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Sample records for elevated soil copper

  1. Elevated CO2 levels affects the concentrations of copper and cadmium in crops grown in soil contaminated with heavy metals under fully open-air field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyan; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhou, Hui; Sun, Yuanyuan; Yin, Ying; Pei, Daping; Ji, Rong; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Xiaorong

    2011-08-15

    Elevated CO(2) levels and the increase in heavy metals in soils through pollution are serious problems worldwide. Whether elevated CO(2) levels will affect plants grown in heavy-metal-polluted soil and thereby influence food quality and safety is not clear. Using a free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) system, we investigated the impacts of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on the concentrations of copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd) in rice and wheat grown in soil with different concentrations of the metals in the soil. In the two-year study, elevated CO(2) levels led to lower Cu concentrations and higher Cd concentrations in shoots and grain of both rice and wheat grown in the respective contaminated soil. Elevated CO(2) levels slightly but significantly lowered the pH of the soil and led to changes in Cu and Cd fractionation in the soil. Our study indicates that elevated CO(2) alters the distribution of contaminant elements in soil and plants, thereby probably affecting food quality and safety.

  2. Electrochemical remediation of copper contaminated clay soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolev, V.A.; Babakina, O.A.; Mitojan, R.A. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The study objective focused on electrochemical remediation copper polluted soils in the presence of adjuvant substances and conditions that are more effective for the treatment. Some of these substances were studied in different researches. Moreover, authors obtained a result of extraction copper rate higher than 90%. In this connection the following problems were set: - Influence organic and inorganic substances on copper mobility in soil under the DC current. - Moisture effect on copper migration in clay. - Electrochemical remediation soils different mineralogical composition. - A washing conditions contribution to electrochemical remediation of soil from copper. - Accuracy rating experimental dates. (orig.)

  3. Copper in Surface Soil of Veles Region, Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchevski, Zlatko; Stafilov, Trajche; Frontasyeva, Marina V.

    2006-01-01

    For the first time a systematic study of copper distribution in surface soil over of the Veles region, known for its lead and zinc industrial activity, was undertaken. A total of 201 soil samples were collected according to a dense net (0.5 km) in urban and less dense net (1 km) in rural areas. Copper was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) using microwave digestion technique with two different types of solvents: aqua regia (HCI and HNO 3 )and the mixture of strong acids (HNO 3 , HCI, and HF). So far the same soil samples were subjected to reactor non-destructive multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), it served as a reference analytical technique for bulk copper determination. The results obtained by two methods of FAAS and INAA are discussed. GIS technology was applied to reveal the areas most affected by copper contamination. It was found that the content of copper in soil samples around the lead and zinc smelter plant is the highest and reaches 1800 mg/kg. Copper content in surface soil all around the town of Veles exceeds maximum permissible level for urban surface soil. Elevated copper content in some rural areas of the Veles region most likely could be explained through using copper containing fungicides for agricultural needs. (Author)

  4. Facilitated transport of diuron and glyphosate in high copper vineyard soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousset, Sylvie; Jacobson, Astrid R; Dessogne, Jean-Baptiste; Guichard, Nathalie; Baveye, Philippe C; Andreux, Francis

    2007-12-01

    The fate of organic herbicides applied to agricultural fields may be affected by other soil amendments, such as copper applied as a fungicide. The effect of copper on the leaching of diuron and glyphosate through a granitic and a calcareous soil was studied in the laboratory using sieved-soil columns. Each soil was enriched with copper sulfate to obtain soil copper concentrations of 125, 250, 500, and 1000 mg kg(-1). Glyphosate leaching was influenced by soil pH and copper concentration, whereas diuron leaching was not. In the calcareous soil, glyphosate leaching decreased as copper levels increased from 17 mg kg(-1) (background) to 500 mg kg(-1). In the granitic soil, glyphosate leaching increased as copper levels increased from 34 mg kg(-1) (background) to 500 mg kg(-1). The shapes of the copper elution curves in presence of glyphosate were similar to shapes of the glyphosate curves, suggesting the formation of Cu-glyphosate complexes that leach through the soil. Soil copper concentration does not influence diuron leaching. In contrast, increasing copper concentrations reduces glyphosate leaching through calcareous soils, and conversely, increases glyphosate leaching through granitic soils. Our findings suggest that the risk of groundwater contamination by glyphosate increases in granitic soils with elevated copper concentrations.

  5. Soil Pollution with Copper, Lead and Zinc in the Surroundings of Large Copper Ore Tailings Impoundment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musztyfaga Elżbieta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the top-soil total content of heavy metals was carried out inthe vicinity of large copper ore tailings pound in the south-western Poland with regard to soil properties, direction and distance from the tailings pound. None of the soils under study ex-ceeded the limits admitted in the official standards for soil quality, but the assessment made in accordance with IUNG-guidelines to soil contamination determination showed that more than half of the monitoring sites have elevated metal content, Cu, in par-ticular. The results confirmed high effectiveness of dust control preventing its eolian spread from the tailings pound.

  6. A Case of Isolated Elevated Copper Levels during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaToya R. Walker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Outside of Wilson's Disease, abnormal copper metabolism is a rare condition. In pregnancy, excess copper levels can be associated with intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia and neurological disease. Case Report. A 32 year old Gravida 4 para 2012 with an obstetrical history complicated by elevated copper levels presented for routine prenatal care. Her children had elevated copper levels at birth, with her firstborn child being diagnosed with autism and suffering three myocardial infarctions and being treated for elevated copper levels. During her prior pregnancies, she declined treatment for her elevated copper levels. During this pregnancy, she had declined chelation therapy and instead choose zinc therapy. She delivered a healthy infant with normal copper levels. Conclusion. Alterations in copper metabolism are rare, the consequences in pregnancy can be devastating. While isolated elevations of copper in pregnancy is exceedingly rare, it is treated the same as Wilson's disease. The goal is to prevent fetal growth restricting and neurological sequelae in the newborn and preeclampsia in the mother. Counseling, along with treatment options and timely delivery can greatly improve neonatal and maternal outcome.

  7. Diuron mobility through vineyard soils contaminated with copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Astrid R. [UMR INRA 1229 Microbiologie-Geochimie des Sols, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, Universite de Bourgogne, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France) and Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell University, 1002 Bradfield Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)]. E-mail: arj5@cornell.edu; Dousset, Sylvie [UMR INRA 1229 Microbiologie-Geochimie des Sols, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, Universite de Bourgogne, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Guichard, Nathalie [UMR CNRS 5561 Biogeosciences, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, Universite de Bourgogne, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Baveye, Philippe [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell University, 1002 Bradfield Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Andreux, Francis [UMR INRA 1229 Microbiologie-Geochimie des Sols, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, Universite de Bourgogne, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France)

    2005-11-15

    The herbicide diuron is frequently applied to vineyard soils in Burgundy, along with repeated treatments with Bordeaux mixture (a blend of copper sulfate and calcium hydroxide) that result in elevated copper concentrations. Cu could in principle affect the fate and transport of diuron or its metabolites in the soil either directly by complexation or indirectly by altering the populations or activity of microbes involved in their degradation. To assess the effect of high Cu concentrations on diuron transport, an experiment was designed with ten undisturbed columns of calcareous and acidic soils contaminated with 17-509 mg kg{sup -1} total Cu (field-applied). Grass was planted on three columns. Diuron was applied to the soils in early May and in-ground lysimeters were exposed to outdoor conditions until November. Less than 1.2% of the diuron applied was found in the leachates as diuron or its metabolites. Higher concentrations were found in the effluents from the grass-covered columns (0.1-0.45%) than from the bare-soil columns (0.02-0.14%), and they were correlated with increases in dissolved organic carbon. The highest amounts of herbicide were measured in acidic-soil column leachates (0.98-1.14%) due to the low clay and organic matter contents of these soils. Cu also leached more readily through the acidic soils (32.8-1042 {mu}g) than in the calcareous soils (9.5-63.4 {mu}g). Unlike in the leachates, the amount of diuron remaining in the soils at the end of the experiment was weakly related to the Cu concentrations in the soils. - Cu accumulation, from Bordeaux mixture, in vineyard soils may be affecting microbial activity and thus slightly increasing the persistence of diuron in the soils.

