditions. A total of 240 eggs, 240 juveniles aged 10-day-old, and 240 aged 30-day-old were tested. The results showed that thymol (at 2.5 g/L and 5 g/L and caffeine (at 5 g/L acted as ovicides. In the 10-day-old juveniles, caffeine at 5 g/L caused 25% mortality and at 2.5 g/L it caused 30% mortality. Thymol at 2.5 and 5 g/L caused 20 and 22.5% mortality, respectively. In the 30-day-old juveniles, caffeine at 5 g/L caused 47.5% mortality.Subulina octona é um molusco terrestre que atua como hospedeiro intermediário de parasitos. Também atua como praga agrícola. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, durante 120 dias, o efeito da cafeína e do timol a 2,5g/L e a 5g/L, sobre a eclodibilidade, a sobrevivência após a eclosão, crescimento e a reprodução de S. octona em condições de laboratório. Foram testados 240 ovos, 240 jovens com 10 e 30 dias de vida. Os resultados dos testes mostraram que o timol (5g/L e 2,5g/L e a cafeína a 5g/L atuaram como ovicida. Nos jovens com 10 dias de vida a cafeína à 5g/L provocou uma mortalidade de 25% e a 2,5 g/L 30%. O timol a 2,5g/L e 5g/L provocou 20 e 22,5% de mortalidade, respectivamente. Nos jovens com 30 dias de vida a cafeína a 5g/L causou 47,5% de mortalidade. Esses resultados sugerem novos estudos no campo.

  17. Characterization of nine microsatellite markers and development of multiplex PCRs for the Chinese huge musel Anodonta (Sinanodonta) woodiana Lea, 1834 (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popa, O. P.; Bartáková, Veronika; Bryja, Josef; Reichard, Martin; Popa, L. O.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, June (2015), s. 234-237 ISSN 0305-1978 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-05872S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Invasive species * SSRs * Population genetics * Unionidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.988, year: 2015

  18. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic) with an updated regional checklist for the family

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro,Ricardo; Ávila,Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setia alexandrae sp. n., Setia ermelindoi sp. n., Setia netoae sp. n., and Manzonia martinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined.

  19. On the doubtful records of Alvania platycephala, Alvania pagodula and Alvania didyma, with the description of two new rissoid species (Mollusca; Gastropoda: Rissoidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, M.J.; Moolenbeek, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Two new species of Alvania are described from Bermuda. Both species have been wrongly identified in the past. The generic classification is discussed but a definitive statement based only on conchological characters seems impossible.

  20. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic) with an updated regional checklist for the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Ávila, Sérgio P

    2015-01-01

    Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setiaalexandrae sp. n., Setiaermelindoi sp. n., Setianetoae sp. n., and Manzoniamartinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined.

  1. Molecular resolution of the family Dreissenidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) with emphasis on Ponto-Caspian species, including first report of Mytilopsis leucophaeata in the Black Sea basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therriault, Thomas W; Docker, Margaret F; Orlova, Marina I; Heath, Daniel D; MacIsaac, Hugh J

    2004-03-01

    Considerable uncertainty exists in determination of the phylogeny among extant members of the Dreissenidae, especially those inhabiting the Ponto-Caspian basin, as multiple systematic revisions based on morphological characteristics have failed to resolve relationships within this group of bivalves. In this study we use DNA sequence analyses of two mitochondrial gene fragments, 16S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), to determine phylogenetic relationships among Dreissena rostriformis, D. bugensis, D. polymorpha, D. stankovici, Congeria kusceri, and Mytilopsis leucophaeata. Dreissena stankovici was determined to represent a sister taxa to D. polymorpha and both are more closely related to other extant Dreissena species than Congeria or Mytilopsis. Sequence divergence between D. rostriformis and D. bugensis was relatively low (0.3-0.4%), suggesting that these two taxa constitute a single species. However, environmental differences suggest two races of D. rostriformis, a brackish water race (rostriformis) and a freshwater race (bugensis). Spread of bugensis-type individuals into habitats in the Caspian Sea that are occupied by rostriformis-type individuals may create novel hybridization opportunities. Species-specific molecular markers also were developed in this study since significant intraspecific variation in morphological features complicates dreissenid identification. Using two gene fragments (nuclear 28S and 16S), we identified restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) that distinguish among D. rostriformis/bugensis, D. polymorpha, and D. stankovici and revealed the presence of a cryptic invader to the Black Sea basin, Mytilopsis leucophaeata. This is the first report of this North American native in southern Europe.

  2. Population structure, biomass and production of the West African lucinid Keletistes rhizoecus (Bivalvia, Mollusca) in Sivibilagbara swamp at Bodo Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zabbey, N.; Hart, A. I.; Wolff, W. J.

    2010-01-01

    The West African lucinid bivalve Keletistes rhizoecus (Oliver, Basteria 50:47-64, 1986) is only known from the Niger Delta in Nigeria. Due to inaccessibility of its habitat population biology, growth parameters, biomass, and annual secondary production are unknown. The danger of oil pollution

  3. Is the Schwabe Organ a Retained Larval Eye? Anatomical and Behavioural Studies of a Novel Sense Organ in Adult Leptochiton asellus (Mollusca, Polyplacophora Indicate Links to Larval Photoreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren H Sumner-Rooney

    Full Text Available The discovery of a sensory organ, the Schwabe organ, was recently reported as a unifying feature of chitons in the order Lepidopleurida. It is a patch of pigmented tissue located on the roof of the pallial cavity, beneath the velum on either side of the mouth. The epithelium is densely innervated and contains two types of potential sensory cells. As the function of the Schwabe organ remains unknown, we have taken a cross-disciplinary approach, using anatomical, histological and behavioural techniques to understand it. In general, the pigmentation that characterises this sensory structure gradually fades after death; however, one particular concentrated pigment dot persists. This dot is positionally homologous to the larval eye in chiton trochophores, found in the same neuroanatomical location, and furthermore the metamorphic migration of the larval eye is ventral in species known to possess Schwabe organs. Here we report the presence of a discrete subsurface epithelial structure in the region of the Schwabe organ in Leptochiton asellus that histologically resembles the chiton larval eye. Behavioural experiments demonstrate that Leptochiton asellus with intact Schwabe organs actively avoid an upwelling light source, while Leptochiton asellus with surgically ablated Schwabe organs and a control species lacking the organ (members of the other extant order, Chitonida do not (Kruskal-Wallis, H = 24.82, df = 3, p < 0.0001. We propose that the Schwabe organ represents the adult expression of the chiton larval eye, being retained and elaborated in adult lepidopleurans.

  4. Emergence, development, and maturity of the gonad of two species of chitons "sea cockroach" (Mollusca: Polyplacophora through the early life stages.

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    Omar Hernando Avila-Poveda

    Full Text Available This study describes and recognises, using histological and microscopical examinations on a morphometrical basis, several gonad traits through the early life stages of Chiton articulatus and C. albolineatus. Gonadal ontogenesis, gonad development stages, sexual differentiation, onset of the first sexual maturity, and growth sequences or "early life stages" were determined. In addition, allometry between lengths and body weight pooled for both sexes per each chiton were calculated using equation Y = aX(b . A total of 125 chitons (4≤TL≤40 mm, in total length "TL" were used. All allometric relations showed a strong positive correlation (r, close to 1, with b-values above three, indicating an isometric growth. Gonadal ontogenesis and gonad development stages were categorised into three periods ("Pw" without gonad, "Pe" gonad emergence, and "Pf" gonadal sac formed and four stages ("S0" gametocytogenesis, "S1" gametogenesis, "S2" mature, and "S3" spawning, respectively. Compound digital images were attained for each process. Periods and stages are overlapped among them and between species, with the following overall confidence intervals in TL: Pw 6.13-14.32 mm, Pe 10.32-16.93 mm, Pf 12.99-25.01 mm, S0 16.08-24.34 mm (females and 19.51-26.60 mm (males, S1 27.15-35.63 mm (females and 23.45-32.27 mm (males, S2 24.48-40.24 mm (females and 25.45-32.87 mm (males. Sexual differentiation (in S0 of both chitons occurs first as a female then as a male; although, males reach the onset of the first sexual maturity earlier than females, thus for C. articulatus males at 17 mm and females at 32 mm, and for C. albolineatus males at 23.5 mm and females at 28 mm, all in TL. Four early life stages (i.e., subjuvenile, juvenile, subadult, and adult are described and proposed to distinguish growth sequences. Our results may be useful to diverse disciplines, from developmental biology to fisheries management.

  5. Polar localization of plasma membrane Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase correlates with the pattern of steady ionic currents in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata (Mollusca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Zivkovic (Dana); R. Créton (Robbert); G. Zwaan (Gideon); W.C. de Bruijn (Wim); M.R. Dohmen (M.René)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractDuring extrusion of the first polar body in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata a localized Ca2+ /Mg2+ ATPase activity was detected, using Ando's enzyme-cytochemical method for electron microscopy [Ando et al. (1981) Acta Histochem Cytochem 14:705-726]. The enzyme activity

  6. Polar localization of plasma membrane Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase correlates with the pattern of steady ionic currents in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata (Mollusca)

    OpenAIRE

    Zivkovic, Dana; Créton, Robbert; Zwaan, Gideon; Bruijn, Wim; Dohmen, M.René

    1990-01-01

    textabstractDuring extrusion of the first polar body in eggs of Lymnaea stagnalis and Bithynia tentaculata a localized Ca2+ /Mg2+ ATPase activity was detected, using Ando's enzyme-cytochemical method for electron microscopy [Ando et al. (1981) Acta Histochem Cytochem 14:705-726]. The enzyme activity was distributed in a polar fashion, along the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. In the eggs of Lymnaea it was found only in the vegetal hemisphere, whereas in Bithynia eggs it was localized...

  7. Ontogenetic changes in feeding and food preferences of the dog conch Laevistrombus canarium Linnaeus 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Merambong shoal, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husna, Wan Nurul Wan Hassan; Mazlan, Abd Ghaffar; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2017-09-01

    Laevistrombus canarium is one of the marine gastropod mollusks that have high commercial value, particularly in the aquaculture sector in Malaysia. This study was conducted to determine the feeding and food items of L. canarium at different ontogenetic stages (juveniles, sub-adults and adults) from Merambong shoals, Malaysia. Field observations on feeding activity were conducted, followed by detailed laboratory analysis on the stomach content. Five-minutes observations on randomly selected individuals were conducted at the field sampling site and their feeding activities were recorded with reference to age stage. Various shell sizes from each ontogenetic stage were randomly collected and quickly anaesthetized with ice and preserved in 10% formalin before being transported to the laboratory for stomach content analyses. Field observations showed that L. canarium mainly grazed on epiphytes occurring on seagrass (46.67%), followed by sediment surface (40%) and epiphytes occurring on macroalgae (13.33%). Stomach content analyses showed a significant difference ( P 0.05) was detected between the three main food items (diatoms, sand particles and detritus) among the ontogenetic stages. Therefore, feeding activity revealed the role of the dog conch in the marine food network. While, classification of the types of food consumed by L. canarium through stomach content analysis determines the particular position of the gastropod in the food chain. Further studies are needed to provide a better insight between trophic relationships of L. canarium with marine ecosystem.

  8. Prevalence and distribution of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Angiostrongylidae in Achatina fulica (Mollusca, Gastropoda in Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Laura Rocha Guerino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION Angiostrongylus cantonensis is causes eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Worldwide expansion of this nematode is linked to the dispersion of their hosts. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection in Achatina fulica in the nine municipalities that make up Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae were analyzed using optical microscopy. We performed polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism using restriction endonuclease ClaI, directed to the internal transcribed spacer region 2 of A. cantonensis larval DNA. RESULTS Of the 540 snails analyzed, 117 (21.7% were infected by A. cantonensis. For morphological and morphometric analyses, 60 larvae were used. Second-stage larvae were, on average, 358.2µm long and 26.4µm wide, while third-stage larvae were, on average, 450µm long and 21.12µm wide. The tails of the larvae ended in a fine tip. CONCLUSIONS All municipalities comprising Baixada Santista had A. fulica that were naturally infected with A. cantonensis. All of the observed characteristics were typical of the species.

  9. Prevalence and distribution of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda, Angiostrongylidae) in Achatina fulica (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerino, Laura Rocha; Pecora, Iracy Lea; Miranda, Marcel Sabino; Aguiar-Silva, Cryslaine; Carvalho, Omar Dos Santos; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Silva, Reinaldo José da

    2017-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is causes eosinophilic meningoencephalitis in humans. Worldwide expansion of this nematode is linked to the dispersion of their hosts. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of A. cantonensis infection in Achatina fulica in the nine municipalities that make up Baixada Santista, São Paulo, Brazil. Angiostrongylus cantonensis larvae were analyzed using optical microscopy. We performed polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism using restriction endonuclease ClaI, directed to the internal transcribed spacer region 2 of A. cantonensis larval DNA. Of the 540 snails analyzed, 117 (21.7%) were infected by A. cantonensis. For morphological and morphometric analyses, 60 larvae were used. Second-stage larvae were, on average, 358.2µm long and 26.4µm wide, while third-stage larvae were, on average, 450µm long and 21.12µm wide. The tails of the larvae ended in a fine tip. All municipalities comprising Baixada Santista had A. fulica that were naturally infected with A. cantonensis. All of the observed characteristics were typical of the species.

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of the giant African snail, Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Achatinidae): a novel location of putative control regions (CR) in the mitogenome within Pulmonate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhang-Ping; Dai, Xia-Bin; Zhang, Shuai; Zhi, Ting-Ting; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Wu, Zhong-Dao; Yang, Ting-Bao

    2016-01-01

    The whole sequence (15,057 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the terrestrial snail Achatina fulica (order Stylommatophora) was determined. The mitogenome, as the typical metazoan mtDNA, contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCG), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA) and 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNA). The tRNA genes include two trnS without standard secondary structure. Interestingly, among the known mitogenomes of Pulmonata species, we firstly characterized an unassigned lengthy sequence (551 bp) between the cox1 and the trnV which may be the CR for the sake of its AT bases usage bias (65.70%) and potential hairpin structure.

  11. New records of Omalonyx matheroni (Pontiez & Michaud, 1835 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Succineidae for the São Paulo and Paraná States.

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    Maria Cristina Dreher Mansur

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Omalonyx matheroni is a succineid gastropod that lives on aquatic macrophytes and on emergent vegetation in the wetlands of inner deltas, lakes and dikes. Occurrences of this species were recorded in the municipalities of Ibitinga (SP and Paranaguá (PR, broadening its distribution southwards in South America. Until now this species had been recorded in Demerara (Guiana, Zanderij and Belwaarde (Suriname, Guiana Francesa, Peru, Limoncocha (Equador, Amazonas, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais (Brazil, as well as on the islands of Guadalupe and Trinidade.

  12. Megadenus atrae n. sp., an endoparasitic eulimid gastropod (Mollusca) from the black sea cucumber Holothuria atra Jaeger (Aspidochirotida: Holothuriidae) in the Indo-West Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Tsuyoshi; Warén, Anders; Kano, Yasunori

    2017-07-01

    An eulimid gastropod, Megadenus atrae n. sp., endoparasitic in the cloacal chamber of the black sea cucumber Holothuria atra Jaeger is described from Okinawa, Japan, as the fifth species of the genus. Conspecific specimens have also been found from southeast India, northeast Australia and New Caledonia. The generic assignment is justified by the presence of (i) a thick, long proboscis that bears a large fold (pseudopallium) near the base and a collar-like structure at the middle, (ii) a thin, globose shell that is covered by the pseudopallium, and (iii) sexual dimorphism with the female generally larger than the male. The new species is distinguishable from the four previously described congeners by its cauldron-shaped pseudopallium, moderately-developed collar of the proboscis and rounded basal lip of the shell. The comparisons of the size and sex of solitary and paired individuals support a previous hypothesis that the species of Megadenus Rosén, 1910 are protandrous with environmental sex determination. The present species occurs mostly as monogamous pairs despite its very low population density, implying that the presence of a conspecific individual acts as a cue for larval settlement. Both mechanisms would increase individual reproductive success in such permanent parasites with low prevalence and abundance as the species of Megadenus.

  13. Cell proliferation and apoptosis in gill filaments of the lucinid Codakia orbiculata (Montagu, 1808) (Mollusca: Bivalvia) during bacterial decolonization and recolonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisabeth, Nathalie H; Gustave, Sylvie D D; Gros, Olivier

    2012-08-01

    The shallow-water bivalve Codakia orbiculata which harbors gill-endosymbiotic sulfur-oxidizing γ-proteobacteria can lose and acquire its endosymbionts throughout its life. Long-term starvation and recolonization experiments led to changes in the organization of cells in the lateral zone of gill filaments. This plasticity is linked to the presence or absence of gill-endosymbionts. Herein, we propose that this reorganization can be explained by three hypotheses: (a) a variation in the number of bacteriocytes and granule cells due to proliferation or apoptosis processes, (b) a variation of the volume of these two cell types without modification in the number, and (c) a combination of both number and cell volume variation. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed cell reorganization in terms of proliferation and apoptosis in adults submitted to starvation and returned to the field using catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and structural analyses. We observed that cell and tissue reorganization in gills filaments is due to a variation in cell relative abundance that maybe associated with a variation in cell apparent volume and depends on the environment. In fact, bacteriocytes mostly multiply in freshly collected and newly recolonized individuals, and excess bacteriocytes are eliminated in later recolonization stages. We highlight that host tissue regeneration in gill filaments of this symbiotic bivalve can occur by both replication of existing cells and division of undifferentiated cells localized in tissular bridges, which might be a tissue-specific multipotent stem cell zone. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Chaetogaster limnaei (annelida: oligochaeta) as a parasite of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, and the quagga mussel Dreissena bugensis (mollusca: bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, D B; Ricciardi, A; Babapulle, M N; Klein, K A; Rosen, D A

    1996-01-01

    Dreissenid mussels, Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis, were found to be infected by the naidid oligochaete Chaetogaster limnaei at four sites in the St. Lawrence River. This is the first report of this species infecting dreissenids anywhere in the world. Most worms inhabited the mantle cavity, where they caused erosion of the mantle and gill epithelia as determined by histopathological examination. Others penetrated various tissues; one had invaded the ovary and was feeding on oocytes and ovarian tissues. Of 606 mussels examined, 166 (27.4%) harbored at least 1 C. limnaei. The prevalence varied between 1% and 80%, depending on the collection site and date. The worms were slightly but significantly more prevalent in D. bugensis than in D. polymorpha. The intensity ranged from 1 to 18 worms per infected host. Variations in prevalence and intensity were not related to the size or sex of the host, but the data did suggest some seasonality.

  15. Novos registros de Omalonyx matheroni (Pontiez & Michaud, 1835 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Succineidae para os Estados de São Paulo e Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Oliveira Arruda

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n2p187 Omalonyx matheroni é um gastrópode sucineídeo que ocorre nas macrófitas aquáticas e vegetações adjacentes de planície de inundação de rios, em lagos e açudes. Registra-se a ocorrência dessa espécie para os municípios de Ibitinga (SP e Paranaguá (PR, estendendo sua distribuição mais ao sul da América do Sul. Até o presente momento, a espécie tinha sido registrada para Demerara (Guiana, Zanderij e Belwaarde (Suriname, Guiana Francesa, Peru, Limoncocha (Equador, Amazonas, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro e Minas Gerais (Brasil, além das ilhas de Guadalupe e Trinidade.

  16. [Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in different areas of the Eastern Venezuela and the West Coast of Trinidad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koftayan, Tamar; Milano, Jahiro; D'Armas, Haydelba; Salazar, Gabriel

    2011-03-01

    The species Perna viridis is a highly consumed species, which fast growth makes it an interesting aquaculture alternative for Venezuelan and Trinidad coasts. With the aim to contribute with its nutritional value information, this study analyzed lipid and fatty acid contents from samples taken in five locations from Eastern Venezuela and three from Trinidad West Coast. Total lipids were extracted and quantified, from a pooled sample of 100 organisms per location, by standard gravimetric methods, and their identification and quantification was done by TLC/FID (Iatroscan system). Furthermore, the esterified fatty acids of total lipid, phospholipids and triacylglycerols were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Eastern Venezuela samples from Los Cedros, La Brea and Chaguaramas showed the highest total lipid values of 7.92, 7.74 and 7.53, respectively, and the minimum values were obtained for La Restinga (6.08%). Among lipid composition, Chacopata samples showed the lowest phospholipid concentration (48.86%) and the maximum values for cholesterol (38.87%) and triacylglycerols (12.26%); besides, La Esmeralda and Rio Caribe samples exhibited maximum phospholipids (88.71 and 84.93 respectively) and minimum cholesterol (6.50 and 4.42%) concentrations. Saturated fatty acids represented between 15.04% and 65.55% within total lipid extracts, with maximum and minimum values for La Esmeralda and Chacopata, respectively. Polyunsaturated results resulted between 7.80 and 37.18%, with higher values in La Brea and lower values in La Esmeralda. For phospholipids, saturated fatty acids concentrations varied between 38.81 and 48.68% for Chaguaramas and Chacopata samples, respectively. In the case of polyunsaturated fatty acids, these varied between non detected and 34.51%, with high concentrations in Los Cedros (27.97%) and Chaguaramas (34.51%) samples. For the triacylglycerols, the saturated fatty acids composition oscillated between 14.27 and 53.80% with low concentrations for Chacopata and high concentration for La Restinga; the polyunsaturated fatty acids were between 4.66 and 35.55% with lower values for Chacopata and higher values for Chaguaramas samples. P. viridis is recommended for human being consumption, according to the high content of unsaturated fatty acids found for this species.

  17. Crecimiento del pulpo Octopus maya (Mollusca: Cephalopoda de la costa de Yucatán, México: un análisis de largo plazo

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    Marta Rocío Nepita Villanueva

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Los parámetros de crecimiento del pulpo (Octopus maya de las costas de Yucatán (México fueron estimados en siete años comprendidos entre 1983-1987, 1989 y 1992. A tales efectos se realizó un análisis de frecuencia de tallas de 19 251 pulpos muestreados de la captura comercial, con un intervalo de longitud de manto comprendido entre 50 y 240 mm. Se usaron los métodos indirectos ELEFAN, PROJMAT y SLCA. La incertidumbre de las estimaciones inherente a cada método y derivada del diseño de muestreo fue analizada con la técnica jackknife. Los parámetros de crecimiento L y K se unificaron a efectos comparativos mediante el índice phi prima (. El método ELEFAN resultó ser el más adecuado para estimar los parámetros de crecimiento de O. maya, brindando valores en el rango de aquellos previamente reportados en la literatura, mientras que PROJMAT y SLCA mostraron problemas en la convergencia de los parámetros, y tendieron a subestimarlos. Las estimaciones mediante jackknife detectaron poca variabilidad intermensual en pero gran variabilidad interanual. Los estimadores de precisión de la técnica jackknife, error porcentual y coeficiente de variación porcentual, no difirieron significativamente entre métodos. Las estimaciones de derivadas del ELEFAN variaron entre 4.19 y 5.23, coincidiendo con aquellas reportadas en la literatura (entre 4.25 y 4.91, mientras que PROJMAT y SLCA aportaron valores significativamente menores. Los resultados de dicho métodos condicen además con aspectos de la biología de la especie (e.g., corta longevidad. Sugerimos utilizar el ELEFAN conjuntamente con jackknife para estimar los parámetros de crecimiento de Octopus maya.Growth of the octopus (Octopus maya off Yucatan (Mexico was estimated from a long-term study (seven years by the length-based methods ELEFAN, PROJMAT and SLCA. Some 19 251 octopuses with a range of mantle length between 50 and 240 mm were sampled from commercial landings in 1983 - 1987, 1989 and 1992. The jackknife technique was applied to deal with uncertainty in growth estimates resulting from chance variations in sampling design. The growth index was used for comparative purposes. Results differed markedly among methods: ELEFAN produced parameter estimates within the range reported in the literature, whereas PROJMAT and SLCA showed problems to converge in an optimum combination of parameters, and tended to underestimate them. Jackknife analysis revealed very low intraannual variability in but high variability among years, especially when applying PROJMAT. No significant differences were found in precision parameters -percent error and coefficient of variation- among methods. Estimates of derived by ELEFAN varied between 4.19 and 5.23 and agreed with those reported in the literature (between 4.25 and 4.91, whereas PROJMAT and SLCA estimates were significantly lower. We suggest the use of ELEFAN, together with jackknife to estimate growth parameters of Octopus maya.

