WorldWideScience

Sample records for eliminating mercury removal

  1. Elimination of mercury in health care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Mercury is a persistent, bioaccumulative toxin that has been linked to numerous health effects in humans and wildlife. It is a potent neurotoxin that may also harm the brain, kidneys, and lungs. Unborn children and young infants are at particular risk for brain damage from mercury exposure. Hospitals' use of mercury in chemical solutions, thermometers, blood pressure gauges, batteries, and fluorescent lamps makes these facilities large contributors to the overall emission of mercury into the environment. Most hospitals recognize the dangers of mercury. In a recent survey, four out of five hospitals stated that they have policies in place to eliminate the use of mercury-containing products. Sixty-two percent of them require vendors to disclose the presence of mercury in chemicals that the hospitals purchase. Only 12 percent distribute mercury-containing thermometers to new parents. Ninety-two percent teach their employees about the health and environmental effects of mercury, and 46 percent teach all employees how to clean up mercury spills. However, the same study showed that many hospitals have not implemented their policies. Forty-two percent were not aware whether they still purchased items containing mercury. In addition, 49 percent still purchase mercury thermometers, 44 percent purchase mercury gastrointestinal diagnostic equipment, and 64 percent still purchase mercury lab thermometers.

  2. Mercury removal from solid mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.D.; Morrissey, M.; Chava, K.K.; Chao, K.

    1994-01-01

    The removal of mercury from mixed wastes is an essential step in eliminating the temporary storage of large inventories of mixed waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Currently thermal treatment has been identified as a baseline technology and is being developed as part of the DOE Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Since thermal treatment will not be applicable to all mercury containing mixed waste and the removal of mercury prior to thermal treatment may be desirable, laboratory studies have been initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop alternative remediation technologies capable of removing mercury from certain mixed waste. This paper describes laboratory investigations of the KI/I 2 leaching processes to determine the applicability of this process to mercury containing solid mixed waste

  3. Mercury removal sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2016-03-29

    Sorbents and methods of using them for removing mercury from flue gases over a wide range of temperatures are disclosed. Sorbent materials of this invention comprise oxy- or hydroxyl-halogen (chlorides and bromides) of manganese, copper and calcium as the active phase for Hg.sup.0 oxidation, and are dispersed on a high surface porous supports. In addition to the powder activated carbons (PACs), this support material can be comprised of commercial ceramic supports such as silica (SiO.sub.2), alumina (Al.sub.2O.sub.3), zeolites and clays. The support material may also comprise of oxides of various metals such as iron, manganese, and calcium. The non-carbon sorbents of the invention can be easily injected into the flue gas and recovered in the Particulate Control Device (PCD) along with the fly ash without altering the properties of the by-product fly ash enabling its use as a cement additive. Sorbent materials of this invention effectively remove both elemental and oxidized forms of mercury from flue gases and can be used at elevated temperatures. The sorbent combines an oxidation catalyst and a sorbent in the same particle to both oxidize the mercury and then immobilize it.

  4. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  5. Mercury removal from SRP radioactive waste streams using ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, J.P.; Wallace, R.M.; Ebra, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Mercury is present in varying concentrations in some Savannah River Plant (SRP) waste streams as a result of its use as a catalyst in the dissolution of fuel elements composed of uranium-aluminum alloys. It may be desirable to remove mercury from these streams before treatment of the waste for incorporation in glass for long-term storage. The glass forming process will also create waste from which mercury will have to be removed. The goal of mercury would be to eliminate ultimate emission of the toxic substance into the environment. This paper describes tests that demonstrate the feasibility of using a specific cation exchange resin, Duolite GT-73 for the removal of mercury from five waste streams generated at the SRP. Two of these streams are dilute; one is the condensate from a waste evaporator while the other is the effluent from an effluent treatment plant now under development. The three other streams are related to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) that is being built at SRP. One of these streams is a concentrated salt solution (principally sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide) that constitutes the soluble fraction of SRP waste and contains 20% mercury in the waste. The second stream is a slurry of the insoluble components in SRP waste and contains 80% of the mercury. The third stream is the offgas condensate from the glass melter system in the DWPF

  6. Process for removing mercury from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Googin, John M.; Napier, John M.; Makarewicz, Mark A.; Meredith, Paul F.

    1986-01-01

    A process for removing mercury from water to a level not greater than two parts per billion wherein an anion exchange material that is insoluble in water is contacted first with a sulfide containing compound and second with a compound containing a bivalent metal ion forming an insoluble metal sulfide. To this treated exchange material is contacted water containing mercury. The water containing not more than two parts per billion of mercury is separated from the exchange material.

  7. Mercury bioaccumulation and elimination by Xenomelanires brasiliensis - radioactive tracers technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malagrino, Waldir; Mesquita, Carlos Henrique de; Sousa, Eduinetty Ceci P.M. de

    2002-01-01

    The present work has as main objective to emphasized the importance of using radioactive tracers as well as to establish a methodology for the utilization of 203 Hg in the bioaccumulation study of mercury by X enomelanires brasiliensis. The exposure time was 168 hours. The bioaccumulation of mercury from the water as well as the elimination of the metal previously absorbed were determined by measuring the activity of 203 Hg, which was added to the water in the beginning of the experiments. The technique chosen is suitable to study the behavior of the stable mercury since the radioisotope used is an isotope of the same element and therefore presents the same chemical properties. The results obtained show that the absorption and elimination of mercury by Xenomelanires brasiliensis is slow, 168 hours being necessary for the elimination of 38 % of the previously absorbed mercury. The results are of main concern if it is considered that the literature about bioaccumulation of mercury by the Brazilian ichthyofauna is scarce. Furthermore the species Xenomelanires brasiliensis is part of the food chain and the results can be used in the evaluation of the potential risk of the mercury bioaccumulation by fishes of higher trophic levels and by men who are the final link of the food chain. (author)

  8. Removal of mercury by adsorption: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin-Gang; Yue, Bao-Yu; Wu, Xiong-Wei; Liu, Qi; Jiao, Fei-Peng; Jiang, Xin-Yu; Chen, Xiao-Qing

    2016-03-01

    Due to natural and production activities, mercury contamination has become one of the major environmental problems over the world. Mercury contamination is a serious threat to human health. Among the existing technologies available for mercury pollution control, the adsorption process can get excellent separation effects and has been further studied. This review is attempted to cover a wide range of adsorbents that were developed for the removal of mercury from the year 2011. Various adsorbents, including the latest adsorbents, are presented along with highlighting and discussing the key advancements on their preparation, modification technologies, and strategies. By comparing their adsorption capacities, it is evident from the literature survey that some adsorbents have shown excellent potential for the removal of mercury. However, there is still a need to develop novel, efficient adsorbents with low cost, high stability, and easy production and manufacture for practical utility.

  9. Method for the removal and recovery of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterly, Clay E.; Vass, Arpad A.; Tyndall, Richard L.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

  10. Method for removal and stabilization of mercury in mercury-containing gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Thomas E.

    2005-09-13

    The present invention is directed to a process and apparatus for removing and stabilizing mercury from mercury-containing gas streams. A gas stream containing vapor phase elemental and/or speciated mercury is contacted with reagent, such as an oxygen-containing oxidant, in a liquid environment to form a mercury-containing precipitate. The mercury-containing precipitate is kept or placed in solution and reacts with one or more additional reagents to form a solid, stable mercury-containing compound.

  11. Removal of mercury from water using pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helal, A.A.A.

    2006-01-01

    In a previous study, the sorption of radiocobalt by powdered pottery materials was investigated. The use of these materials as immobilization matrix for liquid radioactive waste requires the employment of pottery vessels. Therefore, the present study aims to give detailed investigations of the decontamination of radionuclides and toxic elements using pottery containers. These investigations are equally useful to elucidate how far these vessels can be utilized for water purification through decontamination of toxic and heavy metals. The radionuclide or heavy metal removal capability using pottery pots, as low cost sorbents, has been investigated for both radioactive ( 203 Hg) and stable mercury. The results indicated that Hg 2+ is better removed by pottery from neutral to alkaline solutions. The capacity of the used pottery container (100 ml in volume) for complete removal of mercury was found to reach 3 x 10 -4 mol/l, and the time needed was 8 hours. The sorption process was suggested to occur via adsorption and ion exchange. The effect of presence of humic or fulvic acid, as ligands abundant in water, is also investigated. The results imply that, in absence of humic or fulvic acid the sorption follows the expected behaviour, i.e. sorption sites with similar affinity for mercury. In presence of humic or fulvic acid, additional sorption sites are available by the organic molecule when it is associated to the pottery. (orig.)

  12. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Edwin S [Grand Forks, ND; Holmes, Michael J [Thompson, ND; Pavlish, John H [East Grand Forks, MN

    2008-10-14

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  13. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Edwin S [Grand Forks, ND; Holmes, Michael J [Thompson, ND; Pavlish, John H [East Grand Forks, MN

    2012-05-01

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  14. Accumulation, elimination and chemical speciation of mercury in the bivalves Mytilus edulis and Macoma balthica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, H. U.; Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, F.

    1985-01-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis) transferred in net bags from clean to chronically mercury polluted water readily accumulated mercury during an exposure period of three months. Growth of the transplanted mussels had a “diluting” effect on the mercury concentration, but the absolute weight of mercury uptake...... increased throughout the entire period, though there was a tendency for decreased efficiency of the removal of mercury per liter of water filtered by the mussels. Mussels were also translocated from polluted to clean (laboratory) water to depurate mercury. The biological half-lives of mercury was 293 d...

  15. Removal of mercury from coal via a microbial pretreatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borole, Abhijeet P [Knoxville, TN; Hamilton, Choo Y [Knoxville, TN

    2011-08-16

    A process for the removal of mercury from coal prior to combustion is disclosed. The process is based on use of microorganisms to oxidize iron, sulfur and other species binding mercury within the coal, followed by volatilization of mercury by the microorganisms. The microorganisms are from a class of iron and/or sulfur oxidizing bacteria. The process involves contacting coal with the bacteria in a batch or continuous manner. The mercury is first solubilized from the coal, followed by microbial reduction to elemental mercury, which is stripped off by sparging gas and captured by a mercury recovery unit, giving mercury-free coal. The mercury can be recovered in pure form from the sorbents via additional processing.

  16. Exposure to mercury and silver during removal of amalgam restorations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.; Hensten-Pettersen, A.; Beltesbrekke, H.

    1980-01-01

    The content of particulate matter and mercury vapor in dentist breathing air during removal of amalgam restorations was assessed. Mercury and silver were quantitatively assayed by nuclerar chemical analysis, and the mercury vapor concentration was measured with a sniffer. When the water spray was not used, the short time threshold limit values for exposure to mercury and silver were exceeded about 10 times. With water spray the mercury content was reduced to a level considerably lower that the threshold limit value, whereas the silver concentration slightly exceeded the corresponding limit. (author)

  17. Exposure to mercury and silver during removal of amalgam restorations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.; Hensten-Pettersen, A.; Beltesbrekke, H.

    1980-01-01

    The content of particulate matter and mercury vapor in dentist breathing air during removal of amalgam restorations was assessed. Mercury and silver were quantitatively assayed by nuclear chemical analysis, and the mercury vapor concentration was measured with a sniffer. When the water spray was not used, the short time threshold limit values for exposure to mercury and silver were exceeded about 10 times. With water spray the mercury content was reduced to a level considerably lower than the threshold limit value, whereas the silver concentration slightly exceeded the corresponding limit. (author)

  18. Method selection for mercury removal from hard coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziok Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is commonly found in coal and the coal utilization processes constitute one of the main sources of mercury emission to the environment. This issue is particularly important for Poland, because the Polish energy production sector is based on brown and hard coal. The forecasts show that this trend in energy production will continue in the coming years. At the time of the emission limits introduction, methods of reducing the mercury emission will have to be implemented in Poland. Mercury emission can be reduced as a result of using coal with a relatively low mercury content. In the case of the absence of such coals, the methods of mercury removal from coal can be implemented. The currently used and developing methods include the coal cleaning process (both the coal washing and the dry deshaling as well as the thermal pretreatment of coal (mild pyrolysis. The effectiveness of these methods various for different coals, which is caused by the diversity of coal origin, various characteristics of coal and, especially, by the various modes of mercury occurrence in coal. It should be mentioned that the coal cleaning process allows for the removal of mercury occurring in mineral matter, mainly in pyrite. The thermal pretreatment of coal allows for the removal of mercury occurring in organic matter as well as in the inorganic constituents characterized by a low temperature of mercury release. In this paper, the guidelines for the selection of mercury removal method from hard coal were presented. The guidelines were developed taking into consideration: the effectiveness of mercury removal from coal in the process of coal cleaning and thermal pretreatment, the synergy effect resulting from the combination of these processes, the direction of coal utilization as well as the influence of these processes on coal properties.

  19. Thiacrown polymers for removal of mercury from waste streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Theodore F.; Reynolds, John G.; Fox, Glenn A.

    2004-02-24

    Thiacrown polymers immobilized to a polystyrene-divinylbenzene matrix react with Hg.sup.2+ under a variety of conditions to efficiently and selectively remove Hg.sup.2+ ions from acidic aqueous solutions, even in the presence of a variety of other metal ions. The mercury can be recovered and the polymer regenerated. This mercury removal method has utility in the treatment of industrial wastewater, where a selective and cost-effective removal process is required.

  20. Mercury removal in utility wet scrubber using a chelating agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhein, Gerald T.

    2001-01-01

    A method for capturing and reducing the mercury content of an industrial flue gas such as that produced in the combustion of a fossil fuel or solid waste adds a chelating agent, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or other similar compounds like HEDTA, DTPA and/or NTA, to the flue gas being scrubbed in a wet scrubber used in the industrial process. The chelating agent prevents the reduction of oxidized mercury to elemental mercury, thereby increasing the mercury removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. Exemplary tests on inlet and outlet mercury concentration in an industrial flue gas were performed without and with EDTA addition. Without EDTA, mercury removal totaled 42%. With EDTA, mercury removal increased to 71%. The invention may be readily adapted to known wet scrubber systems and it specifically provides for the removal of unwanted mercury both by supplying S.sup.2- ions to convert Hg.sup.2+ ions into mercuric sulfide (HgS) and by supplying a chelating agent to sequester other ions, including but not limited to Fe.sup.2+ ions, which could otherwise induce the unwanted reduction of Hg.sup.2+ to the form, Hg.sup.0.

  1. Method for removal of mercury from various gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.

    2003-06-10

    The invention provides for a method for removing elemental mercury from a fluid, the method comprising irradiating the mercury with light having a wavelength of approximately 254 nm. The method is implemented in situ at various fuel combustion locations such as power plants and municipal incinerators.

  2. Trace-level mercury removal from surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasson, K.T.; Bostick, D.T.

    1998-01-01

    Many sorbents have been developed for the removal of mercury and heavy metals from waters; however, most of the data published thus far do not address the removal of mercury to the target levels represented in this project. The application to which these sorbents are targeted for use is the removal of mercury from microgram-per-liter levels to low nanogram-per-liter levels. Sorbents with thiouronium, thiol, amine, sulfur, and proprietary functional groups were selected for these studies. Mercury was successfully removed from surface water via adsorption onto Ionac SR-4 and Mersorb resins to levels below the target goal of 12 ng/L in batch studies. A thiol-based resin performed the best, indicating that over 200,000 volumes of water could be treated with one volume of resin. The cost of the resin is approximately $0.24 per 1,000 gal of water

  3. Treatment of radioactive laboratory waste for mercury removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteen, A.B.; Bibler, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Routine analyses of Savannah River Laboratory wastes at the Savannah River Site occasionally reveal mercury concentrations in the waste in excess of the 0.200 μg/L RCRA limit. An ion exchange resin has been demonstrated to be effective for the removal of dissolved mercury from laboratory waste in a special permitted project. The ion exchange material is Duolite trademark GT-73, a polystyrene/divinylbenzene resin with thiol functional groups. As a result of the decontamination demonstration, the resin is in use or under consideration for use with several other SRS radwaste streams as a reliable medium for mercury removal

  4. Mercury nano-trap for effective and efficient removal of mercury(II) from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baiyan; Zhang, Yiming; Ma, Dingxuan; Shi, Zhan; Ma, Shengqian

    2014-11-01

    Highly effective and highly efficient decontamination of mercury from aqueous media remains a serious task for public health and ecosystem protection. Here we report that this task can be addressed by creating a mercury ‘nano-trap’ as illustrated by functionalizing a high surface area and robust porous organic polymer with a high density of strong mercury chelating groups. The resultant porous organic polymer-based mercury ‘nano-trap’ exhibits a record-high saturation mercury uptake capacity of over 1,000 mg g-1, and can effectively reduce the mercury(II) concentration from 10 p.p.m. to the extremely low level of smaller than 0.4 p.p.b. well below the acceptable limits in drinking water standards (2 p.p.b.), and can also efficiently remove >99.9% mercury(II) within a few minutes. Our work therefore presents a new benchmark for mercury adsorbent materials and provides a new perspective for removing mercury(II) and also other heavy metal ions from contaminated water for environmental remediation.

  5. Mercury removal from natural gas and associated condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennico, A.; Barthel, Y.; Courty, P. (Institut Francais du Petrole, 31 - Rueil-Malmaison (France). Direction Industrielle)

    1990-01-01

    IFP mercury trapping systems are based on CMG 273, the recently developed Procatalyse product which is the heart of IFP's gas phase and liquid phase mercury removal technology. This material, made of highly macroporous alumina supporting a metal sulfide, presents a very high reactivity towards mecury within a broad range of operating conditions, including those operating in the liquid phase. Characteristics of CMG 273 are presented. (orig.).

  6. Removal of mercury by foam fractionation using surfactin, a biosurfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hau-Ren; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Reddy, A Satyanarayana; Chen, Chien-Yen; Li, Wun Rong; Tseng, Min-Jen; Liu, Hung-Tsan; Pan, Wei; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Atla, Shashi B

    2011-01-01

    The separation of mercury ions from artificially contaminated water by the foam fractionation process using a biosurfactant (surfactin) and chemical surfactants (SDS and Tween-80) was investigated in this study. Parameters such as surfactant and mercury concentration, pH, foam volume, and digestion time were varied and their effects on the efficiency of mercury removal were investigated. The recovery efficiency of mercury ions was highly sensitive to the concentration of the surfactant. The highest mercury ion recovery by surfactin was obtained using a surfactin concentration of 10 × CMC, while recovery using SDS required 10 × CMC. However, the enrichment of mercury ions in the foam was superior with surfactin, the mercury enrichment value corresponding to the highest metal recovery (10.4%) by surfactin being 1.53. Dilute solutions (2-mg L(-1) Hg(2+)) resulted in better separation (36.4%), while concentrated solutions (100 mg L(-1)) enabled only a 2.3% recovery using surfactin. An increase in the digestion time of the metal solution with surfactin yielded better separation as compared with a freshly-prepared solution, and an increase in the airflow rate increased bubble production, resulting in higher metal recovery but low enrichment. Basic solutions yielded higher mercury separation as compared with acidic solutions due to the precipitation of surfactin under acidic conditions.

  7. Removal of Mercury by Foam Fractionation Using Surfactin, a Biosurfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi B. Atla

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The separation of mercury ions from artificially contaminated water by the foam fractionation process using a biosurfactant (surfactin and chemical surfactants (SDS and Tween-80 was investigated in this study. Parameters such as surfactant and mercury concentration, pH, foam volume, and digestion time were varied and their effects on the efficiency of mercury removal were investigated. The recovery efficiency of mercury ions was highly sensitive to the concentration of the surfactant. The highest mercury ion recovery by surfactin was obtained using a surfactin concentration of 10 × CMC, while recovery using SDS required < 10 × CMC and Tween-80 >10 × CMC. However, the enrichment of mercury ions in the foam was superior with surfactin, the mercury enrichment value corresponding to the highest metal recovery (10.4% by surfactin being 1.53. Dilute solutions (2-mg L−1 Hg2+ resulted in better separation (36.4%, while concentrated solutions (100 mg L−1 enabled only a 2.3% recovery using surfactin. An increase in the digestion time of the metal solution with surfactin yielded better separation as compared with a freshly-prepared solution, and an increase in the airflow rate increased bubble production, resulting in higher metal recovery but low enrichment. Basic solutions yielded higher mercury separation as compared with acidic solutions due to the precipitation of surfactin under acidic conditions.

  8. Mercury removal from coal combustion flue gas by fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, Junyan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Process Pollution Control; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Graduate Univ.; Xu, Wenqing; Zhu, Tingyu; Jing, Pengfei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Process Pollution Control

    2013-07-01

    The effect of physicochemical properties on the mercury adsorption performance of three fly ash samples has been investigated. The samples were tested for mercury adsorption using a fixed-bed with a simulated gas. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and other methods were used to characterize the samples. The results indicate that mercury adsorption on fly ash is mainly physisorption and chemisorption. Uncompleted burned carbon is an important factor for the improvement of mercury removal efficiency, especially, the C-M bond may improve the oxidation of mercury, which formed via the reaction of C and Ti, Si and other elements. The higher specific surface areas and smaller pore diameter are all beneficial for the high mercury removal efficiency. The presence of O{sub 2} plays a positive role on Hg adsorption of modified fly ash, while SO{sub 2} has double role of inhibition because of competitive adsorption and promotion to chemisorption. In addition, sample modified with FeCl{sub 3} has a great performance in Hg removal.

  9. Thief process for the removal of mercury from flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, Henry W.; Granite, Evan J.; Freeman, Mark C.; Hargis, Richard A.; O'Dowd, William J.

    2003-02-18

    A system and method for removing mercury from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant is described. Mercury removal is by adsorption onto a thermally activated sorbent produced in-situ at the power plant. To obtain the thermally activated sorbent, a lance (thief) is inserted into a location within the combustion zone of the combustion chamber and extracts a mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas. The semi-combusted coal has adsorptive properties suitable for the removal of elemental and oxidized mercury. The mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas is separated into a stream of gas and semi-combusted coal that has been converted to a stream of thermally activated sorbent. The separated stream of gas is recycled to the combustion chamber. The thermally activated sorbent is injected into the duct work of the power plant at a location downstream from the exit port of the combustion chamber. Mercury within the flue gas contacts and adsorbs onto the thermally activated sorbent. The sorbent-mercury combination is removed from the plant by a particulate collection system.

  10. Active methods of mercury removal from flue gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczak, Marta; Budzyń, Stanisław; Szczurowski, Jakub; Kogut, Krzysztof; Burmistrz, Piotr

    2018-03-23

    Due to its adverse impact on health, as well as its global distribution, long atmospheric lifetime and propensity for deposition in the aquatic environment and in living tissue, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has classified mercury and its compounds as a severe air quality threat. Such widespread presence of mercury in the environment originates from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Global anthropogenic emission of mercury is evaluated at 2000 Mg year -1 . According to the National Centre for Emissions Management (Pol. KOBiZE) report for 2014, Polish annual mercury emissions amount to approximately 10 Mg. Over 90% of mercury emissions in Poland originate from combustion of coal.The purpose of this paper was to understand mercury behaviour during sub-bituminous coal and lignite combustion for flue gas purification in terms of reduction of emissions by active methods. The average mercury content in Polish sub-bituminous coal and lignite was 103.7 and 443.5 μg kg -1 . The concentration of mercury in flue gases emitted into the atmosphere was 5.3 μg m -3 for sub-bituminous coal and 17.5 μg m -3 for lignite. The study analysed six low-cost sorbents with the average achieved efficiency of mercury removal from 30.6 to 92.9% for sub-bituminous coal and 22.8 to 80.3% for lignite combustion. Also, the effect of coke dust grain size was examined for mercury sorptive properties. The fine fraction of coke dust (CD) adsorbed within 243-277 μg Hg kg -1 , while the largest fraction at only 95 μg Hg kg -1 . The CD fraction physical oxidation of Hg in the flue gas, its effectiveness has increased twofold.

  11. Apparatus and method for removing mercury vapor from a gas stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Kumar [Butte, MT

    2008-01-01

    A metallic filter effectively removes mercury vapor from gas streams. The filter captures the mercury which then can be released and collected as product. The metallic filter is a copper mesh sponge plated with a six micrometer thickness of gold. The filter removes up to 90% of mercury vapor from a mercury contaminated gas stream.

  12. Isotopic fractionation during the uptake and elimination of inorganic mercury by a marine fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the mass dependent (MDF) and independent fractionation (MIF) of stable mercury isotopes in fish during the uptake and elimination of inorganic species. Mercury accumulation during the exposure led to re-equilibration of organ isotopic compositions with the external sources, and elimination terminated the equilibrating with isotope ratios moving back to the original values. Generally, the isotopic behaviors corresponded to the changes of Hg accumulation in the muscle and liver, causing by the internal transportation, organ redistribution, and mixing of different sources. A small degree of MDF caused by biotransformation of Hg in the liver was documented during the elimination, whereas MIF was not observed. The absence of MIF during geochemical and metabolic processes suggested that mercury isotopes can be used as source tracers. Additionally, fish liver is a more responsive organ than muscle to track Hg source when it is mainly composed of inorganic species. - Highlights: • Isotopic behavior of Hg(II) during the uptake and elimination by a marine fish was studied. • Hg isotopic fractionation in the organ corresponded to the changes of Hg bioaccumulation. • Internal transportation, redistribution and mixing of different sources explained the isotopic changes. • Mass dependent fractionation in the liver was found during Hg elimination. • Liver is more responsive than muscle to track Hg sources using Hg stable isotopes. - Fish liver is a more responsive organ than muscle when mercury stable isotopes are applied to track sources that are mainly composed of inorganic species.

  13. Mercury and tritium removal from DOE waste oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, E.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This work covers the investigation of vacuum extraction as a means to remove tritiated contamination as well as the removal via sorption of dissolved mercury from contaminated oils. The radiation damage in oils from tritium causes production of hydrogen, methane, and low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons. When tritium gas is present in the oil, the tritium atom is incorporated into the formed hydrocarbons. The transformer industry measures gas content/composition of transformer oils as a diagnostic tool for the transformers` condition. The analytical approach (ASTM D3612-90) used for these measurements is vacuum extraction of all gases (H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, etc.) followed by analysis of the evolved gas mixture. This extraction method will be adapted to remove dissolved gases (including tritium) from the SRS vacuum pump oil. It may be necessary to heat (60{degrees}C to 70{degrees}C) the oil during vacuum extraction to remove tritiated water. A method described in the procedures is a stripper column extraction, in which a carrier gas (argon) is used to remove dissolved gases from oil that is dispersed on high surface area beads. This method appears promising for scale-up as a treatment process, and a modified process is also being used as a dewatering technique by SD Myers, Inc. (a transformer consulting company) for transformers in the field by a mobile unit. Although some mercury may be removed during the vacuum extraction, the most common technique for removing mercury from oil is by using sulfur-impregnated activated carbon (SIAC). SIAC is currently being used by the petroleum industry to remove mercury from hydrocarbon mixtures, but the sorbent has not been previously tested on DOE vacuum oil waste. It is anticipated that a final process will be similar to technologies used by the petroleum industry and is comparable to ion exchange operations in large column-type reactors.

  14. Improving the work environment in the fluorescent lamp recycling sector by optimizing mercury elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecler, Marie-Thérèse; Zimmermann, François; Silvente, Eric; Masson, Alain; Morèle, Yves; Remy, Aurélie; Chollot, Alain

    2018-02-26

    One of the main issues in the fluorescent lamp recycling sector is the mercury contamination of output fractions and occupational exposure associated with recycling operations. The aim of this study is to carry out effective mercury mass balance determinations and improve mercury recovery by finding the optimal levels for the recycling process parameters. These optimizations will allow upstream mercury emissions to be reduced, which will help to avoid mercury exposure among WEEE recycling workers. Firstly, the distribution of mercury was assessed in new and spent lamps. For new fluorescent tubes, the mean percentage of mercury in the solid phase is lower in new fluorescent tubes (19.5% with 5.5% in glass, 9.7% in end caps and 4.3% in luminescent powder) than in spent tubes (33.3% with 8.3% in glass, 12.9% in end caps and 12.1% in luminescent powder). The parametric study also shows that the finer the grains of glass, the higher the concentration of mercury (1.2 µg Hg/g for glass size particle >1000 µm and 152.0 µg Hg/g for glass size particle recycling companies employ processes combining as heating and mixing techniques for the recovery of mercury from lamps in order to both (i) remove as much of the mercury as possible in vapor form and (ii) avoid adsorption of the mercury at new sites created during the crushing process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mercury Removal from Natural Gas in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkor, H.; AI-Alf, A.; EI-Behairy, S.

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide natural gas is forecasted to be the fastest growing primary energy source. In Egypt, natural gas is recently playing a key role as one of the major energy sources. This is supported by adequate gas reserves, booming gas industry, and unique geographical location. Egypt's current proven gas reserves accounted for about 62 TCF, in addition to about 100 TCF as probable gas reserves. As a result, it was decided to enter the gas exporting market, where gas is transported through pipelines as in the Arab Gas pipelines project and as a liquid through the liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Damietta, and ld ku. With the start up of these currently implemented LNG projects that are dealing with the very low temperatures (down to -162 degree c), the gas has to be subjected to a regular analysis in order to check the compliance with the required specifications. Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands, and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment: while other traces exist in production, transportation and processing systems

  16. Mercury Removal from Natural Gas in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkor, H; AI-Alf, A; EI-Behairy, S [EGAS, Cairo (Egypt)

    2004-07-01

    Worldwide natural gas is forecasted to be the fastest growing primary energy source. In Egypt, natural gas is recently playing a key role as one of the major energy sources. This is supported by adequate gas reserves, booming gas industry, and unique geographical location. Egypt's current proven gas reserves accounted for about 62 TCF, in addition to about 100 TCF as probable gas reserves. As a result, it was decided to enter the gas exporting market, where gas is transported through pipelines as in the Arab Gas pipelines project and as a liquid through the liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Damietta, and ld ku. With the start up of these currently implemented LNG projects that are dealing with the very low temperatures (down to -162 degree c), the gas has to be subjected to a regular analysis in order to check the compliance with the required specifications. Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands, and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment: while other traces exist in production, transportation and processing systems.

  17. Non-carbon sorbents for mercury removal from flue gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alptekin, G.O.; Dubovik, M.; Cesario, M. [TDA Research Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States)

    2005-07-01

    TDA Research Inc. is developing a new sorbent that can effectively remove mercury from flue gases. It is made of non-carbon based materials and will therefore not alter the properties of the fly ash. The sorbent can be produced as an injectable powder. The paper summarises the initial testing results of the new sorbent. The sorbent exhibited 7.5 to 11.0 mg/g mercury absorption capacity under representative flue gas streams depending on the operating temperature and gas hourly space velocity. The sorbent also showed resistance to sulfur poisoning by sulfur dioxide. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Method for the removal of elemental mercury from a gas stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S.

    1999-05-04

    A method is provided to remove elemental mercury from a gas stream by reacting the gas stream with an oxidizing solution to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds. Other constituents are also oxidized. The gas stream is then passed through a wet scrubber to remove the mercuric compounds and oxidized constituents. 7 figs.

  19. Method for combined removal of mercury and nitrogen oxides from off-gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H [Downers Grove, IL; Livengood, C David [Lockport, IL

    2006-10-10

    A method for removing elemental Hg and nitric oxide simultaneously from a gas stream is provided whereby the gas stream is reacted with gaseous chlorinated compound to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds and the nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide. The method works to remove either mercury or nitrogen oxide in the absence or presence of each other.

  20. Method for the removal of elemental mercury from a gas stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H.; Huang, Hann-Sheng

    1999-01-01

    A method is provided to remove elemental mercury from a gas stream by reacting the gas stream with an oxidizing solution to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds. Other constituents are also oxidized. The gas stream is then passed through a wet scrubber to remove the mercuric compounds and oxidized constituents.

  1. Proposed experiment for SnCl2 treatment of Outfall 200 for the purpose of mercury removal from East Fork Poplar Creek, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, G.R.

    1997-03-01

    Identification and treatment/elimination of point sources of mercury (Hg) to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) within the Y-12 Plant have reduced base flow mercury concentrations considerably; but, after all such actions are completed, nonpoint sources will continue to add mercury to the creek. Studies conducted in 1996 on the use of air stripping to remove elemental mercury from Outfall 51, a mercury-contaminated natural spring, demonstrated that the addition of trace concentrations of stannous chloride (SnCl 2 ) converted a large fraction of the dissolved mercury in the outfall to elemental mercury, which could subsequently be removed by air stripping. Dissolved mercury is the dominant form in EFPC at the north/south (N/S) pipes, where it emerges from the underground storm drain network. More than 50% of that mercury is capable of being rapidly reduced by the addition of a 3--5 fold molar excess of stannous chloride. Upon conversion to the volatile gaseous (elemental) form, mercury would be lost across the air-water interface through natural volatilization. EFPC within the Y-12 Plant is shallow, turbulent, and open to sunlight and wind, providing conditions that facilitate natural evasion of volatile chemicals from the water. Preliminary calculations estimate that 75% or more of the elemental mercury could be removed via evasion between the N/S pipes and the Y-l2 Plant boundary (Station 17). Alternatively, elemental mercury might be removed from EFPC in a short reach of stream below the N/S pipes by an in-situ air stripping system which bubbles air through the water column. The purpose of these proposed experiments is to test whether natural volatilization or in-situ air stripping may be used to further reduce baseflow concentrations of mercury in EFPC. Results of this experiment will be useful for understanding the transport and fate of other volatile chemicals in the upper reaches of EFPC

  2. Mercury removal from liquid and solid mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.D.; Klasson, K.T.; Corder, S.L.; Cameron, P.A.; Perona, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Based on bench-scale laboratory experiments, the following conclusions were reached: Sulfur-impregnated, activated, carbon pellets (Mersorb) can be used to remove mercury (Hg 2+ ) to below EPA's toxic characteristic level (0.2 mg/L). Mersorb works under acid conditions (pH 2) but its capacity is reduced by approximately 50% compared with neutral conditions. Competing ions present in the target waste stream reduced the Mersorb capacity by 50%. Mersorb appears to be economical compared with leading ion exchange resin. KI/I 2 leaching solution can be used to remove up to 99% of Hg in contaminated soil and glass. KI/I 2 leaching solution worked well with several mercury species, including Hg 0 , HgO, HgS, and HgCl 2 . KI/I 2 leaching solution worked well with a wide variety of initial mercury concentrations. Radionuclide surrogate studies suggested that uranium will not partition into KI/I 2 leaching solutions. Cesium may partition into the KI/I 2 leaching solution because of the high solubility of cesium salts

  3. Removal of mercury (II), elemental mercury and arsenic from simulated flue gas by ammonium sulphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Ping; Guo, Xiaolong; Wang, Xueqian; Wang, Ping; Ma, Yixing; Lan, Yi

    2015-01-01

    A tubular resistance furnace was used as a reactor to simulate mercury and arsenic in smelter flue gases by heating mercury and arsenic compounds. The flue gas containing Hg(2+), Hg(0) and As was treated with ammonium sulphide. The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of varying the concentration of ammonium sulphide, the pH value of ammonium sulphide, the temperature of ammonium sulphide, the presence of SO2 and the presence of sulphite ion on removal efficiency. The prepared adsorption products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the optimal concentration of ammonium sulphide was 0.8 mol/L. The optimal pH value of ammonium sulphide was 10, and the optimal temperature of ammonium sulphide was 20°C.Under the optimum conditions, the removal efficiency of Hg(2+), Hg(0) and As could reach 99%, 88.8%, 98%, respectively. In addition, SO2 and sulphite ion could reduce the removal efficiency of mercury and arsenic from simulated flue gas.

  4. Self-Assembled Mercaptan on Mesoporous Silica (SAMMS) technology of mercury removal and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Xiangdong; Liu, Jun; Fryxell, G.E.

    1997-09-01

    This paper explains the technology developed to produce Self-Assembled Mercaptan on Mesoporous Silica (SAMMS) for mercury removal from aqueous wastewater and from organic wastes. The characteristics of SAMMS materials, including physical characteristics and mercury loading, and its application for mercury removal and stabilization are discussed. Binding kinetics and binding speciations are reported. Preliminary cost estimates are provided for producing SAMMS materials and for mercury removal from wastewater. The characteristics of SAMMS in mercury separation were studied at PNNL using simulated aqueous tank wastes and actual tritiated pump oil wastes from Savannah River Site; preliminary results are outlined. 47 refs., 16 figs., 16 tabs

  5. Self-Assembled Mercaptan on Mesoporous Silica (SAMMS) technology of mercury removal and stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xiangdong; Liu, Jun; Fryxell, G.E. [and others

    1997-09-01

    This paper explains the technology developed to produce Self-Assembled Mercaptan on Mesoporous Silica (SAMMS) for mercury removal from aqueous wastewater and from organic wastes. The characteristics of SAMMS materials, including physical characteristics and mercury loading, and its application for mercury removal and stabilization are discussed. Binding kinetics and binding speciations are reported. Preliminary cost estimates are provided for producing SAMMS materials and for mercury removal from wastewater. The characteristics of SAMMS in mercury separation were studied at PNNL using simulated aqueous tank wastes and actual tritiated pump oil wastes from Savannah River Site; preliminary results are outlined. 47 refs., 16 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. Removal of mercury from sludge using ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, J.P.; Wallace, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory scale batch tests and fluidized bed column tests show that ES-465 cation exchange resin removes >90% of the mercury from formated simulated sludge and formated high-level radioactive sludge. Similar experiments using formated simulated sludge which has been steam stripped indicated that the resin is capable of removing about 75% of the mercury from that system in the same time 90% could be removed from sludge which has not been steam stripped. The percent removed can be improved by operating at higher temperatures. Early batch experiments showed that abrasion from vigorous stirring of the sludge/ES-465 mixture caused the resin to degrade into particles too small to separate from the slurry after reaction. To protect the resin from abrasion, a resin-in-sludge mode of operation was designed wherein the sludge slurry contacts the resin by flowing through a bed retained between two screens in a column. The process has been demonstrated using both a 0.5 in. internal 0.5 in. diameter upflow column containing two milliliters of resin and a 6.4 in. internal diameter stirred bed downflow column containing one liter of resin

  7. Evaluation of mercury speciation and removal through air pollution control devices of a 190 MW boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengli; Cao, Yan; Dong, Zhongbing; Cheng, Chinmin; Li, Hanxu; Pan, Weiping

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution control devices (APCDs) are installed at coal-fired power plants for air pollutant regulation. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems have the co-benefits of air pollutant and mercury removal. Configuration and operational conditions of APCDs and mercury speciation affect mercury removal efficiently at coal-fired utilities. The Ontario Hydro Method (OHM) recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was used to determine mercury speciation simultaneously at five sampling locations through SCR-ESP-FGD at a 190 MW unit. Chlorine in coal had been suggested as a factor affecting the mercury speciation in flue gas; and low-chlorine coal was purported to produce less oxidized mercury (Hg2+) and more elemental mercury (Hg0) at the SCR inlet compared to higher chlorine coal. SCR could oxidize elemental mercury into oxidized mercury when SCR was in service, and oxidation efficiency reached 71.0%. Therefore, oxidized mercury removal efficiency was enhanced through a wet FGD system. In the non-ozone season, about 89.5%-96.8% of oxidized mercury was controlled, but only 54.9%-68.8% of the total mercury was captured through wet FGD. Oxidized mercury removal efficiency was 95.9%-98.0%, and there was a big difference in the total mercury removal efficiencies from 78.0% to 90.2% in the ozone season. Mercury mass balance was evaluated to validate reliability of OHM testing data, and the ratio of mercury input in the coal to mercury output at the stack was from 0.84 to 1.08.

  8. The experiment of the elemental mercury was removed from natural gas by 4A molecular sieve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cong; Chen, Yanhao

    2018-04-01

    Most of the world's natural gas fields contain elemental mercury and mercury compounds, and the amount of mercury in natural gas is generally 1μg/m3 200μg/m3. This paper analyzes the mercury removal principle of chemical adsorption process, the characteristics and application of mercury removal gent and the factors that affect the efficiency of mercury removal. The mercury in the natural gas is adsorbed by the mercury-silver reaction of the 4 molecular sieve after the manned treatment. The limits for mercury content for natural gas for different uses and different treatment processes are also different. From the environmental protection, safety and other factors, it is recommended that the mercury content of natural gas in the pipeline is less than 28μg / m3, and the mercury content of the raw material gas in the equipment such as natural gas liquefaction and natural gas condensate recovery is less than 0.01μg/m3. This paper mainly analyzes the existence of mercury in natural gas, and the experimental research process of using 4A molecular sieve to absorb mercury in natural gas.

  9. Feasibility of mercury removal from simulated flue gas by activated chars made from poultry manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased emphasis on reduction of mercury emissions from coal fired electric power plants has resulted in environmental regulations that may in the future require application of activated carbons as mercury sorbents for mercury removal. At the same time, the quantity of poultry manure generated eac...

  10. Functionalized diatom silica microparticles for removal of mercury ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yang; Addai-Mensah, Jonas; Losic, Dusan

    2012-01-01

    Diatom silica microparticles were chemically modified with self-assembled monolayers of 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane (MPTMS), 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (APTES) and n-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (AEAPTMS), and their application for the adsorption of mercury ions (Hg(II)) is demonstrated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses revealed that the functional groups (–SH or –NH 2 ) were successfully grafted onto the diatom silica surface. The kinetics and efficiency of Hg(II) adsorption were markedly improved by the chemical functionalization of diatom microparticles. The relationship among the type of functional groups, pH and adsorption efficiency of mercury ions was established. The Hg(II) adsorption reached equilibrium within 60 min with maximum adsorption capacities of 185.2, 131.7 and 169.5 mg g -1 for particles functionalized with MPTMS, APTES and AEAPTMS, respectively. The adsorption behavior followed a pseudo-second-order reaction model and Langmuirian isotherm. These results show that mercapto- or amino-functionalized diatom microparticles are promising natural, cost-effective and environmentally benign adsorbents suitable for the removal of mercury ions from aqueous solutions.

  11. Electrochemical synthesis of gold nanorods in track-etched polycarbonate membrane using removable mercury cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Manoj K.; Ambolikar, Arvind S.; Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical template synthesis of gold nanorods within the cylindrical pores of track-etched polycarbonate (PC) membrane using a removable mercury cathode is reported. The novelty of this new approach is that it eliminates the requirement of coating an approximately 500 nm–1 μm-thick metallic layer, as conducting substrate, onto one surface of the insulating template membrane by the sputter deposition technique. A two-compartment electrochemical cell was designed and used for this work. The PC membrane was placed between the two compartments separating the aqueous solution of HAuCl 4 from mercury. Mercury, filled in one of the compartments, is in contact with one surface of the membrane (similar to sputter-deposited metallic layer) and serves as the conducting substrate/cathode for the electrochemical deposition of gold in the nanopores of track-etched PC membrane. Once the electrodeposition is completed, the mercury and the HAuCl 4 solution are removed from the compartments, and a malleable track-etched PC membrane embedded with free-standing gold nanorods is obtained. The ensemble of the metal nanorods grown in the template membrane is not attached to any conducting substrate, and gold nanorods can be freed from the template membrane after the dissolution. The Au-deposited PC membrane and free-standing Au nanorods were characterized by EDXRF, XRD, UV–Visible spectroscopy, AFM, and FEG-TEM. The EDXRF and XRD studies confirmed the deposition of the face-centered cubic phase of Au in the pores of the PC membrane. The TEM studies showed the formation of a cigar-shaped gold nanorod in the cylindrical pores of the PC membrane. The diameter of gold nanorods ranges from 100 to 200 nm. The new approach is simple, cost-effective, and saves time.

  12. The secondary release of mercury in coal fly ash-based flue-gas mercury removal technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingfeng; Duan, Chenlong; Lei, Mingzhe; Zhu, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    The secondary release of mercury from coal fly ash is a negative by-product from coal-fired power plants, and requires effective control to reduce environmental pollution. Analysing particle size distribution and composition of the coal fly ash produced by different mercury removing technologies indicates that the particles are generally less than 0.5 mm in size and are composed mainly of SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3. The relationships between mercury concentration in the coal fly ash, its particle size, and loss of ignition were studied using different mercury removing approaches. The research indicates that the coal fly ash's mercury levels are significantly higher after injecting activated carbon or brominating activated carbon when compared to regular cooperating-pollution control technology. This is particularly true for particle size ranges of >0.125, 0.075-0.125, and 0.05-0.075 mm. Leaching experiments revealed the secondary release of mercury in discarded coal fly ash. The concentration of mercury in the coal fly ash increases as the quantity of injecting activated carbon or brominating activated carbon increases. The leached concentrations of mercury increase as the particle size of the coal fly ash increases. Therefore, the secondary release of mercury can be controlled by adding suitable activated carbon or brominating activated carbon when disposing of coal fly ash. Adding CaBr2 before coal combustion in the boiler also helps control the secondary release of mercury, by increasing the Hg(2+) concentration in the leachate. This work provides a theoretical foundation for controlling and removing mercury in coal fly ash disposal.

  13. Mercury removal in wastewater by iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vélez, E; Campillo, G E; Morales, G; Hincapié, C; Osorio, J; Arnache, O; Uribe, J I; Jaramillo, F

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is one of the persistent pollutants in wastewater; it is becoming a severe environmental and public health problem, this is why nowadays its removal is an obligation. Iron oxide nanoparticles are receiving much attention due to their properties, such as: great biocompatibility, ease of separation, high relation of surface-area to volume, surface modifiability, reusability, excellent magnetic properties and relative low cost. In this experiment, Fe 3 O 4 and γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles were synthesized using iron salts and NaOH as precipitation agents, and Aloe Vera as stabilizing agent; then these nanoparticles were characterized by three different measurements: first, using a Zetasizer Nano ZS for their size estimation, secondly UV-visible spectroscopy which showed the existence of resonance of plasmon at λ max ∼360 nm, and lastly by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to determine nanoparticles form. The results of this characterization showed that the obtained Iron oxides nanoparticles have a narrow size distribution (∼100nm). Mercury removal of 70% approximately was confirmed by atomic absorption spectroscopy measurements. (paper)

  14. Experimental dosing of wetlands with coagulants removes mercury from surface water and decreases mercury bioaccumulation in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Fleck, Jacob A.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Horwarth, William R.; Bachand, Sandra M.; Herzog, Mark; Hartman, Christopher; Bachand, Philip A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury pollution is widespread globally, and strategies for managing mercury contamination in aquatic environments are necessary. We tested whether coagulation with metal-based salts could remove mercury from wetland surface waters and decrease mercury bioaccumulation in fish. In a complete randomized block design, we constructed nine experimental wetlands in California’s Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, stocked them with mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and then continuously applied agricultural drainage water that was either untreated (control), or treated with polyaluminum chloride or ferric sulfate coagulants. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in surface waters were decreased by 62% and 63% in polyaluminum chloride treated wetlands and 50% and 76% in ferric sulfate treated wetlands compared to control wetlands. Specifically, following coagulation, mercury was transferred from the filtered fraction of water into the particulate fraction of water which then settled within the wetland. Mosquitofish mercury concentrations were decreased by 35% in ferric sulfate treated wetlands compared to control wetlands. There was no reduction in mosquitofish mercury concentrations within the polyaluminum chloride treated wetlands, which may have been caused by production of bioavailable methylmercury within those wetlands. Coagulation may be an effective management strategy for reducing mercury contamination within wetlands, but further studies should explore potential effects on wetland ecosystems.

  15. Experimental dosing of wetlands with coagulants removes mercury from surface water and decreases mercury bioaccumulation in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Kraus, Tamara E C; Fleck, Jacob A; Krabbenhoft, David P; Horwath, William R; Bachand, Sandra M; Herzog, Mark P; Hartman, C Alex; Bachand, Philip A M

    2015-05-19

    Mercury pollution is widespread globally, and strategies for managing mercury contamination in aquatic environments are necessary. We tested whether coagulation with metal-based salts could remove mercury from wetland surface waters and decrease mercury bioaccumulation in fish. In a complete randomized block design, we constructed nine experimental wetlands in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, stocked them with mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), and then continuously applied agricultural drainage water that was either untreated (control), or treated with polyaluminum chloride or ferric sulfate coagulants. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in surface waters were decreased by 62% and 63% in polyaluminum chloride treated wetlands and 50% and 76% in ferric sulfate treated wetlands compared to control wetlands. Specifically, following coagulation, mercury was transferred from the filtered fraction of water into the particulate fraction of water which then settled within the wetland. Mosquitofish mercury concentrations were decreased by 35% in ferric sulfate treated wetlands compared to control wetlands. There was no reduction in mosquitofish mercury concentrations within the polyaluminum chloride treated wetlands, which may have been caused by production of bioavailable methylmercury within those wetlands. Coagulation may be an effective management strategy for reducing mercury contamination within wetlands, but further studies should explore potential effects on wetland ecosystems.

  16. Thorough removal of inorganic and organic mercury from aqueous solutions by adsorption on Lemna minor powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shunxing, E-mail: lishunxing@fjzs.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhangzhou Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Fujian Province University Key Laboratory of Analytical Science, Zhangzhou Normal University, Zhangzhou (China); Zheng Fengying; Huang Yang [Department of Chemistry, Zhangzhou Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Fujian Province University Key Laboratory of Analytical Science, Zhangzhou Normal University, Zhangzhou (China); Ni Jiancong [Department of Chemistry, Zhangzhou Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China)

    2011-02-15

    The adsorption ability of duckweed (Lemna minor) powders for removing inorganic and organic mercury (methyl and ethyl mercury) has been studied using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimal adsorption conditions were: (a) the pH value of the solution 7.0 for inorganic and ethyl mercury, 9.0 for methyl mercury, and (b) equilibrium adsorption time 10, 20, and 40 min for inorganic mercury, methyl mercury, and ethyl mercury, respectively. After adsorption by L. minor powder for 40 min, when the initial concentrations of inorganic and organic mercury were under 12.0 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 50.0 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively, the residual concentrations of mercury could meet the criterion of drinking water (1.0 {mu}g L{sup -1}) and the permitted discharge limit of wastewater (10.0 {mu}g L{sup -1}) set by China and USEPA, respectively. Thorough removal of both inorganic and organic mercury from aqueous solutions was reported for the first time. The significant adsorption sites were C-O-P and phosphate groups by the surface electrostatic interactions with aqueous inorganic and organic mercury cations, and then the selective adsorption was resulted from the strong chelating interaction between amine groups and mercury on the surface of L. minor cells.

  17. Thorough removal of inorganic and organic mercury from aqueous solutions by adsorption on Lemna minor powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shunxing; Zheng Fengying; Huang Yang; Ni Jiancong

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption ability of duckweed (Lemna minor) powders for removing inorganic and organic mercury (methyl and ethyl mercury) has been studied using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimal adsorption conditions were: (a) the pH value of the solution 7.0 for inorganic and ethyl mercury, 9.0 for methyl mercury, and (b) equilibrium adsorption time 10, 20, and 40 min for inorganic mercury, methyl mercury, and ethyl mercury, respectively. After adsorption by L. minor powder for 40 min, when the initial concentrations of inorganic and organic mercury were under 12.0 μg L -1 and 50.0 μg L -1 , respectively, the residual concentrations of mercury could meet the criterion of drinking water (1.0 μg L -1 ) and the permitted discharge limit of wastewater (10.0 μg L -1 ) set by China and USEPA, respectively. Thorough removal of both inorganic and organic mercury from aqueous solutions was reported for the first time. The significant adsorption sites were C-O-P and phosphate groups by the surface electrostatic interactions with aqueous inorganic and organic mercury cations, and then the selective adsorption was resulted from the strong chelating interaction between amine groups and mercury on the surface of L. minor cells.

  18. Investigation of Performance of hybrid nanoparticles Tio2/Sio2 in removing of Mercury from industrial waste water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Malakootian

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Due to high percentage of mercury removal at optimal conditions by hybrid nanoparticles, this method can be regarded as one of the effective ways to remove mercury compared with other methods.

  19. Mercury reduction and removal during high-level radioactive waste processing and vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibling, R.E.; Fowler, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    A reference process for immobilizing the high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass has been developed at the Savannah River Plant. This waste contains a substantial amount of mercury from separations processing. Because mercury will not remain in borosilicate glass at the processing temperature, mercury must be removed before vitrification or must be handled in the off-gas system. A process has been developed to remove mercury by reduction with formic acid prior to vitrification. Additional benefits of formic acid treatment include improved sludge handling and glass melter redox control

  20. Mercury removal from solution by superconducting magnetic separation with nanostructured magnetic adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, T., E-mail: okamoto-takayuki@ed.tmu.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Tachibana, S.; Miura, O. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Takeuchi, M. [Komazawa Jin Clinic, 1-19-8 Komazawa, Setagayaku, Tokyo 154-0012 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    Recently, mercury Hg concentration in human blood increases due to expanding the global mercury contamination. Excess mercury bioaccumulation poses a significant health risk. In order to decrease mercury concentration in the environment and human blood, we have developed two different kinds of nanostructured magnetic adsorbents for mercury to apply them to superconducting magnetic separation instead of conventional filtration. One is magnetic beads (MBs) which have nanosize magnetite particles in the core and a lot of SH radicals on the surface to adsorb Hg ions effectively. MBs were developed mainly to remove mercury from human blood. The maximum amount of the adsorption for MBs is 6.3 mg/g in the solution in less than a minute. Dithiothreitol can easily remove mercury adsorbed to MBs, hence MBs can be reusable. The other is nanostructured magnetic activated carbon (MAC) which is activated carbon with mesopores and nanosize magnetite. The maximum amount of the adsorption for MAC is 38.3 mg/g in the solution. By heat-treatment mercury can be easily removed from MAC. We have studied superconducting magnetic separation using each adsorbent for mercury removal from solution.

  1. Treatability study for removal of leachable mercury in crushed fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Beck, D.E.; Bowser, K.T.

    1996-02-01

    Nonserviceable fluorescent lamps removed from radiological control areas at the Oak Ridge Department of Energy facilities have been crushed and are currently managed as mixed waste (hazardous and radiologically contaminated). We present proposed treatment flowsheets and supporting treatability study data for conditioning this solid waste residue so that it can qualify for disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mercury in spent fluorescent lamps occurs primarily as condensate on high-surface-area phosphor material. It can be solubilized with excess oxidants (e.g., hypochlorite solution) and stabilized by complexation with halide ions. Soluble mercury in dechlorinated saline solution is effectively removed by cementation with zero-valent iron in the form of steel wool. In packed column dynamic flow testing, soluble mercury was reduced to mercury metal and insoluble calomel, loading > 1.2 g of mercury per grain of steel wool before an appreciable breakthrough of soluble mercury in the effluent

  2. [Removal Characteristics of Elemental Mercury by Mn-Ce/molecular Sieve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zeng-qiang; Niu, Guo-ping; Chen, Xiao-wen; An, Zhen

    2015-06-01

    The impregnation method was used to support molecular sieve with active manganese and cerium components to obtain a composite molecular sieve catalyst. The mercury removal performance of the catalyst was studied with a bench-scale setup. XPS analysis was used to characterize the sample before and after the modification in order to study the changes in the active components of the catalyst prepared. The results showed that the catalyst carrying manganese and cerium components had higher oxidation ability of elemental mercury in the temperature range of 300 degrees C - 450 degrees C, especially at 450 degrees C, the oxidation efficiency of elemental mercury was kept above 80%. The catalyst had more functional groups that were conducive to the oxidation of elemental mercury, and the mercury removal mainly depended on the chemical adsorption. The SO2 and NO in flue gas could inhibit the oxidation of elemental mercury to certain extent.

  3. Treatability study for removal of leachable mercury in crushed fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, W.D.; Beck, D.E.; Bowser, K.T. [and others

    1996-02-01

    Nonserviceable fluorescent lamps removed from radiological control areas at the Oak Ridge Department of Energy facilities have been crushed and are currently managed as mixed waste (hazardous and radiologically contaminated). We present proposed treatment flowsheets and supporting treatability study data for conditioning this solid waste residue so that it can qualify for disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mercury in spent fluorescent lamps occurs primarily as condensate on high-surface-area phosphor material. It can be solubilized with excess oxidants (e.g., hypochlorite solution) and stabilized by complexation with halide ions. Soluble mercury in dechlorinated saline solution is effectively removed by cementation with zero-valent iron in the form of steel wool. In packed column dynamic flow testing, soluble mercury was reduced to mercury metal and insoluble calomel, loading > 1.2 g of mercury per grain of steel wool before an appreciable breakthrough of soluble mercury in the effluent.

  4. Recovery and removal of mercury from mixed wastes. Final report, September 1994--June 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, W.F.; Weyand, T.E.; Koshinski, C.J.

    1995-06-01

    In recognition of the major environmental problem created by mercury contamination of wastes and soils at an estimated 200,000 sites along US natural gas and oil pipelines and at a number of government facilities, including Oak Ridge, Savannah River, Hanford, and Rocky Flats, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking an effective and economical process for removing mercury from various DOE waste streams in order to allow the base waste streams to be treated by means of conventional technologies. In response to the need for Unproved mercury decontamination technology, Mercury Recovery Services (MRS) has developed and commercialized a thermal treatment process for the recovery of mercury from contaminated soils and industrial wastes. The objectives of this program were to: demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of the MRS process to successfully remove and recover mercury from low-level mixed waste containing mercury compounds (HgO, HgS, HgCl 2 ) and selected heavy metal compounds (PbO, CdO); determine optimum processing conditions required to consistently reduce the residual total mercury content to 1 mg/kg while rendering the treated product nontoxic as determined by TCLP methods; and provide an accurate estimate of the capital and operating costs for a commercial processing facility designed specifically to remove and recovery mercury from various waste streams of interest at DOE facilities. These objectives were achieved in a four-stage demonstration program described within with results

  5. Bioaccumulation and elimination of mercury in juvenile seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in a warmer environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maulvault, Ana Luísa, E-mail: aluisa@ipma.pt [Division of Aquaculture and Seafood Upgrading, Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere, I.P. (IPMA), Avenida de Brasília, 1449-006 Lisboa (Portugal); Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR), Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); MARE – Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Laboratório Marítimo da Guia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Nossa Senhora do Cabo, 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); Custódio, Ana [Division of Aquaculture and Seafood Upgrading, Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere, I.P. (IPMA), Avenida de Brasília, 1449-006 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior de Agronomia (ISA), School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa (Portugal); Anacleto, Patrícia [Division of Aquaculture and Seafood Upgrading, Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere, I.P. (IPMA), Avenida de Brasília, 1449-006 Lisboa (Portugal); Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR), Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); MARE – Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Laboratório Marítimo da Guia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Nossa Senhora do Cabo, 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); and others

    2016-08-15

    Warming is an expected impact of climate change that will affect coastal areas in the future. These areas are also subjected to strong anthropogenic pressures leading to chemical contamination. Yet, the consequences of both factors for marine ecosystems, biota and consumers are still unknown. The present work aims to investigate, for the first time, the effect of temperature increase on bioaccumulation and elimination of mercury [(total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg)] in three tissues (muscle, liver, and brain) of a commercially important seafood species – European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were exposed to the ambient temperature currently used in seabass rearing (18 °C) and to the expected ocean warming (+4 °C, i.e. 22 °C), as well as dietary MeHg during 28 days, followed by a depuration period of 28 days fed with a control diet. In both temperature exposures, higher MeHg contents were observed in the brain, followed by the muscle and liver. Liver registered the highest elimination percentages (EF; up to 64% in the liver, 20% in the brain, and 3% in the muscle). Overall, the results clearly indicate that a warming environment promotes MeHg bioaccumulation in all tissues (e.g. highest levels in brain: 8.1 mg kg{sup −1} ww at 22 °C against 6.2 mg kg{sup −1} ww at 18 °C after 28 days of MeHg exposure) and hampers MeHg elimination (e.g. liver EF decreases after 28 days of depuration: from 64.2% at 18 °C to 50.3% at 22 °C). These findings suggest that seafood safety may be compromised in a warming context, particularly for seafood species with contaminant concentrations close to the current regulatory levels. Hence, results point out the need to strengthen research in this area and to revise and/or adapt the current recommendations regarding human exposure to chemical contaminants through seafood consumption, in order to integrate the expected effects of climate change. - Highlights: • Higher MeHg contents were found in the brain

  6. Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilas, F.; Chapman, C.R.; Matthews, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Papers are presented on future observations of and missions to Mercury, the photometry and polarimetry of Mercury, the surface composition of Mercury from reflectance spectrophotometry, the Goldstone radar observations of Mercury, the radar observations of Mercury, the stratigraphy and geologic history of Mercury, the geomorphology of impact craters on Mercury, and the cratering record on Mercury and the origin of impacting objects. Consideration is also given to the tectonics of Mercury, the tectonic history of Mercury, Mercury's thermal history and the generation of its magnetic field, the rotational dynamics of Mercury and the state of its core, Mercury's magnetic field and interior, the magnetosphere of Mercury, and the Mercury atmosphere. Other papers are on the present bounds on the bulk composition of Mercury and the implications for planetary formation processes, the building stones of the planets, the origin and composition of Mercury, the formation of Mercury from planetesimals, and theoretical considerations on the strange density of Mercury

  7. Removal of mercury from coal-combustion flue gas using regenerable sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C S; Albiston, J; Broderick, T E; Stewart, R M

    1999-07-01

    The US EPA estimates that coal-fired power plants constitute the largest anthropogenic source of mercury emissions in the US. The Agency has contemplated emission regulations for power plants, but the large gas-flow rates and low mercury concentrations involved have made current treatment options prohibitively expensive. ADA Technologies, Inc. (Englewood, Colorado), in conjunction with the US DOE, is developing regenerable sorbents for the removal and recovery of mercury from flue gas. These sorbents are based on the ability of noble metals to amalgamate mercury at typical flue-gas temperatures and release mercury at higher temperatures. The process allows for recovery of mercury with minimal volumes of secondary wastes and no impact on fly ash quality. In 1997 and 1998, ADA tested a 20-cfm sorbent unit at CONSOL Inc.'s coal-combustion test facility in Library, PA. Results from the 1997 tests indicated that the sorbent can remove elemental and oxidized mercury and can be regenerated without loss of capacity. Design changes were implemented in 1998 to enhance the thermal efficiency of the process and to recover the mercury in a stable form. Testing during autumn, 1998 demonstrated 60% to 90% removal efficiency of mercury from a variety of different coals. However, contradictory removal results were obtained at the end of the test period. Subsequent laboratory analyses indicated that the sorbent had lost over half its capacity for mercury due to a decrease in available sites for mercury sorption. The presence of sulfur compounds on the sorbent suggests that thermal cycling may have condensed acid gases on the sorbent leading to deterioration of the active sorption sites. The regeneration time/temperature profile has been altered to minimize this potential in the upcoming power plant tests.