  8. Diuron mobility through vineyard soils contaminated with copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, Astrid R.; Dousset, Sylvie; Guichard, Nathalie; Baveye, Philippe; Andreux, Francis

    2005-01-01

    The herbicide diuron is frequently applied to vineyard soils in Burgundy, along with repeated treatments with Bordeaux mixture (a blend of copper sulfate and calcium hydroxide) that result in elevated copper concentrations. Cu could in principle affect the fate and transport of diuron or its metabolites in the soil either directly by complexation or indirectly by altering the populations or activity of microbes involved in their degradation. To assess the effect of high Cu concentrations on diuron transport, an experiment was designed with ten undisturbed columns of calcareous and acidic soils contaminated with 17-509 mg kg -1 total Cu (field-applied). Grass was planted on three columns. Diuron was applied to the soils in early May and in-ground lysimeters were exposed to outdoor conditions until November. Less than 1.2% of the diuron applied was found in the leachates as diuron or its metabolites. Higher concentrations were found in the effluents from the grass-covered columns (0.1-0.45%) than from the bare-soil columns (0.02-0.14%), and they were correlated with increases in dissolved organic carbon. The highest amounts of herbicide were measured in acidic-soil column leachates (0.98-1.14%) due to the low clay and organic matter contents of these soils. Cu also leached more readily through the acidic soils (32.8-1042 μg) than in the calcareous soils (9.5-63.4 μg). Unlike in the leachates, the amount of diuron remaining in the soils at the end of the experiment was weakly related to the Cu concentrations in the soils. - Cu accumulation, from Bordeaux mixture, in vineyard soils may be affecting microbial activity and thus slightly increasing the persistence of diuron in the soils

  9. Field-based evidence for consistent responses of bacterial communities to copper contamination in two contrasting agricultural soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eLi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper contamination on China’s arable land could pose severe economic, ecological and healthy consequences in the coming decades. As the drivers in maintaining ecosystem functioning, the responses of soil microorganisms to long-term copper contamination in different soil ecosystems are still debated. This study investigated the impacts of copper gradients on soil bacterial communities in two agricultural fields with contrasting soil properties. Our results revealed consistent reduction in soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC with increasing copper levels in both soils, coupled by significant declines in bacterial abundance in most cases. Despite of contrasting bacterial community structures between the two soils, the bacterial diversity in the copper-contaminated soils showed considerably decreasing patterns when copper levels elevated. High-throughput sequencing revealed copper selection for major bacterial guilds, in particular, Actinobacteria showed tolerance, while Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi were highly sensitive to copper. The thresholds that bacterial communities changed sharply were 800 and 200 added copper mg kg-1 in the fluvo-aquic soil and red soil, respectively, which were similar to the toxicity thresholds (EC50 values characterized by SMBC. Structural equation model (SEM analysis ascertained that the shifts of bacterial community composition and diversity were closely related with the changes of SMBC in both soils. Our results provide field-based evidence that copper contamination exhibits consistently negative impacts on soil bacterial communities, and the shifts of bacterial communities could have largely determined the variations of the microbial biomass.

  10. Diuron mobility through vineyard soils contaminated with copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Astrid R; Dousset, Sylvie; Guichard, Nathalie; Baveye, Philippe; Andreux, Francis

    2005-11-01

    The herbicide diuron is frequently applied to vineyard soils in Burgundy, along with repeated treatments with Bordeaux mixture (a blend of copper sulfate and calcium hydroxide) that result in elevated copper concentrations. Cu could in principle affect the fate and transport of diuron or its metabolites in the soil either directly by complexation or indirectly by altering the populations or activity of microbes involved in their degradation. To assess the effect of high Cu concentrations on diuron transport, an experiment was designed with ten undisturbed columns of calcareous and acidic soils contaminated with 17--509 mg kg(-1) total Cu (field-applied). Grass was planted on three columns. Diuron was applied to the soils in early May and in-ground lysimeters were exposed to outdoor conditions until November. Less than 1.2% of the diuron applied was found in the leachates as diuron or its metabolites. Higher concentrations were found in the effluents from the grass-covered columns (0.1--0.45%) than from the bare-soil columns (0.02--0.14%), and they were correlated with increases in dissolved organic carbon. The highest amounts of herbicide were measured in acidic-soil column leachates (0.98--1.14%) due to the low clay and organic matter contents of these soils. Cu also leached more readily through the acidic soils (32.8--1042 microg) than in the calcareous soils (9.5--63.4 microg). Unlike in the leachates, the amount of diuron remaining in the soils at the end of the experiment was weakly related to the Cu concentrations in the soils.

  11. Effects of past copper contamination and soil structure on copper leaching from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paradelo, M; Møldrup, Per; Arthur, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Copper contamination affects biological, chemical, and physical soil properties and associated ecological functions. Changes in soil pore organization as a result of Cu contamination can dramatically affect flow and contaminant transport in polluted soils. This study assessed the influence of soil...... structure on the movement of water and Cu in a long-term polluted soil. Undisturbed soil cores collected along a Cu gradient (from about 20 to about 3800 mg Cu kg−1 soil) were scanned using X-ray computed tomography (CT). Leaching experiments were performed to analyze tracer transport, colloid leaching......, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and Cu losses. The 5% arrival time (t0.05) and apparent dispersivity (λapp) for tracer breakthrough were calculated by fitting the experimental data to a nonparametric, double-lognormal probability density function. Soil bulk density, which did not follow the Cu gradient...

  12. Elevated copper levels during larval development cause altered locomotor behavior in the adult carabid beetle Pterostichus cupreus L. (Coleoptera: Carbidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayley, M; Baatrup, E; Heimbach, U

    1995-01-01

    behavior of adult Pterostichus cupreus carabid beetles was quantified after being raised on copper-contaminated food and soil during larval development. Copper was found to have an acute toxic effect measured in larval mortality, to cause a slight increase in the developmental period of males......It is generally believed that copper causes changes in carabid communities indirectly by reducing food availability, because these animals are frequently found to have only slightly elevated metal contents even close to pollution sources. Using computer-centered video tracking, the locomotor......, but not to effect the emergence weights of adults of either sex. This toxic effect on the larvae was preserved through pupation to the surviving adults, which were normal in size and appearance, but displayed a dramatically depressed locomotor behavior. Copper analysis of these adults revealed that copper levels...