  18. Biología reproductiva del pulpo Octupus mimus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda de la región de Matarani, Arequipa, Perú

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    Victor Ishiyama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available De mayo de 1995 a abril de 1996, se realizaron al azar muestreos mensuales de 25 ejemplares de Octopus mimus de los desembarques del puerto de Matarani, Arequipa (16° 59'40"S y 72° 06'13"W. Son animales gonocóricos, presentan dimorfismo sexual, y los machos tienen el brazo ectocotilizado o copulador. La proporción de sexos fue de 2,1:1,0 a favor de los machos; se determinaron ocho estadios de desarrollo de los ovocitos, durante la ovogénesis. De acuerdo a su comportamiento reproductivo, se estableció la siguiente escala de madurez gonadal: a indiferenciado, b inmaduro, c inicio de maduración, d en desarrollo, e maduros, fl cópula, g postcópula, autofecundación y evacuación, h postevacuación. Las hembras maduras se encontraron preferentemente, en la primavera y verano; los machos maduros a fines de la primavera y en el verano; la cópula se realizó preferentemente durante el verano; la autofecundación y evacuación de los huevos, se evidenciaron en agosto (50%, octubre 50%, noviembre (71,4%, diciembre (33% y enero (33%. La primera madurez en los machos se encontró a los 9,5 cm y en las hembras a los 12,5 cm de la longitud dorsal del cuerpo. Se observó algunas hembras con ovocitos maduros en lisis y con inicio de ovogénesis avanzada de un nuevo ciclo, que evidencia que no todas las hembras mueren después de cuidar los huevos hasta el final de la eclosión.

  19. Analysis of trace elements in the shells of short-necked clam Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca: Bivalvia) with respect to reconstruction of individual life history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Jumpei; Sakamoto, Wataru

    1998-01-01

    Strontium (Sr) concentration in the shells of short-necked clams collected at different locations (Shirahama, warm area and Maizuru, cold area, Japan) was analyzed by two methods, PIXE and EPMA. The Sr concentration of external surface of shell umbo, which was made during short term at early benthic phase, was analyzed by PIXE, and was ranged from 1000 to 3500 ppm for individuals. The Sr concentration of clams collected at Shirahama showed positive correlation with shell length (SL) in individuals with SL < 31 mm, whereas clams collected at Maizuru did not show significant correlation. This result may be caused from the difference of the spawning seasons between two areas. The Sr concentration of cross section of shell umbo, which develops thicker continuously during their life to form faint stratum structure, was analyzed by EPMA along the line across the stratum structure. Some surges and long term waving patterns of the Sr concentration were observed. These results suggest that the life histories of individual clams could be recorded in the shell umbo cross sections as variations of trace elements and analyses of trace elements could clarify the histories of individual clams. (author)

  20. Occurrence, population dynamics and habitat characterization of Mytella guyanensis (Lamarck, 1819 (Mollusca, Bivalvia in the Paraíba do Norte river estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Kioharu Nishida

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of Mytellaguyanensis occurrence and population dynamics were performed in the Paraíba do Norte river estuary. The characterization and the influence of temperature, salinity and substrate, as well as the associated fauna and flora on the population were also examined. Mytella guyanensis lives buried in the substrate of the mangrove intertidal zone of the Paraíba do Norte river estuary, from the mouth to 24 km upriver. Average annual density of this bivalve species was 5.2 individuals per m², with a predominantly aggregated distribution. The most frequent size was between 4.5 and 5.5 cm in length. Analysis of the substrate demonstrated the presence of two types of substrates in relation to the percentage of silt and clay and the water content. Besides interfering in the population density, the substrate heterogeneity may be a decisive factor in aggregation. Eight species of crustacean decapods and one bivalve species were identified as associated fauna.A ocorrência de M, guyanensis no estuário do Rio Paraíba do Norte foi mapeada, determinando-se sua presença ao longo dos afluentes e ilhas aí existentes. O estudo da dinâmica da população foi realizado em área protegida da Ilha da Restinga, coletando-se os animais ao longo de 37 transecções. A cada mês foram feitos 60 lançamentos com um delimitador de 0,1 m², sobre uma ou mais transecções. Todo o substrato foi retirado juntamente com os exemplares de M. guyanensis e a fauna associada, até a profundidade de 10 cm. A triagem dos exemplares menores foi feita por peneiramento do substrato. O tipo de substrato foi anotado a cada lançamento. Dois tipos de substrato estão presentes na área: um substrato de tipo consistente, constituido por 89.7% de silte e argila e 10.3% de areia fina e outro de tipo não consistente contendo 74.5% de silte e argila e 25.5% de areia fina. O substrato de tipo não consistente apresenta quantidade de água significativamente maior que o de tipo consistente. Mytella guyanensis vive enterrada no solo numa profundidade máxima de 1,0 cm, sempre envolvida pelos filamentos do bisso. A densidade média anual observada para a espécie foi de 5,2 indivíduos por m²; a distribuição espacial predominante foi do tipo agregado, sofrendo interferência do tipo de substrato presente. Houve preferência de fixação da espécie pelo substrato do tipo consistente. Animais entre 4,5 e 5,5 cm de comprimento ocorrem o ano todo, sendo mais numerosos aqueles com comprimento entre 4,5 e 5,0 cm. A presença de formas jovens foi assinalada em baixa frequência em alguns meses do ano. A salinidade da água estuarina variou de acordo com o regime pluviométrico da região, permanecendo dentro dos níveis de tolerância da espécie. A fauna associada está representada por oito espécies de crustáceos e por uma de molusco bivalve.

  1. Diet and stable isotope analyses reveal the feeding ecology of the orangeback squid Sthenoteuthis pteropus (Steenstrup 1855) (Mollusca, Ommastrephidae) in the eastern tropical Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Véronique; Christiansen, Bernd; Javidpour, Jamileh; Piatkowski, Uwe; Puebla, Oscar; Gasca, Rebeca; Hoving, Henk-Jan T

    2017-01-01

    In the eastern tropical Atlantic, the orangeback flying squid Sthenoteuthis pteropus (Steenstrup 1855) (Cephalopoda, Ommastrephidae) is a dominant species of the epipelagic nekton community. This carnivore squid has a short lifespan and is one of the fastest-growing squids. In this study, we characterise the role of S. pteropus in the pelagic food web of the eastern tropical Atlantic by investigating its diet and the dynamics of its feeding habits throughout its ontogeny and migration. During three expeditions in the eastern tropical Atlantic in 2015, 129 specimens were caught by hand jigging. Stomach content analyses (via visual identification and DNA barcoding) were combined with stable isotope data (∂15N and ∂13C) of muscle tissue to describe diet, feeding habits and trophic ecology of S. pteropus. Additionally, stable isotope analyses of incremental samples along the squid's gladius-the chitinous spiniform structure supporting the muscles and organs-were carried out to explore possible diet shifts through ontogeny and migration. Our results show that S. pteropus preys mainly on myctophid fishes (e.g. Myctophum asperum, Myctophum nitidulum, Vinciguerria spp.), but also on other teleost species, cephalopods (e.g. Enoploteuthidae, Bolitinidae, Ommastrephidae), crustaceans and possibly on gelatinous zooplankton as well. The squid shows a highly opportunistic feeding behaviour that includes cannibalism. Our study indicates that the trophic position of S. pteropus may increase by approximately one trophic level from a mantle length of 15 cm to 47 cm. The reconstructed isotope-based feeding chronologies of the gladii revealed high intra- and inter-individual variability in the squid's trophic position and foraging area. These findings are not revealed by diet or muscle tissue stable isotope analysis. This suggests a variable and complex life history involving individual variation and migration. The role of S. pteropus in transferring energy and nutrients from lower to higher trophic levels may be underestimated and important for understanding how a changing ocean impacts food webs in the eastern Atlantic.

  2. Molecular identification of similar species of the genus Biomphalaria (Mollusca: Planorbidae determined by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldeira Roberta Lima

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater snails Biomphalaria straminea, B. intermedia, B. kuhniana and B. peregrina, are morphologically similar; based on this similarity the first three species were therefore grouped in the complex B. straminea. The morphological identification of these species is based on characters such as vaginal wrinkling, relation between prepuce: penial sheath:deferens vas and number of muscle layers in the penis wall. In this study the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism technique was used for molecular identification of these molluscs. This technique is based on the amplification of the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 e ITS2 of the ribosomal RNA gene and subsequent digestion of these fragments by restriction enzymes. Six enzymes were tested: Dde I, Mnl I, Hae III, Rsa I, Hpa II e Alu I. The restriction patterns obtained with DdeI presented the best profile for separation of the four species of Biomphalaria. The profiles obtained with all the enzymes were used to estimate the genetic distances among the species through analysis of common banding patterns.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the land snail Cornu aspersum (Helicidae: Mollusca: intra-specific divergence of protein-coding genes and phylogenetic considerations within Euthyneura.

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    Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia

    Full Text Available The complete sequences of three mitochondrial genomes from the land snail Cornu aspersum were determined. The mitogenome has a length of 14050 bp, and it encodes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and two ribosomal RNA genes. It also includes nine small intergene spacers, and a large AT-rich intergenic spacer. The intra-specific divergence analysis revealed that COX1 has the lower genetic differentiation, while the most divergent genes were NADH1, NADH3 and NADH4. With the exception of Euhadra herklotsi, the structural comparisons showed the same gene order within the family Helicidae, and nearly identical gene organization to that found in order Pulmonata. Phylogenetic reconstruction recovered Basommatophora as polyphyletic group, whereas Eupulmonata and Pulmonata as paraphyletic groups. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood analyses showed that C. aspersum is a close relative of Cepaea nemoralis, and with the other Helicidae species form a sister group of Albinaria caerulea, supporting the monophyly of the Stylommatophora clade.

  4. Effects of endocrine disruptors on prosobranch snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the laboratory. Part I: Bisphenol A and octylphenol as xeno-estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlmann, J; Schulte-Oehlmann, U; Tillmann, M; Markert, B

    2000-12-01

    The effects of suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals on freshwater and marine prosobranch species were analysed in laboratory experiments. In this first publication, the responses of the freshwater snail Marisa cornuarietis and of the marine prosobranch Nucella lapillus to the xeno-estrogenic model compounds bisphenol A (BPA) and octylphenol (OP) are presented at nominal concentration ranges between 1 and 100 micrograms/L. Marisa was exposed during 5 months using adult specimens and in a complete life-cycle test for 12 months. In both experiments, the xeno-estrogens induced a complex syndrome of alterations in female Marisa referred to as "superfemales" at the lowest concentrations. Affected specimens were characterised by the formation of additional female organs, an enlargement of the accessory pallial sex glands, gross malformations of the pallial oviduct section resulting in an increased female mortality, and a massive stimulation of oocyte and spawning mass production. The effects of BPA and OP were comparable at the same nominal concentrations. An exposure to OP resulted in inverted U-type concentration response relationships for egg and spawning mass production. Adult Nucella from the field were tested for three months in the laboratory. As in Marisa, superfemales with enlarged accessory pallial sex glands and an enhancement of oocyte production were observed. No oviduct malformations were found probably due to species differences in the gross anatomical structure of the pallial oviduct. A lower percentage of exposed specimens had ripe sperm stored in their vesicula seminalis and additionally male Nucella exhibited a reduced length of penis and prostate gland when compared to the control. Because statistically significant effects were observed at the lowest nominal test concentrations (1 microgram BPA or OP/L), it can be assumed that even lower concentrations may have a negative impact on the snails. The results show that prosobranchs are sensitive to endocrine disruption at environmentally relevant concentrations and that especially M. cornuarietis is a promising candidate for a future organismic invertebrate model to identify endocrine-mimetic test compounds.

  5. Insights into the relationships of Palearctic and Nearctic lymnaeids (Mollusca : Gastropoda by rDNA ITS-2 sequencing and phylogeny of stagnicoline intermediate host species of Fasciola hepatica

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    Bargues M.D.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis by Fasciola hepatica is the vector-borne disease presenting the widest latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal distribution known. F. hepatica shows a great adaptation power to new environmental conditions which is the consequence of its own capacities together with the adaptation and colonization abilities of its specific vector hosts, freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae. Several lymnaeid species only considered as secondary contributors to the liver fluke transmission have, however, played a very important role in the geographic expansion of this disease. Many of them belong to the so-called "stagnicoline" type group. Stagnicolines have, therefore, a very important applied interest in the Holarctic region, to which they are geographically restricted. The present knowledge on the genetics of stagnicolines and on their parasite-host interrelationships is, however, far from being sufficient. The present paper analyses the relationships between Palaearctic and Nearctic stagnicoline species on the base of the new light furnished by the results obtained in nuclear rDNA ITS-2 sequencing and corresponding phylogenetic studies of the lymnaeid taxa Lymnaea (Stagnicola occulta, L. (S. palustris palustris (topotype specimens and L.(S. p. turricula from Europe. Natural infections with F. hepatica have been reported in all of them. Surprisingly, ITS-2 length and G C content of L. occulta were similar and perfectly fitted within the respective ranges known in North American stagnicolines. Nucleotide differences and genetic distances were higher between L. occulta and the other European stagnicolines than between L. occulta and the North American ones. The ITS-2 sequence of L. p. turricula from Poland differed from the other genotypes known from turricula in Europe. The phylogenetic trees using the maximum-parsimony, distance and maximum-likelihood methods confirmed (i the inclusion of L. occulta in the branch of North American stagnicolines, (iii the link between the North American stagnicolines-L. occulta group with Galba truncatula, and (iii the location of the L. p. turricula genotype from Poland closer to L. p. palustris than to other European L. p. turricula genotypes. The Palaearctic species occulta is included in the genus Catascopia, together with the Nearctic species catascopium, emarginata and elodes. The results suggest a potential of transmission capacity for C. occulta higher than that of other European stagnicolines or Omphiscola glabra. The relatively low genetic distances between C. occulta and G. truncatula and the clustering of both species in the same clade suggest that C.occulta may be potentially considered as the second lymnaeid intermediate host species of F. hepatica in importance in eastern and northern Europe, and probably also western and central Asia, after G. truncatula. L. p. turricula may be considered as a potential secondary vector of F. hepatica, at a level similar tot that of L.p. palustris.

  6. Bait formulations of molluscicides and their effects on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata (Mollusca; Gastropoda:Lymnaeidae

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    Pradeep Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sub-lethal feeding of bait formulations containing molluscicidal component of Ferula asafoetida (ferulic acid, umbelliferone, Syzygium aromaticum (eugenol and Carum carvi (limonene on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata were studied. Bait formulations feeding to L. acuminata were studied in clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Baits were prepared from different binary combinations of attractant amino acid (valine, aspartic acid, lysine and alanine 10 mM in 100 mL of 2% agar solution + sub-lethal (20% and 60% of 24h LC50 doses of different molluscicides (ferulic acid, umbelliferone, eugenol and limonene. These baits caused maximum significant reduction in free amino acid, protein, DNA, RNA levels i.e. 41.37, 23.56, 48.36 and 14.29% of control in the ovotestis of the snail, respectively. Discontinuation of feeding after treatment of 60% of 96h LC50 of molluscicide containing bait for next 72h caused a significant recovery in free amino acid, protein, DNA and RNA levels in the ovotestis of L. acuminata.

  7. Bioaccumulation and elimination of 60 Co and 137 Cs by Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791) (Mollusca bivalvia). Remobilization of 60 Co, retained in marine sediment by microbial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayr, L.M.

    1984-05-01

    It was studied the capacity of a bi valve mollusc Anomalocardia brasiliana, which lives in the local bottom sediment, to remobilize 60 Co previously sorbed in the sediment. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that the transference of 60 Co from the sediment to the animal was insignificant (bioaccumulation factor (BF) of the order of 10 -3 ). At the same time, the capacity of microorganisms, present in the bottom sediment, to remobilize 60 Co was studied. The results showed that this via of transference was important, considering the much greater microorganism biomass in relation to the biomass of bentonic organisms, as a whole. For 137 Cs the determined BF from water to the animal was 2.2. and, as in the case of 60 Co, the soft tissues concentrated more 137 Cs than shell. Remaining viscera showed the highest BFs. In another series of experiments, the loss of 60 Co or 137 Cs, previously accumulated by A. brasiliana, was followed in aquaria with or without sediment and the respective biological half-lives were calculated. Soft tissues retained 60 Co longer (biological half-life = 117 days) than shells, whereas for 137 Cs the opposite was observed and shells showed a biological half life of 38.5 days. The low values of 60 Co and 137 Cs BF S do not allow to classify A. brasiliana as good biological indicator for pollution by there radionuclides. However since A brasiliana is consumed by the local population and is commercialized to other areas, it was recommended that its contamination by 60 Co or 137 Cs should be monitored. (author)

  8. El loco Concholepas concholepas (Bruguière, 1789) (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Muricidae) como recurso durante el Holoceno Temprano-Medio en Los Vilos, Chile central

    OpenAIRE

    Báez, Pedro; Arata, Javier; Jackson, Donald

    2004-01-01

    Se estudió la abundancia relativa del loco, Concholepas concholepas, y las causas posibles de su variabilidad en los conchales culturales más antiguos del Holoceno Temprano-Medio del litoral de Los Vilos (31º55'S, 71º32'W). Las muestras se obtuvieron en excavaciones arqueológicas de cinco sitios y se dataron con C14: Punta Purgatorio (LV079: 10.040 ± 70 años antes del presente, a.a.p.), Caleta Ñagué (LV098: 10.120 ± 80 a.a.p.), Dunas de Agua Amarilla (LV166: 6.700 ± 60 a.a.p.), Borde Norte de...

  9. Preliminary report on the geographical distribution of the species of Carinariidae and Pterotracheidae (Heteropoda, Mollusca) from the International Indian Ocean Expedition

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aravindakshan, P.N.

    This is a description of the distribution in the Indian Ocean of species belonging to two families of the Heteropoda, the Carinariidae and Pterotracheidae The observations are based on plankton collected by Anton Brunn, Argo, Pionner and Vityaz...

  10. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic with an updated regional checklist for the family

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    Ricardo Cordeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setia alexandrae sp. n., S. ermelindoi sp. n., S. netoae sp. n., and Manzonia martinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined.

  11. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic) with an updated regional checklist for the family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Ávila, Sérgio P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setia alexandrae sp. n., Setia ermelindoi sp. n., Setia netoae sp. n., and Manzonia martinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined. PMID:25685020

  12. Genetic Population Structure and Demographic History of the Widespread Common Shipworm Teredo navalis Linnaeus 1758 (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Teredinidae in European Waters Inferred from Mitochondrial COI Sequence Data

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    Ronny Weigelt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The first documented scientific reports of the common marine shipworm Teredo navalis (Bivalvia for Central European waters date back to the time between 1700 and 1730 in the Netherlands. During the following centuries there were several irregular mass occurrences reported for both the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. These events were accompanied by massive destruction of wooden ships and coastal protection structures. In this study, the first population analysis of T. navalis is presented with the aim to detect the genetic population structure in the waters of Central Europe. The mtDNA COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I locus was found as suitable molecular marker and hence a 675 bp gene fragment was studied. A total of 352 T. navalis specimens from 13 different sampling sites distributed across Central Europe were examined. Subsequently, various population genetic indices including FST values and an AMOVA analysis were applied for the description of the population structure. To visualize the distribution of haplotypes at the different sampling sites two median-joining networks were calculated. In addition, the past demographic structure of the T. navalis population was analyzed, among others by calculating Tajima's D, Fu's F and the mismatch distribution. Finally, all computations of the population genetic indices could not reveal differentiated populations or any kind of distinct population structure in T. navalis. The network analyses revealed “star-like” patterns without differentiated substructures or demes. Therefore, it can be assumed that a sudden expansion of this species took place without any indications of neither a bottleneck nor a founder effect for the study area. The results of this study support the concept of a regional panmictic population in the waters of Central Europe with unhindered migration of individuals (e.g., via pelagic larvae between the various sampling sites as reflected by a high gene flow.

  13. Měkkýši Národní přírodní rezervace Soos Molluscs (Mollusca of the Soos National Nature Reserve

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    Jitka Horáčková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Soos National Nature Reserve nearby Františkovy Lázně Town (Western Bohemia, Czech Republic is a spectacular peatbog site with the occurrence of fens on numerous mineral spring effluents, emanations of pure carbon dioxide in mofettes (i.e. false mud volcanoes, parts with saltwater wetlands, and diatomite mantel in its central part. These natural conditions affect general character of all habitats, vegetation and malacocoenoses in the reserve. Altogether, 31 mollusc species were found there, but only two of them are considered as near threatened (Pisidium obtusale and Vertigo substriata. The majority of recorded assemblage was composed of common and generalist mollusc species.

  14. First report of Temnocephala haswelli (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida in Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae from Brazil: description update based on specimens from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Samantha A. Seixas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the discovery of Temnocephala haswelli Ponce de Léon, 1989, described as ectosymbionts of ampullariid apple snails outside of Uruguay, motivated us to collect a large number of specimens of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 from several localities in the southern portion of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. This species was recorded three times after its description: in a study of chromosomes, in a study about the ultrastructure of the collar receptor cells, and in a study of the Haswell glands, all conducted in Uruguay. A total of 301 specimens of P. canaliculata were collected from 1999 to 2007. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity were identified as T. haswelli, which occurred in single infestations or concurrently with Temnocephala iheringi Haswell, 1893. Helminths usually showed a light-orange body pigmentation and conspicuous, intense red-eye pigment. Many taxonomic characters evidenced by several techniques were documented photographically for the first time. The typical curved cirrus, approximately 90°, typical of the species, showed some variation in the width of the shaft base, whereas the first longitudinal row of spines of the introvert appeared with shorter spines. The vagina was found to be thick-walled, but not very muscular, and to have a single, large and slightly asymmetrical sphincter, with the posterior portion of slightly larger diameter. Eggs were observed in the umbilicus and along the suture, but predominantly in the body whorl of the shell. Egg peduncles were found to be very short or, most of the time, the eggs were sessile, always with a long apical filament. The rounded shape of the dorsolateral 'excretory' syncytial epidermal plates had external margins reaching the ventrolateral region of the body and eccentric nephridiopores. This is the first record of the species outside Uruguay and in Brazil.