  8. Removal and recovery of gas-phase element mercury by metal oxide-loaded activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Zhijian; Shen Zhemin; Zhao Qingjie; Wang Wenhua; Zhang Yejian

    2008-01-01

    The reusability of Co 3 O 4 (AC-Co), MnO 2 (AC-Mn) and CuCoO 4 (AC-CC) loaded activated carbon (AC) and their element mercury removal efficiency had been studied using a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor under simulated flue gas conditions. Tests showed that spent AC-Co could be regenerated through heating at 673 K under N 2 atmosphere and the enrichment regenerated Hg 0 could be collected to eliminate the secondary pollution. Regenerated AC-Mn and AC-CC's Hg 0 removal efficiency decreased greatly due to AC's decomposition and MnO 2 's crystal structure variation. Compared with AC and metal oxides, metal oxide-loaded AC had higher Hg 0 capture ability and capacity due to AC huge surface areas and lots of function groups. TGA analysis results showed that AC-Co and AC-Mn's HgO adsorptive capacity at 523 K reached 19.8 mg g -1 and 5.21 mg g -1 , respectively. High loading values and adsorption temperatures were beneficial to AC-Co's Hg 0 removal efficiency. However, CuCoO 4 and MnO 2 's AC decomposition ability had negative effect on AC-CC and AC-Mn's performance, respectively, especially at high adsorption temperatures and loading values. SO 2 tests showed that AC-CC had higher anti SO 2 -poisoning ability than AC-Co and AC-Mn

  9. Development Of Chemical Reduction And Air Stripping Processes To Remove Mercury From Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Looney, Brian B.; Craig, Robert R.; Thompson, Martha C.; Kmetz, Thomas F.

    2013-07-10

    This study evaluates the removal of mercury from wastewater using chemical reduction and air stripping using a full-scale treatment system at the Savannah River Site. The existing water treatment system utilizes air stripping as the unit operation to remove organic compounds from groundwater that also contains mercury (C ~ 250 ng/L). The baseline air stripping process was ineffective in removing mercury and the water exceeded a proposed limit of 51 ng/L. To test an enhancement to the existing treatment modality a continuous dose of reducing agent was injected for 6-hours at the inlet of the air stripper. This action resulted in the chemical reduction of mercury to Hg(0), a species that is removable with the existing unit operation. During the injection period a 94% decrease in concentration was observed and the effluent satisfied proposed limits. The process was optimized over a 2-day period by sequentially evaluating dose rates ranging from 0.64X to 297X stoichiometry. A minimum dose of 16X stoichiometry was necessary to initiate the reduction reaction that facilitated the mercury removal. Competing electron acceptors likely inhibited the reaction at the lower 1 doses, which prevented removal by air stripping. These results indicate that chemical reduction coupled with air stripping can effectively treat large-volumes of water to emerging part per trillion regulatory standards for mercury.

  10. Feasibility of mercury removal from simulated flue gas by activated chars made from poultry manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasson, K Thomas; Lima, Isabel M; Boihem, Larry L; Wartelle, Lynda H

    2010-12-01

    Increased emphasis on reduction of mercury emissions from coal fired electric power plants has resulted in environmental regulations that may in the future require application of activated carbons as mercury sorbents for mercury removal. At the same time, the quantity of poultry manure generated each year is large and technologies that take advantage of the material should be explored. The purpose of the work was to obtain preliminary data to investigate if activated chars made from different poultry manures could adsorb mercury from simulated flue gas. In laboratory experiments, activated chars made from chicken cake and litter removed mercury from the gas as well as a commercial alternative. It was also found that acid-washing these chars after activation may improve pore structure but does not influence the mercury removal efficiency. Activated chars were also made from turkey cake and litter. These raw materials produced activated chars with similar pore structure as those made from chicken manure, but they did not adsorb mercury as well. Acid-washing the turkey manure-based chars improved their performance, but this step would add to the cost of production. Preliminary evaluations suggest that unwashed activated chars may cost as little as $0.95/kg to produce. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. (EFB) for mercury [Hg(II)] removal from aqueous solution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... 1Bio-Environmental Research Unit, Department of Biotechnology Engineering, International ... Malaysia, the permissible discharge for mercury is 0.005 ... The EFB sample was obtained from Seri Ulu Langat palm oil mill.

  12. The removal of mercury from solid mixed waste using chemical leaching processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.D.; Chao, K.K.; Cameron, P.A.

    1995-07-01

    The focus of this research was to evaluate chemical leaching as a technique to treat soils, sediments, and glass contaminated with either elemental mercury or a combination of several mercury species. Potassium iodide/iodine solutions were investigated as chemical leaching agents for contaminated soils and sediments. Clean, synthetic soil material and surrogate storm sewer sediments contaminated with mercury were treated with KI/I 2 solutions. It was observed that these leaching solutions could reduce the mercury concentration in soil and sediments by 99.8%. Evaluation of selected posttreatment sediment samples revealed that leachable mercury levels in the treated solids exceeded RCRA requirements. The results of these studies suggest that KI/I 2 leaching is a treatment process that can be used to remove large quantities of mercury from contaminated soils and sediments and may be the only treatment required if treatment goals are established on Hg residual concentrations in solid matrices. Fluorescent bulbs were used to simulate mercury contaminated glass mixed waste. To achieve mercury contamination levels similar to those found in larger bulbs such as those used in DOE facilities a small amount of Hg was added to the crushed bulbs. The most effective agents for leaching mercury from the crushed fluorescent bulbs were KI/I 2 , NaOCl, and NaBr + acid. Radionuclide surrogates were added to both the EPA synthetic soil material and the crushed fluorescent bulbs to determine the fate of radionuclides following chemical leaching with the leaching agents determined to be the most promising. These experiments revealed that although over 98% of the dosed mercury solubilized and was found in the leaching solution, no Cerium was measured in the posttreatment leaching solution. This finding suggest that Uranium, for which Ce was used as a surrogate, would not solubilize during leaching of mercury contaminated soil or glass

  13. Statistical estimate of mercury removal efficiencies for air pollution control devices of municipal solid waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Fumitake; Kida, Akiko; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2010-10-15

    Although representative removal efficiencies of gaseous mercury for air pollution control devices (APCDs) are important to prepare more reliable atmospheric emission inventories of mercury, they have been still uncertain because they depend sensitively on many factors like the type of APCDs, gas temperature, and mercury speciation. In this study, representative removal efficiencies of gaseous mercury for several types of APCDs of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) were offered using a statistical method. 534 data of mercury removal efficiencies for APCDs used in MSWI were collected. APCDs were categorized as fixed-bed absorber (FA), wet scrubber (WS), electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and fabric filter (FF), and their hybrid systems. Data series of all APCD types had Gaussian log-normality. The average removal efficiency with a 95% confidence interval for each APCD was estimated. The FA, WS, and FF with carbon and/or dry sorbent injection systems had 75% to 82% average removal efficiencies. On the other hand, the ESP with/without dry sorbent injection had lower removal efficiencies of up to 22%. The type of dry sorbent injection in the FF system, dry or semi-dry, did not make more than 1% difference to the removal efficiency. The injection of activated carbon and carbon-containing fly ash in the FF system made less than 3% difference. Estimation errors of removal efficiency were especially high for the ESP. The national average of removal efficiency of APCDs in Japanese MSWI plants was estimated on the basis of incineration capacity. Owing to the replacement of old APCDs for dioxin control, the national average removal efficiency increased from 34.5% in 1991 to 92.5% in 2003. This resulted in an additional reduction of about 0.86Mg emission in 2003. Further study using the methodology in this study to other important emission sources like coal-fired power plants will contribute to better emission inventories. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  14. Phytoremediation of mercury in pristine and crude oil contaminated soils: Contributions of rhizobacteria and their host plants to mercury removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkhoh, N A; Ali, N; Al-Awadhi, H; Dashti, N; Al-Mailem, D M; Eliyas, M; Radwan, S S

    2010-11-01

    The rhizospheric soils of three tested legume crops: broad beans (Vicia faba), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and pea (Pisum sativum), and two nonlegume crops: cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and tomato, (Lycopersicon esculentum) contained considerable numbers (the magnitude of 10(5)g(-1) soil) of bacteria with the combined potential for hydrocarbon-utilization and mercury-resistance. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA coding genes of rhizobacteria associated with broad beans revealed that they were affiliated to Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Exiquobacterium aurantiacum, Pseudomonas veronii, Micrococcus luteus, Brevibacillus brevis, Arthrobacter sp. and Flavobacterium psychrophilum. These rhizobacteria were also diazotrophic, i.e. capable of N(2) fixation, which makes them self-sufficient regarding their nitrogen nutrition and thus suitable remediation agents in nitrogen-poor soils, such as the oily desert soil. The crude oil attenuation potential of the individual rhizobacteria was inhibited by HgCl(2), but about 50% or more of this potential was still maintained in the presence of up to 40 mgl(-1) HgCl(2). Rhizobacteria-free plants removed amounts of mercury from the surrounding media almost equivalent to those removed by the rhizospheric bacterial consortia in the absence of the plants. It was concluded that both the collector plants and their rhizospheric bacterial consortia contributed equivalently to mercury removal from soil. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Regenerable cobalt oxide loaded magnetosphere catalyst from fly ash for mercury removal in coal combustion flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianping; Zhao, Yongchun; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang

    2014-12-16

    To remove Hg(0) in coal combustion flue gas and eliminate secondary mercury pollution of the spent catalyst, a new regenerable magnetic catalyst based on cobalt oxide loaded magnetospheres from fly ash (Co-MF) was developed. The catalyst, with an optimal loading of 5.8% cobalt species, attained approximately 95% Hg(0) removal efficiency at 150 °C under simulated flue gas atmosphere. O2 could enhance the Hg(0) removal activity of magnetospheres catalyst via the Mars-Maessen mechanism. SO2 displayed an inhibitive effect on Hg(0) removal capacity. NO with lower concentration could promote the Hg(0) removal efficiency. However, when increasing the NO concentration to 300 ppm, a slightly inhibitive effect of NO was observed. In the presence of 10 ppm of HCl, greater than 95.5% Hg(0) removal efficiency was attained, which was attributed to the formation of active chlorine species on the surface. H2O presented a seriously inhibitive effect on Hg(0) removal efficiency. Repeated oxidation-regeneration cycles demonstrated that the spent Co-MF catalyst could be regenerated effectively via thermally treated at 400 °C for 2 h.

  16. Removal and recovery of gas-phase element mercury by metal oxide-loaded activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei Zhijian [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Shen Zhemin [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: pnyql520@hotmail.com; Zhao Qingjie [Shanghai Academy of Environmental Science, 508 Qin-Zhou Road, Shanghai 200233 (China); Wang Wenhua; Zhang Yejian [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2008-04-01

    The reusability of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} (AC-Co), MnO{sub 2} (AC-Mn) and CuCoO{sub 4} (AC-CC) loaded activated carbon (AC) and their element mercury removal efficiency had been studied using a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor under simulated flue gas conditions. Tests showed that spent AC-Co could be regenerated through heating at 673 K under N{sub 2} atmosphere and the enrichment regenerated Hg{sup 0} could be collected to eliminate the secondary pollution. Regenerated AC-Mn and AC-CC's Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency decreased greatly due to AC's decomposition and MnO{sub 2}'s crystal structure variation. Compared with AC and metal oxides, metal oxide-loaded AC had higher Hg{sup 0} capture ability and capacity due to AC huge surface areas and lots of function groups. TGA analysis results showed that AC-Co and AC-Mn's HgO adsorptive capacity at 523 K reached 19.8 mg g{sup -1} and 5.21 mg g{sup -1}, respectively. High loading values and adsorption temperatures were beneficial to AC-Co's Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency. However, CuCoO{sub 4} and MnO{sub 2}'s AC decomposition ability had negative effect on AC-CC and AC-Mn's performance, respectively, especially at high adsorption temperatures and loading values. SO{sub 2} tests showed that AC-CC had higher anti SO{sub 2}-poisoning ability than AC-Co and AC-Mn.

  17. Possibilities of mercury removal in the dry flue gas cleaning lines of solid waste incineration units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Karel; Hartman, Miloslav; Šyc, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael; Kameníková, Petra; Jeremiáš, Michal; Durda, Tomáš

    2016-01-15

    Dry methods of the flue gas cleaning (for HCl and SO2 removal) are useful particularly in smaller solid waste incineration units. The amount and forms of mercury emissions depend on waste (fuel) composition, content of mercury and chlorine and on the entire process of the flue gas cleaning. In the case of high HCl/total Hg molar ratio in the flue gas, the majority (usually 70-90%) of mercury is present in the form of HgCl2 and a smaller amount in the form of mercury vapors at higher temperatures. Removal of both main forms of mercury from the flue gas is dependent on chemical reactions and sorption processes at the temperatures below approx. 340 °C. Significant part of HgCl2 and a small part of elemental Hg vapors can be adsorbed on fly ash and solid particle in the air pollution control (APC) processes, which are removed in dust filters. Injection of non-impregnated active carbon (AC) or activated lignite coke particles is able to remove mainly the oxidized Hg(2+) compounds. Vapors of metallic Hg(o) are adsorbed relatively weakly. Much better chemisorption of Hg(o) together with higher sorbent capacity is achieved by AC-based sorbents impregnated with sulfur, alkali poly-sulfides, ferric chloride, etc. Inorganic sorbents with the same or similar chemical impregnation are also applicable for deeper Hg(o) removal (over 85%). SCR catalysts convert part of Hg(o) into oxidized compounds (HgO, HgCl2, etc.) contributing to more efficient Hg removal, but excess of NH3 has a negative effect. Both forms, elemental Hg(o) and HgCl2, can be converted into HgS particles by reacting with droplets/aerosol of poly-sulfides solutions/solids in flue gas. Mercury captured in the form of water insoluble HgS is more advantageous in the disposal of solid waste from APC processes. Four selected options of the dry flue gas cleaning with mercury removal are analyzed, assessed and compared (in terms of efficiency of Hg-emission reduction and costs) with wet methods and retrofits for more

  18. Multi-weight isotherm results for mercury removal in upper East Fork Popular Creek water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, D.A.; Klasson, K.T.

    1998-02-01

    Many sorbents have been developed for the removal of mercury and heavy metals from waters; however, the majority of data published to date do not address the removal of mercury to the target levels represented in this project. The application to which these sorbents are targeted for use is the removal of mercury from microgram-per-liter levels to low nanogram-per-liter levels. Sorbents with thiouronium, thiol, amine, sulfur, and proprietary functional groups were selected for these studies. The initial mercury content in the majority of the batch samples was significantly augmented so that the equilibrium concentration was similar to that found in the original stream sample for at least one sample. Mercury was successfully removed from actual water via adsorption onto Ionac SR-4 (by Sybron Chemicals, Inc.), Keyle:X (by SolmeteX), and Mersorb (by Nucon International, Inc.) resins to levels below the target goal of 12 ng/L. A thiol-based resin (Ionac SR-4) performed the best, indicating that over 200,000 volumes of water could be treated with one volume of resin. The cost of the resin is approximately $0.24 per 1000 gal of water

  19. Effect of diet on the capacity to remove mercury from the body of a penguin (Spheniscus demersus living in the ZOO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falkowska L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Birds due to its position in the trophic chain are good monitors of the marine environment in terms of mercury contamination. For the proper interpretation of results it is necessary to know both the processes of accumulation of this metal in their bodies and processes of elimination. Research involving the Penguin (Spheniscus demersus living in a ZOO has identified the relationship between diet and the amount of mercury removed from the penguin body in guano, feathers, and in the case of females with eggs. The research was conducted in years 2009-2011. Total mercury was determined in elements responsible for detoxification and in the diet of penguins. Mercury concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry with AMA-254 automatic mercury analyzer. The highest average mercury concentrations were determined in feathers: 1781.12 ngHg•g−1d.w., lower in eggs: 950.88 ngHg•g−1 dry weight (d.w.. and in a guano: 139.18 ngHg•g−1. In food, herrings caught in the southern Baltic, Hg concentrations were relatively low with averaged value 31.81 ngHg•g−1d.w.

  20. Investigation of the mechanism of mercury removal from a silver dental amalgam alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. DJURDJEVIC

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of silver dental amalgam decomposition and the mercury removal mechanism was performed. The decomposition process was analysed during thermal treatment in the temperature interval from 400 °C to 850 °C and for times from 0.5 to 7.5 h. The chemical compositions of the silver dental amalgam alloy and the treated alloy were tested and microstructure analysis using optical and scanning electron microscopy was carried out. The phases were identified using energy disperse electron probe microanalysis. A mechanism for the mercury removal process from silver dental amalgam alloy is suggested.

  1. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury is an element that is found in air, water and soil. It has several forms. Metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white, odorless liquid. If ... with other elements to form powders or crystals. Mercury is in many products. Metallic mercury is used ...

  2. A Non-Mercury Thermometer Alternative for Use in Older Melting Point Apparatuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongley, Lois K.; Kern, Clayton S.; Woods, Barry W.

    2008-01-01

    The State of Maine seeks to eliminate most mercury use. This includes removing mercury thermometers from secondary schools and discouraging Hg use in other educational institutions. Alternatives to mercury thermometers in chemical laboratory work include non-mercury thermometers, temperature probes, and thermocouples. In organic chemistry mercury…

  3. Mercury removal from water streams through the ion exchange membrane bioreactor concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmen, Adrian; Vergel, Dario; Fradinho, Joana; Reis, Maria A M; Crespo, João G; Velizarov, Svetlozar

    2014-01-15

    Mercury is a highly toxic heavy metal that causes human health problems and environmental contamination. In this study, an ion exchange membrane bioreactor (IEMB) process was developed to achieve Hg(II) removal from drinking water and industrial effluents. Hg(II) transport through a cation exchange membrane was coupled with its bioreduction to Hg(0) in order to achieve Hg removal from concentrated streams, with minimal production of contaminated by-products observed. This study involves (1) membrane selection, (2) demonstration of process effectiveness for removing Hg from drinking water to below the 1ppb recommended limit, and (3) process application for treatment of concentrated water streams, where >98% of the Hg was removed, and the throughput of contaminated water was optimised through membrane pre-treatment. The IEMB process represents a novel mercury treatment technology with minimal generation of contaminated waste, thereby reducing the overall environmental impact of the process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Possibilities of Mercury Removal in the Dry Flue Gas Cleaning Lines of Solid Waste Incineration Units

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Hartman, Miloslav; Šyc, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael; Kameníková, Petra; Jeremiáš, Michal; Durda, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 166, JAN 15 (2016), s. 499-511 ISSN 0301-4797 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE02000236 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : waste incineration * mercury removal * flue gas Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 4.010, year: 2016

  5. Mercury Removal from MSW Incineration Flue Gas by Mineral-based Sorbents.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rumayor, Marta; Svoboda, Karel; Švehla, Jaroslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 73, DEC 13 (2018), s. 265-270 ISSN 0956-053X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE02000236 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : mercury * removal * mineral sorbents Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.030, year: 2016

  6. Mercury Removal from MSW Incineration Flue Gas by Mineral-based Sorbents.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rumayor, Marta; Svoboda, Karel; Švehla, Jaroslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal

    Roč. 73, DEC 13 ( 2018 ), s. 265-270 ISSN 0956-053X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE02000236 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : mercury * removal * mineral sorbents Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.030, year: 2016

  7. Fate of soluble uranium in the I{sub 2}/KI leaching process for mercury removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, W.D.; Davis, W.H.; Jarabek, R.J. [East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials and Chemistry Lab.

    1997-09-01

    General Electric Corporation has developed an extraction and recovery system for mercury, based upon the use of iodine (oxidant) and iodide ion (complexing agent). This system has been proposed for application to select mercury-contaminated mixed waste (i.e., waste containing radionuclides as well as other hazardous constituents), which have been generated by historic activities in support of US Department of Energy (DOE) missions. This system is compared to a system utilizing hypochlorite and chloride ions for removal of mercury and uranium from a sample of authentic mixed waste sludge. Relative to the hypochlorite (bleach) system, the iodine system mobilized more mercury and less uranium from the sludge. An engineering flowsheet has been developed to treat spent iodine-containing extraction medium, allowing the system to be recycled. The fate of soluble uranium in this series of treatment unit operations was monitored by tracing isotopically-enriched uranyl ion into simulated spent extraction medium. Treatment with use of elemental iron is shown to remove > 85% of the traced uranium while concurrently reducing excess iodine to the iodide ion. The next unit operation, adjustment of the solution pH to a value near 12 by the addition of lime slurry to form a metal-laden sludge phase (an operation referred to as lime-softening), removed an additional 57% of soluble uranium activity, for an over-all removal efficiency of {approximately} 96%. However, the precipitated solids did not settle well, and some iodide reagent is held up in the wet filtercake.

  8. Fate of soluble uranium in the I2/KI leaching process for mercury removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Davis, W.H.; Jarabek, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    General Electric Corporation has developed an extraction and recovery system for mercury, based upon the use of iodine (oxidant) and iodide ion (complexing agent). This system has been proposed for application to select mercury-contaminated mixed waste (i.e., waste containing radionuclides as well as other hazardous constituents), which have been generated by historic activities in support of US Department of Energy (DOE) missions. This system is compared to a system utilizing hypochlorite and chloride ions for removal of mercury and uranium from a sample of authentic mixed waste sludge. Relative to the hypochlorite (bleach) system, the iodine system mobilized more mercury and less uranium from the sludge. An engineering flowsheet has been developed to treat spent iodine-containing extraction medium, allowing the system to be recycled. The fate of soluble uranium in this series of treatment unit operations was monitored by tracing isotopically-enriched uranyl ion into simulated spent extraction medium. Treatment with use of elemental iron is shown to remove > 85% of the traced uranium while concurrently reducing excess iodine to the iodide ion. The next unit operation, adjustment of the solution pH to a value near 12 by the addition of lime slurry to form a metal-laden sludge phase (an operation referred to as lime-softening), removed an additional 57% of soluble uranium activity, for an over-all removal efficiency of ∼ 96%. However, the precipitated solids did not settle well, and some iodide reagent is held up in the wet filtercake

  9. Effect of Nitrogen Oxides on Elemental Mercury Removal by Nanosized Mineral Sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailong; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Jun; Li, Liqing; Lee, Po-Heng; Feng, Yong; Shih, Kaimin

    2017-08-01

    Because of its large surface area, nanosized zinc sulfide (Nano-ZnS) has been demonstrated in a previous study to be efficient for removal of elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) from coal combustion flue gas. The excellent mercury adsorption performance of Nano-ZnS was found to be insusceptible to water vapor, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen chloride. However, nitrogen oxides (NO X ) apparently inhibited mercury removal by Nano-ZnS; this finding was unlike those of many studies on the promotional effect of NO X on Hg 0 removal by other sorbents. The negative effect of NO X on Hg 0 adsorption over Nano-ZnS was systematically investigated in this study. Two mechanisms were identified as primarily responsible for the inhibitive effect of NO X on Hg 0 adsorption over Nano-ZnS: (1) active sulfur sites on Nano-ZnS were oxidized to inactive sulfate by NO X ; and (2) the chemisorbed mercury, i.e., HgS, was reduced to Hg 0 by NO X . This new insight into the role of NO X in Hg 0 adsorption over Nano-ZnS can help to optimize operating conditions, maximize Hg 0 adsorption, and facilitate the application of Nano-ZnS as a superior alternative to activated carbon for Hg 0 removal using existing particulate matter control devices in power plants.

  10. REMOVAL OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS AT THE PAVLODAR CHEMICAL PLANT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KHRAPUNOV, V. YE.; ISAKOVA, R.A.; LEVINTOV, B.L.; KALB, P.D.; KAMBEROV, I.M.; TREBUKHOV, A.

    2004-09-25

    Soils beneath and adjacent to the Pavlodar Chemical Plant in Kazakhstan have been contaminated with elemental mercury as a result of chlor alkali processing using mercury cathode cell technology. The work described in this paper was conducted in preparation for a demonstration of a technology to remove the mercury from the contaminated soils using a vacuum assisted thermal distillation process. The process can operate at temperatures from 250-500 C and pressures of 0.13kPa-1.33kPa. Following vaporization, the mercury vapor is cooled, condensed and concentrated back to liquid elemental mercury. It will then be treated using the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification process developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as described in a companion paper at this conference. The overall project objectives include chemical and physical characterization of the contaminated soils, study of the influence of the soil's physical-chemical and hydro dynamical characteristics on process parameters, and laboratory testing to optimize the mercury sublimation rate when heating in vacuum. Based on these laboratory and pilot-scale data, a full-scale production process will be designed for testing. This paper describes the soil characterization. This work is being sponsored by the International Science and Technology Center.

  11. Mercury removal at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's New Waste Calcining Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. C. Ashworth

    2000-02-27

    Technologies were investigated to determine viable processes for removing mercury from the calciner (NWCF) offgas system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Technologies for gas phase and aqueous phase treatment were evaluated. The technologies determined are intended to meet EPA Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) requirements under the Clean Air Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Currently, mercury accumulation in the calciner off-gas scrubbing system is transferred to the tank farm. These transfers lead to accumulation in the liquid heels of the tanks. The principal objective for aqueous phase mercury removal is heel mercury reduction. The system presents a challenge to traditional methods because of the presence of nitrogen oxides in the gas phase and high nitric acid in the aqueous scrubbing solution. Many old and new technologies were evaluated including sorbents and absorption in the gas phase and ion exchange, membranes/sorption, galvanic methods, and UV reduction in the aqueous phase. Process modifications and feed pre-treatment were also evaluated. Various properties of mercury and its compounds were summarized and speciation was predicted based on thermodynamics. Three systems (process modification, NOxidizer combustor, and electrochemical aqueous phase treatment) and additional technology testing were recommended.

  12. Mercury Removal at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's New Waste Calcining Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, Samuel Clay; Wood, R. A.; Taylor, D. D.; Sieme, D. D.

    2000-03-01

    Technologies were investigated to determine viable processes for removing mercury from the calciner (NWCF) offgas system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Technologies for gas phase and aqueous phase treatment were evaluated. The technologies determined are intended to meet EPA Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) requirements under the Clean Air Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Currently, mercury accumulation in the calciner off-gas scrubbing system is transferred to the tank farm. These transfers lead to accumulation in the liquid heels of the tanks. The principal objective for aqueous phase mercury removal is heel mercury reduction. The system presents a challenge to traditional methods because of the presence of nitrogen oxides in the gas phase and high nitric acid in the aqueous scrubbing solution. Many old and new technologies were evaluated including sorbents and absorption in the gas phase and ion exchange, membranes/sorption, galvanic methods, and UV reduction in the aqueous phase. Process modifications and feed pre-treatment were also evaluated. Various properties of mercury and its compounds were summarized and speciation was predicted based on thermodynamics. Three systems (process modification, NOxidizer combustor, and electrochemical aqueous phase treatment) and additional technology testing were recommended.

  13. Mercury removal at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's New Waste Calciner Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, S.C.

    2000-01-01

    Technologies were investigated to determine viable processes for removing mercury from the calciner (NWCF) offgas system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Technologies for gas phase and aqueous phase treatment were evaluated. The technologies determined are intended to meet EPA Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) requirements under the Clean Air Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Currently, mercury accumulation in the calciner off-gas scrubbing system is transferred to the tank farm. These transfers lead to accumulation in the liquid heels of the tanks. The principal objective for aqueous phase mercury removal is heel mercury reduction. The system presents a challenge to traditional methods because of the presence of nitrogen oxides in the gas phase and high nitric acid in the aqueous scrubbing solution. Many old and new technologies were evaluated including sorbents and absorption in the gas phase and ion exchange, membranes/sorption, galvanic methods, and UV reduction in the aqueous phase. Process modifications and feed pre-treatment were also evaluated. Various properties of mercury and its compounds were summarized and speciation was predicted based on thermodynamics. Three systems (process modification, NOxidizer combustor, and electrochemical aqueous phase treatment) and additional technology testing were recommended

  14. MERCURY REMOVAL FROM DOE SOLID MIXED WASTE USING THE GEMEP(sm) TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-03-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), Metcalf and Eddy (M and E), in association with General Electric Corporate Research and Development Center (GE-CRD), Colorado Minerals Research Institute (CMRI), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), conducted laboratory-scale and bench-scale tests of the General Electric Mercury Extraction Process technology on two mercury-contaminated mixed solid wastes from U. S. Department of Energy sites: sediment from the East Fork of Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge (samples supplied by Oak Ridge National Laboratory), and drummed soils from Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL). Fluorescent lamps provided by GE-CRD were also studied. The GEMEP technology, invented and patented by the General Electric Company, uses an extraction solution composed of aqueous potassium iodide plus iodine to remove mercury from soils and other wastes. The extraction solution is regenerated by chemical oxidation and reused, after the solubilized mercury is removed from solution by reducing it to the metallic state. The results of the laboratory- and bench-scale testing conducted for this project included: (1) GEMEP extraction tests to optimize extraction conditions and determine the extent of co-extraction of radionuclides; (2) pre-screening (pre-segregation) tests to determine if initial separation steps could be used effectively to reduce the volume of material needing GEMEP extraction; and (3) demonstration of the complete extraction, mercury recovery, and iodine recovery and regeneration process (known as locked-cycle testing).

  15. Mercury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Irma

    2017-01-01

    Mercury is a naturally occurring metal that exists in several physical and chemical forms. Inorganic mercury refers to compounds formed after the combining of mercury with elements such as chlorine, sulfur, or oxygen. After combining with carbon by covalent linkage, the compounds formed are called

  16. Theoretical prediction the removal of mercury from flue gas by MOFs

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang; Li, Hailong; Liu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Removal of mercury from flue gas has been considered as one of the hot topics in both the scientific and industrial world. Adsorption of elemental mercury (Hg) and oxidized mercury species (HgCl, HgO, and HgS) on a novel metal organic framework (MOF) material, named Mg/DOBDC, with unsaturated metal centers was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results show that Hg stably physi-sorbed on the unsaturated metal center (magnesium ion) of Mg/DOBDC with a binding energy (BE) of −27.5 kJ/mol. A direct interaction between Hg and magnesium ion was revealed by the partial density of state (PDOS) analysis. HgCl multi-interacts with two neighboring magnesium ions simultaneously by its Cl endings and thus resulted in strong adsorption strength (−89.0 kJ/mol). The adsorption energies of HgO and HgS on the Mg/DOBDC were as high as −117.0 kJ/mol and −169.7 kJ/mol, respectively, indicating a strong chemisorption. Theoretical calculations in this study reveal that Mg/DOBDC has the potential to serve as an efficient material for removal of mercury from flue gas.

  17. Theoretical prediction the removal of mercury from flue gas by MOFs

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang

    2016-07-19

    Removal of mercury from flue gas has been considered as one of the hot topics in both the scientific and industrial world. Adsorption of elemental mercury (Hg) and oxidized mercury species (HgCl, HgO, and HgS) on a novel metal organic framework (MOF) material, named Mg/DOBDC, with unsaturated metal centers was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results show that Hg stably physi-sorbed on the unsaturated metal center (magnesium ion) of Mg/DOBDC with a binding energy (BE) of −27.5 kJ/mol. A direct interaction between Hg and magnesium ion was revealed by the partial density of state (PDOS) analysis. HgCl multi-interacts with two neighboring magnesium ions simultaneously by its Cl endings and thus resulted in strong adsorption strength (−89.0 kJ/mol). The adsorption energies of HgO and HgS on the Mg/DOBDC were as high as −117.0 kJ/mol and −169.7 kJ/mol, respectively, indicating a strong chemisorption. Theoretical calculations in this study reveal that Mg/DOBDC has the potential to serve as an efficient material for removal of mercury from flue gas.

  18. Removal of heavy metals from water by zeolite mineral chemically modified. Mercury as a particular case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebremedhin H, T.

    2002-01-01

    Research works on the removal of mercury from water by zeolite minerals show that a small quantity of this element is sorbed. In this work the mercury sorption from aqueous solutions in the presence and absence of Cu(l l), Ni(l l) and/or Zn(l l) by a Mexican zeolite mineral, natural and modified by cisteaminium chloride or cistaminium dichloride, was investigated in acidic p H. The zeolite minerals were characterized by X- Ray diffraction Ftir, scanning electron microscopy and semiquantitative elemental analysis (EDS), surface area analysis (BET) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Mercury from aqueous solutions was quantified by Atomic absorption spectroscopy. The amount of sulphur on the zeolite samples treated with Na CI and modified with cisteaminium chloride (0.375 mmol/g) or cistaminium dichloride(0.475 mmol/g) was found to be higher than that of the zeolite minerals modified with cisteaminium chloride and cistaminium dichloride without treating them with Na CI. The amount of sulphur on the zeolite minerals modified with thiourea was the lowest. The diffusion coefficients and sorption isotherms for mercury were determined in the natural, treated with Na CI and, treated with Na CI and then modified with the cisteaminium chloride or cistaminium dichloride zeolite samples. The retention of mercury was the highest for the zeolite minerals treated Na CI and then modified with cisteaminium chloride or cistaminium dichloride, with adsorption capacity of 0.0511 and 0.0525 mmol Hg/g, respectively. In this research work, it was found that the retention of mercury by the modified minerals was not affected by the presence of Cu (Il), Zn(l l) y Ni (I l) under the experimental conditions. (Author)

  19. Organ-specific accumulation, transportation, and elimination of methylmercury and inorganic mercury in a low Hg accumulating fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaoyan; Liu, Fengjie; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2016-08-01

    Low mercury (Hg) concentrations down to several nanograms Hg per gram of wet tissue are documented in certain fish species such as herbivorous fish, and the underlying mechanisms remain speculative. In the present study, bioaccumulation and depuration patterns of inorganic Hg(II) and methylmercury (MeHg) in a herbivorous rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus were investigated at organ and subcellular levels following waterborne or dietary exposures. The results showed that the efflux rate constants of Hg(II) and MeHg were 0.104 d(-1) and 0.024 d(-1) , respectively, and are probably the highest rate constants recorded in fish thus far. The dietary MeHg assimilation efficiency (68%) was much lower than those in other fish species (∼90%). The predominant distribution of MeHg in fish muscle was attributable to negligible elimination of MeHg from muscle (Hg(II) was much more slowly distributed into muscle but was efficiently eliminated by the intestine (0.13 d(-1) ). Subcellular distribution indicated that some specific membrane proteins in muscle were the primary binding pools for MeHg, and both metallothionein-like proteins and Hg-rich granules were the important components in eliminating both MeHg and Hg(II). Overall, the present study's results suggest that the low tissue Hg concentration in the rabbitfish was partly explained by its unique biokinetics. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2074-2083. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  20. Strategies for enhancing the co-removal of mercury in FGD-scrubbers of power plants. Operating parameters and additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuetze, Jan; Koeser, Heinz [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany). Chair of Environmental Technology; Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Centre of Engineering Services

    2012-07-01

    Co-combustion of waste fuels, coals with variable mercury content and lower regulatory emission limits are drivers for the optimisation of the co-removal of mercury in flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) scrubbers. The paper explains some new features of the system performance of FGD scrubbers for the co-removal of mercury in coal-fired power plants. Results on their efficiency under standardised laboratory conditions are presented. The effect of these measures on the quality of the FGD by-product gypsum will be covered as well. (orig.)

  1. Effective removal of hexavalent mercury from aqueous solution by modified polymeric nanoadsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Rahmanzadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is one of the most toxic metals present in the environment. Adsorption has been proposed among the technologies for mercury adsorbent. The kinetics of adsorption depends on the adsorbent concentration, and the physical and chemical characteristics of adsorbent. In this study we were used a novel adsorbent, magnetite-polyrhodanine core- shell nanoparticles, for removing Hg(II from aqueous solution. The effect of pH, initial Hg(II concentration, initial adsorbent concentration and contact time on the efficiency of Hg(II removal were investigated systematically by batch experiments. The maximum adsorption capacity was obtained 29.14 mg g-1 at PH=6.5 and 25°C with 10 g L-1 nano adsorbent. The kinetic data of adsorption of Hg(II ion on the synthesized adsorbent were best described by a pseudo- second- order equation, indicating their chemical adsorption. The Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin isotherms were used to modeling of mercury adsorption on Hg(II in aqueous medium which modeled best by the Freundlich isotherm is whole concentration rage.

  2. A study on removal of elemental mercury in flue gas using fenton solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yangxian; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qian; Pan, Jianfeng; Zhang, Yongchun; Zhou, Jianfei; Zhang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel technique on oxidation of Hg 0 using Fenton was proposed. • The effects of several process parameters on Hg 0 removal were studied. • Products and ·OH in solution were detected. • Reaction mechanism of Hg 0 removal was studied. • Simultaneous removal of Hg 0 , NO and SO 2 was also studied. - Abstract: A novel technique on oxidation-separation of elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) in flue gas using Fenton solution in a bubbling reactor was proposed. The effects of several process parameters (H 2 O 2 concentration, Hg 0 inlet concentration, Fe 2+ concentration, solution temperature, solution pH, gas flow) and several flue gas components (NO, SO 2 , O 2 , CO 2 , inorganic ions and particulate matters on Hg 0 removal were studied. The results indicate that H 2 O 2 concentration, Fe 2+ concentration, solution pH and gas flow have great effects on Hg 0 removal. Solution temperature, Hg 0 , NO, SO 2 , CO 3 2− and HCO 3 − concentrations also have significant effects on Hg 0 removal. However, Cl − , SO 4 2− , NO 3 − , O 2 and CO 2 concentrations only have slight effects on Hg 0 removal. Furthermore, reaction mechanism of Hg 0 removal and simultaneous removal process of Hg 0 , NO and SO 2 were also studied. Hg 0 is removed by oxidation of ·OH and oxidation of H 2 O 2 . The simultaneous removal efficiencies of 100% for SO 2 , 100% for Hg 0 and 88.3% for NO were obtained under optimal test conditions. The results demonstrated the feasibility of Hg 0 removal and simultaneous removal of Hg 0 , SO 2 and NO using Fenton solution in a bubbling reactor

  3. Removal of mercury from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from agricultural by-product/waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M Madhava; Reddy, D H K Kumar; Venkateswarlu, Padala; Seshaiah, K

    2009-01-01

    Removal of mercury from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from Ceiba pentandra hulls, Phaseolus aureus hulls and Cicer arietinum waste was investigated. The influence of various parameters such as effect of pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and adsorbent dose for the removal of mercury was studied using a batch process. The experiments demonstrated that the adsorption process corresponds to the pseudo-second-order-kinetic models and the equilibrium adsorption data fit the Freundlich isotherm model well. The prepared adsorbents ACCPH, ACPAH and ACCAW had removal capacities of 25.88 mg/g, 23.66 mg/g and 22.88 mg/g, respectively, at an initial Hg(II) concentration of 40 mg/L. The order of Hg(II) removal capacities of these three adsorbents was ACCPH>ACPAH>ACCAW. The adsorption behavior of the activated carbon is explained on the basis of its chemical nature. The feasibility of regeneration of spent activated carbon adsorbents for recovery of Hg(II) and reuse of the adsorbent was determined using HCl solution.

  4. Removal of mercury vapor from ambient air of dental clinics using an air cleaning system based on silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiman Saeidi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Mercury is a toxic and bio-accumulative pollutant that has adverse effects on environmental and human health. There have been a number of attempts to regulate mercury emissions tothe atmosphere. Silver nanoparticles are a number of materials that have highly potential to absorb mercury and formation of mercury amalgam.The aim of this study is removal of mercury vapors in the dental clinic using a n a ir cleaning system based on silver nanoparticles. Methods: In this study, silver nanoparticles coated on the bed of foam and chemical and structural properties were determined using a number of methods such as UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM connected the X-ray Emission Spectroscopy Energy (EDS. The a ir cleaning system efficiency to remove of the mercury vapor in simulated conditions in the laboratory and real conditions in the dental clinicwere measured by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (CVAAS. Results: The images of SEM, showed that average sizeof silver nanoparticles in colloidal solution was ∼ 30nm and distribution of silver nanoparticles coated on foam was good. EDS spectrum confirmed associated the presence of silver nanoparticles coated on foam. The significantly difference observed between the concentration of mercury vapor in the off state (9.43 ± 0.342 μg.m-3 and on state (0.51 ± 0.031μg.m-3 of the a ir cleaning system. The mercury vapor removal efficiencyof the a ir cleaning system was calculated 95%. Conclusion : The air cleaning system based on foam coated by silver nanoparticles, undertaken to provide the advantages such as use facilitating, highly efficient operational capacity and cost effective, have highly sufficiency to remove mercury vapor from dental clinics.

  5. Removal of element mercury by medicine residue derived biochars in presence of various gas compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guoliang; Shen, Boxiong; Li, Yongwang; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Fumei; He, Chuan; Wang, Yinyin; Zhang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Both physisorption and chemisorption of Hg 0 occurred on the surface of M6WN5. • Chemisorption process was an absolute predominant route for Hg 0 removal by M6WN5. • The effect of NO, H 2 O, SO 2 and O 2 on Hg 0 removal by M6WN5 was investigated. • M6WN5 demonstrated to be a promising Hg 0 sorbent in flue gas. - Abstract: Pyrolyzed biochars from an industrial medicinal residue waste were modified by microwave activation and NH 4 Cl impregnation. Mercury adsorption of different modified biochars was investigated in a quartz fixed-bed reactor. The results indicated that both physisorption and chemisorption of Hg 0 occurred on the surface of M6WN5 which was modified both microwave and 5 wt.% NH 4 Cl loading, and exothermic chemisorption process was a dominant route for Hg 0 removal. Microwave activation improved pore properties and NH 4 Cl impregnation introduced good active sites for biochars. The presence of NO and O 2 increased Hg 0 adsorption whereas H 2 O inhibited Hg 0 adsorption greatly. A converse effect of SO 2 was observed on Hg 0 removal, namely, low concentration of SO 2 promoted Hg 0 removal obviously whereas high concentration of SO 2 suppressed Hg 0 removal. The Hg 0 removal by M6WN5 was mainly due to the reaction of the C−Cl with Hg 0 to form HgCl 2 , and the active state of C−Cl * groups might be an intermediate group in this process. Thermodynamic analysis showed that mercury adsorption by the biochars was exothermic process and apparent adsorption energy was 43.3 kJ/mol in the range of chemisorption. In spite of low specific surface area, M6WN5 proved to be a promising Hg 0 sorbent in flue gas when compared with other sorbents

  6. Cork stoppers as an effective sorbent for water treatment: the removal of mercury at environmentally relevant concentrations and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Cláudia B; Oliveira, Joana R; Rocha, Luciana S; Tavares, Daniela S; Silva, Carlos M; Silva, Susana P; Hartog, Niels; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, E

    2014-02-01

    The technical feasibility of using stopper-derived cork as an effective biosorbent towards bivalent mercury at environmentally relevant concentrations and conditions was evaluated in this study. Only 25 mg/L of cork powder was able to achieve 94 % of mercury removal for an initial mercury concentration of 500 μg/L. It was found that under the conditions tested, the efficiency of mercury removal expressed as equilibrium removal percentage does not depend on the amount of cork or its particle size, but is very sensitive to initial metal concentration, with higher removal efficiencies at higher initial concentrations. Ion exchange was identified as one of the mechanisms involved in the sorption of Hg onto cork in the absence of ionic competition. Under ionic competition, stopper-derived cork showed to be extremely effective and selective for mercury in binary mixtures, while in complex matrices like seawater, moderate inhibition of the sorption process was observed, attributed to a change in mercury speciation. The loadings achieved are similar to the majority of literature values found for other biosorbents and for other metals, suggesting that cork stoppers can be recycled as an effective biosorbent for water treatment. However, the most interesting result is that equilibrium data show a very rare behaviour, with the isotherm presenting an almost square convex shape to the concentration axis, with an infinite slope for an Hg concentration in solution around 25 μg/L.

  7. Selective removal of mercury from aqueous solutions using thiolated cross-linked polyethylenimine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Dalia M.; Cukrowska, Ewa M.; Tutu, Hlanganani

    2013-06-01

    A successful approach to develop an insoluble form of polyethylenimine with a thiol-based functional group for selective removal of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions is reported. The selectivity of the modified polymer for Hg(II) as well as its ability to be regenerated for re-use has been studied. The synthesised polymer exhibited high selectivity for Hg(II) with high removal efficiency of up to 97 %, even in the presence of competing ions. The Freundlich isotherm was found to best fit and describe the experimental data. The pseudo-second-order equation explains the adsorption kinetics most effectively implying chemisorption. The thermodynamic study of the adsorption process revealed high activation energies >41 kJ mol-1, further confirming chemisorption as the mechanism of interaction between mercury ions and the polymer surface. The polymer exhibited good potential for re-use after many cycles of regeneration, giving good removal efficiency up to the fifth cycle.

  8. Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that mercuric chloride and methylmercury are possible human carcinogens. top How does mercury affect children? Very young ... billion parts of drinking water (2 ppb). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has set a maximum ...

  9. Effect of halide impregnation on elemental mercury removal of activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Yoon Ji; Park, Soo Jin [Dept. of Chemistry, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Activated carbons (ACs) were impregnated with potassium halides (KX) to enhance the removal efficiency of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}). In this work, the impregnation effect of potassium bromide (KBr) and potassium iodine (KI) were investigated. The surface properties of KX-ACs were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The pore structures and total pore volumes of the KX-ACs were analyzed using the N{sub 2} /77 K adsorption isotherms. The Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency of KBr-ACs and KI-ACs was studied under simulated flue gas conditions. The effects of KI and KBr loading, adsorption temperature, and flue gas components on Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency were also investigated. The results showed that the Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency of the ACs was significantly enhanced by KI or KBr impregnation, and KI-ACs showed higher Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency than KBr-ACs under the same conditions. An increase in KI or KBr loading and higher adsorption temperatures improved the Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency, indicating that chemisorption occurred due to the reaction between X− and Hg{sup 0}. The lower extent of Hg{sup 0} removal exhibited by the KBr-ACs than by the KI-ACs was due to the difficulty of Br{sub 2} formation on the surfaces.

  10. A novel pre-oxidation method for elemental mercury removal utilizing a complex vaporized absorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yi, E-mail: zhaoyi9515@163.com; Hao, Runlong; Guo, Qing

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • An innovative liquid-phase complex absorbent (LCA) for Hg{sup 0} removal was prepared. • A novel integrative process for Hg{sup 0} removal was proposed. • The simultaneous removal efficiencies of SO{sub 2}, NO and Hg{sup 0} were 100%, 79.5% and 80.4%, respectively. • The reaction mechanism of simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2}, NO and Hg{sup 0} was proposed. - Abstract: A novel semi-dry integrative method for elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) removal has been proposed in this paper, in which Hg{sup 0} was initially pre-oxidized by a vaporized liquid-phase complex absorbent (LCA) composed of a Fenton reagent, peracetic acid (CH{sub 3}COOOH) and sodium chloride (NaCl), after which Hg{sup 2+} was absorbed by the resultant Ca(OH){sub 2}. The experimental results indicated that CH{sub 3}COOOH and NaCl were the best additives for Hg{sup 0} oxidation. Among the influencing factors, the pH of the LCA and the adding rate of the LCA significantly affected the Hg{sup 0} removal. The coexisting gases, SO{sub 2} and NO, were characterized as either increasing or inhibiting in the removal process, depending on their concentrations. Under optimal reaction conditions, the efficiency for the single removal of Hg{sup 0} was 91%. Under identical conditions, the efficiencies of the simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2}, NO and Hg{sup 0} were 100%, 79.5% and 80.4%, respectively. Finally, the reaction mechanism for the simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2}, NO and Hg{sup 0} was proposed based on the characteristics of the removal products as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), the analysis of the electrode potentials, and through data from related research references.

  11. A novel pre-oxidation method for elemental mercury removal utilizing a complex vaporized absorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yi; Hao, Runlong; Guo, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • An innovative liquid-phase complex absorbent (LCA) for Hg 0 removal was prepared. • A novel integrative process for Hg 0 removal was proposed. • The simultaneous removal efficiencies of SO 2 , NO and Hg 0 were 100%, 79.5% and 80.4%, respectively. • The reaction mechanism of simultaneous removal of SO 2 , NO and Hg 0 was proposed. - Abstract: A novel semi-dry integrative method for elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) removal has been proposed in this paper, in which Hg 0 was initially pre-oxidized by a vaporized liquid-phase complex absorbent (LCA) composed of a Fenton reagent, peracetic acid (CH 3 COOOH) and sodium chloride (NaCl), after which Hg 2+ was absorbed by the resultant Ca(OH) 2 . The experimental results indicated that CH 3 COOOH and NaCl were the best additives for Hg 0 oxidation. Among the influencing factors, the pH of the LCA and the adding rate of the LCA significantly affected the Hg 0 removal. The coexisting gases, SO 2 and NO, were characterized as either increasing or inhibiting in the removal process, depending on their concentrations. Under optimal reaction conditions, the efficiency for the single removal of Hg 0 was 91%. Under identical conditions, the efficiencies of the simultaneous removal of SO 2 , NO and Hg 0 were 100%, 79.5% and 80.4%, respectively. Finally, the reaction mechanism for the simultaneous removal of SO 2 , NO and Hg 0 was proposed based on the characteristics of the removal products as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), the analysis of the electrode potentials, and through data from related research references

  12. Optimized Production of Coal Fly Ash Derived Synthetic Zeolites for Mercury Removal from Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauanov, Z.; Shah, D.; Itskos, G.; Inglezakis, V.

    2017-09-01

    Coal fly ash (CFA) derived synthetic zeolites have become popular with recent advances and its ever-expanding range of applications, particularly as an adsorbent for water and gas purification and as a binder or additive in the construction industry and agriculture. Among these applications, perpetual interest has been in utilization of CFA derived synthetic zeolites for removal of heavy metals from wastewater. We herein focus on utilization of locally available CFA for efficient adsorption of mercury from wastewater. To this end, experimental conditions were investigated so that to produce synthetic zeolites from Kazakhstani CFAs with conversion into zeolite up to 78%, which has remarkably high magnetite content. In particular, the effect of synthesis reaction temperature, reaction time, and loading of adsorbent were systematically investigated and optimized. All produced synthetic zeolites and the respective CFAs were characterized using XRD, XRF, PSA and porosimetric instruments to obtain microstructural and mineralogical data. Furthermore, the synthesized zeolites were studied for the removal of mercury from aqueous solutions. A comparison of removal eficiency and its relationship to the physical and chemical properties of the synthetic zeolites were analyzed and interpreted.

  13. Comparison of Granular Activated Carbon, Natural Clinoptilolite Zeolite, and Anthracite Packed Columns in Removing Mercury from Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Samadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of effective methods for the removal of such pollutants as heavy metals (e.g., mercury from surface and ground water resources introduced by municipal and industrial wastewaters seems to be inevitable, especially in the face of the importance of water reuse in combating water shortages, limited availability of water resources, and imminent risks of a water crisis in Iran. A number of methods are already available for the removal of mercury from water resources. However, these techniques must be investigated for their practicability and economy, in addition to their not only effectiveness. In this research, granular activated carbon, natural zeolite, and anthracite packed-columns were investigated as cheap and effective adsorbents for the removal of mercury. Moreover, the effects of changes in pH (6-8, influent mercury concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 ppm, contact time (0.5, 1, 2, 3 hr were investigated. Mercury concentration in the samples was determined using a ditizon indicator and spectrophotometry at 492 nm. Results showed that decreasing influent mercury concentration from 1 ppm to 0.25 ppm (under constant conditions increased the removal efficiencies of anthracite, granular activated carbon, and zeolite columns from22%, 63%, and 55% to 28%, 72%, and 64%, respectively. Increasing contact time from 0.5 hr to 3 hr caused the removal efficiencies of these columns to increase from 22%, 56%, and 54% to 42%, 86%, and 82%, respectively. Also, increasing pH level led to increased removal efficiencies of the studied columns. It was found that contact time played a more effective role in enhancing mercury removal efficiency in the granular activated carbon column than in the other two columns. The ranges of mercury removal efficiency obtained for the granular activated carbon, natural zeolite, and anthracite columns under various conditions were (51%-92%, (42%-88%, and (16%-52%, respectively. Based on these results, granular

  14. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2006-05-02

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  15. Experimental study on ZnO-TiO_2 sorbents for the removal of elemental mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Kunzan; Zhou, Jinsong; Qi, Pan; Zhou, Qixin; Gao, Xiang; Luo, Zhongyang

    2017-01-01

    ZnO-TiO_2 sorbents synthesized by an impregnation method were characterized through XRD (X-ray diffraction), XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and EDS (Energy dispersive spectrometer) analyses. An experiment concerning the adsorption of Hg0 by ZnO-TiO_2 under a simulated fuel gas atmosphere was then conducted in a benchscale fixed-bed reactor. The effects of ZnO loading amounts and reaction temperatures on Hg"0 removal performance were analyzed. The results showed that ZnO-TiO_2 sorbents exhibited excellent Hg removal capacity in the presence of H2S at 150 .deg. C and 200 .deg. C; 95.2% and 91.2% of Hg0 was removed, respectively, under the experimental conditions. There are two possible causes for the H_2S reacting on the surface of ZnO-TiO_2: (1) H_2S directly reacted with ZnO to form ZnS, (2) H_2S was oxidized to elemental sulfur (S_a_d) by means of active oxygen on the sorbent surface, and then Sad provided active absorption sites for Hg0 to form HgS. This study identifies three reasons why higher temperatures limit mercury removal. First, the reaction between Hg"0 and H_2S is inhibited at high temperatures. Second, HgS, as the resulting product in the reaction of mercury removal, becomes unstable at high temperatures. Third, the desulfurization reaction strengthens at higher temperatures, and it is likely that H_2S directly reacts with ZnO, thus decreasing the Sad on the sorbent surfaces.

  16. Removal of lead from crude antimony by using NaPo3 as lead elimination reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye L.G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the shortcomings when removing lead from crude antimony in the traditional antimony smelting, a new process was provided using NaPO3 as lead elimination reagent to yield phosphate slag, and it was removed by floating on the surface of the liquid antimony. Reaction mechanism was clarified by using the TG-DTA and XRD techniques and single factor experiments of removal lead from crude antimony were engaged. The results show that PbO and NaPO3 begin endothermic reaction at 863K (590°C, and the reaction mainly form NaPb4(PO43 and NaPbPO4 below 1123K (850°C and above 1123K (850°C, respectively. Sb2O3 and NaPO3 start the reaction at 773K (500°C and generate an antimonic salt compound. The reaction product of the mixture of PbO, Sb2O3 and NaPO3 show that NaPO3 reacted with PbO prior when NaPO3 was insufficient, amorphous antimony glass will be generated only when NaPO3 was adequate. Single factor experiments were taken with NaNO3 as oxidizing agent under argon, effect of reaction time, reaction temperature and dosage of NaPO3 and NaNO3 on smelting results. The average content of lead in refined antimony was 0.05340% and 98.85% of lead were removed under optimal conditions; the content of lead in antimony have meet the requirements of commercial antimony.

  17. Removal of bone in CT angiography of the cervical arteries by piecewise matched mask bone elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straten, Marcel van; Venema, Henk W.; Streekstra, Geert J.; Majoie, Charles B.L.M.; Heeten, Gerard J. den; Grimbergen, Cornelis A.

    2004-01-01

    In maximum intensity projection (MIP) images of CT angiography (CTA) scans, the arteries are often obscured by bone. A bone removal method is presented that uses an additional, nonenhanced scan to create a mask of the bone by thresholding and dilation. After registration of the CTA scan and the additional scan, the bone in the CTA scan is masked. As the cervical area contains bones that can move with respect to each other, these bones are separated first using a watershed algorithm, and then registered individually. A phantom study was performed to evaluate and quantify the tradeoff between the removal of the bone and the preservation of the arteries contiguous to the bone. The influence of algorithm parameters and scan parameters was studied. The method was clinically evaluated with data sets of 35 patients. Best results were obtained with a threshold of 150 HU and a dilation of 8 in-plane voxels and two out-of-plane voxels. The mean width of the soft tissue layer, which is also masked, was approximately 1 mm. The mAs value of the nonenhanced scan could be reduced from 250 mAs to 65 mAs without a loss of quality. In 32 cases the bones were registered correctly and removed completely. In three cases the bone separation was not completely successful, and consequently the bone was not completely removed. The piecewise matched mask bone elimination method proved to be able to obtain MIP images of the cervical arteries free from overprojecting bone in a fully automatic way and with only a slight increase of radiation dose

  18. Design of Passive Decay Heat Removal System using Mercury Thermosyphon for SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Byung Hyun; Jeong, Yong Hoon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, thermosyphon application is suggested to accomplish the fully passive safety grade system and compactness of components via enhance the heat removal performance. A two-phase evaporating thermosyphon operates when the evaporator is heated, the working fluid start boiling, the vapor that is formed moves to the condenser, where it is condensed on the walls, giving up the heat of phase change to the cooling fluid. Gravity forces cause the condensate to condensed liquid flow to the evaporator again. These processes occur continuously, which causes transfer of heat from evaporator to condenser vice versa. After the thermal design and performance evaluation, the results were compared with the performance of conventional DRACS system. For the same amount of decay heat removal performance of PDRC system of KALIMER-600 mercury thermosyphon system can archive around 30∼50% of compactness. For the detailed design, improved analytical model and experimental data for the validation will be required to specify the new DHR system.