  13. Electrodialytic Remediation of Soil Polluted with Copper from Wood Preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik; Laursen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    The principle of electrodialytic soil remediation was tested in six experiments on a copper polluted loamy sand. It was possible to decontaminate from 1360 to below 40 mg of Cu/kg of dry soil......The principle of electrodialytic soil remediation was tested in six experiments on a copper polluted loamy sand. It was possible to decontaminate from 1360 to below 40 mg of Cu/kg of dry soil...

  14. Microstructural characterization of copper corrosion in aqueous and soil environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.; Balasubramaniam, R.

    2005-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface films on pure copper after exposure to different aqueous and soil environments, containing chloride, sulfide and ammonium salts. The morphology of the films formed on copper surface in aqueous and soil environments was different for the same amount of pollutants. The surface films formed in soil environments were not homogenous in contrast to the films formed in aqueous environments. The damaging effect of chloride ions and the benign role of sulfide ions were revealed in both the environments. Local compositional analysis confirmed that the surface films formed on copper consisted predominantly of copper and oxygen

  15. Effects of stimulation of copper bioleaching on microbial community in vineyard soil and copper mining waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazza, Robson; Okeke, Benedict C; Pieniz, Simone; Bortolon, Leandro; Lambais, Márcio R; Camargo, Flávio A O

    2012-04-01

    Long-term copper application in vineyards and copper mining activities cause heavy metal pollution sites. Such sites need remediation to protect soil and water quality. Bioremediation of contaminated areas through bioleaching can help to remove copper ions from the contaminated soils. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of different treatments for copper bioleaching in two diverse copper-contaminated soils (a 40-year-old vineyard and a copper mining waste) and to evaluate the effect on microbial community by applying denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S ribosomal DNA amplicons and DNA sequence analysis. Several treatments with HCl, H(2)SO(4), and FeSO(4) were evaluated by stimulation of bioleaching of copper in the soils. Treatments and extractions using FeSO(4) and H(2)SO(4) mixture at 30°C displayed more copper leaching than extractions with deionized water at room temperature. Treatment with H(2)SO(4) supported bioleaching of as much as 120 mg kg(-1) of copper from vineyard soil after 115 days of incubation. DGGE analysis of the treatments revealed that some treatments caused greater diversity of microorganisms in the vineyard soil compared to the copper mining waste. Nucleotide Blast of PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA gene bands from DGGE indicated the presence of Rhodobacter sp., Silicibacter sp., Bacillus sp., Paracoccus sp., Pediococcus sp., a Myxococcales, Clostridium sp., Thiomonas sp., a firmicute, Caulobacter vibrioides, Serratia sp., and an actinomycetales in vineyard soil. Contrarily, Sphingomonas was the predominant genus in copper mining waste in most treatments. Paracoccus sp. and Enterobacter sp. were also identified from DGGE bands of the copper mining waste. Paracoccus species is involved in the copper bioleaching by sulfur oxidation system, liberating the copper bounded in the soils and hence promoting copper bioremediation. Results indicate that stimulation of bioleaching with a combination of FeSO(4

  16. Derivation of Soil Ecological Criteria for Copper in Chinese Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Wei, Dongpu; Ma, Yibing; McLaughlin, Mike J

    2015-01-01

    Considerable information on copper (Cu) ecotoxicity as affected by biological species and abiotic properties of soils has been collected from the last decade in the present study. The information on bioavailability/ecotoxicity, species sensitivity and differences in laboratory and field ecotoxicity of Cu in different soils was collated and integrated to derive soil ecological criteria for Cu in Chinese soils, which were expressed as predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC). First, all ecotoxicity data of Cu from bioassays based on Chinese soils were collected and screened with given criteria to compile a database. Second, the compiled data were corrected with leaching and aging factors to minimize the differences between laboratory and field conditions. Before Cu ecotoxicity data were entered into a species sensitivity distribution (SSD), they were normalized with Cu ecotoxicity predictive models to modify the effects of soil properties on Cu ecotoxicity. The PNEC value was set equal to the hazardous concentration for x% of the species (HCx), which could be calculated from the SSD curves, without an additional assessment factor. Finally, predictive models for HCx based on soil properties were developed. The soil properties had a significant effect on the magnitude of HCx, with HC5 varying from 13.1 mg/kg in acidic soils to 51.9 mg/kg in alkaline non-calcareous soils. The two-factor predictive models based on soil pH and cation exchange capacity could predict HCx with determination coefficients (R2) of 0.82-0.91. The three-factor predictive models--that took into account the effect of soil organic carbon--were more accurate than two-factor models, with R2 of 0.85-0.99. The predictive models obtained here could be used to calculate soil-specific criteria. All results obtained here could provide a scientific basis for revision of current Chinese soil environmental quality standards, and the approach adopted in this study could be used as a pragmatic framework for

  17. Biochar and compost as amendments in copper-enriched vineyard soils - stabilization or mobilization of copper?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Gerhard; Fristak, Vladimir; Wimmer, Bernhard; Bell, Stephen; Chamier Glisczinski, Julia; Pardeller, Georg; Dersch, Georg; Rosner, Franz; Wenzel, Walter; Zehetner, Franz

    2016-04-01

    Copper is an important ingredient for several fungicides that have been used in agriculture. For organic viticulture, several diseases as e.g. downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) can only be antagonized with Cu-containing fungicides. This long-lasting dependence on Cu-fungicides has led to a gradual Cu enrichment of vineyard soils in traditional wine-growing areas, occasionally exceeding 300 mg/kg. Although these concentrations do not affect the vines or wine quality, they may impair soil microbiological functions in the top soil layer or the root growth of green cover plants. Therefore measures are demanded that reduce the bioavailability of copper, thereby reducing the ecotoxicological effects. The use of biochar and compost as soil amendment has been suggested as a strategy to immobilize Cu and reduce the exchangeable fractions. This study consisted of lab and greenhouse experiments that were designed to test the sorption and desorption behavior of copper in vineyard soils with or without biochar and/or compost as soil amendment. Slightly acidic soils (pHeffects were more evident for a reduction of the ionic form Cu2+ than for total soluble copper, even in alkaline soils. Biochar modified with citric or tartaric acid did not significantly decrease the solubility of copper based on total dissolved concentrations although CEC was higher than in unmodified biochar. Treatments consisting of compost only or that had an equal amount of compost and biochar rather had a mobilizing effect on biochar. Sorption experiments with different DOC concentrations and biochar, however, showed a positive effect on copper sorption. Apparently in vineyard soils the predisposition to form organic-Cu-complexes may outbalance the binding possibilities of these complexes to biochar, occasionally resulting in enhanced mobilization. Presumably immobilization of copper with biochar would work best in acidic soils low in organic carbon and with low or no compost addition although this might

  18. Potential phytoextraction and phytostabilization of perennial peanut on copper-contaminated vineyard soils and copper mining waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazza, Robson; Bortolon, Leandro; Pieniz, Simone; Giacometti, Marcelo; Roehrs, Dione D; Lambais, Mácio R; Camargo, Flávio A O

    2011-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the potential of perennial peanut (Arachis pintoi) for copper phytoremediation in vineyard soils (Inceptisol and Mollisol) contaminated with copper and copper mining waste. Our results showed high phytomass production of perennial peanut in both vineyard soils. Macronutrient uptakes were not negatively affected by perennial peanut cultivated in all contaminated soils. Plants cultivated in Mollisol showed high copper concentrations in the roots and shoots of 475 and 52 mg kg(-1), respectively. Perennial peanut plants showed low translocation factor values for Cu, although these plants showed high bioaccumulation factor (BCF) for both vineyard soils, Inceptisol and Mollisol, with BCF values of 3.83 and 3.24, respectively, being characterized as a copper hyperaccumulator plant in these soils. Copper phytoextraction from Inceptisol soil was the highest for both roots and entire plant biomass, with more than 800 mg kg(-1) of copper in whole plant. The highest potential copper phytoextraction by perennial peanut was in Inceptisol soil with copper removal of 2,500 g ha(-1). Also, perennial peanut showed high potential for copper phytoremoval in copper mining waste and Mollisol with 1,700 and 1,500 g of copper per hectare, respectively. In addition, perennial peanuts characterized high potential for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of copper in vineyard soils and copper mining waste.