  15. Intra-specific variability in life-history traits of Anadara tuberculosa (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the mangrove ecosystem of the Southern coast of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Luis; Licandeo, Roberto; Cubillos, Luis A; Mora, Elba

    2014-06-01

    Anadara tuberculosa is one of the most important bivalves along the Western Pacific coast because of its commercial value. Nevertheless, the variability in growth, long-life span, natural mortality and reproductive parameters of this mangrove cockle has not yet been described. The aim of this study was to analyze these life-history traits in three areas of the Southern coast of Ecuador. Empirical and length-based methods were used to estimate these biological parameters. Body size data were collected from the commercial fishery between 2004 and 2011 in landing ports near to the Archipelago of Jambeli [Puerto Bolivar (PB), Puerto Jeli (PJ) and Puerto Hualtaco (PH)]. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters for combined sex were estimated between 70.87 to 93.45mm for L(infinity) and 0.22 to 0.80/year for k. The growth indices (PHI') ranged from 3.17 to 3.85, while the overall growth performance (OGP) ranged from 5.03 to 5.82. The mean of long-life span (t(max)), size and age at maturity (L50% and t50%) were estimated in 7.71 +/- 2.53 years, 39.13 +/- 2.24mm and 1.46 +/- 0.56 years for PB; 9.51 +/- 2.85 years, 37.78 +/- 1.95mm and 1.37 +/- 0.41 years for PJ and 5.81 +/- 2.11 years, 39.73 +/- 3.31mm and 0.94 +/- 0.41 years for PH. Natural mortality (M) ranged from 0.46 to 1.28/year. We concluded that significant intra-specific variation was observed in a temporal scale in PHI' and OGP indices as well as L50% and M. Therefore, temporal changes in these life-history traits should be taken into account when assessing the status of the mangrove cockle fishery.

  16. Registro de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda no Brasil: caramujo hospedeiro intermediário da angiostrongilíase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horácio Manuel Santana Teles

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de Achatina fulica é assinalada em Itariri, SP, Brasil. Essa espécie de caramujo terrestre foi importada para cultivo, visando à comercialização para consumo humano como "escargot". O encontro de exemplares em vida livre mostra a dispersão de A. fulica e, conseqüentemente, o risco de transmissão de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematóide parasita do homem e de outros vertebrados. Além disso, o caramujo é uma praga importante da agricultura.

  17. Registro de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda no Brasil: caramujo hospedeiro intermediário da angiostrongilíase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana Teles Horácio Manuel

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de Achatina fulica é assinalada em Itariri, SP, Brasil. Essa espécie de caramujo terrestre foi importada para cultivo, visando à comercialização para consumo humano como "escargot". O encontro de exemplares em vida livre mostra a dispersão de A. fulica e, conseqüentemente, o risco de transmissão de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematóide parasita do homem e de outros vertebrados. Além disso, o caramujo é uma praga importante da agricultura.

  18. Genetic diversity and population genetic analysis of Donax vittatus (Mollusca: Bivalvia) and phylogeny of the genus with mitochondrial and nuclear markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pérez, Jenyfer; Froufe, Elsa; Nantón, Ana; Gaspar, Miguel B.; Méndez, Josefina

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the genetic diversity of Donax vittatus across the Iberian Peninsula was investigated using four mitochondrial (COI, Cytb, 16S F and M types) and three nuclear (H3, 18S and 28S) genes. These same molecular markers were also sequenced in D. semistriatus and D variegatus to address the phylogenetic relationships of the species of the genus Donax common along the European coasts. Our results showed high haplotype diversity in combination with a low nucleotide diversity and a star-shaped network with a predominant haplotype, indicating a recent population expansion for the examined sampling sites of D. vittatus. Furthermore, analyses of population differentiation performed with COI mitochondrial marker, including global FST estimation and pairwise FST values, indicated the non-existence of significant genetic structure in D. vittatus of Northwest Iberian populations. Because these localities show a high genetic similarity, we suggest that D. vittatus could be a potentially alternative exploitable resource, as complement to the D. trunculus fisheries, whose natural stocks have decreased dramatically in some areas. Furthermore, we present for the first time, evidence of DUI in the clams D. vittatus and D. semistriatus.

  19. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna Mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coast of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiki; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: danyseo@uol.com.br, E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: mgcatharino@uol.com.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de, E-mail: edvinett@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IO/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico. Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia Marinha e Microfitobentos

    2013-07-01

    In this study the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V was evaluated in samples of Perna perna mussels collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos) subjected to anthropogenic contamination, to compare these values with those of mussels from reference site of Cocanha Beach (in Caraguatatuba). The mussels were collected seasonally from September 2008 to July 2009. They were cleaned, ground, homogenized, lyophilized and then analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The INAA procedure consisted in the irradiation of the samples and synthetic elemental standards for 8 and 10 s, under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. For quality control of analytical results, certified reference materials NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST 2876 Mussel Tissue were analyzed and their results indicated good accuracy. The ranges of concentrations (dry basis) of the elements obtained in mussels collected for the four seasons of the year were: 173.80 to 358.99 mg kg{sup -1} for Br; 45658 ± 1811 to 109166 ± 824 mg kg{sup -1} for Cl; 7043 ± 856 to 12506 ± 675 mg kg{sup -1} for K; 2774 ± 211 to 5691 ± 717 mg kg{sup -1} for Mg; 7.01 ± 0.30 to 29.74 ± 3.32 mg kg{sup -1} for Mn and 0.77 ± 0.02 to 3.43 ± 0.28 mg kg{sup -1} for V. The seasonal and spatial variations of these element concentrations were in this study. (author)

  20. Pleurolucina from the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans: a new intertidal species from Curaçao with unusual shell microstructure (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Lucinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Glover

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new shallow water species of the lucinid bivalve Pleurolucina is described from Curaçao in the southern Caribbean Sea and compared with known species of the genus from the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. Although confused with the Floridian species P. leucocyma, it is most similar to the eastern Pacific P. undata. As in all studied lucinids, the new species possesses symbiotic bacteria housed in the ctenidia. The shell microstructure is unusual with repeated and intercalated conchiolin layers that have sublayers of ‘tulip-shaped’ calcareous spherules. Predatory drillings by naticid gastropods frequently terminate at the conchiolin layers.

  1. Molluscan Evolutionary Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg; Koop, Damien; Moshel-Lynch, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Brought together by Winston F. Ponder and David R. Lindberg, thirty-six experts on the evolution of the Mollusca provide an up-to-date review of its evolutionary history. The Mollusca are the second largest animal phylum and boast a fossil record of over 540 million years. They exhibit remarkable...

  2. Bioaccumulation and elimination of {sup 60} Co and {sup 137} Cs by Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791) (Mollusca bivalvia). Remobilization of {sup 60} Co, retained in marine sediment by microbial activity; Bioacumulacao e eliminacao de {sup 60}Co e {sup 137}Cs por anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791) (Mollusca bivalvia). Remobilizacao de {sup 60}Co retido em sedimento marinho por atividade microbiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayr, L M

    1984-05-01

    It was studied the capacity of a bi valve mollusc Anomalocardia brasiliana, which lives in the local bottom sediment, to remobilize {sup 60} Co previously sorbed in the sediment. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that the transference of {sup 60} Co from the sediment to the animal was insignificant (bioaccumulation factor (BF) of the order of 10{sup -3}). At the same time, the capacity of microorganisms, present in the bottom sediment, to remobilize {sup 60} Co was studied. The results showed that this via of transference was important, considering the much greater microorganism biomass in relation to the biomass of bentonic organisms, as a whole. For {sup 137} Cs the determined BF from water to the animal was 2.2. and, as in the case of {sup 60} Co, the soft tissues concentrated more {sup 137} Cs than shell. Remaining viscera showed the highest BFs. In another series of experiments, the loss of {sup 60} Co or {sup 137} Cs, previously accumulated by A. brasiliana, was followed in aquaria with or without sediment and the respective biological half-lives were calculated. Soft tissues retained {sup 60} Co longer (biological half-life = 117 days) than shells, whereas for {sup 137} Cs the opposite was observed and shells showed a biological half life of 38.5 days. The low values of {sup 60} Co and {sup 137} Cs BF{sub S} do not allow to classify A. brasiliana as good biological indicator for pollution by there radionuclides. However since A brasiliana is consumed by the local population and is commercialized to other areas, it was recommended that its contamination by {sup 60} Co or {sup 137} Cs should be monitored. (author).

  3. Occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 larvae (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae infecting Achatina (Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda in the Amazon region Ocorrência de Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae infectando o Achatina (Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda na região amazônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanny Maria de Andrade-Porto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Achatina fulica or "giant African snail" is an exotic species, considered to be one of the world's hundred most invasive species, causing serious environmental damages. In the present study we report, for the first time, the occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infecting A.fulica in the Amazon region. This nematode is described parasitizing mainly the pulmonary system of felines, which causes "aelurostrongilose", also known as feline cardio-pulmonary strongyloidosis. New morphometric data of third stage larvae are presented herein. The present study demonstrated that 40% of all the snails were infected by A. abstrusus. Achatina fulica specimens were collected from three different areas in Manaus namely: rural; east and west areas. The east area presents the highest prevalence of 80%. The large number of A.fulica found in inhabited areas increases the chances of emergent zoonoses, which highlights the need of further studies so as to better control this disease.Achatina fulica ou "caramujo africano" é uma espécie exótica, considerada uma das cem piores espécies invasoras do mundo, causando sérios danos ambientais. No presente estudo foi registrado, pela primeira vez, a ocorrência do Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infectando o A.fulica na região amazônica. Esse nematóide é descrito parasitando principalmente o sistema pulmonar de felinos, causando a "aelurostrongilose", também conhecida como estrongiloidose cardio-pulmonar felina. Novos dados morfométricos de larvas de terceiro estágio são apresentados. Dos 45 caramujos coletados, 40% estavam infectados por larvas de A. abstrusus. Especimens de Achatina fulica foram coletados em três áreas da cidade de Manaus: rural, leste e oeste. A zona leste apresentou a maior prevalência de 80%. O grande número de A.fulica encontrado em áreas habitadas aumenta as chances de ocorrência de zoonoses emergentes e destaca a necessidade de mais estudos para o melhor controle da doença.

  4. Potentiality of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) as intermediate host of the Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes 1971 Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) como hospedeiro intermediário potencial do Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes 1971

    OpenAIRE

    Omar dos Santos Carvalho; Horácio MS Teles; Ester Maria Mota; Cristiane Lafetá Gomes Furtado de Mendonça; Henrique Leonel Lenzi

    2003-01-01

    Samples of Achatina fulica were experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae, etiological agent of abdominal angiostrongyliasis, showing that A. fulica is susceptible to the parasite. Achatina fulica may be a risk to urbanization of abdominal angiostrongyliasis presumably due to its high proliferation, continuous dispersion and remarkable adaptation in several Brazilian towns.Exemplares de Achatina fulica foram experimentalmente infectados com larvas de Angiostrongylus co...

  5. Ciclo gametogênico e comportamento reprodutivo de Iphigenia brasiliana (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Donacidae no estuário do rio Subaé, Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia, Brasil Gametogenic cycle and reproductive behavior of Iphigenia brasiliana (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Donacidae in the Subaé river estuary, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia P. Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos descrever o ciclo gametogênico e o comportamento reprodutivo da população de Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck,1818 no estuário do rio Subaé, Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia. Os bivalves foram coletados de novembro de 2001 a novembro de 2002. Um total de 244 espécimes foi medido (eixo anteroposterior, eviscerado, fixado, desidratado e incluído em parafina. O estudo histológico das gônadas foi realizado através de cortes seriados do tecido gonadal, de 5 mm de espessura, e corados pela HE. O tamanho médio mínimo da primeira maturação sexual (Lpm foi estimado a partir da distribuição das frequências relativas de jovens e adultos, por classe de comprimento dos indivíduos. As frequências relativas dos sexos em cada estádio de desenvolvimento foram consideradas conjuntamente para a análise do comportamento reprodutivo da população, e, em separado, para avaliar a sincronia do ciclo sexual entre machos e fêmeas. Foi observada uma variação de tamanhos entre 9,1 e 66,6 mm, com comprimento médio de 50,2 mm. O estudo não demonstrou diferença significativa entre os tamanhos de machos e fêmeas. Não foi possível observar a diferenciação de sexos em 2,1% dos indivíduos analisados. 51,6% dos indivíduos foram identificados como machos (M e 46,3% como fêmeas (F, não sendo constatadas diferenças significativas entre o número médio de machos e fêmeas, resultando numa proporção de M:F de 1,1:1. O Lpm foi estimado em 11,4 mm, mas apenas ao alcançarem comprimento médio de 34,4 mm, todos os indivíduos foram considerados adultos. Foram caracterizados quatro estádios de evolução do desenvolvimento gonadal em fêmeas e machos. A análise dos diferentes estádios permitiu a observação dos fenômenos de atresia e inversão sexual em fêmeas. O ciclo reprodutivo apresentou eliminação contínua de gametas, com maiores intensidades reprodutivas nos meses de novembro de 2001 a abril de 2002 e, também, no mês de outubro de 2002.This study aimed to describe the gametogenic cycle and reproductive behavior of the population of Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck, 1818 in the estuary of the Subaé river, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia. The bivalves were collected from November 2001 to November 2002. A total of 244 specimens was measured (anteroposterior axis, gutted, fixed, dehydrated and embedded in paraffin. The histology of the gonads was performed by 5 mm thick serial sections of gonadal tissue, and stained with HE. The length at the beginning of gonadal maturation (Lpm was estimated from the distribution of the relative frequencies of youth and adults, by length class of individuals. The relative frequencies of the sexes at each stage of development were considered together for the analysis of the reproductive behavior of the population, and, separately, to assess the sexual cycle synchrony between males and females. We observed a variation of sizes between 9.1 and 66.6 mm, with a mean length of 50.2 mm. The study showed no significant difference between the sizes of males and females. There was no evidence of gender differentiation in 2.1% of subjects analyzed. 51.6% of subjects were identified as males (M and 46.3% as females (F, without significant differences among average number of male and female, resulting in the proportion of M:F ratio of 1,1:1. Lpm was estimated at 11.4 mm, but only to achieve average length of 34.4 mm, all subjects were considered adults. We characterized four stages of evolution of gonadal development in females and males. Analysis of different stages allowed the observation of the atresia phenomena and sex reversal in females. The reproductive cycle presents continuous elimination of gametes, with higher reproductive intensities in the months of November 2001 to April 2002 and also in October 2002.

  6. Ciclo gametogênico e comportamento reprodutivo de Iphigenia brasiliana (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Donacidae no estuário do rio Subaé, Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia, Brasil Gametogenic cycle and reproductive behavior of Iphigenia brasiliana (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Donacidae in the Subaé river estuary, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia P. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos descrever o ciclo gametogênico e o comportamento reprodutivo da população de Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck,1818 no estuário do rio Subaé, Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia. Os bivalves foram coletados de novembro de 2001 a novembro de 2002. Um total de 244 espécimes foi medido (eixo anteroposterior, eviscerado, fixado, desidratado e incluído em parafina. O estudo histológico das gônadas foi realizado através de cortes seriados do tecido gonadal, de 5 mm de espessura, e corados pela HE. O tamanho médio mínimo da primeira maturação sexual (Lpm foi estimado a partir da distribuição das frequências relativas de jovens e adultos, por classe de comprimento dos indivíduos. As frequências relativas dos sexos em cada estádio de desenvolvimento foram consideradas conjuntamente para a análise do comportamento reprodutivo da população, e, em separado, para avaliar a sincronia do ciclo sexual entre machos e fêmeas. Foi observada uma variação de tamanhos entre 9,1 e 66,6 mm, com comprimento médio de 50,2 mm. O estudo não demonstrou diferença significativa entre os tamanhos de machos e fêmeas. Não foi possível observar a diferenciação de sexos em 2,1% dos indivíduos analisados. 51,6% dos indivíduos foram identificados como machos (M e 46,3% como fêmeas (F, não sendo constatadas diferenças significativas entre o número médio de machos e fêmeas, resultando numa proporção de M:F de 1,1:1. O Lpm foi estimado em 11,4 mm, mas apenas ao alcançarem comprimento médio de 34,4 mm, todos os indivíduos foram considerados adultos. Foram caracterizados quatro estádios de evolução do desenvolvimento gonadal em fêmeas e machos. A análise dos diferentes estádios permitiu a observação dos fenômenos de atresia e inversão sexual em fêmeas. O ciclo reprodutivo apresentou eliminação contínua de gametas, com maiores intensidades reprodutivas nos meses de novembro de 2001 a abril de 2002 e, também, no mês de outubro de 2002.This study aimed to describe the gametogenic cycle and reproductive behavior of the population of Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck, 1818 in the estuary of the Subaé river, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia. The bivalves were collected from November 2001 to November 2002. A total of 244 specimens was measured (anteroposterior axis, gutted, fixed, dehydrated and embedded in paraffin. The histology of the gonads was performed by 5 mm thick serial sections of gonadal tissue, and stained with HE. The length at the beginning of gonadal maturation (Lpm was estimated from the distribution of the relative frequencies of youth and adults, by length class of individuals. The relative frequencies of the sexes at each stage of development were considered together for the analysis of the reproductive behavior of the population, and, separately, to assess the sexual cycle synchrony between males and females. We observed a variation of sizes between 9.1 and 66.6 mm, with a mean length of 50.2 mm. The study showed no significant difference between the sizes of males and females. There was no evidence of gender differentiation in 2.1% of subjects analyzed. 51.6% of subjects were identified as males (M and 46.3% as females (F, without significant differences among average number of male and female, resulting in the proportion of M:F ratio of 1,1:1. Lpm was estimated at 11.4 mm, but only to achieve average length of 34.4 mm, all subjects were considered adults. We characterized four stages of evolution of gonadal development in females and males. Analysis of different stages allowed the observation of the atresia phenomena and sex reversal in females. The reproductive cycle presents continuous elimination of gametes, with higher reproductive intensities in the months of November 2001 to April 2002 and also in October 2002.

  7. Distribución temporal de larvas de Mytilus chilensis (Hupé, 1954 (Mollusca: Mytilidae, en el mar interior de Chiloé, sur de Chile Temporal distribution of larvae of Mytilus chilensis (Hupé, 1854 (Mollusca: Mytilidae, in the interior sea of Chiloé, southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Avendaño

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Entre septiembre 2007 y marzo 2008, en Quillaipe, Metri, Sotomo, Canutillar y Pichicolo (mar interior de Chiloé, se determinó mensualmente la presencia larval de M. chilensis, mediante arrastres verticales de plancton, en una columna de 0-7,5 m y paralelamente se determinó histológicamente el estado reproductivo de ejemplares adultos. Se detectó permanentemente la presencia de larvas en los cinco sitios estudiados, con un significativo incremento entre octubre y diciembre, superando en Canutillar 49 mil larvas por m-3, sitio que junto a Sotomo registraron las mayores densidades. El análisis de cohortes mostró una similitud de los grupos larvales presentes en los diferentes sitios a partir de septiembre, acentuándose durante noviembre y diciembre, así como una permanente aparición de cohortes en estadios iniciales. En contraste con estos resultados, el proceso reproductivo de M. chilensis en estos sitios, se manifestó de enero a marzo. Se discute que los desoves registrados en estos sitios, no serían responsables de la presencia de las larvas, actuando en consecuencia como áreas receptoras, y de retención de larvas provenientes de otros sitios. Estos resultados sugieren la necesidad de profundizar conocimientos biológicos y ecológicos en áreas de distribución de la especie, así como de dinámica larval y post-larval para identificar áreas exportadoras y de retención, para contribuir a un manejo eficiente y optimizar la captación de semilla.The larval presence of M. chilensis was determined monthly from September 2007 to March 2008, in Quillaipe, Metri, Sotomo, Canutillar, and Pichicolo (interior sea of Chiloé using vertical plankton trawls through a water column from 0 to 7.5 m. At the same time, the reproductive stage of adult individuals was determined histologically. Larvae were detected continuously at the five study sites, with a significant increase from October to December, exceeding 49 thousand per m-3 at Canutillar where, along with Sotomo, the greatest densities were recorded during the study. Cohort analysis showed a similarity in the larval cohorts present at the different sites from September onwards; this was accentuated in November and December, as was the constant appearance of cohorts in the initial stages. In contrast with these results, the reproductive process of M. chilensis at these sites occurred from January to March. Whether or not the spawning recorded at these sites is responsible for the observed larvae is a matter of debate, as the sites may receive and retain larvae exported from other sites. These results suggest a need to compile further biological and ecological knowledge on the areas where this species is distributed and its larval and post-larval dynamics in order to identify exporting and retention areas and thereby contribute to efficient management and the optimization of spat collection.

  8. Influência do substrato sobre a reprodução de Subulina octona (Brugüière (Mollusca, Subulinidae, sob condições de laboratório Influence of substrate on reproduction of Subulina octona (Brugüière (Mollusca, Subulinidae, under laboratorial conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthefane D'ávila

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar se o substrato influencia a reprodução de indivíduos da espécie Subulina octona (Brugüière, 1789, mantidos em três diferentes substratos: areia, argila e terra vegetal. Foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros: número de ovos produzidos a cada evento reprodutivo, tempo para o alcance da maturidade sexual, idade dos indivíduos a cada evento reprodutivo, intervalo entre eventos reprodutivos, número total de ovos por indivíduo, número total de eventos reprodutivos por indivíduo e aumento do número de ovos de um evento para o subseqüente. O substrato influenciou o tempo necessário para o alcance da maturidade sexual, bem como o tempo para a realização dos eventos reprodutivos subseqüentes ao primeiro, a produção de ovos, o número total de ovos produzidos e de eventos reprodutivos de S. octona. Indivíduos mantidos em caixa com terra vegetal levaram mais tempo para realizar o primeiro, segundo, terceiro e quarto evento reprodutivo, produziram menos ovos, no segundo, terceiro e quarto evento e apresentaram um intervalo maior entre o primeiro e segundo evento.The influence of substrate on reproduction of Subulina octona (Brugüière, 1789, reared in sand, clay and humus, was investigated under laboratorial conditions. There were significant differences in onset of sexual maturity, egg production, shell length and aging in each reproductive event, total number of eggs produced and total number of reproductive events. The individuals reared in humus spent more time to reach sexual maturity, as well as to accomplish the subsequent reproductive events. Moreover, produced fewer eggs in the second, third and fourth ovipositions and exhibited a longer interval between the first and second reproductive events. After 120 days of experiment such individuals had produced fewer eggs, and performed fewer reproductive events, when compared with those kept in sand and clay. There was a progressive decline in egg number increase with time. In this study was also observed that S. octona of different developmental stages fed on substrate and the molluscs reared in humus consumed less food. This is probably due to the fact that humus is more likely to be take as food resource. So that, the snails reared in humus tend to consume more substrate and less ration, obtaining less proteins, carbohydrates and calcium than those snails reared in sand and clay. This low intake of ration might have negative effects over reproduction of the snails.