  19. Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Mahoney, T J

    2014-01-01

    This gazetteer and atlas on Mercury lists, defines and illustrates every named (as opposed to merely catalogued) object and term as related to Mercury within a single reference work. It contains a glossary of terminology used, an index of all the headwords in the gazetteer, an atlas comprising maps and images with coordinate grids and labels identifying features listed in the gazetteer, and appendix material on the IAU nomenclature system and the transcription systems used for non-roman alphabets. This book is useful for the general reader, writers and editors dealing with astronomical themes, and those astronomers concerned with any aspect of astronomical nomenclature.

  20. Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, André; Steiger, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun, is different in several respects from the other three terrestrial planets. In appearance, it resembles the heavily cratered surface of the Moon, but its density is high, it has a magnetic field and magnetosphere, but no atmosphere or ionosphere. This book reviews the progress made in Mercury studies since the flybys by Mariner 10 in 1974-75, based on the continued research using the Mariner 10 archive, on observations from Earth, and on increasingly realistic models of its interior evolution.

  1. Removal of lead, mercury and nickel using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherlys Infante J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In this study the biomass of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to remove lead, mercury and nickel in the form of ions dissolved in water. Materials and methods. Synthetic solutions were prepared containing the three heavy metals, which were put in contact with viable microorganisms at different conditions of pH, temperature, aeration and agitation. Results. Both individual variables and the interaction effects influenced the biosorption process. Throughout the experimental framework it was observed that the biomass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae removed a higher percentage of lead (86.4% as compared to mercury and nickel (69.7 and 47.8% respectively. When the pH was set at a value of 5 the effect was positive for all three metals. Conclusions. pH was the variable that had a greater influence on the biosorption of lead on the biomass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The affinity of the heavy metals for the biomass followed the order Pb>Hg>Ni.

  2. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION FOR WATERBORNE MERCURY REMOVAL AT THE Y12 NATIONAL SECURITY COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Feng [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The Hg-contaminated processing water produced at Y-12 facility is discharged through the storm drain system, merged at Outfall 200, and then discharged to EFPC. Most of the baseflow mercury at Outfall 200 arises from a small number of short sections of storm drain. This report discusses the waterborne mercury treatment technologies to decrease mercury loading to the surface water of EFPC at Y-12 NSC. We reviewed current available waterborne Hg treatment technologies based on the specific conditions of Y-12 and identified two possible options: SnCl2 reduction coupled with air stripping (SnCl2/air stripping) and sorption. The ORNL 2008 and 2009 field studies suggested that SnCl2/air stripping has the capability to remove waterborne mercury with efficiency higher than 90% at Outfall 200. To achieve this goal, dechlorination (i.e., removing residual chlorine from water) using dechlorinating agents such as thiosulfate has to be performed before the reduction. It is unclear whether or not SnCl2/air stripping can reduce the mercury concentration from ~1000 ng/L to 51 ng/L at a full-scale operation. Therefore, a pilot test is a logical step before a full-scale design to answer questions such as Hg removal efficiency, selection of dechlorinating agents, and so on. The major advantages of the SnCl2/air stripping system are: (1) expected low cost at high flow (e.g., the flow at Outfall 200); and (2) production of minimum secondary waste. However, there are many environmental uncertainties associated with this technology by introducing tin to EFPC ecosystem, for example tin methylation causing abiotic Hg methylation, which should be addressed before a full-scale implementation. Mercury adsorption by granular activated carbon (GAC) is a proven technology for treating Hg at Y-12. The ONRL 2010 lab sorption studies suggest that thiol-based resins hold the promise to combine with GAC to form a more cost-effective treatment system. To achieve a treatment goal of 51 ng/L at Outfall

  3. A study on removal of elemental mercury in flue gas using fenton solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yangxian; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qian; Pan, Jianfeng [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Zhang, Yongchun [Jiangsu Province Special Equipment Safety Supervision Inspection Institute (Branch of Wuxi), Wuxi 214000 (China); Zhou, Jianfei [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013 (China); Zhang, Jun [Key Laboratory of Energy Thermal Conversion and Control of Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • A novel technique on oxidation of Hg{sup 0} using Fenton was proposed. • The effects of several process parameters on Hg{sup 0} removal were studied. • Products and ·OH in solution were detected. • Reaction mechanism of Hg{sup 0} removal was studied. • Simultaneous removal of Hg{sup 0}, NO and SO{sub 2} was also studied. - Abstract: A novel technique on oxidation-separation of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas using Fenton solution in a bubbling reactor was proposed. The effects of several process parameters (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, Hg{sup 0} inlet concentration, Fe{sup 2+} concentration, solution temperature, solution pH, gas flow) and several flue gas components (NO, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, inorganic ions and particulate matters on Hg{sup 0} removal were studied. The results indicate that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, Fe{sup 2+} concentration, solution pH and gas flow have great effects on Hg{sup 0} removal. Solution temperature, Hg{sup 0}, NO, SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} and HCO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations also have significant effects on Hg{sup 0} removal. However, Cl{sup −}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} concentrations only have slight effects on Hg{sup 0} removal. Furthermore, reaction mechanism of Hg{sup 0} removal and simultaneous removal process of Hg{sup 0}, NO and SO{sub 2} were also studied. Hg{sup 0} is removed by oxidation of ·OH and oxidation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The simultaneous removal efficiencies of 100% for SO{sub 2}, 100% for Hg{sup 0} and 88.3% for NO were obtained under optimal test conditions. The results demonstrated the feasibility of Hg{sup 0} removal and simultaneous removal of Hg{sup 0}, SO{sub 2} and NO using Fenton solution in a bubbling reactor.

  4. Removal of element mercury by medicine residue derived biochars in presence of various gas compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guoliang [School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Shen, Boxiong, E-mail: shenbx@nankai.edu.cn [School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Yongwang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhao, Bin [School of Chemical Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China); Wang, Fumei; He, Chuan; Wang, Yinyin; Zhang, Min [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Both physisorption and chemisorption of Hg{sup 0} occurred on the surface of M6WN5. • Chemisorption process was an absolute predominant route for Hg{sup 0} removal by M6WN5. • The effect of NO, H{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} on Hg{sup 0} removal by M6WN5 was investigated. • M6WN5 demonstrated to be a promising Hg{sup 0} sorbent in flue gas. - Abstract: Pyrolyzed biochars from an industrial medicinal residue waste were modified by microwave activation and NH{sub 4}Cl impregnation. Mercury adsorption of different modified biochars was investigated in a quartz fixed-bed reactor. The results indicated that both physisorption and chemisorption of Hg{sup 0} occurred on the surface of M6WN5 which was modified both microwave and 5 wt.% NH{sub 4}Cl loading, and exothermic chemisorption process was a dominant route for Hg{sup 0} removal. Microwave activation improved pore properties and NH{sub 4}Cl impregnation introduced good active sites for biochars. The presence of NO and O{sub 2} increased Hg{sup 0} adsorption whereas H{sub 2}O inhibited Hg{sup 0} adsorption greatly. A converse effect of SO{sub 2} was observed on Hg{sup 0} removal, namely, low concentration of SO{sub 2} promoted Hg{sup 0} removal obviously whereas high concentration of SO{sub 2} suppressed Hg{sup 0} removal. The Hg{sup 0} removal by M6WN5 was mainly due to the reaction of the C−Cl with Hg{sup 0} to form HgCl{sub 2}, and the active state of C−Cl{sup *} groups might be an intermediate group in this process. Thermodynamic analysis showed that mercury adsorption by the biochars was exothermic process and apparent adsorption energy was 43.3 kJ/mol in the range of chemisorption. In spite of low specific surface area, M6WN5 proved to be a promising Hg{sup 0} sorbent in flue gas when compared with other sorbents.

  5. UiO-66 and its Br-modified derivates for elemental mercury removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Shen, Boxiong; Zhu, Sheaowen; Xu, Huan; Tian, Linghui

    2016-12-15

    Phenyl bromine-appended metal-organic frameworks (Br-MOFs) were synthesized and applied in elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) removal from simulated flue gas, considering the stability of bromine on the materials at the same time. The techniques of PXRD, nitrogen adsorption, TGA and XPS were used to characterize the materials. Phenyl bromide on the MOFs was the main active site for Hg 0 capture. The optimal Br-MOF showed high Hg 0 removal efficiency of more than 99% for 48h at 200°C, whereas the efficiency of un-functionalized MOF and conventional bromine impregnated active carbon dropped to 59.8% and 91.2% within 5h, respectively. The crystalline integrity of the Br-MOF was maintained after Hg 0 adsorption. Br-MOF exhibited enhanced Hg 0 removal efficiency when SO 2 was introduced to the flue gas. However, exposure Br-MOF to flue gas with steam resulted in low Hg 0 removal efficiency. Bromine leaching experiments proved that Br-MOFs have high bromine stability over the Hg 0 adsorption process, avoiding the possible bromine pollution caused by the conventional bromine impregnated adsorbents. All of these results demonstrated the phenyl bromine-appended MOFs to be potential Hg 0 adsorbent regarding its high Hg 0 capture efficiency and low environmental risk. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Removal of trace mercury (II) from aqueous solution by in situ MnO(x) combined with poly-aluminum chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xixin; Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Yaan; Ma, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Removal of trace mercury from aqueous solution by Mn (hydr)oxides formed in situ during coagulation with poly-aluminum chloride (PAC) (in situ MnO(x) combined with PAC) was investigated. The efficiency of trace mercury removal was evaluated under the experimental conditions of reaction time, Mn dosage, pH, and temperature. In addition, the ionic strength and the initial mercury concentration were examined to evaluate trace mercury removal for different water qualities. The results clearly demonstrated that in situ MnO(x) combined with PAC was effective for trace mercury removal from aqueous solution. A mercury removal ratio of 9.7 μg Hg/mg Mn was obtained at pH 3. Furthermore, at an initial mercury concentration of 30 μg/L and pH levels of both 3 and 5, a Mn dosage of 4 mg/L was able to lower the mercury concentration to meet the standards for drinking water quality at less than 1 μg/L. Analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests that the hydroxyls on the surface of Mn (hydr)oxides are the active sites for adsorption of trace mercury from aqueous solution.

  7. THE EFFECT OF WATER (VAPOR-PHASE) AND CARBON ON ELEMENTAL MERCURY REMOVAL IN A FLOW REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of studying the effect of vapor-phase moisture on elemental mercury (Hgo) removal by activated carbon (AC) in a flow reactor. tests involved injecting AC into both a dry and a 4% moisture nitrogen (N2) /Hgo gas stream. A bituminous-coal-based AC (Calgon WP...

  8. Sulfur rich microporous polymer enables rapid and efficient removal of mercury(II) from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Wu, Winston Duo; Qi, Hao-Jun; Yang, Rui-Xia; Deng, Wei-Qiao

    2018-04-01

    Design and synthesis of adsorbents for efficient decontamination of hazardous contaminants Hg 2+ from wastewater, based on a facile and economical strategy, is an attractive target. Here, a novel sulfur rich microporous polymer (sulfur content of 31.4 wt %) with high surface area as well as densely populated sulfur atom with fast accessibility was reported to remove mercury (II) from water. The as prepared polymer (SMP) exhibited high binding affinity, high adsorption capacities, rapid adsorption kinetics, and good recyclability for Hg 2+ . The adsorption capacity of SMP was 595.2 mg g -1 . Furthermore, SMP could reduce trace concentrations of Hg 2+ from 200 p. p. b. to a level below drinking water standards (2 p. p. b.) within 3 min. This work allows large-scale production of sulfur rich porous materials for the practical application in water treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mercury contamination extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Mark [Silver Spring, MD; Heiser, John [Bayport, NY; Kalb, Paul [Wading River, NY

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  10. GASEOUS ELEMENTAL MERCURY IN THE MARINE BOUNDARY LAYER: EVIDENCE FOR RAPID REMOVAL IN ANTHROPOGENIC POLLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg0) and related species (including inorganic reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury (PHg)) were measured at Cheeka Peak Observatory (CPO), Washington State, in the marine boundary layer (MBL) during 2001-2002. Air of...

  11. Regenerative process for removal of mercury and other heavy metals from gases containing H.sub.2 and/or CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Raja A [Naperville, IL

    2009-07-07

    A method for removal of mercury from a gaseous stream containing the mercury, hydrogen and/or CO, and hydrogen sulfide and/or carbonyl sulfide in which a dispersed Cu-containing sorbent is contacted with the gaseous stream at a temperature in the range of about 25.degree. C. to about 300.degree. C. until the sorbent is spent. The spent sorbent is contacted with a desorbing gaseous stream at a temperature equal to or higher than the temperature at which the mercury adsorption is carried out, producing a regenerated sorbent and an exhaust gas comprising released mercury. The released mercury in the exhaust gas is captured using a high-capacity sorbent, such as sulfur-impregnated activated carbon, at a temperature less than about 100.degree. C. The regenerated sorbent may then be used to capture additional mercury from the mercury-containing gaseous stream.

  12. Mercury Removal From Aqueous Solutions With Chitosan-Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles Optimized Using the Box-Behnken Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Nadereh; Jahangiri, Alireza; Boumi, Shahin; Khodayar, Mohammad Javad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, removal of heavy metals from the environment is an important problem due to their toxicity. Objectives: In this study, a modified method was used to synthesize chitosan-coated magnetite nanoparticles (CCMN) to be used as a low cost and nontoxic adsorbent. CCMN was then employed to remove Hg2+ from water solutions. Materials and Methods: To remove the highest percentage of mercury ions, the Box-Behnken model of response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to simultaneously optimize all parameters affecting the adsorption process. Studied parameters of the process were pH (5-8), initial metal concentration (2-8 mg/L), and the amount of damped adsorbent (0.25-0.75 g). A second-order mathematical model was developed using regression analysis of experimental data obtained from 15 batch runs. Results: The optimal conditions predicted by the model were pH = 5, initial concentration of mercury ions = 6.2 mg/L, and the amount of damped adsorbent = 0.67 g. Confirmatory testing was performed and the maximum percentage of Hg2+ removed was found to be 99.91%. Kinetic studies of the adsorption process specified the efficiency of the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The adsorption isotherm was well-fitted to both the Langmuir and Freundlich models. Conclusions: CCMN as an excellent adsorbent could remove the mercury ions from water solutions at low and moderate concentrations, which is the usual amount found in environment. PMID:24872943

  13. Review of technologies for mercury removal from flue gas from cement production processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Anker Degn; Windelin, Christian

    2012-01-01

    sources of mercury in the cement kiln flue gas. Cement plants are quite different from power plants and waste incinerators regarding the flue gas composition, temperature, residence time, and material circulation. Cement kiln systems have some inherent ability to retain mercury in the solid materials due...... to the adsorption of mercury on the solids in the cold zone. However, recirculation of the kiln dust to the kiln will cause release of the captured mercury. The mercury chemistry in cement kiln systems is complicated and knowledge obtained from power plants and incinerators cannot be directly applied in cement...

  14. Removal of mercury(II) from aqueous media using eucalyptus bark: Kinetic and equilibrium studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghodbane, Ilhem; Hamdaoui, Oualid

    2008-01-01

    In this study, eucalyptus camaldulensis bark, a forest solid waste, is proposed as a novel material for the removal of mercury(II) from aqueous phase. The operating variables studied were sorbent dosage, ionic strength, stirring speed, temperature, solution pH, contact time, and initial metal concentration. Sorption experiments indicated that the sorption capacity was dependent on operating variables and the process was strongly pH-dependent. Kinetic measurements showed that the process was uniform and rapid. In order to investigate the mechanism of sorption, kinetic data were modeled using the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic equations, and intraparticle diffusion model. Among the kinetic models studied, the pseudo-second-order equation was the best applicable model to describe the sorption process. Equilibrium isotherm data were analyzed using the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherms. The Langmuir model yields a much better fit than the Freundlich model. Isotherms have also been used to obtain the thermodynamic parameters such as free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of sorption. The maximum sorption capacity was 33.11 mg g -1 at 20 deg. C and the negative value of free energy change indicated the spontaneous nature of sorption. These results demonstrate that eucalyptus bark is very effective in the removal of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions

  15. A law of removing radon by ventilation and air requirement calculation for eliminating radon daughters in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gang

    1988-06-01

    In accordance with testing data of removing radon and its daughters by ventilation from shrinkage and filling stopes of uranium mines, a law of removing radon by ventilation from the stopes is analyzed and summed. According to the decay law of radon and its daughters, an accumulation equation of potential alpha energy from radon daughters is presented with hyperbolic regression equation. the calculating formulae of ventilation flow are derived from the accumulation equation for eliminating radon daughters in inlet flow with or without contamination. It has been proved that the amount of ventilation air calcuated could meet the requirements of radiation safety rationally and economically

  16. Electrospun metal oxide-TiO{sub 2} nanofibers for elemental mercury removal from flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Yuan; Zhao, Yongchun [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Li, Hailong [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); School of Energy Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Li, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China); Gao, Xiang [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Zheng, Chuguang [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Zhang, Junying, E-mail: jyzhang@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developed the metal oxides (CuO, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, WO{sub 3} and Ag{sub 2}O) doped TiO{sub 2} nanofibers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fibers are applied to control Hg{sup 0} from coal combustion flue gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer WO{sub 3} doped TiO{sub 2} exhibited the highest Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency of 100% under UV irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer V{sub 2}O{sub 5} doped TiO{sub 2} greatly enhanced Hg{sup 0} removal under visible light irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2}-Ag{sub 2}O showed a steady Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency of 95% without any light. - Abstract: Nanofibers prepared by an electrospinning method were used to remove elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) from simulated coal combustion flue gas. The nanofibers composed of different metal oxides (MO{sub x}) including CuO, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, WO{sub 3} and Ag{sub 2}O supported on TiO{sub 2} have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersing X-ray (EDX) and UV-vis spectra. The average diameters of these nanofibers were about 200 nm. Compared to pure TiO{sub 2}, the UV-vis absorption intensity for MO{sub x}-TiO{sub 2} increased significantly and the absorption bandwidth also expanded, especially for Ag{sub 2}O-TiO{sub 2} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-TiO{sub 2}. Hg{sup 0} oxidation efficiencies over the MO{sub x}-TiO{sub 2} nanofibers were tested under dark, visible light (vis) irradiation and UV irradiation, respectively. The results showed that WO{sub 3} doped TiO{sub 2} exhibited the highest Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency of 100% under UV irradiation. Doping V{sub 2}O{sub 5} into TiO{sub 2} enhanced Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency greatly from 6% to 63% under visible light irradiation. Ag{sub 2}O doped TiO{sub 2} showed a steady Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency of around 95% without any light due to the formation of silver amalgam. An extended experiment

  17. Removal of mercury from gold mine effluents using Limnocharis flava in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo-Negrete, José; Enamorado-Montes, Germán; Durango-Hernández, José; Pinedo-Hernández, José; Díez, Sergi

    2017-01-01

    Phytoremediation has received increased attention over the recent decades, as an emerging and eco-friendly approach that utilizes the natural properties of plants to remediate contaminated water, soils or sediments. The current study provides information about a pilot-scale experiment designed to evaluate the potential of the anchored aquatic plant Limnocharis flava for phytoremediation of water contaminated with mercury (Hg), in a constructed wetland (CW) with horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF). Mine effluent used in this experiment was collected from a gold mining area located at the Alacran mine in Colombia (Hg: 0.11 ± 0.03 μg mL -1 ) and spiked with HgNO 3 (1.50 ± 0.09 μg mL -1 ). Over a 30 day test period, the efficiency of the reduction in the heavy metal concentration in the wetlands, and the relative metal sorption by the L. flava, varied according to the exposure time. The continued rate of removal of Hg from the constructed wetland was 9 times higher than the control, demonstrating a better performance and nearly 90% reduction in Hg concentrations in the contaminated water in the presence of L. flava. The results in this present study show the great potential of the aquatic macrophyte L. flava for phytoremediation of Hg from gold mining effluents in constructed wetlands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Removal of mercury from water by carbonaceous sorbents derived from walnut shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabihi, M.; Ahmadpour, A.; Asl, A. Haghighi

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption ability of a powdered activated carbon (PAC) derived from walnut shell was investigated in an attempt to produce more economic and effective sorbent for the control of Hg(II) ion from industrial liquid streams. Carbonaceous sorbents derived from Iranian walnut shell (WS) were prepared by chemical activation method using ZnCl 2 as an activating reagent. To the best of our knowledge, this adsorbent was not used before for removing mercury from water. Adsorption of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions was carried out under different experimental conditions by varying treatment time, metal ion concentration, adsorbent amount, pH and solution temperature. It was determined that Hg(II) adsorption follows both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms as well as pseudo-second-order kinetics. It was also shown that Hg(II) uptake decreases with increasing pH of the solution. The proper choice of preparation conditions resulted in a microporous activated carbon with 0.45 g/cm 3 density, 737 mg/g iodine number and 780 m 2 /g BET surface area. The monolayer sorption capacity of this optimum adsorbent was obtained as 151.5 mg/g.

  19. Antibiotic removal from water: Elimination of amoxicillin and ampicillin by microscale and nanoscale iron particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghauch, Antoine; Tuqan, Almuthanna; Assi, Hala Abou

    2009-01-01

    Zerovalent iron powder (ZVI or Fe 0 ) and nanoparticulate ZVI (nZVI or nFe 0 ) are proposed as cost-effective materials for the removal of aqueous antibiotics. Results showed complete removal of Amoxicillin (AMX) and Ampicillin (AMP) upon contact with Fe 0 and nFe 0 . Antibiotics removal was attributed to three different mechanisms: (i) a rapid rupture of the β-lactam ring (reduction), (ii) an adsorption of AMX and AMP onto iron corrosion products and (iii) sequestration of AMX and AMP in the matrix of precipitating iron hydroxides (co-precipitation with iron corrosion products). Kinetic studies demonstrated that AMP and AMX (20 mg L -1 ) undergo first-order decay with half-lives of about 60.3 ± 3.1 and 43.5 ± 2.1 min respectively after contact with ZVI under oxic conditions. In contrast, reactions under anoxic conditions demonstrated better degradation with t 1/2 of about 11.5 ± 0.6 and 11.2 ± 0.6 min for AMP and AMX respectively. NaCl additions accelerated Fe 0 consumption, shortening the service life of Fe 0 treatment systems. - Fe 0 is efficient for the aqueous removal of the β-lactam antibiotics and chlorides enhanced the removal rate by sustaining the process of iron corrosion.

  20. Elimination of fungicides in biopurification systems: Effect of fungal bioaugmentation on removal performance and microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Zamora, Sergio; Castro-Gutiérrez, Víctor; Masís-Mora, Mario; Lizano-Fallas, Verónica; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E

    2017-11-01

    Bioaugmentation with ligninolytic fungi represents a potential way to improve the performance of biomixtures used in biopurification systems for the treatment of pesticide-containing agricultural wastewater. The fungus Trametes versicolor was employed in the bioaugmentation of a biomixture to be used in the simultaneous removal of seven fungicides. Liquid cultures of the fungus were able to remove tebuconazole, while no evidence of carbendazim, metalaxyl and triadimenol depletion was found. When applied in the biomixture, the bioaugmented matrix failed to remove all the triazole fungicides (including tebuconazole) under the assayed conditions, but was efficient to eliminate carbendazim, edifenphos and metalaxyl (the latter only after a second pesticide application). The re-addition of pesticides markedly increased the elimination of carbendazim and metalaxyl; nonetheless, no clear enhancement of the biomixture performance could be ascribed to fungal bioaugmentation, not even after the re-inoculation of fungal biomass. Detoxification efficiently took place in the biomixture (9 d after pesticide applications) according to acute tests on Daphnia magna. DGGE-analysis revealed only moderate time-divergence in bacterial and fungal communities, and a weak establishment of T. versicolor in the matrix. Data suggest that the non-bioaugmented biomixture is useful for the treatment of fungicides other than triazoles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of Nano-Sulfide Sorbent for Efficient Removal of Elemental Mercury from Coal Combustion Fuel Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailong; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Jun; Li, Liqing; Shih, Kaimin

    2016-09-06

    The surface area of zinc sulfide (ZnS) was successfully enlarged using nanostructure particles synthesized by a liquid-phase precipitation method. The ZnS with the highest surface area (named Nano-ZnS) of 196.1 m(2)·g(-1) was then used to remove gas-phase elemental mercury (Hg(0)) from simulated coal combustion fuel gas at relatively high temperatures (140 to 260 °C). The Nano-ZnS exhibited far greater Hg(0) adsorption capacity than the conventional bulk ZnS sorbent due to the abundance of surface sulfur sites, which have a high binding affinity for Hg(0). Hg(0) was first physically adsorbed on the sorbent surface and then reacted with the adjacent surface sulfur to form the most stable mercury compound, HgS, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and a temperature-programmed desorption test. At the optimal temperature of 180 °C, the equilibrium Hg(0) adsorption capacity of the Nano-ZnS (inlet Hg(0) concentration of 65.0 μg·m(-3)) was greater than 497.84 μg·g(-1). Compared with several commercial activated carbons used exclusively for gas-phase mercury removal, the Nano-ZnS was superior in both Hg(0) adsorption capacity and adsorption rate. With this excellent Hg(0) removal performance, noncarbon Nano-ZnS may prove to be an advantageous alternative to activated carbon for Hg(0) removal in power plants equipped with particulate matter control devices, while also offering a means of reusing fly ash as a valuable resource, for example as a concrete additive.

  2. Adsorptive behaviour of mercury on algal biomass: Competition with divalent cations and organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carro, Leticia; Barriada, Jose L.; Herrero, Roberto; Sastre de Vicente, Manuel E.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Native and protonated macroalga S. muticum are good materials for mercury removal. → Fast kinetic process and high mercury uptakes have been found for those materials. → Diffusion control is the rate limiting step of the process. → Competition effects by organic compounds, inorganic salts and divalent cations were analyzed. → Continuous flow experiments allowed identification of mercury reduction during metal removal. - Abstract: Biosorption processes constitute an effective technique for mercury elimination. Sorption properties of native and acid-treated Sargassum muticum have been studied. Effect of pH, initial mercury concentration and contact time studies provided fundamental information about the sorption process. This information was used as the reference values to analyse mercury sorption under competition conditions. Saline effect has shown little influence in sorption, when only electrostatic modifications took place upon salt addition. On the contrary, if mercury speciation dramatically changed owing to the addition of an electrolyte, such as in the case of chloride salt, very large modifications in mercury sorption were observed. Competition with other divalent cations or organic compounds has shown little or none effect on mercury, indicating that a different mechanism is taking place during the removal of these pollutants. Finally, continuous flow experiments have clearly shown that a reduction process is also taking place during mercury removal. This fact is not obvious to elucidate under batch sorption experiments. Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis of the surface of the materials show deposits of mercury(I) and metallic mercury which is indicative of the reduction process proposed.

  3. Influence of EDTA on the electrochemical removal of mercury (II) in soil from San Joaquin, Queretaro, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, I.; Serrano, T.; Perez, J. J.; Bustos, E. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S. C., Parque Tecnologico Queretaro, Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo, 76703 Queretaro (Mexico); Hernandez, G.; Solis, S. [UNAM, Campus Juriquilla, Centro de Geociencias, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, 76230 Queretaro (Mexico); Garcia, R. [UNAM, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Pi, T., E-mail: ebustos@cideteq.mx [UNAM, Instituto de Geologia, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    The removal of mercury from soil and Ca-bentonite was performed using electrochemical treatment adding ethylendiamine-tetra acetic acid (EDTA) as a complexing agent to improve the electrochemical removal of Hg (II) in soil from San Joaquin, Queretaro, Mexico. During the electrokinetic treatment in the presence of 0.1 M EDTA, most of Hg (II) migrates toward the anode obtaining the highest removal efficiencies close to 70% in bentonite after 9 h. Using 0.1 M HCl only 65% efficiency was attained after 13 h in the cathodic side. EDTA formed a negatively charged stable complex that migrates to the cathode by the application of the electrokinetic treatment across Hg - EDTA synthesized complex. Finally, the predominant crystallographic structures of the samples were examined using X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  4. Influence of EDTA on the electrochemical removal of mercury (II) in soil from San Joaquin, Queretaro, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, I.; Serrano, T.; Perez, J. J.; Bustos, E.; Hernandez, G.; Solis, S.; Garcia, R.; Pi, T.

    2014-01-01

    The removal of mercury from soil and Ca-bentonite was performed using electrochemical treatment adding ethylendiamine-tetra acetic acid (EDTA) as a complexing agent to improve the electrochemical removal of Hg (II) in soil from San Joaquin, Queretaro, Mexico. During the electrokinetic treatment in the presence of 0.1 M EDTA, most of Hg (II) migrates toward the anode obtaining the highest removal efficiencies close to 70% in bentonite after 9 h. Using 0.1 M HCl only 65% efficiency was attained after 13 h in the cathodic side. EDTA formed a negatively charged stable complex that migrates to the cathode by the application of the electrokinetic treatment across Hg - EDTA synthesized complex. Finally, the predominant crystallographic structures of the samples were examined using X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  5. Enhancing mercury removal across air pollution control devices for coal-fired power plants by desulfurization wastewater evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Hu; Yang, Yi; Cai, Liang; Yang, Linjun; Roszak, Szczepan

    2017-10-09

    Desulfurization wastewater evaporation technology is used to enhance the removal of gaseous mercury (Hg) in conventional air pollution control devices (APCDs) for coal-fired power plants. Studies have affirmed that gaseous Hg is oxidized and removed by selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) in a coal-fired thermal experiment platform with WFGD wastewater evaporation. Effects of desulfurization wastewater evaporation position, evaporation temperature and chlorine ion concentration on Hg oxidation were studied as well. The Hg 0 oxidation efficiency was increased ranging from 30% to 60%, and the gaseous Hg removal efficiency was 62.16% in APCDs when wastewater evaporated before SCR. However, the Hg 0 oxidation efficiency was 18.99% and the gaseous Hg removal efficiency was 40.19% in APCDs when wastewater evaporated before ESP. The results show that WFGD wastewater evaporation before SCR is beneficial to improve the efficiency of Hg oxidized and removed in APCDs. Because Hg 2+ can be easily removed in ACPDs and WFGD wastewater in power plants is enriched with chlorine ions, this method realizes WFGD wastewater zero discharge and simultaneously enhances Hg removal in APCDs.

  6. Mercury (II) removal by resistant bacterial isolates and mercuric (II) reductase activity in a new strain of Pseudomonas sp. B50A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, Patricia; Cabral, Lucélia; Bento, Fátima Menezes; Gianello, Clesio; Camargo, Flávio Anastácio Oliveira

    2016-01-25

    This study aimed to isolate mercury resistant bacteria, determine the minimum inhibitory concentration for Hg, estimate mercury removal by selected isolates, explore the mer genes, and detect and characterize the activity of the enzyme mercuric (II) reductase produced by a new strain of Pseudomonas sp. B50A. The Hg removal capacity of the isolates was determined by incubating the isolates in Luria Bertani broth and the remaining mercury quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. A PCR reaction was carried out to detect the merA gene and the mercury (II) reductase activity was determined in a spectrophotometer at 340 nm. Eight Gram-negative bacterial isolates were resistant to high mercury concentrations and capable of removing mercury, and of these, five were positive for the gene merA. The isolate Pseudomonas sp. B50A removed 86% of the mercury present in the culture medium and was chosen for further analysis of its enzyme activity. Mercuric (II) reductase activity was detected in the crude extract of this strain. This enzyme showed optimal activity at pH 8 and at temperatures between 37 °C and 45 °C. The ions NH4(+), Ba(2+), Sn(2+), Ni(2+) and Cd(2+) neither inhibited nor stimulated the enzyme activity but it decreased in the presence of the ions Ca(2+), Cu(+) and K(+). The isolate and the enzyme detected were effective in reducing Hg(II) to Hg(0), showing the potential to develop bioremediation technologies and processes to clean-up the environment and waste contaminated with mercury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rubber matting on an obstacle course causes anterior cruciate ligament ruptures and its removal eliminates them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Rodney P

    2002-04-01

    In June 1998, six unexpected anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures within 12 months were detected by routine injury surveillance in a cohort of Australian Army recruits. Local investigation, reported separately as a Case Report in this issue, suggested the cause to be an excessive coefficient of friction between rubber boot soles and newly laid rubber matting on one obstacle course, creating excessive knee torques. The matting was removed progressively, but not before two more ruptures occurred on one remaining section. In this retrospective study, chi 2 analyses were used to compare the incidence of ACL rupture in prehazard, hazard-exposed, and postintervention cohorts, and the average costs to the institution of each ACL rupture were determined. Zero, eight, and zero ACL ruptures occurred in the prehazard, hazard-exposed, and postintervention cohorts, respectively (chi 2 > 4.75 for 1 df, p < 0.03 for each change in incidence). The temporal relationships between hazard introduction or removal and changes in the incidence of ACL rupture were strong. The average institutional cost of each ACL rupture was AU$54,627 or US$34,322. Rubber matting on obstacle courses increases the risk of ACL rupture in the presence of speed and rubber-soled footwear. Routine injury surveillance and simple preventive processes save money and personnel.

  8. Bonding in Mercury Molecules Described by the Normalized Elimination of the Small Component and Coupled Cluster Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, Dieter; Kraka, Elfi; Filatov, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of neutral HgX and cationic HgX(+) molecules range from less than a kcal mol(-1) to as much as 60 kcal mol(-1). Using NESCICCCSD(T) [normalized elimination of the small component and coupled-cluster theory with all single and double excitations and a perturbative

  9. Integrated removal of NO and mercury from coal combustion flue gas using manganese oxides supported on TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shibo; Zhao, Yongchun; Wang, Zonghua; Zhang, Junying; Wang, Lulu; Zheng, Chuguang

    2017-03-01

    A catalyst composed of manganese oxides supported on titania (MnO x /TiO 2 ) synthesized by a sol-gel method was selected to remove nitric oxide and mercury jointly at a relatively low temperature in simulated flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The physico-chemical characteristics of catalysts were investigated by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses, etc. The effects of Mn loading, reaction temperature and individual flue gas components on denitration and Hg 0 removal were examined. The results indicated that the optimal Mn/Ti molar ratio was 0.8 and the best working temperature was 240°C for NO conversion. O 2 and a proper ratio of [NH 3 ]/[NO] are essential for the denitration reaction. Both NO conversion and Hg 0 removal efficiency could reach more than 80% when NO and Hg 0 were removed simultaneously using Mn0.8Ti at 240°C. Hg 0 removal efficiency slightly declined as the Mn content increased in the catalysts. The reaction temperature had no significant effect on Hg 0 removal efficiency. O 2 and HCl had a promotional effect on Hg 0 removal. SO 2 and NH 3 were observed to weaken Hg 0 removal because of competitive adsorption. NO first facilitated Hg 0 removal and then had an inhibiting effect as NO concentration increased without O 2 , and it exhibited weak inhibition of Hg 0 removal efficiency in the presence of O 2 . The oxidation of Hg 0 on MnO x /TiO 2 follows the Mars-Maessen and Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanisms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Engineering and characterization of mesoporous silica-coated magnetic particles for mercury removal from industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jie; Xu Zhenghe; Wang Feng

    2008-01-01

    Mesoporous silica coatings were synthesized on dense liquid silica-coated magnetite particles using cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium chloride (CTAC) as molecular templates, followed by sol-gel process. A specific surface area of the synthesized particles as high as 150 m 2 /g was obtained. After functionalization with mercapto-propyl-trimethoxy-silane (MPTS) through silanation reaction, the particles exhibited high affinity of mercury in aqueous solutions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), zeta potential measurement, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) were used to characterize the synthesis processes, surface functionalization, and mercury adsorption on the synthesized magnetite particles. The loading capacity of the particles for mercury was determined to be as high as 14 mg/g at pH 2. A unique feature of strong magnetism of the synthesized nanocomposite particles makes the subsequent separation of the magnetic sorbents from complex multiphase suspensions convenient and effective

  11. Engineering and characterization of mesoporous silica-coated magnetic particles for mercury removal from industrial effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Xu, Zhenghe; Wang, Feng

    2008-03-01

    Mesoporous silica coatings were synthesized on dense liquid silica-coated magnetite particles using cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium chloride (CTAC) as molecular templates, followed by sol-gel process. A specific surface area of the synthesized particles as high as 150 m 2/g was obtained. After functionalization with mercapto-propyl-trimethoxy-silane (MPTS) through silanation reaction, the particles exhibited high affinity of mercury in aqueous solutions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), zeta potential measurement, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) were used to characterize the synthesis processes, surface functionalization, and mercury adsorption on the synthesized magnetite particles. The loading capacity of the particles for mercury was determined to be as high as 14 mg/g at pH 2. A unique feature of strong magnetism of the synthesized nanocomposite particles makes the subsequent separation of the magnetic sorbents from complex multiphase suspensions convenient and effective.

  12. Integrated Removal of NOx with Carbon Monoxide as Reductant, and Capture of Mercury in a Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neville Pinto; Panagiotis Smirniotis; Stephen Thiel

    2010-08-31

    Coal will likely continue to be a dominant component of power generation in the foreseeable future. This project addresses the issue of environmental compliance for two important pollutants: NO{sub x} and mercury. Integration of emission control units is in principle possible through a Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor (LTSCAR) in which NO{sub x} removal is achieved in a traditional SCR mode but at low temperature, and, uniquely, using carbon monoxide as a reductant. The capture of mercury is integrated into the same process unit. Such an arrangement would reduce mercury removal costs significantly, and provide improved control for the ultimate disposal of mercury. The work completed in this project demonstrates that the use of CO as a reductant in LTSCR is technically feasible using supported manganese oxide catalysts, that the simultaneous warm-gas capture of elemental and oxidized mercury is technically feasible using both nanostructured chelating adsorbents and ceria-titania-based materials, and that integrated removal of mercury and NO{sub x} is technically feasible using ceria-titania-based materials.

  13. Experimental study on ZnO-TiO{sub 2} sorbents for the removal of elemental mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Kunzan; Zhou, Jinsong; Qi, Pan; Zhou, Qixin; Gao, Xiang; Luo, Zhongyang [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2017-09-15

    ZnO-TiO{sub 2} sorbents synthesized by an impregnation method were characterized through XRD (X-ray diffraction), XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and EDS (Energy dispersive spectrometer) analyses. An experiment concerning the adsorption of Hg0 by ZnO-TiO{sub 2} under a simulated fuel gas atmosphere was then conducted in a benchscale fixed-bed reactor. The effects of ZnO loading amounts and reaction temperatures on Hg{sup 0} removal performance were analyzed. The results showed that ZnO-TiO{sub 2} sorbents exhibited excellent Hg removal capacity in the presence of H2S at 150 .deg. C and 200 .deg. C; 95.2% and 91.2% of Hg0 was removed, respectively, under the experimental conditions. There are two possible causes for the H{sub 2}S reacting on the surface of ZnO-TiO{sub 2}: (1) H{sub 2}S directly reacted with ZnO to form ZnS, (2) H{sub 2}S was oxidized to elemental sulfur (S{sub ad}) by means of active oxygen on the sorbent surface, and then Sad provided active absorption sites for Hg0 to form HgS. This study identifies three reasons why higher temperatures limit mercury removal. First, the reaction between Hg{sup 0} and H{sub 2}S is inhibited at high temperatures. Second, HgS, as the resulting product in the reaction of mercury removal, becomes unstable at high temperatures. Third, the desulfurization reaction strengthens at higher temperatures, and it is likely that H{sub 2}S directly reacts with ZnO, thus decreasing the Sad on the sorbent surfaces.

  14. Removal of mercury (Hg) from contaminated water at traditional gold mining area in Central Kalimantan

    OpenAIRE

    Wilopo, Wahyu; Rahman, Denizar; Eka Putra, Doni Prakasa; Warmada, I Wayan

    2015-01-01

    There are many traditional gold mining and processing in Murung Raya Regency, Central Kalimantan. The processing of gold mostly uses mercury (Hg) and produces a lot of waste water. It just throws to the river without any treatment. Therefore the concentration of mercury (Hg) in the river water is over than the standard of drinking water and reach up to 0.346 mg dm-3. This situation is very dangerous because almost of the people in the downstream area depend on the river water for their daily ...

  15. Got Mercury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Valerie E.; McCoy, J. Torin; Garcia, Hector D.; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Many of the operational and payload lighting units used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury. If these devices were damaged on-orbit, elemental mercury could be released into the cabin. Although there are plans to replace operational units with alternate light sources, such as LEDs, that do not contain mercury, mercury-containing lamps efficiently produce high quality illumination and may never be completely replaced on orbit. Therefore, exposure to elemental mercury during spaceflight will remain possible and represents a toxicological hazard. Elemental mercury is a liquid metal that vaporizes slowly at room temperature. However, it may be completely vaporized at the elevated operating temperatures of lamps. Although liquid mercury is not readily absorbed through the skin or digestive tract, mercury vapors are efficiently absorbed through the respiratory tract. Therefore, the amount of mercury in the vapor form must be estimated. For mercury releases from lamps that are not being operated, we utilized a study conducted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Quality to calculate the amount of mercury vapor expected to form over a 2-week period. For longer missions and for mercury releases occurring when lamps are operating, we conservatively assumed complete volatilization of the available mercury. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, both short-term and long-term exposures to mercury vapors are possible. Acute exposure to high concentrations of mercury vapors can cause irritation of the respiratory tract and behavioral symptoms, such as irritability and hyperactivity. Chronic exposure can result in damage to the nervous system (tremors, memory loss, insomnia, etc.) and kidneys (proteinurea). Therefore, the JSC Toxicology Group recommends that stringent safety controls and verifications (vibrational testing, etc.) be applied to any hardware that contains elemental mercury that could yield

  16. Methods and sorbents for utilizing a hot-side electrostatic precipitator for removal of mercury from combustion gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Sidney [Hudson, OH

    2011-02-15

    Methods are provided for reducing emission of mercury from a gas stream by treating the gas with carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles to reduce the mercury content of the gas; collecting the carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles on collection plates of a hot-side ESP; periodically rapping the collection plates to release a substantial portion of the collected carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles into hoppers; and periodically emptying the hoppers, wherein such rapping and emptying are done at rates such that less than 70% of mercury adsorbed onto the mercury sorbent desorbs from the collected mercury sorbent into the gas stream.

  17. Optimal source coding, removable noise elimination, and natural coordinate system construction for general vector sources using replicator neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht-Nielsen, Robert

    1997-04-01

    A new universal one-chart smooth manifold model for vector information sources is introduced. Natural coordinates (a particular type of chart) for such data manifolds are then defined. Uniformly quantized natural coordinates form an optimal vector quantization code for a general vector source. Replicator neural networks (a specialized type of multilayer perceptron with three hidden layers) are the introduced. As properly configured examples of replicator networks approach minimum mean squared error (e.g., via training and architecture adjustment using randomly chosen vectors from the source), these networks automatically develop a mapping which, in the limit, produces natural coordinates for arbitrary source vectors. The new concept of removable noise (a noise model applicable to a wide variety of real-world noise processes) is then discussed. Replicator neural networks, when configured to approach minimum mean squared reconstruction error (e.g., via training and architecture adjustment on randomly chosen examples from a vector source, each with randomly chosen additive removable noise contamination), in the limit eliminate removable noise and produce natural coordinates for the data vector portions of the noise-corrupted source vectors. Consideration regarding selection of the dimension of a data manifold source model and the training/configuration of replicator neural networks are discussed.

  18. Process for low mercury coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Norman W.; Grimes, R. William; Tweed, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  19. Method for removal of phosgene from boron trichloride. [DOE patent application; mercury arc lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, S.M.

    1981-09-03

    Selective ultraviolet photolysis using an unfiltered mercury arc lamp has been used to substantially reduce the phosgene impurity in a mixture of boron trichloride and phosgene. Infrared spectrophotometric analysis of the sample before and after irradiation shows that it is possible to highly purify commercially available boron trichloride with this method.

  20. Air/water exchange of mercury in the Everglades I: the behavior of dissolved gaseous mercury in the Everglades Nutrient Removal Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang; Lindberg

    2000-10-02

    From 1996 to 1998 we determined dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) in waters of the Everglades Nutrient Removal Project (ENR), a constructed wetlands. The concentrations of DGM measured in these waters (mean 7.3 +/- 9.5 pg l(-1)) are among the lowest reported in the literature, and suggest a system often near or slightly above equilibrium with Hg in ambient air. DGM exhibited both seasonal and diel trends, peaking at midday and during the summer. A simple box budget model of DGM in waters of the Everglades was developed using an interactive spreadsheet based on a mass balance among light-induced reduction of HgII (production of DGM), Hg0 oxidation (removal), and Hg0 evasion in a box (water column) consisting of a surface region with sunlight available and a lower dark region. The modeling results suggest high sensitivity of hourly DGM concentrations to DGM production rates and initial DGM levels. The sensitivity to Hg oxidation is lower than the sensitivity to DGM production. The model performance demonstrates successful simulations of a variety of DGM trends in the Everglades. In particular, it clearly demonstrates how it is possible to measure comparable rates of evasion over several Everglades sites with different DGM concentrations.

  1. Long-Term Carbon Injection Field Test for 90% Mercury Removal for a PRB Unit a Spray Dryer and Fabric Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjostrom, Sharon; Amrhein, Jerry

    2009-04-30

    The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon (PAC) into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. The purpose of this test program was to evaluate the long-term mercury removal capability, long-term mercury emissions variability, and operating and maintenance (O&M) costs associated with sorbent injection on a configuration being considered for many new plants. Testing was conducted by ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) at Rocky Mountain Power’s (RMP) Hardin Station through funding provided by DOE/NETL, RMP, and other industry partners. The Hardin Station is a new plant rated at 121 MW gross that was first brought online in April of 2006. Hardin fires a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and is configured with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOx control, a spray dryer absorber (SDA) for SO2 control, and a fabric filter (FF) for particulate control. Based upon previous testing at PRB sites with SCRs, very little additional mercury oxidation from the SCR was expected at Hardin. In addition, based upon results from DOE/NETL Phase II Round I testing at Holcomb Station and results from similarly configured sites, low native mercury removal was expected across the SDA and FF. The main goal of this project was met—sorbent injection was used to economically and effectively achieve 90% mercury control as measured from the air heater (AH) outlet to the stack for a period of ten months. This goal was achieved with DARCO® Hg-LH, Calgon FLUEPAC®-MC PLUS and ADA Power PAC PREMIUM brominated activated carbons at nominal loadings of 1.5–2.5 lb/MMacf. An economic analysis determined the twenty-year levelized cost to be 0.87 mills/kW-hr, or $15,000/lb Hg removed. No detrimental effects on other equipment or plant operations were observed. The

  2. Multidrug Resistance Proteins and the Renal Elimination of Inorganic Mercury Mediated by 2,3-Dimercaptopropane-1-Sulfonic Acid and Meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Christy C.; Joshee, Lucy; Zalups, Rudolfs K.

    2008-01-01

    Current therapies for inorganic mercury (Hg2+) intoxication include administration of a metal chelator, either 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonic acid (DMPS) or meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). After exposure to either chelator, Hg2+ is rapidly eliminated from the kidneys and excreted in the urine, presumably as an S-conjugate of DMPS or DMSA. The multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mrp2) has been implicated in this process. We hypothesize that Mrp2 mediates the secretion of DMPS- or DMSA-S-conjugates of Hg2+ from proximal tubular cells. To test this hypothesis, the disposition of Hg2+ was examined in control and Mrp2-deficient TR− rats. Rats were injected i.v. with 0.5 μmol/kg HgCl2 containing 203Hg2+. Twenty-four and 28 h later, rats were injected with saline, DMPS, or DMSA. Tissues were harvested 48 h after HgCl2 exposure. The renal and hepatic burden of Hg2+ in the saline-injected TR− rats was greater than that of controls. In contrast, the amount of Hg2+ excreted in urine and feces of TR− rats was less than that of controls. DMPS, but not DMSA, significantly reduced the renal and hepatic content of Hg2+ in both groups of rats, with the greatest reduction in controls. A significant increase in urinary and fecal excretion of Hg2+, which was greater in the controls, was also observed following DMPS treatment. Experiments utilizing inside-out membrane vesicles expressing MRP2 support these observations by demonstrating that DMPS- and DMSA-S-conjugates of Hg2+ are transportable substrates of MRP2. Collectively, these data support a role for Mrp2 in the DMPS- and DMSA-mediated elimination of Hg2+ from the kidney. PMID:17940195

  3. Full scale calcium bromide injection with subsequent mercury oxidation and removal within wet flue gas desulphurization system: Experience at a 700 MW coal-fired power facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Mark Simpson

    The Environmental Protection Agency promulgated the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule, which requires that existing power plants reduce mercury emissions to meet an emission rate of 1.2 lb/TBtu on a 30-day rolling average and that new plants meet a 0.0002 lb/GWHr emission rate. This translates to mercury removals greater than 90% for existing units and greater than 99% for new units. Current state-of-the-art technology for the control of mercury emissions uses activated carbon injected upstream of a fabric filter, a costly proposition. For example, a fabric filter, if not already available, would require a 200M capital investment for a 700 MW size unit. A lower-cost option involves the injection of activated carbon into an existing cold-side electrostatic precipitator. Both options would incur the cost of activated carbon, upwards of 3M per year. The combination of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactors and wet flue gas desulphurization (wet FGD) systems have demonstrated the ability to substantially reduce mercury emissions, especially at units that burn coals containing sufficient halogens. Halogens are necessary for transforming elemental mercury to oxidized mercury, which is water-soluble. Plants burning halogen-deficient coals such as Power River Basin (PRB) coals currently have no alternative but to install activated carbon-based approaches to control mercury emissions. This research consisted of investigating calcium bromide addition onto PRB coal as a method of increasing flue gas halogen concentration. The treated coal was combusted in a 700 MW boiler and the subsequent treated flue gas was introduced into a wet FGD. Short-term parametric and an 83-day longer-term tests were completed to determine the ability of calcium bromine to oxidize mercury and to study the removal of the mercury in a wet FGD. The research goal was to show that calcium bromine addition to PRB coal was a viable approach for meeting the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule

  4. Preparation and evaluation of coal-derived activated carbons for removal of mercury vapor from simulated coal combustion flue fases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, H.-C.; Chen, S.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.; Richardson, C.F.; Carey, T.R.; Chang, R.

    1998-01-01

    Coal-derived activated carbons (CDACs) were tested for their suitability in removing trace amounts of vapor-phase mercury from simulated flue gases generated by coal combustion. CDACs were prepared in bench-scale and pilot-scale fluidized-bed reactors with a three-step process, including coal preoxidation, carbonization, and then steam activation. CDACs from high-organicsulfur Illinois coals had a greater equilibrium Hg0 adsorption capacity than activated carbons prepared from a low-organic-sulfur Illinois coal. When a low-organic-sulfur CDAC was impregnated with elemental sulfur at 600 ??C, its equilibrium Hg0 adsorption capacity was comparable to the adsorption capacity of the activated carbon prepared from the high-organicsulfur coal. X-ray diffraction and sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure examinations showed that the sulfur in the CDACs was mainly in organic forms. These results suggested that a portion of the inherent organic sulfur in the starting coal, which remained in the CDACs, played an important role in adsorption of Hg0. Besides organic sulfur, the BET surface area and micropore area of the CDACs also influenced Hg0 adsorption capacity. The HgCl2 adsorption capacity was not as dependent on the surface area and concentration of sulfur in the CDACs as was adsorption of Hg0. The properties and mercury adsorption capacities of the CDACs were compared with those obtained for commercial Darco FGD carbon.

  5. Phragmites karka as a Biosorbent for the Removal of Mercury Metal Ions from Aqueous Solution: Effect of Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hamid Raza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Batch scale studies for the adsorption potential of novel biosorbent Phragmites karka (Trin, in its natural and treated forms, were performed for removal of mercury ions from aqueous solution. The study was carried out at different parameters to obtain optimum conditions of pH, biosorbent dose, agitation speed, time of contact, temperature, and initial metal ion concentration. To analyze the suitability of the process and maximum amount of metal uptake, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R model, Freundlich isotherm, and Langmuir isotherm were applied. The values of qmax for natural and treated biosorbents were found at 1.79 and 2.27 mg/g, respectively. The optimum values of contact time and agitation speed were found at 50 min and 150 rpm for natural biosorbent whereas 40 min and 100 rpm for treated biosorbent, respectively. The optimum biosorption capacities were observed at pH 4 and temperature 313 K for both natural P. karka and treated P. karka. RL values indicate that comparatively treated P. karka was more feasible for mercury adsorption compared to natural P. karka. Both pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were applied and it was found that data fit best to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic studies indicate that adsorption process was spontaneous, feasible, and endothermic.

  6. The ADESORB Process for Economical Production of Sorbents for Mercury Removal from Coal Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Stewart

    2008-03-12

    The DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) currently manages the largest research program in the country for controlling coal-based mercury emissions. NETL has shown through various field test programs that the determination of cost-effective mercury control strategies is complex and highly coal- and plant-specific. However, one particular technology has the potential for widespread application: the injection of activated carbon upstream of either an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or a fabric filter baghouse. This technology has potential application to the control of mercury emissions on all coal-fired power plants, even those with wet and dry scrubbers. This is a low capital cost technology in which the largest cost element is the cost of sorbents. Therefore, the obvious solutions for reducing the costs of mercury control must focus on either reducing the amount of sorbent needed or decreasing the cost of sorbent production. NETL has researched the economics and performance of novel sorbents and determined that there are alternatives to the commercial standard (NORIT DARCO{reg_sign} Hg) and that this is an area where significant technical improvements can still be made. In addition, a key barrier to the application of sorbent injection technology to the power industry is the availability of activated carbon production. Currently, about 450 million pounds ($250 million per year) of activated carbon is produced and used in the U.S. each year - primarily for purification of drinking water, food, and beverages. If activated carbon technology were to be applied to all 1,100 power plants, EPA and DOE estimate that it would require an additional $1-$2 billion per year, which would require increasing current capacity by a factor of two to eight. A new facility to produce activated carbon would cost approximately $250 million, would increase current U.S. production by nearly 25%, and could take four to five years to build. This means that there could be

  7. One Step In-Situ Formed Magnetic Chitosan Nanoparticles as an Efficient Sorbent for Removal of Mercury Ions From Petrochemical Waste Water: Batch and Column Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahbar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background In the recent years, mercury contamination has attracted great deal of attention due to its serious environmental threat. Objectives The main goal of this study was application of one-step synthesized magnetic (magnetite chitosan nanoparticles (MCNs in the removal of mercury ions from petrochemical waste water. Materials and Methods This study was performed in batch and column modes. Effects of various parameters such as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, temperature and agitation speed for the removal of mercury ions by MCNs investigated in batch mode. Afterwards, optimum conditions were exploited in column mode. Different kinetic models were also studied. Results An effective Hg (II removal (99.8% was obtained at pH 6, with 50 mg of MCNs for an initial concentration of this ion in petrochemical waste water (5.63 mg L-1 and 10 minutes agitation of the solution. The adsorption kinetic data was well fitted to the pseudo-second-order model. Conclusions Experimental results showed that MCNs is an excellent sorbent for removal of mercury ions from petrochemical waste water. In addition, highly complex matrix of this waste does not affect the adsorption capability of MCNs.

  8. Thermal-treated soil for mercury removal: Soil and phytotoxicity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Y.; Edwards, N.T.; Lee, S.Y.; Stiles, C.A.; Armes, S.; Foss, J.E.

    2000-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of soils and sediments is one of many environmental problems at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, TN. Mercury-contaminated soil from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Reservation was treated thermally to reduce Hg concentration to a below target level (20 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) as a pilot scale thermal treatment demonstration. As a part of performance evaluation, the soil characteristics and plant growth response of the untreated and treated soil were examined. The soil treated at 350 C retained most of its original soil properties, but the soil treated at 600 C exhibited considerable changes in mineralogical composition and physicochemical characteristics. Growth and physiological response of the three plant species radish (Raphanus sativus L.), fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and oat (Avena sativa L.) indicated adverse effects of the thermal treatment. The addition of N fertilizer had beneficial effects in the 350 C treated soil, but had little beneficial effect in the 600 C treated soil. Some changes of soil characteristics induced by thermal treatment cannot be avoided. Soil characteristics and phytotoxicity test results strongly suggest that changes occurring following the 350 C treatment do not limit the use of the treated soil to refill the excavated site for full-scale remediation. The only problem with the 350 C treatment is that small amounts of Hg compounds (<15 mg kg{sup {minus}1}) remain in the soil and a processing cost of $45/Mg.

  9. A facile method to prepare dual-functional membrane for efficient oil removal and in situ reversible mercury ions adsorption from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingdong; Liu, Na; Cao, Yingze; Zhang, Weifeng; Wei, Yen; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Lei

    2018-03-01

    In this work, a novel thiol covered polyamide (nylon 66) microfiltration membrane was fabricated by combining mussel-inspired chemistry and coupling reaction, which owns excellent dual-function that can simultaneously remove oil from water efficiently and adsorb the mercury ions contained in the wastewater reversibly. Such membrane exhibited high oil/water separation efficiency, outstanding mercury adsorption ability, and good stability. Moreover, it can be regenerated in nitric acid solution, and maintain its good adsorption performance. The as-prepared membrane showed great potentials for water purification to reduce the heavy metal ion pollution and complicated industrial oily wastewater and living wastewater.

  10. Removal of mercury in fixed-bed continuous upflow reactors by mercury-resistant bacteria and effect of sodium chloride on their performance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De; Leonhauser, J.; Vardanyan, L.

    Urgent need to reduce the amount of toxic mercury compounds in the wastewater of industries and subsequent reuse of metal ions, has led to an increasing interest in microbial bioremediation. Two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, namely, isolate CH07...

  11. Mechanisms of mercury removal by biochars produced from different feedstocks determined using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Peng; Ptacek, Carol J.; Blowes, David W.; Landis, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dissolved Hg decreases by >90% with high-T biochars (600 and 700 °C). • Elevated SO 4 2− (up to 1000 mg L −1 ) is released from manure-derived biochar. • XRF results indicate Hg is distributed heterogeneously throughout biochar particles. • S XANES indicates presence of reduced and oxidized S species in biochar. • Hg EXAFS indicate Hg is bound to S atoms in biochar particle when S content is high. - Abstract: Thirty-six biochars produced from distinct feedstocks at different temperatures were evaluated for their potential to remove mercury (Hg) from aqueous solution at environmentally relevant concentrations. Concentrations of total Hg (THg) decreased by >90% in batch systems containing biochars produced at 600 and 700 °C and by 40–90% for biochars produced at 300 °C. Elevated concentrations of SO 4 2− (up to 1000 mg L −1 ) were observed in solutions mixed with manure-based biochars. Sulfur X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses indicate the presence of both reduced and oxidized S species in both unwashed and washed biochars. Sulfur XANES spectra obtained from biochars with adsorbed Hg were similar to those of washed biochars. Micro-X-ray fluorescence mapping results indicate that Hg was heterogeneously distributed across biochar particles. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure modeling indicates Hg was bound to S in biochars with high S content and to O and Cl in biochars with low S content. The predominant mechanisms of Hg removal are likely the formation of chemical bonds between Hg and various functional groups on the biochar. This investigation provides information on the effectiveness and mechanisms of Hg removal that is critical for evaluating biochar applications for stabilization of Hg in surface water, groundwater, soils, and sediments.