  19. Simultaneous loss of soil biodiversity and functions along a copper contamination gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Moldrup, Per; Arthur, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    and associated soil functions is limited. Here, we quantified an array of soil biological constituents (plants, earthworms, nematodes, bacteria, and fungi) to explore their interactions and to characterize their influence on various soil functions (habitat for soil organisms, air and water regulation......The impact of biodiversity loss on soil functions is well established via laboratory experiments that generally consider soil biota groups in isolation from each other, a condition rarely present in field soils. As a result, our knowledge about anthropogenic induced changes in biodiversity......, and recycling of nutrients and organic waste) along a legacy copper (Cu) pollution gradient. Increasing Cu concentrations had detrimental impact on both plant growth and species richness. Belowground soil biota showed similar response with their sensitivity to elevated Cu concentrations decreasing...

  20. Contamination of urban garden soils with copper and boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, D

    1966-06-04

    Spectrochemical analyses of garden soils sampled in the Edinburgh and Dundee areas indicate that there is substantial contamination of urban soils with copper and boron. These soils were analyzed spectrochemically with respect to total copper and water-extractable boron content with the view of comparing the levels obtained in urban areas with levels in arable soils in rural areas. The results indicate that urban garden soils contain about four times as much copper and two to three times as much water-soluble boron as rural arable soils. The existence of such a marked disparity between the levels of two potentially toxic elements in urban and rural areas is evidence of slow poisoning of the soil environment in built-up areas and is cause for concern. While the major source of contamination of soils with copper and boron is still a matter for speculation, it is probable that the addition of soot to garden soils and the fall-out of sooty material in built-up areas where atmospheric pollution is a problem make a substantial contribution to the water-extractable boron content of urban soils. Three samples of soot from domestic chimneys, obtained from independent sources, were found on analysis to contain 640, 650 and 555 p.p.m. water-extractable boron, and it is evident that the addition to soil of even small amounts of soot with a boron content of this order would have a marked effect on its water-extractable boron content.

  1. Experimental determinations of soil copper toxicity to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) growth in highly different copper spiked and aged soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karen Søgaard; Borggaard, Ole K.; Holm, Peter Engelund

    2015-01-01

    Accurate knowledge about factors and conditions determining copper (Cu) toxicity in soil is needed for predicting plant growth in various Cu-contaminated soils. Therefore, effects of Cu on growth (biomass production) of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were tested on seven selected, very different soils...

  2. Studies on the copper-poisoned soils. Part 2. Actual condition of the copper-poison in the soils and the rice plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshiba, N.; Sano, Y.

    1968-01-01

    Copper contents of soils and rice plants in paddylands were correlated with growth. The results were as follows: available copper content in paddies was 181.8 ppm where the rice plants grew poorly, and was more than 4 times the value of the soil where rice plants grew favorably. The difference growth was obviously caused by available copper. The copper content of the rice plants showing poor growth was the same as those which grew well. Plants were poisoned by available copper of more than 100 ppm. The available copper contents were increased by drying processes of the paddyland soils distributed in the copper-poisoned area. 8 references, 6 tables.

  3. Biokinetics of copper in black-banded rainbowfish (Melanotaenia nigrans) tolerant to elevated copper concentrations, using the radioisotope 64Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, S.; Jeffree, R.; Smith, S.; Lim, R.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: For over 40 years black-banded rainbowfish (Melanotaenia nigrans) living in the East Branch of the Finniss River, Northern Territory have been exposed to elevated copper concentrations due to mine waste from the Rum Jungle uranium/copper mine. In the 1970s prior to remediation of the mine, fish kills were observed along the length of the East Branch. While copper concentrations remain comparatively high (up to 2000 μg/L) in the East Branch since remediation of the mine site, M. nigrans have been observed in the area. It was, therefore, hypothesised that due to selective pressure of lethal exposure, the population of black-banded rainbowfish in the East Branch have developed a tolerance to elevated copper concentrations. This project aimed to demonstrate copper tolerance and evaluate possible mechanism(s). In May 2000, fish were collected from the East Branch (exposed fish) and from a catchment previously unexposed to elevated metal concentrations (reference fish). The 96-hour EC 50 , fish imbalance (i.e. the concentration of copper that affects 50% of fish over 96 hours) for the exposed fish was over 8 times higher than the reference fish. Using the radioisotope, 64 Cu, the biokinetics of newly accumulated copper was traced in exposed and reference fish at low and elevated copper concentrations. The uptake rate, and therefore body burden, were significantly (p=0.000) lower in exposed fish, at both low and elevated copper concentrations compared to reference fish. Possible mechanisms of reducing copper uptake will be discussed. Tolerance was not lost when fish were maintained in relatively low copper concentrations in the laboratory. Also, the two populations of fish were genetically dissimilar based on allozyme analysis, which suggests that the mechanism is genetically mediated. The outcome of this project will be important in assisting accurate risk assessment and the development of environmental management strategies for the conservation of biota. The

  4. Elevated carbon dioxide: impacts on soil and plant water relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirkham, M. B

    2011-01-01

    .... Focusing on this critical issue, Elevated Carbon Dioxide: Impacts on Soil and Plant Water Relations presents research conducted on field-grown sorghum, winter wheat, and rangeland plants under elevated CO2...

  5. Soil nematodes show a mid-elevation diversity maximum and elevational zonation on Mt. Norikura, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ke; Moroenyane, Itumeleng; Tripathi, Binu; Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Takahashi, Koichi; Yamamoto, Naomichi; An, Choa; Cho, Hyunjun; Adams, Jonathan

    2017-06-08

    Little is known about how nematode ecology differs across elevational gradients. We investigated the soil nematode community along a ~2,200 m elevational range on Mt. Norikura, Japan, by sequencing the 18S rRNA gene. As with many other groups of organisms, nematode diversity showed a high correlation with elevation, and a maximum in mid-elevations. While elevation itself, in the context of the mid domain effect, could predict the observed unimodal pattern of soil nematode communities along the elevational gradient, mean annual temperature and soil total nitrogen concentration were the best predictors of diversity. We also found nematode community composition showed strong elevational zonation, indicating that a high degree of ecological specialization that may exist in nematodes in relation to elevation-related environmental gradients and certain nematode OTUs had ranges extending across all elevations, and these generalized OTUs made up a greater proportion of the community at high elevations - such that high elevation nematode OTUs had broader elevational ranges on average, providing an example consistent to Rapoport's elevational hypothesis. This study reveals the potential for using sequencing methods to investigate elevational gradients of small soil organisms, providing a method for rapid investigation of patterns without specialized knowledge in taxonomic identification.