  9. New synonymy in Cuban Tilloclytus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Anaglyptini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Examination of holotypes of Tilloclytus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Anaglyptini) in the Fernando de Zayas collection (Havana, Cuba) and the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University reveals that T. elongatus Zayas (1975) is a new synonym of T. rufipes Fisher (1942)....

  10. Description of a new genus and species of the Coleopterous family Colydidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitter, E.

    1882-01-01

    Corpus valde elongatum, convexum. Antennae 11-articulatae, sub frontis margine ante oculos insertae, apicem versus sensim incrassatae, articulo ultimo rotundato. Fronte tateribus elevata. Oculi antice emarginati. Prothorax elongatus, carinatus. Scutellum minutum. Elytra punctatostriata, interstitiis

  11. Tag effect data - Lingcod Stock Enhancement: ecological interactions, fishery contributions, and life history

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus) populations along the West Coast of North America have recovered from overfishing, but the status of genetically distinct lingcod in...

  12. Mobile acoustic telemetry data - Lingcod Stock Enhancement: ecological interactions, fishery contributions, and life history

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus) populations along the West Coast of North America have recovered from overfishing, but the status of genetically distinct lingcod in...

  13. Species-specific differences of the spectroscopic properties of P700 - Analysis of the influence of non-conserved amino acid residues by site-directed mutagenesis of photosystem I from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witt, H.; Bordignon, E.; Carbonera, D.; Dekker, J.P.; Karapetyan, N.; Teutloff, C.; Webber, A.; Lubitz, W.; Schlodder, E.

    2003-01-01

    We applied optical spectroscopy, magnetic resonance techniques, and redox titrations to investigate the properties of the primary electron donor P700 in photosystem I (PS I) core complexes from cyanobacteria (Thermosynechococcus elongatus, Spirulina platensis, and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803), algae

  14. Detection limits of absorbed dose of ionizing radiation in molluscan shells as determined by e.p.r. spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachowicz, W.; Michalik, J.; Burlinska, G.; Sadlo, J.; Dziedzic-Goclawska, A.; Ostrowski, K.

    1995-01-01

    The exposure of waters to ionizing radiation from radionuclides imprisoned in dumped nuclear waste containers, freed in nuclear submarine accidents or released in underwater magma eruptions are difficult to be evaluated by conventional radiometric methods. Ionizing radiation evokes stable paramagnetic centers in crystalline lattice of mineral components in bone skeletons of mammals and fishes as well as in exoskeletons of mollusca. They give rise in e.p.r. to specific, extremely stable signals which are proposed to be applied as indicators of radiation exposure levels. In the present study the e.p.r. detection limits of the dose of ionizing radiation absorbed in shells of fresh water and marine mollusca (selected species) have been estimated. It has been found that with fresh water mollusca the dose of 1-2 Gy can be detected, while the sea water mollusca by one order of magnitude lower, i.e. about 0.1 Gy. (author)

  15. Měkkýši údolí Vltavy (Čechy)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáčková, J.; Ložek, V.; Beran, L.; Juřičková, L.; Podroužková, Š.; Peterka, Jiří; Čech, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 13, - (2014), s. 12-105 ISSN 1336-6939 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : faunistics * inventory * Mollusca * river floodplain * Lucilla scintilla * Margaritifera margaritifera Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  16. Plankton composition in the coastal waters between Jaigarh and Rajapur along west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, V.R.; Devassy, V.P.

    , Mollusca, Decapoda, Chaetognatha, Tunicata and fish eggs and larvae were the major groups in the zooplankton population. The highest secondary production values were obtained off Ratnagiri and the average production for the Konkan coastal waters was found...

  17. Molluscan shell evolution with review of shell calcification hypothesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Furuhashi, T.; Schwarzinger, C.; Mikšík, Ivan; Smrž, Miloslav; Beran, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 154, č. 3 (2009), s. 351-371 ISSN 1096-4959 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : mollusca * shell * biomineralization Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.607, year: 2009

  18. Early development of the aplacophoran mollusc Chaetoderma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus; Haszprunar, Gerhard; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    The early development of the trochophore larva of the aplacophoran Chaetoderma nitidulum (Mollusca: Caudofoveata = Chaetodermomorpha) is described using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and using fluorescence staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy of the muscle system...

  19. Use of Population Parameters in Examining Changes in the Status of the Short-Necked Clam Paphia undulata Born, 1778 (Mollusca, Pelecypoda: Veneridae in Coastal Waters of Southern Negros Occidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabelle del Norte Campos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth, recruitment, mortality and exploitation rate of the short-necked clam Paphia undulata (Born, 1778 were studied in southern Negros Occidental waters between August 2007 and July 2008 from length-frequency data derived from catches of divers, to be able to compare with earlier data derived and analyzed 13 years ago by Agasen et al. (1998. Both sets of data were analyzed using the FiSAT software (Gayanilo & Pauly, 1997. The asymptotic shell length (S¥ = 79 mm derived from the present data proved to be smaller compared to the earlier data (SL¥ = 81.5 mm due to the lack of bigger sizes in the present samples. The growth constant (K = 1.0 yr-1 was however comparable indicating it to be a more species-characteristic parameter. Two recruitment pulses for each study were derived and were found to be correlated with the spawning pattern in the species. The value of natural mortality (M = 1.57 yr-1 derived from bivalve literature, is deemed more appropriate compared to the earlier estimate (M = 2.89 yr-1 based on Pauly’s (1980 empirical equation developed for fish. Total mortality (Z values for both studies were comparable, but a higher level of fishing mortality (F = 4.61 yr-1 was estimated for the present data set, thus resulting likewise in a higher exploitation rate (E = 0.75. These, together with fishery information from an accompanying paper (Villarta & del Norte-Campos, 2010, not only validate the earlier findings of overexploitation due to lack of management, but reveal a worsening condition of the stock, most likely as a result of growth overfishing. Overexploitation can only be mitigated by imposing stringent restrictions in terms of the minimum size for exploitation (45 mm shell length and closed seasons during the spawning peak (August-November.

  20. Body size structure, biometric relationships and density of Chiton albolineatus (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) on the intertidal rocky zone of three islands of Mazatlan Bay, SE of the Gulf of California

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Campaña, Luis Miguel; Arzola-González, Juan Francisco; de León-Herrera, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Populations of the polyplacophoran mollusk Chiton albolineatus were studied at 6 sites with different wave exposure of the rocky shores of 3 islands of Mazatlan Bay (southeastern side of the Gulf of California). This chiton species is endemic to the Mexican Pacific coast. Chitons were sampled on wave-exposed and wave-protected sites in the intertidal zone of these islands from January to December 2008 to determine its demographic patterns based on density and body size. Length (L), breadth (B...

  1. Density, size structure, shell orientation and epibiontic colonization of the fan mussel Pinna nobilis L. 1758 (Mollusca: Bivalvia in three contrasting habitats in an estuarine area of Sardinia (W Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Addis

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the spatial distribution, size structure, shell orientation and valve colonization by epibionts of the endangered Mediterranean bivalve Pinna nobilis in three continuous but different habitats in the Gulf of Oristano (Sardinia, western Mediterranean. The sampling stations chosen were: an estuarine area (E of coastal salt-marshes characterized by unvegetated sea-bottoms; and two areas in a seagrass meadow characterized by an extensive Posidonia oceanica meadow (Mw and patched mixed meadows of P. oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa (Me. We found significant differences in mean densities among stations and the highest value was found in the estuarine area. Shell orientation showed that there was uniform circular distribution of specimens in the Mw station and a unimodal distribution in the Me and E stations, where specimens were set at 0°N and 10°NNE, which is a pattern related to sea drift. Shell epibiosis displayed differences between habitats. The highest valve colonization was in the estuary, with filamentous dark algae and Ostrea edulis reaching almost 90 percent of shell coverage. This study provides new information on habitat preferences and data for assessing local populations of P. nobilis that is useful for its conservation and improving the knowledge of its ecology.

  2. Annotations to the figured scallops (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pectinidae) in Gualtieri’s “Index Testarum Conchyliorum”, deposited in the Museo di Storia Naturale e del Territorio at Calci (Pisa, Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.

    2016-01-01

    An overview is given of the Pectinidae types present in the Gualtieri collection. In Gualtieri (1742) 46 figures (pl. 73 - 15 figs, pl. 74 - 25 figs, pl. 98 – 2 figs, and pl. 99 – 4 figs) show specimens of Pectinidae. Linnaeus (1758) referred to 10 Pectinidae species figured by Gualtieri. Of these,

  3. Freshwater Mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Upper Mississippi River: Observations at Selected Sites Within the 9-Foot Navigation Channel Project for the St. Paul District, United States Army Corps of Engineers, 1977 - 1979. Volume II. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-10

    as caz’nata A J T R H Ligwnia recta L. subrost rat a Carunculina parva Lampsilis terea L. higginsi L. radiata siliquoidea L. ovata ventricosa Plagio ...radiata siZiquc’idea 1 1 0.?2 X L. ovata ventricosa 2 2 0. 3 Plagio Za trique tra X Arcidens con fragosus 2 2 0.3 Lasmiqona camptlcnata L. cost ata L

  4. Catálogo de los Uniónidos (Mollusca, Unionidae de la península Ibérica conservados en el Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC

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    Soriano, Óscar

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available From the 1987, we are working in the recuration process of the collections from the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN. In 1999, among other achievements, 1357 specimens of unionids from the Iberian Peninsula have been catalogued; these specimens are from the collections of González Hidalgo, Paz y Membiela, Azpeitia, Álvarez, Cobos, etc. The habitats of the species of unionids experienced a gradual deterioration during the second half of the XXth century due to their relative intolerance to pollution. Actually, most collecting localities of the specimens in the MNCN are not suitable habitat for unionids today. The fast regression suffered by the Iberian species underscores the need to proceed to the recovery and the conservation of the aquatic ecosystems where species belonging to this family are present, before their total disappearance takes place. It is necessary to gather the information deposited in public and private collections, that could contribute to determine more accurately the past distribution of these species.

    Desde el año 1987 se están recuperando las colecciones del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales. Durante 1999, entre otros trabajos, se han catalogado los 1363 ejemplares de uniónidos de la península Ibérica, que procedentes de las colecciones de González Hidalgo, Paz y Membiela, Azpeitia, Álvarez, Cobos, etc., se conservan en el museo. El progresivo deterioro que, en la segunda mitad del siglo XX, han tenido los hábitats de las especies de la familia que aquí tratamos, ha producido, su desaparición en gran parte de las localidades de las que se conserva representación en las colecciones del museo. La rápida regresión sufrida por las especies ibéricas, nos pone de manifiesto la necesidad de proceder a la recuperación y a la conservación de los ecosistemas acuáticos con presencia de especies pertenecientes a esta familia, antes de que se produzca su total desaparición. Por todo ello, se hace necesario conocer la información que se recoge en colecciones públicas o privadas y que podría contribuir a conocer la distribución que, en tiempos pasados, tenían estas especies.

  5. Fresh-Water Mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Upper Mississippi River: Observations at Selected Sites within the 9-Foot Channel Navigation Project on Behalf of the U.S. Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-16

    Deertoe Ohovaria olivaria *Hjckorynut Glassback Eggshell Long ’Solid Actinonaias carinata *Mucket Mouket Mougat A. elipsiformie *Ellipse Liqumia recta...Catservatuls end Iited States Nepartmet of Agriculture, Soil Ctsraemtioa Service, Jeferson City* Missourl. Pp. I-ISO. Seshoala, A. V. 1941. Tapoles as

  6. Polar localization of plasma membrane Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase correlates with the pattern of steady ionic currents in eggs ofLymnaea stagnalis andBithynia tentaculata (Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivkovic, Danica; Créton, Robbert; Zwaan, Gideon; de Bruijn, Willem C; Dohmen, M René

    1990-11-01

    During extrusion of the first polar body in eggs ofLymnaea stagnalis andBithynia tentaculata a localized Ca 2+ /Mg 2+ ATPase activity was detected, using Ando's enzyme-cytochemical method for electron microscopy [Ando et al. (1981) Acta Histochem Cytochem 14:705-726]. The enzyme activity was distributed in a polar fashion, along the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. In the eggs ofLymnaea it was found only in the vegetal hemisphere, whereas inBithynia eggs it was localized both in the vegetal hemisphere and at the animal pole. This pattern of enzyme activity corresponds to the polar pattern of transcellular ionic currents measured with the vibrating probe, which we showed to be partially carried or regulated by calcium [Zivkovic and Dohmen (1989) Biol Bull (Woods Hole) 176 (Suppl):103-109]. The characteristics of the ATPase were studied using a variety of approaches such as ion and substrate depletions and substitutions, addition of specific inhibitors of ATPase activity, treatment with EDTA/EGTA and electron energy-loss spectrometry. The results indicate that, inLymnaea, there are at least two enzymatic entities. The first one is a Ca 2+ /Mg 2+ ATPase localized along the membrane and in the cortex of the vegetal hemisphere. The second one is a Ca 2+ -stimulated ATPase (calcium pump of the plasma membrane) localized in a small region of the membrane at the vegetal pole. We speculate that in the eggs ofLymnaea andBithynia a functional relationship exists between the plasma-membrane-associated ATPase activity and the transcellular ionic currents measured in the same region.

  7. Reações da espécie invasora Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Achatinidae à fatores abióticos: perspectivas para o manejo Reactions of the invasive alien species Achatina fulica to abiotic factors: perspectives for the management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Luciane Fischer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 is an african snail that is invasive in different parts of the world, being characterized mainly by its high adaptability. Our objective was to evaluate the influence of abiotic factors, such as temperature and substrate, on the egg eclosion, adult and juvenile reaction to different abiotics factors, and the resistance of A. fulica to popular methods of control. Three studies were made, including 19 laboratory experiments and observations of free animals in the municipal district of Guaraqueçaba, southern Brazil. Eggs were characterized as the most fragile phase, whereas the juveniles and adults were resistant to the immersion in fresh and salt water and little resistant to temperature variation and salt, using burying, aestivation, and muscular force as defense strategies. Those strategies should be considered in management actions and in orientating popular methods of control.

  8. Cuantificación de metales pesados en Anadara tuberculosa(Mollusca:bivalvia del estero Huaylá de Puerto Bolívar, por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica

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    Collaguazo-Collaguazo, Yadira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of heavy metals in bivalve molluscs implies a serious problem for the consumers health of this type of food. Therefore, the objective of the present investigation was to determine the presence of heavy metals in Anadara tuberculosa, mollusc of commercial importance at Puerto Bolívar, Ecuador. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was the method used to quantify the concentration of heavy metals. The concentration of six metals was determined: lead (Pb, arsenic (As, mercury (Hg, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr and cobalt (Co. The average values obtained, expressed in mg.kg-1 were: Pb (7.52 ± 0.46; As (1.55 ± 0.14; Hg (364.38 ± 91.39; Cd (1.68 ± 0.28; Cr (3,89 ± 1,82 and Co (2,71 ± 0,34 in A. tuberculosa The results show that Pb, As, Cd, and Hg exceed the maximum permissible limits, mercury exceeds by more than 100 times the limit value. The smaller size (3-4 cm studied mollusc, has the capacity to bioaccumulate higher concentration of Pb, Cd and Cr.

  9. The Mass-Dimension Relationships in the Mussels Mytilus Galloprovincialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia from Different Phenotypical Groups in Periphyton Populations near Odessa Coast, the North-Western Part of Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govorin I. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data of the size-mass indices in the mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck, 1819 from three phenotypic groups - brown, dark violet (black and “zebra” (brown with radial black stripes shells in the periphyton settlements on the concrete traverses near Odessa coast, the North-western part of Black Sea (Ukraine, in March-November 2014-2015 are presented. A comparative evaluation has been made on the relationships of total mass of the mollusks, wet and dry mass of their soft body and mass of the shells on the one hand, and the size of animals (length of its shells on the other hand, in the each of phenotypical groups from the five marine beach areas. It is shown, that in the marine areas with different degrees of isolation from the open sea by coast-protection engineering constructions, the mussels from different phenotypes have almost the same size-mass characteristics. Only the dry weight of soft animal body, which indicated to fatness of mollusk and therefore demonstrated his biological prosperity in specific hydrological conditions, can serve as a reliable criterion which can mark the shellfish habitats with different gradients of environmental factors.

  10. Ciclo gametogênico e comportamento reprodutivo de Iphigenia brasiliana (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Donacidae no estuário do rio Subaé, Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia P. Silva

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos descrever o ciclo gametogênico e o comportamento reprodutivo da população de Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck,1818 no estuário do rio Subaé, Baía de Todos os Santos, Bahia. Os bivalves foram coletados de novembro de 2001 a novembro de 2002. Um total de 244 espécimes foi medido (eixo anteroposterior, eviscerado, fixado, desidratado e incluído em parafina. O estudo histológico das gônadas foi realizado através de cortes seriados do tecido gonadal, de 5 mm de espessura, e corados pela HE. O tamanho médio mínimo da primeira maturação sexual (Lpm foi estimado a partir da distribuição das frequências relativas de jovens e adultos, por classe de comprimento dos indivíduos. As frequências relativas dos sexos em cada estádio de desenvolvimento foram consideradas conjuntamente para a análise do comportamento reprodutivo da população, e, em separado, para avaliar a sincronia do ciclo sexual entre machos e fêmeas. Foi observada uma variação de tamanhos entre 9,1 e 66,6 mm, com comprimento médio de 50,2 mm. O estudo não demonstrou diferença significativa entre os tamanhos de machos e fêmeas. Não foi possível observar a diferenciação de sexos em 2,1% dos indivíduos analisados. 51,6% dos indivíduos foram identificados como machos (M e 46,3% como fêmeas (F, não sendo constatadas diferenças significativas entre o número médio de machos e fêmeas, resultando numa proporção de M:F de 1,1:1. O Lpm foi estimado em 11,4 mm, mas apenas ao alcançarem comprimento médio de 34,4 mm, todos os indivíduos foram considerados adultos. Foram caracterizados quatro estádios de evolução do desenvolvimento gonadal em fêmeas e machos. A análise dos diferentes estádios permitiu a observação dos fenômenos de atresia e inversão sexual em fêmeas. O ciclo reprodutivo apresentou eliminação contínua de gametas, com maiores intensidades reprodutivas nos meses de novembro de 2001 a abril de 2002 e, também, no mês de outubro de 2002.

  11. Redescription of Temnocephala iheringi (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida based on specimens from Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: the possible type host and type locality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Seixas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The original description of Temnocephala iheringi Haswell, 1893 was based on specimens collected by Hermann von Ihering from undetermined ampullariid apple snails, which at that time were identified as Ampullaria sp., and sent to William H. Haswell, with the type locality simply indicated as Brazil. The type specimens studied by Haswell were not found in the scientific collections of Brazil, Europe or Australia, and should be considered lost. In 1941, Pereira & Cuocolo collected specimens from apple snails, identified as Pomacea lineata (Spix in Wagner, 1827, at two localities (Guaicurús and Salobra in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, central Brazil. These specimens could not be located either and should, thus, be considered lost as well. Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822, the main host of T. iheringi in southern Brazil, is known to have a geographical distribution that reaches Uruguay and 400 km beyond the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Three hundred and one mollusks were collected from 1999 to 2007. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity presented a greenish body pigmentation (adults and lacked eye pigment of any color, including the red-eye pigment, typical of Neotropical species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849; straight cirrus, with a thick band at base of the introvert' swelling; and a single, circular, asymmetric vaginal sphincter, wider in diameter in the posterior portion. As the species occurs concurrently with two other species, at least in P. canaliculata from Rio Grande do Sul, the eggs of T. iheringi could not be reliably distinguished. A redescription of the species is provided. A comparison of data from the present work with those of earlier papers published on T. iheringi from Argentina showed that the Argentinean specimens had the smallest measurements.

  12. The introduction of Melanoides tuberculata (Mollusca: Thiaridae) to the island of Saint Lucia (West Indies) and its role in the decline of Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointier, J P

    1993-06-01

    A malacological survey was carried out in May 1992 in the whole hydrographic system of Saint Lucia 11 years after the end of a biological control programme to eliminate Biomphalaria glabrata, the snail intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. A competitor snail, Melanoides tuberculata, was introduced to Saint Lucia in 1978 and field experiments in several habitats were conducted by Prentice between 1978 and 1986. At the present time M. tuberculata is the most common freshwater snail in Saint Lucia. The results of the survey, undertaken in sites where B. glabrata occurred in large populations in the past showed (i) the absence of the snail hosts from seven sites now extensively colonized by the competitor (ii) the presence of B. glabrata in low or very low densities in 17 sites together with the competitor and (iii) the presence of the intermediate hosts in large populations in only two sites where M. tuberculata was absent. These results confirm the positive results observed by Prentice. The presence of another planorbid snail, B. straminea, is reported for the first time in Saint Lucia.

  13. Variações no comprimento dos indivíduos de uma população do mexilhão dourado, Limnoperna fortunei (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Mytilidae, ao longo do ano, na Praia do Veludo, Lago Guaíba, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Length variation over a one-year period in specimens of the golden mussel, Limnoperna fortunei (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Mytilidae from Veludo Beach, Guaíba Lake, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia P. dos Santos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The individual size of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857 was evaluated twice a month, for a year, based on samples from Veludo Beach (30º12'35"S, 51º11'68"W in Guaiba Lake, southern Porto Alegre, Brazil. Physical and chemical data on water quality, such as temperature, transparency, depth, pH, dissolved oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen, chlorophyll "a", and conductivity were also recorded. Adult samples were collected from underwater "sarandi" branches, Cephalanthus glabratus (Spreng K. Schum (Rubiaceae, an aquatic macrophyte available at each site. Adults placed on artificial substrates were also checked every six months. Data were analyzed by applying multivariate statistics techniques related to the physical and chemical variables of the water and the density of individuals to estimate the patterns of the individual growth over the year. The adults were separated into three groups according to length classes: G1, G2 and G3 (groups 1 through 3. These three groups are related to the differences in behavior, namely, the ability of locomotion and fixation capacity. Individuals from Group 1 (5 to 7 mm in length were the most abundant and were present in all the sampled months. Adults from artificial substrates were shown to display significant differences in seasonal growth and faster growth during spring and summer months.