  12. Mechanisms of mercury removal by biochars produced from different feedstocks determined using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Peng [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W., Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Ptacek, Carol J., E-mail: ptacek@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W., Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Blowes, David W. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W., Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Landis, Richard C. [E I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, 974 Centre Road, Wilmington, DE 19805 (United States)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Dissolved Hg decreases by >90% with high-T biochars (600 and 700 °C). • Elevated SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} (up to 1000 mg L{sup −1}) is released from manure-derived biochar. • XRF results indicate Hg is distributed heterogeneously throughout biochar particles. • S XANES indicates presence of reduced and oxidized S species in biochar. • Hg EXAFS indicate Hg is bound to S atoms in biochar particle when S content is high. - Abstract: Thirty-six biochars produced from distinct feedstocks at different temperatures were evaluated for their potential to remove mercury (Hg) from aqueous solution at environmentally relevant concentrations. Concentrations of total Hg (THg) decreased by >90% in batch systems containing biochars produced at 600 and 700 °C and by 40–90% for biochars produced at 300 °C. Elevated concentrations of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} (up to 1000 mg L{sup −1}) were observed in solutions mixed with manure-based biochars. Sulfur X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses indicate the presence of both reduced and oxidized S species in both unwashed and washed biochars. Sulfur XANES spectra obtained from biochars with adsorbed Hg were similar to those of washed biochars. Micro-X-ray fluorescence mapping results indicate that Hg was heterogeneously distributed across biochar particles. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure modeling indicates Hg was bound to S in biochars with high S content and to O and Cl in biochars with low S content. The predominant mechanisms of Hg removal are likely the formation of chemical bonds between Hg and various functional groups on the biochar. This investigation provides information on the effectiveness and mechanisms of Hg removal that is critical for evaluating biochar applications for stabilization of Hg in surface water, groundwater, soils, and sediments.

  13. Study on removal of elemental mercury from simulated flue gas over activated coke treated by acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jinfeng [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Caiting, E-mail: ctli@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhao, Lingkui; Zhang, Jie; Song, Jingke; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Xunan; Xie, Yine [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-02-28

    Highlights: • HClO{sub 4} treated AC was developed for effective Hg{sup 0} removal from simulated flue gas. • The exceptional effect of SO{sub 2} on Hg{sup 0} removal by AC{sub 4.5} was discussed. • Possible reaction mechanism of Hg{sup 0} removal over AC{sub 4.5} was put forward. - Abstract: This work addressed the investigation of activated coke (AC) treated by acids. Effects of AC samples, modified by ether different acids (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, HNO{sub 3} and HClO{sub 4}) or HClO{sub 4} of varied concentrations, on Hg{sup 0} removal were studied under simulated flue gas conditions. In addition, effects of reaction temperature and individual flue gas components including O{sub 2}, NO, SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O were discussed. In the experiments, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were applied to explore the surface properties of sorbents and possible mechanism of Hg{sup 0} oxidation. Results showed that AC sample treated by HClO{sub 4} of 4.5 mol/L exhibited maximum promotion of efficiency on Hg{sup 0} removal at 160 °C. NO was proved to be positive in the removal of Hg{sup 0}. And SO{sub 2} displayed varied impact in capturing Hg{sup 0} due to the integrated reactions between SO{sub 2} and modified AC. The addition of O{sub 2} could improve the advancement further to some extent. Besides, the Hg{sup 0} removal capacity had a slight declination when H{sub 2}O was added in gas flow. Based on the analysis of XPS and FTIR, the selected sample absorbed Hg{sup 0} mostly in chemical way. The reaction mechanism, deduced from results of characterization and performance of AC samples, indicated that Hg{sup 0} could firstly be absorbed on sorbent and then react with oxygen-containing (C−O) or chlorine-containing groups (C−Cl) on the surface of sorbent. And the products were mainly in forms of mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) and mercuric oxide (HgO)

  14. Getting Mercury out of Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    This guide was prepared while working with many Massachusetts schools to remove items that contain mercury and to find suitable alternatives. It contains fact sheets on: mercury in science laboratories and classrooms, mercury in school buildings and maintenance areas, mercury in the medical office and in medical technology classrooms in vocational…

  15. Effects of flue gas components on removal of elemental mercury over Ce–MnO_x/Ti-PILCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Chuan; Shen, Boxiong; Li, Fukuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ce–MnO_x/Ti-PILC exhibited high Hg"0 removal activity. • SO_2 restrained Hg"0 oxidation and adsorption due to the formation of SO_4"2"−. • The formation of NH_3 to NH_4"+ restrained the Hg"0 adsorption and oxidation. - Abstract: The adsorption and oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg"0) under various flue gas components were investigated over a series of Ce–MnO_x/Ti-PILC catalysts, which were synthesized by an impregnation method. To discuss the mechanism, the catalysts were characterized by various techniques such as N_2 adsorption–desorption, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that the presence of 500 ppm SO_2 in the flue gas significantly restrained the Hg"0 adsorption and oxidation over 6%Ce–6%MnO_x/Ti-PILC due to the formation of SO_4"2"− species. Hg"0 could be oxidized to HgCl_2 in the presence of HCl, because the Deacon process occurred. NO would react with active oxygen to form NO_2-containing species, which facilitated Hg"0 oxidation. While the presence of NO limited the Hg"0 adsorption on 6%Ce–6%MnO_x/Ti-PILC due to the competitive adsorption of NO with Hg"0. The addition of NH_3 in the flue gas significantly restrained Hg"0 adsorption and oxidation, because the formed NH_4"+ species covered the active adsorption sites on the surfaces, and further limited Hg"0 oxidation. However, when NO and NH_3 were simultaneously added into the flue gas, the Hg"0 oxidation efficiency of 6%Ce–6%MnO_x/Ti-PILC exhibited a relatively high value (72%) at 250 °C, which indicated the practicability to use Ce–MnO_x/Ti-PILC for Hg"0 removal under SCR conditions.

  16. Removal of mercury ion from aqueous solution by activated carbons obtained from biomass and coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekinci, E.; Yardim, F. [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Ayazaga, 80626 Istanbul (Turkey); Budinova, T.; Petrov, N.; Razvigorova, M.; Minkova, V. [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad.G.Bonchev, str. bl. 9, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2002-06-20

    The adsorption of Hg(II) from aqueous solution at 293 K by activated carbons obtained from apricot stones, furfural and coals was studied. Adsorption studies were performed under the varying conditions of time of treatment, metal ion concentration and pH. The process of adsorption followed Langmuir isotherm. The removal of Hg(II) increased with the increase of pH of the solution from 2 to 5 and remained constant up to pH 10. Desorption studies were preformed.

  17. Removal of cadmium, copper, nickel, cobalt and mercury from water by Apatite IITM: Column experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, Josep; De Pablo, Joan; Cortina, Jose-Luis; Cama, Jordi; Ayora, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The efficiency of Apatite II TM increases as the acidity decreases, then the application of apatite-based materials for metal removal treatments should be restricted to slightly acid to neutral waters. → Because of the preferred process of using phosphate ions to form metal-phosphate precipitates, the mixture with other sources of alkalinity, such as limestone, is proposed to extend the duration of Apatite II TM . → Compared with other reactive materials such as limestone and caustic magnesia that exhibit a reduction of porosity Apatite II TM showed stable hydraulic performance. → The extrapolation of the column durabilities to a 1-m-thick passive treatment suggests that the Apatite II TM filling can be active between 5 and 10 years for an inflow pH exceeding 5. - Abstract: Apatite II TM , a biogenic hydroxyapatite, was evaluated as a reactive material for heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Co, Ni and Hg) removal in passive treatments. Apatite II TM reacts with acid water by releasing phosphates that increase the pH up to 6.5-7.5, complexing and inducing metals to precipitate as metal phosphates. The evolution of the solution concentration of calcium, phosphate and metals together with SEM-EDS and XRD examinations were used to identify the retention mechanisms. SEM observation shows low-crystalline precipitate layers composed of P, O and M. Only in the case of Hg and Co were small amounts of crystalline phases detected. Solubility data values were used to predict the measured column experiment values and to support the removal process based on the dissolution of hydroxyapatite, the formation of metal-phosphate species in solution and the precipitation of metal phosphate. Cd 5 (PO 4 ) 3 OH(s), Cu 2 (PO 4 )OH(s), Ni 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (s), Co 3 (PO 4 ) 2 8H 2 O(s) and Hg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (s) are proposed as the possible mineral phases responsible for the removal processes. The results of the column experiments show that Apatite II TM is a suitable filling for permeable

  18. Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac

    2006-05-01

    This document provides a summary of the full-scale demonstration efforts involved in the project ''Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC{reg_sign} System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas''. The project took place at Alabama Power's Plant Gaston Unit 3 and involved the injection of sorbent between an existing particulate collector (hot-side electrostatic precipitators) and a COHPAC{reg_sign} fabric filter (baghouse) downstream. Although the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse was designed originally for polishing the flue gas, when activated carbon injection was added, the test was actually evaluating the EPRI TOXECON{reg_sign} configuration. The results from the baseline tests with no carbon injection showed that the cleaning frequency in the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit was much higher than expected, and was above the target maximum cleaning frequency of 1.5 pulses/bag/hour (p/b/h), which was used during the Phase I test in 2001. There were times when the baghouse was cleaning continuously at 4.4 p/b/h. In the 2001 tests, there was virtually no mercury removal at baseline conditions. In this second round of tests, mercury removal varied between 0 and 90%, and was dependent on inlet mass loading. There was a much higher amount of ash exiting the electrostatic precipitators (ESP), creating an inlet loading greater than the design conditions for the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Tests were performed to try to determine the cause of the high ash loading. The LOI of the ash in the 2001 baseline tests was 11%, while the second baseline tests showed an LOI of 17.4%. The LOI is an indication of the carbon content in the ash, which can affect the native mercury uptake, and can also adversely affect the performance of ESPs, allowing more ash particles to escape the unit. To overcome this, an injection scheme was implemented that balanced the need to decrease carbon injection during times when inlet loading to the baghouse was high and

  19. Influences of thermal decontamination on mercury removal, soil properties, and repartitioning of coexisting heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Tuan; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng

    2011-08-01

    Thermal treatment is a useful tool to remove Hg from contaminated soils. However, thermal treatment may greatly alter the soil properties and cause the coexisting contaminants, especially trace metals, to transform and repartition. The metal repartitioning may increase the difficulty in the subsequent process of a treatment train approach. In this study, three Hg-contaminated soils were thermally treated to evaluate the effects of treating temperature and duration on Hg removal. Thermogravimetric analysis was performed to project the suitable heating parameters for subsequent bench-scale fixed-bed operation. Results showed that thermal decontamination at temperature>400°C successfully lowered the Hg content tosoil particle size was less significant, even when the soils were thermally treated to 550°C. Soil clay minerals such as kaolinite were shown to be decomposed. Aggregates were observed on the surface of soil particles after the treatment. The heavy metals tended to transform into acid-extractable, organic-matter bound, and residual forms from the Fe/Mn oxide bound form. These results suggest that thermal treatment may markedly influence the effectiveness of subsequent decontamination methods, such as acid washing or solvent extraction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Does Ultrasound-Guided Directional Vacuum-Assisted Removal Help Eliminate Abnormal Nipple Discharge in Patients with Benign Intraductal Single Mass?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Na Ri Ya; Moon, Woo Kyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Seon [Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se Yeong [Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Mi Jung [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To evaluate whether the removal of an intraductal mass using an ultrasound (US)-guided directional vacuum-assisted device can eliminate symptoms in patients presenting with abnormal nipple discharge. Between March 2004 and October 2006, 36 patients who presented with abnormal nipple discharge, underwent US-guided, 11-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy for a benign intraductal single mass on US. The ability of the procedure to eliminate nipple discharge was evaluated by physical examination during follow-up US. Lesion characteristics, biopsy variables, and histologic features were analyzed to identify factors affecting symptom resolution. Of the 36 lesions, 25 (69%) were intraductal papillomas, 10 (28%) were fibrocystic changes, and one (3%) was a fibroadenoma. The nipple discharge disappeared in 69% (25 of 36) of the women at a mean follow-up time of 25 months (range 12-42 month). There was no difference in the lesion characteristics, biopsy variables, and the histologic features between groups that eliminated the symptom compared those with persistent nipple discharge. US-guided directional vacuum-assisted removal of an intraductal mass appears to eliminate nipple discharge in only 69% of patients and thus, it should not be considered as an alternative to surgical excision.

  1. Introduction of Molecular Building Blocks to Improve the Stability of Metal-Organic Frameworks for Efficient Mercury Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Yi; He, Wen-Wen; Li, Shun-Li; Su, Zhong-Min; Lan, Ya-Qian

    2018-05-08

    With expanding human needs, many heavy metals were mined, smelted, processed, and manufactured for commercialization, which caused serious environmental pollutions. Currently, many adsorption materials are applied in the field of adsorption of heavy metals. Among them, the principle of many mercury adsorbents is based on the interaction between mercury and sulfur. Here, a S-containing metal-organic framework NENU-400 was synthesized for effective mercury extraction. Unfortunately, the skeleton of NENU-400 collapsed easily when exposed to the mercury liquid solution. To improve the stability, a synthetic strategy installing molecular building blocks (MBBs) into the channels was used. Modified by the MBBs, a more stable nanoporous framework was synthesized, which not only exhibits a high capacity of saturation mercury uptake but also shows high selectivity and efficient recyclability.

  2. Arsenic, chromium and mercury removal using mussel shell ash or a sludge/ashes waste mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco-Reigosa, Natalia; Peña-Rodríguez, Susana; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María J; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2013-04-01

    Different batches of valued mussel shell and waste mussel shell ash are characterised. Shell ash has pH > 12 and high electrical conductivities (between 16.01 and 27.27 dS m(-1)), while calcined shell shows pH values up to 10.7 and electrical conductivities between 1.19 and 3.55 dS m(-1). X-ray fluorescence, nitric acid digestion and water extractions show higher concentrations in shell ash for most parameters. Calcite is the dominant crystalline compound in this ash (95.6%), followed by aragonite. Adsorption/desorption trials were performed for mussel shell ash and for a waste mixture including shell ash, sewage sludge and wood ash, showing the following percentage adsorptions: Hg(II) >94%, As(V) >96% and Cr(VI) between 11 and 30% for shell ash; Hg(II) >98%, As(V) >88% and Cr(VI) between 30 and 88% for the waste mixture. Hg and As desorption was ash and the waste mixture, while Cr desorption was between 92 and 45% for shell ash, and between 19 and 0% for the mixture. In view of that, mussel shell ash and the mixture including shell ash, sewage sludge and wood ash could be useful for Hg(II) and As(V) removal.

  3. Bench- and pilot-scale demonstration of thermal desorption for removal of mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.I.; Sams, R.J.; Gillis, G.; Helsel, R.W.; Alperin, E.S.; Geisler, T.J.; Groen, A.; Root, D.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal desorption is an innovative technology that has seen significant growth in applications to organically contaminated soils and sludges for the remediation of hazardous, radioactive and mixed waste sites. This paper will present the results of a bench and pilot-scale demonstration of this technology for the removal of mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soil. Results demonstrate that the mercury in this soil can be successfully removed to the target treatment levels of 10 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and that all process residuals could be rendered RCRA-nonhazardous as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Sampling and analyses of the desorber off-gas before and after the air pollution control system demonstrated effective collection of mercury and organic constituents. Pilot-scale testing was also conducted to verify requirements for material handling of soil into and out of the process. This paper will also present a conceptual design and preliminary costs of a full-scale system, including feed preparation, thermal treatment, and residuals handling for the soil

  4. The Use of Haz-Flote to Efficiently Remove Mercury from Contaminated Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Brown

    2009-03-03

    There are thousands of known contaminated sites in the United Stated, including Superfund sites (1500 to 2100 sites), RCRA corrective action sites (1500 to 3500 sites), underground storage tanks (295,000 sites), U.S. Department of Defense sites (7300 sites), U.S. Department of Energy sites (4,000 sites), mining refuse piles, and numerous other hazardous metals and organic contamination sites. Only a small percentage of these sites has been cleaned up. The development of innovative technologies to handle the various clean-up problems on a national and international scale is commonplace. Many innovative technologies have been developed that can be used to effectively remediate contaminated materials. Unfortunately, many of these technologies are only effective for materials coarser than approximately 200 mesh. In addition, these technologies usually require considerable investment in equipment, and the clean-up costs of soil material are relatively high - in excess of $100 to $500 per yd{sup 3}. These costs result from the elaborate nature of the processes, the costs for power, and the chemical cost. The fine materials are disposed of or treated at considerable costs. As a result, the costs often associated with amelioration of contaminated sites are high. Western Research institute is in the process of developing an innovative soil washing technology that addresses the removal of contaminants from the fine size-fraction materials located at many of the contaminated sites. This technology has numerous advantages over the other ex-situ soil washing techniques. It requires a low capital investment, low operating costs and results in high levels of re-emplacement of the cleaned material on site. The process has the capability to clean the fine fraction (<200 mesh) of the soil resulting in a replacement of 95+% of the material back on-side, reducing the costs of disposal. The Haz-Flote{trademark} technology would expand the application of soil washing technology to heavy

  5. Concurrent removal of elemental mercury and SO2 from flue gas using a thiol-impregnated CaCO3-based adsorbent: a full factorial design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasundaram, Karthik; Sharma, Mukesh

    2018-03-22

    Mercury (Hg) emitted from coal-based thermal power plants (CTPPs) can accumulate and bio-magnify in the food chain, thereby posing a risk to humans and wildlife. The central idea of this study was to develop an adsorbent which can concurrently remove elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) and SO 2 emitted from coal-based thermal power plants (CTPPs) in a single unit operation. Specifically, a composite adsorbent of CaCO 3 impregnated with 2-mercaptobenimidazole (2-MBI) (referred to as modified calcium carbonate (MCC)) was developed. While 2-MBI having sulfur functional group could selectively adsorb Hg 0 , CaCO 3 could remove SO 2 . Performance of the adsorbent was evaluated in terms of (i) removal (%) of Hg 0 and SO 2 , (ii) adsorption mechanism, (iii) adsorption kinetics, and (iv) leaching potential of mercury from spent adsorbent. The adsorption studies were performed using a 2 2 full factorial design of experiments with 15 ppbV of Hg 0 and 600 ppmV of SO 2 . Two factors, (i) reaction temperature (80 and 120 °C; temperature range in flue gas) and (ii) mass of 2-MBI (10 and 15 wt%), were investigated for the removal of Hg 0 and SO 2 (as %). The maximum Hg 0 and SO 2 removal was 86 and 93%, respectively. The results of XPS characterization showed that chemisorption is the predominant mechanism of Hg 0 and SO 2 adsorption on MCC. The Hg 0 adsorption on MCC followed Elovich kinetic model which is also indicative of chemisorption on heterogeneous surface. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) leached mercury from the spent adsorbent were within the acceptable levels defined in these tests. The engineering significance of this study is that the 2-MBI-modified CaCO 3 -based adsorbent has potential for concurrent removal of Hg 0 and SO 2 in a single unit operation. With only minor process modifications, the newly developed adsorbent can replace CaCO 3 in the flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) system.

  6. Incorporating uncertainty into mercury-offset decisions with a probabilistic network for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit holders: an interim report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    This interim report describes an alternative approach for evaluating the efficacy of using mercury (Hg) offsets to improve water quality. Hg-offset programs may allow dischargers facing higher-pollution control costs to meet their regulatory obligations by making more cost effective pollutant-reduction decisions. Efficient Hg management requires methods to translate that science and economics into a regulatory decision framework. This report documents the work in progress by the U.S. Geological Surveys Western Geographic Science Center in collaboration with Stanford University toward developing this decision framework to help managers, regulators, and other stakeholders decide whether offsets can cost effectively meet the Hg total maximum daily load (TMDL) requirements in the Sacramento River watershed. Two key approaches being considered are: (1) a probabilistic approach that explicitly incorporates scientific uncertainty, cost information, and value judgments; and (2) a quantitative approach that captures uncertainty in testing the feasibility of Hg offsets. Current fate and transport-process models commonly attempt to predict chemical transformations and transport pathways deterministically. However, the physical, chemical, and biologic processes controlling the fate and transport of Hg in aquatic environments are complex and poorly understood. Deterministic models of Hg environmental behavior contain large uncertainties, reflecting this lack of understanding. The uncertainty in these underlying physical processes may produce similarly large uncertainties in the decisionmaking process. However, decisions about control strategies are still being made despite the large uncertainties in current Hg loadings, the relations between total Hg (HgT) loading and methylmercury (MeHg) formation, and the relations between control efforts and Hg content in fish. The research presented here focuses on an alternative analytical approach to the current use of safety factors and

  7. Removal of elemental mercury by bamboo charcoal impregnated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zengqiang Tan; Jianrong Qiu; Hancai Zeng; Hao Liu; Jun Xiang [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2011-04-15

    Mercury emission from coal combustion is an increasing environmental concern due to its high volatility and toxicity, and activated carbon (AC) adsorption has been proven an effective mercury-control method, with high-cost limit. The renewable bioresource of bamboo constitutes an important precursor for activated carbon, and the bamboo charcoal (BC) may act as low-cost sorbent used in the mercury-control. The adsorptive potential of BC and modified BC using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} for elemental mercury was investigated for the first time through a parametric study conducted with a bench-scale bed. The effects of pore structure and surface chemistry were investigated based on BET, XPS. Which suggest that BC materials have excellent adsorption potential for elemental mercury, especially after modified by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The modification using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} altered the physical and chemical properties of BC materials, making the sorbents more effective in mercury adsorption even at a relative higher temperature, and the enhancing-effect was more obvious with increasing H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. 32 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-07-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in the scum floating on the surface of the mercury. Pinhole filtration was demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easy way of removing residues from mercury. The analysis method is shown to be sufficient for present release practices, and should be sufficient for future release requirements. Data from tests are presented. The consistently higher level of activity of the filter residue versus the bulk mercury is discussed. Recommendations for the recycling procedure are made.

  9. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in the scum floating on the surface of the mercury. Pinhole filtration was demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easy way of removing residues from mercury. The analysis method is shown to be sufficient for present release practices, and should be sufficient for future release requirements. Data from tests are presented. The consistently higher level of activity of the filter residue versus the bulk mercury is discussed. Recommendations for the recycling procedure are made

  10. Removal of antibiotics in wastewater by enzymatic treatment with fungal laccase - Degradation of compounds does not always eliminate toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Dennis; Varela Della Giustina, Saulo; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Schoevaart, Rob; Barceló, Damià; de Cazes, Matthias; Belleville, Marie-Pierre; Sanchez-Marcano, José; de Gunzburg, Jean; Couillerot, Olivier; Völker, Johannes; Oehlmann, Jörg; Wagner, Martin

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the performance of immobilised laccase (Trametes versicolor) was investigated in combination with the mediator syringaldehyde (SYR) in removing a mixture of 38 antibiotics in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR). Antibiotics were spiked in osmosed water at concentrations of 10μg·L(-1) each. Laccase without mediator did not reduce the load of antibiotics significantly. The addition of SYR enhanced the removal: out of the 38 antibiotics, 32 were degraded by >50% after 24h. In addition to chemical analysis, the samples' toxicity was evaluated in two bioassays (a growth inhibition assay and the Microtox assay). Here, the addition of SYR resulted in a time-dependent increase of toxicity in both bioassays. In cooperation with SYR, laccase effectively removes a broad range of antibiotics. However, this enhanced degradation induces unspecific toxicity. If this issue is resolved, enzymatic treatment may be a valuable addition to existing water treatment technologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Elimination of Isoxazolyl-Penicillins antibiotics in waters by the ligninolytic native Colombian strain Leptosphaerulina sp. considerations on biodegradation process and antimicrobial activity removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copete-Pertuz, Ledys S; Plácido, Jersson; Serna-Galvis, Efraím A; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A; Mora, Amanda

    2018-07-15

    In this work, Leptosphaerulina sp. (a Colombian native fungus) significantly removed three Isoxazolyl-Penicillin antibiotics (IP): oxacillin (OXA, 16000 μg L -1 ), cloxacillin (CLX, 17500 μg L -1 ) and dicloxacillin (DCX, 19000 μg L -1 ) from water. The biological treatment was performed at pH 5.6, 28 °C, and 160 rpm for 15 days. The biotransformation process and lack of toxicity of the final solutions (antibacterial activity (AA) and cytotoxicity) were tested. The role of enzymes in IP removal was analysed through in vitro studies with enzymatic extracts (crude and pre-purified) from Leptosphaerulina sp., commercial enzymes and enzymatic inhibitors. Furthermore, the applicability of mycoremediation process to a complex matrix (simulated hospital wastewater) was evaluated. IP were considerably abated by the fungus, OXA was the fastest degraded (day 6), followed by CLX (day 7) and DCX (day 8). Antibiotics biodegradation was associated to laccase and versatile peroxidase action. Assays using commercial enzymes (i.e. laccase from Trametes versicolor and horseradish peroxidase) and inhibitors (EDTA, NaCl, sodium acetate, manganese (II) ions) confirmed the significant role of enzymatic transformation. Whereas, biomass sorption was not an important process in the antibiotics elimination. Evaluation of AA against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 revealed that Leptosphaerulina sp. also eliminated the AA. In addition, the cytotoxicity assay (MTT) on the HepG2 cell line demonstrated that the IP final solutions were non-toxic. Finally, Leptosphaerulina sp. eliminated OXA and its AA from synthetic hospital wastewater at 6 days. All these results evidenced the potential of Leptosphaerulina sp. mycoremediation as a novel environmentally friendly process for the removal of IP from aqueous systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Outfall 51 air stripping feasibility study for the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent (RMPE) Project. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Within the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant there are a number of industrial wastewater discharge points or outfalls that empty into East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). EFPC originates within and runs continuously throughout the plant site and subsequently flows out the east end of the Y-12 Plant into the City of Oak Ridge. Mercury is present in outfall discharges due to contact of water with the soils surrounding past mercury-use buildings. As a result, the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent (RMPE) Project was developed to achieve and maintain environmental compliance with regards to mercury, and, in particular with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit for the Y-12 Plant. To achieve a reduction in mercury loading to EFPC, a number of options have already been studied and implemented as part of the RMPE project. With the successful implementation of these options, Outfall 51 remains as a significant contributor to mercury load to EFPC. The primary purpose of this project is to determine the feasibility of removing mercury from contaminated spring water using air stripping. In order to accomplish this goal, a number of different areas were addressed. A pilot-scale unit was tested in the field using actual mercury-contaminated source water. Properties which impact the mercury removal via air stripping were reviewed to determine their effect. Also, enhanced testing was performed to improve removal efficiencies. Finally, the variable outfall flow was studied to size appropriate processing equipment for full-scale treatment

  13. The synthetic evaluation of CuO-MnOx-modified pinecone biochar for simultaneous removal formaldehyde and elemental mercury from simulated flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yaoyao; Li, Caiting; Zhao, Lingkui; Du, Xueyu; Gao, Lei; Chen, Jiaqiang; Zhai, Yunbo; Zeng, Guangming

    2018-02-01

    A series of low-cost Cu-Mn-mixed oxides supported on biochar (CuMn/HBC) synthesized by an impregnation method were applied to study the simultaneous removal of formaldehyde (HCHO) and elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) at 100-300° C from simulated flue gas. The metal loading value, Cu/Mn molar ratio, flue gas components, reaction mechanism, and interrelationship between HCHO removal and Hg 0 removal were also investigated. Results suggested that 12%CuMn/HBC showed the highest removal efficiency of HCHO and Hg 0 at 175° C corresponding to 89%and 83%, respectively. The addition of NO and SO 2 exhibited inhibitive influence on HCHO removal. For the removal of Hg 0 , NO showed slightly positive influence and SO 2 had an inhibitive effect. Meanwhile, O 2 had positive impact on the removal of HCHO and Hg 0 . The samples were characterized by SEM, XRD, BET, XPS, ICP-AES, FTIR, and H 2 -TPR. The sample characterization illustrated that CuMn/HBC possessed the high pore volume and specific surface area. The chemisorbed oxygen (O β ) and the lattice oxygen (O α ) which took part in the removal reaction largely existed in CuMn/HBC. What is more, MnO 2 and CuO (or Cu 2 O) were highly dispersed on the CuMn/HBC surface. The strong synergistic effect between Cu-Mn mixed oxides was critical to the removal reaction of HCHO and Hg 0 via the redox equilibrium of Mn 4+ + Cu + ↔ Mn 3+ + Cu 2+ .

  14. Reduction of mercury from mackerel fillet using combined solution of cysteine, EDTA, and sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeb, P; Jinap, S

    2012-06-13

    An acidic solution containing mercury chelating agents to eliminate mercury in raw fish (mackerel) fillet was developed. The solution contained hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, cysteine, EDTA, and NaCl. The optimum conditions for mercury reduction were achieved using response surface methodology (RSM) at cysteine concentration of 1.25%, EDTA of 275 mg/L, NaCl of 0.5%, pH of 3.75, and exposure time of 18 min. The optimized conditions produced a solution which can remove up to 91% mercury from raw fish fillet. Cysteine and EDTA were identified as potential chelating agents with the greatest potential for use. The solution can be employed in fish industries to reduce mercury in highly contaminated fish.

  15. The effect of chlorine and oxygen concentrations on the removal of mercury at an FGD-batch reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carolina Acuna-Caro; Kevin Brechtel; Guenter Scheffknecht; Manuel Brass [University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany). Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology (IVD)

    2009-12-15

    A series of laboratory scale experiments were conducted in an FGD-batch reactor. A synthetic flue gas was produced and directed through a CaCO{sub 3} suspension contained in a glass reactor vessel. The suspension temperature was set at 54{sup o}C through a water bath. In order to observe the distribution of mercury species in the system, solid, liquid and gaseous samples were taken and analysed. For gaseous mercury determination, continuous measurements were carried out, up and downstream the reactor. Furthermore, the concentration of chlorine in the scrubber solution of the system was varied from 0 to 62 g/l under different oxidative conditions. In a first approach, a concentration drop of elemental mercury coming out of the system was observed. The latter occurs only when high concentrations of Cl{sup -} are present, combined with a high O{sub 2} availability in the scrubber. It was also observed that mercury species distribution in the different phases varies, depending on the available chemical form of chlorine and oxygen concentration. 14 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Isolation and characterization of bacteria from mercury contaminated sites in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and assessment of methylmercury removal capability of a Pseudomonas putida V1 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Lucélia; Giovanella, Patrícia; Gianello, Clésio; Bento, Fátima Menezes; Andreazza, Robson; Camargo, Flávio Anastácio Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is one of the most dangerous heavy metal for living organisms that may be found in environment. Given the crescent industrialization of Brazil and considering that mercury is a residue of several industrial processes, there is an increasing need to encounter and develop remediation approaches of mercury contaminated sites. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize methylmercury resistant bacteria from soils and sludge sewage from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Sixteen bacteria were isolated from these contaminated sites and some isolates were highly resistant to methylmercury (>8.7 μM). All the isolates were identified by 16S rDNA. Pseudomonas putida V1 was able to volatilize approximately 90 % of methylmercury added to growth media and to resist to copper, lead, nickel, chromate, zinc, cobalt, manganese and barium. In the presence of high concentrations of methylmercury (12 μM), cell growth was limited, but P. putida V1 was still able to remove up to 29 % of this compound from culture medium. This bacterium removed an average of 77 % of methylmercury from culture medium with pH in the range 4.0-6.0. In addition, methylmercury was efficiently removed (>80 %) in temperature of 21-25 °C. Polymerase chain reactions indicated the presence of merA but not merB in P. putida V1. The growth and ability of P. putida V1 to remove methylmercury in a wide range of pH (4.0 and 8.0) and temperature (10-35 °C), its tolerance to other heavy metals and ability to grow in the presence of up to 11.5 μM of methylmercury, suggest this strain as a new potential resource for degrading methylmercury contaminated sites.

  17. Highly effective removal of mercury and lead ions from wastewater by mercaptoamine-functionalised silica-coated magnetic nano-adsorbents: Behaviours and mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Shuangyou; Li, Kai; Ning, Ping [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, YunNan, KunMing, 650500 (China); Peng, Jinhui [Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy, Kunming University of Science and Technology, YunNan, KunMing 650500 (China); Jin, Xu [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, YunNan, KunMing, 650500 (China); Tang, Lihong, E-mail: luckyman@163.com [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, YunNan, KunMing, 650500 (China)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Highly effective removal of Hg(II) and Pb(II) ions from wastewater. • This adsorbent had multiple adsorption sites (sulfur and amine sites) on the surface. • This adsorbent had better tolerance to low pH for removal of Hg(II). • This new hybrid material was much cheaper and no secondary pollution. • This adsorbent shows notable advantages including easy separation and recyclability. - Abstract: A novel hybrid material was fabricated using mercaptoamine-functionalised silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MAF-SCMNPs) and was effective in the extraction and recovery of mercury and lead ions from wastewater. The properties of this new magnetic material were explored using various characterisation and analysis methods. Adsorbent amounts, pH levels and initial concentrations were optimised to improve removal efficiency. Additionally, kinetics, thermodynamics and adsorption isotherms were investigated to determine the mechanism by which the fabricated MAF-SCMNPs adsorb heavy metal ions. The results revealed that MAF-SCMNPs were acid-resistant. Sorption likely occurred by chelation through the amine group and ion exchange between heavy metal ions and thiol functional groups on the nanoadsorbent surface. The equilibrium was attained within 120 min, and the adsorption kinetics showed pseudo-second-order (R{sup 2} > 0.99). The mercury and lead adsorption isotherms were in agreement with the Freundlich model, displaying maximum adsorption capacities of 355 and 292 mg/g, respectively. The maximum adsorptions took place at pH 5–6 and 6–7 for Hg(II) and Pb(II), respectively. The maximum adsorptions were observed at 10 mg and 12 mg adsorbent quantities for Hg(II) and Pb(II), respectively. The adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous within the temperature range of 298–318 K. This work demonstrates a unique magnetic nano-adsorbent for the removal of Hg(II) and Pb(II) from wastewater.

  18. Research of mercury removal from sintering flue gas of iron and steel by the open metal site of Mil-101(Cr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Songjian; Mei, Jian; Xu, Haomiao; Liu, Wei; Qu, Zan; Cui, Yong; Yan, Naiqiang

    2018-06-05

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) adsorbent Mil-101(Cr) was introduced for the removal of elemental mercury from sintering flue gas. Physical and chemical characterization of the adsorbents showed that MIL-101(Cr) had the largest BET surface area, high thermal stability and oxidation capacity. Hg 0 removal performance analysis indicated that the Hg 0 removal efficiency of MIL-101(Cr) increased with the increasing temperature and oxygen content. Besides, MIL-101(Cr) had the highest Hg 0 removal performance compared with Cu-BTC, UiO-66 and activated carbon, which can reach about 88% at 250 °C. The XPS and Hg-TPD methods were used to analyze the Hg 0 removal mechanism; the results show that Hg 0 was first adsorbed on the surface of Mil-101(Cr), and then oxidized by the open metal site Cr 3+ . The generated Hg 2+ was then combined surface adsorbed oxygen of adsorbent to form HgO, and the open metal site Cr 2+ was oxidized to Cr 3+ by surface active oxygen again. Furthermore, MIL-101(Cr) had good chemical and thermal stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment Of Mercury Target Off-Gas At SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVore, Joe R.; Freeman, David W.

    2007-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is the first operational spallation source to use liquid Mercury as a target material. This paper describes the treatment system to remove volatile spallation products from a Helium purge stream that emanates from the Mercury target and adjustments made to achieve design goals in response to phenomena experienced during initial operations. The Helium stream is treated to remove volatile spallation products prior to environmental release because of its activity level as these accumulate in the gas space in the Mercury Loop. Unanticipated local dose rates were noted in treatment system components during low power startup. Gamma scanning of these components identified the presence of nineteen noble gas isotopes and their daughters, indicating that the doses resulted from noble gas sorption. Treatment of this equipment with stable Xenon greatly reduced but did not eliminate these. Significant moisture was also encountered in the system, resulting in the plugging of the system cold trap. Changes to some of the system equipment were required together with moisture elimination from components to which moisture was sorbed. Necessary re-configuration of Mercury pump components presented additional requirements and system control changes to accommodate system operation at reduced pressure. The Off-Gas Treatment System has been successfully operated since April, 2006. System availability and removal effectiveness have been high. Operational issues occurring during the first year of operation have been resolved.

  20. Gold nanoparticles and the corresponding filter membrane as chemosensors and adsorbents for dual signal amplification detection and fast removal of mercury(ii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gaosong; Hai, Jun; Wang, Hao; Liu, Weisheng; Chen, Fengjuan; Wang, Baodui

    2017-03-02

    Nowadays, the development of a multifunction system for the simultaneous multiple signal amplification detection and fast removal of Hg 2+ remains a major challenge. Herein, we for the first time used gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and the corresponding filter membrane as chemosensors and adsorbents for dual signal amplification detection and fast removal of Hg 2+ . Such a system was based on the formation of gold amalgam and a gold amalgam-based reaction between rhodamine B (RhB) and NaBH 4 with fluorescence and colorimetric sensing functions. When the gold amalgam catalyzes the reduction of RhB, the red color and orange fluorescence of RhB gradually changed to colorless by switching the amount of Hg 2+ deposited on 13 nm Au NPs. The detection limit of the fluorescence assay and colorimetric assay is 1.16 nM and 2.54 nM for Hg 2+ , respectively. Interestingly, the color and fluorescence of RhB could be recovered when the above colorless reaction solution was exposed to air for about 2 hours. Taking advantage of the above optical phenomenon, a recyclable paper-based sensor has been developed by immobilizing the Au NPs and RhB dye on filter paper and has been successfully used for detection of Hg 2+ in real water samples. In addition, the filter membrane immobilized Au NPs could allow fast removal of mercury ions in Yellow river water and tap water with the removal efficiency close to 99%.

  1. MODELING MERCURY CONTROL WITH POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents a mathematical model of total mercury removed from the flue gas at coal-fired plants equipped with powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection for Mercury control. The developed algorithms account for mercury removal by both existing equipment and an added PAC in...

  2. Removal of elemental mercury by TiO₂doped with WO₃ and V₂O₅ for their photo- and thermo-catalytic removal mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huazhen; Ie, Iau-Ren; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Chen, Wei-Hsiang

    2016-03-01

    The catalytic removal of Hg(0) was investigated to ascertain whether the catalysts could simultaneously possess both thermo- and photo-catalytic reactivity. The immobilized V2O5/TiO2 and WO3/TiO2 catalysts were synthesized by sol-gel method and then coated on the surface of glass beads for catalytic removal of Hg(0). They were also characterized by SEM, BET, XRD, UV-visible, and XPS analysis, and their catalytic reactivity was tested under 100-160 °C under the near-UV irradiation. The results indicated that V2O5/TiO2 solely possessed the thermo-catalytic reactivity while WO3/TiO2 only had photo-catalytic reactivity. Although the synthesis catalytic reactivity has not been found for these catalysts up to date, but compared with TiO2, the removal efficiencies of Hg(0) at 140 and 160 °C were enhanced; particularly, the efficiency was improved from 20 % at 160 °C by TiO2 to nearly 90 % by WO3/TiO2 under the same operating conditions. The effects of doping amount of V2O5 and WO3 were also investigated, and the results showed that 10 % V2O5 and 5 % WO3/TiO2 were the best immobilized catalysts for thermo- and photo-catalytic reactivity, respectively. The effect of different influent concentrations of Hg(0) was demonstrated that the highest concentration of Hg(0) led to the best removal efficiencies for V2O5/TiO2 and WO3/TiO2 at 140 and 160 °C, because high Hg(0) concentration increased the mass transfer rate of Hg(0) toward the surface of catalysts and drove the reaction to proceed. At last, the effect of single gas component on the removal of Hg(0) was also investigated.

  3. Eliminating armaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.

    1998-01-01

    The end of Cold War induced optimistic projections concerning disarmament, elimination of nuclear weapons, elimination of massive inequities - poverty, hatred, racism. All these goals should be achieved simultaneously, but little has been achieved so far

  4. Study of the removal of mercury(II) and chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions by Moroccan stevensite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhammou, A.; Yaacoubi, A.; Nibou, L.; Tanouti, B.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the adsorption of the heavy metals mercury(II) and chromium(VI), from aqueous solutions, onto Moroccan stevensite. A mineralogical and physicochemical characterization of natural stevensite was carried out. In order to improve the adsorption capacity of stevensite for Cr(VI), a preparation of stevensite was carried out. It consists in saturating the stevensite by ferrous iron Fe(II) and reducing the total Fe by Na 2 S 2 O 4 . Then, the adsorption experiments were studied in batch reactors at 25 ± 3 deg. C. The influence of the pH solution on the Cr(VI) and Hg(II) adsorption was studied in the pH range of 1.5-7.0. The optimum pH for the Cr(VI) adsorption is in the pH range of 2.0-5.0 while that of Hg(II) is at the pH values above 4.0. The adsorption kinetics were tested by a pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption rate of Hg(II) is 54.35 mmol kg -1 min -1 and that of Cr(VI) is 7.21 mmol kg -1 min -1 . The adsorption equilibrium time for Hg(II) and Cr(VI) was reached within 2 and 12 h, respectively. The adsorption isotherms were described by the Dubinin-Radushkevich model. The maximal adsorption capacity for Cr(VI) increases from 13.7 (raw stevensite) to 48.86 mmol kg -1 (modified stevensite) while that of Hg(II) decreases from 205.8 to 166.9 mmol kg -1 . The mechanism of Hg(II) and Cr(VI) adsorption was discussed

  5. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  6. Investigation of an eco-friendly aerogel as a substrate for the immobilization of MoS2 nanoflowers for removal of mercury species from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chong-Bo; Du, Yan; Du, Baoji; Wang, Hao; Wang, Erkang

    2018-04-21

    An adsorbent that exhibits high affinity for inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ) with a high removal efficiency of methylmercury (MeHg + ) has been developed. The adsorbent demonstrates a symbiotic relationship between its two components, molybdenum disulphide nanoflowers (MoS 2 NFs) and a poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) aerogel. Furthermore, we modified the distribution and loading of the MoS 2 NFs, which was possible due to the stable porous support, and investigated the biocompatibility of the aerogel-support adsorbent. The performance of the optimized material exhibited a distribution coefficient of 9.71 × 10 7  mL g -1 . In addition, the adsorbent was effective over a wide pH range and could efficiently purify both contaminated lake and sea water. The key motivation for using an aerogel support was to stabilise the MoS 2 NFs during purification of the water (resulting in improved performance compared to using freestanding MoS 2 NFs) and the ability to regenerate the used adsorbent. In addition, animal tests confirmed an extremely low toxicity of the adsorbent to fish, along with the excellent purification results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Removal of heavy metals from water by zeolite mineral chemically modified. Mercury as a particular case; Remocion de metales pesados del agua por mineral zeolitico quimicamente modificado. Mercurio como un caso particular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebremedhin H, T

    2002-07-01

    Research works on the removal of mercury from water by zeolite minerals show that a small quantity of this element is sorbed. In this work the mercury sorption from aqueous solutions in the presence and absence of Cu(l l), Ni(l l) and/or Zn(l l) by a Mexican zeolite mineral, natural and modified by cisteaminium chloride or cistaminium dichloride, was investigated in acidic p H. The zeolite minerals were characterized by X- Ray diffraction Ftir, scanning electron microscopy and semiquantitative elemental analysis (EDS), surface area analysis (BET) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Mercury from aqueous solutions was quantified by Atomic absorption spectroscopy. The amount of sulphur on the zeolite samples treated with Na CI and modified with cisteaminium chloride (0.375 mmol/g) or cistaminium dichloride(0.475 mmol/g) was found to be higher than that of the zeolite minerals modified with cisteaminium chloride and cistaminium dichloride without treating them with Na CI. The amount of sulphur on the zeolite minerals modified with thiourea was the lowest. The diffusion coefficients and sorption isotherms for mercury were determined in the natural, treated with Na CI and, treated with Na CI and then modified with the cisteaminium chloride or cistaminium dichloride zeolite samples. The retention of mercury was the highest for the zeolite minerals treated Na CI and then modified with cisteaminium chloride or cistaminium dichloride, with adsorption capacity of 0.0511 and 0.0525 mmol Hg/g, respectively. In this research work, it was found that the retention of mercury by the modified minerals was not affected by the presence of Cu (Il), Zn(l l) y Ni (I l) under the experimental conditions. (Author)

  8. Removal of cadmium, copper, nickel, cobalt and mercury from water by Apatite II{sup TM}: Column experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, Josep [Department of Mining Engineering and Natural Resou-rces, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Bases de Manresa 61-73, 08242 Manresa, Catalonia (Spain); De Pablo, Joan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Cortina, Jose-Luis, E-mail: jose.luis.cortina@upc.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Water Technology Center, CETaqua, Paseo de los Tilos 3, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Cama, Jordi; Ayora, Carlos [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, IDAEA, CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} The efficiency of Apatite II{sup TM} increases as the acidity decreases, then the application of apatite-based materials for metal removal treatments should be restricted to slightly acid to neutral waters. {yields} Because of the preferred process of using phosphate ions to form metal-phosphate precipitates, the mixture with other sources of alkalinity, such as limestone, is proposed to extend the duration of Apatite II{sup TM}. {yields} Compared with other reactive materials such as limestone and caustic magnesia that exhibit a reduction of porosity Apatite II{sup TM} showed stable hydraulic performance. {yields} The extrapolation of the column durabilities to a 1-m-thick passive treatment suggests that the Apatite II{sup TM} filling can be active between 5 and 10 years for an inflow pH exceeding 5. - Abstract: Apatite II{sup TM}, a biogenic hydroxyapatite, was evaluated as a reactive material for heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Co, Ni and Hg) removal in passive treatments. Apatite II{sup TM} reacts with acid water by releasing phosphates that increase the pH up to 6.5-7.5, complexing and inducing metals to precipitate as metal phosphates. The evolution of the solution concentration of calcium, phosphate and metals together with SEM-EDS and XRD examinations were used to identify the retention mechanisms. SEM observation shows low-crystalline precipitate layers composed of P, O and M. Only in the case of Hg and Co were small amounts of crystalline phases detected. Solubility data values were used to predict the measured column experiment values and to support the removal process based on the dissolution of hydroxyapatite, the formation of metal-phosphate species in solution and the precipitation of metal phosphate. Cd{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}OH(s), Cu{sub 2}(PO{sub 4})OH(s), Ni{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(s), Co{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}8H{sub 2}O(s) and Hg{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(s) are proposed as the possible mineral phases responsible for the removal

  9. New thiamine functionalized silica microparticules as a sorbent for the removal of lead, mercury and cadmium ions in aqueous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Sabahattin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of heavy metal ions in aqueous media is one of the biggest environmental pollution problems and thus the removal of heavy metals is a very important procedure. In this work, a new adsorbent was synthesized by modifying 3-aminopropyl-functionalized silica gel with thiamine (vitamin B1 and characterized. The influence of the uptake conditions, such as pH, contact time, initial feed concentration and foreign metal ions, on the binding capacity of thiamine-functionalized silica gel sorbent (M3APS were investigated. Maximum obtained adsorption capacities for Pb(II, Hg(II and Cd(II were 39.4±0.2, 30.9±0.5 and 9.54±0.4 mg g-1 M3APS, respectively, at pH 5.0. The observed selectivity of M3APS for these metal ions was the following: Pb(II > Hg(II > Cd(II. Adsorption isotherm models were also applied to the adsorption process. As a result, the Langmuir isotherm model gave the best fit for the adsorption of metal ions on M3APS. The Gibbs energy change (ΔG for the adsorption of Pb(II, Hg(II and Cd(II were calculated to predict the nature of adsorption process. Having such satisfactory adsorption results, M3APS is a potential candidate adsorbent for Pb(II and Hg(II removal from aqueous media.

  10. Mercury Emission Measurement in Coal-Fired Boilers by Continuous Mercury Monitor and Ontario Hydro Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanqun; Zhou, Jinsong; He, Sheng; Cai, Xiaoshu; Hu, Changxin; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Le; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa

    2007-06-01

    The mercury emission control approach attaches more importance. The accurate measurement of mercury speciation is a first step. Because OH method (accepted method) can't provide the real-time data and 2-week time for results attained, it's high time to seek on line mercury continuous emission monitors(Hg-CEM). Firstly, the gaseous elemental and oxidized mercury were conducted to measure using OH and CEM method under normal operation conditions of PC boiler after ESP, the results between two methods show good consistency. Secondly, through ESP, gaseous oxidized mercury decrease a little and particulate mercury reduce a little bit, but the elemental mercury is just the opposite. Besides, the WFGD system achieved to gaseous oxidized mercury removal of 53.4%, gaseous overall mercury and elemental mercury are 37.1% and 22.1%, respectively.

  11. BEHAVIOR OF MERCURY DURING DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J.; Koopman, D.

    2012-04-09

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mercury to the required endpoint concentration. The recovery of mercury in the Mercury Water Wash Tank has never been high, and has decreased significantly since the Mercury Water Wash Tank was replaced after the seventh batch of Sludge Batch 5. Since this time, essentially no recovery of mercury has been seen. Pertinent literature was reviewed, previous lab-scale data on mercury stripping and recovery was examined, and new lab-scale CPC Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) runs were conducted. For previous lab-scale data, many of the runs with sufficient mercury recovery data were examined to determine what factors affect the stripping and recovery of mercury and to improve closure of the mercury material balance. Ten new lab-scale SRAT runs (HG runs) were performed to examine the effects of acid stoichiometry, sludge solids concentration, antifoam concentration, form of mercury added to simulant, presence of a SRAT heel, operation of the SRAT condenser at higher than prototypic temperature, varying noble metals from none to very high concentrations, and higher agitation rate. Data from simulant runs from SB6, SB7a, glycolic/formic, and the HG tests showed that a significant amount of Hg metal was found on the vessel bottom at the end of tests. Material balance closure improved from 12-71% to 48-93% when this segregated Hg was considered. The amount of Hg segregated as elemental Hg on the vessel bottom was 4-77% of the amount added. The highest recovery of mercury in the offgas system generally correlated with the highest retention of Hg in the slurry. Low retention in the slurry (high segregation on the vessel bottom) resulted in low recovery in the offgas system. High agitation rates appear to result in lower

  12. Continuous treatment process of mercury removal from aqueous solution by growing recombinant E. coli cells and modeling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, X.; Hu, Z.L.; Yi, X.E.

    2008-01-01

    A continuous treatment process was developed to investigate the capability of genetically engineered E. coli to simultaneously accumulate mercuric ions and reproduce itself in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system. The influence of dilution rate and initial Hg 2+ concentration on continuous process was evaluated. Results indicated that the recombinant E. coli could effectively accumulate Hg 2+ from aqueous solution with Hg 2+ removal ratio up to about 90%, and propagate its cells at the same time in the continuous treatment system under suitable operational conditions. A kinetic model based on mass balance of Hg 2+ was proposed to simulate the continuous process. The modeling results were in good agreement with the experimental data

  13. Mercury and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Risk of Exposure to Mercury Learn About Mercury What is Mercury What is Metallic mercury? Toxicological Profile ToxFAQs Mercury Resources CDC’s National Biomonitoring Program Factsheet on Mercury ...

  14. Mercury Phase II Study - Mercury Behavior in Salt Processing Flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, V.; Shah, H.; Wilmarth, W. R.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) in the Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (LWS) originated from decades of canyon processing where it was used as a catalyst for dissolving the aluminum cladding of reactor fuel. Approximately 60 metric tons of mercury is currently present throughout the LWS. Mercury has long been a consideration in the LWS, from both hazard and processing perspectives. In February 2015, a Mercury Program Team was established at the request of the Department of Energy to develop a comprehensive action plan for long-term management and removal of mercury. Evaluation was focused in two Phases. Phase I activities assessed the Liquid Waste inventory and chemical processing behavior using a system-by-system review methodology, and determined the speciation of the different mercury forms (Hg+, Hg++, elemental Hg, organomercury, and soluble versus insoluble mercury) within the LWS. Phase II activities are building on the Phase I activities, and results of the LWS flowsheet evaluations will be summarized in three reports: Mercury Behavior in the Salt Processing Flowsheet (i.e. this report); Mercury Behavior in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Flowsheet; and Mercury behavior in the Tank Farm Flowsheet (Evaporator Operations). The evaluation of the mercury behavior in the salt processing flowsheet indicates, inter alia, the following: (1) In the assembled Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 in Tank 21, the total mercury is mostly soluble with methylmercury (MHg) contributing over 50% of the total mercury. Based on the analyses of samples from 2H Evaporator feed and drop tanks (Tanks 38/43), the source of MHg in Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 can be attributed to the 2H evaporator concentrate used in assembling the salt batches. The 2H Evaporator is used to evaporate DWPF recycle water. (2) Comparison of data between Tank 21/49, Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), and Tank 50 samples suggests that the total mercury as well as speciated

  15. Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10's first image of Mercury acquired on March 24, 1974. During its flight, Mariner 10's trajectory brought it behind the lighted hemisphere of Mercury, where this image was taken, in order to acquire important measurements with other instruments.This picture was acquired from a distance of 3,340,000 miles (5,380,000 km) from the surface of Mercury. The diameter of Mercury (3,031 miles; 4,878 km) is about 1/3 that of Earth.Images of Mercury were acquired in two steps, an inbound leg (images acquired before passing into Mercury's shadow) and an outbound leg (after exiting from Mercury's shadow). More than 2300 useful images of Mercury were taken, both moderate resolution (3-20 km/pixel) color and high resolution (better than 1 km/pixel) black and white coverage.

  16. Mercurial poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorton, B

    1924-01-01

    Cats which had been kept in a thermometer factory to catch rats were afflicted with mercury poisoning. So were the rats they were supposed to eat. The symptoms of mercury poisoning were the same in both species. The source of mercury for these animals is a fine film of the metal which coats floors, a result of accidental spills during the manufacturing process.

  17. Advanced mercury removal from gold leachate solutions prior to gold and silver extraction: a field study from an active gold mine in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlock, Matthew M; Howerton, Brock S; Van Aelstyn, Mike A; Nordstrom, Fredrik L; Atwood, David A

    2002-04-01

    Mercury contamination in the Gold-Cyanide Process (GCP) is a serious health and environmental problem. Following the heap leaching of gold and silver ores with NaCN solutions, portions of the mercury-cyano complexes often adhere to the activated carbon (AC) used to extract the gold. During the electrowinning and retorting steps, mercury can be (and often is) emitted to the air as a vapor. This poses a severe health hazard to plant workers and the local environment. Additional concerns relate to the safety of workers when handling the mercury-laden AC. Currently, mercury treatment from the heap leach solution is nonexistent. This is due to the fact that chelating ligands which can effectively work under the adverse pH conditions (as present in the heap leachate solutions) do not exist. In an effort to economically and effectively treat the leachate solution prior to passing over the AC, a dipotassium salt of 1,3-benzenediamidoethanethiol (BDET2-) has been developed to irreversibly bind and precipitate the mercury. The ligand has proven to be highly effective by selectively reducing mercury levels from average initial concentrations of 34.5 ppm (parts per million) to 0.014 ppm within 10 min and to 0.008 ppm within 15 min. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), Raman, and infrared (IR) spectroscopy demonstrate the formation of a mercury-ligand compound, which remains insoluble over pH ranges of 0.0-14.0. Leachate samples from an active gold mine in Peru have been analyzed using cold vapor atomic fluorescence (CVAF) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) for metal concentrations before and after treatment with the BDET2- ligand.

  18. Sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification (SPSS) treatment of mixed waste mercury recovered from environmental restoration activities at BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalb, P.; Adams, J.; Milian, L.

    2001-01-29

    Over 1,140 yd{sup 3} of radioactively contaminated soil containing toxic mercury (Hg) and several liters of mixed-waste elemental mercury were generated during a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Mixed Waste Focus Area (DOE MWFA) is sponsoring a comparison of several technologies that may be used to treat these wastes and similar wastes at BNL and other sites across the DOE complex. This report describes work conducted at BNL on the application and pilot-scale demonstration of the newly developed Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process for treatment of contaminated mixed-waste soils containing high concentrations ({approximately} 5,000 mg/L) of mercury and liquid elemental mercury. BNL's SPSS (patent pending) process chemically stabilizes the mercury to reduce vapor pressure and leachability and physically encapsulates the waste in a solid matrix to eliminate dispersion and provide long-term durability. Two 55-gallon drums of mixed-waste soil containing high concentrations of mercury and about 62 kg of radioactive contaminated elemental mercury were successfully treated. Waste loadings of 60 wt% soil were achieved without resulting in any increase in waste volume, while elemental mercury was solidified at a waste loading of 33 wt% mercury. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) analyses indicate the final waste form products pass current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) allowable TCLP concentrations as well as the more stringent proposed Universal Treatment Standards. Mass balance measurements show that 99.7% of the mercury treated was successfully retained within the waste form, while only 0.3% was captured in the off gas system.

  19. Sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification (SPSS) treatment of mixed waste mercury recovered from environmental restoration activities at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.; Adams, J.; Milian, L.

    2001-01-01

    Over 1,140 yd 3 of radioactively contaminated soil containing toxic mercury (Hg) and several liters of mixed-waste elemental mercury were generated during a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Mixed Waste Focus Area (DOE MWFA) is sponsoring a comparison of several technologies that may be used to treat these wastes and similar wastes at BNL and other sites across the DOE complex. This report describes work conducted at BNL on the application and pilot-scale demonstration of the newly developed Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process for treatment of contaminated mixed-waste soils containing high concentrations (approximately 5,000 mg/L) of mercury and liquid elemental mercury. BNL's SPSS (patent pending) process chemically stabilizes the mercury to reduce vapor pressure and leachability and physically encapsulates the waste in a solid matrix to eliminate dispersion and provide long-term durability. Two 55-gallon drums of mixed-waste soil containing high concentrations of mercury and about 62 kg of radioactive contaminated elemental mercury were successfully treated. Waste loadings of 60 wt% soil were achieved without resulting in any increase in waste volume, while elemental mercury was solidified at a waste loading of 33 wt% mercury. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) analyses indicate the final waste form products pass current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) allowable TCLP concentrations as well as the more stringent proposed Universal Treatment Standards. Mass balance measurements show that 99.7% of the mercury treated was successfully retained within the waste form, while only 0.3% was captured in the off gas system

  20. In-duct removal of mercury from coal-fired power plant flue gas by activated carbon: assessment of entrained flow versus wall surface contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, F.; Chirone, R.; Lancia, A. [CNR, Naples (Italy). Institute for Research on Combustion

    2008-12-15

    In-duct mercury capture efficiency by activated carbon from coal-combustion flue gas was investigated. To this end, elemental mercury capture experiments were conducted at 100 C in a purposely designed 65-mm ID labscale pyrex apparatus operated as an entrained flow reactor. Gas residence times were varied between 0.7 and 2.0 s. Commercial-powdered activated carbon was continuously injected in the reactor and both mercury concentration and carbon elutriation rate were followed at the outlet. Transient mercury concentration profiles at the outlet showed that steady-state conditions were reached in a time interval of 15-20 min, much longer than the gas residence time in the reactor. Results indicate that the influence of the walls is non-negligible in determining the residence time of fine carbon particles in the adsorption zone, because of surface deposition and/or the establishment of a fluid-dynamic boundary layer near the walls. Total mercury capture efficiencies of 20-50% were obtained with carbon injection rates in the range 0.07-0.25 g/min. However, only a fraction of this capture was attributable to free-flowing carbon particles, a significant contribution coming from activated carbon staying near the reactor walls. Entrained bed experiments at lab-scale conditions are probably not properly representative of full-scale conditions, where the influence of wall interactions is lower. Moreover, previously reported entrained flow lab-scale mercury capture data should be reconsidered by taking into account the influence of particle-wall interactions.

  1. Flow Alteration and Chemical Reduction: Air Stripping to Lessen Subsurface Discharges of Mercury to Surface Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S. C.; Bogle, M.; Liang, L.; Miller, C. L.; Peterson, M.; Southworth, G. R.; Spalding, B. P.