  6. Copper removal from contaminated soils by soil washing process using camellian-derived saponin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Arturo; Fernanda Campos, Maria; Videla, Álvaro; Letelier, María Victoria; Fuentes, Bárbara

    2015-04-01

    Antofagasta Region in North of Chile has been the main copper producer district in the world. As a consequence of a lack of mining closure regulation, a large number of abandon small-to-medium size metal-contaminated sites have been identified in the last survey performed by the Chilean Government. Therefore, more research development on sustainable reclamation technologies must be made in this extreme arid-dry zone. The objective of this study is to test the effectiveness of soil remediation by washing contaminated soil using camellian-derived saponin for the mobilization of copper. Soil samples were taken from an abandoned copper mine site located at 30 km North Antofagasta city. They were dried and sieved at 75 µm for physico-chemical characterization. A commercial saponin extracted from camellias seed was used as biosurfactant. The soil used contains 67.4 % sand, 26.3 % silt and 6.3 % clay. The soil is highly saline (electric conductivity, 61 mScm-1), with low organic matter content (0.41%), with pH 7.30, and a high copper concentration (2200 mg Kg-1 soil). According to the sequential extraction procedure of the whole soil, copper species are mainly as exchangeable fraction (608.2 mg Kg-1 soil) and reducible fraction (787.3 mg Kg-1 soil), whereas the oxidizable and residual fractions are around 205.7 and 598.8 mg Kg-1 soil, respectively. Soil particles under 75 µm contain higher copper concentrations (1242 mg Kg-1 soil) than the particle fraction over 75 µm (912 mg Kg-1 soil). All washing assays were conducted in triplicate using a standard batch technique with and without pH adjustment. The testing protocols includes evaluation of four solid to liquid ratio (0.5:50; 1.0:50; 2.0:50, and 5.0:50) and three saponin concentrations (0, 1, and 4 mg L-1). After shaking (24 h, 20±1 °C) and subsequently filtration (0.45 µm), the supernatants were analyzed for copper and pH. The removal efficiencies of copper by saponin solutions were calculated in according to the

  7. Copper and lead levels in crops and soils of the Holland Marsh Area-Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czuba, M.; Hutchinson, T.C.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of the occurrence, distribution, and concentrations of the heavy metals copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) in the soils and crops of the important horticultural area north of Toronto known as the Holland Marsh. The soils are deep organic mucks (> 85% organic matter), derived by the drainage of black marshland soils, which has been carried out over the past 40 years. A comparison is made between the Pb and Cu concentrations in undrained, uncultivated areas of the marsh and in the intensively used horticultural area. Analyses show a marked accumulation of Cu in surface layers of cultivated soils, with a mean surface concentration of 130 ppM, declining to 20 ppM at a 32-cm depth. Undrained (virgin) soils of the same marshes had < 20 ppM at all depths. Lead concentrations also declined through the profile, from concentrations of 22 to 10 ppM. In comparison, undrained areas had elevated Pb levels. Cultivation appeared to have increased Cu, but lowered Pb in the marsh. Copper and lead levels found in the crops were generally higher in the young spring vegetables than in the mature fall ones. Leafy crops, especially lettuce (Lactuca L.) and celery (Apium graveolens), accumulated higher Pb levels in their foliage compared with levels in root crops. Cultivation procedures, including past pesticide applications and fertilizer additions, appeared to be principal sources of Cu. Mobility from the soil and into the plant for these elements in the marsh muck soils is discussed.

  8. Metal contamination of agricultural soils in the copper mining areas ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soma Giri

    2017-06-07

    Jun 7, 2017 ... Agricultural soil; heavy metals; copper mining areas; multivariate analysis; ... multivariate statistical analysis. 2. ... sieved through standard sieve of 200 mesh size (Giri ... Pearson's correlation is a bivariate correlation ... is a variation reduction technique in which a num- ... Varimax rotation is applied to all the.

  9. Effects of a copper tolerant grass (Agrostis capillaris) on the ecosystem of a copper-contaminated arable soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, G.T.; Bouwman, L.A.; Bloem, J.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    To test how a dysfunctioning ecosystem of a severely metal-polluted soil responds to renewed plant growth, a pot experiment was conducted with soil from an experimental arable field with pH and copper gradients imposed 13 years ago. In this experimentfour pH/copper combinations from this field were

  10. Behavior of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles in Soil Pore Waters as Influenced by Soil Characteristics, Bacteria, and Wheat Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Hortin, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this project was to study the behavior of copper oxide nanoparticles in soil environments. Copper oxide nanoparticles have antimicrobial properties and may also be used in agricultural settings to provide a source of copper for plant health, but accidental or misapplication of these nanoparticles to soil may be damaging to the plant and its associated bacteria. Dissolved soil organic matter that is present in soil pore waters dissolved nanoparticles, but did not dissolve the ex...

  11. Contamination of urban garden soils with copper, boron, and lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, D

    1967-04-01

    Spectrochemical analysis of representative samples of topsoil from urban gardens and from individual fields in rural areas indicates that the level of total copper, EDTA-extractable copper, water-soluble boron, and acetic-acid extractable lead are markedly enhanced in urban areas. No significant differences were discovered between levels of these elements in soils from built-up areas in small towns and large conurbations. These results suggest the possibility of general enhancement of the trace element content of plants grown in private gardens in built-up areas.

  12. Effects of a copper-tolerant grass (Agrostis capillaris) on the ecosystem of a copper-contaminated arable soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boon, G.T. [State Univ. Groningen (Netherlands); Bouwman, L.A.; Bloem, J.; Roemkens, P.F.A.M. [Research Inst. for Agrobiology and Soil Fertility, Haren (Netherlands)

    1998-10-01

    To test how a dysfunctioning ecosystem of a severely metal-polluted soil responds to renewed plant growth, a pot experiment was conducted with soil from an experimental arable field with pH and copper gradients imposed 13 years ago. In this experiment, four pH/copper combinations from this field were either planted with a pH- and copper-resistant grass cultivar or remained fallow. During a 10-week period, the dynamics of the microbial activity and of the abundances of bacteria, protozoa. and nematodes were measured, as were the dynamics of several chemical soil parameters. After 13 years of copper, which had resulted in severely reduced crop growth, no effects were observed on bacterial numbers, respiration, or protozoan numbers, but bacterial growth was strongly reduced in the low pH plots, and even more so in low pH plots enriched with copper. Of the organisms, only nematodes were negatively affected under conditions of high copper load at low pH. In these plots, numbers belonging to all feeding categories were strongly reduced. Planting of a copper-tolerant grass variety, Agrostis capillaris L. var. Parys Mountain, resulted within 10 weeks in faster bacterial growth and more protozoa and bacterivorous nematodes in comparison with fallow controls; these effects were markedly strongest in the acidic, copper-enriched soils. During incubation, fungivorous nematodes increased in all treatments, in fallow and in planted pots and in the pots with high-copper, low-pH soil. The results of this experiment suggest that introduction of plant growth is one of the major causes of increased biological activity in acidic contaminated soils. Planting such soils with metal-tolerant plant species can reestablish the necessary food base to support soil organism growth, and this can lead to numerous positive effects, reversing the loss of soil functions due to the high copper levels under acidic conditions.