  14. Variety of DNA Replication Activity Among Cyanobacteria Correlates with Distinct Respiration Activity in the Dark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbayashi, Ryudo; Yamamoto, Jun-Ya; Watanabe, Satoru; Kanesaki, Yu; Chibazakura, Taku; Miyagishima, Shin-Ya; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi

    2017-02-01

    Cyanobacteria exhibit light-dependent cell growth since most of their cellular energy is obtained by photosynthesis. In Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, one of the model cyanobacteria, DNA replication depends on photosynthetic electron transport. However, the critical signal for the regulatory mechanism of DNA replication has not been identified. In addition, conservation of this regulatory mechanism has not been investigated among cyanobacteria. To understand this regulatory signal and its dependence on light, we examined the regulation of DNA replication under both light and dark conditions among three model cyanobacteria, S. elongatus PCC 7942, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. Interestingly, DNA replication activity in Synechocystis and Anabaena was retained when cells were transferred to the dark, although it was drastically decreased in S. elongatus. Glycogen metabolism and respiration were higher in Synechocystis and Anabaena than in S. elongatus in the dark. Moreover, DNA replication activity in Synechocystis and Anabaena was reduced to the same level as that in S. elongatus by inhibition of respiratory electron transport after transfer to the dark. These results demonstrate that there is disparity in DNA replication occurring in the dark among cyanobacteria, which is caused by the difference in activity of respiratory electron transport. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. A revised geographical range for Liolaemus elongates Koslowsky, 1896 (Squamata: Liolaemini in Argentina: review of reported and new-data based distribution with new localities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Minoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the effective geographical ranges of species is central to species-oriented conservation and management. In this paper, we review the geographical distribution of Liolaemus elongatus Koslowsky, 1896 with three new records for northern Chubut and southern Río Negro provinces, Argentina. Based on detailed locality records pooled from multiple data sources, including new records obtained for this study, we revise the range of L. elongatus sensu stricto and provide geographical distribution maps comparing the previously recognized range to that proposed herein. Our results show that L. elongatus possesses a much more limited geographic distribution than previously thought, being restricted to areas south of 38°S latitude; the newly proposed range is merely half the species formerly recognized geographical distribution.

  16. NMSBA: Aken Technologies Final Report: Toxicity Testing of Liquidoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffing, Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jensen, Travis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Strickland, Lucas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    To determine the effect of Liquidoff on bacteria, three bacterial strains were tested: Escherichia coli DH5α, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. E. coli DH5α is a Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium that is often found in normal gut flora and is commonly used the laboratory due to its fast growth rate. Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and S. elongatus PCC 7942 are Gram-negative, aquatic, autophototrophic cyanobacteria. Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 is a marine cyanobacterium isolated from ‘fish pens’ on Magueyes Island, Puerto Rico in 1962, while S. elongatus PCC 7942 is a freshwater cyanobacterium. It should be noted that no Gram-positive bacterium was tested in this study.

  17. Active prey selection in two pelagic copepods feeding on potentially toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Mette; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Grazing on two red tide dinoflagellates, the potentially toxic Karenia mikimotoi and the non-toxic Gyrodinium instriatum, was examined in two species of marine copepods, Pseudocalanus elongatus and Temora longicornis. Both copepods cleared K. mikimotoi at rates that were a little lower but compar......Grazing on two red tide dinoflagellates, the potentially toxic Karenia mikimotoi and the non-toxic Gyrodinium instriatum, was examined in two species of marine copepods, Pseudocalanus elongatus and Temora longicornis. Both copepods cleared K. mikimotoi at rates that were a little lower...

  18. Espécie invasora em unidade de conservação: Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1822 no Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho, Sete Barras, SP, Brasil (Nota Científica. Invasive species in conservation unit: Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1822 in Carlos Botelho State Park, Sete Barras, SP, Brazil (Scientific Note.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Rapp de ESTON

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O caramujo-gigante-africano, Achatinafulica (Mollusca-Achatinidae, considerado umadas cem piores espécies invasoras do mundo,causando sérios danos ambientais, é registrado pelaprimeira vez para o Parque Estadual CarlosBotelho, município de Sete Barras, Estado de SãoPaulo, Brasil.The Giant African Snail, Achatina fulica(Mollusca-Achatinidae, considered as one of ahundred worst world’s invasive species, causingserious environmental damages, is registered forthe first time for Carlos Botelho State Park, countyof Sete Barras, state of São Paulo, Brazil.

  19. Description d’une nouvelle espèce de Gyrinide du Musée de Leyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regimbart, M.

    1884-01-01

    Long. 6 3/4 mm. (ano excepto). — Oblongo-ovalis, elongatus, mediocriter convexus; supra in regionibus glabris purpureocupreus, nitidus, subtilissime reticulatus, in regionibus punctato-tomentosis obscure cœruleus et subopacus, anguste pallide testaceo limbatus; infra pallide testaceus, pedibus

  20. Unique attributes of cyanobacterial metabolism revealed by improved genome-scale metabolic modeling and essential gene analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broddrick, Jared T.; Rubin, Benjamin E.; Welkie, David G.; Du, Niu; Mih, Nathan; Diamond, Spencer; Lee, Jenny J.; Golden, Susan S.; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2016-01-01

    The model cyanobacterium, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, is a genetically tractable obligate phototroph that is being developed for the bioproduction of high-value chemicals. Genome-scale models (GEMs) have been successfully used to assess and engineer cellular metabolism; however, GEMs of phototrophic metabolism have been limited by the lack of experimental datasets for model validation and the challenges of incorporating photon uptake. Here, we develop a GEM of metabolism in S. elongatus using random barcode transposon site sequencing (RB-TnSeq) essential gene and physiological data specific to photoautotrophic metabolism. The model explicitly describes photon absorption and accounts for shading, resulting in the characteristic linear growth curve of photoautotrophs. GEM predictions of gene essentiality were compared with data obtained from recent dense-transposon mutagenesis experiments. This dataset allowed major improvements to the accuracy of the model. Furthermore, discrepancies between GEM predictions and the in vivo dataset revealed biological characteristics, such as the importance of a truncated, linear TCA pathway, low flux toward amino acid synthesis from photorespiration, and knowledge gaps within nucleotide metabolism. Coupling of strong experimental support and photoautotrophic modeling methods thus resulted in a highly accurate model of S. elongatus metabolism that highlights previously unknown areas of S. elongatus biology. PMID:27911809

  1. Coléoptères nouveaux de l’Afrique du Musée de Leyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fairmaire, L.

    1888-01-01

    Long. 22 à 25 mill. — Elongatus, convexus, fuscus aut brunneo-castaneus, modice nitidus, fulvo-pubescens; capite dense punctato, inter oculos sat late impresso, antice declivi, margine obtuse rotundato; antennis fuscis, medium corporis attingentibus, articulo 1° punctato, 2° minuto, 3° vix majore,

  2. Electric field effects on red chlorophylls, b-carotenes and P700 in cyanobacterial photosystem I complexes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frese, R.N.; Palacios, M.A.; Azzizi, A.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Kruip, J.; Rögner, M.; Karapetyan, N.V.; Schlodder, E.; van Grondelle, R.; Dekker, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    We have probed the absorption changes due to an externally applied electric field (Stark effect) of Photosystem I (PSI) core complexes from the cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Synechococcus elongatus and Spirulina platensis. The results reveal that the so-called C719 chlorophylls in S.

  3. ORF Alignment: NC_006576 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NC_006576 gi|56750058 >1v7zA 4 251 11 256 7e-49 ... ref|YP_170759.1| creatinine amido...hydrolase [Synechococcus elongatus PCC 6301] ... dbj|BAD78239.1| creatinine amidohydrolase [Synechoco

  4. Cyanobacterial photosystem II at 2.9-A resolution and the role of quinones, lipids, channels and chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guskov, Albert; Kern, Jan; Gabdulkhakov, Azat; Broser, Matthias; Zouni, Athina; Saenger, Wolfram

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a large homodimeric protein-cofactor complex located in the photosynthetic thylakoid membrane that acts as light-driven water:plastoquinone oxidoreductase. The crystal structure of PSII from Thermosynechococcus elongatus at 2.9-A resolution allowed the unambiguous assignment

  5. Annual and spatial variability in endo- and ectoparasite infections of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua Linnaeus, 1758) larvae, post-larvae and juveniles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Bahlool, Qusay Z. M.; Skovgaard, Alf

    2014-01-01

    A parasitological investigation was performed on a total of 5380 Atlantic cod larvae, post-larvae and small juveniles sampled from the North Sea during a period of five years. The copepod Caligus elongatus (Von Nordmann, 1832) and the nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) were found ...

  6. Some Silurian (Llandovery) monograptids from Saudi Arabia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Khayal, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Three species of Monograptus are recognized from Qusayba, Al-Qasim Province, Saudi Arabia. The Qusayba Shales Member of the Tabuk Formation in central Saudi Arabia contains M. decipiens decipiens, M. ex gr. barrandei and M. elongatus, associated with other graptolites. This assemblage is indicative

  7. Two new Liolaemus lizards from the Andean highlands of Southern Chile (Squamata, Iguania, Liolaemidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Diaz, Hugo A.; Puas, German I.; Riveros-Riffo, Edvin; Elorza, Alvaro A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Liolaemus is a diverse genus of lizards, subdivided into two subgenera: Liolaemus (sensu stricto) and Eulaemus, distributed mainly in Chile and Argentina. The Liolaemus elongatus-kriegi complex is the most diverse group within Liolaemus (sensu stricto), especially the species closely related to Liolaemus elongatus, which form a clade currently comprising nine species. Several Chilean species of this group have been recently described, mainly from volcanoes and poorly explored mountains. Here molecular and morphological evidence are provided for a new species of the Liolaemus elongatus clade, which is characterized by its small size and lack of dorsal pattern, unusual features for the species of this group of lizards. Additionally, the lack of precloacal pores in males of Liolaemus (sensu stricto) is a trait found in few species, which do not constitute a monophyletic group. A second new southern Chilean species is also described, without precloacal pores and supported by molecular phylogenetics to be related to Liolaemus villaricensis. Both new species were found in the same locality, near a lake located in a pre-Andean zone with Araucaria and Nothofagus forest. The two species are dedicated to prominent Lonkos (tribal chiefs) of the Mapuche and Pehuenche people: Janequeo and Leftraru. Additionally, the phylogenetic results suggest that Liolaemus lonquimayensis is a synonym of Liolaemus elongatus. PMID:27920609

  8. Determination of shell deposition rates of Arctica islandica from the New York Bight using natural 228Ra and 228Th and bomb-produced 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turekian, K.K.; Cochran, J.K.; Nozaki, Y.; Thompson, I.; Jones, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    Shell deposition rates of specimens of Arctica islandica (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from the New York Bight were determined using natural 228 Ra and 228 Th and bomb 14 C. The specimens from deep (>55 m) offshore waters show annual growth banding. A shell obtained from the inner bight at <30-m depth seems to be younger than indicated by band counting

  9. The role of host specificity in explaining the invasion success of the freshwater mussel Anodonta woodiana in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Douda, K.; Vrtílek, Milan; Slavík, O.; Reichard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2012), s. 127-137 ISSN 1387-3547 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : aquatic habitat * Bivalvia * host-parasite relationship * host specificity * Mollusca Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.509, year: 2012

  10. The oyster genome reveals stress adaptation and complexity of shell formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guofan; Fang, Xiaodong; Guo, Ximing

    2012-01-01

    The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas belongs to one of the most species-rich but genomically poorly explored phyla, the Mollusca. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the oyster genome using short reads and a fosmid-pooling strategy, along with transcriptomes of development and stress re...

  11. Ecology of benthic production in the coastal zone of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    was comprised of Polychaeta (58.5%), Mollusca (18.1%), Crustacea (9.1%), Echinodermata (7.1%) and other minor taxa (7.3%) Population count and biomass varied from 25 to 7823 m-2 (X- = 1256 m-2) and 0.2 to 2251.25 g m-2 (X- = 67.07 g m-2) respectively The higher...

  12. Applicability of the black slug Arion ater for monitoring exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their subsequent bioactivation into DNA binding metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.; Kalis, E.J.J.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Maas, L.M.; Schooten, van F.J.; Murk, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    The applicability of terrestrial black slugs Arion ater (Mollusca, Gastropoda) was studied for biomonitoring environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In laboratory experiments, slugs were orally exposed to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) for a short term (3 days) or a long term (119

  13. Malakostratigrafie vchodového valu Medvědí jeskyně ve Slovenském ráji

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ložek, Vojen

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2011, podzim (2012), s. 219-222 ISSN 0514-8057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Slovenský raj * Medvedia Cave * entrance rampart * Holocene * Mollusca * foam sinter Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.geology.cz/zpravy/obsah/2011/zpravy_2011-49.pdf

  14. Water SA - Vol 43, No 2 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensitivity to selected contaminants in a biological early warning system using Anodonta woodiana (Mollusca) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Luisa Giari, Fabio Vincenzi, Elisa Anna Fano, Ivano Graldi, Fernando Gelli, Giuseppe Castaldelli, 200-208.

  15. Stratigrafie a malakofauna holocenní výplně jeskyně Pod valem (Zádielská tiesňava, NP Slovenský kras)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ložek, Vojen

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2010, - (2011), s. 62-65 ISSN 0514-8057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Slovak Karst * cave fill * extreme habitat * Holocene * Mollusca * Zebrina detrita Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.geology.cz/zpravy/obsah/2010/zpravy-2010-14.pdf

  16. Chronostratigrafická revize a paleoklimatický význam osypu pod stěnou Martinky (CHKO) v Biosférické rezervaci Pálava

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ložek, Vojen

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2010, - (2011), s. 66-69 ISSN 0514-8057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Pálava Mils * talus deposit * Mollusca * Climatic Optimum * erosion Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.geology.cz/zpravy/obsah/2010/zpravy-2010-15.pdf

  17. AN EVALUATION OF THREE CONVENTIONAL HISTOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES FOR STAINING THE CERATA OF CRATENA PILATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fixation and staining methods for different types of tissue in the marine nudibranch Cratena pilata were evaluated. Cratena pilata, a marine snail in the Phylum Mollusca, has the ability to take stinging cells, called nematocysts, from ingested animals belonging to another phylum...

  18. Vertigo substriata Jeffreys, faunae neerlandicae nova species, een zoogenaamd glaciaalrelikt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunier, A.L.J.

    1926-01-01

    I. HET NEDERLANDSCHE MATERIAAL VAN VERTIGO SUBSTRIATA JEFFR.. Onder het vaak interessante materiaal van Nederlandsche Mollusca, dat den laatsten tijd door de Heeren W. F. van Hell en J. A. Nijkamp, studenten in de biologie te Leiden, aan 's Rijks Museum van Natuurlijke Historie werd afgestaan, trof

  19. Benthos off Cochin, Southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Macro-invertebrate benthic fauna off Cochin mainly composed of polychaeta (82.45%), crustacea (7.62%), mollusca (5.92%), sipuncula (2.25%), nemertinea (0.96%) and echinodermata (0.80%). The maximum population density and biomass values were 304 plus...

  20. Food selection preference of different ages and sizes of black tiger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... Key words: Aquaculture, natural food, Penaeus monodon, Malaysia. INTRODUCTION ... Many researchers who reported on the diet of Penaeus species in ..... matter, annelida, mollusca and small fish in estuarine water. .... planktonic and benthic communities to fertilizer and feed application in shrimp ...

  1. Rostrokonchy z devonských sedimentů moravskoslezské pánve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weinerová, Hedvika; Weiner, Tomáš; Hladil, Jindřich

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2017), s. 153-157 ISSN 0514-8057 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-18183S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Rostroconchia * Mollusca * Devonian * Moravo-Silesian Basin Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Paleontology

  2. The evolution of shell form in tropical terrestrial microsnails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liew, Thor Seng

    2014-01-01

    Mollusca form an important animal phylum that first appeared in the Cambrian, and today is,after Arthropoda, the second largest animal phylum, with more than 100,000 extant species(Bieler, 1992, Brusca and Brusca, 2003), with the class Gastropoda accounting for 80% of the extant species in the

  3. Identification of Genes Related to Learning and Memory in the Brain Transcriptome of the Mollusc, "Hermissenda Crassicornis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamvacakis, Arianna N.; Senatore, Adriano; Katz, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    The sea slug "Hermissenda crassicornis" (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) has been studied extensively in associative learning paradigms. However, lack of genetic information previously hindered molecular-level investigations. Here, the "Hermissenda" brain transcriptome was sequenced and assembled de novo, producing 165,743…

  4. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 3. Hawaiian ecosystem and its environmental determinants with particular emphasis on promising areas for geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, S.M.

    1980-06-01

    A brief geobiological history of the Hawaiian Islands is presented. Climatology, physiography, and environmental degradation are discussed. Soil types and associations, land use patterns and ratings, and vegetation ecology are covered. The fauna discussed include: ancient and recent vertebrate life, land mollusca, marine fauma, and insect fauna. (MHR)

  5. Micrallecto uncinata n. gen., n.sp., a parasitic copepod from a remarkable host, the pteropod Pneumoderma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1971-01-01

    A new genus and species of copepod crustacean parasite, Micrallecto uncinata, is described from Pneumoderma pygmaeum (Tesch, 1903), a gymnosome pteropod (Mollusca) collected West of Bermuda. The parasite probably belongs to the family Splanchnotrophidae and is the first copepod associate reported

  6. Bivalve wood borings of the ichnogenus Teredolites Leymerie from the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin (Upper Cretaceous, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kříž, J.; Mikuláš, Radek

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2006), s. 159-174 ISSN 1042-0940 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Borings * Mollusca * sedimentary environment Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://rzblx1.uni-regensburg.de/ezeit/detail.phtml?bibid=CASCR& colors =7&lang=en&jour_id=41560

  7. Physico-chemical characteristics and abundance of aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macroinvertebrates abundance shows that, out of the total number of species identified, 14 were arthropods, distributed among 3 classes; 10 species were of class Insecta, 2 species from class Arachnida and 2 species from the class Crustacean. Phylum Mollusca and phylum Annelida had 2 and 1 species, respectively.

  8. Atypical feeding behavior of Long-tailed Ducks in the wake of a commercial fishing boat while clamming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Matthew; Osenton, Peter C.; White, Timothy P.

    2017-01-01

    A foraging group of Clangula hyemalis (Long-tailed Duck) was observed on 10 February 2010 diving behind a commercial boat that was clamming near Monomoy Island, Nantucket Sound, MA. We used a shotgun to collect 9 of the ducks, and our analyses of gizzard and gullet (esophagus and proventriculus) revealed 37 food items in the gizzard and 16 in the gullet. Mollusca were the dominant food in the gizzard (49%), whereas Crustacea were dominant in the gullet (57%). Crustacea were the second most important food in the gizzard (38%), whereas Mollusca were the second most important food in the gullet (31%). Relatively high volumes of the Amphipoda Caprella sp. (skeleton shrimp) and the Decopoda Crangon septemspinosa (Sand Shrimp) were recorded in the gullet and gizzard. Ensis directus (Atlantic Jackknife Clam) formed the greatest volume of Mollusca in the gizzard (15%) and in the gullet (15%). Long-tailed Ducks had fed on this Bivalvia and several other species of Mollusca that had no shell or broken shell when consumed. Many of the food organisms were apparently dislodged and some damaged by the clamming operation creating an opportunistic feeding strategy for the Long-tailed Ducks.

  9. The role of lantern fish (Myctophidae) in the life-cycle of cetacean parasites from western Mediterranean waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateu, Paula; Nardi, Valentina; Fraija-Fernández, Natalia; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Gil de Sola, Luis; Raga, Juan Antonio; Fernández, Mercedes; Aznar, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Myctophids (lantern fish) and cephalopods play a key role in trophic webs from the continental slope and oceanic waters linking the zooplankton to top predators. Many cetaceans feed on both lantern fish and cephalopods, and such prey would thus be expected to bridge the trophic gap in the life-cycles of helminths infecting cetaceans. However, information on the life-cycles of most of these helminths is extremely scanty. We examined the parasite fauna of myctophids and cephalopods in two areas from the western Mediterranean where at least 21 helminth taxa from cetaceans have been reported and both cetacean diversity and abundance is high. A total of 1012 individuals of 8 lantern fish species, namely, Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Lampanyctus crocodilus, Notoscopelus elongatus, Benthosema glaciale, Myctophum punctatum, Lobianchia dofleini, Diaphus holti and Hygophum benoiti, and 792 individuals of 2 cephalopod species, Alloteuthis media and Sepietta oweniana, were collected from the Gulf of Valencia and Alboran Sea (Spanish Mediterranean) during 2010-2012 and examined for larval helminths. All these species have been reported as prey for at least some cetacean species in the area. Only five helminth taxa were found. The nematodes Anisakis pegreffii and Anisakis physeteris were detected in N. elongatus and C. maderensis (overall prevalence for Anisakis: 8.1% and 0.5%, respectively). Their prevalence in N. elongatus was significantly higher than that from the other three myctophid species with n>50 individuals. A single individual of Hysterothylacium sp. was found in N. elongatus (prevalence: 0.5%) and Raphidascarididae gen. spp. in N. elongatus and L. crocodilus (prevalence: 20.3% and 0.7%, respectively). Juvenile didymozoid digeneans (Torticaecum type) were detected in N. elongatus and L. crocodilus (prevalence: 18.5% and 4.3%, respectively). Two unidentified cestode plerocercoids were collected from N. elongatus. Our study suggests, for the first time, that myctophids

  10. Influence of weather variables and plant communities on grasshopper density in the Southern Pampas, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wysiecki, María Laura; Arturi, Marcelo; Torrusio, Sandra; Cigliano, María Marta

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of weather (precipitation and temperature) and plant communities on grasshopper density over a 14-year period (1996-2009) in Benito Juárez County, Southern Pampas, Argentina. Total density strongly varied among plant communities. Highest values were registered in 2001 and 2003 in highly disturbed pastures and in 2002 and 2009 in halophilous grasslands. Native grasslands had the lowest density values. Seasonal precipitation and temperature had no significant effect on total grasshopper density. Dichroplus elongatus (Giglio-Tos) (Orthoptera: Acridoidea), Covasacris pallidinota (Bruner), Dichroplus pratensis Bruner, Scotussa lemniscata Stål, Borellia bruneri (Rehn) and Dichroplus maculipennis (Blanchard) comprised, on average, 64% of the grasshopper assemblages during low density years and 79% during high density years. Dichroplus elongatus, S. lemniscata and C. pallidinota were the most abundant species in 2001, 2002 and 2003, while D. elongatus, B. brunneri and C. pallidinota in 2009. Dichroplus elongatus and D. pratensis, mixed feeders species, were positively affected by summer rainfall. This suggests that the increase in summer precipitation had a positive effect on the quantity and quality forage production, affecting these grasshopper populations. Scotussa lemniscata and C. pallidinota were negatively affected by winter and fall temperature, possibly affecting the embryonic development before diapause and hatching. Dichroplus elongatus and D. pratensis were associated with highly disturbed pastures, S. lemniscata with pastures and B. bruneri and D. maculipennis with halophilous grasslands. Covasacris pallidinota was closely associated with halophilous grasslands and moderately disturbed pastures. Weather conditions changed over the years, with 2001, 2002 and 2003 having excessive rainfall while 2008 and 2009 were the driest years since the study started. We suggest that although seasonal precipitation and

  11. Toward solar biodiesel production from CO2 using engineered cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Han Min; Lee, Hyun Jeong

    2017-05-01

    Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria has received attention as a sustainable strategy to convert carbon dioxide to various biochemicals including fatty acid-derived biodiesel. Recently, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, a model cyanobacterium, has been engineered to convert CO2 to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as biodiesel. Modular pathway has been constructed for FAEE production. Several metabolic engineering strategies were discussed to improve the production levels of FAEEs, including host engineering by improving CO2 fixation rate and photosynthetic efficiency. In addition, protein engineering of key enzyme in S. elongatus PCC 7942 was implemented to address issues on FAEE secretions toward sustainable FAEE production from CO2. Finally, advanced metabolic engineering will promote developing biosolar cell factories to convert CO2 to feasible amount of FAEEs toward solar biodiesel. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Genome Engineering of the 2,3-Butanediol Biosynthetic Pathway for Tight Regulation in Cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozzi, Nicole E; Atsumi, Shota

    2015-11-20

    Cyanobacteria have gained popularity among the metabolic engineering community as a tractable photosynthetic host for renewable chemical production. However, though a number of successfully engineered production systems have been reported, long-term genetic stability remains an issue for cyanobacterial systems. The genetic engineering toolbox for cyanobacteria is largely lacking inducible systems for expression control. The characterization of tight regulation systems for use in cyanobacteria may help to alleviate this problem. In this work we explore the function of the IPTG inducible promoter P(L)lacO1 in the model cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 as well as the effect of gene order within an operon on pathway expression. According to our experiments, P(L)lacO1 functions well as an inducible promoter in S. elongatus. Additionally, we found that gene order within an operon can strongly influence control of expression of each gene.