    2009-12-01

    process water. Greater than 90% of the mercury in that discharge was converted to the highly volatile dissolved Hg(0) by dechlorinating the streamflow with ascorbic acid and then treating it with a near stoichiometric concentration of the chemical reductant stannous chloride. Preliminary engineering evaluations indicate that once converted to Hg(0), mercury in the stream discharge could be removed by in-situ air stripping at the discharge point or perhaps within the enclosed stormdrain network upstream. If chemical reduction:air stripping was eventualy able to remove 80% or more of Hg from water, input to the stream from that source could be lowered from 6 - 8 g/d to 1 - 2 g/d. Together, these two strategies have the potential to eliminate much of the remaining dissolved Hg input to the creek.

  2. Radioactive wastes eliminating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsutsuka, Norimasa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate impurities and radioactive wastes by passing liquid sodium in a cold trap and an adsorption device. Constitution: Heated sodium is partially extracted from the core of a nuclear reactor by way of a pump, flown into and cooled in heat exchangers and then introduced into a cold trap for removal of impurities. The liquid sodium eliminated with impurities is introduced into an adsorption separator and purified by the elimination of radioactive wastes. The purified sodium is returned to the nuclear reactor. A heater is provided between the cold trap and the adsorption separator, so that the temperature of the liquid sodium introduced into the adsorption separator is not lower than the minimum temperature in the cold trap to thereby prevent deposition of impurities in the adsorption separator. (Kawakami, Y.)

  3. Accumulation of mercury in selected plant species grown in soils contaminated with different mercury compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yi; Han, Fengxiang; Shiyab, Safwan; Chen, Jian; Monts, David L.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of our research is to screen and search for suitable plant species for phyto-remediation of mercury-contaminated soil. Currently our effort is specifically focused on mercury removal from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, where mercury contamination is a major concern. In order to cost effectively implement mercury remediation efforts, it is necessary now to obtain an improved understanding of biological means of removing mercury and mercury compounds.. Phyto-remediation is a technology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. In particular, phyto-extraction is the uptake of contaminants by plant roots and translocation within the plants to shoots or leaves. Contaminants are generally removed by harvesting the plants. We have investigated phyto-extraction of mercury from contaminated soil by using some of the known metal-accumulating plants since no natural plant species with mercury hyper-accumulating properties has yet been identified. Different natural plant species have been studied for mercury uptake, accumulation, toxicity and overall mercury removal efficiency. Various mercury compounds, such as HgS, HgCl 2 , and Hg(NO 3 ) 2 , were used as contaminant sources. Different types of soil were examined and chosen for phyto-remediation experiments. We have applied microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectrometry as well as conventional analytical chemistry to monitor the phyto-remediation processes of mercury uptake, translocation and accumulation, and the physiological impact of mercury contaminants on selected plant species. Our results indicate that certain plant species, such as beard grass (Polypogon monospeliensis), accumulated a very limited amount of mercury in the shoots ( 2 powder, respectively; no visual stress symptoms were observed. We also studied mercury phyto-remediation using aged soils that contained HgS, HgCl 2 , or Hg(NO 3 ) 2 . We have found that up to hundreds

  4. Removal of radiostrontium from man; Elimination du radiostrontium de l'organisme humain; Vyvedenie radioaktivnogo strontsiya iz organizma cheloveka; Eliminacion del radioestroncio por el organismo humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, H. [Edward Hines, Jr. Hospital Hines, IL (United States)

    1963-02-15

    Studies of the metabolism of radiostrontium were carried out in man under controlled metabolic and dietary conditions. The relatively short-lived radioisotope Sr{sup 85} was used as the tracer. Single tracer doses of Sr{sup 85} were administered intravenously and orally and the plasma levels and urinary and faecal excretions were determined. The main pathway of Sr{sup 85} excretion was found to be via the kidney irrespective of the route of administration of the tracer. An average of 20% of the orally administered dose was absorbed from the intestine and approximately 50% of the absorbed dose was excreted in urine in 12 d by a large number of persons, Studies in which tracer doses of Sr{sup 85} and Ca{sup 45} were given simultaneously by the oral route indicated the preference of the body for Ca{sup 45} absorption and for Sr{sup 85} excretion, the Ca{sup 45}/Sr{sup 85} absorption ratio being 2.6:1. Sr{sup 85} studies carried out during low and high calcium intake in the same persons revealed that the high calcium intake did not lead to any significant change of Sr{sup 85} absorption in most of the persons studied. Since the urinary Sr{sup 85} excretion was found to parallel the urinary calcium excretion, enhancement of urinary calcium was induced by different agents, which increased the calciuria. Intravenously infused stable calcium and strontium, orally administered ammonium chloride given singly or in combination with intravenously infused calcium and certain chelating agents were effective in removing radiostrontium from man as late as two to four weeks after the injection of the tracer. Also, Sr{sup 90} balance studies were carried out in 12 young normal volunteers. No radioisotope was given in this study. The results obtained in Sr{sup 90} studies were similar to those obtained with Sr{sup 85}. (author) [French] Le metabolisme du radiostrontium dans l'organisme humain a ete etudie dans des conditions controlees de metabolisme et de regime alimentaire; le

  5. Effect of KNO3 to remove silver interferences in the determination of mercury(II: Application in milk and breast milk samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Farahi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury determination was performed at rotating silver electrode (RSE using square wave voltammetry (SWV in electrolytic mixture of HCl (0.1 mol L−1 and KNO3 (0.2 mol L−1. The reproducibility, sensitivity and accuracy are good, provided the proper instrumental parameters and supporting electrolyte are used. The relationship between the peak current of mercury(II and its concentration is linear with regression equation: I(μA = 0.784 [Hg(II] + 49.5 (r2 = 0.9878 in the dynamic range from 1.0 × 10−7 to 8.0 × 10−4 mol L−1. The detection limit (DL,3σ and quantification limit (QL,10σ were 4.61 × 10−8 mol L−1 and 15.3 × 10−8 mol L−1, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD for seven replicate analysis of a solution containing 5.0 × 10−5 mol L−1 was 2.19%. Possible effects of Cu, Co, Fe, MnO4, Zn, were investigated but did not cause any significant interferences. Immobilization of mercury(II on the surface of rotating silver electrode obeyed to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The calculated ΔG°ads value showed that the interaction between mercury and silver electrodes is mainly controlled by a chemisorption process. This methodology was potentially applied for mercury determination in milk and breast milk samples.

  6. Does mercury vapor exposure increase urinary selenium excretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongo, T; Suzuki, T; Himeno, S; Watanabe, C; Satoh, H; Shimada, Y

    1985-01-01

    It has been reported that an increase of urinary selenium excretion may occur as a result of mercury vapor exposure. However, experimental data regarding the interaction between mercury vapor and selenium have yielded ambiguous results about the retention and elimination of selenium due to mercury vapor exposure and the decrease of selenium excretion due to mercury in the form of mercuric mercury (Hg/sup 2 +/). In this study, the authors measured urinary mercury and selenium in workers with or without exposure to mercury vapor to determine whether or not urinary selenium excretion was increased as a result of mercury vapor exposure. Urine samples were collected from 141 workers, 71 men and 70 women, whose extent of exposure to mercury vapor varied according to their job sites. Workers were divided into five groups according to their urinary mercury levels. The mercury level in group I was less than 2.8 nmol/mmol creatinine which means that this group was mostly free from mercury exposure. The average age was almost identical among the groups. For both sexes, group V (with the highest urinary mercury level) had the lowest urinary selenium level, but one-way variance analysis (ANOVA) did not reveal any significant variations of urinary selenium with urinary mercury levels; however, a weak but significant negative correlation between mercury and selenium was found in men.

  7. Method for mercury refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-04-09

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  8. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-07-16

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  9. Method for scavenging mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-ger [El Cerrito, CA; Liu, Shou-heng [Kaohsiung, TW; Liu, Zhao-rong [Beijing, CN; Yan, Naiqiang [Berkeley, CA

    2009-01-20

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  10. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the 196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg 2 Cl 2 . The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg 2 Cl 2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures

  11. Method for mercury refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the 196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg 2 Cl 2 . The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg 2 Cl 2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures

  12. Global Mercury Pathways in the Arctic Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoutifard, N.; Lean, D.

    2003-12-01

    The sudden depletions of atmospheric mercury which occur during the Arctic spring are believed to involve oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury, Hg(0), rendering it less volatile and more soluble. The Hg(II) oxidation product(s) are more susceptible to deposition, consistent with the observation of dramatic increases in snow mercury levels during depletion events. Temporal correlations with ozone depletion events and the proliferation of BrO radicals support the hypothesis that oxidation of Hg(0) occurs in the gas phase and results in its conversion to RGM (Reactive Gaseous Mercury). The mechanisms of Hg(0) oxidation and particularly Hg(II) reduction are as yet unproven. In order to evaluate the feasibility of proposed chemical processes involving mercury in the Arctic atmosphere and its pathway after deposition on the snow from the air, we investigated mercury speciation in air and snow pack at Resolute, Nunavut, Canada (latitude 75° N) prior to and during snow melt during spring 2003. Quantitative, real-time information on emission, air transport and deposition were combined with experimental studies of the distribution and concentrations of different mercury species, methyl mercury, anions, total organic carbon and total inorganic carbon in snow samples. The effect of solar radiation and photoreductants on mercury in snow samples was also investigated. In this work, we quantify mercury removed from the air, and deposited on the snow and the transformation to inorganic and methyl mercury.

  13. Effect of natural phosphate to remove silver interference in the detection of mercury(II in aquatic algae and seawater samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lahrich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A silver particles impregnated onto natural phosphate (Ag/NP was synthesized using reaction in solid state. The obtained powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The (Ag/NP was used as modifier of carbon paste electrode (CPE to determine mercury by square wave voltammetry. The calibration graph obtained is linear from 1.0 × 10−8 mol·L−1 to 1.0 × 10−5 mol·L−1 at preconcentration time of 5 min, percentage loading of 7%, with correlation coefficient of 0.993. The limits of detection (DL,3σ and quantification (QL,10σ were 5.8 × 10−9 mol·L−1 and 19.56 × 10−9 mol·L−1 respectively. The repeatability of the method expressed as relative standard deviation (R.S.D. is 2.1% (n = 8. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine mercury(II in aquatic algae and seawater samples. Keywords: Natural phosphate, Square wave voltammetry, Silver, Mercury, Aquatic algae, Seawater

  14. Biosorption of mercury from aqueous solutions using highly characterised peats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Rizzuti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the biosorption of mercury from aqueous solutions by six highly characterised peats. Samples of the peats were tested both in unaltered condition and after being treated with hydrochloric acid (HCl to free up any occupied exchange sites. Other variables tested were sample dose, contact time, mixing temperature, and the concentration and pH of the mercury solution. Desorption studies were also performed, and tests were done to determine whether the peats could be re-used for mercury biosorption. The results indicate that all six peat types biosorb mercury from aqueous solutions extremely well (92−100 % removal and that their mercury removal capacities are not significantly affected by manipulation of the various factors tested. The factor that had the greatest impact on the mercury removal capacities of the peats was the pH of the mercury solution. The optimal mercury solution pH for mercury removal was in the range 5−7 for four of the peats and in the range 2−3 for the other two. The desorption results indicate that it may be possible to recover up to 41 % of the removed mercury. All of the peat types tested can be repeatedly re-used for additional mercury biosorption cycles. Hence, their disposal should not become a hazardous waste problem.

  15. Method for high temperature mercury capture from gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, Evan J [Wexford, PA; Pennline, Henry W [Bethel Park, PA

    2006-04-25

    A process to facilitate mercury extraction from high temperature flue/fuel gas via the use of metal sorbents which capture mercury at ambient and high temperatures. The spent sorbents can be regenerated after exposure to mercury. The metal sorbents can be used as pure metals (or combinations of metals) or dispersed on an inert support to increase surface area per gram of metal sorbent. Iridium and ruthenium are effective for mercury removal from flue and smelter gases. Palladium and platinum are effective for mercury removal from fuel gas (syngas). An iridium-platinum alloy is suitable for metal capture in many industrial effluent gas streams including highly corrosive gas streams.

  16. Interaction of ethanol and mercury body burden in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The interaction of ethanol with mercury in the body resulting in increased exhalation of the metal was studied in the mouse. A persistent elimination of the metal in the breath was demonstrated after single, sublethal (<1 mgHg/Kg body weight) exposures to mercury vapor (Hg/sup 0/) or mercury II chloride (HgCl/sub 2/). The amount of mercury exhaled per unit time was enhanced by oral or parenteral administration of ethanol solutions. These modifications were investigated in dose-response studies in which the drug was administered in doses ranging from 0.2g to 5.5g/Kg to mice pretreated with mercury. The EC/sub 50/ for blood ethanol with respect to mercury exhalation was determined to be approximately 200 mg/dl corresponding to an output rate of approximately 0.1% of the simultaneous body burden in 30 min several days after mercury. A hypothesis that mercury expired by these animals was proportional to the body burden after mercury administration was addressed in experiments whereby mice given one of several doses of mercuric chloride (0.16 to 500 ..mu..g/Kg) were monitored for pulmonary mercury elimination for a fifteen day period. The high correlation obtained between the amount of mercury exhaled in a standard time period and the body burden by group indicated that breath sampling could be applied as an indicator of the mercury body burden which may not be limited to the mouse.

  17. Recovery of Mercury From Contaminated Liquid Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Base Contract program emphasized the manufacture and testing of superior sorbents for mercury removal, testing of the sorption process at a DOE site, and determination of the regeneration conditions in the laboratory. During this project, ADA Technologies, Inc. demonstrated the following key elements of a successful regenerable mercury sorption process: (1) sorbents that have a high capacity for dissolved, ionic mercury; (2) removal of ionic mercury at greater than 99% efficiency; and (3) thermal regeneration of the spent sorbent. ADA's process is based on the highly efficient and selective sorption of mercury by noble metals. Contaminated liquid flows through two packed columns that contain microporous sorbent particles on which a noble metal has been finely dispersed. A third column is held in reserve. When the sorbent is loaded with mercury to the point of breakthrough at the outlet of the second column, the first column is taken off-line and the flow of contaminated liquid is switched to the second and third columns. The spent column is regenerated by heating. A small flow of purge gas carries the desorbed mercury to a capture unit where the liquid mercury is recovered. Laboratory-scale tests with mercuric chloride solutions demonstrated the sorbents' ability to remove mercury from contaminated wastewater. Isotherms on surrogate wastes from DOE's Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee showed greater than 99.9% mercury removal. Laboratory- and pilot-scale tests on actual Y-12 Plant wastes were also successful. Mercury concentrations were reduced to less than 1 ppt from a starting concentration of 1,000 ppt. The treatment objective was 50 ppt. The sorption unit showed 10 ppt discharge after six months. Laboratory-scale tests demonstrated the feasibility of sorbent regeneration. Results show that sorption behavior is not affected after four cycles

  18. Identification of elemental mercury in the subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dennis G

    2015-01-06

    An apparatus and process is provided for detecting elemental mercury in soil. A sacrificial electrode of aluminum is inserted below ground to a desired location using direct-push/cone-penetrometer based equipment. The insertion process removes any oxides or previously found mercury from the electrode surface. Any mercury present adjacent the electrode can be detected using a voltmeter which indicates the presence or absence of mercury. Upon repositioning the electrode within the soil, a fresh surface of the aluminum electrode is created allowing additional new measurements.

  19. Mercury absorption in aqueous hypochlorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, L.L.; Rochelle, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    The absorption of elemental Hg vapor into aqueous hypochlorite was measured in a stirred tank reactor at 25 and 55C. NaOCl strongly absorbs Hg even at high pH. Low pH, high Cl - and high-temperature favor mercury absorption. Aqueous free Cl 2 was the active species that reacted with mercury. However, chlorine desorption was evident at high Cl - and pH 15 M -1 s -1 at 25C and 1.4x10 17 M -1 s -1 at 55C. Gas-phase reaction was observed between Hg and Cl 2 on apparatus surfaces. Strong mercury absorption in water was also detected with Cl 2 present. Results indicate that the chlorine concentration, moisture, and surface area contribute positively to mercury removal. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Mercury in the environment : a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, F.

    2000-01-01

    Both geogenic and anthropogenic sources are responsible for the input of mercury into the environment. However, mercury comes mostly from geogenic sources and is found naturally in air, water and soil. Crustal degassing results in emission of mercury into the atmosphere. Mercury in water and soil is due mostly to input from sedimentary rocks. Mercury in lake sediments is related mainly to input by country rock and anthropogenic activities such as agriculture. The mercury content of coal is similar to or less than the amount found in the earths crust. Natural charcoal is also able to capture mercury at low temperature combustion. The amount of mercury emitted from the stack of coal-fired power plants is related to the nature of the milled coal and its mineralogical and elemental content. Mercury emissions originating from the combustion of coal from electric utility power plants are considered to be among the greatest contributors to global mercury air emissions. In order to quantify the impact the electric power industry has on the environment, information regarding mercury concentrations in coal and their speciation is needed. For this reason the author examined the behaviour of mercury in three coal samples ashed at increasing temperatures. Mercury removal from coal-fired power plants ranges from 10 to 50 per cent by fabric filters and 20 to 95 per cent by FGD systems. This data will help in regulating emissions of hazardous air pollutants from electric utility steam generating units and will potentially provide insight into the industry's contribution to the global mercury burden. 50 refs

  1. Mercury sorbent delivery system for flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunder,; Edgar, B [Bethel Park, PA

    2009-02-24

    The invention presents a device for the removal of elemental mercury from flue gas streams utilizing a layer of activated carbon particles contained within the filter fabric of a filter bag for use in a flue gas scrubbing system.

  2. Effect of natural phosphate to remove silver interference in the detection of mercury(II) in aquatic algae and seawater samples

    OpenAIRE

    S. Lahrich; H. Hammani; W. Boumya; A. Loudiki; El Bouabi; R. Elmoubarki; A. Farahi; M. Achak; M. Bakasse; M.A. El Mhammedi

    2016-01-01

    A silver particles impregnated onto natural phosphate (Ag/NP) was synthesized using reaction in solid state. The obtained powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The (Ag/NP) was used as modifier of carbon paste electrode (CPE) to determine mercury by square wave voltammetry. The calibration graph obtained is linear from 1.0 × 10−8 mol·L−1 to 1.0 × 10−5 mol·L−1 at preconcentration time of 5 min, percentage loading of 7%, with correla...

  3. Mercury CEM Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson

    2008-02-29

    outputs of mercury generators are compared to one another using a nesting procedure which allows direct comparison of one generator with another and eliminates analyzer variability effects. The qualification portion of the EPA interim traceability protocol requires the vendors to define generator performance as affected by variables such as pressure, temperature, line voltage, and shipping. WRI is focusing efforts to determine actual generator performance related to the variables defined in the qualification portion of the interim protocol. The protocol will then be further revised by EPA based on what can actually be achieved with the generators. Another focus of the study is to evaluate approaches for field verification of generator performance. Upcoming work includes evaluation of oxidized mercury calibration generators, for which a separate protocol will be prepared by EPA. In addition, the variability of the spectrometers/analyzers under various environmental conditions needs to be defined and understood better. A main objective of the current work is to provide data on the performance and capabilities of elemental mercury generator/calibration systems for the development of realistic NIST traceability protocols for mercury vapor standards for continuous emission CEM calibration. This work is providing a direct contribution to the enablement of continuous emissions monitoring at coal-fired power plants in conformance with the CAMR. EPA Specification 12 states that mercury CEMs must be calibrated with NIST-traceable standards (Federal Register 2005). The initial draft of an elemental mercury generator traceability protocol was circulated by EPA in May 2007 for comment, and an interim protocol was issued in August 2007 (EPA 2007). Initially it was assumed that the calibration and implementation of mercury CEMs would be relatively simple, and implementation would follow the implementation of the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} monitoring, and

  4. Isolation, screening and identification of mercury resistant bacteria from mercury contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalczyk Anna; Wilińska Magdalena; Chyc Marek; Bojko Monika; Latowski Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    New bacterial strains resistant to high concentration of mercury were obtained and character iz ed focusing on their potential application in bioremediation. The biological material was isolated from soil contaminated with mercury. The ability to removal of Hg from the liquid medium and the effect of the various pH and mercury concentrations in the environment on bacterial strains growth kinetics were tested. The selected strains were identified by analysis of the 16S ribosome subunit coding ...

  5. Removal lead (Pb and mercury (Hg from juaro fish (Pangasius polyuranodon using citric acid from pineapple extract (Ananas comosus as chelating agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pra Dian Mariadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of dietary risk of heavy metals exposure to human is important since it is the main of exposure. The aim of study to measure the contamination of lead and mercury in juaro fish meat and the effort to reduce contaminations using citric acid from pineapple extract as a chelating agent. Samples was soaked and boiled in citric acid extract at concentration 50%, 75 %, 100 % for, 15 min, 30 min, 45 min at 25 0C, 50 0C and 100 0C. The concentration of lead and mercury in Juaro fish lower than the maximum acceptable lever for Pb and Hg respectively (1mg/kg for Pb, 0,5 mg/Kg for Hg. The result indicated that after soaking and boiling in citric acid solution form pineapple extract at concentration 100 % for 45 min at 100 0C reducing heavy metals Pb from 0,02 mg.Kg-1 to 0,003 mg.Kg-1 and Hg from 0,011 mg.Kg-1 to lower than 0,0001 mg.Kg-1. The increasing of soaking time and boiling temperature, the levels of Pb and Hg in Juaro fish Tissue will decreasing.

  6. Mercury concentration in coal - Unraveling the puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole-O'Neil, B.; Tewalt, S.J.; Finkelman, R.B.; Akers, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    Based on data from the US Geological Survey's COALQUAL database, the mean concentration of mercury in coal is approximately 0.2 ??gg-1. Assuming the database reflects in-ground US coal resources, values for conterminous US coal areas range from 0.08 ??gg-1 for coal in the San Juan and Uinta regions to 0.22 ??gg-1 for the Gulf Coast lignites. Recalculating the COALQUAL data to an equal energy basis unadjusted for moisture differences, the Gulf Coast lignites have the highest values (36.4 lb of Hg/1012 Btu) and the Hams Fork region coal has the lowest value (4.8 lb of Hg/1012Btu). Strong indirect geochemical evidence indicates that a substantial proportion of the mercury in coal is associated with pyrite occurrence. This association of mercury and pyrite probably accounts for the removal of mercury with the pyrite by physical coal cleaning procedures. Data from the literature indicate that conventional coal cleaning removes approximately 37% of the mercury on an equal energy basis, with a range of 0% to 78%. When the average mercury reduction value is applied to in-ground mercury values from the COALQUAL database, the resulting 'cleaned' mercury values are very close to mercury in 'as-shipped' coal from the same coal bed in the same county. Applying the reduction fact or for coal cleaning to eastern US bituminous coal, reduces the mercury input load compared to lower-rank non-deaned western US coal. In the absence of analytical data on as-shipped coal, the mercury data in the COALQUAL database, adjusted for deanability where appropriate, may be used as an estimator of mercury contents of as-shipped coal. ?? 1998 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mercury content in electrum from artisanal mining site of Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, Satoshi; Naito, Kazuki; Dejidmaa, Gunchin; Sie, Soey H.

    2006-01-01

    In Mongolia, artisanal gold mining, modern gold rush, in which people use mercury to extract gold, is being proliferated rapidly and the mercury contamination of mining site is becoming a serious social issue. For the risk assessment of mercury, it is necessary to understand how much mercury is introduced to the environment from what kind of materials during mining activity. It is already known that major contribution of the contamination comes from mercury that was bought at shops and brought to mining sites by miners. However, no information is available on how much mercury is removed from electrum (natural gold grain) to the environment. Since gold deposit is always accompanied by mercury anomaly, it is anticipated that electrum grains contain some amount of mercury of natural origin, and this mercury (primary mercury) contributes to some extent to the contamination. In order to clarify how much mercury is incorporated in electrum grains, micro-PIXE at CSIRO was used for grain-by-grain analysis. The result showed that electrum from study area contains mercury up to 8260 ppm. It is concluded that for the risk management of mercury contamination, release of natural mercury from electrum grains during smelting must not be ignored

  8. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  9. determination of mercury content in milk powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovchev, M.; Grigorov, T.; Apostolov, D.

    1985-01-01

    Four samples of humanized full cream cow milk powder of Bulgarian origin for new-born, sucklings, small children and soured milk powder were activated for 18-24 h in a neutron flux of 5.10 12 , resp. 2.10 13 n/cm 2 .sec in quartz ampules. The samples were activated without preliminary lyophilization, thus avoiding possible mistakes from mercury losses. Ag-110m, being eliminated in the amalgam, was not an obstacle to the mercury determination. The results obtained for the mercury content are in the same order as in other investigations and many times lower than the admissible norm for foodstuffs - 50 ppb

  10. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Kathleen [Department of Biology, Russell Sage College, 45 Ferry Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)]. E-mail: skinnk@sage.edu; Wright, Nicole [NEIWPCC-NYSDEC, 625 Broadway, 4th Floor, Albany, NY 12233-3502 (United States)]. E-mail: ndwright@gw.dec.state.ny.us; Porter-Goff, Emily [Department of Biology, Russell Sage College, 45 Ferry Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox[reg] (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox[reg] results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively. - Four species of aquatic plants reduced mercury in water.

  11. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, Kathleen; Wright, Nicole; Porter-Goff, Emily

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox[reg] (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox[reg] results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively. - Four species of aquatic plants reduced mercury in water

  12. Distribution of mercury in a tropical estuary (India) situated near a chloro-alkali plant

    OpenAIRE

    Gouda, Rajashree; Panigrahy, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of mercury in water, sediment and some biological samples of the Rushikulya estuary, east coast of India were assessed during Jan-Dec. 1989. Both the dissolved plus acid leachable mercury contents in water and the sediment mercury discerned conspicuous spatial and seasonal fluctuations. Adsorption on to the suspended particulates was found to be the most likely mechanism for removal of mercury from the water column. Exchange of mercury from sediments to water was observed at ...

  13. Mercury Sorption onto Malt Spent Rootlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manariotis, I. D.; Anagnostopoulos, V.; Karapanagioti, H. K.; Chrysikopoulos, C.

    2011-12-01

    Mercury is a metal of particular concern due to its toxicity even at relatively low concentrations. The maximum permissible level for mercury in drinking water set by the European Union is 0.001 mg/L. Mercury is released into the environment via four principal pathways: (1) natural processes; i.e. a volcanic eruption, (2) incidental to some other activity; i.e. coal burning power plants, (3) accidentally during the manufacture, breakage or disposal of products that have mercury put into them deliberately, and (4) direct use in industrial settings. The present study focuses on the removal of mercury (II) from aqueous solutions via sorption onto Malt Spent Rootlets (MSR). Batch experiments were conducted employing MSR with size ranging from 0.18 to 1 mm. The effects of pH, mercury concentration, contact time, and solid to liquid ratio on mercury sorption onto MSR were investigated. The highest mercury removal from the aqueous phase, of 41%, was observed at pH of 5.

  14. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: South African mercury assessment (SAMA) programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leaner, J

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Mercury pollution is a world-wide problem requiring attention at global, regional and national levels. Various anthropogenic activities release mercury into the atmosphere. It can occur as both elemental and oxidized forms, and is removed from...

  15. Increased Mercury Bioaccumulation Follows Water Quality Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogle, M.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1999-09-15

    Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of aquatic habitats made to reduce or eliminate ecological risks can sometimes have unforeseen consequences. Environmental management activities on the U.S. Dept. of Energy reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee,have succeeded in improving water quality in streams impacted by discharges fi-om industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. The diversity and abundance of pollution-sensitive components of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of three streams improved after new waste treatment systems or remedial actions reduced inputs of various toxic chemicals. Two of the streams were known to be mercury-contaminated from historical spills and waste disposal practices. Waterborne mercury concentrations in the third were typical of uncontaminated systems. In each case, concentrations of mercury in fish, or the apparent biological availability of mercury increased over the period during which ecological metrics indicated improved water quality. In the system where waterborne mercury concentrations were at background levels, increased mercury bioaccumulation was probably a result of reduced aqueous selenium concentrations; however, the mechanisms for increased mercury accumulation in the other two streams remain under investigation. In each of the three systems, reduced inputs of metals and inorganic anions was followed by improvements in the health of aquatic invertebrate communities. However, this reduction in risk to aquatic invertebrates was accompanied by increased risk to humans and piscivorous wildlife related to increased mercury concentrations in fish.

  16. Increased Mercury Bioaccumulation Follows Water Quality Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogle, M.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of aquatic habitats made to reduce or eliminate ecological risks can sometimes have unforeseen consequences. Environmental management activities on the U.S. Dept. of Energy reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee,have succeeded in improving water quality in streams impacted by discharges fi-om industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. The diversity and abundance of pollution-sensitive components of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of three streams improved after new waste treatment systems or remedial actions reduced inputs of various toxic chemicals. Two of the streams were known to be mercury-contaminated from historical spills and waste disposal practices. Waterborne mercury concentrations in the third were typical of uncontaminated systems. In each case, concentrations of mercury in fish, or the apparent biological availability of mercury increased over the period during which ecological metrics indicated improved water quality. In the system where waterborne mercury concentrations were at background levels, increased mercury bioaccumulation was probably a result of reduced aqueous selenium concentrations; however, the mechanisms for increased mercury accumulation in the other two streams remain under investigation. In each of the three systems, reduced inputs of metals and inorganic anions was followed by improvements in the health of aquatic invertebrate communities. However, this reduction in risk to aquatic invertebrates was accompanied by increased risk to humans and piscivorous wildlife related to increased mercury concentrations in fish

  17. Mercury's Messenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2004-01-01

    Forty years after Mariner 2, planetary exploration has still only just begun, and many more missions are on drawing boards, nearing the launch pad, or even en route across interplanetary space to their targets. One of the most challenging missions that will be conducted this decade is sending the MESSENGER spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury.…

  18. Mercury Report-Children's exposure to elemental mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov . Mercury Background Mercury Report Additional Resources Mercury Report - Children's Exposure to Elemental Mercury Recommend on Facebook ... I limit exposure to mercury? Why was the report written? Children attending a daycare in New Jersey ...

  19. Estimating mercury emissions from a zinc smelter in relation to China's mercury control policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.X.; Song, J.X.; Li, G.H.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, L.; Wan, Q.; Streets, D.G.; Chin, Conrad K.; Hao, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury concentrations of flue gas at inlet/outlet of the flue gas cleaning, electrostatic demister, reclaiming tower, acid plant, and mercury contents in zinc concentrate and by-products were measured in a hydrometallurgical zinc smelter. The removal efficiency of flue gas cleaning, electrostatic demister, mercury reclaiming and acid plant was about 17.4%, 30.3%, 87.9% and 97.4% respectively. Flue gas cleaning and electrostatic demister captured 11.7% and 25.3% of the mercury in the zinc concentrate, respectively. The mercury reclaiming tower captured 58.3% of the mercury in the zinc concentrate. About 4.2% of the mercury in the zinc concentrate was captured by the acid plant. Consequently, only 0.8% of the mercury in the zinc concentrate was emitted to the atmosphere. The atmospheric mercury emission factor was 0.5 g t -1 of zinc produced for the tested smelter, indicating that this process offers the potential to effectively reduce mercury emissions from zinc smelting. - Modern scale production equipped with acid plant and Hg reclaiming tower will significantly reduce Hg emissions from zinc smelters in China.

  20. RECOVERY OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED PRIMARY AND SECONDARY WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Faucette; J. Bognar; T. Broderick; T. Battaglia

    2000-01-01

    Effective removal of mercury contamination from water is a complex and difficult problem. In particular, mercury treatment of natural waters is difficult because of the low regulatory standards. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency has established a national ambient water quality standard of 12 parts-per-trillion (ppt), whereas the standard is 1.8 ppt in the Great Lakes Region. In addition, mercury is typically present in several different forms, but sorption processes are rarely effective with more than one or two of these forms. To meet the low regulatory discharge limits, a sorption process must be able to address all forms of mercury present in the water. One approach is to apply different sorbents in series depending on the mercury speciation and the regulatory discharge limits. Four new sorbents have been developed to address the variety of mercury species present in industrial discharges and natural waters. Three of these sorbents have been field tested on contaminated creek water at the Y-12 Plant. Two of these sorbents have demonstrated very high removal efficiencies for soluble mercury species, with mercury concentrations at the outlet of a pilot-scale system less than 12 ppt for as long as six months. The other sorbent tested at the Y-12 Plant is targeted at colloidal mercury that is not removed by standard sorption or filtration processes. At the Y-12 Plant, colloidal mercury appears to be associated with iron, so a sorbent that removes mercury-iron complexes in the presence of a magnetic field was evaluated. Field results indicate good removal of this mercury fraction from the Y-12 waters. In addition, this sorbent is easily regenerated by simply removing the magnetic field and flushing the columns with water. The fourth sorbent is still undergoing laboratory development, but results to date indicate exceptionally high mercury sorption capacity. The sorbent is capable of removing all forms of mercury typically present in natural and

  1. Mercury(II) removal from aqueous solutions and wastewaters using a novel cation exchanger derived from coconut coir pith and its recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anirudhan, T.S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum 695581 (India)], E-mail: tsani@rediffmail.com; Divya, L.; Ramachandran, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum 695581 (India)

    2008-09-15

    A new adsorbent (PGCP-COOH) having carboxylate functional group at the chain end was synthesized by grafting poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate) onto coconut coir pith, CP (a coir industry-based lignocellulosic residue), using potassium peroxydisulphate as an initiator and in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide as a cross-linking agent. The adsorbent was characterized with the help of infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and potentiometric titrations. The ability of PGCP-COOH to remove Hg(II) from aqueous solutions was assessed using batch adsorption technique under kinetic and equilibrium conditions. Adsorbent exhibits very high adsorption potential for Hg(II) and more than 99.0% removal was achieved in the pH range 5.5-8.0. Adsorption process was found to follow first-order-reversible kinetics. An increase of ionic strength of the medium caused a decrease in metal removal, indicating the occurrence of outer-sphere surface complex mechanism. The equilibrium data were fitted well by the Freundlich isotherm model (R{sup 2} = 0.99; {chi}{sup 2} 1.81). The removal efficiency was tested using chlor-alkali industry wastewater. Adsorption isotherm experiments were also conducted for comparison using a commercial carboxylate-functionalized ion exchanger, Ceralite IRC-50. Regeneration experiments were tried for four cycles and results indicate a capacity loss of <9.0%.

  2. Mercury(II) removal from aqueous solutions and wastewaters using a novel cation exchanger derived from coconut coir pith and its recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anirudhan, T.S.; Divya, L.; Ramachandran, M.

    2008-01-01

    A new adsorbent (PGCP-COOH) having carboxylate functional group at the chain end was synthesized by grafting poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate) onto coconut coir pith, CP (a coir industry-based lignocellulosic residue), using potassium peroxydisulphate as an initiator and in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide as a cross-linking agent. The adsorbent was characterized with the help of infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and potentiometric titrations. The ability of PGCP-COOH to remove Hg(II) from aqueous solutions was assessed using batch adsorption technique under kinetic and equilibrium conditions. Adsorbent exhibits very high adsorption potential for Hg(II) and more than 99.0% removal was achieved in the pH range 5.5-8.0. Adsorption process was found to follow first-order-reversible kinetics. An increase of ionic strength of the medium caused a decrease in metal removal, indicating the occurrence of outer-sphere surface complex mechanism. The equilibrium data were fitted well by the Freundlich isotherm model (R 2 = 0.99; χ 2 1.81). The removal efficiency was tested using chlor-alkali industry wastewater. Adsorption isotherm experiments were also conducted for comparison using a commercial carboxylate-functionalized ion exchanger, Ceralite IRC-50. Regeneration experiments were tried for four cycles and results indicate a capacity loss of <9.0%

  3. Mercury(II) removal from aqueous solutions and wastewaters using a novel cation exchanger derived from coconut coir pith and its recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anirudhan, T S; Divya, L; Ramachandran, M

    2008-09-15

    A new adsorbent (PGCP-COOH) having carboxylate functional group at the chain end was synthesized by grafting poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate) onto coconut coir pith, CP (a coir industry-based lignocellulosic residue), using potassium peroxydisulphate as an initiator and in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide as a cross-linking agent. The adsorbent was characterized with the help of infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and potentiometric titrations. The ability of PGCP-COOH to remove Hg(II) from aqueous solutions was assessed using batch adsorption technique under kinetic and equilibrium conditions. Adsorbent exhibits very high adsorption potential for Hg(II) and more than 99.0% removal was achieved in the pH range 5.5-8.0. Adsorption process was found to follow first-order-reversible kinetics. An increase of ionic strength of the medium caused a decrease in metal removal, indicating the occurrence of outer-sphere surface complex mechanism. The equilibrium data were fitted well by the Freundlich isotherm model (R(2)=0.99; chi(2)=1.81). The removal efficiency was tested using chlor-alkali industry wastewater. Adsorption isotherm experiments were also conducted for comparison using a commercial carboxylate-functionalized ion exchanger, Ceralite IRC-50. Regeneration experiments were tried for four cycles and results indicate a capacity loss of <9.0%.

  4. High activity carbon sorbents for mercury capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavropoulos George G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available High efficiency activated carbons have been prepared for removing mercury from gas streams. Starting materials used were petroleum coke, lignite, charcoal and olive seed waste, and were chemically activated with KOH. Produced adsorbents were primarily characterized for their porosity by N2 adsorption at 77 K. Their mercury retention capacity was characterized based on the breakthrough curves. Compared with typical commercial carbons, they have exhibited considerably enhanced mercury adsorption capacity. An attempt has been made to correlate mercury entrapment and pore structure. It has been shown that physical surface area is increased during activation in contrast to the mercury adsorption capacity that initially increases and tends to decrease at latter stages. Desorption of active sites may be responsible for this behavior.

  5. Influence of intensive fishing on the partitioning of mercury and methylmercury in three lakes of Northern Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surette, Celine [COMERN, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, c.p. 8888, succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3P8 (Canada)]. E-mail: surettc@umoncton.ca; Lucotte, Marc [COMERN, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, c.p. 8888, succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3P8 (Canada); Tremblay, A. [Environment Unit, Dams and Environment Direction, Hydro-Quebec Production 75 Rene-Levesque West, 10th floor, Montreal, Quebec, H2Z 1A4 (Canada)

    2006-09-01

    It has been demonstrated that intensive fishing, i.e., removing more than 25% of the fish biomass, can reduce mercury levels in predator fish in a lake. We test here the hypothesis that, by removing an important part of the fish biomass from a lake, a significant amount of methylmercury can be eliminated, therefore reducing the mercury available to the remaining biota, at least in the short term. A mass burden approach is used to evaluate the partitioning of total mercury and methylmercury in natural lake ecosystems. Three small natural lakes from the James Bay territory, in northern Quebec, Canada, were selected for intensive fishing. Mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were evaluated for sediments, water column (dissolved fraction and suspended particulate matter), plankton, aquatic invertebrates, and fish. Biomasses were determined for fish, plankton, and aquatic invertebrates. Two case scenarios are presented using different mercury contributions from the sediment component (1 cm depth, and no sediment). Our results for the scenario including the sediment contribution show that lake sediments represent over 98% of the total mercury while the biotic components represent less than 0.1% of the same burden. For methylmercury, fish account for up to 5% of the burden, while sediments make up 84.6% to 93.1%. If we put aside the sediment contribution, the methylmercury in fish partitioning can represent up to 48%. As for invertebrates, they can account for up to 48% of the total MeHg burden. We do not observe any change in the partitionings or the quantities of Hg and MeHg before and after fishing in either of the two case scenarios even when we do not take into account dynamics of the ecosystems. This will be all the more the case when the dynamics of the system are included in the analyses. Therefore, biological parameters such as growth rates or fish diet must be considered.

  6. Influence of intensive fishing on the partitioning of mercury and methylmercury in three lakes of Northern Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surette, Celine; Lucotte, Marc; Tremblay, A.

    2006-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that intensive fishing, i.e., removing more than 25% of the fish biomass, can reduce mercury levels in predator fish in a lake. We test here the hypothesis that, by removing an important part of the fish biomass from a lake, a significant amount of methylmercury can be eliminated, therefore reducing the mercury available to the remaining biota, at least in the short term. A mass burden approach is used to evaluate the partitioning of total mercury and methylmercury in natural lake ecosystems. Three small natural lakes from the James Bay territory, in northern Quebec, Canada, were selected for intensive fishing. Mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were evaluated for sediments, water column (dissolved fraction and suspended particulate matter), plankton, aquatic invertebrates, and fish. Biomasses were determined for fish, plankton, and aquatic invertebrates. Two case scenarios are presented using different mercury contributions from the sediment component (1 cm depth, and no sediment). Our results for the scenario including the sediment contribution show that lake sediments represent over 98% of the total mercury while the biotic components represent less than 0.1% of the same burden. For methylmercury, fish account for up to 5% of the burden, while sediments make up 84.6% to 93.1%. If we put aside the sediment contribution, the methylmercury in fish partitioning can represent up to 48%. As for invertebrates, they can account for up to 48% of the total MeHg burden. We do not observe any change in the partitionings or the quantities of Hg and MeHg before and after fishing in either of the two case scenarios even when we do not take into account dynamics of the ecosystems. This will be all the more the case when the dynamics of the system are included in the analyses. Therefore, biological parameters such as growth rates or fish diet must be considered

  7. One-step synthesis of water-dispersible cysteine functionalized magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles for mercury(II) removal from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Xiaofang; Wang, Qin; Chen, WenLing; Pang, Yuehong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Using Fe 2+ as precursors, air as oxidant and cysteine as protectant, this novel cysteine functionalized Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles (Cys-Fe 3 O 4 MNPs) was facilely one-pot synthesized at room temperature by oxidation–precipitation method with the assistance of sonication. Then the Cys-Fe 3 O 4 MNPs were demonstrated as an inexpensive and quite efficient magnetic nano-adsorbent for as high as 95% Hg(II) removal efficiency. These results indicated that Cys-Fe 3 O 4 MNPs is a potentially attractive material for the removal of Hg(II) from water. - Highlights: • A simplified one-step synthesis method of superparamagnetic Cys-Fe 3 O 4 MNPs was developed. • It was synthesized at room temperature by oxidation-precipitation method with the assistance of sonication. • It was demonstrated as an inexpensive and quite efficient magnetic nano-adsorbent for Hg(II) removal. - Abstract: Cysteine functionalized Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles (Cys-Fe 3 O 4 MNPs) were prepared facilely for Hg(II) removal from aqueous solutions. Using Fe 2+ as precursors, air as oxidant and Cys as protectant, this novel material was one-pot synthesis at room temperature by oxidation–precipitation method with the assistance of sonication. The MNPs were characterized by TEM, VSM, FTIR, X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD) and TGA methods. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the removal efficiency was as high as 95% and the maximum sorption capacity is found to be 380 mg/mol for Hg(II). Study on adsorption kinetics shows that adsorption of Hg(II) onto Cys-Fe 3 O 4 MNPs follows pseudo-first-order kinetic model and the adsorption rate constant was 0.22 min −1 . Additionally, the Hg(II)-loaded Cys-Fe 3 O 4 MNPs could be easily regenerated up to 95% using 1.0 M acetic acid. These results indicated that Cys-Fe 3 O 4 MNPs is a potentially attractive material for the removal of Hg(II) from water

  8. Mercury Continuous Emmission Monitor Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster; Joseph Rovani

    2009-03-12

    /mass spectrometry (ID/ICP/MS) performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD. The outputs of mercury calibrators are compared to one another using a nesting procedure which allows direct comparison of one calibrator with another at specific concentrations and eliminates analyzer variability effects. The qualification portion of the EPA interim traceability protocol requires the vendors to define calibrator performance as affected by variables such as pressure, temperature, line voltage, and shipping. In 2007 WRI developed and conducted a series of simplified qualification experiments to determine actual calibrator performance related to the variables defined in the qualification portion of the interim protocol.

  9. Mercury uptake and accumulation by four species of aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Kathleen; Wright, Nicole; Porter-Goff, Emily

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of four aquatic plants including water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), zebra rush (Scirpus tabernaemontani) and taro (Colocasia esculenta) were evaluated for their capabilities in removing mercury from water. The plants were exposed to concentrations of 0 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L or 2 mg/L of mercury for 30 days. Assays were conducted using both Microtox (water) and cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) (roots and water). The Microtox results indicated that the mercury induced acute toxicity had been removed from the water. AAS confirmed an increase of mercury within the plant root tissue and a corresponding decrease of mercury in the water. All species of plants appeared to reduce mercury concentrations in the water via root uptake and accumulation. Water lettuce and water hyacinth appeared to be the most effective, followed by taro and zebra rush, respectively.

  10. Formic Acid Free Flowsheet Development To Eliminate Catalytic Hydrogen Generation In The Defense Waste Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Dan P.; Stone, Michael E.; Newell, J. David; Fellinger, Terri L.; Bricker, Jonathan M.

    2012-09-14

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during production of plutonium and tritium demanded by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass canisters is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. Testing was initiated to determine whether the elimination of formic acid from the DWPF's chemical processing flowsheet would eliminate catalytic hydrogen generation. Historically, hydrogen is generated in chemical processing of alkaline High Level Waste sludge in DWPF. In current processing, sludge is combined with nitric and formic acid to neutralize the waste, reduce mercury and manganese, destroy nitrite, and modify (thin) the slurry rheology. The noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Elimination of formic acid by replacement with glycolic acid has the potential to eliminate the production of catalytic hydrogen. Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet as an alternative to the nitric-formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be reduced and removed by steam stripping in DWPF with no catalytic hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Ten DWPF tests were performed with nonradioactive simulants designed to cover a broad compositional range. No hydrogen was generated in testing without formic acid.

  11. Selective removal mercury (Ⅱ) from aqueous solution using silica aerogel modified with 4-amino-5-methyl-1,2,4-triazole-3(4H)-thion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadayon, Fariba; Saber-Tehrani, Mohammad; Motahar, Shiva [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Silica aerogel surface modifications with chelating agents for adsorption/removal of metal ions have been reported in recent years. This investigation reported the preparation of silica aerogel (SA) adsorbent coupled with metal chelating ligands of 4-amino-5-methyl-1,2,4-triazole-3(4H)-thion (AMTT) and its application for selective adsorption of Hg(Ⅱ) ion. The adsorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements, nitrogen physisorption and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Optimal experimental conditions including pH, temperature, adsorbent dosage and contact time have been established. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to analyze the experimental data. The best interpretation for the experimental data given by the Langmuir isotherm equation and the maximum adsorption capacity of the modified silica gel and silica aerogel was 142.85 and 17.24mgg⌃(-1), respectively. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy (ΔG{sup o}), standard enthalpy (ΔH{sup o}) and entropy change (ΔS{sup o}) were investigated. The adsorbed Hg(Ⅱ) on the SA-AMTT adsorbents could be completely eluted by 1.0M KBr solution and recycled at least four times without the loss of adsorption capacity. The results of the present investigation illustrate that modified silica aerogel with AMTT could be used as an adsorbent for the effective removal of Hg(Ⅱ) ions from aqueous solution.

  12. Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, Evan J [Wexford, PA; Pennline, Henry W [Bethel Park, PA

    2011-12-06

    A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

  13. A Safe Protocol for Amalgam Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana G. Colson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's environment has different impacts on our body than previous generations. Heavy metals are a growing concern in medicine. Doctors and individuals request the removal of their amalgam (silver mercury restorations due to the high mercury content. A safe protocol to replace the silver mercury filling will ensure that there is minimal if any absorption of materials while being removed. Strong alternative white composite and lab-processed materials are available today to create a healthy and functioning mouth. Preparation of the patient prior to the procedure and after treatment is vital to establish the excretion of the mercury from the body.

  14. Understanding the mercury reduction issue: the impact of mercury on the environment and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Richard T; Dault, Scott; Pichay, Teresa

    2004-07-01

    Mercury has been used in both medicine and dentistry for centuries. Recent media attention regarding the increased levels of mercury in dietary fish, high levels of mercury in air emissions, and conjecture that certain diseases may be caused by mercury exposure has increased public awareness of the potential adverse health effects of high doses of mercury. Dentistry has been criticized for its continued use of mercury in dental amalgam for both public health and environmental reasons. To address these concerns, dental professionals should understand the impact of the various levels and types of mercury on the environment and human health. Mercury is unique in its ability to form amalgams with other metals. Dental amalgam--consisting of silver, copper, tin, and mercury--has been used as a safe, stable, and cost-effective restorative material for more than 150 years. As a result of this use, the dental profession has been confronted by the public on two separate health issues concerning the mercury content in amalgam. The first issue is whether the mercury amalgamated with the various metals to create dental restorations poses a health issue for patients. The second is whether the scraps associated with amalgam placement and the removal of amalgam restorations poses environmental hazards which may eventually have an impact on human health. Despite the lack of scientific evidence for such hazards, there is growing pressure for the dental profession to address these health issues. In this article, the toxicology of mercury will be reviewed and the impact of amalgam on health and the environment will be examined.

  15. Rethinking mercury: the role of selenium in the pathophysiology of mercury toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Henry A

    2018-05-01

    , including selenoprotein P, K, and T. Impairment of the thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems allows for proliferation intracellular reactive oxygen species which leads to glutamate excitosis, calcium dyshomeostasis, mitochondrial injury/loss, lipid peroxidation, impairment of protein repair, and apoptosis. Methylmercury is a more potent inhibitor of the thioredoxin system, partially explaining its increased neurotoxicity. A second important mechanism is due to the high affinity of mercury for selenium and the subsequent depletion of selenium stores needed for insertion into de novo generation of replacement selenoproteins. This mercury-induced selenium deficiency state inhibits regeneration of the selenoproteins to restore the cellular redox environment. The effects of selenium on mercury and the role this plays in biological response to mercury: Early research suggested selenium may provide a protective role in mercury poisoning, and with limitations this is true. The roles selenium plays in this reduction of mercury toxicity partially depends on the form of mercury and may be multifaceted including: 1) facilitating demethylation of organic mercury to inorganic mercury; 2) redistribution of mercury to less sensitive target organs; 3) binding to inorganic mercury and forming an insoluble, stable and inert Hg:Se complex; 4) reduction of mercury absorption from the GI tract; 5) repletion of selenium stores (reverse selenium deficiency); and 6) restoration of target selenoprotein activity and restoring the intracellular redox environment. There is conflicting evidence as to whether selenium increases or hinders mercury elimination, but increased mercury elimination does not appear to be a major role of selenium. Selenium supplementation has been shown to restore selenoprotein function and reduce the toxicity of mercury, with several significant limitations including: the form of mercury (methylmercury toxicity is less responsive to amelioration) and mercury dose. The

  16. The effect of N-acetylated DL-penicillamin and DL-homocysteine thiolactone on the mercury distribution in adult rats, rat foetuses and macaca monkeys after exposure to methyl mercuric chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaseth, J.; Wannag, A.; Norseth, T.; Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway)

    1976-01-01

    The distribution and excretion of mercury was studied in pregnant rats, given a single intravenous dose of 2 μmol/kg of CH 3 203 HgCl on the 13th day of pregnancy. Oral treatment for one week with N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (4 mmol/kg per day) increased the mercury excretion in faces (from 45 to 120 nmol) and urine (from 9 to 160 nmol). Such treatment mobilized mercury from all the organs tested and the foetal and maternal brain levels of mercury were decreased to 1/5 and 1/3 of the controls, respectively. A four-day period of treatment with N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine started three days after the injection of methyl mercury reduced the foetal and maternal brain levels to 1/2 and 2/3 of the controls, respectively. The rapid removal of metal deposits following treatment with N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine is attributed to a free penetration of the complexing thiol into the tissue cells in question. No signs of toxicity were detected in monkeys given an effective daily dose of the agent (4 mmol/kg) for 6 days. In contrast N-acetyl-DL-homocysteine thiolactone was found to be toxic in the monkeys. In addition, the latter agent was ineffective in increasing the mercury elimination from the brains of monkeys, rats and rat foetuses. (author)

  17. 40 CFR 273.4 - Applicability-Mercury-containing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment. 273.4 Section 273.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT General § 273.4 Applicability—Mercury...-containing components have been removed. (c) Generation of waste mercury-containing equipment. (1) Used...

  18. Mercury, arsenic and cadmium in the unfried and fried fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, S.J.S.

    1978-01-01

    Determination of mercury, arsenic and cadmium in unfried and fried fish samples has been carried out by neutron activation followed by chemical separation to remove the interfering activies of copper, zinc etc. This paper presents results of finding on losses of mercury, arsenic and cadmium in the unfried and fried fish. (author)

  19. Were mercury emission factors for Chinese non-ferrous metal smelters overestimated? Evidence from onsite measurements in six smelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Wang Shuxiao; Wu Qingru; Meng Yang; Yang Hai; Wang Fengyang; Hao Jiming

    2012-01-01

    Non-ferrous metal smelting takes up a large proportion of the anthropogenic mercury emission inventory in China. Zinc, lead and copper smelting are three leading sources. Onsite measurements of mercury emissions were conducted for six smelters. The mercury emission factors were 0.09–2.98 g Hg/t metal produced. Acid plants with the double-conversion double-absorption process had mercury removal efficiency of over 99%. In the flue gas after acid plants, 45–88% was oxidized mercury which can be easily scavenged in the flue gas scrubber. 70–97% of the mercury was removed from the flue gas to the waste water and 1–17% to the sulfuric acid product. Totally 0.3–13.5% of the mercury in the metal concentrate was emitted to the atmosphere. Therefore, acid plants in non-ferrous metal smelters have significant co-benefit on mercury removal, and the mercury emission factors from Chinese non-ferrous metal smelters were probably overestimated in previous studies. - Highlights: ► Acid plants in smelters provide significant co-benefits for mercury removal (over 99%). ► Most of the mercury in metal concentrates for smelting ended up in waste water. ► Previously published emission factors for Chinese metal smelters were probably overestimated. - Acid plants in smelters have high mercury removal efficiency, and thus mercury emission factors for Chinese non-ferrous metal smelters were probably overestimated.

  20. Mercury speciation during in situ thermal desorption in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Min, E-mail: cmpark80@gmail.com; Katz, Lynn E.; Liljestrand, Howard M.

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Impact of soil conditions on distribution and phase transitions of Hg was identified. • Metallic Hg was slowly transformed to Hg{sup 0} gas until the temperature reached 358.15 K. • Phase change of HgCl{sub 2(s)} completely occurred without decomposition at 335.15 K. • HgS remained solid in dry soil sharply decreased in the narrow temperature range. • Hg gas can be easily captured with higher vapor pressures of soil compositions. - Abstract: Metallic mercury (Hg{sup 0}) and its compounds are highly mobile and toxic environmental pollutants at trace level. In situ thermal desorption (ISTD) is one of the soil remediation processes applying heat and vacuum simultaneously. Knowledge of thermodynamic mercury speciation is imperative to understand the fate and transport of mercury during thermal remediation and operate the treatment processes in a cost-effective manner. Hence, speciation model for inorganic mercury was developed over a range of environmental conditions to identify distribution of dissolved mercury species and potential transformations of mercury at near source environment. Simulation of phase transitions for metallic mercury, mercury(II) chloride and mercury sulfide with temperature increase showed that complete vaporization of metallic mercury and mercury(II) chloride were achieved below the boiling point of water. The effect of soil compositions on mercury removal was also evaluated to better understand thermal remediation process. Higher vapor pressures expected both from soil pore water and inorganic carbonate minerals in soil as well as creation of permeability were significant for complete vaporization and removal of mercury.

  1. Mercury speciation during in situ thermal desorption in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Min; Katz, Lynn E.; Liljestrand, Howard M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Impact of soil conditions on distribution and phase transitions of Hg was identified. • Metallic Hg was slowly transformed to Hg"0 gas until the temperature reached 358.15 K. • Phase change of HgCl_2_(_s_) completely occurred without decomposition at 335.15 K. • HgS remained solid in dry soil sharply decreased in the narrow temperature range. • Hg gas can be easily captured with higher vapor pressures of soil compositions. - Abstract: Metallic mercury (Hg"0) and its compounds are highly mobile and toxic environmental pollutants at trace level. In situ thermal desorption (ISTD) is one of the soil remediation processes applying heat and vacuum simultaneously. Knowledge of thermodynamic mercury speciation is imperative to understand the fate and transport of mercury during thermal remediation and operate the treatment processes in a cost-effective manner. Hence, speciation model for inorganic mercury was developed over a range of environmental conditions to identify distribution of dissolved mercury species and potential transformations of mercury at near source environment. Simulation of phase transitions for metallic mercury, mercury(II) chloride and mercury sulfide with temperature increase showed that complete vaporization of metallic mercury and mercury(II) chloride were achieved below the boiling point of water. The effect of soil compositions on mercury removal was also evaluated to better understand thermal remediation process. Higher vapor pressures expected both from soil pore water and inorganic carbonate minerals in soil as well as creation of permeability were significant for complete vaporization and removal of mercury.

  2. Mercury emission, control and measurement from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering; Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States). Inst. for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology; Cao, Yan [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States). Inst. for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology; Zhang, Kai [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    that are only equipped with an Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) have to look for a control method to reduce mercury emission. So far, the most economical method has been active carbon or sorbent injection before the ESP. Active carbon or sorbent injected into the flue gas ducts to oxidize the elemental mercury and then the oxidized mercury will be captured from the flue gas, then the ESP captures the active carbon or sorbent and fly ash simultaneously. Therefore, the long distance transportation of gaseous mercury is eliminated. However, the capture efficiency of mercury is extremely important in order to reduce the increase in ESP load and control the cost. The oxidation and adsorption rate of HBr and fly ash will be discussed in this presentation.

  3. Mixed Waste Focus Area Mercury Working Group: An integrated approach to mercury waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.

    1998-03-01

    In May 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Working Group (HgWG). The HgWG was established to address and resolve the issues associated with mercury contaminated mixed wastes. During the MWFA's initial technical baseline development process, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to the need for amalgamation, stabilization, and separation removal technologies for the treatment of mercury and mercury contaminated mixed waste. The HgWG is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these areas. The focus of the HgWG is to better establish the mercury related treatment technologies at the DOE sites, refine the MWFA technical baseline as it relates to mercury treatment, and make recommendations to the MWFA on how to most effectively address these needs. Based on the scope and magnitude of the mercury mixed waste problem, as defined by HgWG, solicitations and contract awards have been made to the private sector to demonstrate both the amalgamation and stabilization processes using actual mixed wastes. Development efforts are currently being funded that will address DOE's needs for separation removal processes. This paper discusses the technology selection process, development activities, and the accomplishments of the HgWG to date through these various activities

  4. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Edwin S.; Holmes, Michael J.; Pavlish, John Henry

    2017-09-12

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  5. A new mercury-accumulating Mucor hiemalis strain EH8 from cold sulfidic spring water biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Enamul; Fritscher, Johannes

    2016-10-01

    Here, we report about a unique aquatic fungus Mucor hiemalisEH8 that can remove toxic ionic mercury from water by intracellular accumulation and reduction into elemental mercury (Hg 0 ). EH8 was isolated from a microbial biofilm grown in sulfidic-reducing spring water sourced at a Marching's site located downhill from hop cultivation areas with a history of mercury use. A thorough biodiversity survey and mercury-removal function analyses were undertaken in an area of about 200 km 2 in Bavaria (Germany) to find the key biofilm and microbe for mercury removal. After a systematic search using metal removal assays we identified Marching spring's biofilm out of 18 different sulfidic springs' biofilms as the only one that was capable of removing ionic Hg from water. EH8 was selected, due to its molecular biological identification as the key microorganism of this biofilm with the capability of mercury removal, and cultivated as a pure culture on solid and in liquid media to produce germinating sporangiospores. They removed 99% of mercury from water within 10-48 h after initial exposure to Hg(II). Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated occurrence of intracellular mercury in germinating sporangiospores exposed to mercury. Not only associated with intracellular components, but mercury was also found to be released and deposited as metallic-shiny nanospheres. Electron-dispersive x-ray analysis of such a nanosphere confirmed presence of mercury by the HgM α peak at 2.195 keV. Thus, a first aquatic eukaryotic microbe has been found that is able to grow even at low temperature under sulfur-reducing conditions with promising performance in mercury removal to safeguard our environment from mercury pollution. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. MERCURY CONTROL WITH CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS AND OXIDIZING AGENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas K. Gale

    2002-06-01

    The initial tasks of this DOE funded project to investigate mercury removal by calcium-based sorbents have been completed, and initial testing results have been obtained. Mercury monitoring capabilities have been obtained and validated. An approximately 1MW (3.4 Mbtu/hr) Combustion Research Facility at Southern Research Institute was used to perform pilot-scale investigations of mercury sorbents, under conditions representative of full-scale boilers. The initial results of ARCADIS G&M proprietary sorbents, showed ineffective removal of either elemental or oxidized mercury. Benchscale tests are currently underway to ascertain the importance of differences between benchscale and pilot-scale experiments. An investigation of mercury-capture temperature dependence using common sorbents has also begun. Ordinary hydrated lime removed 80 to 90% of the mercury from the flue gas, regardless of the temperature of injection. High temperature injection of hydrated lime simultaneously captured SO{sub 2} at high temperatures and Hg at low temperatures, without any deleterious effects on mercury speciation. Future work will explore alternative methods of oxidizing elemental mercury.