  13. Aided Phytostabilization of Copper Contaminated Soils with L. Perenne and Mineral Sorbents as Soil Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziemska, Maja

    2017-09-01

    The present study was designed to assess phytostabilization strategies for the treatment of soil co-contaminated by increasing levels of copper with the application mineral amendments (chalcedonite, zeolite, dolomite). From the results it will be possible to further elucidate the benefits or potential risks derived from the application of different types of mineral amendments in the remediation of a copper contaminated soil. A glasshouse pot experiment was designed to evaluate the potential use of different amendments as immobilizing agents in the aided phytostabilization of Cu-contaminated soil using ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The content of trace elements in plants and total in soil, were determined using the method of spectrophotometry. All of the investigated element contents in the tested parts of L. perenne were significantly different in the case of applying mineral amendments to the soil, as well as increasing concentrations of copper. The greatest average above-ground biomass was observed for soil amended with chalcedonite. In this experiment, all analyzed metals accumulated predominantly in the roots of the tested plant. In general, applying mineral amendments to soil contributed to decreased levels of copper concentrations.

  14. NATURAL ATTENUATION OF COPPER IN SOILS AND SOIL MINERALS - II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bioabailability and toxicity of Cu in soils is controlled by a number of soil properties and processes. Some of these such as pH, adsorption/desorption and competition with beneficial cations have been extensively studied. However, the effects of natural attenuation (or aging...

  15. Modification of soil microbial activity and several hydrolases in a forest soil artificially contaminated with copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, Rosa; Leirós, Mā Carmen; Gil-Sotres, Fernando; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    Soils have long been exposed to the adverse effects of human activities, which negatively affect soil biological activity. As a result of their functions and ubiquitous presence microorganisms can serve as environmental indicators of soil pollution. Some features of soil microorganisms, such as the microbial biomass size, respiration rate, and enzyme activity are often used as bioindicators of the ecotoxicity of heavy metals. Although copper is essential for microorganisms, excessive concentrations have a negative influence on processes mediated by microorganisms. In this study we measured the response of some microbial indicators to Cu pollution in a forest soil, with the aim of evaluating their potential for predicting Cu contamination. Samples of an Ah horizon from a forest soil under oakwood vegetation (Quercus robur L.) were contaminated in the laboratory with copper added at different doses (0, 120, 360, 1080 and 3240 mg kg-1) as CuCl2×2H2O. The soil samples were kept for 7 days at 25 °C and at a moisture content corresponding to the water holding capacity, and thereafter were analysed for carbon and nitrogen mineralization capacity, microbial biomass C, seed germination and root elongation tests, and for urease, phosphomonoesterase, catalase and ß-glucosidase activities. In addition, carbon mineralization kinetics were studied, by plotting the log of residual C against incubation time, and the metabolic coefficient, qCO2, was estimated. Both organic carbon and nitrogen mineralization were lower in polluted samples, with the greatest decrease observed in the sample contaminated with 1080 mg kg-1. In all samples carbon mineralization followed first order kinetics; the C mineralization constant was lower in contaminated than in uncontaminated samples and, in general, decreased with increasing doses of copper. Moreover, it appears that copper contamination not only reduced the N mineralization capacity, but also modified the N mineralization process, since in

  16. Bioremediation of copper-contaminated soils by bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Jean-Yves; Huguenot, David; Jézéquel, Karine; Lollier, Marc; Lebeau, Thierry

    2017-02-01

    Although copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for all living organisms, it can be toxic at low concentrations. Its beneficial effects are therefore only observed for a narrow range of concentrations. Anthropogenic activities such as fungicide spraying and mining have resulted in the Cu contamination of environmental compartments (soil, water and sediment) at levels sometimes exceeding the toxicity threshold. This review focuses on the bioremediation of copper-contaminated soils. The mechanisms by which microorganisms, and in particular bacteria, can mobilize or immobilize Cu in soils are described and the corresponding bioremediation strategies-of varying levels of maturity-are addressed: (i) bioleaching as a process for the ex situ recovery of Cu from Cu-bearing solids, (ii) bioimmobilization to limit the in situ leaching of Cu into groundwater and (iii) bioaugmentation-assisted phytoextraction as an innovative process for in situ enhancement of Cu removal from soil. For each application, the specific conditions required to achieve the desired effect and the practical methods for control of the microbial processes were specified.

  17. Roadside soils show low plant available zinc and copper concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, Natalie; Walter, M. Todd; Osmond, Deanna; Hunt, William

    2016-01-01

    Vehicle combustion and component wear are a major source of metal contamination in the environment, which could be especially concerning where road ditches are actively farmed. The objective of this study was to assess how site variables, namely age, traffic (vehicles day"−"1), and percent carbon (%C) affect metal accumulation in roadside soils. A soil chronosequence was established with sites ranging from 3 to 37 years old and bioavailable, or mobile, concentrations of Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) were measured along major highways in North Carolina using a Mehlich III extraction. Mobile Zn and Cu concentrations were low overall, and when results were scaled via literature values to “total metal”, the results were still generally lower than previous roadside studies. This could indicate farming on lands near roads would pose a low plant toxicity risk. Zinc and Cu were not correlated with annual average traffic count, but were positively correlated with lifetime traffic load (the product of site age and traffic count). This study shows an often overlooked variable, site age, should be included when considering roadside pollution accumulation. Zinc and Cu were more strongly associated with %C, than traffic load. Because vehicle combustion is also a carbon source, it is not obvious whether the metals and carbon are simply co-accumulating or whether the soil carbon in roadside soils may facilitate previously overlooked roles in sequestering metals on-site. - Highlights: • Low plant available zinc and copper concentrations in roadside soils of the southeast U.S. • Metals from vehicular traffic may not be adversely affecting plants in roadside environment. • Traffic volume and site age better predictor of metal pollution than traffic volume alone. - Mobile concentrations of Zn and Cu in roadside soils were below toxic levels. Zn and Cu concentrations were better correlated with lifetime vehicle load, as opposed to traffic volume.

  18. Influence of copper high-tension lines on plants and soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraal, H.; Ernst, W.

    1976-09-01

    The copper contents of plants and soils were determined in relation to the distance from copper high-tension lines. In the vicinity of the cables clayey and fenny soils had demonstrably higher copper contents, due to corrosion of the cables, than regions 20 m and more outside the high-tension lines. On these soils, however, copper accumulation in the plants was low in comparison with those from a sandy soil, although this soil itself showed no copper increase in relation to the cables. The contaminated plants may present a risk of poisoning for sheep within a 20 m distance on both sides of the cables. No changes in plant species composition and in the copper tolerance of Agrostis tenuis were observed.