  13. Two new species of Colletteidae (Crustacea: Tanaidacea: Tanaidomorpha from Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana L. Segadilha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Samples from deep benthic areas in the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica, revealed the presence of two new species of Colletteidae: Filitanais elongatus sp. nov. and Macrinella lavradoae sp. nov. Filitanais elongatus sp. nov. resembles F. moskalevi in its habitus; it can, however, be distinguished by characters such as the pleonites and pleotelson with lateral margins parallel and the uropod exopod being longer than half of the first endopod article. Macrinella lavradoae sp. nov. differs from the other species of Macrinella in the shape of the uropod and the pleotelson, with the uropod exopod shorter than the first article of the endopod, the uropod about as long as the pleotelson and the pleotelson with a rounded tip. The number of species of Tanaidacea recorded from Antarctica increases to 162, while the colletteids are now represented by 16 species. Moreover, the diagnosis of the genus Filitanais is herein modified.

  14. Removal of triazine herbicides from freshwater systems using photosynthetic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Barreiro, O.; Rioboo, C.; Herrero, C.; Cid, A.

    2006-01-01

    The uptake of the triazine herbicides, atrazine and terbutryn, was determined for two freshwater photosynthetic microorganisms, the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. An extremely rapid uptake of both pesticides was recorded, although uptake rate was lower for the cyanobacterium, mainly for atrazine. Other parameters related to the herbicide bioconcentration capacity of these microorganisms were also studied. Growth rate, biomass, and cell viability in cultures containing herbicide were clearly affected by herbicide uptake. Herbicide toxicity and microalgae sensitivity were used to determine the effectiveness of the bioconcentration process and the stability of herbicide removal. C. vulgaris showed higher bioconcentration capability for these two triazine herbicides than S. elongatus, especially with regard to terbutryn. This study supports the usefulness of such microorganisms, as a bioremediation technique in freshwater systems polluted with triazine herbicides

  15. Removal of triazine herbicides from freshwater systems using photosynthetic microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Barreiro, O. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Rioboo, C. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Herrero, C. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Cid, A. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: cid@udc.es

    2006-11-15

    The uptake of the triazine herbicides, atrazine and terbutryn, was determined for two freshwater photosynthetic microorganisms, the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. An extremely rapid uptake of both pesticides was recorded, although uptake rate was lower for the cyanobacterium, mainly for atrazine. Other parameters related to the herbicide bioconcentration capacity of these microorganisms were also studied. Growth rate, biomass, and cell viability in cultures containing herbicide were clearly affected by herbicide uptake. Herbicide toxicity and microalgae sensitivity were used to determine the effectiveness of the bioconcentration process and the stability of herbicide removal. C. vulgaris showed higher bioconcentration capability for these two triazine herbicides than S. elongatus, especially with regard to terbutryn. This study supports the usefulness of such microorganisms, as a bioremediation technique in freshwater systems polluted with triazine herbicides.

  16. Phylogenetic study of the oxytocin-like immunoreactive system in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, J; Takeda, N

    1988-01-01

    1. A phylogenetic study of oxytocin (OXT)-like immunoreactive cells was performed by the PAP method in the central nervous system of invertebrates. 2. The immunoreactivity was detected in the nerve cells of Hydra magnipapillata of the Coelenterata; Neanthes japonica and Pheretima communissima of the Annelida; Oncidium verrucosum, Limax marginatus and Meretrix lamarckii of the Mollusca; and Baratha brassica of the Arthropoda. 3. No immunoreactive cells were found in Bipalium sp. of the Platyhelminthes; Pomacea canaliculata, Aplysia kurodai, Bradybaena similaris and Achatina fulica of the Mollusca; and Gnorimosphaeroma rayi, Procambarus clarkii, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Helice tridens and Gryllus bimaculatus of the Arthropoda; Asterina pectinifera of the Echinodermata; and Halocynthia roretzi of the Protochordata. 4. These results demonstrate that an OXT-immunoreactive substance is widely present not only in vertebrates but also in invertebrates. 5. OXT seems to have been introduced into these invertebrates at an early stage of their phylogenetic history.

  17. Toward the crystallization of photosystem II core complex from Pisum sativum L

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prudnikova, T.; Gavira, J. A.; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Molina, E.P.; Hunalová, Ivana; Sviridova, E.; Schmidt, V.; Kohoutová, J.; Kutý, Michal; Kaftan, D.; Vácha, F.; Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.; Kutá-Smatanová, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 8 (2010), s. 3391-3396 ISSN 1528-7483 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50510513; CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : crystal-structure * cyanobacterial * elongatus Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.390, year: 2010

  18. Study on the Tribe Ochyromerini (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) from East Asia I, Descriptions of New Species of the Genera Endaeus and Endaenidius

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Hiroaki; Morimoto, Katsura

    1995-01-01

    This is the first part of our systematic study on the tribe Ochyromerini (=Endaeini) from East Asia with descriptions of 28 new species of the weevils in the genera Endaeus Schoenherr and Endaenidius Morimoto as follows: Endaeus albolineatus sp. nov. (E. Malaysia), Endaeus niger sp. nov. (E. Malaysia), Endaeus zonatus sp. nov. (E. Malaysia), Endaeus robustus sp. nov. (Thailand), Endaeus longipes sp. nov. (E. Malaysia), Endaeus formosanus sp. nov. (Taiwan), Endaeus elongatus sp. nov. (Taiwan),...

  19. Iron Limitation and the Role of Siderophores in Marine Synechococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    an equilibrium exists between free metal ions in solution and metal ions bound to a cell’s transport enzymes . In this model the metal shifts between...cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 6301 and the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. Planta 205: 73-81. Michel, K.P., Pistorius, E.K., and...and nitrogen metabo- lism enzymes (Dean et al., 1993; Geider and La Roche, 1994; Lin and Stewart, 1998), it is a key element with the potential to

  20. Lego clocks: building a clock from parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Michael; Simons, Mirre J P; Merrow, Martha

    2008-06-01

    A new finding opens up speculation that the molecular mechanism of circadian clocks in Synechococcus elongatus is composed of multiple oscillator systems (Kitayama and colleagues, this issue, pp. 1513-1521), as has been described in many eukaryotic clock model systems. However, an alternative intepretation is that the pacemaker mechanism-as previously suggested-lies primarily in the rate of ATP hydrolysis by the clock protein KaiC.

  1. First report of two species of scarab beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae inside nests of Azteca cf. chartifex Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in Brazilian Amazonian Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Rafael Alves-Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We report for the first time the occurrence of two species of scarab beetles, Phileurus carinatus declivis Prell, 1914 (Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae and Cyclidius elongatus (Olivier, 1789 (Cetoniinae: Cremastocheilini inside nests of Azteca cf. chartifex Forel, 1896, a neotropical arboreal ant species. This report indicates that these two beetle species are associated, at least as inquilines, to this ant species, although the nature of this relationship remains unclear.

  2. A new species of Parichoronyssus (Acari: Dermanyssoidea: Macronyssidae) from bats of the genus Phyllostomus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in Peru and Venezuela, with keys to the species of Parichoronyssus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Guerrero, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Parichoronyssus bakeri new species was found on two phyllostomid bats species, the greater spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas), and the lesser spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus elongatus (E. Geoffroy), in Pakitza, National Park Manu, Madre de Dios, Peru, including additional material examined from Venezuela. The female, male, deutonymph, and protonymph are described and illustrated. A key to the seven species of Parichoronyssus is provided.

  3. Antimicrobial peptides in marine invertebrate health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Rosa, Rafael Diego; Schmitt, Paulina; Barreto, Cairé; Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Mitta, Guillaume; Gueguen, Yannick; Bachère, Evelyne

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture contributes more than one-third of the animal protein from marine sources worldwide. A significant proportion of aquaculture products are derived from marine protostomes that are commonly referred to as ‘marine invertebrates’. Among them, penaeid shrimp (Ecdysozosoa, Arthropoda) and bivalve molluscs (Lophotrochozoa, Mollusca) are economically important. Mass rearing of arthropods and molluscs causes problems with pathogens in aquatic ecosystems that are exploited by humans. Remark...

  4. Effects of CO-60 gamma radiation on the embryonary development of Biomphalaria Glabrata (Say, 1818)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, K.

    1988-01-01

    Some aspects of the effects of the ionizing radiation on the embryo and on the genetical material of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) are presented. The embryos weresubmitted at various stages of development to doses of 5,10,15,20 and 25 Gy of Co-60 gamma radiation. As a criteia of evaluation of the embryos radiosensitivity, four biological parameters were used: mortality, malformation, hatching and chromossomal aberrations. (M.A.C.) [pt

  5. Stonlach content analyses of Gilchristella aestuarius and Hepsetia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apseudes digitalis. 80 2,2. 6. 5. Decapoda. Zoea larvae. 6 1,0. 3. 2. Unidentified larvae. 0,3. 2. 0. Insecta. Chironomidae larvae. 810 8,1. 67. 0. 13,5. 65. 13. Terrestrial insects. 2 0,4. 4. 0. Pupae. 22 1,1. 4. 2. Arachnida. Araneida. <0,05. 2. 0. Mollusca. Lamellibranch veligers. 9 <0,05. 8. 0 2240 7,5. 69. 6. Gastropod veligers.

  6. Larval trematodes (Digenea) of the great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis (L.), (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) in Central Europe: a survey of species and key to their identification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faltýnková, Anna; Našincová, Vanda; Kablásková, Lenka

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2007), s. 39-51 ISSN 1252-607X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404; GA ČR GP524/07/P086; GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Trematoda * Mollusca * cercaria * metacercaria * Lymnaea stagnalis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.713, year: 2007

  7. Larval trematodes in freshwater molluscs from the Elbe to Danube rivers (Southeast Germany): before and today

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faltýnková, Anna; Haas, W.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 5 (2006), s. 572-582 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404; GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Trematoda * cercariae * Mollusca Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2006

  8. Patterns of larval distribution and settlement of Concholepas concholepas (Bruguiere, 1789) (Gastropoda, Muricidae) in fjords and channels of southern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    MOLINET, CARLOS; ARÉVALO, ALEJANDRA; GONZÁLEZ, MARÍA TERESA; MORENO, CARLOS A.; ARATA, JAVIER; NIKLITSCHEK, EDWIN

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae) is limited to the coasts of Chile and southern Peru. Almost all studies of this gastropod have been carried out in open coastal systems, rather than the fjords and channels of southern Chile, despite the fact that this area represents ca. 95 % of the total coastline in this country. Although there is a large volume of background literature on C. concholepas, almost nothing is published about early larval development...

  9. Clinical profile of HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khopkar Uday

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV seropositivity rate of 14 percent was observed amongst STD cases. Heterosexual contact with prostitutes was the main risk factor. Fever, anorexia, weight loss, lymphadenopathy and tuberculosis were useful clinical leads. Genital ulcers, especially chancroid, were common in seropositivies. Alopecia of unknown cause, atypical pyoderma, seborrhea, zoster, eruptive mollusca and sulfa-induced erythema multiforme were viewed with suspicion in high risk groups. Purpura fulminans, fulminant chancroid, vegetating pyoderma and angioedema with purpura were unique features noted in this study.

  10. Physiological and biochemical responses to cold and drought in the rock-dwelling pulmonate snail, Chondrina avenacea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košťál, Vladimír; Rozsypal, Jan; Pech, P.; Zahradníčková, Helena; Šimek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 183, č. 6 (2013), s. 749-761 ISSN 0174-1578 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/0269; GA MZd(CZ) NT11513 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 04-062/2011/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Mollusca * estivation * hibermation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.530, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs00360-013-0749-0.pdf

  11. Patterns of larval distribution and settlement of Concholepas concholepas (Bruguiere, 1789) (Gastropoda, Muricidae) in fjords and channels of southern Chile Patrones de distribución de larvas y asentamiento de Concholepas concholepas (Bruguiere, 1789) (Gastropoda, Muricidae) en fiordos y canales del sur de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    CARLOS MOLINET; ALEJANDRA ARÉVALO; MARÍA TERESA GONZÁLEZ; CARLOS A. MORENO; JAVIER ARATA; EDWIN NIKLITSCHEK

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae) is limited to the coasts of Chile and southern Peru. Almost all studies of this gastropod have been carried out in open coastal systems, rather than the fjords and channels of southern Chile, despite the fact that this area represents ca. 95 % of the total coastline in this country. Although there is a large volume of background literature on C. concholepas, almost nothing is published about early larval development...

  12. Enlightenment of old ideas from new investigations: more questions regarding the evolution of bacteriogenic light organs in squids

    OpenAIRE

    Nishiguchi, M. K.; Lopez, J. E.; Boletzky, S. v.

    2004-01-01

    Bioluminescence is widespread among many different types of marine organisms. Metazoans contain two types of luminescence production, bacteriogenic (symbiotic with bacteria) or autogenic, via the production of a luminous secretion or the intrinsic properties of luminous cells. Several species in two families of squids, the Loliginidae and the Sepiolidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) harbor bacteriogenic light organs that are found central in the mantle cavity. These light organs are exceptional in ...

  13. [Evaluation of ten fish species to be included as part of renal diet, due to their protein, phosphorus and fatty acids content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-González, Maria Isabel; Maafs-Rodríguez, Ana Gabriela; Pérez-Gil Romo, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    Because renal disease is highly complex, its nutritional treatment is complicated and many foods are restricted, including fish because its phosphorus content. The aim of the present study was to analyze ten fillet fish species, commonly consumed in Mexico (Cyprinus carpio carpio, Ophichthus rex, Symphurus elongatus, Eucinostomus entomelas, Chirostoma patzcuaro, Bairdiella chrysoura, Salmo salar Oreochromis urolepis hornorum, Sphyraena guachancho, Istiophorus albicans), to determine their phosphorus (P), protein (Pr), cholesterol, sodium, potassium, vitamins D3 and E, and n-3 PUFA (EPA+DHA) according to the AOAC techniques, in order to identify which species could be included in renal diet; particularly because of their risk:benefit relations (calculated with those results). Protein values ranged from 16.5 to 33.5g/100 g of fillet; the specie with the highest phosphorus contest was Salmo salar, and with the lowest, Symphurus elongatus. EPA+DHA quantity ranged from 79.64 mg/100 g to 1,381.53 mg/100 g. Considering de P/Pr relation recommended to renal patients, all analyzed species (except Salmo salar, Ophichthus rex and Istiophorus albicans) could be included in their diet. As for the P/EPA+DHA relation, the species most recommended to renal patients are Symphurus elongatus, Bairdiella chrysoura and Sphyraena guachancho.

  14. Molluscan shell colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Suzanne T

    2017-05-01

    The phylum Mollusca is highly speciose, and is the largest phylum in the marine realm. The great majority of molluscs are shelled, including nearly all bivalves, most gastropods and some cephalopods. The fabulous and diverse colours and patterns of molluscan shells are widely recognised and have been appreciated for hundreds of years by collectors and scientists alike. They serve taxonomists as characters that can be used to recognise and distinguish species, however their function for the animal is sometimes less clear and has been the focus of many ecological and evolutionary studies. Despite these studies, almost nothing is known about the evolution of colour in molluscan shells. This review summarises for the first time major findings of disparate studies relevant to the evolution of shell colour in Mollusca and discusses the importance of colour, including the effects of visual and non-visual selection, diet and abiotic factors. I also summarise the evidence for the heritability of shell colour in some taxa and recent efforts to understand the molecular mechanisms underpinning synthesis of shell colours. I describe some of the main shell pigments found in Mollusca (carotenoids, melanin and tetrapyrroles, including porphyrins and bile pigments), and their durability in the fossil record. Finally I suggest that pigments appear to be distributed in a phylogenetically relevant manner and that the synthesis of colour is likely to be energetically costly. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  15. On the role of water and forage in penetration of some radionuclides into the Limnaea organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchyulenene, D.P.; Polikarpov, G.G.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Sevastopol. Inst. Biologii Yuzhnykh Morej)

    1976-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study under laboratory conditions the significance of elodea (Elodea canadensis Rich.) and aqueous medium in accumulation of strontium-90, cesium-137, cerium-144 and ruthenium-106 by limnetic gastropods (Limnaea Stagnalis L.). The study revealed that only 2 and 5% of strontium-90 and cerium-144 respectively were accumulated in molluscs shell from radioactive food, and 4 and 26% - in the body. The authors believed that higher accumulation levels of cerium-144 and ruthenium-106 in mollusca body when the molluscs are fed with radioactive elodea were caused by high accumulation coefficients (AC) of radionuclides in food, i.e. elodea, and their accumulation in the gastrointestinal tracts of molluscs. To appreciates the significance of elodea and water as sources of radionuclide accumulation by mollusca, strontium-90 and cerium-144 AC in molluscs were estimated in relation to water and elodea. The results obtained indicated that AC of these radionuclides in mollusca was much lower in relation to food than to water

  16. PipY, a Member of the Conserved COG0325 Family of PLP-Binding Proteins, Expands the Cyanobacterial Nitrogen Regulatory Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I. Labella

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 is a paradigmatic model organism for nitrogen regulation in cyanobacteria. Expression of genes involved in nitrogen assimilation is positively regulated by the 2-oxoglutarate receptor and global transcriptional regulator NtcA. Maximal activation requires the subsequent binding of the co-activator PipX. PII, a protein found in all three domains of life as an integrator of signals of the nitrogen and carbon balance, binds to PipX to counteract NtcA activity at low 2-oxoglutarate levels. PII-PipX complexes can also bind to the transcriptional regulator PlmA, whose regulon remains unknown. Here we expand the nitrogen regulatory network to PipY, encoded by the bicistronic operon pipXY in S. elongatus. Work with PipY, the cyanobacterial member of the widespread family of COG0325 proteins, confirms the conserved roles in vitamin B6 and amino/keto acid homeostasis and reveals new PLP-related phenotypes, including sensitivity to antibiotics targeting essential PLP-holoenzymes or synthetic lethality with cysK. In addition, the related phenotypes of pipY and pipX mutants are consistent with genetic interactions in the contexts of survival to PLP-targeting antibiotics and transcriptional regulation. We also showed that PipY overexpression increased the length of S. elongatus cells. Taken together, our results support a universal regulatory role for COG0325 proteins, paving the way to a better understanding of these proteins and of their connections with other biological processes.

  17. Minimal tool set for a prokaryotic circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelling, Nicolas M; Lehmann, Robert; Chaudhury, Paushali; Beck, Christian; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Axmann, Ilka M; Wiegard, Anika

    2017-07-21

    Circadian clocks are found in organisms of almost all domains including photosynthetic Cyanobacteria, whereby large diversity exists within the protein components involved. In the model cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 circadian rhythms are driven by a unique KaiABC protein clock, which is embedded in a network of input and output factors. Homologous proteins to the KaiABC clock have been observed in Bacteria and Archaea, where evidence for circadian behavior in these domains is accumulating. However, interaction and function of non-cyanobacterial Kai-proteins as well as homologous input and output components remain mainly unclear. Using a universal BLAST analyses, we identified putative KaiC-based timing systems in organisms outside as well as variations within Cyanobacteria. A systematic analyses of publicly available microarray data elucidated interesting variations in circadian gene expression between different cyanobacterial strains, which might be correlated to the diversity of genome encoded clock components. Based on statistical analyses of co-occurrences of the clock components homologous to Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, we propose putative networks of reduced and fully functional clock systems. Further, we studied KaiC sequence conservation to determine functionally important regions of diverged KaiC homologs. Biochemical characterization of exemplary cyanobacterial KaiC proteins as well as homologs from two thermophilic Archaea demonstrated that kinase activity is always present. However, a KaiA-mediated phosphorylation is only detectable in KaiC1 orthologs. Our analysis of 11,264 genomes clearly demonstrates that components of the Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 circadian clock are present in Bacteria and Archaea. However, all components are less abundant in other organisms than Cyanobacteria and KaiA, Pex, LdpA, and CdpA are only present in the latter. Thus, only reduced KaiBC-based or even simpler, solely KaiC-based timing systems

  18. Inhibitory activities of microalgal extracts against Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV antigen expression in lymphoblastoid cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Yih Yih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory activities of microalgal extracts against the expression of three EBV antigens, latent membrane protein (LMP1, Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA1 and Z Epstein-Barr reactivation activator (ZEBRA were assessed by immunocytochemistry. The observation that the methanol extracts and their fractions from Ankistrodesmus convolutus, Synechococcus elongatus and Spirulina platensis exhibited inhibitory activity against EBV proteins in three Burkitt’s lymphoma cell lines at concentrations as low as 20 μg/ml suggests that microalgae could be a potential source of antiviral compounds against EBV.

  19. Effects of elevated pH on marine copepods in mass cultivation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Hansen, Per Juel; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2017-01-01

    both Acartia spp. and C. typicus had higher mortality at pH 9.5 than at the other pH regimes while E. affinis nauplii were not affected by pH. Wild Acartia spp. and A. tonsa from a culture showed some differences in response although of minor practical importance for aquaculture; both produced no eggs......Female tolerance to pH (8.0–9.5) by six marine copepods, Oithona similis, Temora longicornis, Acartia spp., Centropages typicus, Pseudocalanus elongatus and Eurytemora affinis was investigated to identify robust species for live feed production. The species with the most oceanic...

  20. Population dynamics of calanoid copepods and the implications of their predation by clupeid fish in the Central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllmann, C.; Köster, Fritz

    2002-01-01

    . Additionally this study investigated the effect of predation by the major planktivorous fish species herring (Clupea harengus) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus) for the period 1977-1996 in the Gotland Basin (Central Baltic Sea). Examination of consumption by these fish species in relation to copepod production...... by sprat on CV/CVI of both copepod species in spring resulted in higher copepod mortality rates. In consequence, based on these results we suggest that the increase in the sprat stock since the late 1980s contributed to a decline of P. elongatus, and additionally prevented an even more pronounced...