  7. Global Trends in Mercury Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyunghee

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Environmental Program Governing Council has regulated mercury as a global pollutant since 2001 and has been preparing the mercury convention, which will have a strongly binding force through Global Mercury Assessment, Global Mercury Partnership Activities, and establishment of the Open-Ended Working Group on Mercury. The European Union maintains an inclusive strategy on risks and contamination of mercury, and has executed the Mercury Export Ban Act since December in 2010. The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Mercury Action Plan (1998) and the Mercury Roadmap (2006) and has proposed systematic mercury management methods to reduce the health risks posed by mercury exposure. Japan, which experienced Minamata disease, aims vigorously at perfection in mercury management in several ways. In Korea, the Ministry of Environment established the Comprehensive Plan and Countermeasures for Mercury Management to prepare for the mercury convention and to reduce risks of mercury to protect public health. PMID:23230466

  8. Basic Information about Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white metal and is liquid at room temperature. It is ... releases can happen naturally. Both volcanoes and forest fires send mercury into the atmosphere. Human activities, however, ...

  9. Minamata Convention on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    On November 6, 2013 the United States signed the Minamata Convention on Mercury, a new multilateral environmental agreement that addresses specific human activities which are contributing to widespread mercury pollution

  10. The Plasma Environment at Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, James M.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Gloeckler, George; Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Sarantos, Menalos; hide

    2011-01-01

    Mercury is the least explored terrestrial planet, and the one subjected to the highest flux of solar radiation in the heliosphere. Its highly dynamic, miniature magnetosphere contains ions from the exosphere and solar wind, and at times may allow solar wind ions to directly impact the planet's surface. Together these features create a plasma environment that shares many features with, but is nonetheless very different from, that of Earth. The first in situ measurements of plasma ions in the Mercury space environment were made only recently, by the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) during the MESSENGER spacecraft's three flybys of the planet in 2008-2009 as the probe was en route to insertion into orbit about Mercury earlier this year. Here. we present analysis of flyby and early orbital mission data with novel techniques that address the particular challenges inherent in these measurements. First. spacecraft structures and sensor orientation limit the FIPS field of view and allow only partial sampling of velocity distribution functions. We use a software model of FIPS sampling in velocity space to explore these effects and recover bulk parameters under certain assumptions. Second, the low densities found in the Mercury magnetosphere result in a relatively low signal-to-noise ratio for many ions. To address this issue, we apply a kernel density spread function to guide removal of background counts according to a background-signature probability map. We then assign individual counts to particular ion species with a time-of-flight forward model, taking into account energy losses in the carbon foil and other physical behavior of ions within the instrument. Using these methods, we have derived bulk plasma properties and heavy ion composition and evaluated them in the context of the Mercury magnetosphere.

  11. Mercury in Your Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic information about mercury, how it gets in the air, how people are exposed to it and health effects associated with exposure; what EPA and other organizations are doing to limit exposures; what citizens should know to minimize exposures and to reduce mercury in the environment; and information about products that contain mercury.

  12. Intoxication with metallic mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichte, B.; Assmann, H.; Ritzau, F.

    1984-01-01

    Intoxications by metallic mercury are extremely rare. Report of a patient, who tried to commit suicide by subcutaneous injection of 500 g of metallic mercury. He died 16 months later in the course of the intoxication. A short review is given of effects and reactions of metallic mercury in the human organism. (orig.) [de

  13. Intoxication with metallic mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichte, B.; Ritzau, F.; Assmann, H.

    1984-02-01

    Intoxications by metallic mercury are extremely rare. Report is given of a patient who tried to commit suicide by subcutaneous injection of 500 g of metallic mercury. He died 16 months later in the course of the intoxication. A short review is given of effects and reactions of metallic mercury in the human organism.

  14. Intoxication with metallic mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichte, B.; Assmann, H.; Ritzau, F.

    1984-02-01

    Intoxications by metallic mercury are extremely rare. Report is given of a patient, who tried to commit suicide by subcutaneous injection of 500 g of metallic mercury. He died 16 months later in the course of the intoxication. A short review is given of effects and reactions of metallic mercury in the human organism.

  15. Interim Results from a Study of the Impacts of Tin (II) Based Mercury Treatment in a Small Stream Ecosystem: Tims Branch, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, Brian [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); BryanJr., Larry [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory; Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Roy, W Kelly [ORNL; Jett, Robert T [ORNL; Smith, John G [ORNL

    2012-03-01

    A research team is assessing the impacts of an innovative mercury treatment system in Tims Branch, a small southeastern stream. The treatment system, installed in 2007, reduces and removes inorganic mercury from water using tin(II) (stannous) chloride addition followed by air stripping. The system results in discharge of inorganic tin to the ecosystem. This screening study is based on historical information combined with measurements of contaminant concentrations in water, fish, sediment, biofilms and invertebrates. Initial mercury data indicate that first few years of mercury treatment resulted in a significant decrease in mercury concentration in an upper trophic level fish, redfin pickerel, at all sampling locations in the impacted reach. For example, the whole body mercury concentration in redfin pickerel collected from the most impacted pond decreased approximately 72% between 2006 (pre-treatment) and 2010 (post-treatment). Over this same period, mercury concentrations in the fillet of redfin pickerel in this pond were estimated to have decreased from approximately 1.45 {micro}g/g (wet weight basis) to 0.45 {micro}g/g - a decrease from 4.8x to 1.5x the current EPA guideline concentration for mercury in fillet (0.3 {micro}g/g). Thermodynamic modeling, scanning electron microscopy, and other sampling data for tin suggest that particulate tin (IV) oxides are a significant geochemical species entering the ecosystem with elevated levels of tin measured in surficial sediments and biofilms. Detectable increases in tin in sediments and biofilms extended approximately 3km from the discharge location. Tin oxides are recalcitrant solids that are relatively non-toxic and resistant to dissolution. Work continues to develop and validate methods to analyze total tin in the collected biota samples. In general, the interim results of this screening study suggest that the treatment process has performed as predicted and that the concentration of mercury in upper trophic level

  16. Amended Silicated for Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Butz; Thomas Broderick; Craig Turchi

    2006-12-31

    Amended Silicates{trademark}, a powdered, noncarbon mercury-control sorbent, was tested at Duke Energy's Miami Fort Station, Unit 6 during the first quarter of 2006. Unit 6 is a 175-MW boiler with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The plant burns run-of-the-river eastern bituminous coal with typical ash contents ranging from 8-15% and sulfur contents from 1.6-2.6% on an as-received basis. The performance of the Amended Silicates sorbent was compared with that for powdered activated carbon (PAC). The trial began with a period of baseline monitoring during which no sorbent was injected. Sampling during this and subsequent periods indicated mercury capture by the native fly ash was less than 10%. After the baseline period, Amended Silicates sorbent was injected at several different ratios, followed by a 30-day trial at a fixed injection ratio of 5-6 lb/MMACF. After this period, PAC was injected to provide a comparison. Approximately 40% mercury control was achieved for both the Amended Silicates sorbent and PAC at injection ratios of 5-6 lbs/MMACF. Higher injection ratios did not achieve significantly increased removal. Similar removal efficiencies have been reported for PAC injection trials at other plants with cold-side ESPs, most notably for plants using medium to high sulfur coal. Sorbent injection did not detrimentally impact plant operations and testing confirmed that the use of Amended Silicates sorbent does not degrade fly ash quality (unlike PAC). The cost for mercury control using either PAC or Amended Silicates sorbent was estimated to be equivalent if fly ash sales are not a consideration. However, if the plant did sell fly ash, the effective cost for mercury control could more than double if those sales were no longer possible, due to lost by-product sales and additional cost for waste disposal. Accordingly, the use of Amended Silicates sorbent could reduce the overall cost of mercury control by 50% or more versus PAC for locations where

  17. Geochemical, Genetic, and Community Controls on Mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Judy D.

    2014-11-10

    The sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are soil bacteria that share two common characteristics, strict anaerobiosis and the ability to respire sulfate. The metabolic activities of these bacteria play significant roles in the global sulfur cycle, anaerobic degradation of biomass, biological metal corrosion in the environment and, recently, degradation of toxic compounds. The accumulation of evidence suggests these bacteria are also key to the production of the neurotoxin methylmercury in environmental settings. We propose to use our experience with the development of genetics in sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio to create mutations that will eliminate the methylation of mercury, thereby identifying the genes essential for this process. This information may allow the environmental monitoring of the mercury methylation potential to learn the location and quantity of the production this toxin. From these data, more accurate predictive models of mercury cycling can be generated.

  18. Hepatic, renal, and total body galactose elimination in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, K; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Tygstrup, N

    1993-01-01

    Galactose elimination capacity is used as a quantitative measure of liver function on the assumption that galactose elimination outside the liver is negligible or easily corrected for. The relationship between hepatic and extrahepatic removal of galactose was studied in anesthetized pigs during...... reabsorption (Tm 178 +/- 3.0 mumol/min, Km 3.8 +/- 0.9 mmol/l, n = 20). Metabolic conversion of galactose in the kidney was not demonstrable. At all concentrations studied (0.4-5.8 mmol/l), total galactose elimination from the body exceeded the sum of hepatic and renal elimination by approximately 100 mumol....../min, independent of the concentration. At blood concentrations usually used for clinical estimation of the galactose elimination capacity (approximately 4 mmol/l), hepatic removal in the pig accounted for 55% and renal removal for 30% of total removal; 15% of removal occurred in other organs. We conclude...

  19. Enhanced Control of Mercury and other HAPs by Innovative Modifications to Wet FGD Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargrove, O.W.; Carey, T.R.; Richardson, C.F.; Skarupa, R.C.; Meserole, F.B.; Rhudy, R.G.; Brown, Thomas D.

    1997-01-01

    The overall objective of this project was to learn more about controlling emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from coal-fired power plants that are equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project was included by FETC as a Phase I project in its Mega-PRDA program. Phase I of this project focused on three research areas. These areas in order of priority were: (1) Catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury; (2) Enhanced particulate-phase HAPs removal by electrostatic charging of liquid droplets; and (3) Enhanced mercury removal by addition of additives to FGD process liquor. Mercury can exist in two forms in utility flue gas--as elemental mercury and as oxidized mercury (predominant form believed to be HgCl 2 ). Previous test results have shown that wet scrubbers effectively remove the oxidized mercury from the gas but are ineffective in removing elemental mercury. Recent improvements in mercury speciation techniques confirm this finding. Catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury is of interest in cases where a wet scrubber exists or is planned for SO 2 control. If a loW--cost process could be developed to oxidize all of the elemental mercury in the flue gas, then the maximum achievable mercury removal across the existing or planned wet scrubber would increase. Other approaches for improving control of HAPs included a method for improving particulate removal across the FGD process and the use of additives to increase mercury solubility. This paper discusses results related only to catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury

  20. Mercury recovery from mercury-containing wastes using a vacuum thermal desorption system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Rim; Eom, Yujin; Lee, Tai Gyu

    2017-02-01

    Mercury (Hg)-containing waste from various industrial facilities is commonly treated by incineration or stabilization/solidification and retained in a landfill at a managed site. However, when highly concentrated Hg waste is treated using these methods, Hg is released into the atmosphere and soil environment. To eliminate these risks, Hg recovery technology using thermal treatment has been developed and commercialized to recover Hg from Hg-containing waste for safe disposal. Therefore, we developed Hg recovery equipment to treat Hg-containing waste under a vacuum of 6.67kPa (abs) at 400°C and recover the Hg. In addition, the dust generated from the waste was separated by controlling the temperature of the dust filtration unit to 230°C. Additionally, water and Hg vapors were condensed in a condensation unit. The Hg removal rate after waste treatment was 96.75%, and the Hg recovery rate as elemental Hg was 75.23%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. USCIS Backlog Elimination

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — USCIS is streamlining the way immigration benefits are delivered. By working smarter and eliminating redundancies, USCIS is bringing a business model to government....

  2. The mixed waste focus area mercury working group: an integrated approach for mercury treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.; Holmes-Burns, H.; Petersell, J.; Schwendiman, L.

    1997-01-01

    In May 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Work Group (HgWG), which was established to address and resolve the issues associated with mercury- contaminated mixed wastes. Three of the first four technology deficiencies identified during the MWFA technical baseline development process were related to mercury amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal. The HgWG will assist the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing all the efforts required to address these deficiencies. The focus of the HgWG is to better establish the mercury-related treatment needs at the DOE sites, refine the MWFA technical baseline as it relates to mercury treatment, and make recommendations to the MWFA on how to most effectively address these needs. The team will initially focus on the sites with the most mercury-contaminated mixed wastes, whose representatives comprise the HgWG. However, the group will also work with the sites with less inventory to maximize the effectiveness of these efforts in addressing the mercury- related needs throughout the entire complex

  3. Formation of mercury sulfide from Hg(II)−thiolate complexes in natural organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alain Manceau,; Cyprien Lemouchi,; Mironel Enescu,; Anne-Claire Gaillot,; Martine Lanson,; Valerie Magnin,; Pieter Glatzel,; Poulin, Brett; Ryan, Joseph N.; Aiken, George R.; Isabelle Gautier-Lunea,; Kathryn L. Nagy,

    2015-01-01

    Methylmercury is the environmental form of neurotoxic mercury that is biomagnified in the food chain. Methylation rates are reduced when the metal is sequestered in crystalline mercury sulfides or bound to thiol groups in macromolecular natural organic matter. Mercury sulfide minerals are known to nucleate in anoxic zones, by reaction of the thiol-bound mercury with biogenic sulfide, but not in oxic environments. We present experimental evidence that mercury sulfide forms from thiol-bound mercury alone in aqueous dark systems in contact with air. The maximum amount of nanoparticulate mercury sulfide relative to thiol-bound mercury obtained by reacting dissolved mercury and soil organic matter matches that detected in the organic horizon of a contaminated soil situated downstream from Oak Ridge, TN, in the United States. The nearly identical ratios of the two forms of mercury in field and experimental systems suggest a common reaction mechanism for nucleating the mineral. We identified a chemical reaction mechanism that is thermodynamically favorable in which thiol-bound mercury polymerizes to mercury–sulfur clusters. The clusters form by elimination of sulfur from the thiol complexes via breaking of mercury–sulfur bonds as in an alkylation reaction. Addition of sulfide is not required. This nucleation mechanism provides one explanation for how mercury may be immobilized, and eventually sequestered, in oxygenated surface environments.

  4. [Mercury Distribution Characteristics and Atmospheric Mercury Emission Factors of Typical Waste Incineration Plants in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhen-ya; Su, Hai-tao; Wang, Feng-yang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shu-xiao; Yu, Bin

    2016-02-15

    Waste incineration is one of the important atmospheric mercury emission sources. The aim of this article is to explore the atmospheric mercury pollution level of waste incineration industry from Chongqing. This study investigated the mercury emissions from a municipal solid waste incineration plant and a medical waste incineration plant in Chongqing. The exhaust gas samples in these two incineration plants were obtained using USA EPA 30B method. The mercury concentrations in the fly ash and bottom ash samples were analyzed. The results indicated that the mercury concentrations of the municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plant in Chongqing were (26.4 +/- 22.7) microg x m(-3) and (3.1 +/- 0.8) microg x m(-3) in exhaust gas respectively, (5279.2 +/- 798.0) microg x kg(-1) and (11,709.5 +/- 460.5) microg x kg(-1) in fly ash respectively. Besides, the distribution proportions of the mercury content from municipal solid waste and medical waste in exhaust gas, fly ash, and bottom ash were 34.0%, 65.3%, 0.7% and 32.3%, 67.5%, 0.2% respectively; The mercury removal efficiencies of municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plants were 66.0% and 67.7% respectively. The atmospheric mercury emission factors of municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plants were (126.7 +/- 109.0) microg x kg(-1) and (46.5 +/- 12.0) microg x kg(-1) respectively. Compared with domestic municipal solid waste incineration plants in the Pearl River Delta region, the atmospheric mercury emission factor of municipal solid waste incineration plant in Chongqing was lower.

  5. Analysis of mercury diffusion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Several mercury diffusion pump stages in the Tritium Purification process at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have been removed from service for scheduled preventive maintenance. These stages have been examined to determine if failure has occurred. Evidence of fatigue around the flange portion of the pump has been seen. In addition, erosion and cavitation inside the throat of the venturi tube and corrosion on the other surface of the venturi tube has been observed. Several measures are being examined in an attempt to improve the performance of these pumps. These measures, as well as the noted observations, are described. 4 refs

  6. Marine biogeochemistry of mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Noncontaminating sample collection and handling procedures and accurate and sensitive analysis methods were developed to measure sub-picomolar Hg concentrations in seawater. Reliable and diagnostic oceanographic Hg distributions were obtained, permitting major processes governing the marine biogeochemistry of Hg to be identified. Mercury concentrations in the northwest Atlantic, central Pacific, southeast Pacific, and Tasman Sea ranged from 0.5 to 12 pM. Vertical Hg distributions often exhibited a maximum within or near the main thermocline. At similar depths, Hg concentrations in the northwest Atlantic Ocean were elevated compared to the N. Pacific Ocean. This pattern appears to result from a combination of enhanced supply of Hg to the northwest Atlantic by rainfall and scavenging removal along deep water circulation pathways. These observations are supported by geochemical steady-state box modelling which predicts a relatively short mean residence time for Hg in the oceans; demonstrating the reactive nature of Hg in seawater and precluding significant involvement in nutrient-type recyclic. Evidence for the rapid removal of Hg from seawater was obtained at two locations. Surface seawater Hg measurements along 160 0 W (20 0 N to 20 0 S) showed a depression in the equatorial upwelling area which correlated well with the transect region exhibiting low 234 Th/ 238 U activity ratios. This relationship implies that Hg will be scavenged and removed from surface seawater in biologically productive oceanic zones. Further, a broad minimum in the vertical distribution of Hg was observed to coincide with the intense oxygen minimum zone in the water column in coastal waters off Peru

  7. Mercury balance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maag, J.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed assessment of the consumption of mercury, divided into use areas, was carried out. Disposal and emissions to the environment were also qualified. The assessment is mainly based on data from 1992 - 1993. The most important source of emission of mercury to air is solid waste incineration which is assessed in particular to be due to the supply of mercury in batteries (most likely mercury oxide batteries from photo equipment) and to dental fillings. The second most important source of mercury emission to air is coal-fired power plants which are estimated to account for 200-500 kg of mercury emission p.a. Other mercury emissions are mainly related to waste treatment and disposal. The consumption of mercury is generally decreasing. During the period from 1982/83 - 1992-93, the total consumption of mercury in Denmark was about halved. This development is related to the fact that consumption with regard to several important use areas (batteries, dental fillings, thermometers etc.) has been significantly reduced, while for other purposes the use of mercury has completely, or almost disappeared, i.e. (fungicides for seed, tubes etc.). (EG)

  8. Mercury (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in contact with) to mercury is by eating fish or shellfish that have high levels of mercury. You can also get sick from: Touching it Breathing it in Drinking contaminated water How can mercury ...

  9. MODELING THE IMPACT OF ELEVATED MERCURY IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY MELTER FEED ON THE MELTER OFF-GAS SYSTEM-PRELIMINARY REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J.; Choi, A.

    2010-08-18

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that comes in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter offgas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl{sub 2}, and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to HgCl{sub 2} with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of

  10. Modeling The Impact Of Elevated Mercury In Defense Waste Processing Facility Melter Feed On The Melter Off-Gas System - Preliminary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamecnik, J.; Choi, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently evaluating an alternative Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet to increase throughput. It includes removal of the steam-stripping step, which would significantly reduce the CPC processing time and lessen the sampling needs. However, its downside would be to send 100% of the mercury that come in with the sludge straight to the melter. For example, the new mercury content in the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) melter feed is projected to be 25 times higher than that in the SB4 with nominal steam stripping of mercury. This task was initiated to study the impact of the worst-case scenario of zero-mercury-removal in the CPC on the DWPF melter off-gas system. It is stressed that this study is intended to be scoping in nature, so the results presented in this report are preliminary. In order to study the impact of elevated mercury levels in the feed, it is necessary to be able to predict how mercury would speciate in the melter exhaust under varying melter operating conditions. A homogeneous gas-phase oxidation model of mercury by chloride was developed to do just that. The model contains two critical parameters pertaining to the partitioning of chloride among HCl, Cl, Cl 2 , and chloride salts in the melter vapor space. The values for these parameters were determined at two different melter vapor space temperatures by matching the calculated molar ratio of HgCl (or Hg 2 Cl 2 ) to HgCl 2 with those measured during the Experimental-Scale Ceramic Melter (ESCM) tests run at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The calibrated model was then applied to the SB5 simulant used in the earlier flowsheet study with an assumed mercury stripping efficiency of zero; the molar ratio of Cl-to-Hg in the resulting melter feed was only 0.4, compared to 12 for the ESCM feeds. The results of the model run at the indicated melter vapor space temperature of 650 C (TI4085D) showed that due to excessive shortage of chloride, only 6% of

  11. Universal leakage elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, Mark S.; Lidar, Daniel A.; Wu, L.-A.; Zanardi, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    'Leakage' errors are particularly serious errors which couple states within a code subspace to states outside of that subspace, thus destroying the error protection benefit afforded by an encoded state. We generalize an earlier method for producing leakage elimination decoupling operations and examine the effects of the leakage eliminating operations on decoherence-free or noiseless subsystems which encode one logical, or protected qubit into three or four qubits. We find that by eliminating a large class of leakage errors, under some circumstances, we can create the conditions for a decoherence-free evolution. In other cases we identify a combined decoherence-free and quantum error correcting code which could eliminate errors in solid-state qubits with anisotropic exchange interaction Hamiltonians and enable universal quantum computing with only these interactions

  12. Molecular Mechanisms of Bacterial Mercury Transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, Anne O. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Microbiology; Smith, Jeremy C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology

    2016-04-25

    Hg is of special interest to DOE due to past intensive use in manufacture of nuclear weapons at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Because of its facile oxidation/reduction [Hg(II)/Hg(0)] chemistry, ability to bond to carbon [as in highly toxic methylmercury: MeHg(I)] and its unique physical properties [e.g., volatility of Hg(0)], Hg has a complex environmental cycle involving soils, sediments, waterways and the atmosphere and including biotic and abiotic chemical and physical transport and transformations. Understanding such processes well enough to design stewardship plans that minimize negative impacts in diverse ecological settings requires rich knowledge of the contributing abiotic and biotic processes. Prokaryotes are major players in the global Hg cycle. Facultative and anaerobic bacteria can form MeHg(I) with consequent intoxication of wildlife and humans. Sustainable stewardship of Hg-contaminated sites requires eliminating not only MeHg(I) but also the Hg(II) substrate for methylation. Fortunately, a variety of mercury resistant (HgR) aerobic and facultative bacteria and archaea can do both things. Prokaryotes harboring narrow or broad Hg resistance (mer) loci detoxify Hg(II) or RHg(I), respectively, to relatively inert, less toxic, volatile Hg(0). HgR microbes are enriched in highly contaminated sites and extensive field data show they depress levels of MeHg >500-fold in such zones. So, enhancing the natural capacity of indigenous HgR microbes to remove Hg(II) and RHg(I) from soils, sediments and waterways is a logical component of a comprehensive plan for clean up and stewardship of contaminated sites.

  13. Mercury is Moon's brother

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksanfomalifi, L.V.

    1976-01-01

    The latest information on Mercury planet is presented obtained by studying the planet with the aid of radar and space vehicles. Rotation of Mercury about its axis has been discovered; within 2/3 of its year it executes a complete revolution about its axis. In images obtained by the ''Mariner-10'' Mercurys surface differs little from that of the Moon. The ''Mariner-10'' has also discovered the Mercurys atmosphere, which consists of extremely rarefied helium. The helium is continuously supplied to the planet by the solar wind. The Mercury's magnetic field has been discovered, whose strength is 35 x 10 -4 at the Equator and 70 x 10 -4 E at the poles. The inclination of the dipole axis to the Mercury's rotation axis is 7 deg

  14. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhang, L.; Li, G. H.; Wu, Y.; Hao, J. M.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.; Ancora, M. P.

    2010-02-01

    Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), electrostatic precipitators (ESP), and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM). The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92-27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66-94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  15. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. X. Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR, electrostatic precipitators (ESP, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM. The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92–27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66–94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  16. Modeling dynamic exchange of gaseous elemental mercury at polar sunrise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastoor, Ashu P; Davignon, Didier; Theys, Nicolas; Van Roozendael, Michel; Steffen, Alexandra; Ariya, Parisa A

    2008-07-15

    At polar sunrise, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) undergoes an exceptional dynamic exchange in the air and at the snow surface during which GEM can be rapidly removed from the atmosphere (the so-called atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs)) as well as re-emitted from the snow within a few hours to days in the Polar Regions. Although high concentrations of total mercury in snow following AMDEs is well documented, there is very little data available on the redox transformation processes of mercury in the snow and the fluxes of mercury at the air/snow interface. Therefore, the net gain of mercury in the Polar Regions as a result of AMDEs is still an open question. We developed a new version of the global mercury model, GRAHM, which includes for the first time bidirectional surface exchange of GEM in Polar Regions in spring and summer by developing schemes for mercury halogen oxidation, deposition, and re-emission. Also for the first time, GOME satellite data-derived boundary layer concentrations of BrO have been used in a global mercury model for representation of halogen mercury chemistry. Comparison of model simulated and measured atmospheric concentrations of GEM at Alert, Canada, for 3 years (2002-2004) shows the model's capability in simulating the rapid cycling of mercury during and after AMDEs. Brooks et al. (1) measured mercury deposition, reemission, and net surface gain fluxes of mercury at Barrow, AK, during an intensive measurement campaign for a 2 week period in spring (March 25 to April 7, 2003). They reported 1.7, 1.0 +/- 0.2, and 0.7 +/- 0.2 microg m(-2) deposition, re-emission, and net surface gain, respectively. Using the optimal configuration of the model, we estimated 1.8 microg m(-2) deposition, 1.0 microg m(-2) re-emission, and 0.8 microg m(-2) net surface gain of mercury for the same time period at Barrow. The estimated net annual accumulation of mercury within the Arctic Circle north of 66.5 degrees is approximately 174 t with +/-7 t of

  17. The method of determination of mercury adsorption from flue gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzyń Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For several recent years Faculty of Energy and Fuels of the AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow conduct intensive studies on the occurrence of mercury contained in thermal and coking coals, as well as on the possible reduction of fossil-fuel mercury emissions. This research focuses, among others, on application of sorbents for removal of mercury from flue gases. In this paper we present the methodology for testing mercury adsorption using various types of sorbents, in laboratory conditions. Our model assumes burning a coal sample, with a specific mercury content, in a strictly determined time period and temperature conditions, oxygen or air flow rates, and the flow of flue gases through sorbent in a specific temperature. It was developed for particular projects concerning the possibilities of applying different sorbents to remove mercury from flue gases. Test stand itself is composed of a vertical pipe furnace inside which a quartz tube was mounted for sample burning purposes. At the furnace outlet, there is a heated glass vessel with a sorbent sample through which flue gases are passing. Furnace allows burning at a defined temperature. The exhaust gas flow path is heated to prevent condensation of the mercury vapor prior to contact with a sorbent. The sorbent container is positioned in the heating element, with controlled and stabilized temperature, which allows for testing mercury sorption in various temperatures. Determination of mercury content is determined before (coal and sorbent, as well as after the process (sorbent and ash. The mercury balance is calculated based on the Hg content determination results. This testing method allows to study sorbent efficiency, depending on sorption temperature, sorbent grain size, and flue-gas rates.

  18. Mercury - the hollow planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothery, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Mercury is turning out to be a planet characterized by various kinds of endogenous hole (discounting impact craters), which are compared here. These include volcanic vents and collapse features on horizontal scales of tens of km, and smaller scale depressions ('hollows') associated with bright crater-floor deposits (BCFD). The BCFD hollows are tens of metres deep and kilometres or less across and are characteristically flat-floored, with steep, scalloped walls. Their form suggests that they most likely result from removal of surface material by some kind of mass-wasting process, probably associated with volume-loss caused by removal (via sublimation?) of a volatile component. These do not appear to be primarily a result of undermining. Determining the composition of the high-albedo bluish surface coating in BCFDs will be a key goal for BepiColombo instruments such as MIXS (Mercury Imaging Xray Spectrometer). In contrast, collapse features are non-circular rimless pits, typically on crater floors (pit-floor craters), whose morphology suggests collapse into void spaces left by magma withdrawal. This could be by drainage of either erupted lava (or impact melt) or of shallowly-intruded magma. Unlike the much smaller-scale BCFD hollows, these 'collapse pit' features tend to lack extensive flat floors and instead tend to be close to triangular in cross-section with inward slopes near to the critical angle of repose. The different scale and morphology of BCFD hollows and collapse pits argues for quite different modes of origin. However, BCFD hollows adjacent to and within the collapse pit inside Scarlatti crater suggest that the volatile material whose loss was responsible for the growth of the hollows may have been emplaced in association with the magma whose drainage caused the main collapse. Another kind of volcanic collapse can be seen within a 25 km-wide volcanic vent outside the southern rim of the Caloris basin (22.5° N, 146.1° E), on a 28 m/pixel MDIS NAC image

  19. Laying Waste to Mercury: Inexpensive Sorbents Made from Sulfur and Recycled Cooking Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Max J H; Kucera, Renata L; Albuquerque, Inês S; Gibson, Christopher T; Sibley, Alexander; Slattery, Ashley D; Campbell, Jonathan A; Alboaiji, Salah F K; Muller, Katherine A; Young, Jason; Adamson, Nick; Gascooke, Jason R; Jampaiah, Deshetti; Sabri, Ylias M; Bhargava, Suresh K; Ippolito, Samuel J; Lewis, David A; Quinton, Jamie S; Ellis, Amanda V; Johs, Alexander; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Chalker, Justin M

    2017-11-16

    Mercury pollution threatens the environment and human health across the globe. This neurotoxic substance is encountered in artisanal gold mining, coal combustion, oil and gas refining, waste incineration, chloralkali plant operation, metallurgy, and areas of agriculture in which mercury-rich fungicides are used. Thousands of tonnes of mercury are emitted annually through these activities. With the Minamata Convention on Mercury entering force this year, increasing regulation of mercury pollution is imminent. It is therefore critical to provide inexpensive and scalable mercury sorbents. The research herein addresses this need by introducing low-cost mercury sorbents made solely from sulfur and unsaturated cooking oils. A porous version of the polymer was prepared by simply synthesising the polymer in the presence of a sodium chloride porogen. The resulting material is a rubber that captures liquid mercury metal, mercury vapour, inorganic mercury bound to organic matter, and highly toxic alkylmercury compounds. Mercury removal from air, water and soil was demonstrated. Because sulfur is a by-product of petroleum refining and spent cooking oils from the food industry are suitable starting materials, these mercury-capturing polymers can be synthesised entirely from waste and supplied on multi-kilogram scales. This study is therefore an advance in waste valorisation and environmental chemistry. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  20. Conference: the wet catalytic oxidation, a technology for the removal of organic pollutants in industrial waters; Conference: l'oxydation voie humide catalytique, une technologie pour l'elimination des polluants organiques dans les eaux industrielles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besson, M. [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse - CNRS, 2 avenue Albert Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2004-07-01

    In this conference, it is taken stock on the use of catalysts in the wet oxidation process. Supported (TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}....) heterogeneous metallic catalysts (Pt, Ru...) are particularly studied. It is shown that this type of catalysts can answer to the required characteristics: activity for the removal of organic matter, lack of active metal leaching in aqueous acid medium, no deactivation...Examples are given. (O.M.)

  1. Distribution and assessment of residual mercury from gold mining in Changbai Mountain Range Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, D.; Wang, N.; Ai, J. C.; Zhang, G.; Liu, X. J.

    2016-08-01

    Gold mining was first initiated in Jiapigou area, Huadian city of Northeastern China about 200 years ago. Before 2006, the mercury amalgamation technique was used in the gold mining process, which led to severe mercury contamination. The aim of this paper is to explore the influences of residual mercury on the environment media after eliminating the amalgamation process to extract gold. The mercury concentrations of the atmosphere and the soil were determined in autumn of 2011 and spring of 2012. The soil environmental quality was assessed by the index of geoaccumulation. The results indicated that the maximum value of gaseous mercury was 25ng•m-3 in autumn and 19.5ng•m-3 in spring; the maximum value of mercury in the soil was 2.06mg•kg-1 in autumn and 2.51mg•kg-1in spring. It can be seen that the peak concentrations of the gaseous mercury happened at the gold mine area and tailings, while the peak mercury concentrations in the soil were located at the places near the mining sites and the residential area in the valley. Furthermore, the regression analysis of the total mercury contents between the atmosphere and the soil showed a significant correlation, which indicated that there was certain circulation of the mercury between the regional atmosphere and soil. In general, after the elimination of the amalgamation technique in gold extraction, the distance to the mercury source, the special conditions of hilly weather and landforms and the mercury exchange flux are the main factors of mercury contamination.

  2. Mercury Binding Sites in Thiol-Functionalized Mesostructured Silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billinge, Simon J.L.; McKimmey, Emily J.; Shatnawi, Mouath; Kim, HyunJeong; Petkov, Valeri; Wermeille, Didier; Pinnavaia, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Thiol-functionalized mesostructured silica with anhydrous compositions of (SiO 2 ) 1-x (LSiO 1.5 ) x , where L is a mercaptopropyl group and x is the fraction of functionalized framework silicon centers, are effective trapping agents for the removal of mercuric(II) ions from water. In the present work, we investigate the mercury-binding mechanism for representative thiol-functionalized mesostructures by atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data and by Raman spectroscopy. The mesostructures with wormhole framework structures and compositions corresponding to x = 0.30 and 0.50 were prepared by direct assembly methods in the presence of a structure-directing amine porogen. PDF analyses of five mercury-loaded compositions with Hg/S ratios of 0.50-1.30 provided evidence for the bridging of thiolate sulfur atoms to two metal ion centers and the formation of chain structures on the pore surfaces. We find no evidence for Hg-O bonds and can rule out oxygen coordination of the mercury at greater than the 10% level. The relative intensities of the PDF peaks corresponding to Hg-S and Hg-Hg atomic pairs indicate that the mercury centers cluster on the functionalized surfaces by virtue of thiolate bridging, regardless of the overall mercury loading. However, the Raman results indicate that the complexation of mercury centers by thiolate depends on the mercury loading. At low mercury loadings (Hg/S (le) 0.5), the dominant species is an electrically neutral complex in which mercury most likely is tetrahedrally coordinated to bridging thiolate ligands, as in Hg(SBu t ) 2 . At higher loadings (Hg/S 1.0-1.3), mercury complex cations predominate, as evidenced by the presence of charge-balancing anions (nitrate) on the surface. This cationic form of bound mercury is assigned a linear coordination to two bridging thiolate ligands.

  3. Isolation, screening and identification of mercury resistant bacteria from mercury contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalczyk Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New bacterial strains resistant to high concentration of mercury were obtained and character iz ed focusing on their potential application in bioremediation. The biological material was isolated from soil contaminated with mercury. The ability to removal of Hg from the liquid medium and the effect of the various pH and mercury concentrations in the environment on bacterial strains growth kinetics were tested. The selected strains were identified by analysis of the 16S ribosome subunit coding sequenc es as Pseudomonas syringae. The analysis of Hg concentration in liquid medium as effect of microbial metabolism demonstrated that P. syringae is able to remove almost entire metal from medium after 120 hours of incubation. Obtained results revealed new ability of the isolated strain P. syringae. Analyzed properties of this soil bacteria species able to reduce concentration of Hg ors immobi lize this metal are promising for industrial wastewater treatment and bioremediation of the soils polluted especially by mercury lamps scrapping, measuring instruments, dry batteries, detonators or burning fuels made from crude oil, which may also contain mercury. Selected bacteria strains provide efficient and relatively low-cost bioremediation of the areas and waters contaminated with Hg.

  4. Determination of mercury in food by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, S.J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Determination of mercury in food samples has been carried out by neutron activation followed by chemical separation to remove the interfering activities of copper, zinc etc. Chemical separation was carried out using anion exchange resin (DOWEX 1x8). Mercury was determined by counting 77 keV γ-rays of 197 Hg on a NaI(Tl) crystal in conjunction with a 400-channel pulse-height analyser. Levels of mercury in the following foods are tabulated: rice, wheat, pulses, millets, leafy vegetables, flower, carrot, potato, tomato, onion, chilli powder, sugar, tea leaves, milk. (T.I.)

  5. Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Landreth

    2007-12-31

    This report summarizes the work conducted from September 1, 2003 through December 31, 2007 on the project entitled Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program. The project covers the testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant and the Duke Power Cliffside and Buck Stations. The St. Clair Plant used a blend of subbituminous and bituminous coal and controlled the particulate emissions by means of a cold-side ESP. The Duke Power Stations used bituminous coals and controlled their particulate emissions by means of hot-side ESPs. The testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant demonstrated that mercury sorbents could be used to achieve high mercury removal rates with low injection rates at facilities that burn subbituminous coal. A mercury removal rate of 94% was achieved at an injection rate of 3 lb/MMacf over the thirty day long-term test. Prior to this test, it was believed that the mercury in flue gas of this type would be the most difficult to capture. This is not the case. The testing at the two Duke Power Stations proved that carbon- based mercury sorbents can be used to control the mercury emissions from boilers with hot-side ESPs. It was known that plain PACs did not have any mercury capacity at elevated temperatures but that brominated B-PAC did. The mercury removal rate varies with the operation but it appears that mercury removal rates equal to or greater than 50% are achievable in facilities equipped with hot-side ESPs. As part of the program, both sorbent injection equipment and sorbent production equipment was acquired and operated. This equipment performed very well during this program. In addition, mercury instruments were acquired for this program. These instruments worked well in the flue gas at the St. Clair Plant but not as well in the flue gas at the Duke Power Stations. It is believed that the difference in the amount of oxidized mercury, more at Duke Power, was the difference in instrument performance. Much of the equipment was

  6. Determination of mercury in food by neutron activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, S J.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Air Monitoring Section

    1976-01-01

    Determination of mercury in food samples has been carried out by neutron activation followed by chemical separation to remove the interfering activities of copper, zinc etc. Chemical separation was carried out using anion exchange resin (DOWEX 1x8). Mercury was determined by counting 77 keV ..gamma..-rays of /sup 197/Hg on a NaI(Tl) crystal in conjunction with a 400-channel pulse-height analyser. Levels of mercury in the following foods are tabulated: rice, wheat, pulses, millets, leafy vegetables, flower, carrot, potato, tomato, onion, chilli powder, sugar, tea leaves, milk.

  7. Electrolytic recovery of mercury enriched in isotopic abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of electrolytically extracting liquid mercury from HgO or Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2. Additionally there are disclosed two related techniques associated with the present invention, namely (1) a technique for selectively removing product from different regions of a long photochemical reactor (photoreactor) and (2) a method of accurately measuring the total quantity of mercury formed as either HgO or Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2.

  8. Carbon bed mercury emissions control for mixed waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soelberg, Nick; Enneking, Joe

    2010-11-01

    Mercury has various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so it is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Compliance with air emission regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards can require off-gas mercury removal efficiencies up to 99.999% for thermally treating some mixed waste streams. Test programs have demonstrated this level of off-gas mercury control using fixed beds of granular sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. Other results of these tests include (1) the depth of the mercury control mass transfer zone was less than 15-30 cm for the operating conditions of these tests; (2) MERSORB carbon can sorb mercury up to 19 wt % of the carbon mass; and (3) the spent carbon retained almost all (98.3-99.99%) of the mercury during Toxicity Characteristic Leachability Procedure (TCLP) tests, but when even a small fraction of the total mercury dissolves, the spent carbon can fail the TCLP test when the spent carbon contains high mercury concentrations.

  9. Modeling Mercury in Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that is released into the biosphere both by natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Although its reduced, elemental form Hg(0) is relatively non-toxic, other forms such as Hg2+ and, in particular, its methylated form, methylmercury, are toxic, with deleterious effects on both ecosystems and humans. Microorganisms play important roles in the transformation of mercury in the environment. Inorganic Hg2+ can be methylated by certain bacteria and archaea to form methylmercury. Conversely, bacteria also demethylate methylmercury and reduce Hg2+ to relatively inert Hg(0). Transformations and toxicity occur as a result of mercury interacting with various proteins. Clearly, then, understanding the toxic effects of mercury and its cycling in the environment requires characterization of these interactions. Computational approaches are ideally suited to studies of mercury in proteins because they can provide a detailed picture and circumvent issues associated with toxicity. Here we describe computational methods for investigating and characterizing how mercury binds to proteins, how inter- and intra-protein transfer of mercury is orchestrated in biological systems, and how chemical reactions in proteins transform the metal. We describe quantum chemical analyses of aqueous Hg(II), which reveal critical factors that determine ligand binding propensities. We then provide a perspective on how we used chemical reasoning to discover how microorganisms methylate mercury. We also highlight our combined computational and experimental studies of the proteins and enzymes of the mer operon, a suite of genes that confers mercury resistance in many bacteria. Lastly, we place work on mercury in proteins in the context of what is needed for a comprehensive multi-scale model of environmental mercury cycling.

  10. The temporal and geographical mercury patterns in polar bears and birds of prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, R.; Riget, F.; Olsen, M.T.

    2004-01-01

    Mercury compounds are bio-accumulated. As a consequence the highest levels of mercury are measured in top predators like seals, toothed whales, polar bears, and also humans. The main mercury source for humans is the diet but the processes that links emission with effects through the transport chain...... and seals. The coupling between transport pathways of carbon and mercury is weak at lower trophic levels. A substantial decrease of Hg concentrations in teeth and hair of polar bears since 1960 was found. Hg concentrations in hair of polar bears sampled in East Greenland during 1999-2001 was 8.3 times...... a new parameterisation of the removal of atmospheric mercury for Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) and to validate the model. As a first estimate about 200 tons/year is deposited to the surface north of polar circle. In undisturbed sediment cores the mercury concentration and the mercury...

  11. Mixed Waste Focus Area mercury contamination product line: An integrated approach to mercury waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulet, G.A.; Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is tasked with ensuring that solutions are available for the mixed waste treatment problems of the DOE complex. During the MWFA's initial technical baseline development process, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to the need for amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal technologies for the treatment of mercury and mercury-contaminated mixed waste. The focus area grouped mercury-waste-treatment activities into the mercury contamination product line under which development, demonstration, and deployment efforts are coordinated to provide tested technologies to meet the site needs. The Mercury Working Group (HgWG), a selected group of representatives from DOE sites with significant mercury waste inventories, is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these areas. Based on the scope and magnitude of the mercury mixed waste problem, as defined by HgWG, solicitations and contract awards have been made to the private sector to demonstrate amalgamation and stabilization processes using actual mixed wastes. Development efforts are currently being funded under the product line that will address DOE's needs for separation/removal processes. This paper discusses the technology selection process, development activities, and the accomplishments of the MWFA to date through these various activities

  12. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Wu, Qingru; Wang, Fengyang; Lin, Che-Jen; Zhang, Leiming; Hui, Mulin; Yang, Mei; Su, Haitao; Hao, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, waste incinerators, biomass burning and so on. Mercury in coal, ores, and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C to below 300 °C in flue gases leaving boilers, kilns or furnaces promotes homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation of Hg0 to gaseous divalent mercury (Hg2+), with a portion of Hg2+ adsorbed onto fly ash to form particulate-bound mercury (Hgp). Halogen is the primary oxidizer for Hg0 in flue gases, and active components (e.g., TiO2, Fe2O3, etc.) on fly ash promote heterogeneous oxidation and adsorption processes. In addition to mercury removal, mercury transformation also occurs when passing through air pollution control devices (APCDs), affecting the mercury speciation in flue gases. In coal-fired power plants, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system promotes mercury oxidation by 34-85 %, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and fabric filter (FF) remove over 99 % of Hgp, and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFGD) captures 60-95 % of Hg2+. In non-ferrous metal smelters, most Hg0 is converted to Hg2+ and removed in acid plants (APs). For cement clinker production, mercury cycling and operational conditions promote heterogeneous mercury oxidation and adsorption. The mercury speciation profiles in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere are determined by transformation mechanisms and mercury removal efficiencies by various APCDs. For all the sectors reviewed in this study, Hgp accounts for less than 5 % in flue gases. In China, mercury emission has a higher Hg0 fraction (66-82 % of total mercury) in flue gases from coal combustion, in contrast to a greater Hg2+ fraction (29-90 %) from non-ferrous metal smelting, cement and

  13. Binary mixtures of mercury/ selenium, and lead/selenium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiologically-based biokinetic models have been developed for predicting simultaneously the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Elimination (ADME) properties of lead (Pb) and selenium (Se), and mercury (Hg) and selenium in a number of target tissues of humans. This was done for three population groups, ...

  14. Intentional intravenous mercury injection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this case report, intravenous complications, treatment strategies and possible ... Mercury toxicity is commonly associated with vapour inhalation or oral ingestion, for which there exist definite treatment options. Intravenous mercury ... personality, anxiousness, irritability, insomnia, depression and drowsi- ness.[1] However ...

  15. Mercury's shifting, rolling past

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of scalloped-edged cliffs or lobate scarps on Mercury's surface are thrust faults that are consistent with the planet shrinking and cooling with time. However, compression occurred in the planet's early history and Mariner 10 images revealed decades ago that lobate scarps are among the youngest features on Mercury. Why don't we find more evidence of older compressive features?

  16. Global Mercury Assessment 2013

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    mercury pollution. This summary report and the accompanying. Technical Background Report for the Global. Mercury Assessment 2013 are developed in response to Decision 25/5, paragraph ... The use of different pollution control technologies in different ...... vegetation, snow, freshwater, and seawater. One of the largest ...

  17. MESSENGER: Exploring Mercury's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. Mercury's magnetosphere is unique in many respects. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. For this reason there are no closed dri-fi paths for energetic particles and, hence, no radiation belts; the characteristic time scales for wave propagation and convective transport are short possibly coupling kinetic and fluid modes; magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause may erode the subsolar magnetosphere allowing solar wind ions to directly impact the dayside regolith; inductive currents in Mercury's interior should act to modify the solar In addition, Mercury's magnetosphere is the only one with its defining magnetic flux tubes rooted in a planetary regolith as opposed to an atmosphere with a conductive ionosphere. This lack of an ionosphere is thought to be the underlying reason for the brevity of the very intense, but short lived, approx. 1-2 min, substorm-like energetic particle events observed by Mariner 10 in Mercury's magnetic tail. In this seminar, we review what we think we know about Mercury's magnetosphere and describe the MESSENGER science team's strategy for obtaining answers to the outstanding science questions surrounding the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury and its small, but dynamic magnetosphere.

  18. Mercury in Nordic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munthe, John; Waengberg, Ingvar (IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (SE)); Rognerud, Sigurd; Fjeld, Eirik (Norwegian Inst. for Water Research (NIVA), Oslo (Norway)); Verta, Matti; Porvari, Petri (Finnish Environment Inst. (SYKE), Helsinki (Finland)); Meili, Markus (Inst. of Applied Environmental Research (ITM), Stockholm (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    This report provides a first comprehensive compilation and assessment of available data on mercury in air, precipitation, sediments and fish in the Nordic countries. The main conclusion is that mercury levels in Nordic ecosystems continue to be affected by long-range atmospheric transport. The geographical patterns of mercury concentrations in both sediments and fish are also strongly affected by ecosystem characteristics and in some regions possibly by historical pollution. An evaluation of geographical variations in mercury concentrations in precipitation indicates that the influence from anthropogenic sources from Central European areas is still significant. The annual variability of deposition is large and dependant of precipitation amounts. An evaluation of data from stations around the North Sea has indicated a significant decrease in mercury concentrations in precipitation indicating a continuous decrease of emissions in Europe (Waengberg et al., 2007). For mercury in air (TGM), the geographical pattern is less pronounced indicating the influence of mercury emissions and distribution over a larger geographical area (i.e. hemispherical transport). Comparison of recent (surficial) and historical lake sediments show significantly elevated concentrations of mercury most likely caused by anthropogenic atmospheric deposition over the past century. The highest pollution impact was observed in the coastal areas of southern Norway, in south western Finland and in Sweden from the coastal areas in the southwest across the central parts to the north-east. The general increase in recent versus old sediments was 2-5 fold. Data on mercury in Nordic freshwater fish was assembled and evaluated with respect to geographical variations. The fish data were further compared with temporal and spatial trends in mercury deposition and mercury contamination of lake sediments in order to investigate the coupling between atmospheric transport and deposition of mercury and local mercury

  19. DOE/NETL's phase II mercury control technology field testing program: preliminary economic analysis of activated carbon injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew P; Hoffmann, Jeffrey W; Smith, Dennis N; Feeley, Thomas J; Murphy, James T

    2007-02-15

    Based on results of field testing conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), this article provides preliminary costs for mercury control via conventional activated carbon injection (ACI), brominated ACI, and conventional ACI coupled with the application of a sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) to coal prior to combustion. The economic analyses are reported on a plant-specific basis in terms of the cost required to achieve low (50%), mid (70%), and high (90%) levels of mercury removal "above and beyond" the baseline mercury removal achieved by existing emission control equipment. In other words, the levels of mercury control are directly attributable to ACI. Mercury control costs via ACI have been amortized on a current dollar basis. Using a 20-year book life, levelized costs for the incremental increase in cost of electricity (COE), expressed in mills per kilowatt-hour (mills/kWh), and the incremental cost of mercury control, expressed in dollars per pound of mercury removed ($/lb Hg removed), have been calculated for each level of ACI mercury control. For this analysis, the increase in COE varied from 0.14 mills/kWh to 3.92 mills/kWh. Meanwhile, the incremental cost of mercury control ranged from $3810/lb Hg removed to $166000/lb Hg removed.

  20. Minding Rachlin's Eliminative Materialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Rachlin's teleological behaviorism eliminates the first-person ontology of conscious experience by identifying mental states with extended patterns of behavior, and thereby maintains the materialist ontology of science. An alternate view, informed by brain-based and externalist philosophies of mind, is shown also to maintain the materialist…

  1. Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Steve Nesheim discusses perinatal HIV transmission, including the importance of preventing HIV among women, preconception care, and timely HIV testing of the mother. Dr. Nesheim also introduces the revised curriculum Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission intended for faculty of OB/GYN and pediatric residents and nurse midwifery students.

  2. Mercury from combustion sources: a review of the chemical species emitted and their transport in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpi, A.

    1997-01-01

    Different species of mercury have different physical/chemical properties and thus behave quite differentially in air pollution control equipment and in the atmosphere. In general, emission of mercury from coal combustion sources are approximately 20-50% elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) and 50-80% divalent mercury (Hg(II)), which may be predominantly HgCl 2 . Emissions of mercury from waste incinerators are approximately 10-20% Hg 0 and 75-85% Hg(II). The partitioning of mercury in flue gas between the elemental and divalent forms may be dependent on the concentration of particulate carbon, HCl and other pollutants in the stack emissions. The emission of mercury from combustion facilities depends on the species in the exhaust stream and the type of air pollution control equipment used at the source. Air pollution control equipment for mercury removal at combustion facilities includes activated carbon injection, sodium sulfide injection and wet lime/limestone flue gas desulfurization. White Hg(II) is water-soluble and may be removed form the atmosphere by wet and dry deposition close to the combustion sources, the combination of a high vapor pressure and low water-solubility facilitate the long-range transport of Hg 0 in the atmosphere. Background mercury in the atmosphere is predominantly Hg 0 . Elemental mercury is eventually removed from the atmosphere by dry deposition onto surfaces and by wet deposition after oxidation to water-soluble, divalent mercury. 62 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  3. Selective extraction of trace mercury and cadmium from drinking water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuan; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Jianlong; Yun, Guichun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new alternative method, i.e., selective extraction by weakly basic anion exchange resin, has been developed for the removal of trace cadmium and mercury ions from drinking water sources. The mechanism of heavy metal removal is based on selective extraction as the results of LEWIS-base-acid interactions. Transfer of trace mercury species from liquid to resin phase coincides well with the performance of film diffusion. The results demonstrated that the presence of chlorine has a negligible influence on the removal of mercury. However, humic acids can strongly bind mercury by the formation of complex compounds and therefore become the obstacle in the diffusion progress. At neutral or base pH, the resin material exhibits the favorable uptake of heavy metals. In filter experiments, the studied resin material offers favorable properties in the selective extraction of trace mercury and cadmium.

  4. Ultralow Level Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping: Scoping Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.

    2000-01-01

    Data collected during the first stage of a Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Strategic Research and Development Project confirmed the efficacy of chemical reduction and air stripping/sparging as an ultralow level mercury treatment concept for waters containing Hg(II). The process consists of dosing the water with low levels of stannous chloride to convert the mercury to Hg. This form of mercury can easily be removed from the water by air stripping or sparging. Samples of Savannah River Site (SRS) groundwater containing approximately 130 ng/L of total mercury (as Hg(II)) were used for the study. In undosed samples, sparging removed 0 percent of the initial mercury. In the dosed samples, all of the removals were greater than 94 percent, except in one water type at one dose. This sample, which was saturated with dissolved oxygen, showed a 63 percent reduction in mercury following treatment at the lowest dose. Following dosing at minimally effective levels and sparging, treated water contained less than 10 ng/L total mercury. In general, the data indicate that the reduction of mercury is highly favored and that stannous chloride reagent efficiently targets the Hg(II) contaminant in the presence of competing reactions. Based on the results, the authors estimated that the costs of implementing and operating an ultralow level mercury treatment process based on chemical reduction and stripping/sparging are 10 percent to 20 percent of traditional treatment technologies

  5. Atrazine removal in Danish anaerobic aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Philip Grinder; Arildskov, N.P.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    process was abiotic since atrazine was also removed from microbially inhibited autoclaved and chloroform amended controls, although in controls amended with mercury, atrazine removal was slowed down. (ring-U-C-14)- atrazine amended samples showed no mineralization to (CO2)-C-14 or transformation...

  6. Distribution and excretion of methyl and phenyl mercury salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gage, J C

    1964-01-01

    The distribution, metabolism, and excretion of phenyl mercury acetate (P.M.A.) and of methyl mercury dicyanidiamide (M.M.D.) has been studied in the rat during the repeated subcutaneous administration of small doses over a period of six weeks, and for several weeks after a single dose. The results indicate that P.M.A. is absorbed unchanged into the circulation from which it is mainly removed by the liver and kidneys where it is metabolized and excreted in the feces and urine mostly as inorganic mercury. During repeated dosage the rats reached a steady state by the end of the second week when excretion approximately balanced intake. No measurable amount of mercury was found in the central nervous system. After repeated dosage with M.M.D. there is no clear indication of a steady state being reached after six weeks. There is an accumulation of organic mercury in all tissues, particularly in the red cells, and a progressive increase in the brain concentration. M.M.D. is more slowly released from the tissues than P.M.A. and the breakdown to inorganic mercury is low. The control of human exposure to alkyl and aryl mercury salts is considered in the light of these experimental observations. The recommendation that the concentration of alkyl mercury salts in the atmosphere should not exceed 0-01 mg/m/sup 3/ seems justifiable, but there appears to be no reason to establish the figure for aryl mercury salts below the 0-1 mg/m/sup 3/ recommended for inorganic mercury vapor. 13 references, 4 tables.

  7. The materials flow of mercury in the economies of the United States and the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznopek, John L.; Goonan, Thomas G.

    2000-01-01

    Although natural sources of mercury exist in the environment, measured data and modeling results indicate that the amount of mercury released into the biosphere has increased since the beginning of the industrial age. Mercury is naturally distributed in the air, water, and soil in minute amounts, and can be mobile within and between these media. Because of these properties and the subsequent impacts on human health, mercury was selected for an initial materials flow study, focusing on the United States in 1990. This study was initiated to provide a current domestic and international analysis. As part of an increased emphasis on materials flow, this report researched changes and identified the associated trends in mercury flows; it also updates statistics through 1996. In addition to domestic flows, the report includes an international section, because all primary mercury-producing mines are currently foreign, 86 percent of the mercury cell sector of the worldwide chlor-alkali industry is outside the United States, there is a large international mercury trade (1,395 t 1 in 1996), and environmental regulations are not uniform or similarly enforced from country to country. Environmental concerns have brought about numerous regulations that have dramatically decreased both the use and the production of mercury since the late 1980?s. Our study indicates that this trend is likely to continue into the future, as the world eliminates the large mercury inventories that have been stockpiled to support prior industrial processes and products.

  8. Mercury levels in eggs, embryos, and neonates of Trachemys callirostris (Testudines, Emydidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendon Valencia, Beatriz; Zapata, Lina M; Bock, Brian C; Paez, Vivian P; Palacio, Jaime A.

    2014-01-01

    We quantified total mercury concentrations in eggshells, egg yolks, and embryos from 16 nests of the Colombian slider (Trachemys callirostris). Nests were collected in different stages of development, but estimated time of incubation in natural substrates was not correlated with mercury levels in the eggs, suggesting that mercury was not absorbed from the substrate, but more likely passed on to the embryos during folliculogenesis by the reproductive females who had bioaccumulated the mercury from environmental sources. Mean mercury concentrations were higher in embryos than in eggshells or egg yolks, indicating that embryos also bioaccumulate mercury present in other egg tissues. Intra-clutch variation in egg yolk mercury concentrations was relatively high. Egg yolk mercury concentrations were not associated with any of the fitness proxies we quantified for the nests (hatching success rates, initial neonate sizes and first-month juvenile growth rates). After five months of captive rearing in a mercury-free laboratory environment, 86 % of the juveniles had eliminated the mercury from their tissues.

  9. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

  10. Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-26

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Steve Nesheim discusses perinatal HIV transmission, including the importance of preventing HIV among women, preconception care, and timely HIV testing of the mother. Dr. Nesheim also introduces the revised curriculum Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission intended for faculty of OB/GYN and pediatric residents and nurse midwifery students.  Created: 11/26/2012 by Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 11/26/2012.