  19. Copper in soil fractions and runoff in a vineyard catchment: Insights from copper stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcsányi, Izabella; Chabaux, François; Granet, Mathieu; Meite, Fatima; Payraudeau, Sylvain; Duplay, Joëlle; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the fate of copper (Cu) fungicides in vineyard soils and catchments is a prerequisite to limit the off-site impact of Cu. Using Cu stable isotopes, Cu retention in soils and runoff transport was investigated in relation to the use of Cu fungicides and the hydrological conditions in a vineyard catchment (Rouffach, Haut-Rhin, France; mean slope: 15%). The δ(65)Cu values of the bulk vineyard soil varied moderately through the depth of the soil profiles (-0.12 to 0.24‰±0.08‰). The values were in the range of those of the fungicides (-0.21 to 0.11‰) and included the geogenic δ(65)Cu value of the untreated soil (0.08‰). However, δ(65)Cu values significantly differed between particle-size soil fractions (-0.37±0.10‰ in fine clays and 0.23±0.07‰ in silt). Together with the soil mineralogy, the results suggested Cu isotope fractionation primarily associated with the clay and fine clay fractions that include both SOM and mineral phases. The vegetation did not affect the Cu isotope patterns in the vineyard soils. Cu export by runoff from the catchment accounted for 1% of the applied Cu mass from 11th May to 20(th) July 2011, covering most of the Cu use period. 84% of the exported Cu mass was Cu bound to suspended particulate matter (SPM). The runoff displayed δ(65)Cu values from 0.52 to 1.35‰ in the dissolved phase (runoff. Overall, this study shows that Cu stable isotopes may allow identifying the Cu distribution in the soil fractions and their contribution to Cu export in runoff from Cu-contaminated catchments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Adsorption of lambda-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin on two typical Chinese soils as affected by copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Lü, Xiaomeng; Xie, Jimin; Chu, Yafei; Sun, Cheng; Wang, Qian

    2009-06-01

    Pesticides and heavy metals pollution in soil environment has become a serious problem in many countries including China. Repeated applications of bordeaux mixture (a blend of copper sulfate and calcium hydroxide) and pyrethroid (Pys) insecticides have led to elevated copper (Cu) and Pys concentrations in vineyard surface soils. However, few studies focused on the interaction of Pys and heavy metals in the soil environment. Our previous studies had indicated the combined effect of cypermethrin (CPM) and Cu on soil catalase activity. Also, we had suggested that the addition of Cu could catalyze photo-degradation of CPM and lambda-cyhalothrin (lambda-CHT) in aqueous solution and restrain their degradation in soil. To better understand the potential influence of Cu on the fate of Pys in the soil environment, the aim of the present work was to examine the effect of Cu on the adsorption of lambda-CHT and CPM on two typical Chinese soils with different soil characteristics, which was one of the key processes controlling the fate of Pys, and to provide more information about the potential ecological risk of chemicals on the soil ecosystem. Fourier transform infrared and point charges analysis using the MOPAC program of the Gaussian system were also used to reveal the probable adsorption mechanism of lambda-CHT and CPM on soils. Two vineyard soils with different properties were chosen as experimental samples. They were sampled from 0 to 10 cm, dried, and sieved to 2 mm. Each soil was spiked with copper sulfate solution to obtain the following total soil Cu concentrations: 100, 200, 400, 800, and 1,600 mg.kg(-1). The treated soils were incubated for 2 weeks and then dried at 20 degrees C. For each soil sample and at each soil Cu concentration, the adsorption of lambda-CHT and CPM was measured using a batch equilibrium method. The concentration of lambda-CHT was determined by HPLC, and the amount of lambda-CHT and CPM adsorbed by the soil sample at equilibrium was determined

  1. Experimental determinations of soil copper toxicity to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) growth in highly different copper spiked and aged soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Karen S; Borggaard, Ole K; Holm, Peter E; Vijver, Martina G; Hauschild, Michael Z; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2015-04-01

    Accurate knowledge about factors and conditions determining copper (Cu) toxicity in soil is needed for predicting plant growth in various Cu-contaminated soils. Therefore, effects of Cu on growth (biomass production) of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were tested on seven selected, very different soils spiked with Cu and aged for 2 months at 35 °C. Cu toxicity was expressed as pEC50(Cu(2+)), i.e., the negative logarithm of the EC50(Cu(2+)) activity to plant growth. The determined pEC50(Cu(2+)) was significantly and positively correlated with both the analytically readily available soil pH and concentration of dissolved organic carbon [DOC] which together could explain 87% of the pEC50(Cu(2+)) variation according to the simple equation: pEC50(Cu(2+)) = 0.98 × pH + 345 × [DOC] - 0.27. Other soil characteristics, including the base cation concentrations (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)), the cation exchange capacity at soil pH (ECEC), and at pH 7 (CEC7), soil organic carbon, clay content, and electric conductivity as well as the distribution coefficient (Kd) calculated as the ratio between total soil Cu and water-extractable Cu did not correlate significantly with pEC50(Cu(2+)). Consequently, Cu toxicity, expressed as the negative log of the Cu(2+) activity, to plant growth increases at increasing pH and DOC, which needs to be considered in future management of plant growth on Cu-contaminated soils. The developed regression equation allows identification of soil types in which the phytotoxicity potential of Cu is highest.

  2. Effect of elevated CO2 on chlorpyriphos degradation and soil microbial activities in tropical rice soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Totan; Munda, Sushmita; Kumar, Upendra; Berliner, J; Pokhare, Somnath S; Jambhulkar, N N; Jena, M

    2016-02-01

    Impact of elevated CO2 on chlorpyriphos degradation, microbial biomass carbon, and enzymatic activities in rice soil was investigated. Rice (variety Naveen, Indica type) was grown under four conditions, namely, chambered control, elevated CO2 (550 ppm), elevated CO2 (700 ppm) in open-top chambers and open field. Chlorpyriphos was sprayed at 500 g a.i. ha(-1) at maximum tillering stage. Chlorpyriphos degraded rapidly from rice soils, and 88.4% of initially applied chlorpyriphos was lost from the rice soil maintained under elevated CO2 (700 ppm) by day 5 of spray, whereas the loss was 80.7% from open field rice soil. Half-life values of chlorpyriphos under different conditions ranged from 2.4 to 1.7 days with minimum half-life recorded with two elevated CO2 treatments. Increased CO2 concentration led to increase in temperature (1.2 to 1.8 °C) that played a critical role in chlorpyriphos persistence. Microbial biomass carbon and soil enzymatic activities specifically, dehydrogenase, fluorescien diacetate hydrolase, urease, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phosphatase responded positively to elevated CO2 concentrations. Generally, the enzyme activities were highly correlated with each other. Irrespective of the level of CO2, short-term negative influence of chlorpyriphos was observed on soil enzymes till day 7 of spray. Knowledge obtained from this study highlights that the elevated CO2 may negatively influence persistence of pesticide but will have positive effects on soil enzyme activities.

  3. Copper in soil fractions and runoff in a vineyard catchment: Insights from copper stable isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babcsányi, Izabella; Chabaux, François; Granet, Mathieu; Meite, Fatima; Payraudeau, Sylvain; Duplay, Joëlle; Imfeld, Gwenaël, E-mail: imfeld@unistra.fr

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the fate of copper (Cu) fungicides in vineyard soils and catchments is a prerequisite to limit the off-site impact of Cu. Using Cu stable isotopes, Cu retention in soils and runoff transport was investigated in relation to the use of Cu fungicides and the hydrological conditions in a vineyard catchment (Rouffach, Haut-Rhin, France; mean slope: 15%). The δ{sup 65}Cu values of the bulk vineyard soil varied moderately through the depth of the soil profiles (− 0.12 to 0.24‰ ± 0.08‰). The values were in the range of those of the fungicides (− 0.21 to 0.11‰) and included the geogenic δ{sup 65}Cu value of the untreated soil (0.08‰). However, δ{sup 65}Cu values significantly differed between particle-size soil fractions (− 0.37 ± 0.10‰ in fine clays and 0.23 ± 0.07‰ in silt). Together with the soil mineralogy, the results suggested Cu isotope fractionation primarily associated with the clay and fine clay fractions that include both SOM and mineral phases. The vegetation did not affect the Cu isotope patterns in the vineyard soils. Cu export by runoff from the catchment accounted for 1% of the applied Cu mass from 11th May to 20{sup th} July 2011, covering most of the Cu use period. 84% of the exported Cu mass was Cu bound to suspended particulate matter (SPM). The runoff displayed δ{sup 65}Cu values from 0.52 to 1.35‰ in the dissolved phase (< 0.45 μm) compared to − 0.34 to − 0.02‰ in the SPM phase, indicating that clay and fine clay fractions were the main vectors of SPM-bound Cu in runoff. Overall, this study shows that Cu stable isotopes may allow identifying the Cu distribution in the soil fractions and their contribution to Cu export in runoff from Cu-contaminated catchments. - Highlights: • We investigated Cu sorption processes in vineyard soils and runoff transport. • Cu export by runoff from the catchment accounted for 1% of the applied Cu mass. • δ{sup 65}Cu values differed between the particle-size soil