  1. Culturing photosynthetic bacteria through surface plasmon resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooms, Matthew D.; Bajin, Lauren; Sinton, David [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering and Centre for Sustainable Energy, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 3G8 (Canada)

    2012-12-17

    In this work, cultivation of photosynthetic microbes in surface plasmon enhanced evanescent fields is demonstrated. Proliferation of Synechococcus elongatus was obtained on gold surfaces excited with surface plasmons. Excitation over three days resulted in 10 {mu}m thick biofilms with maximum cell volume density of 20% vol/vol (2% more total accumulation than control experiments with direct light). Collectively, these results indicate the ability to (1) excite surface-bound cells using plasmonic light fields, and (2) subsequently grow thick biofilms by coupling light from the surface. Plasmonic light delivery presents opportunities for high-density optofluidic photobioreactors for microalgal analysis and solar fuel production.

  2. The Paramyxea Levine 1979: An original example of evolution towards multicellularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desportes, Isabelle

    1984-03-01

    The Paramyxea are parasitic in marine invertebrates. Their development is a sporulation involving the differentiation within a stem cell of several sporonts which produce spores made of cells enclosed inside each other. Three genera are recognized according to the number of spores and sporal cells, and the taxonomic position of the host (Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea). The Paramyxea exhibit both protistan and metazoan characters. Their nine singlets centrioles are observed in different Protoctists whereas the fact that their sporal cells acquire distinctive cytological features may be interpreted as an evolution towards multicellularity.

  3. Water Quality Criteria for Colored Smokes: Solvent Yellow 33

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    Wr e. a benthic crustacean (e.g, ostracod, isopod, or amphipod): f. an insect (e.g., mayfly, midge, stonefly)- g. a family in a phylum other than...Arthropoda or Chordata (e.g, Annelida or Mollusca): and h, a family in any order of insect or any phylum not represented. 2. Acute-chronic ratios (see...acute toxicity to freshwater acuatic animals should be used: a. Tests with daphnids and other cladocerans should be started with organisms < 24 hr old

  4. Furcocercous cercariae (Trematoda) from freshwater snails in Central Finland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faltýnková, Anna; Niewiadomska, K.; Santos, M. J.; Valtonen, E. T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2007), s. 310-317 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022404; GA ČR GP524/07/P086; GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA MŠk LC522 Grant - others: Portuguese FCT(PT) SFRH/BSAB/492/2005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : cercariae * Mollusca * Finland * Trematoda * Pulmonata * Prosobranchia * Valvata macrostoma Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.814, year: 2007

  5. Investigation of the biota of Burgas Bay, Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Klisarova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Burgas Bay is the largest one on the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Industrial plants along the coast as well as ports for liquid and solid cargoes create conditions of anthropogenic pressure on hydrobionts in that area. Macrozoobenthos and phytoplankton samples were collected under a specific scheme in connection with the construction of the Burgas-Alexandroupolis oil pipeline, at stations located around the designated places for unloading tankers. During the study period (2009 – 2010, 88 phytoplankton species distributed in 13 classes were identified and over 50 species of benthic species distributed in four main groups: Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea and the mixed group Diversa

  6. Assessment System for Aircraft Noise (ASAN) Citation Database. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    kills "). Most researchers would take an opposing position on the given research topic. 2 Some elements of the publication are con-r ,ersial 14 4. Report...01.02.21.09.00.00 Mockingbirds 01.07.22.06.00.00 Mojarras 01.07.24.00.00.00 Molas 01.01.03.03.00.00 Moles 02.00.00.00.00.00 Mollusca 02.00.00.00.00.00...Bluebirds ...Robins ...Sialia ...Turdus Ol.02.2l.09.OO.OO ... Catbirds ... Mimidae -. Mockingbirds ... Thrashers 01.02.21:1.0.00. ... Motacillidae

  7. Results of investigating the macroinvertebrate community of the Danube River on the sector upstream from the Iron Gate (km 1083-1071

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović Momir M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work cites results of investigating aquatic macroinvertebrates of the Danube River on the sector upstream from the Iron Gate (KM 1083-1071. The investigated part is interesting from the hydrobiological standpoint above all due to differences of faunal composition in relation to higher sections that could be expected in view of differences in overall characteristics of the river. A rich macroinvertebrate community (84 taxa was observed. The diversity of taxa is primarily a result of habitat diversity within the given stretch. Oligochaeta and Mollusca were the principal components.

  8. Ultrastructural studies of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, O.K.; Okazaki, K.; Kawano, T.; Ribeiro, A.A.G.F.C.

    1988-09-01

    Ultrastructural studies of Biomphalaria glabrata embryos (MOllusca: Gastropoda), and important snail vector of schistosomiasis has not been explored. In the present work it was evaluated a suitable electron microscopical technique for embryos processing. Promising results was obtained with double fixation in 1% glutaraldehyde plus 1% osmium tetroxide in 0.05 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4), preliminary staining overnight in 1% uranyl acetate and embedding in EPON or Polylite under vacuum. It was used embryos at young trochophore stage wich is characterized by active organogenesis. Some ultrastructural aspects of B. glabrata embryos cells are presented. (author) [pt

  9. SELECTIVIDAD DEL INSECTICIDA CARTAP EMPLEANDO BIOENSAYOS CON ORGANISMOS NO DESTINATARIOS

    OpenAIRE

    Iannacone, José; Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (Perú).; Alvariño, Lorena; Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal (Perú).

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar la ecotoxicidad del cartap (Bala® 50 PS) sobre ocho organismos animales no destinatarios: 1) Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) (Mollusca), 2) Emerita analoga (Stimpson, 1857) (Crustácea), 3) Chironomus calligraphus Goeldi, 1805 (Diptera), 4) Cyprinus carpio (Linné, 1758) (Osteichyties), 5) Eisenia foetida (Savigny, 1826) (Annelida), 6) Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851) (Hemiptera), 7) Trichogramma fuentesi Torre, 1980 (Hymenoptera) y 8...

  10. Genetic diversity of pacu and piapara broodstocks in restocking programs in the rivers Paraná and Paranapanema (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Mauricio Lopera-Barrero

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of Piaractus mesopotamicus (pacu and Leporinus elongatus (piapara broodstocks used in restocking programs in the rivers Paraná and Paranapanema is analyzed. One hundred and twenty specimens (two broodstocks of each species from fish ponds in Palotina PR Brazil and in Salto Grande SP Brazil were assessed. Ten primers produced 96 fragments, comprising 68 (70.83% and 94 (97.92% polymorphic fragments for P. mesopotamicus and L. elongatus broodstocks, respectively. Differences (p < 0.05 in the frequency of 15 and 27 fragments were detected for each species, without exclusive fragments. Shannon Index (0.347 - 0.572 and the percentage of polymorphic fragments (57.3% - 94.8% revealed high intra-population genetic variability for all broodstocks. Results of molecular variance analyses (AMOVA showed that most variations do not lie between the broodstocks but within each broodstock (89%. Genetic (0.088 and 0.142 and identity (0.916 and 0.868 distance rates demonstrated similarity between the broodstocks of each species, corroborated by Fst (0.1023 and 010.27 and Nm (4.18 and 4.33 rates, with a slight genetic difference due to genic flux. High intrapopulation genetic variability and similarity between the broodstocks of each species was also detected, proving a common ancestry.

  11. Sea lice population and sex differences in P-glycoprotein expression and emamectin benzoate resistance on salmon farms in the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igboeli, Okechukwu O; Burka, John F; Fast, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    Parasitic sea lice are a major challenge for salmon aquaculture. This is especially due to the recent development of resistance to emamectin benzoate (EMB) in the parasite. We investigated: (1) whether EMB treatment success in Grand Manan, Bay of Fundy, NB, Canada can be explained through EMB bioassay and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mRNA expression studies; (2) if other populations of sea lice not under EMB selective pressure possess similar EMB sensitivity as Grand Manan sea lice populations; and (3) the heritability of EMB resistance in Lepeophtheirus salmonis. EMB bioassay results indicated population, species, sex and temporal differences in EMB EC50 values. RT-qPCR analyses revealed population and sex differences in P-gp mRNA levels, correlating with the bioassay results. Laboratory-reared sea lice maintained their EMB sensitivity status up to the F3 generation. Caligus elongatus, collected from Grand Manan showed more than twofold lower EMB EC50 values compared with L. salmonis collected from the same site. Concurrent exposure to EMB and verapamil yielded no increase in C. elongatus sensitivity to the parasiticide. Sea lice bioassay and P-gp mRNA studies can be used to track EMB resistance and sex differences in EMB sensitivity and P-gp mRNA levels exist in the parasite. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Caracterización de las comunidades de acridios (Orthoptera: Acridoidea del partido de Benito Juárez, sudeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina Grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acridoidea community structure in Benito Juárez county, in outhern Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura de Wysiecki

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la riqueza, densidad, constancia y distribución de especies de acridios, en distintas comunidades vegetales (1997-2002 en el partido de Benito Juárez, sudeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Las comunidades vegetales se categorizaron en pastizales nativos, comunidades halófilas, pasturas sin disturbio, pasturas con moderado disturbio y pasturas con alto disturbio. En total se registraron 23 especies de acridios. Los melanoplinos dominaron en casi todas las comunidades vegetales, excepto en las halófilas que se caracterizaron por la presencia de un acridino, Covasacris pallidinota (Bruner. La riqueza de especies promedio por sitio por año, varió entre 2,10 ± 0,60 especies en las pasturas con moderado disturbio y 6,20 ± 0,58 especies en las comunidades halófilas. La riqueza de especies acumulada fue de 17 en los pastizales nativos, 14 en las comunidades halófilas, 19 en las pasturas sin disturbio, 18 en las pasturas con moderado disturbio y 14 en las pasturas con alto disturbio. La densidad promedio de acridios fue máxima en el 2001 y 2002. Dichroplus pratensis Bruner y Dichroplus elongatus Giglio-Tos dominaron en los pastizales nativos y en las pasturas con alto disturbio, C. pallidinota en las comunidades halófilas, D. elongatus y Scotussa lemniscata (Stål en las pasturas sin disturbio y en las pasturas con moderado disturbio. La estructura taxonómica de las comunidades de acridios fue constante en los pastizales nativos, las comunidades halófilas y las pasturas. Hubo pocas especies de amplia distribución e intermedias y las raras fueron las más numerosas. De las 23 especies registradas en todos los sitios, D. elongatus fue la única de amplia distribución. Históricamente, para la zona de estudio, Dichroplus maculipennis (Blanch fue señalada como la especie dominante. Sin embargo, nuestros resultados sugieren que en la actualidad la especie dominante es D. elongatus. Si bien resulta imposible conocer las causas

  13. ¿La práctica de la siembra directa en cultivos de soja favorece las poblaciones de acridios (Orthoptera: Acrididae en el partido de Benito Juárez?

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    Daniel SCUFFI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando el desarrollo del cultivo de soja en siembra directa en el partido de Benito Juárez, y que algunos autores sostienen que esta práctica favorece los acridios, se evaluó la riqueza de especies y la abundancia en soja con siembra directa y convencional. Se registraron siete especies (Aleuas lineatus Stål, Covasacris pallidinota (Bruner, Baeacris pseudopunctulatus (Ronderos, Dichroplus elongatus Giglio-Tos, Dichroplus maculipennis (Blanchard, Dichroplus pratensis Bruner y Scotussa lemniscata (Stål. La riqueza de especies acumulada en los diferentes cultivos fue similar (p> 0,05. En soja de primera con siembra directa, se registraron 2,3 ± 0,19 especies, en soja de primera con siembra convencional 1,45 ± 0,15 especies y en soja de segunda con siembra directa 2,25 ± 0,28 especies. Dichroplus elongatus fue la especie más abundante en todos los cultivos y en todos los momentos. Las restantes presentaron baja abundancia y se registraron en algunos momentos. No existió diferencia (p> 0,05 en la abundancia de tucuras entre los cultivos y en las diferentes fechas de muestreo. La baja riqueza de especies registrada estaría relacionada con la baja diversidad vegetal de los cultivos. Este estudio no mostró diferencias en la abundancia y riqueza de especies de acuerdo a la labranza utilizada.

  14. Towards a synthetic chloroplast.

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    Christina M Agapakis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of eukaryotic cells is widely agreed to have proceeded through a series of endosymbiotic events between larger cells and proteobacteria or cyanobacteria, leading to the formation of mitochondria or chloroplasts, respectively. Engineered endosymbiotic relationships between different species of cells are a valuable tool for synthetic biology, where engineered pathways based on two species could take advantage of the unique abilities of each mutualistic partner.We explored the possibility of using the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 as a platform for studying evolutionary dynamics and for designing two-species synthetic biological systems. We observed that the cyanobacteria were relatively harmless to eukaryotic host cells compared to Escherichia coli when injected into the embryos of zebrafish, Danio rerio, or taken up by mammalian macrophages. In addition, when engineered with invasin from Yersinia pestis and listeriolysin O from Listeria monocytogenes, S. elongatus was able to invade cultured mammalian cells and divide inside macrophages.Our results show that it is possible to engineer photosynthetic bacteria to invade the cytoplasm of mammalian cells for further engineering and applications in synthetic biology. Engineered invasive but non-pathogenic or immunogenic photosynthetic bacteria have great potential as synthetic biological devices.

  15. Algal and invertebrate bioindicators detect sewage effluent along the coast of Titahi Bay, Wellington, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, B.D.; Shima, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Sewage effluent contains both dissolved and particulate matter that can affect coastal ecosystems and cascade through food webs. We used δ 15 N and δ 13 C ratios to explore performance of a kelp (Carpophyllum maschalocarpum) and two invertebrates (a grazing isopod, Amphoroidea media, and a filter-feeding crab, Petrolisthes elongatus) as bioindicators along a gradient of sewage exposure. These species vary in trophic status and, consequently, are likely to assimilate sewage constituents differently into food webs. δ 15 N values in C. maschalocarpum and A. media were highest near the sewage outfall and decreased with increasing distance from the outfall. δ 13 C values in these two species did not appear to be reliable predictors of sewage concentrations in seawater. In contrast, δ 13 C ratios for P. elongatus were consistently depleted at sites nearest the sewage outfall, indicating the consumption of δ 13 C-depleted sewage particulates. These results suggest there is value in multiple-isotope and multi-species bioindicator approaches both for detecting sewage dispersal patterns and understanding the incorporation of sewage-derived nutrients into food webs. (author). 79 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Actividad reproductiva en tres especies simpátricas del género Liolaemus (Reptilia: Sauria: Tropiduridae Actividad reproductiva en tres especies simpátricas del género Liolaemus (Reptilia: Sauria: Tropiduridae

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    Ramírez Pinilla Martha Patricia

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Sympatric species Liolaemus bibroni (oviparous, Liolaemus elongatus and Liolaemus ruibali (viviparous have partial fall reproductive activity for males and females. Males are reproductively active between fall and spring, females are vitellogenic especially during this season, they are gravid in spring and the oviposition/parturition occur at the end of spring and early summer. Reproductive cycles of males and females have not a long rest phase, and apparently are continuous. The incidence of  environmental and endogenous factors over the partial fall reproductive pattern in Liolaemus species is discussed. Machos y hembras de las especies simpátricas Liolaemus bibroni (ovípara, Liolaemus elongatus y Liolaemus ruibali (vivíparas tienen actividad reproductiva parcial de otoño. Los machos son reproductivos entre otoño y primavera, período en el que las hembras son vitelogénicas; las hembras están grávidas en primavera y el parto/oviposición sucede al final de esta estación y verano temprano. Los ciclos reproductivos de machos y hembras no tienen un período de receso prolongado, y tienden a ser continuos. Se discute la incidencia de factores ambientales y endógenos en el patrón reproductivo parcial de otoño en especies de Liolaemus.

  17. Hydrobiological study of the small stream on the Czech–Moravian Highlands

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    Ivo Sukop

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Zoobenthos of the Fryšávka Rivulet was investigated in the years 2007–2008. Research included also physico-chemical factors of water (temperature, pH, conductivity, oxygen saturation. Altogether, 144 taxa of zoobenthos were determined in the Fryšávka Rivulet: Coelenterata (1 taxon, Turbellaria (1 taxon, Oligochaeta (6 taxa, Hirudinea (1 taxon, Mollusca (5 taxa, Amphipoda (1 taxon, Decapoda (1 taxon, Acari (1 taxon, Ephemeroptera (18 taxa, Plecoptera (18 taxa, Heteroptera (1 taxon, Megaloptera (1 taxon, Planipennia (1 taxon, Trichoptera (36 taxa, Coleoptera (8 taxa, Diptera (44 taxa. Altogether, 76 taxa of zoobenthos were determined in Medlovka brook: Coelenterata (1 taxon, Turbellaria (1 taxon, Oligochaeta (2 taxa, Mollusca (1 taxon, Isopoda (1 taxon, Amphipoda (1 taxon, Acari (1 taxon, Ephemeroptera (14 taxa, Plecoptera (8 taxa, Megaloptera (1 taxon, Trichoptera (17 taxa, Coleoptera (6 taxa, Diptera (22 taxa.The average abundance of zoobenthos of the Fryšávka Rivulet was 3208 ind.m−2, the average biomass was 7.5 g . m−2, respectively. The same values for the Medlovka brook were: abundance 3238 ind.m−2 and biomass 5.8 g . m−2. The average value of the saprobic index for the whole Fryšávka Rivulet was 1.25 (oligosaprobity, for the Medlovka brook 1.42 (oligosaprobity.

  18. Natural Diet of Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863 (Decapoda, Portunidae in the Itapocoroy Inlet, Penha, SC, Brazil

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    Joaquim Olinto Branco

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available From January to December 1995, 332 individuals of the Callinectes ornatus species were collected from the Itapocoroy inlet in Penha, Sta. Catarina, Brazil to study its natural diet and the seasonal variations of diet. Results showed a diversified trophic spectrum with a generalized dietary strategy comprising the algae, macrophyta, foraminiferida, mollusca, polychaeta, crustacea, echinodermata, Osteichthyes and NIOM (Nonidentified Organic Matter groups.Alimentação natural de Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863 (Decapoda, Portunidae na Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, SC - Brasil. No período de janeiro a dezembro de 1995, foram coletados 332 indivíduos de Callinectes ornatus, procedentes da Armação do Itapocoroy (Penha, SC. Foi estudada a alimentação natural da espécie e as variações sazonais da dieta. Os resultados mostram um espectro trófico diversificado, com estratégia alimentar generalista, sendo Algas, Macrófitas, Foraminiferida, Mollusca, Polychaeta, Crustacea, Echinodermata, Osteichthyes e matéria orgânica não identificada, os grupos que compõem sua dieta.

  19. Dynamics of macrozoobenthos in the Southern Bulgarian Black Sea coastal and open-sea areas

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    S. STOYKOV

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of analysis of 96 macrozoobenthic samples, collected on a seasonal basis in Bourgas Bay and in open-sea areas offshore Cape Emine (Bulgarian Black Sea in 1996 and 1998. In total 96 taxa were established, distributed in four groups: Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea and “Diversa”. The average density of populations was 1756 ind.m-2 with a predominating abundance of Polychaeta species. The average biomass estimated was 183.02 g.m-2, formed mainly by representatives of Mollusca. The latter species were measured together with the shells, which appraised their individual weights. Seven of the species found had a coefficient of constancy more than 50%. These were the most adapted species to the environmental conditions of the investigated areas. The quantitative and qualitative assessments in this study demonstrate an increasing tendency in the parameters obtained (density, biomass, species diversity in comparison with previous investigations in the early 1990-s, when intensive anthropogenic influence was widely perceived to misbalance the Black Sea ecosystem. The method of Warwick (1986 applied to characterize the water quality of the studied areas allowed us to define them as rather clean or moderately polluted aquatories.

  20. Structural analysis of the α subunit of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase genes in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Rahma; Rouault, J-D; Ayadi, Habib; Leignel, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The Na(+)/K(+) ATPase is a ubiquitous pump coordinating the transport of Na(+) and K(+) across the membrane of cells and its role is fundamental to cellular functions. It is heteromer in eukaryotes including two or three subunits (α, β and γ which is specific to the vertebrates). The catalytic functions of the enzyme have been attributed to the α subunit. Several complete α protein sequences are available, but only few gene structures were characterized. We identified the genomic sequences coding the α-subunit of the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, from the whole-genome shotgun contigs (WGS), NCBI Genomes (chromosome), Genomic Survey Sequences (GSS) and High Throughput Genomic Sequences (HTGS) databases across distinct phyla. One copy of the α subunit gene was found in Annelida, Arthropoda, Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Mollusca, Placozoa, Porifera, Platyhelminthes, Urochordata, but the nematodes seem to possess 2 to 4 copies. The number of introns varied from 0 (Platyhelminthes) to 26 (Porifera); and their localization and length are also highly variable. Molecular phylogenies (Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony methods) showed some clusters constituted by (Chordata/(Echinodermata/Hemichordata)) or (Plathelminthes/(Annelida/Mollusca)) and a basal position for Porifera. These structural analyses increase our knowledge about the evolutionary events of the α subunit genes in the invertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of impoundment and regulation upon the stomach contents of fish at Cow Green, Upper Teesdale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisp, D.T.; Mann, R.H.K.; McCormack, J.C.

    1978-04-01

    The stomach contents of 1003 brown trout, 1551 bullheads and 800 minnows taken from the reservoir basin and below the dam, before and after impoundment of the river Tees, were examined. Their composition reflected observations by other workers on river and reservoir benthos, except for the increase in numbers of Hydra and Nais below the dam, and Mollusca, Hirudinea and oligochaetes in the reservoir. Trout below the dam ate more Ephemeroptera nymphs and Chironomidae larvae but fewer terrestrial casualties after river regulation, whereas bullheads ate more Mollusca but fewer Plecoptera nymphs. In both species Baetidae nymphs increased in numerical importance relative to Ecdyonuridae. Trout, but not bullheads, took zooplankton discharged from the reservoir. Before impoundment, trout within the reservoir basin ate chiefly benthic organisms and terrestrial casualties. Inundated terrestrial material, mainly earthworms, formed the bulk of their food for at least three years after impoundment, whilst from the second year onwards Chironomidae and, in some years, Gammarus became increasingly important. Zooplankton was taken by all sizes of reservoir trout. Bullheads within the reservoir basin ate chiefly river benthos before impoundment, with Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera nymphs predominant in older fish, and aquatic Diptera and Coleoptera also important in the fry. After impoundment, Chironomidae and Gammarus were the main items taken by older bullheads, and Chironomidae and micro-crustacea by the fry. Among all sizes of minnow, Chironomidae, micro-crustacea and detritus increased in numerical importance after impoundment.