  11. Final report for the Central Mercury Treatment System in Building 9623 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This document discusses the construction of the Central Mercury Treatment System (CMTS) in Building 9623 at the Y-12 Plant, the remediation activities involved, waste generated from the project, and the monitoring schedule of the CMTS. As part of the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent Program, the project treats groundwater contaminated with mercury from Buildings 9201-4, 9201-5, and 9204-4 at the Y-12 Plant to meet National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit limits for discharge to East Fork Poplar Creek. The CMTS, located in Building 9623, will treat water from the sumps of buildings in which mercury was used in operations and which have been shown to be significant contributors to the overall levels of mercury in plant effluents. This project was anticipated when the NPDES Permit was issued, and the contamination limits and frequency of monitoring for the system discharge are detailed in the permit as Outfall 551. This project was performed as an Incentive Task Order and included the advance procurement of the carbon columns, removal of existing equipment in Building 9623, and system installation and checkout. Construction activities for installing the system started in January 1996 after the area in Building 9623 had been cleared of existing, obsolete equipment. The CMTS became operational on November 26, 1996, well ahead of the permit start date of January 1, 1998. The early completion date allows Hg concentrations in EFPC to be evaluated to determine whether further actions are required to meet NPDES permit limits for reduced Hg loading to the creek

  12. Mercury Emission Control Technologies for PPL Montana-Colstrip Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John P. Kay; Michael L. Jones; Steven A. Benson

    2007-04-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was asked by PPL Montana LLC (PPL) to provide assistance and develop an approach to identify cost-effective options for mercury control at its coal-fired power plants. The work conducted focused on baseline mercury level and speciation measurement, short-term parametric testing, and week long testing of mercury control technology at Colstrip Unit 3. Three techniques and various combinations of these techniques were identified as viable options for mercury control. The options included oxidizing agents or sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) such as chlorine-based SEA1 and an EERC proprietary SEA2 with and without activated carbon injection. Baseline mercury emissions from Colstrip Unit 3 are comparatively low relative to other Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired systems and were found to range from 5 to 6.5 g/Nm3 (2.9 to 3.8 lb/TBtu), with a rough value of approximately 80% being elemental upstream of the scrubber and higher than 95% being elemental at the outlet. Levels in the stack were also greater than 95% elemental. Baseline mercury removal across the scrubber is fairly variable but generally tends to be about 5% to 10%. Parametric results of carbon injection alone yielded minimal reduction in Hg emissions. SEA1 injection resulted in 20% additional reduction over baseline with the maximum rate of 400 ppm (3 gal/min). Week long testing was conducted with the combination of SEA2 and carbon, with injection rates of 75 ppm (10.3 lb/hr) and 1.5 lb/MMacf (40 lb/hr), respectively. Reduction was found to be an additional 30% and, overall during the testing period, was measured to be 38% across the scrubber. The novel additive injection method, known as novel SEA2, is several orders of magnitude safer and less expensive than current SEA2 injection methods. However, used in conjunction with this plant configuration, the technology did not demonstrate a significant level of mercury reduction. Near-future use of this

  13. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Gregory J

    1997-05-12

    Column biooxidation tests with Kentucky coal confirmed results of earlier shake flask tests showing significant removal from the coal of arsenic, selenium, cobalt, manganese, nickel and cadmium. Rates of pyrite biooxidation in Kentucky coal were only slightly more than half the rates found previously for Indiana and Pittsburgh coals. Removal of pyrite from Pittsburgh coal by ferric ion oxidation slows markedly as ferrous ions accumulate in solution, requiring maintenance of high redox potentials in processes designed for removal of pyrite and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors by circulation of ferric solutions through coal. The pyrite oxidation rates obtained in these tests were used by Unifield Engineering to support the conceptual designs for alternative pyrite and HAP precursor bioleaching processes for the phase 2 pilot plant. Thermophilic microorganisms were tested to determine if mercury could be mobilized from coal under elevated growth temperatures. There was no evidence for mercury removal from coal under these conditions. However, the activity of the organisms may have liberated mercury physically. It is also possible that the organisms dissolved mercury and it readsorbed to the clay preferentially. Both of these possibilities are undergoing further testing. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's (INEEL) slurry column reactor was operated and several batches of feed coal, product coal, waste solids and leach solutions were submitted to LBL for HAP precursor analysis. Results to date indicate significant removal of mercury, arsenic and other HAP precursors in the combined physical-biological process.

  14. Total Mercury content of skin toning creams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2008-04-01

    Apr 1, 2008 ... used it for cosmetics (Silberberg, 1995). Mercury- ... Cosmetic preparations containing mercury com- pounds are .... mercury determination by a modified version of an open .... level mercury exposure, which could lead to a.

  15. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J.E. Locke

    2005-11-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dryer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the seventh in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 1,300 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing three percent sulfur. The unit was equipped with an ESP and a limestone-based wet FGD to control particulate and SO2 emissions, respectively. At the time of sampling an SCR was not installed on this unit. Four sampling tests were performed in September 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. The results show that the FGD inlet flue gas oxidized:elemental mercury ratio was roughly 2:1, with 66% oxidized mercury and 34% elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a coal

  16. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  17. Influence of coal properties on mercury uptake from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, J.; Brown, S.D.; Snape, C.E. [Miskolc University, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary). Research Inst. of Applied Chemistry

    1999-10-01

    The uptake of mercury (II) from aqueous solution by a range of coals has been studied and the results have been compared to those for a number of other sorbents, including commercial active carbons and cation-exchange resins. At pH 5 in a buffer medium, the capacities for mercury removal of the low-rank coals and the oxidized bituminous coals investigated are comparable to those of the other sorbents tested. For the lignites investigated, a high content of organic sulfur does not markedly affect the capacity for mercury uptake in relatively neutral and low chloride media, owing to redox reactions being the most likely mechanism involved. However, in highly acidic solutions, the capacities for mercury uptake are considerably greater for the high-sulfur coals investigated than for their low-sulfur counterparts due to chelation being the major sorption process involved. 36 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. The tectonics of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melosh, H.J.; Mckinnon, W.B.

    1988-01-01

    The probable tectonic history of Mercury and the relative sequence of events are discussed on the basis of data collected by the Mariner-10 spacecraft. Results indicate that Mercury's tectonic activity was confined to its early history; its endogenic activity was principally due to a small change in the shape of its lithosphere, caused by tidal despinning, and a small change in area caused by shrinkage due to cooling. Exogenic processes, in particular the impact activity, have produced more abundant tectonic features. Many features associated with the Caloris basin are due to loading of Mercury's thick lithosphere by extrusive lavas or subsidence due to magma withdrawal. It is emphasized that tectonic features observed on Mercury yield insight into the earliest tectonic events on planets like Mars and, perhaps, the earth, where subsequent events obscured or erased the most ancient tectonic records

  19. Intentional intravenous mercury injection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elemental mercury is the well-known silver liquid and usually causes pulmonary, neurological and ... suicidal ideation or features of major depression. Clinically the patient was .... medically at this stage and consider surgical intervention later.

  20. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, S. M.

    2018-05-01

    The global dynamics of Mercury's magnetosphere will be discussed, focussing on observed asymmetries in the magnetotail and on the precipitation of particles of magnetospheric origin onto the nightside planetary surface.

  1. Mercury analysis in hair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit K; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A

    2015-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool for assessing actual exposure to chemicals that takes into account all routes of intake. Although hair analysis is considered to be an optimal biomarker for assessing mercury exposure, the lack of harmonization as regards sampling and analytical...... assurance program (QAP) for assessing mercury levels in hair samples from more than 1800 mother-child pairs recruited in 17 European countries. To ensure the comparability of the results, standard operating procedures (SOPs) for sampling and for mercury analysis were drafted and distributed to participating...... laboratories. Training sessions were organized for field workers and four external quality-assessment exercises (ICI/EQUAS), followed by the corresponding web conferences, were organized between March 2011 and February 2012. ICI/EQUAS used native hair samples at two mercury concentration ranges (0...

  2. Mercury's Early Geologic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Klima, R. L.; Robinson, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    A combination of geologic mapping, compositional information, and geochemical models are providing a better understanding of Mercury's early geologic history, and allow us to place it in the context of the Moon and the terrestrial planets.

  3. Potassium permanganate for mercury vapor environmental control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuivinen, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) was evaluated for application in removing mercury vapor from exhaust air systems. The KMnO4 may be used in water solution with a liquid spray scrubber system or as a solid adsorber bed material when impregnated onto a zeolite. Air samples contaminated with as much as 112 mg/cu m of mercury were scrubbed to 0.06mg/cum with the KMnO4-impregnated zeolite (molecular sieve material). The water spray solution of permanganate was also found to be as effective as the impregnated zeolite. The KMnO4-impregnated zeolite was applied as a solid adsorber material to (1) a hardware decontamination system, (2) a model incinerator, and (3) a high vacuum chamber for ion engine testing with mercury as the propellant. A liquid scrubber system was also applied in an incinerator system. Based on the results of these experiments, it is concluded that the use of KMnO4 can be an effective method for controlling noxious mercury vapor.

  4. Eliminate the "Bounce"!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The "bounce" (coined by students at Susan Leigh's last campus) refers to the amount of time students spent chasing signatures and removing often-unnecessary registration "holds" in order to attend their classes. Leigh explains that all this chaos from complex, separately housed transactional business processes has led to the…

  5. Mercury CEM Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Susan S. Sorini

    2007-03-31

    The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The traceability protocol will be written by EPA. Traceability will be based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging from about 2-40 ug/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID ICP/MS) through a chain of analyses linking the calibration unit in the power plant to the NIST ID ICP/MS. Prior to this project, NIST did not provide a recommended mercury vapor pressure equation or list mercury vapor pressure in its vapor pressure database. The NIST Physical and Chemical Properties Division in Boulder, Colorado was subcontracted under this project to study the issue in detail and to recommend a mercury vapor pressure equation that the vendors of mercury vapor pressure calibration units can use to calculate the elemental mercury vapor concentration in an equilibrium chamber at a particular temperature. As part of this study, a preliminary evaluation of calibration units from five vendors was made. The work was performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD and Joe Rovani from WRI who traveled to NIST as a Visiting Scientist.

  6. Cutaneous mercury granuloma

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpana A Bothale; Sadhana D Mahore; Sushil Pande; Trupti Dongre

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous mercury granuloma is rarely encountered. Clinically it may pose difficulty in diagnosis. Here, we report a 23-year-old male presented with erythematous, nodular lesions over the forearm and anterior aspect of chest wall. Metallic mercury in tissue sections appear as dark black, opaque, spherical globules of varying size and number. They are surrounded by granulomatous foreign-body reaction. It is composed of foreign body giant cells and mixed inflammatory infiltrate composed of hist...

  7. Mercury in human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapauan, P.A.; Cruz, C.C.; Verceluz, F.P.

    1980-10-01

    The analysis of mercury (Hg) in scalp hair obtained from individuals residing in five different localities in the Philippines - Metro Manila, Naga City in Bicol, Bataan, Oriental Mindoro, and Palawan is presented. An overall mean of 1.46 ug/g of hair was obtained for all samples excluding those from Palawan and represents a baseline value.'' In terms of the mercury levels found in hair, the Honda Bay area in Palawan is, relatively, a ''contaminated area.'' (author)

  8. Mercury exposure in the freshwater tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Rui [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wong Minghung [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.h [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-08-15

    Mercury (Hg) can be strongly accumulated and biomagnified along aquatic food chain, but the exposure pathway remains little studied. In this study, we quantified the uptake and elimination of both inorganic mercury [as Hg(II)] and methylmercury (as MeHg) in an important farmed freshwater fish, the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, using {sup 203}Hg radiotracer technique. The dissolved uptake rates of both mercury species increased linearly with Hg concentration (tested at ng/L levels), and the uptake rate constant of MeHg was 4 times higher than that of Hg(II). Dissolved uptake of mercury was highly dependent on the water pH and dissolved organic carbon concentration. The dietborne assimilation efficiency of MeHg was 3.7-7.2 times higher than that of Hg(II), while the efflux rate constant of MeHg was 7.1 times lower. The biokinetic modeling results showed that MeHg was the greater contributor to the overall mercury bioaccumulation and dietary exposure was the predominant pathway. - Trophic transfer was the predominant pathway for mercury accumulation in tilapia, and methylmercury was more important in contributing to Hg accumulation than Hg(II).

  9. Experimental investigations on the accumulation of mercury in water organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannerz, L

    1968-01-01

    During the last few decades alcyle and alcoxyalcyle mercury compounds have come into an increased use in agriculture as seed disinfectants. In the pulp industry, phenylmercuric acetate has become an important means of slime control and the predominating conservant for wet ground pulp. Mercury has been carried to streams, lakes and the sea in increasing amounts with waste waters from the pulp industry and run-off from the fields. Investigations, using the neutron activation analytical method have revealed high mercury concentration in fish from many lakes and streams in the southern and central parts of Sweden. Values as high as 8000 ng Hg/g have been reported, as compared with the 30-180 ng Hg/g that can be regarded as a normal background concentration for fresh-water fish. There are many indications that the high mercury concentrations found in fish and other water organisms are direct consequences of the use of mercury in agriculture and industry. Fish from certain lakes have actually been judged unfit for human consumption. This alarming situation emphasized the need for a better knowledge of the accumulation, retention and elimination of the mercury compounds concerned in fish and other water organisms and the experimental studies reported here were therefore started in 1965. They have been financially supported by the Swedish Agricultural Research Council.

  10. Mercury exposure in the freshwater tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rui; Wong Minghung; Wang Wenxiong

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) can be strongly accumulated and biomagnified along aquatic food chain, but the exposure pathway remains little studied. In this study, we quantified the uptake and elimination of both inorganic mercury [as Hg(II)] and methylmercury (as MeHg) in an important farmed freshwater fish, the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, using 203 Hg radiotracer technique. The dissolved uptake rates of both mercury species increased linearly with Hg concentration (tested at ng/L levels), and the uptake rate constant of MeHg was 4 times higher than that of Hg(II). Dissolved uptake of mercury was highly dependent on the water pH and dissolved organic carbon concentration. The dietborne assimilation efficiency of MeHg was 3.7-7.2 times higher than that of Hg(II), while the efflux rate constant of MeHg was 7.1 times lower. The biokinetic modeling results showed that MeHg was the greater contributor to the overall mercury bioaccumulation and dietary exposure was the predominant pathway. - Trophic transfer was the predominant pathway for mercury accumulation in tilapia, and methylmercury was more important in contributing to Hg accumulation than Hg(II).

  11. Mercury regulation, fate, transport, transformation, and abatement within cement manufacturing facilities: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkema, Joel K; Alleman, James E; Ong, Say Kee; Wheelock, Thomas D

    2011-09-15

    The USEPA's 2010 mercury rule, which would reduce emissions from non-hazardous waste burning cement manufacturing facilities by an estimated 94%, represents a substantial regulatory challenge for the industry. These regulations, based on the performance of facilities that benefit from low concentrations of mercury in their feedstock and fuel inputs (e.g., limestone concentration was less than 25 ppb at each facility), will require non-compliant facilities to develop innovative controls. Control development is difficult because each facility's emissions must be assessed and simple correlation to mercury concentrations in limestone or an assumption of 'typically observed' mercury concentrations in inputs are unsupported by available data. Furthermore, atmospheric emissions are highly variable due to an internal control mechanism that captures and loops mercury between the high-temperature kiln and low-temperature raw materials mill. Two models have been reported to predict emissions; however, they have not been benchmarked against data from the internal components that capture mercury and do not distinguish between mercury species, which have different sorption and desorption properties. Control strategies include technologies applied from other industries and technologies developed specifically for cement facilities. Reported technologies, listed from highest to lowest anticipated mercury removal, include purge of collected dust or raw meal, changes in feedstocks and fuels, wet scrubbing, cleaning of mercury enriched dust, dry sorbent injection, and dry and semi-dry scrubbing. The effectiveness of these technologies is limited by an inadequate understanding of sorption, desorption, and mercury species involved in internal loop mercury control. To comply with the mercury rule and to improve current mercury control technologies and practices, research is needed to advance fundamental knowledge regarding mercury species sorption and desorption dynamics on materials

  12. Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg.sup.196 enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg.sup.196 isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

  13. Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg[sup 196] enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M.W.

    1993-02-16

    The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg[sup 196] isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

  14. Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg196 enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg 196 isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment

  15. Detection of elemental mercury by multimode diode laser correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xiutao; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Svanberg, Sune; Zhang, Zhiguo; Wu, Shaohua

    2012-02-27

    We demonstrate a method for elemental mercury detection based on correlation spectroscopy employing UV laser radiation generated by sum-frequency mixing of two visible multimode diode lasers. Resonance matching of the multimode UV laser is achieved in a wide wavelength range and with good tolerance for various operating conditions. Large mode-hops provide an off-resonance baseline, eliminating interferences from other gas species with broadband absorption. A sensitivity of 1 μg/m3 is obtained for a 1-m path length and 30-s integration time. The performance of the system shows promise for mercury monitoring in industrial applications.

  16. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Michael D.; Schlager, Richard J.; Sappey, Andrew D.; Sagan, Francis J.; Marmaro, Roger W.; Wilson, Kevin G.

    1997-01-01

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber.

  17. Enhanced capture of elemental mercury by bamboo-based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zengqiang [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Xiang, Jun, E-mail: xiangjun@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Su, Sheng, E-mail: susheng_sklcc@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Zeng, Hancai; Zhou, Changsong; Sun, Lushi; Hu, Song; Qiu, Jianrong [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The KI-modified BC has excellent capacity for elemental mercury removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The chemisorption plays a dominant role for the modified BC materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability with the presence of NO or SO{sub 2}. - Abstract: To develop cost-effective sorbent for gas-phase elemental mercury removal, the bamboo charcoal (BC) produced from renewable bamboo and KI modified BC (BC-I) were used for elemental mercury removal. The effect of NO, SO{sub 2} on gas-phase Hg{sup 0} adsorption by KI modified BC was evaluated on a fixed bed reactor using an online mercury analyzer. BET surface area analysis, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the pore structure and surface chemistry of the sorbents. The results show that KI impregnation reduced the sorbents' BET surface area and total pore volume compared with that of the original BC. But the BC-I has excellent adsorption capacity for elemental mercury at a relatively higher temperature of 140 Degree-Sign C and 180 Degree-Sign C. The presence of NO or SO{sub 2} could inhibit Hg{sup 0} capture, but BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability. The specific reaction mechanism has been further analyzed.

  18. Enhanced capture of elemental mercury by bamboo-based sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Zengqiang; Xiang, Jun; Su, Sheng; Zeng, Hancai; Zhou, Changsong; Sun, Lushi; Hu, Song; Qiu, Jianrong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The KI-modified BC has excellent capacity for elemental mercury removal. ► The chemisorption plays a dominant role for the modified BC materials. ► The BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability with the presence of NO or SO 2 . - Abstract: To develop cost-effective sorbent for gas-phase elemental mercury removal, the bamboo charcoal (BC) produced from renewable bamboo and KI modified BC (BC-I) were used for elemental mercury removal. The effect of NO, SO 2 on gas-phase Hg 0 adsorption by KI modified BC was evaluated on a fixed bed reactor using an online mercury analyzer. BET surface area analysis, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the pore structure and surface chemistry of the sorbents. The results show that KI impregnation reduced the sorbents’ BET surface area and total pore volume compared with that of the original BC. But the BC-I has excellent adsorption capacity for elemental mercury at a relatively higher temperature of 140 °C and 180 °C. The presence of NO or SO 2 could inhibit Hg 0 capture, but BC-I has strong anti-poisoning ability. The specific reaction mechanism has been further analyzed.

  19. FGD Additives to Segregate and Sequester Mercury in Solid Byproducts - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Searcy, K; Bltyhe, G M; Steen, W A

    2012-02-28

    Many mercury control strategies for U.S. coal-fired power generating plants involve co-benefit capture of oxidized mercury from flue gases treated by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. For these processes to be effective at overall mercury control, the captured mercury must not be re-emitted to the atmosphere or into surface or ground water. The project sought to identify scrubber additives and FGD operating conditions under which mercury re-emissions would decrease and mercury would remain in the liquor and be blown down from the system in the chloride purge stream. After exiting the FGD system, mercury would react with precipitating agents to form stable solid byproducts and would be removed in a dewatering step. The FGD gypsum solids, free of most of the mercury, could then be disposed or processed for reuse as wallboard or in other beneficial reuse. The project comprised extensive bench-scale FGD scrubber tests in Phases I and II. During Phase II, the approaches developed at the bench scale were tested at the pilot scale. Laboratory wastewater treatment tests measured the performance of precipitating agents in removing mercury from the chloride purge stream. Finally, the economic viability of the approaches tested was evaluated.

  20. Chemical state of mercury and selenium in sewage sludge ash based P-fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Christian, E-mail: cv.vogel@yahoo.de [Division 4.4 Thermochemical Residues Treatment and Resource Recovery, Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und −prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Krüger, Oliver; Herzel, Hannes [Division 4.4 Thermochemical Residues Treatment and Resource Recovery, Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und −prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Amidani, Lucia [ESRF—The European Synchrotron, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France); Adam, Christian [Division 4.4 Thermochemical Residues Treatment and Resource Recovery, Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und −prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • Mercury bonded to carbon/organic material was detected in some sewage sludge ashes. • After thermochemcial treatment some mercury remains stabilized in the SSA matrix. • Analysis of the chemical state of mercury and selenium in highly diluted samples. - Abstract: Phosphorus-fertilizers from secondary resources such as sewage sludge ash (SSA) will become more important in the future as they could substitute conventional fertilizers based on the nonrenewable resource phosphate rock. Thermochemical approaches were developed which remove heavy metals from SSA prior to its fertilizer application on farmlands. We analyzed the chemical state of mercury and selenium in SSA before and after thermochemical treatment under different conditions for P-fertilizer production by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. In some incineration plants the mercury loaded carbon adsorber from off-gas cleaning was collected together with the SSA for waste disposal. SSAs from those plants contained mercury mainly bound to carbon/organic material. The other SSAs contained inorganic mercury compounds which are most probably stabilized in the SSA matrix and were thus not evaporated during incineration. During thermochemical treatment, carbon-bound mercury was removed quantitatively. In contrast, a certain immobile fraction of inorganic mercury compounds remained in thermochemically treated SSA, which were not clearly identified. HgSe might be one of the inorganic compounds, which is supported by results of Se K-edge XANES spectroscopy. Furthermore, the chemical state of selenium in the SSAs was very sensitive to the conditions of the thermochemical treatment.

  1. Renographic curve of persons exposed to mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenic, J.; Jurgova, T.; Zimacek, J.; Petrovicova, J.; Bilicky, J.

    1995-01-01

    In the group of 72 workers which were exposed to fumes of metallic mercury we evaluated possible nephrotoxic effect of Hg 0 . We also used nuclear renography for evaluation of kidney. Nephrotoxic effect of Hg 0 was proved by increased proteinuria and relatively frequent findings of pathological renogram. In the group with pathological renogram, elimination of Hg 0 in urine (1822.8 nmol.dm -3 ) was increased. In the group with normal finding the value was 883.7 nmol.dm -3 . These findings pointed at toxic effect of Hg 0 on kidney and suitability of radionuclide examination for disclosing of subclinical pathological changes. (authors)

  2. Risks: diagnosing and eliminating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy A. Tikhomirov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop conceptual theoretical and legal provisions and scientific recommendations on the identification analysis and elimination of risk. Methods universal dialectic method of cognition as well as scientific and private research methods based on it. Results the system was researched of risks diagnostics in the legal sphere and mechanism of influencing the quotrisk situationsquot and their consequences damage to the environment and harm to society. The concept of risk in the legal sphere was formulated the author39s classification of risks in the legal sphere is presented. The rules of analysis evaluation and prevention of risks and the model risk management framework are elaborated. Scientific novelty the mechanism for the identification analysis and elimination of risk has been developed and introduced into scientific circulation the author has proposed the classification and types of risks the reasons and the conditions promoting the risk occurrence. Practical significance the provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in the scientific lawmaking and lawenforcement activity as well as in the educational process of higher educational establishments. nbsp

  3. Analysis of gas-phase mercury sorption with coke and lignite dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marczak Marta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the problem of mercury emission became a widely discussed topic. Its high impact is caused by its toxicity and ability to accumulate in living organisms, properties that justified the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA to classify mercury as hazardous pollutant. The problem of mercury emission is crucial for countries like Poland, where the most of the emission is caused by coaldepended energy sector. Current technology of mercury removal utilizes adsorption of mercury on the surface of activated carbon. Due to high price of activated carbon, this technological approach seems to be uneconomical and calls for cheaper alternative. One possible solution can be usage of other sorptive materials obtained from thermal processes like coke production. Example of such material is coke dust obtained from dry quenching of coke. The aim of this work was to analyse the sorption potential of lignite and coke dust and determine parameters influencing mercury behaviour during combustion.

  4. Demonstration Results on the Effects of Mercury Speciation on the Stabilization of Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, T.B.; Hulet, G.A.; Morris, M.I.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.

    1999-01-01

    Mercury-contaminated wastes are currently being stored at approximately 19 Department of Energy sites, the volume of which is estimated to be about 16m(sup)3. These wastes exist in various forms including soil, sludges, and debris, which present a particular challenge regarding possible mercury stabilization methods. This reports provides the test results of three vendors, Allied Technology Group, IT Corporation, and Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc., that demonstrate the effects of mercury speciation on the stabilization of the mercury wastes. Mercury present in concentrations that exceed 260 parts per million must be removed by extraction methods and requires stabilization to ensure that the final wasteforms leach less than 0.2mg/L of mercury by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure or 0.025 mg/L using the Universal Treatment Standard

  5. Mercury pollution in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Jinap, S; Ismail, Ahmad; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have been published on levels of mercury contamination of the environment, and of food and human tissues in Peninsular Malaysia, there is a serious dearth of research that has been performed in East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak). Industry is rapidly developing in East Malaysia, and, hence, there is a need for establishing baseline levels of mercury contamination in environmental media in that part of the country by performing monitoring studies. Residues of total mercury and inorganic in food samples have been determined in nearly all previous studies that have been conducted; however, few researchers have analyzed samples for the presence of methlymercury residues. Because methylmercury is the most toxic form of mercury, and because there is a growing public awareness of the risk posed by methylmercury exposure that is associated with fish and seafood consumption, further monitoring studies on methylmercury in food are also essential. From the results of previous studies, it is obvious that the economic development in Malaysia, in recent years, has affected the aquatic environment of the country. Primary areas of environmental concern are centered on the rivers of the west Peninsular Malaysian coast, and the coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca, wherein industrial activities are rapidly expanding. The sources of existing mercury input to both of these areas of Malaysia should be studied and identified. Considering the high levels of mercury that now exists in human tissues, efforts should be continued, and accelerated in the future, if possible, to monitor mercury contamination levels in the coastal states, and particularly along the west Peninsular Malaysian coast. Most studies that have been carried out on mercury residues in environmental samples are dated, having been conducted 20-30 years ago; therefore, the need to collect much more and more current data is urgent. Furthermore, establishing baseline levels of mercury exposure to

  6. Application of Elimination Voltammetry to the Study of Electrochemical Reduction and Determination of the Herbicide Metribuzin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skopalová, J.; Navrátil, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 6 (2007), s. 961-977 ISSN 0009-2223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/1195 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : Elimination voltammetry with linear scan (EVLS) * metribuzin * electrochemical reduction * mercury electrodes Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.529, year: 2007

  7. Elimination of frequency noise from groundwater measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Y.M.; Bryce, R.W.; Strait, S.R.; Yeatman, R.A.

    1986-04-01

    Groundwater response to atmospheric fluctuation can be effectively removed from downhole-pressure records using the systematic approach. The technique is not as successful for removal of earth tides, due to a probable discrepancy between the actual earth tide and the theoretical earth tide. The advantage of the systematic technique is that a causative relationship is established for each component of the pressure response removed. This concept of data reduction is easily understood and well accepted. The disadvantage is that a record of the stress causing the pressure fluctuation must be obtained. This may be done by monitoring or synthesizing the stress. Frequency analysis offers a simpler way to eliminate the undesirable hydrologic fluctuations from the downhole pressure. Frequency analysis may prove to be impractical if the fluctuations being removed have broadband characteristics. A combination of the two techniques, such as eliminating the atmospheric effect with the systematic method and the earth-tide fluctuations with the frequency method, is the most effective and efficient approach

  8. Selective partitioning of mercury from co-extracted actinides in a simulated acidic ICPP waste stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Tranter, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    The TRUEX process is being evaluated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) as a means to partition the actinides from acidic sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The mercury content of this waste averages 1 g/l. Because the chemistry of mercury has not been extensively evaluated in the TRUEX process, mercury was singled out as an element of interest. Radioactive mercury, 203 Hg, was spiked into a simulated solution of SBW containing 1 g/l mercury. Successive extraction batch contacts with the mercury spiked waste simulant and successive scrubbing and stripping batch contacts of the mercury loaded TRUEX solvent (0.2 M CMPO-1.4 M TBP in dodecane) show that mercury will extract into and strip from the solvent. The extraction distribution coefficient for mercury, as HgCl 2 from SBW having a nitric acid concentration of 1.4 M and a chloride concentration of 0.035 M was found to be 3. The stripping distribution coefficient was found to be 0.5 with 5 M HNO 3 and 0.077 with 0.25 M Na 2 CO 3 . An experimental flowsheet was designed from the batch contact tests and tested counter-currently using 5.5 cm centrifugal contactors. Results from the counter-current test show that mercury can be removed from the acidic mixed SBW simulant and recovered separately from the actinides

  9. Laying Waste to Mercury: Inexpensive Sorbents Made from Sulfur and Recycled Cooking Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Max J. H.; Kucera, Renata L.; Albuquerque, Inês S.; Gibson, Christopher T.; Sibley, Alexander; Slattery, Ashley D.; Campbell, Jonathan A.; Alboaiji, Salah F. K.; Muller, Katherine A.; Young, Jason; Adamson, Nick; Gascooke, Jason R.; Jampaiah, Deshetti; Sabri, Ylias M.; Bhargava, Suresh K.; Ippolito, Samuel J.; Lewis, David A.; Quinton, Jamie S.; Ellis, Amanda V.; Johs, Alexander; Bernardes, Gonçalo J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Mercury pollution threatens the environment and human health across the globe. This neurotoxic substance is encountered in artisanal gold mining, coal combustion, oil and gas refining, waste incineration, chloralkali plant operation, metallurgy, and areas of agriculture in which mercury‐rich fungicides are used. Thousands of tonnes of mercury are emitted annually through these activities. With the Minamata Convention on Mercury entering force this year, increasing regulation of mercury pollution is imminent. It is therefore critical to provide inexpensive and scalable mercury sorbents. The research herein addresses this need by introducing low‐cost mercury sorbents made solely from sulfur and unsaturated cooking oils. A porous version of the polymer was prepared by simply synthesising the polymer in the presence of a sodium chloride porogen. The resulting material is a rubber that captures liquid mercury metal, mercury vapour, inorganic mercury bound to organic matter, and highly toxic alkylmercury compounds. Mercury removal from air, water and soil was demonstrated. Because sulfur is a by‐product of petroleum refining and spent cooking oils from the food industry are suitable starting materials, these mercury‐capturing polymers can be synthesised entirely from waste and supplied on multi‐kilogram scales. This study is therefore an advance in waste valorisation and environmental chemistry. PMID:28763123

  10. Oxidation Catalysts for Elemental Mercury in Flue Gases—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Lazar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The removal of mercury from flue gases in scrubbers is greatly facilitated if the mercury is present as water-soluble oxidized species. Therefore, increased mercury oxidation upstream of scrubber devices will improve overall mercury removal. For this purpose heterogeneous catalysts have recently attracted a great deal of interest. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR, noble metal and transition metal oxide based catalysts have been investigated at both the laboratory and plant scale with this objective. A review article published in 2006 covers the progress in the elemental mercury (Hgel catalytic oxidation area. This paper brings the review in this area up to date. To this end, 110 papers including several reports and patents are reviewed. For each type of catalyst the possible mechanisms as well as the effect of flue gas components on activity and stability are examined. Advantages and main problems are analyzed. The possible future directions of catalyst development in this environmental research area are outlined.

  11. Mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining in Antioquia, Colombia: The world's highest per capita mercury pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordy, Paul; Veiga, Marcello M; Salih, Ibrahim; Al-Saadi, Sari; Console, Stephanie; Garcia, Oseas; Mesa, Luis Alberto; Velásquez-López, Patricio C; Roeser, Monika

    2011-12-01

    The artisanal gold mining sector in Colombia has 200,000 miners officially producing 30tonnes Au/a. In the Northeast of the Department of Antioquia, there are 17 mining towns and between 15,000 and 30,000 artisanal gold miners. Guerrillas and paramilitary activities in the rural areas of Antioquia pushed miners to bring their gold ores to the towns to be processed in Processing Centers or entables. These Centers operate in the urban areas amalgamating the whole ore, i.e. without previous concentration, and later burn gold amalgam without any filtering/condensing system. Based on mercury mass balance in 15 entables, 50% of the mercury added to small ball mills (cocos) is lost: 46% with tailings and 4% when amalgam is burned. In just 5 cities of Antioquia, with a total of 150,000 inhabitants: Segovia, Remedios, Zaragoza, El Bagre, and Nechí, there are 323 entables producing 10-20tonnes Au/a. Considering the average levels of mercury consumption estimated by mass balance and interviews of entables owners, the mercury consumed (and lost) in these 5 municipalities must be around 93tonnes/a. Urban air mercury levels range from 300ng Hg/m(3) (background) to 1million ng Hg/m(3) (inside gold shops) with 10,000ng Hg/m(3) being common in residential areas. The WHO limit for public exposure is 1000ng/m(3). The total mercury release/emissions to the Colombian environment can be as high as 150tonnes/a giving this country the shameful first position as the world's largest mercury polluter per capita from artisanal gold mining. One necessary government intervention is to cut the supply of mercury to the entables. In 2009, eleven companies in Colombia legally imported 130tonnes of metallic mercury, much of it flowing to artisanal gold mines. Entables must be removed from urban centers and technical assistance is badly needed to improve their technology and reduce emissions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mercury Quick Facts: Health Effects of Mercury Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2012 What are the Health Effects of Mercury Exposure? The health effects that can be caused by breathing mercury depend ... they breathe faster and have smaller lungs. Health effects caused by long-term exposure to mercury vapors • • Anxiety • • Excessive shyness • • Anorexia • • Sleeping ...

  13. Catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granite, Evan J [Wexford, PA; Pennline, Henry W [Bethel Park, PA

    2010-08-17

    Two new classes of catalysts for the removal of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg) from effluent gases. Both of these classes of catalysts are excellent absorbers of HCl and Cl.sub.2 present in effluent gases. This adsorption of oxidizing agents aids in the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants. The catalysts remove mercury by oxidizing the Hg into mercury (II) moieties. For one class of catalysts, the active component is selected from the group consisting of iridium (Ir) and iridum-platinum (Ir/Pt) alloys. The Ir and Ir/Pt alloy catalysts are especially corrosion resistant. For the other class of catalyst, the active component is partially combusted coal or "Thief" carbon impregnated with Cl.sub.2. Untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-activating in the presence of effluent gas streams. The Thief carbon catalyst is disposable by means of capture from the effluent gas stream in a particulate collection device (PCD).

  14. Mercury pOIsonIng

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of mercury poisoning is reported and clinical observations of 6 .... fish ingested and occupational exposure. .... exposed to mercury as a result of inadequate industrial safety standards, and ... WHO Tech Rep Ser 1980; No. 674: 102-115.

  15. Mercury Study Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Report to Congress on Mercury provides an assessment of the magnitude of U.S. mercury emissions by source, the health and environmental implications of those emissions, and the availability and cost of control technologies.

  16. True Polar Wander of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, J. T.; Matsuyama, I.

    2018-05-01

    We use new MESSENGER gravity data to investigate how impact basins and volcanic provinces alter Mercury's moments of inertia. We find that Mercury has reoriented tens of degrees over its history, affecting tectonics, volatiles, and more.

  17. Mercury Emissions: The Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercury emissions are a global problem that knows no national or continental boundaries. Mercury that is emitted to the air can travel thousands of miles in the atmosphere before it is eventually deposited back to the earth.

  18. Study on emission of hazardous trace elements in a 350 MW coal-fired power plant. Part 1. Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shilin; Duan, Yufeng; Chen, Lei; Li, Yaning; Yao, Ting; Liu, Shuai; Liu, Meng; Lu, Jianhong

    2017-10-01

    Hazardous trace elements (HTEs), especially mercury, emitted from coal-fired power plants had caused widespread concern worldwide. Field test on mercury emissions at three different loads (100%, 85%, 68% output) using different types of coal was conducted in a 350 MW pulverized coal combustion power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), electrostatic precipitator and fabric filter (ESP + FF), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD). The Ontario Hydro Method was used for simultaneous flue gas mercury sampling for mercury at the inlet and outlet of each of the air pollutant control device (APCD). Results showed that mercury mass balance rates of the system or each APCD were in the range of 70%-130%. Mercury was mainly distributed in the flue gas, followed by ESP + FF ash, WFGD wastewater, and slag. Oxidized mercury (Hg 2+ ) was the main form of mercury form in the flue gas emitted to the atmosphere, which accounted for 57.64%-61.87% of total mercury. SCR was favorable for elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) removal, with oxidation efficiency of 50.13%-67.68%. ESP + FF had high particle-bound mercury (Hg p ) capture efficiency, at 99.95%-99.97%. Overall removal efficiency of mercury by the existing APCDs was 58.78%-73.32%. Addition of halogens or oxidants for Hg 0 conversion, and inhibitors for Hg 0 re-emission, plus the installation of a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) was a good way to improve the overall removal efficiency of mercury in the power plants. Mercury emission factor determined in this study was from 0.92 to 1.17 g/10 12 J. Mercury concentration in the emitted flue gas was much less than the regulatory limit of 30 μg/m 3 . Contamination of mercury in desulfurization wastewater should be given enough focus. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Mercury speciation and distribution in a 660-megawatt utility boiler in Taiwan firing bituminous coals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Lee, Hsiu-Hsia; Hwang, Jyh-Feng; Chen, Wang

    2010-05-01

    Mercury speciation and distribution in a 660-MW tangential-fired utility boiler in Taiwan burning Australian and Chinese bituminous coal blends was investigated. Flue gases were simultaneously sampled at the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) inlet, the SCR outlet, the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) outlet, and the stack. Samplings of coal, lime, bottom ash/slag, fly ash, and gypsum slurry were also conducted. Results indicated that flue gases at the inlet to SCR contained a great potion of particle-bound mercury (Hg(p)), 59-92% of the total mercury. Removal of mercury was not observed for the SCR system. However, repartitioning of mercury species across the SCR occurred that significantly increased the portion of elemental mercury (Hg0) to up to 29% and oxidized mercury (Hg2+) to up to 33% in the SCR outlet gas. Overreporting of Hg(p) at the inlet of SCR may cause the observed repartitioning; the high ammonia/nitric oxide circumstance in the SCR unit was also speculated to cause the mercury desorption from ash particles and subsequent reentrance into the gas phase. ESP can remove up to 99% of Hg(p), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) can remove up to 84% of Hg2+. Mercury mass balances were calculated to range between 81 and 127.4%, with an average of 95.7% wherein 56-82% was in ESP fly ash, 8.7-18.6% was retained in the FGD gypsum, and 6.2-26.1% was emitted from the stack. Data presented here suggest that mercury removal can be largely enhanced by increasing the conversion of Hg0 into Hg(p) and Hg2+.

  20. Mercury's magnetic field and interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connerney, J.E.P.; Ness, N.F.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetic-field data collected on Mercury by the Mariner-10 spacecraft present substantial evidence for an intrinsic global magnetic field. However, studies of Mercury's thermal evolution show that it is most likely that the inner core region of Mercury solidified or froze early in the planet's history. Thus, the explanation of Mercury's magnetic field in the framework of the traditional planetary dynamo is less than certain

  1. Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Withum; S. C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

    2006-01-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that these data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the ninth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on Unit 1 at Plant 7, a 566 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 3.6% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO

  2. Nanofiber Filters Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    With support from Phase I and II SBIR funding from Johnson Space Center, Argonide Corporation of Sanford, Florida tested and developed its proprietary nanofiber water filter media. Capable of removing more than 99.99 percent of dangerous particles like bacteria, viruses, and parasites, the media was incorporated into the company's commercial NanoCeram water filter, an inductee into the Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame. In addition to its drinking water filters, Argonide now produces large-scale nanofiber filters used as part of the reverse osmosis process for industrial water purification.

  3. FINAL REPORT ON THE AQUATIC MERCURY ASSESSMENT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, N

    2008-09-30

    In February 2000, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 4 issued a proposed Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for total mercury in the middle and lower Savannah River. The initial TMDL, which would have imposed a 1 ng/l mercury limit for discharges to the middle/lower Savannah River, was revised to 2.8 ng/l in the final TMDL released in February 2001. The TMDL was intended to protect people from the consumption of contaminated fish, which is the major route of mercury exposure to humans. The most bioaccumulative form of mercury is methylmercury, which is produced in aquatic environments by the action of microorganisms on inorganic mercury. Because of the environmental and economic significance of the mercury discharge limits that would have been imposed by the TMDL, the Savannah River Site (SRS) initiated several studies concerning: (1) mercury in SRS discharges, SRS streams and the Savannah River, (2) mercury bioaccumulation factors for Savannah River fish, (3) the use of clams to monitor the influence of mercury from tributary streams on biota in the Savannah River, and (4) mercury in rainwater falling on the SRS. The results of these studies are presented in detail in this report. The first study documented the occurrence, distribution and variation of total and methylmercury at SRS industrial outfalls, principal SRS streams and the Savannah River where it forms the border with the SRS. All of the analyses were performed using the EPA Method 1630/31 ultra low-level and contaminant-free techniques for measuring total and methylmercury. Total mercury at National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) outfalls ranged from 0.31-604 ng/l with a mean of 8.71 ng/l. Mercury-contaminated groundwater was the source for outfalls with significantly elevated mercury concentrations. Total mercury in SRS streams ranged from 0.95-15.7 ng/l. Mean total mercury levels in the streams varied from 2.39 ng/l in Pen Branch to 5.26 ng/l in Tims Branch

  4. MERCURY IN MARINE LIFE DATABASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the Mercury in Marine Life Project is to organize information on estuarine and marine species so that EPA can better understand both the extent of monitoring for mercury and level of mercury contamination in the biota of coastal environments. This report follows a ...

  5. Reference Atmosphere for Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Rosemary M.

    2002-01-01

    We propose that Ar-40 measured in the lunar atmosphere and that in Mercury's atmosphere is due to current diffusion into connected pore space within the crust. Higher temperatures at Mercury, along with more rapid loss from the atmosphere will lead to a smaller column abundance of argon at Mercury than at the Moon, given the same crustal abundance of potassium. Because the noble gas abundance in the Hermean atmosphere represents current effusion, it is a direct measure of the crustal potassium abundance. Ar-40 in the atmospheres of the planets is a measure of potassium abundance in the interiors, since Ar-40 is a product of radiogenic decay of K-40 by electron capture with the subsequent emission of a 1.46 eV gamma-ray. Although the Ar-40 in the Earth's atmosphere is expected to have accumulated since the late bombardment, Ar-40 in the atmospheres of Mercury and the Moon is eroded quickly by photoionization and electron impact ionization. Thus, the argon content in the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury is representative of current effusion rather than accumulation over the lifetime of the planet.

  6. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Mercury Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.P.; Redinger, K.W.; Holmes, M.J.

    1997-07-01

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (a subsidiary of Babcock ampersand Wilcox) is conducting the Advanced Emissions Control Development Project (AECDP) which is aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPS) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for such controls may arise as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proceeds with implementation of requirements set forth in the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA's) of 1990. Promulgation of air toxics emissions regulations for electric utility plants could dramatically impact utilities burning coal, their industrial and residential customers, and the coal industry. AECDP project work will supply the information needed by utilities to respond to potential HAPs regulations in a timely, cost-effective, enviromnentally-sound manner which supports the continued use of the Nation's abundant reserves of coal, such as those in the State of Ohio. The development work is being carried out using the 10 MW Clean Environment Development Facility wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions. The specific objectives of the project are to (1) measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species for a variety of coals, (2) optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems, (3) develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts, (4) develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques, and (5) establish a comprehensive, self-consistent air toxics data library. This project is supported by the Department of Energy, the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development and Babcock ampersand Wilcox. A comprehensive assessment of HAP emissions from coal-fired electric utility boilers sponsored by the Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute concluded that with the exception of

  7. Biosorption of mercury on magnetically modified yeast cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yavuz, H.; Denizli, A.; Gungunes, H.; Šafaříková, Miroslava; Šafařík, Ivo

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 52, - (2006), s. 253-260 ISSN 1383-5866 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC 108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : mercury removal * magnetic biosorbents * yeast Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.497, year: 2006

  8. PHOTOCATALYTIC REMOVAL OF TR I- AND HEXA-VALENT CHROMIUM IONS FROM CHROME-ELECTROPL ATING WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puangrat Kajitvichyanukul

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel technique based on photocatalysis was applied to eliminate chromium ions, a toxic hazardous environmental pollutant. The photoreduction of each species of chromium (total, hexavalent, and trivalent chromiums from chrome-electroplating wastewater was investigated using a titanium dioxide suspension under irradiation by a low-pressure mercury lamp. The initial concentration of total chromium was 300 mg/l. The applied conditions were the direct photocatalytic reduction process at pH 3.65 and the indirect photocatalytic reduction with added hole scavengers at the same solution pH. Results from both processes were comparatively discussed. Result show that chromium was not efficiently removed by direct photoreduction. In contrast, with the adding of hole scavengers, which were formate ions, the photoreduction of chromium was very favorable. Both hexavalent and trivalent chromiums were efficiently removed. The photocatalytic mechanism is purposed in this study.

  9. Extraction of gold and mercury from sea water with bismuth diethyldithiocarbamate prior to neutron activation-. gamma. -spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, J.C.; Lo, J.M.; Wai, C.M. (Idaho Univ. Moscow (USA). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1983-11-01

    Gold and mercury in sea water can be selectively extracted by bismuth diethyldithiocarbamate into chloroform at pH <= 1. The matrix species and many other trace elements in the system are effectively removed during extraction. When neutron activation-..gamma..-spectrometry is used, the detection limits for gold and mercury are 0.001 and 0.01 ..mu..g l/sup -1/, respectively. The relative precision is 9% for gold and 13% for mercury.

  10. Pilot plant experiments for the denitration and mercury separation from the HEWC solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humblet, L.; Hendrickx, J.P.; Geel, J. van.

    1984-06-01

    A process development for the elimination of mercury and nitrates from the HEWC (high-enriched waste concentrates) solutions has been achieved. This process is based on the reduction of mercury to metal with formaldehyde. The pilot plant which has enabled to test the developed process is described as well as the experiments. The residual mercury concentration is of 25 mg/1 but the mechanism of the reduction is not yet known. During the denitration the nitrous vapors production calls for an oversized absorption column. The control instruments and the analytical methods are also described. (AF)β

  11. Determination of mercury in ppb level by activation analysis and chemical separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requejo, C.S.

    1983-02-01

    A method for determining mercury in steel samples was developed. Activation analysis using thermal neutrons, followed by radiochemical separations to eliminate 75 Se interferences, were applied. Sixty hours after the end of the irradiation, the samples were processed and distillation of mercury and selenium bromides were carried out. Selenium was separated as an element and mercury sulfide was precipitaded. The chemical separation procedure was tested by using a tracer technique; the recovery yield was 99,2% + - 2,7%. (C.L.B.) [pt

  12. Water displacement mercury pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  13. The role of groundwater transport in aquatic mercury cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbenhoft, David P.; Babiarz, Christopher L.

    1992-01-01

    Mercury, which is transported globally by atmospheric pathways to remote aquatic environments, is a ubiquitous contaminant at very low (nanograms Hg per liter) aqueous concentrations. Until recently, however, analytical and sampling techniques were not available for freshwater systems to quantify the actual levels of mercury concentrations without introducing significant contamination artifacts. Four different sampling strategies were used to evaluate ground water flow as a mercury source and transport mechanism within aquatic systems. The sampling strategies employ ultraclean techniques to determine mercury concentrations in groundwater and pore water near Pallette Lake, Wisconsin. Ambient groundwater concentrations are about 2–4 ng Hg L−1, whereas pore waters near the sediment/water interface average about 12 ng Hg L−1, emphasizing the importance of biogeochemical processes near the interface. Overall, the groundwater system removes about twice as much mercury (1.5 g yr−1) as it contributes (0.7 g yr−1) to Pallette Lake. About three fourths of the groundwater mercury load is recycled, thought to be derived from the water column.

  14. Remediation of mercury-polluted soils using artificial wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mercadoa, Héctor Daniel; Fernándezb, Georgina; Garzón-Zúñigac, Marco Antonio; Durán-Domínguez-de-Bazúaa, María Del Carmen

    2017-01-02

    Mexico's mercury mining industry is important for economic development, but has unfortunately contaminated soils due to open-air disposal. This case was seen at two sites in the municipality of Pinal de Amoles, State of Queretaro, Mexico. This paper presents an evaluation of mercury dynamics and biogeochemistry in two soils (mining waste soil) using ex-situ wetlands over 36 weeks. In soils sampled in two former mines of Pinal de Amoles, initial mercury concentrations were 424 ± 29 and 433 ± 12 mg kg -1 in La Lorena and San Jose, former mines, respectively. Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis were used and 20 reactors were constructed (with and without plants). The reactors were weekly amended with a nutrient solution (NPK), for each plant, at a pH of 5.0. For remediation using soils from San Jose 70-78% of mercury was removed in T. latifolia reactors and 76-82% in P. australis reactors, and for remediation of soils from La Lorena, mercury content was reduced by 55-71% using T. latifolia and 58-66% in P. australis reactors. Mercury emissions into the atmosphere were estimated to be 2-4 mg m -2 h -1 for both soils.

  15. Mercury Oxidation via Catalytic Barrier Filters Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Seames; Michael Mann; Darrin Muggli; Jason Hrdlicka; Carol Horabik

    2007-09-30

    In 2004, the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory awarded the University of North Dakota a Phase II University Coal Research grant to explore the feasibility of using barrier filters coated with a catalyst to oxidize elemental mercury in coal combustion flue gas streams. Oxidized mercury is substantially easier to remove than elemental mercury. If successful, this technique has the potential to substantially reduce mercury control costs for those installations that already utilize baghouse barrier filters for particulate removal. Completed in 2004, Phase I of this project successfully met its objectives of screening and assessing the possible feasibility of using catalyst coated barrier filters for the oxidation of vapor phase elemental mercury in coal combustion generated flue gas streams. Completed in September 2007, Phase II of this project successfully met its three objectives. First, an effective coating method for a catalytic barrier filter was found. Second, the effects of a simulated flue gas on the catalysts in a bench-scale reactor were determined. Finally, the performance of the best catalyst was assessed using real flue gas generated by a 19 kW research combustor firing each of three separate coal types.

  16. Mercury exposure in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cullen, Elizabeth; Evans, David S; Davidson, Fred

    2014-01-01

    of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES) pilot biomonitoring study. METHODS: Hair mercury concentrations were determined from a convenience sample of 120 mother/child pairs. Mothers also completed a questionnaire. Rigorous quality assurance within DEMOCOPHES...... guaranteed the accuracy and international comparability of results. RESULTS: Mercury was detected in 79.2% of the samples from mothers, and 62.5% of children's samples. Arithmetic mean levels in mothers (0.262 µg/g hair) and children (0.149 µg /g hair) did not exceed the US EPA guidance value. Levels were...

  17. Influence of the Sostanj coal-fired thermal power plant on mercury and methyl mercury concentrations in Lake Velenje, Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotnik, J.; Horvat, M.; Mandic, V.; Logar, M. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2000-10-02

    Lake Velenje is located in one of the most polluted regions in Slovenia, the Salek Valley. The major source of pollution in the valley is the coal-fired thermal power plant in Sostanj (STPP, capacity 775 MW). It has five separate units. All units have electrostatic precipitators for fly ash removal. Unit 4 also has installed a wet flue gas desulfurisation system (FGD system). Total mercury (THg) concentrations were measured in lignite, slag and ash samples from the STPP. In flue gas, different mercury species (THg, MeHg, Hg{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 0}) were determined separately for unit 4 and unit 5 which use different flue gas cleaning technology. Mercury and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations were also measured in lake water at different depths, in inflow water, outflow water, rain, snow and lake sediments in order to establish the influence of the power plant on the lake. Most mercury emitted from the power plant is in the elemental form. The ratio between oxidised and elemental Hg depends on the flue gas cleaning technology. Mass balance calculations have been performed for the STPP. The results show that the major sources of mercury in Lake Velenje are wet deposition and lake inflows. Total and MeHg concentrations in the water column are very low and can be compared to other non-contaminated freshwater lakes in the world.

  18. Influence of the Sostanj coal-fired thermal power plant on mercury and methyl mercury concentrations in Lake Velenje, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotnik; Horvat; Mandic; Logar

    2000-10-02

    Lake Velenje is located in one of the most polluted regions in Slovenia, the Salek Valley. The major source of pollution in the valley is the coal-fired thermal power plant in Sostanj (STPP, capacity 775 MW). It has five separate units. All units have electrostatic precipitators for fly ash removal. Unit 4 also has installed a wet flue gas desulfurisation system (FGD system). Total mercury (THg) concentrations were measured in lignite, slag and ash samples from the STPP. In flue gas, different mercury species (THg, MeHg, Hg2+, Hg0) were determined separately for unit 4 and unit 5 which use different flue gas cleaning technology. Mercury and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations were also measured in lake water at different depths, in inflow water, outflow water, rain, snow and lake sediments in order to establish the influence of the power plant on the lake. Most mercury emitted from the power plant is in the elemental form. The ratio between oxidised and elemental Hg depends on the flue gas cleaning technology. Mass balance calculations have been performed for the STPP. The results show that the major sources of mercury in Lake Velenje are wet deposition and lake inflows. Total and MeHg concentrations in the water column are very low and can be compared to other non-contaminated freshwater lakes in the world.

  19. Eliminating Rabies in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliquet, Florence; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Must, Kylli; Laine, Marjana; Peik, Katrin; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Niin, Enel

    2012-01-01

    The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in two main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These two species became a priority target therefore in order to control rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV) campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen® SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, four in 2007 and three in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than three cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the South-Eastern border with Russia. The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85% to 93% in foxes and from 82% to 88% in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34% to 55% in foxes and from 38% to 55% in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other two Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania. Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania. PMID:22393461

  20. In vitro evaluation of dietary compounds to reduce mercury bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadán-Piedra, Carlos; Vélez, Dinoraz; Devesa, Vicenta

    2018-05-15

    Mercury in foods, in inorganic form [Hg(II)] or as methylmercury (CH 3 Hg), can have adverse effects. Its elimination from foods is not technologically viable. To reduce human exposure, possible alternatives might be based on reducing its intestinal absorption. This study evaluates the ability of 23 dietary components to reduce the amount of mercury that is absorbed and reaches the bloodstream (bioavailability). We determined their effect on uptake of mercury in Caco-2 cells, a model of intestinal epithelium, exposed to Hg(II) and CH 3 Hg standards and to swordfish bioaccessible fractions. Cysteine, homocysteine, glutathione, quercetin, albumin and tannic reduce bioavailability of both mercury species. Fe(II), lipoic acid, pectin, epigallocatechin and thiamine are also effective for Hg(II). Some of these strategies also reduce Hg bioavailability in swordfish (glutathione, cysteine, homocysteine). Moreover, extracts and supplements rich in these compounds are also effective. This knowledge may help to define dietary strategies to reduce in vivo mercury bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mercury in Pelecanus occidentalis of the Cispata bay, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saudith Burgos N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Assessment the total concentration of mercury in the liver and feathers of Pelecanus occidentalis of the Cispata bay, Colombia. Materials and methods. Mercury concentrations in liver and feather of Pelecanus occidentalis residents in the Cispata bay – Colombia were evaluated by digestion with an acidic mixture of H2SO4–HNO3 and KMnO4 to eliminate organic matter. The concentration of mercury was determined by the Atomic Absorption - Cold Vapor method (CVAAS. Results. Total mercury levels found in this study were higher in feathers (0.31-9.17 mgHg/kg than in the liver (0.63–6.29 mgHg/kg, being higher than those reported in other seabirds studies. Conclusions. The high levels of total mercury in feathers and liver can be explained by the feeding habits of the organisms under study, showing the utility of feathers as a potential non-invasive tool for the monitoring of the ecosystem and thereby preventing the sacrifice of specimens.

  2. Method and apparatus for sampling atmospheric mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Patricio E.; Campbell, Evan E.; Eutsler, Bernard C.

    1976-01-20

    A method of simultaneously sampling particulate mercury, organic mercurial vapors, and metallic mercury vapor in the working and occupational environment and determining the amount of mercury derived from each such source in the sampled air. A known volume of air is passed through a sampling tube containing a filter for particulate mercury collection, a first adsorber for the selective adsorption of organic mercurial vapors, and a second adsorber for the adsorption of metallic mercury vapor. Carbon black molecular sieves are particularly useful as the selective adsorber for organic mercurial vapors. The amount of mercury adsorbed or collected in each section of the sampling tube is readily quantitatively determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  3. Remediation Technologies Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    groundwater tainted by chlorinated solvents once used to clean rocket engine components. The award-winning innovation (Spinoff 2010) is now NASA s most licensed technology to date. PCBs in paint presented a new challenge. Removing the launch stand for recycling proved a difficult operation; the toxic paint had to be fully stripped from the steel structure, a lengthy and costly process that required the stripped paint to be treated before disposal. Noting the lack of efficient, environmentally friendly options for dealing with PCBs, Quinn and her colleagues developed the Activated Metal Treatment System (AMTS). AMTS is a paste consisting of a solvent solution containing microscale particles of activated zero-valent metal. When applied to a painted surface, the paste extracts and degrades the PCBs into benign byproducts while leaving the paint on the structure. This provides a superior alternative to other methods for PCB remediation, such as stripping the paint or incinerating the structure, which prevents reuse and can release volatized PCBs into the air. Since its development, AMTS has proven to be a valuable solution for removing PCBs from paint, caulking, and various insulation and filler materials in older buildings, naval ships, and former munitions facilities where the presence of PCBs interferes with methods for removing trace explosive materials. Miles of potentially toxic caulking join sections of runways at airports. Any of these materials installed before 1979 potentially contain PCBs, Quinn says. "This is not just a NASA problem," she says. "It s a global problem."

  4. Mercury capture within coal-fired power plant electrostatic precipitators: model evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2009-03-01

    Efforts to reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions worldwide have recently focused on a variety of sources, including mercury emitted during coal combustion. Toward that end, much research has been ongoing seeking to develop new processes for reducing coal combustion mercury emissions. Among air pollution control processes that can be applied to coal-fired boilers, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are by far the most common, both on a global scale and among the principal countries of India, China, and the U.S. that burn coal for electric power generation. A previously reported theoretical model of in-flight mercury capture within ESPs is herein evaluated against data from a number of full-scale tests of activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control. By using the established particle size distribution of the activated carbon and actual or estimated values of its equilibrium mercury adsorption capacity, the incremental reduction in mercury concentration across each ESP can be predicted and compared to experimental results. Because the model does not incorporate kinetics associated with gas-phase mercury transformation or surface adsorption, the model predictions representthe mass-transfer-limited performance. Comparing field data to model results reveals many facilities performing at or near the predicted mass-transfer-limited maximum, particularly at low rates of sorbent injection. Where agreement is poor between field data and model predictions, additional chemical or physical phenomena may be responsible for reducing mercury removal efficiencies.

  5. Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. A. Withum; J. E. Locke

    2006-02-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the tenth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on two 468 MW units burning bituminous coal containing 1.3-1.7% sulfur. Unit 2 is equipped with an SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions

  6. Mercury Information Clearinghouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chad A. Wocken; Michael J. Holmes; Dennis L. Laudal; Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett; Greg F. Weber; Nicholas V. C. Ralston; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Edwin S. Olson; Laura J. Raymond; John H. Pavlish; Everett A. Sondreal; Steven A. Benson

    2006-03-31

    The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) identified a need and contracted the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to create and maintain an information clearinghouse on global research and development activities related to mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. With the support of CEA, the Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the EERC developed comprehensive quarterly information updates that provide a detailed assessment of developments in the various areas of mercury monitoring, control, policy, and research. A total of eight topical reports were completed and are summarized and updated in this final CEA quarterly report. The original quarterly reports can be viewed at the CEA Web site (www.ceamercuryprogram.ca). In addition to a comprehensive update of previous mercury-related topics, a review of results from the CEA Mercury Program is provided. Members of Canada's coal-fired electricity generation sector (ATCO Power, EPCOR, Manitoba Hydro, New Brunswick Power, Nova Scotia Power Inc., Ontario Power Generation, SaskPower, and TransAlta) and CEA, have compiled an extensive database of information from stack-, coal-, and ash-sampling activities. Data from this effort are also available at the CEA Web site and have provided critical information for establishing and reviewing a mercury standard for Canada that is protective of environment and public health and is cost-effective. Specific goals outlined for the CEA mercury program included the following: (1) Improve emission inventories and develop management options through an intensive 2-year coal-, ash-, and stack-sampling program; (2) Promote effective stack testing through the development of guidance material and the support of on-site training on the Ontario Hydro method for employees, government representatives, and contractors on an as-needed basis; (3) Strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities through

  7. Methods to reduce mercury pollution in small gold mining operations

    OpenAIRE

    Pantoja-Timarán, F.; Álvarez-Rodríguez, R.; Rodríguez-Avelló, A. S.

    2005-01-01

    The use of mercury for gold beneficiation is still a current practice in small mining operations, mainly in underdeveloped countries, due to the low investment required and necessity of easy to operate systems. But the lack of basic protections makes unavoidable the high pollution of water streams, soils, and in fact, human bodies. Some improvements have been done at site like that related to the removal of the mercury from the amalgam, that usually was done in the open air and now have been ...

  8. Bioremediation techniques applied to aqueous media contaminated with mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez-Riaño, Möritz; Benavides-Otaya, Holman D

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, the environmental and human health impacts of mercury contamination have driven the search for alternative, eco-efficient techniques different from the traditional physicochemical methods for treating this metal. One of these alternative processes is bioremediation. A comprehensive analysis of the different variables that can affect this process is presented. It focuses on determining the effectiveness of different techniques of bioremediation, with a specific consideration of three variables: the removal percentage, time needed for bioremediation and initial concentration of mercury to be treated in an aqueous medium.

  9. A mercury transport and fate model (LM2-mercury) for mass budget assessment of mercury cycling in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    LM2-Mercury, a mercury mass balance model, was developed to simulate and evaluate the transport, fate, and biogeochemical transformations of mercury in Lake Michigan. The model simulates total suspended solids (TSS), disolved organic carbon (DOC), and total, elemental, divalent, ...

  10. Hair Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hair Removal KidsHealth / For Teens / Hair Removal What's in ... you need any of them? Different Types of Hair Before removing hair, it helps to know about ...

  11. Calcium in Mercury's Exosphere: Modeling MESSENGER Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Merkel, Aimee; Vervack, Ronald J.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Sprague, Ann L.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury is surrounded by a surface-bounded exosphere comprised of atomic species including hydrogen, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and likely oxygen. Because it is collisionless. the exosphere's composition represents a balance of the active source and loss processes. The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) on the MErcury Surface. Space ENvironment. GEochemistry. and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft has made high spatial-resolution observations of sodium, calcium, and magnesium near Mercury's surface and in the extended, anti-sunward direction. The most striking feature of these data has been the substantial differences in the spatial distribution of each species, Our modeling demonstrates that these differences cannot be due to post-ejection dynamics such as differences in photo-ionization rate and radiation pressure. but instead point to differences in the source mechanisms and regions on the surface from which each is ejected. The observations of calcium have revealed a strong dawn/dusk asymmetry. with the abundance over the dawn hemisphere significantly greater than over the dusk. To understand this asymmetry, we use a Monte Carlo model of Mercury's exosphere that we developed to track the motions of exospheric neutrals under the influence of gravity and radiation pressure. Ca atoms can be ejected directly from the surface or produced in a molecular exosphere (e.g., one consisting of CaO). Particles are removed from the system if they stick to the surface or escape from the model region of interest (within 15 Mercury radii). Photoionization reduces the final weighting given to each particle when simulating the Ca radiance. Preliminary results suggest a high temperature ( I-2x 10(exp 4) K) source of atomic Ca concentrated over the dawn hemisphere. The high temperature is consistent with the dissociation of CaO in a near-surface exosphere with scale height <= 100 km, which imparts 2 eV to the freshly produced Ca atom. This

  12. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genchi, Giuseppe; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Carocci, Alessia; Lauria, Graziantonio; Catalano, Alessia

    2017-01-01

    Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system. PMID:28085104

  13. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genchi, Giuseppe; Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Carocci, Alessia; Lauria, Graziantonio; Catalano, Alessia

    2017-01-12

    Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system.

  14. Mercury Exposure and Heart Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Genchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive, and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence has shown that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system.

  15. MERCURY USAGE AND ALTERNATIVES IN THE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS INDUSTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many industries have already found alternatives for mercury or have greatly decreased mercury use. However, the unique electromechanical and photoelectric properties of mercury and mercury compounds have made replacement of mercury difficult in some applications. This study was i...

  16. Mixed Waste Focus Area Working Group: An Integrated Approach to Mercury Waste Treatment and Disposal. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.I.; Conley, T.B.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.

    1997-01-01

    May 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Work Group (HgWG). The HgWG was established to address and resolve the issues associated with Mercury- contaminated mixed wastes (MWs). During the initial technical baseline development process of the MWFA, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to (1) amalgamation, (2) stabilization, and (3) separation and removal for the treatment of mercury and mercury-contaminated mixed waste (MW). The HgWG is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these needs

  17. Species difference between rat and hamster in tissue accumulation of mercury after administration of methylmercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omata, Saburo; Kasama, Hidetaka; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Sugano, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Kunio

    1986-01-01

    The accumulation of mercury in tissues of the rat and hamster was determined after the administration of a single dose of 203 Hg-methylmercury chloride (10 mg/kg body weight). (1) On day 2, the mercury contents of hamster tissues were higher than those of rat tissues, except for red blood cells, in which the mercury content was about 6-fold higher in the rat than in the hamster. (2) After that time, the mercury content of hamster tissues decreased rather steeply and on day 16 it had reached 14-25% in nervous tissues and 7-15% in other tissues, of the levels on day 2. (3) In the rat, on the other hand, the mercury content of nervous tissues on day 16 was higher than that on day 2 (106-220%), except for dorsal roots and dorsal root ganglia, which showed slight decreases (75-94% of the levels on day 2). In non-neural tissues, the decreases up to day 16 were also small (71-92% of the levels on day 2). (4) Thus, both the uptake and elimination of mercury seem to be more rapid in the tissues of hamster compared with those of the rat. Similar trends of mercury accumulation and elimination were observed when animals received multiple injections of methylmercury that induced acute methylmercury intoxication. (5) Significant biotransmormation of the injected methylmercury to inorganic mercury was detected in the liver, kidney and spleen of both animal species. Although the percentages of inorganic mercury in these tissues wer not so different between the two species on day 2, they became exceedingly high in the tissues of hamster at the later stage, except in the kidney cytosol, in which the values were close in both animal species between day 2 and day 16. (orig.)

  18. Mercury's exosphere: observations during MESSENGER's First Mercury flyby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, William E; Bradley, E Todd; Vervack, Ronald J; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; Izenberg, Noam R; Solomon, Sean C

    2008-07-04

    During MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer measured Mercury's exospheric emissions, including those from the antisunward sodium tail, calcium and sodium close to the planet, and hydrogen at high altitudes on the dayside. Spatial variations indicate that multiple source and loss processes generate and maintain the exosphere. Energetic processes connected to the solar wind and magnetospheric interaction with the planet likely played an important role in determining the distributions of exospheric species during the flyby.

  19. Assessment of repeated harvests on mercury and arsenic phytoextraction in a multi-contaminated industrial soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Grifoni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is widely distributed throughout the environment. In many contaminated soils other contaminants are present along with mercury; of these, arsenic is one of the most frequently found metals. In the presence of mixed contamination of this kind, remediation technologies must overcome many difficulties due to the different chemical characteristics of the various contaminants. In this study, repeated assisted phytoextraction cycles with Brassica juncea, were conducted on a laboratory scale to evaluate the removal efficiency of mercury and arsenic from a multi-contaminated industrial soil. The possibility of using only one additive, ammonium thiosulphate, to remove mercury and arsenic from co-contaminated soil simultaneously was also investigated. The thiosulfate addition greatly promoted the plant uptake of both contaminants, with an efficiency comparable to that of phosphate specifically used to mobilize specifically arsenic. Repeated additions of mobilizing agents increased metal availability in soil, promoted plant uptake and consequently increased the removal of contaminants in the studied soil. Repeated treatments with thiosulfate increased the concentration of mercury and arsenic in the Brassica juncea aerial part, but due to toxic effects of mercury that reduce biomass production, the total accumulation of both metals in plants tended to decrease at each subsequent re-growth.The use of a single additive to remove both contaminants simultaneously offers several new advantages to phytoextraction technology in terms of reducing cost and time.

  20. Changing patterns in the use, recycling, and material substitution of mercury in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental concerns have led to numerous regulations that have dramatically decreased the reported production and use of mercury in the United States since the 1980s. Government legislation and subsequent industry actions have led to increased collection of mercury-containing materials and the recovery of mercury through recycling. Mercury emissions have been reduced and effective alternatives to mercury products have been developed for many applications. This study updates and quantifies the changes in demand, supply, use, and material flow for mercury in various sectors in the United States that have taken place since 1996. Nearly all primary mercury produced in the United States is derived as a byproduct of processing of gold and silver ore in Nevada. Since 2001, annual production of mercury from gold and silver mining in Nevada has decreased by 22 percent overall because ore from greater depths containing low grade mercury is recovered, and mercury emissions from this source have decreased by 95 percent as a result of increased regulation and improved collection and suppression technology. The distribution of consumption of mercury in the United States has changed as a result of regulation (elimination of large-scale mercury use in the paint and battery sectors), reduction by consumers (decommissioning of mercury-cell chloralkali manufacturing capacity), and technological advances (improvements in dental, lighting, and wiring sectors). Mercury use in the chloralkali sector, the leading end-use sector in the United States in 1996, has declined by 98 percent from 136 metric tons (t) in 1996 to about 0.3 t in 2010 because of increased processing and recycling efficiencies and plant closures or conversion to other technologies. As plants were closed, mercury recovered from the infrastructure of decommissioned plants has been exported, making the United States a net exporter of mercury, even though no mercury has been produced as the primary product from mines in

  1. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-12-05

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  2. Health Effects of Exposures to Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IRIS database Top of Page Elemental (Metallic) Mercury Effects Exposures to metallic mercury most often occur when metallic ... poor performance on tests of mental function Higher exposures may also cause kidney effects, respiratory failure and death. Note that metallic mercury ...

  3. Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Mercury Poisoning Linked to Skin Products Share Tweet Linkedin ... and, in some situations, criminal prosecution. Dangers of Mercury Exposure to mercury can have serious health consequences. ...

  4. Mercury Specie and Multi-Pollutant Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rob James; Virgil Joffrion; John McDermott; Steve Piche

    2010-05-31

    This project was awarded to demonstrate the ability to affect and optimize mercury speciation and multi-pollutant control using non-intrusive advanced sensor and optimization technologies. The intent was to demonstrate plant-wide optimization systems on a large coal fired steam electric power plant in order to minimize emissions, including mercury (Hg), while maximizing efficiency and maintaining saleable byproducts. Advanced solutions utilizing state-of-the-art sensors and neural network-based optimization and control technologies were proposed to maximize the removal of mercury vapor from the boiler flue gas thereby resulting in lower uncontrolled releases of mercury into the atmosphere. Budget Period 1 (Phase I) - Included the installation of sensors, software system design and establishment of the as-found baseline operating metrics for pre-project and post-project data comparison. Budget Period 2 (Phase II) - Software was installed, data communications links from the sensors were verified, and modifications required to integrate the software system to the DCS were performed. Budget Period 3 (Phase III) - Included the validation and demonstration of all control systems and software, and the comparison of the optimized test results with the targets established for the project site. This report represents the final technical report for the project, covering the entire award period and representing the final results compared to project goals. NeuCo shouldered 61% of the total project cost; while DOE shouldered the remaining 39%. The DOE requires repayment of its investment. This repayment will result from commercial sales of the products developed under the project. NRG's Limestone power plant (formerly owned by Texas Genco) contributed the host site, human resources, and engineering support to ensure the project's success.

  5. Aqueous mercury treatment technology review for NPDES Outfall 49 Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanning, J.M.

    1993-04-01

    During 1950 to 1955, Building 9201-2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was used to house development facilities for processes that employed elemental mercury to separate lithium isotopes as part of the thermonuclear weapons production operations. As a result of several spills, this building area and several other areas associated with the separation process were contaminated with mercury and became a source of continuing contamination of the Y-12 Plant discharge water to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Mercury concentrations in the outfalls south of Building 9201-2 have ranged up to 80 ppb, with the highest concentrations being experienced at Outfall 49. As a result, this outfall was chosen as a test site for future mercury treatment technology evaluation and development at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. A literature review and vendor survey has identified several promising materials and technologies that may be applicable to mercury removal at the Outfall 49 site. This document summarizes those findings.

  6. Elimination device for metal impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Ko.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable reuse of adsorbing materials by eliminating Fe 3 O 4 films reduced with adsorbing performance by way of electrolytic polishing and then forming fresh membranes using high temperature steams. Constitution: An elimination device is provided to a coolant clean-up system of a reactor for eliminating impurities such as cobalt. The elimination device comprises adsorbing materials made of stainless steel tips or the likes having Fe 3 O 4 films. The adsorbing materials are regenerated by applying an electric current between grid-like cathode plates and anode plates to leach out the Fe 3 O 4 films, washing out the electrolytic solution by cleaning water and then applying steams at high temperature onto the adsorbing materials to thereby form fresh Fe 3 O 4 films again thereon. The regeneration of the adsorbing materials enables to eliminate Co 60 and the like in the primary coolant efficiently. (Moriyama, K.)

  7. Glutathione enzyme and selenoprotein polymorphisms associate with mercury biomarker levels in Michigan dental professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Wang, Yi [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Gillespie, Brenda [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Werner, Robert [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Michigan, 325 E. Eisenhower Parkway Suite 100, Ann Arbor, MI 48108 (United States); Franzblau, Alfred [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Basu, Niladri, E-mail: niladri@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Mercury is a potent toxicant of concern to both the general public and occupationally exposed workers (e.g., dentists). Recent studies suggest that several genes mediating the toxicokinetics of mercury are polymorphic in humans and may influence inter-individual variability in mercury accumulation. This work hypothesizes that polymorphisms in key glutathione synthesizing enzyme, glutathione s-transferase, and selenoprotein genes underlie inter-individual differences in mercury body burden as assessed by analytical mercury measurement in urine and hair, biomarkers of elemental mercury and methylmercury, respectively. Urine and hair samples were collected from a population of dental professionals (n = 515), and total mercury content was measured. Average urine (1.06 {+-} 1.24 ug/L) and hair mercury levels (0.49 {+-} 0.63 ug/g) were similar to national U.S. population averages. Taqman assays were used to genotype DNA from buccal swab samples at 15 polymorphic sites in genes implicated in mercury metabolism. Linear regression modeling assessed the ability of polymorphisms to modify the relationship between mercury biomarker levels and exposure sources (e.g., amalgams, fish consumption). Five polymorphisms were significantly associated with urine mercury levels (GSTT1 deletion), hair mercury levels (GSTP1-105, GSTP1-114, GSS 5 Prime ), or both (SEPP1 3 Prime UTR). Overall, this study suggests that polymorphisms in selenoproteins and glutathione-related genes may influence elimination of mercury in the urine and hair or mercury retention following exposures to elemental mercury (via dental amalgams) and methylmercury (via fish consumption). -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explore the influence of 15 polymorphisms on urine and hair Hg levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Urine and hair Hg levels in dental professionals were similar to the US population. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GSTT1 and SEPP1 polymorphisms associated with urine Hg levels. Black

  8. Glutathione enzyme and selenoprotein polymorphisms associate with mercury biomarker levels in Michigan dental professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Wang, Yi; Gillespie, Brenda; Werner, Robert; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

    2011-01-01

    Mercury is a potent toxicant of concern to both the general public and occupationally exposed workers (e.g., dentists). Recent studies suggest that several genes mediating the toxicokinetics of mercury are polymorphic in humans and may influence inter-individual variability in mercury accumulation. This work hypothesizes that polymorphisms in key glutathione synthesizing enzyme, glutathione s-transferase, and selenoprotein genes underlie inter-individual differences in mercury body burden as assessed by analytical mercury measurement in urine and hair, biomarkers of elemental mercury and methylmercury, respectively. Urine and hair samples were collected from a population of dental professionals (n = 515), and total mercury content was measured. Average urine (1.06 ± 1.24 ug/L) and hair mercury levels (0.49 ± 0.63 ug/g) were similar to national U.S. population averages. Taqman assays were used to genotype DNA from buccal swab samples at 15 polymorphic sites in genes implicated in mercury metabolism. Linear regression modeling assessed the ability of polymorphisms to modify the relationship between mercury biomarker levels and exposure sources (e.g., amalgams, fish consumption). Five polymorphisms were significantly associated with urine mercury levels (GSTT1 deletion), hair mercury levels (GSTP1-105, GSTP1-114, GSS 5′), or both (SEPP1 3′UTR). Overall, this study suggests that polymorphisms in selenoproteins and glutathione-related genes may influence elimination of mercury in the urine and hair or mercury retention following exposures to elemental mercury (via dental amalgams) and methylmercury (via fish consumption). -- Highlights: ► We explore the influence of 15 polymorphisms on urine and hair Hg levels. ► Urine and hair Hg levels in dental professionals were similar to the US population. ► GSTT1 and SEPP1 polymorphisms associated with urine Hg levels. ► Accumulation of Hg in hair following exposure from fish was modified by genotype. ► GSTP1, GSS

  9. Defining the Molecular-Cellular-Field Continuum of Mercury Detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, Anne O. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2016-04-25

    Hg is of special interest to DOE due to past intensive use in manufacture of nuclear weapons at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Because of its facile oxidation/reduction [Hg(II)/Hg(0)] chemistry, ability to bond to carbon [as in highly toxic methylmercury: MeHg(I)] and its unique physical properties [e.g., volatility of Hg(0)], Hg has a complex environmental cycle involving soils, sediments, waterways and the atmosphere and including biotic and abiotic chemical and physical transport and transformations.1 Understanding such processes well enough to design stewardship plans that minimize negative impacts in diverse ecological settings requires rich knowledge of the contributing abiotic and biotic processes. Prokaryotes are major players in the global Hg cycle. Facultative and anaerobic bacteria can form MeHg(I) with consequent intoxication of wildlife and humans. Sustainable stewardship of Hg-contaminated sites requires eliminating not only MeHg(I) but also the Hg(II) substrate for methylation. Fortunately, a variety of mercury resistant (HgR) aerobic and facultative bacteria and archaea can do both things. Prokaryotes harboring narrow or broad Hg resistance (mer) loci detoxify Hg(II) or RHg(I), respectively, to relatively inert, less toxic, volatile Hg(0). HgR microbes are enriched in highly contaminated sites and extensive field data show they depress levels of MeHg >500-fold in such zones2. So, enhancing the natural capacity of indigenous HgR microbes to remove Hg(II) and RHg(I) from soils, sediments and waterways is a logical component of a comprehensive plan for clean up and stewardship of contaminated sites.

  10. Mercury content in Hot Springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, R

    1974-01-01

    A method of determination of mercury in hot spring waters by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry is described. Further, the mercury content and the chemical behavior of the elementary mercury in hot springs are described. Sulfide and iodide ions interfered with the determination of mercury by the reduction-vapor phase technique. These interferences could, however, be minimized by the addition of potassium permanganate. Waters collected from 55 hot springs were found to contain up to 26.0 ppb mercury. High concentrations of mercury have been found in waters from Shimoburo Springs, Aomori (10.0 ppb), Osorezan Springs, Aomori (1.3 approximately 18.8 ppb), Gosyogake Springs, Akita (26.0 ppb), Manza Springs, Gunma (0.30 approximately 19.5 ppb) and Kusatu Springs, Gunma (1.70 approximately 4.50 ppb). These hot springs were acid waters containing a relatively high quantity of chloride or sulfate.

  11. Mercury adsorption to gold nanoparticle and thin film surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Todd Ashley

    Mercury adsorption to gold nanoparticle and thin film surfaces was monitored by spectroscopic techniques. Adsorption of elemental mercury to colloidal gold nanoparticles causes a color change from wine-red to orange that was quantified by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The wavelength of the surface plasmon mode of 5, 12, and 31 nm gold particles blue-shifts 17, 14, and 7.5 nm, respectively, after a saturation exposure of mercury vapor. Colorimetric detection of inorganic mercury was demonstrated by employing 2.5 nm gold nanoparticles. The addition of low microgram quantities of Hg 2+ to these nanoparticles induces a color change from yellow to peach or blue. It is postulated that Hg2+ is reduced to elemental mercury by SCN- before and/or during adsorption to the nanoparticle surface. It has been demonstrated that surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPRS) is sensitive to mercury adsorption to gold and silver surfaces. By monitoring the maximum change in reflectivity as a function of amount of mercury adsorbed to the surface, 50 nm Ag films were shown to be 2--3 times more sensitive than 50 nm Au films and bimetallic 15 nm Au/35 nm Ag films. In addition, a surface coverage of ˜40 ng Hg/cm2 on the gold surface results in a 0.03° decrease in the SPR angle of minimum reflectivity. SPRS was employed to follow Hg exposure to self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au. The data indicate that the hydrophilic or hydrophobic character of the SAM has a significant effect on the efficiency of Hg penetration. Water adsorbed to carboxylic acid end group of the hydrophilic SAMs is believed to slow the penetration of Hg compared to methyl terminated SAMs. Finally, two protocols were followed to remove mercury from gold films: immersion in concentrated nitric acid and thermal annealing up to 200°C. The latter protocol is preferred because it removes all of the adsorbed mercury from the gold surface and does not affect the morphology of the gold surface.

  12. Atmospheric Mercury Transport Across Southern Lake Michigan: Influence from the Chicago/Gary Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, L. E.; Keeler, G. J.; Dvonch, J. T.

    2008-12-01

    The local and regional impacts of mercury emissions from major urban and industrial areas are critical to quantify in order to further understand mercury cycling in the environment. The Chicago/Gary urban area is one such location in which mercury emissions from industrial sources are significant and regional mercury transport needs to be further examined. Speciated atmospheric mercury was measured in Chicago, IL and Holland, MI from July to November 2007 to better characterize the impact of Chicago/Gary on southwest Michigan. Previous work under the 1994-1995 Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study (LMMBS) indicated that the highest levels of mercury deposition in southwest Michigan occurred with transport from the Chicago/Gary area, particularly with rapid transport where less mercury was deposited close to sources(1). However, at that time it was not possible to measure reactive gas phase mercury (RGM), a highly-soluble form of mercury in industrial emissions that is readily removed from the atmosphere. Since the LMMBS, the development of speciated mercury systems has made it possible to continuously monitor gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), particulate mercury (HgP), and RGM. These measurements are useful for understanding atmospheric mercury chemistry and differentiating between local and regional source impacts due to the different behaviors of reactive and elemental mercury. Results from 2007 show that, on average, Hg0 and HgP were 1.5 times higher and RGM was 2 times higher in Chicago than in Holland. Mean mercury wet deposition was nearly 3 times higher in Chicago than in Holland. Meteorological analysis indicates that transport across the lake from Chicago/Gary occurred frequently during the study. Additional measurements of O3, SO2, meteorological parameters, event mercury and trace element precipitation samples, and modeled back-trajectories are used to discern regional transport events from local deposition and characterize the impact of the Chicago/Gary urban

  13. Economic analysis of atmospheric mercury emission control for coal-fired power plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Schreifels, Jeremy; Hao, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    Coal combustion and mercury pollution are closely linked, and this relationship is particularly relevant in China, the world's largest coal consumer. This paper begins with a summary of recent China-specific studies on mercury removal by air pollution control technologies and then provides an economic analysis of mercury abatement from these emission control technologies at coal-fired power plants in China. This includes a cost-effectiveness analysis at the enterprise and sector level in China using 2010 as a baseline and projecting out to 2020 and 2030. Of the control technologies evaluated, the most cost-effective is a fabric filter installed upstream of the wet flue gas desulfurization system (FF+WFGD). Halogen injection (HI) is also a cost-effective mercury-specific control strategy, although it has not yet reached commercial maturity. The sector-level analysis shows that 193 tons of mercury was removed in 2010 in China's coal-fired power sector, with annualized mercury emission control costs of 2.7 billion Chinese Yuan. Under a projected 2030 Emission Control (EC) scenario with stringent mercury limits compared to Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the increase of selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) and the use of HI could contribute to 39 tons of mercury removal at a cost of 3.8 billion CNY. The economic analysis presented in this paper offers insights on air pollution control technologies and practices for enhancing atmospheric mercury control that can aid decision-making in policy design and private-sector investments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Interior Volatile Reservoirs in Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzures, B. A.; Parman, S. W.; Milliken, R. E.; Head, J. W.

    2018-05-01

    More measurements of 1) surface volatiles, and 2) pyroclastic deposits paired with experimental volatile analyses in silicate minerals can constrain conditions of melting and subsequent eruption on Mercury.

  15. Mercury in Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebone, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Estimates for average mercury concentrations in crude oil range widely from 10 ng/g of oil to 3,500 ng/g of oil. With such a broad range of estimates, it is difficult to determine the contributions of the petroleum sector to the total budget of mercury emissions. In response to concerns that the combustion of petroleum products may be a major source of air-borne mercury pollution, Environment Canada and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute has undertaken a survey of the average total mercury concentration in crude oil processed in Canadian refineries. In order to calculate the potential upper limit of total mercury in all refined products, samples of more than 30 different types of crude oil collected from refineries were measured for their concentration of mercury as it enters into a refinery before processing. High temperature combustion, cold vapour atomic absorption and cold vapour atomic fluorescence were the techniques used to quantify mercury in the samples. The results of the study provide information on the total mass of mercury present in crude oil processed in Canada each year. Results can be used to determine the impact of vehicle exhaust emissions to the overall Canadian mercury emission budget. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  16. Mercury in bryophytes (moss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeaple, D S

    1972-01-28

    Recent reports in the literature, concerning the ability of certain mosses and lichens to concentrate heavy metals, have led to an investigation of the potential application of mosses as indicators of the transport of mercury through the atmosphere. A number of moss samples were collected to provide information regarding the level of mercury in moss around several types of populated areas. The results reported are from moss collected within an 80 mile radius of Boston, Massachusetts, along the Maine coast, near the tops of Mount Katahdin in Maine and Mount Washington in New Hampshire, and from Walden, New York, a small town located about 60 miles north of New York City. The data are admittedly limited, but provide sufficient insight into the usefulness of moss as an indicator to warrant the pursuit of a more detailed investigation. 6 references, 1 table.

  17. Integrated criteria document mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloof, W.; Beelan, P. van; Annema, J.A.; Janus, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The document contains a systematic review and a critical evaluation of the most relevant data on the priority substance mercury for the purpose of effect-oriented environmental policy. Chapter headings are: properties and existing standards; production, application, sources and emissions (natural sources, industry, energy, households, agriculture, dental use, waste); distribution and transformation (cinnabar; Hg 2+ , Hg 2 2+ , elemental mercury, methylmercury, behavior in soil, water, air, biota); concentrations and fluxes in the environment and exposure levels (sampling and measuring methods, occurrence in soil, water, air etc.); effects (toxicity to humans and aquatic and terrestrial systems); emissions reduction (from industrial sources, energy, waste processing etc.); and evaluation (risks, standards, emission reduction objectives, measuring strategies). 395 refs

  18. UNEP Demonstrations of Mercury Emission Reduction at Two Coal-fired Power Plants in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozewicz W.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP partnership area “Mercury releases from coal combustion” (The UNEP Coal Partnership has initiated demonstrations of mercury air emission reduction at two coal-fired power plants in Russia. The first project has modified the wet particulate matter (PM scrubber installed in Toliatti thermal plant to allow for addition of chemical reagents (oxidants into the closedloop liquid spray system. The addition of oxidant resulted in significant improvement of mercury capture from 20% total mercury removal (without the additive up to 60% removal (with the additive. It demonstrates the effectiveness of sorbent injection technologies in conjunction with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP. ESPs are installed at 60%, while wet PM scrubbers are installed at 30% of total coal-fired capacity in Russia. Thus, the two UNEP Coal Partnership projects address the majority of PM emission control configurations occurring in Russia.

  19. The planet Mercury (1971)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The physical properties of the planet Mercury, its surface, and atmosphere are presented for space vehicle design criteria. The mass, dimensions, mean density, and orbital and rotational motions are described. The gravity field, magnetic field, electromagnetic radiation, and charged particles in the planet's orbit are discussed. Atmospheric pressure, temperature, and composition data are given along with the surface composition, soil mechanical properties, and topography, and the surface electromagnetic and temperature properties.

  20. Magnetic field of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.J.; Beard, D.B.

    1977-01-01

    The geomagnetic field, suitably scaled down and parameterized, is shown to give a very good fit to the magnetic field measurements taken on the first and third passes of the Mariner 10 space probe past Mercury. The excellence of the fit to a reliable planetary magnetospheric model is good evidence that the Mercury magnetosphere is formed by a simple, permanent, intrinsic planetary magnetic field distorted by the effects of the solar wind. The parameters used for a best fit to all the data are (depending slightly on the choice of data) 2.44--2.55 for the ratio of Mercury's magnetic field strength at the subsolar point to that of the earth's subsolar point field (this results in a dipole moment of 170 γR/sub M/ 3 (R/sub M/ is Mercury Radius), i.e., 2.41 x 10 22 G cm 3 in the same direction as the earth's dipole), approx.-113 γR/sub M/ 4 for the planetary quadrupole moment parallel to the dipole moment, 10degree--17degree for the tilt of the planet dipole toward the sun, 4.5degree for the tilt of the dipole toward dawn, and 2.5degree--7.6degree aberration angle for the shift in the tail axis from the planet-sun direction because of the planet's orbital velocity. The rms deviation overall for the entire data set compared with the theoretical fitted model for the magnetic field strength was 17 γ (approx.4% of the maximum field measured). If the data from the first pass that show presumed strong time variations are excluded, the overall rms deviation for the field magnitude is only 10 γ

  1. Litter mercury deposition in the Amazonian rainforest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fostier, Anne Hélène; Melendez-Perez, José Javier; Richter, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the flux of atmospheric mercury transferred to the soil of the Amazonian rainforest by litterfall. Calculations were based on a large survey of published and unpublished data on litterfall and Hg concentrations in litterfall samples from the Amazonian region. Litterfall based on 65 sites located in the Amazon rainforest averaged 8.15 ± 2.25 Mg ha"−"1 y"−"1. Average Hg concentrations were calculated from nine datasets for fresh tree leaves and ten datasets for litter, and a median concentration of 60.5 ng Hg g"−"1 was considered for Hg deposition in litterfall, which averaged 49 ± 14 μg m"−"2 yr"−"1. This value was used to estimate that in the Amazonian rainforest, litterfall would be responsible for the annual removing of 268 ± 77 Mg of Hg, approximately 8% of the total atmospheric Hg deposition to land. The impact of the Amazon deforestation on the Hg biogeochemical cycle is also discussed. - Highlights: • Based on published data we estimated the litterfall in the Amazonian rainforest. • All the published data on Hg concentration in leaves and litter from the region and some unpublished data are presented. • We calculated the litter mercury deposition. • We estimated the contribution of dry, wet and litter Hg deposition in the Amazonian rainforest. • We also discussed the impact of Amazon deforestation on the Hg biogeochemical cycle. - The Amazonian rainforest is responsible for removing at least 268 Mg Hg y"−"1, 8% of the total atmospheric mercury deposition to land.

  2. Determination of total mercury in nuts at ultratrace level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Maria José da; Paim, Ana Paula S.; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Cervera, M. Luisa; Guardia, Miguel de la

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct analysis of Hg in nuts has been improved by a previous fat removal. • Comparison of cold vapour atomic fluorescence and direct analysis of Hg in nuts. • Mercury content in tree nuts was determined. - Abstract: Total mercury, at μg kg −1 level, was determined in different types of nuts (cashew nut, Brazil nuts, almond, pistachio, peanut, walnut) using a direct mercury analyser after previous sample defatting and by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. There is not enough sensitivity in the second approach to determine Hg in previously digested samples due to the strong matrix effect. Mercury levels in 25 edible nut samples from Brazil and Spain were found in the range from 0.6 to 2.7 μg kg −1 by using the pyrolysis of sample after the extraction of the nut fat. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analysing certified reference materials of Coal Fly Ash-NIST SRM 1633b, Fucus-IAEA 140 and three unpolished Rice Flour NIES-10. The observed results were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries of different amounts of mercury added to nut samples ranged from 94 to 101%. RSD values corresponding to three measurements varied between 2.0 and 14% and the limit of detection and quantification of the method were 0.08 and 0.3 μg kg −1 , respectively

  3. Determination of total mercury in nuts at ultratrace level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria José da, E-mail: maryquimica@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Química – Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rue Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/n. Dois irmãos, 52171-900 Recife, PE (Brazil); Paim, Ana Paula S. [Departamento de Química Fundamental – Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitária, 50740-550 Recife, PE (Brazil); Pimentel, Maria Fernanda [Departamento de Engenharia Química – Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Cervera, M. Luisa; Guardia, Miguel de la [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Research Building, University of Valencia, 50th Dr. Moliner Street, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Direct analysis of Hg in nuts has been improved by a previous fat removal. • Comparison of cold vapour atomic fluorescence and direct analysis of Hg in nuts. • Mercury content in tree nuts was determined. - Abstract: Total mercury, at μg kg{sup −1} level, was determined in different types of nuts (cashew nut, Brazil nuts, almond, pistachio, peanut, walnut) using a direct mercury analyser after previous sample defatting and by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. There is not enough sensitivity in the second approach to determine Hg in previously digested samples due to the strong matrix effect. Mercury levels in 25 edible nut samples from Brazil and Spain were found in the range from 0.6 to 2.7 μg kg{sup −1} by using the pyrolysis of sample after the extraction of the nut fat. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analysing certified reference materials of Coal Fly Ash-NIST SRM 1633b, Fucus-IAEA 140 and three unpolished Rice Flour NIES-10. The observed results were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries of different amounts of mercury added to nut samples ranged from 94 to 101%. RSD values corresponding to three measurements varied between 2.0 and 14% and the limit of detection and quantification of the method were 0.08 and 0.3 μg kg{sup −1}, respectively.

  4. Mercury's Densely Cratered Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10 took this picture (FDS 27465) of the densely cratered surface of Mercury when the spacecraft was 18,200 kilometers (8085 miles) from the planet on March 29. The dark line across top of picture is a 'dropout' of a few TV lines of data. At lower left, a portion of a 61 kilometer (38 mile) crater shows a flow front extending across the crater floor and filling more than half of the crater. The smaller, fresh crater at center is about 25 kilometers (15 miles) in diameter. Craters as small as one kilometer (about one-half mile) across are visible in the picture.The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  5. Mercury separation from aqueous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.; Klasson, K.T.; Corder, S.L.

    1995-07-01

    This project is providing an assessment of new sorbents for removing mercury from wastes at US Department of Energy sites. Four aqueous wastes were chosen for lab-scale testing; a high-salt, acidic waste currently stored at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); a high-salt, alkaline waste stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS); a dilute lithium hydroxide solution stored at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; and a low-salt, neutral groundwater generated at the Y-12 Plant. Eight adsorbents have been identified for testing, covering a wide range of cost and capability. Screening tests have been completed, which identified the most promising adsorbents for each waste stream. Batch isotherm tests have been completed using the most promising adsorbents, and column tests are in progress. Because of the wide range of waste compositions tested, no one adsorbent is effective in all of these waste streams. Based on loading capacity and compatibility with the waste solutions. the most effective adsorbents identified to date are SuperLig 618 for the INEL tank waste stimulant; Mersorb followed by lonac SR-3 for the SRS tank waste stimulant; Durasil 70 and Ionac SR-3) for the LIOH solution; and lonac SR-3 followed by lonac SR-4 and Mersorb for the Y-12 groundwater

  6. Proportional counter end effects eliminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meekins, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    An improved gas-filled proportional counter which includes a resistor network connected between the anode and cathode at the ends of the counter in order to eliminate ''end effects'' is described. 3 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures

  7. Defense Logistics Agency Revenue Eliminations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The issue of revenue eliminations was identified during our work on the Defense Logistics Agency portion of the Audit of Revenue Accounts in the FY 1996 Financial Statements of the Defense Business Operations Fund...

  8. Mercury in a thin layer in HgMn stars: A test of a diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megessier, C.; Michaud, G.; Weiler, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    Lines of the first three states of ionization of mercury have been observed in μ Leporis and chi Lupi using the Copernicus satellite. Lines of Hg II and Hg III have been observed in α Andromedae. There appears to be an absorption feature at every wavelength where there is expected to be a mercury line. The presence of all three states of ionization is likely in μ Lep and chi Lup. The relative equivalent widths of the lines of the various states of ionization do not depend on the effective temperature of the stars, in contradiction to what is expected if mercury were uniformly distributed in the atmosphere. It is, however, expected if mercury has been concentrated, by diffusion, in a thin layer, where the radiative forces just equal the gravitational forces on mercury. That mercury should be so concentrated is also required by the explanation of the mercury isotope anomaly proposed by Michaud, Reeves, and Charland. The diffusion model for Ap stars predicts in its simplest form the presence of very thin layers. However, any leftover turbulence may increase the depth of these layers without eliminating the element separation

  9. Mercury as the Unaccreted Projectile: Thermal Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphaug, Erik; Gabriel, Travis; Jackson, Alan; Perera, Viranga

    2017-10-01

    Mercury retained substantial volatiles during its formation, in far greater proportion than the Moon, despite losing ~2/3 of its rocky mantle. Its volatile-rich geochemistry would contraindicate a giant impact because it would drive away the volatiles, as in the hypothesis for the Moon. However, the thermal consequences of Mercury formation vary considerably between the two giant impact scenarios, ‘direct hit’ (DH; Benz et al. 1989) and ‘hit and run’ (HR; Asphaug and Reufer 2014). Each begins with a differentiated chondritic proto-Mercury (PM) a bit larger than Mars. In DH, PM gets eroded by a very energetic impactor half its mass, at ~6-7 times the escape velocity. To remove half of PM’s mantle, the post-impact target gets completely shock-vaporized and is sheared apart into space. The bound remnant in DH would experience a comparable deposition of shock enthalpy, as in Moon formation, and would expand into a much larger volume of heliocentric space, leading to a dry planet. The bound remnant will go on to re-accrete much of the silicate mantle that it just lost, another challenge for DH. In HR, PM is the projectile that slams into a terrestrial planet twice its size (proto-Venus or proto-Earth). For typical impact angle and speed, a typical outcome is to ‘bounce”. But for HR to explain Mercury, PM must avoid accretion every time it encounters the target, until it is scattered or migrates away (or is accreted, in which case there is no Mercury), leading to multi-HR scenarios. Tides are intense in HR because the projectile grazes the target core; gravity does most of the work of mantle stripping. Shocks play a secondary role. Whereas in DH the impactor blasts the target inside-out, in HR the runner emerges relatively unshocked, and undispersed except for losing the gravitationally-unbound material. HR is a mechanism for collecting low-shocked remnants, because the intensely shocked material ends up bound to the target or escaping to heliocentric space

  10. Vapor-phase elemental mercury adsorption by Ca(OH){sub 2} impregnated with MnO{sub 2} and Ag in fixed-bed system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.J. Wang; Y.F. Duan; Z.J. Huang; S.L. Meng; L.G. Yang; C.S. Zhao [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). School of Energy and Environment

    2010-05-15

    The ability of three sorbents (untreated Ca(OH){sub 2}, MnO{sub 2}-impregnated Ca(OH){sub 2} and Ag-impregnated Ca(OH){sub 2}) removing the elemental mercury had been studied using a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor at 80{sup o}C under simulated fuel gas conditions. The adsorption performance of the three sorbents was compared by mercury removal efficiency and adsorption capacity. The effect of acid gases such as HCl and SO{sub 2} on the mercury removal was investigated and presented in this article. The results showed that the mercury removal by Ca(OH){sub 2} was mainly controlled by physical mechanisms. In the case of Ca(OH){sub 2}, the presence of both SO{sub 2} and HCl promoted the Hg{sup 0} removal, and compared HCl with SO{sub 2}, HCl had a higher mercury removal than SO{sub 2}. Ca(OH){sub 2} impregnated with MnO{sub 2} had a slightly higher mercury removal than the original Ca(OH){sub 2}, but it was beneficial for mercury speciation. The presence of both SO{sub 2} and HCl promotes the Hg0 removal greatly, which was adsorbed by Ca(OH){sub 2} impregnated with MnO{sub 2}. The Ca(OH){sub 2} impregnated with MnO{sub 2} adsorbed more than 50% total Hg due to the occurrence of chemisorptions. The mercury removal by Ca(OH){sub 2} impregnated with Ag was the highest. This may be because mercury integrated with silver easily that could produce silver amalgam alloy.

  11. Rotation of the planet mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferys, W H

    1966-04-08

    The equations of motion for the rotation of Mercury are solved for the general case by an asymptotic expansion. The findings of Liu and O'Keefe, obtained by numerical integration of a special case, that it is possible for Mercury's rotation to be locked into a 2:3 resonance with its revolution, are confirmed in detail. The general solution has further applications.

  12. Mercury: Exploration of a Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The flight of the Mariner 10 spacecraft to Venus and Mercury is detailed in animation and photography. Views of Mercury are featured. Also included is animation on the origin of the solar system. Dr. Bruce C. Murray, director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, comments on the mission.

  13. 49 CFR 173.164 - Mercury (metallic and articles containing mercury).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ounces) of mercury per package; (iv) Tubes which are completely jacketed in sealed leakproof metal cases... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mercury (metallic and articles containing mercury... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.164 Mercury (metallic and articles containing mercury). (a) For...

  14. Elimination reactions. V. Steric effects in Hofmann elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coke, J.L.; Smith, G.D.; Britton, G.H. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Earlier Hofmann elimination studies were extended, and the percent syn eliminations in several ring systems have been correlated using cis-d 1 and trans-d 1 models. The measurements of several syn and anti k/sub H//k/sub D/ kinetic isotope effects are reported. Results indicate that Hofmann elimination of N,N,N-trimethyl-3,3-dimethylcyclopentylammonium hydroxide goes by 97 percent syn mechanism to give 3,3-dimethylcyclopentene and by 70 + - 6 percent syn mechanism to give 4,4-dimethylcyclopentene. There appears to be severe steric interactions in the anti mechanism in the 3,3-dimethylcyclopentyl system. Results indicate that, for Hofmann pyrolysis of trimethylammonium hydroxides, cyclopentene is formed by a 39 +- 7 percent syn mechanism, cyclohexene is formed by a 2 + - 2 percent syn mechanism, and cycloheptene is formed by a 30 +- 2 percent syn mechanism. Steric effects on isotope effects and mechanisms are discussed. (U.S.)

  15. Methyl mercury in terrestrial compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeppler, M.; Burow, M.; Padberg, S.; May, K.

    1993-09-01

    On the basis of the analytical methodology available at present the state of the art for the determination of total mercury and of various organometallic compounds of mercury in air, precipitation, limnic systems, soils, plants and biota is reviewed. This is followed by the presentation and discussion of examples for the data obtained hitherto for trace and ultratrace levels of total mercury and mainly methyl mercury in terrestrial and limnic environments as well as in biota. The data discussed stem predominantly from the past decade in which, due to significant methodological progress, many new aspects were elucidated. They include the most important results in this area achieved by the Research Centre (KFA) Juelich within the project 'Origin and Fate of Methyl Mercury' (contracts EV4V-0138-D and STEP-CT90-0057) supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Brussels. (orig.) [de

  16. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung-Duck; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability o...

  17. Biological effects of methyl and ethyl mercury compounds used as disinfectants for seed-grain on domestic and wild life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejning, S

    1971-01-01

    A short survey of the harmful effects of methyl and ethyl mercury on wild and domestic life and on man since the introduction of these compounds in plant protection is given. The biological effects of methyl mercury in birds are illustrated by experiments in hens concerning its accumulation in their organs and plumage, its elimination in eggs and excrements and its influence on the health of the birds, their laying habits and egg production including the occurrence of embryonic damages and the hatchability. Attention is drawn to the ability of methyl mercury to cause genetical disorders. 14 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  18. Methods for dispensing mercury into devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1987-04-28

    A process for dispensing mercury into devices which requires mercury. Mercury is first electrolytically separated from either HgO or Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 and plated onto a cathode wire. The cathode wire is then placed into a device requiring mercury.

  19. Determination of mercury in plant material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickard, J A; Martin, J T

    1960-07-01

    An analytical procedure used for the determination of traces of mercury in plant material is described. The conditions of combustion of organic matter are controlled to avoid loss of mercury and EDTA is used to reduce the values for apparent mercury on uncontaminated samples. Satisfactory recoveries of mercury added to apples, tomatoes and coffee are obtained. 10 references, 1 table.

  20. Direct determination of mercury in cosmetic samples by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after dissolution with formic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Ying; Shi, Zeming; Zong, Qinxia; Wu, Peng; Su, Jing [Sichuan Provincial Key Laboratory of Nuclear Technology in Geology, College of Nuclear Technology and Automation Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059 (China); Liu, Rui, E-mail: liur.ray@gmail.com [Mineral Resources Chemistry Key Laboratory of Sichuan Higher Education Institutions, College of Materials and Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059 (China)

    2014-02-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Simple, sensitive, and accurate method is established for mercury determination in cosmetics. •The sample preparation procedure is highly simplified. •Isotope dilution efficiently eliminates matrix effect. •First report of using formic acid based method in combination with PVG-ID-ICP MS for mercury quantitation in cosmetics. -- Abstract: A new method was proposed for the accurate determination of mercury in cosmetic samples based on isotopic dilution (ID)-photochemical vapor generation (PVG)-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) measurement. Cosmetic samples were directly dissolved in formic acid solution and subsequently subjected to PVG for the reduction of mercury into vapor species following by ICP MS detection. Therefore, the risks of analyte contamination and loss were avoided. Highly enriched {sup 201}Hg isotopic spike is added to cosmetics and the isotope ratios of {sup 201}Hg/{sup 202}Hg were measured for the quantitation of mercury. With ID calibration, the influences originating from sample matrixes for the determination of mercury in cosmetic samples have been efficiently eliminated. The effects of several experimental parameters, such as the concentration of the formic acid, and the flow rates of carrier gas and sample were investigated. The method provided good reproducibility and the detection limits were found to be 0.6 pg mL{sup −1}. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for the determination of mercury in six cosmetic samples and a spike test was performed to verify the accuracy of the method.

  1. Mercury's Lithospheric Magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.; Phillips, R. J.; Philpott, L. C.; Al Asad, M.; Plattner, A.; Mast, S.; Kinczyk, M. J.; Prockter, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic field data obtained by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft have been used to demonstrate the presence of lithospheric magnetization on Mercury. Larger amplitude fields resulting from the core dynamo and the strongly time-varying magnetospheric current systems are first estimated and subtracted from the magnetic field data to isolate lithospheric signals with wavelengths less than 500 km. These signals (hereafter referred to as data) are only observed at spacecraft altitudes less than 120 km, and are typically a few to 10 nT in amplitude. We present and compare equivalent source dipole magnetization models for latitudes 35°N to 75°N obtained from two distinct approaches to constrain the distribution and origin of lithospheric magnetization. First, models that fit either the data or the surface field predicted from a regional spherical harmonic representation of the data (see Plattner & Johnson abstract) and that minimize the root mean square (RMS) value of the magnetization are derived. Second, models in which the spatial distribution of magnetization required to fit the data is minimized are derived using the approach of Parker (1991). As seen previously, the largest amplitudes of lithospheric magnetization are concentrated around the Caloris basin. With this exception, across the northern hemisphere there are no overall correlations of magnetization with surface geology, although higher magnetizations are found in regions with darker surfaces. Similarly, there is no systematic correlation of magnetization signatures with crater materials, although there are specific instances of craters with interiors or ejecta that have magnetizations distinct from the surrounding region. For the latter case, we observe no correlation of the occurrence of these signatures with crater degradation state (a proxy for age). At the lowest spacecraft altitudes (source depths less than O(10 km) are unlikely in most regions

  2. Removal of radium from drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauch, R.P.

    1992-08-01

    The report summarizes processes for removal of radium from drinking water. Ion exchange, including strong acid and weak acid resin, is discussed. Both processes remove better than 95 percent of the radium from the water. Weak acid ion exchange does not add sodium to the water. Calcium cation exchange removes radium and can be used when hardness removal is not necessary. Iron removal processes are discussed in relation to radium removal. Iron oxides remove much less than 20 percent of the radium from water under typical conditions. Manganese dioxide removes radium from water when competition for sorption sites and clogging of sites is reduced. Filter sand that is rinsed daily with dilute acid will remove radium from water. Manganese dioxide coated filter sorption removes radium but more capacity would be desirable. The radium selective complexer selectively removes radium with significant capacity if iron fouling is eliminated

  3. Radar observations of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, J.K.; Campbell, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the radar altimetry profiles of Mercury obtained on the basis of data from the Arecibo Observatory are presented. In these measurements, the delay-Doppler method was used to measure altitudes along the Doppler equator, rather than to map radar reflectivity. The profiles, derived from observations made over a 6-yr period, provide extensive coverage over a restricted equatorial band and permit the identification of radar signatures for features as small as 50-km diameter craters and 1-km-high arcuate scarps. The data allowed identification of large-scale topographic features such as smooth plains subsidence zones and major highland regions

  4. Fluorescent sensor for mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zidong [Urbana, IL; Lee, Jung Heon [Evanston, IL; Lu, Yi [Champaign, IL

    2011-11-22

    The present invention provides a sensor for detecting mercury, comprising: a first polynucleotide, comprising a first region, and a second region, a second polynucleotide, a third polynucleotide, a fluorophore, and a quencher, wherein the third polynucleotide is optionally linked to the second region; the fluorophore is linked to the first polynucleotide and the quencher is linked to the second polynucleotide, or the fluorophore is linked to the second polynucleotide and the quencher is linked to the first polynucleotide; the first region and the second region hybridize to the second polynucleotide; and the second region binds to the third polynucleotide in the presence of Hg.sup.2+ ions.

  5. Eliminating Heavy Metals from Water with NanoSheet Minerals as Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxian Song

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals usually referred to those with atomic weights ranging from 63.5 to 200.6. Because of natural-mineral dissolution and human activities such as mining, pesticides, fertilizer, metal planting and batteries manufacture, etc., these heavy metals, including zinc, copper, mercury, lead, cadmium and chromium have been excessively released into water courses, like underground water, lake and river, etc. The ingestion of the heavy metals-contaminated water would raise serious health problems to human beings even at a low concentration. For instance, lead can bring human beings about barrier to the normal function of kidney, liver and reproductive system, while zinc can cause stomach cramps, skin irritations, vomiting and anemia. Mercury is a horrible neurotoxin that may result in damages to the central nervous system, dysfunction of pulmonary and kidney, chest and dyspnea. Chromium (VI has been proved can cause many diseases ranging from general skin irritation to severe lung carcinoma. Accordingly, the World Health Organization announced the maximum contaminant levels (MCL for the heavy metals in drinking water. There are numerous processes for eliminating heavy metals from water in order to provide citizens safe drinking water, including precipitation, adsorption, ion exchange, membrane separation and biological treatment, etc. Adsorption is considered as a potential process for deeply removing heavy metals, in which the selection of adsorbents plays a predominant role. Nano-sheet minerals as the adsorbents are currently the hottest researches in the field. They are obtained from layered minerals, such as montmorillonite, graphite and molybdenite, through the processing of intercalation, electrochemical and mechanical exfoliation, etc. Nano-sheet minerals are featured by their large specific surface area, relatively low costs and active adsorbing sites, leading to be effective and potential adsorbents for heavy metals removal from water

  6. Mercury speciation and fine particle size distribution on combustion of Chinese coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering and State Key Joint Lab. of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control; Daukoru, Michael; Torkamani, Sarah; Biswas, Pratim [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Aerosol and Air Quality Research Lab.

    2013-07-01

    Coal combustion is the dominant anthropogenic mercury emission source of the world. Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) can remove almost all the particulate mercury (Hg{sub p}), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) can retain a large part of the gaseous oxidized mercury (Hg{sup 2+}). Only a small percentage of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) can be abated by the air pollution control devices (APCDs). Therefore, the mercury behavior across APCDs largely depends on the mercury speciation in the flue gas exhausting from the coal combustor. To better understand the formation process of three mercury species, i.e. Hg{sup 0}, Hg{sup 2+} and Hg{sub p}, in gaseous phase and fine particles, bench-scale measurements for the flue gas exhausting from combustion of different types of coal in a drop-tube furnace set-up, were carried out. It was observed that with the limitation of reaction kinetics, higher mercury concentration in flue gas will lead to lower Hg{sup 2+} proportion. The concentration of chlorine has the opposite effect, not as significantly as that of mercury though. With the chlorine concentration increasing, the proportion of Hg{sup 2+} increases. Combusting the finer coal powder results in the formation of more Hg{sup 2+}. Mineral composition of coal and coal particle size has a great impact on fine particle formation. Al in coal is in favor of finer particle formation, while Fe in coal can benefit the formation of larger particles. The coexistence of Al and Si can strengthen the particle coagulation process. This process can also be improved by the feeding of more or finer coal powder. The oxy-coal condition can make for both the mercury oxidation process and the metal oxidation in the fine particle formation process.

  7. ECHMERIT: A new on-line global mercury-chemistry model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, G.; Hedgecock, I. M.; Pirrone, N.

    2009-04-01

    Mercury is a volatile metal, that is of concern because when deposited and transformed to methylmercury accumulates within the food-web. Due to the long lifetime of elemental mercury, which is the dominant fraction of mercury species in the atmosphere, mercury is prone to long-range transport and therefore distributed over the globe, transported and hence deposited even in regions far from anthropogenic emission sources. Mercury is released to the atmosphere from a variety of natural and anthropogenic sources, in elementary and oxidised forms, and as particulate mercury. It is then transported, but also transformed chemically in the gaseous phase, as well as in aqueous phase within cloud and rain droplets. Mercury (particularly its oxidised forms) is removed from the atmosphere though wet and dry deposition processes, a large fraction of deposited mercury is, after chemical or biological reduction, re-emitted to the atmosphere as elementary mercury. To investigate mercury chemistry and transport processes on the global scale, the new, global model ECHMERIT has been developed. ECHMERIT simulates meteorology, transport, deposition, photolysis and chemistry on-line. The general circulation model on which ECHMERIT is based is ECHAM5. Sophisticated chemical modules have been implemented, including gas phase chemistry based on the CBM-Z chemistry mechanism, as well as aqueous phase chemistry, both of which have been adapted to include Hg chemistry and Hg species gas-droplet mass transfer. ECHMERIT uses the fast-J photolysis routine. State-of-the-art procedures simulating wet and dry deposition and emissions were adapted and included in the model as well. An overview of the model structure, development, validation and sensitivity studies is presented.

  8. Health risk and significance of mercury in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W C; Tse, H F

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) has long been recognised as a global pollutant, because it can remain in the atmosphere for more than 1 year. The mercury that enters the environment is generally acknowledged to have two sources: natural and anthropogenic. Hg takes three major forms in the environment, namely methyl-Hg (MeHg), Hg(0) and Hg(2+). All three forms of Hg adversely affect the natural environment and pose a risk to human health. In particular, they may damage the human central nervous system, leading to cardiovascular, respiratory and other diseases. MeHg is bioavailable and can be bioaccumulated within food webs. Therefore, several methods of eliminating Hg from the soil and the aquatic system have been proposed. The focus of this article is on phytoremediation, as this technique provides a low-cost and environmentally friendly alternative to traditional methods.

  9. Mercury kinetics in marine zooplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Heyraud, M.; LaRosa, J.

    1976-01-01

    Mercury, like many other heavy metals, is potentially available to marine animals by uptake directly from water and/or through the organisms food. Furthermore, bioavailability, assimilation and subsequent retention in biota may be affected by the chemical species of the element in sea water. While mercury is known to exist in the inorganic form in sea water, recent work has indicated that, in certain coastal areas, a good portion of the total mercury appears to be organically bound; however, the exact chemical nature of the organic fraction has yet to be determined. Methyl mercury may be one constituent of the natural organically bound fraction since microbial mechanisms for in situ methylation of mercury have been demonstrated in the aquatic environment. Despite the fact that naturally produced methyl mercury probably comprises only a small fraction of an aquatic ecosystem, the well-documented toxic effects of this organo-mercurial, caused by man-made introductions into marine food chains, make it an important compound to study

  10. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  11. Atmospheric mercury footprints of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Wang, Yafei; Cinnirella, Sergio; Pirrone, Nicola

    2015-03-17

    The Minamata Convention was established to protect humans and the natural environment from the adverse effects of mercury emissions. A cogent assessment of mercury emissions is required to help implement the Minamata Convention. Here, we use an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model to calculate atmospheric mercury footprints of nations based on upstream production (meaning direct emissions from the production activities of a nation), downstream production (meaning both direct and indirect emissions caused by the production activities of a nation), and consumption (meaning both direct and indirect emissions caused by final consumption of goods and services in a nation). Results show that nations function differently within global supply chains. Developed nations usually have larger consumption-based emissions than up- and downstream production-based emissions. India, South Korea, and Taiwan have larger downstream production-based emissions than their upstream production- and consumption-based emissions. Developed nations (e.g., United States, Japan, and Germany) are in part responsible for mercury emissions of developing nations (e.g., China, India, and Indonesia). Our findings indicate that global mercury abatement should focus on multiple stages of global supply chains. We propose three initiatives for global mercury abatement, comprising the establishment of mercury control technologies of upstream producers, productivity improvement of downstream producers, and behavior optimization of final consumers.

  12. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  13. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernie F. Stine

    2002-08-14

    The Department of Energy (DOE) currently has mercury (Hg) contaminated materials and soils at the various sites. Figure 1-1 (from http://www.ct.ornl.gov/stcg.hg/) shows the estimated distribution of mercury contaminated waste at the various DOE sites. Oak Ridge and Idaho sites have the largest deposits of contaminated materials. The majorities of these contaminated materials are soils, sludges, debris, and waste waters. This project concerns treatment of mercury contaminated soils. The technology is applicable to many DOE sites, in-particular, the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge Tennessee and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These sites have the majority of the soils and sediments contaminated with mercury. The soils may also be contaminated with other hazardous metals and radionuclides. At the Y12 plant, the baseline treatment method for mercury contaminated soil is low temperature thermal desorption (LTTD), followed by on-site landfill disposal. LTTD is relatively expensive (estimated cost of treatment which exclude disposal cost for the collect mercury is greater than $740/per cubic yard [cy] at Y-12), does not treat any of the metal or radionuclides. DOE is seeking a less costly alternative to the baseline technology. As described in the solicitation (DE-RA-01NT41030), this project initially focused on evaluating cost-effective in-situ alternatives to stabilize or remove the mercury (Hg) contamination from high-clay content soil. It was believed that ex-situ treatment of soil contaminated with significant quantities of free-liquid mercury might pose challenges during excavation and handling. Such challenges may include controlling potential mercury vapors and containing liquid mercury beads. As described below, the focus of this project was expanded to include consideration of ex-situ treatment after award of the contract to International Technology Corporation (IT). After award of the contract, IT became part of Shaw