  2. Phylogeny and mitochondrial gene order variation in Lophotrochozoa in the light of new mitogenomic data from Nemertea

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    von Döhren Jörn

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new animal phylogeny established several taxa which were not identified by morphological analyses, most prominently the Ecdysozoa (arthropods, roundworms, priapulids and others and Lophotrochozoa (molluscs, annelids, brachiopods and others. Lophotrochozoan interrelationships are under discussion, e.g. regarding the position of Nemertea (ribbon worms, which were discussed to be sister group to e.g. Mollusca, Brachiozoa or Platyhelminthes. Mitochondrial genomes contributed well with sequence data and gene order characters to the deep metazoan phylogeny debate. Results In this study we present the first complete mitochondrial genome record for a member of the Nemertea, Lineus viridis. Except two trnP and trnT, all genes are located on the same strand. While gene order is most similar to that of the brachiopod Terebratulina retusa, sequence based analyses of mitochondrial genes place nemerteans close to molluscs, phoronids and entoprocts without clear preference for one of these taxa as sister group. Conclusion Almost all recent analyses with large datasets show good support for a taxon comprising Annelida, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Phoronida and Nemertea. But the relationships among these taxa vary between different studies. The analysis of gene order differences gives evidence for a multiple independent occurrence of a large inversion in the mitochondrial genome of Lophotrochozoa and a re-inversion of the same part in gastropods. We hypothesize that some regions of the genome have a higher chance for intramolecular recombination than others and gene order data have to be analysed carefully to detect convergent rearrangement events.

  3. Concentration of radioactive cobalt by seaweeds in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Motokazu; Koyanagi, Taku; Saiki, Masamichi

    1976-01-01

    On the pathway of radioactive substances in marine environments, seaweeds play an important role because of their higher concentration factors for many radionuclides and because they constitute a link of food chain in the sea. In the present work, uptake, distribution and excretion of radioactive cobalt were studied on several kinds of seaweeds by radioisotope tracer experiments under laboratory conditions and concentration factors were calculated. The concentration factors were also estimated from the results of stable cobalt determination by activation analysis or atomic absorption spectrometry on seaweeds and seawater, and compared with the results of tracer expts. The seaweeds showed the species specificity for the concentration of stable and radioactive cobalt with diverse values of concentration factors and biological half-lives. The transfer of radioactive cobalt in the food chain from contaminated seaweeds to mollusca was examined by feeding abalones, Haliotis discus, with four kinds of seaweed labelled with 60 Co and observing retention. Absorption rate for radioactive cobalt by abalones calculated at two days after feeding showed diverse values depending upon the species of seaweed, as follows: 47% through Laminaria japonica and Ulva pertusa, 31% through Undaria pinnatifida and 26 through Eisenia bicyclis, respectively. From the results, it was assumed that the accumulation of radioactive cobalt by mollusca is affected by the species of seaweeds as food. A very high concentration of ingested radioactive cobalt in the midgut gland was seen on the autoradiograph of abalone samples. (auth.)

  4. Concentration of radioactive cobalt by seaweeds in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, M.; Koyanagi, T.; Saiki, M.

    1975-01-01

    On the pathway of radioactive substances in marine environments, seaweeds play an important role because of their higher concentration factors for many radionuclides and because they constitute a link in the food chain. In the present work, uptake, distribution and excretion of radioactive cobalt were studied on several kinds of seaweeds by radioisotope tracer experiments under laboratory conditions and concentration factors were calculated. The concentration factors were also estimated from the results of stable cobalt determination by activation analysis or atomic absorption spectrometry on seaweeds and seawater, and compared with the results of tracer experiments. The seaweeds showed the species specificity for the concentration of stable and radioactive cobalt with diverse values of concentration factors and biological half-lives. The transfer of radioactive cobalt in the food chain from contaminated seaweeds to mollusca was examined by feeding abalones, Haliotis discus, with four kinds of seaweed labelled with 60 Co and observing retention. Absorption rate for radioactive cobalt by abalones calculated at two days after feeding showed diverse values depending upon the species of seaweed, as follows: 47% through Laminaria japonica and Ulva pertusa, 31% through Undaria pinnatifida and 26% through Eisenia bicyclis, respectively. From the results, it was assumed that the accumulation of radioactive cobalt by mollusca is affected by the species of seaweeds as food. A very high concentration of ingested radioactive cobalt in the midgut gland was seen on the autoradiograph of abalone samples. (author)

  5. Estudos higiênicos sôbre os crustáceos e moluscos da Baía de Guanabara (Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejeune Pacheco Henriques de Oliveira

    1944-04-01

    Full Text Available Revisão da literatura médica sôbre higiene de crustáceos e moluscos marinhos. Intoxicações por elementos extranhos às carnes de crustáceos e moluscos: por sais de cobre, vegetais tóxicos; estranho e chumbo nas conservas de crustáceos; botulismo. Putrefação de ostras e doenças de ostras provocadas por cogumelos; crustáceos e moluscos guardados em geladeiras bolorentas. Lista das espécies de moluscos comestíveis da Bahia de Guanabara. Lista das espécies de crustáceos comestíveis da Bahia de Guanabara. Veiculação de micro-organismos patogênicos ao homem por intermédio das carnes de crustáceos e de moluscos: veiculação do vibrião colérico, dos bacilos tíficos e paratíficos e de germes do grupo coli e do gênero Proteus. Vitalidade dos bacilos tíficos nas ostras. Listas dos moluscos veiculadores dos agentes causadores das febres tíficas e paratíficas. Conceitos antigos e modernos sõbre intoxicações por crustáceos; partidas de crustáceos salubres ou não conforme o local de venda. Estudos experimentais sôbre a "talassina" princípio tóxico existente em alguns crustáceos. "Mitilotoxina", intoxicações por mexilhões e outros acidentes incriminados aos moluscos. Enterotoxina estavfilocócica em ostras. Métodos de determinação da salubridade dos moluscos; verificações nas ostras brasileiras. Depuração dos crustáceos pelas soluções cloradas. Estabulação de caranguejos denominados vulgarmente de "guaiamus" e "ussás".Recording main medical publication on Hygiene of Mollusca and Crustacea. Food-poisoning. Decomposing oysters, and shell-fish sickness by fungi. Catalogue of eatable Crustacea and Mollusca of Rio de Janeiro. Significance of Mollusca and Crustacea in the spread of diseases. Longevity of Vibrio comma, Eberthella typhosa, Salmonella schottmuelleri, Salmonella paratiphi. Escherichia coli in oysters, Microorganisms in marked oysters. Comparison old written papers with moderns publications on food

  6. Live microbial cells adsorb Mg2+ more effectively than lifeless organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xuan; Yao, Yanchen; Wang, Hongmei; Duan, Yong

    2018-03-01

    The Mg2+ content is essential in determining different Mg-CaCO3 minerals. It has been demonstrated that both microbes and the organic matter secreted by microbes are capable of allocating Mg2+ and Ca2+ during the formation of Mg-CaCO3, yet detailed scenarios remain unclear. To investigate the mechanism that microbes and microbial organic matter potentially use to mediate the allocation of Mg2+ and Ca2+ in inoculating systems, microbial mats and four marine bacterial strains ( Synechococcus elongatus, Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp., and Desulfovibrio vulgaris) were incubated in artificial seawater media with Mg/Ca ratios ranging from 0.5 to 10.0. At the end of the incubation, the morphology of the microbial mats and the elements adsorbed on them were analyzed using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy diffraction spectra (EDS), respectively. The content of Mg2+ and Ca2+ adsorbed by the extracellular polysaccharide substances (EPS) and cells of the bacterial strains were analyzed with atomic adsorption spectroscopy (AAS). The functional groups on the surface of the cells and EPS of S. elongatus were estimated using automatic potentiometric titration combined with a chemical equilibrium model. The results show that live microbial mats generally adsorb larger amounts of Mg2+ than Ca2+, while this rarely is the case for autoclaved microbial mats. A similar phenomenon was also observed for the bacterial strains. The living cells adsorb more Mg2+ than Ca2+, yet a reversed trend was observed for EPS. The functional group analysis indicates that the cell surface of S. elongatus contains more basic functional groups (87.24%), while the EPS has more acidic and neutral functional groups (83.08%). These features may be responsible for the different adsorption behavior of Mg2+ and Ca2+ by microbial cells and EPS. Our work confirms the differential Mg2+ and Ca2+ mediation by microbial cells and EPS, which may provide insight into the processes that microbes use to

  7. Different zooplankton structures in the German Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, P.; Brockmann, U.

    1993-06-01

    In August 1982, a net of 48 stations with altogether 208 samples was investigated in the eastern German Bight with respect to temperature, salinity, as well as the amount and species composition of the mesozooplankton (>80 μm). The data were arranged into different structures by means of a cluster analysis. Four different clusters were found: (a) a “Wadden sea water” with few holoplankton organisms but a higher amount of spionid larvae; (b) a “German Bight water” with a maximum occurrence of turbellaria ( Alaurina composita) and medium concentrations of copepods; (c) a mixing area between these two water masses with highest amounts of Oikopleura dioica, Temora longicornis, Acartia sp., mussel larvae and larvae of the spionid worms; (d) a “North Sea water” mass with highest concentrations of Pseudocalanus elongatus, Paracalanus parvus und Oithona similis. The differences in the concentrations of the species mentioned between the four clusters were significant on the 0.1%-level.

  8. Engineering an Obligate Photoautotrophic Cyanobacterium to Utilize Glycerol for Growth and Chemical Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Masahiro; Atsumi, Shota

    2017-01-20

    Cyanobacteria have attracted much attention as a means to directly recycle carbon dioxide into valuable chemicals that are currently produced from petroleum. However, the titers and productivities achieved are still far below the level required in industry. To make a more industrially applicable production scheme, glycerol, a byproduct of biodiesel production, can be used as an additional carbon source for photomixotrophic chemical production. Glycerol is an ideal candidate due to its availability and low cost. In this study, we found that a heterologous glycerol respiratory pathway enabled Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to utilize extracellular glycerol. The engineered strain produced 761 mg/L of 2,3-butanediol in 48 h with a 290% increase over the control strain under continuous light conditions. Glycerol supplementation also allowed for continuous cell growth and 2,3-butanediol production in diurnal light conditions. These results highlight the potential of glycerol as an additional carbon source for photomixotrophic chemical production in cyanobacteria.

  9. Role of essential lipids in copepod nutrition: no evidence for trophic upgrading of food quality by a marine ciliate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein Breteler, W.; Koski, Marja; Rampen, S.

    2004-01-01

    -quality Rhodomonas sp. diet. The specific mass of fatty acids in S. sulcatum was much lower than in the Dunaliella sp. diet, However, the fatty acid composition of the protozoan more or less resembled that of the food, lacking long-chain highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs). Sterols only occurred in Dunaliella sp......The ciliate Strombidium sulcatum was used to feed and grow young stages of the copepods Temora longicornis (Muller) and Pseudocalanus elongatus (Boeck). The ciliate was cultured in the laboratory using either bacteria or the green alga Dunaliella sp. as a food source. Young copepodites of both......., although in low abundance of unuseful Delta7 sterols. Obviously, S. sulcatum did not biochemically enhance bacterial or algal food for subsequent use at higher trophic levels, and only transferred fatty acids without further conversion. The results indicate a deficiency in the ciliate of HUFAs and sterols...

  10. Improved Alkane Production in Nitrogen-Fixing and Halotolerant Cyanobacteria via Abiotic Stresses and Genetic Manipulation of Alkane Synthetic Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Hakuto; Waditee-Sirisattha, Rungaroon; Sirisattha, Sophon; Tanaka, Yoshito; Mahakhant, Aparat; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-07-01

    Cyanobacteria possess the unique capacity to produce alkane. In this study, effects of nitrogen deficiency and salt stress on biosynthesis of alkanes were investigated in three kinds of cyanobacteria. Intracellular alkane accumulation was increased in nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120, but decreased in non-diazotrophic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942 and constant in a halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica under nitrogen-deficient condition. We also found that salt stress increased alkane accumulation in Anabaena sp. PCC7120 and A. halophytica. The expression levels of two alkane synthetic genes were not upregulated significantly under nitrogen deficiency or salt stress in Anabaena sp. PCC7120. The transformant Anabaena sp. PCC7120 cells with additional alkane synthetic gene set from A. halophytica increased intracellular alkane accumulation level compared to control cells. These results provide a prospect to improve bioproduction of alkanes in nitrogen-fixing halotolerant cyanobacteria via abiotic stresses and genetic engineering.

  11. Global metabolic rewiring for improved CO2 fixation and chemical production in cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Masahiro; Carroll, Austin L.; Atsumi, Shota

    2017-03-01

    Cyanobacteria have attracted much attention as hosts to recycle CO2 into valuable chemicals. Although cyanobacteria have been engineered to produce various compounds, production efficiencies are too low for commercialization. Here we engineer the carbon metabolism of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to improve glucose utilization, enhance CO2 fixation and increase chemical production. We introduce modifications in glycolytic pathways and the Calvin Benson cycle to increase carbon flux and redirect it towards carbon fixation. The engineered strain efficiently uses both CO2 and glucose, and produces 12.6 g l-1 of 2,3-butanediol with a rate of 1.1 g l-1 d-1 under continuous light conditions. Removal of native regulation enables carbon fixation and 2,3-butanediol production in the absence of light. This represents a significant step towards industrial viability and an excellent example of carbon metabolism plasticity.

  12. ¿La práctica de la siembra directa en cultivos de soja favorece las poblaciones de acridios (Orthoptera: Acrididae en el partido de Benito Juárez? Does the direct tillage practice in soybean crops favour grasshopper populations (Orthoptera: Acrididae, in Benito Juárez county?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Scuffi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando el desarrollo del cultivo de soja en siembra directa en el partido de Benito Juárez, y que algunos autores sostienen que esta práctica favorece los acridios, se evaluó la riqueza de especies y la abundancia en soja con siembra directa y convencional. Se registraron siete especies (Aleuas lineatus Stål, Covasacris pallidinota (Bruner, Baeacris pseudopunctulatus (Ronderos, Dichroplus elongatus Giglio-Tos, Dichroplus maculipennis (Blanchard, Dichroplus pratensis Bruner y Scotussa lemniscata (Stål. La riqueza de especies acumulada en los diferentes cultivos fue similar (p> 0,05. En soja de primera con siembra directa, se registraron 2,3 ± 0,19 especies, en soja de primera con siembra convencional 1,45 ± 0,15 especies y en soja de segunda con siembra directa 2,25 ± 0,28 especies. Dichroplus elongatus fue la especie más abundante en todos los cultivos y en todos los momentos. Las restantes presentaron baja abundancia y se registraron en algunos momentos. No existió diferencia (p> 0,05 en la abundancia de tucuras entre los cultivos y en las diferentes fechas de muestreo. La baja riqueza de especies registrada estaría relacionada con la baja diversidad vegetal de los cultivos. Este estudio no mostró diferencias en la abundancia y riqueza de especies de acuerdo a la labranza utilizada.Considering the development of the soybean crops using direct tillage in Benito Juárez county, and taking into account that for some authors this practice favours the grasshopper populations, the abundance and species richness in soybean with direct and conventional tillage were evaluated. Seven species were registered (Aleuas lineatus Stål, Covasacris pallidinota (Bruner, Baeacris pseudopunctulatus (Ronderos, Dichroplus elongatus Giglio-Tos, Dichroplus maculipennis (Blanchard, Dichroplus pratensis Bruner and Scotussa lemniscata (Stål. The accumulated richness was similar (p> 0.05, along the different crops; 2.3 ± 0.19 species were registered in

  13. Fluorescent minerals - A potential source of UV protection and visible light for the growth of green algae and cyanobacteria in extreme cosmic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omairi, Tareq; Wainwright, Milton

    2015-07-01

    We propose that green algae (Chlorella variabilis and Dunaliella tertiolecta) and cyanobacteria (Synechococcus elongatus and Nostoc commune) can grow inside fluorescent rock minerals which convert damaging UV light to visible light, thereby allowing these organisms to survive and thrive in UV-rich environments without (or with limited) visible light, which would otherwise be inimical to them. The four microorganisms were incubated inside fluorescent rocks composed of fluorite, calcite and pyrite. The resultant growth was then measured following exposure to UV radiation, with the use of optical density and measurement of chlorophyll concentration. Results show that the microorganisms were shielded from harmful UV in these semi-transparent rocks, while at the same time benefiting from the fact that the minerals converted UV to visible light; this have been shown by a statistically significant increase in their growth, which although lower than when the cells were incubated in sunlight, was significantly higher than in controls incubated in the dark.

  14. Life-stage-specific differences in exploitation of food mixtures: diet mixing enhances copepod egg production but not juvenile development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Breteler, W.K.; Schogt, N.

    2006-01-01

    , the copepods failed to moult past the first copepodite stage, and the mortality was high. In sharp contrast, mixing two nutritionally poor food species often resulted in egg production which was not significantly different from nutritionally high quality food, although hatching success in many mixtures was low......Development, egg production and hatching success of the calanoid copepods Temora longicornis and Pseudocalanus elongatus were measured in food mixtures to test their ability to obtain a complete nutrition by combining different nutritionally poor food species. In all the food mixtures used....... Whereas egg production was significantly correlated with particulate organic nitrogen in the diet, and independent of the highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), hatching increased with increasing DHA and EPA concentration. Growth and juvenile...

  15. Single Molecule Spectroscopy on Photosynthetic Pigment-Protein Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Jelezko, F; Schuler, S; Thews, E; Tietz, C; Wechsler, A; Wrachtrup, J

    2001-01-01

    Single molecule spectroscopy was applied to unravel the energy transfer pathway in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes. Detailed analysis of excitation and fluorescence emission spectra has been made for peripheral plant antenna LHC II and Photosystem I from cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. Optical transitions of individual pigments were resolved under nonselective excitation of antenna chlorophylls. High-resolution fluorescence spectroscopy of individual plant antenna LHC II indicates that at low temperatures, the excitation energy is localized on the red-most Chl a pool absorbing at 680 nm. More than one pigment molecule is responsible for the fluorescence emission of the LHC II trimer. The spectral lines of single Chl a molecules absorbing at 675 nm are broadened because of the Foerster energy transfer towards the red-most pigments. Low-temperature spectroscopy on single PS I trimers indicates that two subgroups of pigments, which are present in the red antenna pool, differ by the strength of t...

  16. The genus Trematocarpus (Sarcodiaceae, Rhodophyta in southern Africa and the exclusion of Sphaerococcus (Chondrus scutellatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Simons

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available Trematocarpus Kützing in southern Africa is found to comprise four taxa in three species: newly described is T.  fragilis (Ag. De Toni var. divaricatus Simons, var. nov. Two of the species, T. flabellatus (J. Ag. De Toni and T.  affinis (J. Ag. De Toni are restored to independent specific rank after being regarded as synonyms of T.  scutellatus (Her. Searles. It is shown that  Sphaerococcus (Chondrus scutellatus Her., the basionym of  T.  scutellatus refers to a species of Gigartina, therefore a new combination Gigartina scutellata (Her. Simons is made for this species which was formerly known as G. fastigiata J. Ag. and G. scabiosa (Kiitz. Papenf. Trematocarpus elongatus Kiitz. is relegated to synonymy under T. fragilis var.  divaricatus.

  17. Specific Interaction between Redox Phospholipid Polymers and Plastoquinone in Photosynthetic Electron Transport Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenya; Kaneko, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Masahito; Kato, Souichiro; Ito, Hidehiro; Kamachi, Toshiaki; Kamiya, Kazuhide; Nakanishi, Shuji

    2017-04-19

    Redox phospholipid polymers added in culture media are known to be capable of extracting electrons from living photosynthetic cells across bacterial cell membranes with high cytocompatibility. In the present study, we identify the intracellular redox species that transfers electrons to the polymers. The open-circuit electrochemical potential of an electrolyte containing the redox polymer and extracted thylakoid membranes shift to positive (or negative) under light irradiation, when an electron transport inhibitor specific to plastoquinone is added upstream (or downstream) in the photosynthetic electron transport chain. The same trend is also observed for a medium containing living photosynthetic cells of Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942. These results clearly indicate that the phospholipid redox polymers extract photosynthetic electrons mainly from plastoquinone. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Cyanobacterial diversity in extreme environments in Baja California, Mexico: a polyphasic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cortés, A; García-Pichel, F; Nübel, U; Vázquez-Juárez, R

    2001-12-01

    Cyanobacterial diversity from two geographical areas of Baja California Sur, Mexico, were studied: Bahia Concepcion, and Ensenada de Aripez. The sites included hypersaline ecosystems, sea bottom, hydrothermal springs, and a shrimp farm. In this report we describe four new morphotypes, two are marine epilithic from Bahia Concepcion, Dermocarpa sp. and Hyella sp. The third, Geitlerinema sp., occurs in thermal springs and in shrimp ponds, and the fourth, Tychonema sp., is from a shrimp pond. The partial sequences of the 16S rRNA genes and the phylogenetic relationship of four cyanobacterial strains (Synechococcus cf. elongatus, Leptolyngbya cf. thermalis, Leptolyngbya sp., and Geitlerinema sp.) are also presented. Polyphasic studies that include the combination of light microscopy, cultures and the comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences provide the most powerful approach currently available to establish the diversity of these oxygenic photosynthetic microorganisms in culture and in nature.

  19. Genetic variability in five species of Anostomidae (Ostariophysi - Characiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiari Lucimara

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability was studied in five fish species (Anostomidae: Schizodon intermedius and S. nasutus and Leporinus friderici, L. elongatus and L. obtusidens, collected at one location on the Tibagi River (Paraná, Brazil. The protein data from seven systems coded collectively for 19 loci in the liver, muscle and heart. Nine of these loci were polymorphic. The estimated proportion of polymorphism loci ( varied from 16.7% in S. intermedius to 36.9% in L. friderici; the mean heterozygosity observed (o was 0.027 ± 0.015 and 0.109 ± 0.042, respectively. The estimated value of the genetic identity among L. friderici and S. intermedius (0.749 and S. nasutus (0.787 suggested that these are "congeneric" species. Morphological characteristics indicate that these species belong to distinct genera, while isoenzymatic data show that they are very similar at the genetic/biochemical level.

  20. A new species of Tereancistrum (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae) from the gills of three Leporinus species (Characiformes, Anostomidae) and a revised description of Tereancistrum parvus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Aline C; Yamada, Fábio H; Franceschini, Lidiane; Bongiovani, Marcela F; Yamada, Priscilla O F; Silva, Reinaldo J DA

    2017-01-01

    The present study describes Tereancistrum flabellum n. sp. (Dactylogyridae, Ancyrocephalinae) from the gills of the anostomid fishes Leporinus friderici, Leporinus amblyrhynchus and Leporinus elongatus from two freshwater ecosystems in the south east of Brazil. This new species is mainly characterized by the morphology of the copulatory complex (such as the MCO base formed by two fan-shaped structures, and accessory piece flattened, curved, rigid and channeled), a dorsal anchor with a well-developed superficial and inconspicuous deep root, and the shape of the accessory anchor sclerite with small spathulate termination. Tereancistrum flabellum n. sp. is the first record of a dactylogyrid from L. amblyrhynchus. The description of Tereancistrum parvus is also emended to correct and complement previous descriptions and the species is reported for the first time in Schizodon nasutus.