  4. Copper in soil fractions and runoff in a vineyard catchment: Insights from copper stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babcsányi, Izabella; Chabaux, François; Granet, Mathieu; Meite, Fatima; Payraudeau, Sylvain; Duplay, Joëlle; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the fate of copper (Cu) fungicides in vineyard soils and catchments is a prerequisite to limit the off-site impact of Cu. Using Cu stable isotopes, Cu retention in soils and runoff transport was investigated in relation to the use of Cu fungicides and the hydrological conditions in a vineyard catchment (Rouffach, Haut-Rhin, France; mean slope: 15%). The δ"6"5Cu values of the bulk vineyard soil varied moderately through the depth of the soil profiles (− 0.12 to 0.24‰ ± 0.08‰). The values were in the range of those of the fungicides (− 0.21 to 0.11‰) and included the geogenic δ"6"5Cu value of the untreated soil (0.08‰). However, δ"6"5Cu values significantly differed between particle-size soil fractions (− 0.37 ± 0.10‰ in fine clays and 0.23 ± 0.07‰ in silt). Together with the soil mineralogy, the results suggested Cu isotope fractionation primarily associated with the clay and fine clay fractions that include both SOM and mineral phases. The vegetation did not affect the Cu isotope patterns in the vineyard soils. Cu export by runoff from the catchment accounted for 1% of the applied Cu mass from 11th May to 20"t"h July 2011, covering most of the Cu use period. 84% of the exported Cu mass was Cu bound to suspended particulate matter (SPM). The runoff displayed δ"6"5Cu values from 0.52 to 1.35‰ in the dissolved phase (< 0.45 μm) compared to − 0.34 to − 0.02‰ in the SPM phase, indicating that clay and fine clay fractions were the main vectors of SPM-bound Cu in runoff. Overall, this study shows that Cu stable isotopes may allow identifying the Cu distribution in the soil fractions and their contribution to Cu export in runoff from Cu-contaminated catchments. - Highlights: • We investigated Cu sorption processes in vineyard soils and runoff transport. • Cu export by runoff from the catchment accounted for 1% of the applied Cu mass. • δ"6"5Cu values differed between the particle-size soil fractions. • The clay soil

  5. Toxicity of copper to the collembolan Folsomia fimetaria in relation to the age of soil contamination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruus Pedersen, M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The toxicity of copper to the collembolan Folsomia fimetaria L. was studied in soil incubated with copper sulfate for different periods before the introduction of collembolans, to assess the effect of aging of contamination on the toxicity of copper. Adult survival, reproduction, and juvenile size

  6. Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium, copper and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Longhua; Li, Zhu; Han, Cunliang; Liu, Ling; Teng, Ying; Sun, Xianghui; Pan, Cheng; Huang, Yujuan; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2012-07-01

    A pot experiment and afield trial were conducted to study the remediation of an aged field soil contaminated with cadmium, copper and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (7.67 +/- 0.51 mg kg(-1) Cd, 369 +/- 1 mg kg(-1) Cu in pot experiment; 8.46 +/- 0.31 mg kg(-1) Cd, 468 +/- 7 mg kg(-1) Cu, 323 +/- 12 microg kg(-1) PCBs for field experiment) under different cropping patterns. In the pot experiment Sedum plumbizincicola showed pronounced Cd phytoextraction. After two periods (14 months) of cropping the Cd removal rates in these two treatments were 52.2 +/- 12.0 and 56.1 +/- 9.1%, respectively. Total soil PCBs in unplanted control pots decreased from 323 +/- 11 to 49.3 +/- 6.6 microg kg(-1), but with no significant difference between treatments. The field microcosm experiment intercropping of three plant species reduced the yield of S. plumbizincicola, with a consequent decrease in soil Cd removal. S. plumbizincicola intercropped with E. splendens had the highest shoot Cd uptake (18.5 +/- 1.8 mg pot(-1)) after 6 months planting followed by intercropping with M. sativa (15.9 +/- 1.9 mg pot(-1)). Liming with S. plumbizincicola intercropped with M. sativa significantly promoted soil PCB degradation by 25.2%. Thus, adjustment of soil pH to 5.56 combined with intercropping with S. plumbizincicola and M. sativagave high removal rates of Cd, Cu, and PCBs.

  7. Copper pollution decreases the resistance of soil microbial community to subsequent dry-rewetting disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Jun-Tao; Hu, Hang-Wei; Ma, Yi-Bing; Zhang, Li-Mei; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Dry-rewetting (DW) disturbance frequently occurs in soils due to rainfall and irrigation, and the frequency of DW cycles might exert significant influences on soil microbial communities and their mediated functions. However, how microorganisms respond to DW alternations in soils with a history of heavy metal pollution remains largely unknown. Here, soil laboratory microcosms were constructed to explore the impacts of ten DW cycles on the soil microbial communities in two contrasting soils (fluvo-aquic soil and red soil) under three copper concentrations (zero, medium and high). Results showed that the fluctuations of substrate induced respiration (SIR) decreased with repeated cycles of DW alternation. Furthermore, the resistance values of substrate induced respiration (RS-SIR) were highest in non-copper-stressed (zero) soils. Structural equation model (SEM) analysis ascertained that the shifts of bacterial communities determined the changes of RS-SIR in both soils. The rate of bacterial community variance was significantly lower in non-copper-stressed soil compared to the other two copper-stressed (medium and high) soils, which might lead to the higher RS-SIR in the fluvo-aquic soil. As for the red soil, the substantial increase of the dominant group WPS-2 after DW disturbance might result in the low RS-SIR in the high copper-stressed soil. Moreover, in both soils, the bacterial diversity was highest in non-copper-stressed soils. Our results revealed that initial copper stress could decrease the resistance of soil microbial community structure and function to subsequent DW disturbance. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Effect of Soil Amendments on Microbial Resilience Capacity of Acid Soil Under Copper Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounissamy, Vassanda Coumar; Kundu, Samaresh; Selladurai, Rajendiran; Saha, Jayanta Kumar; Biswas, Ashish Kumar; Adhikari, Tapan; Patra, Ashok Kumar

    2017-11-01

    An incubation study was undertaken to study microbial resilience capacity of acid soil amended with farmyard manure (FYM), charcoal and lime under copper (Cu) perturbation. Copper stress significantly reduced enzymatic activities and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in soil. Percent reduction in microbial activity of soil due to Cu stress was 74.7% in dehydrogenase activity, 59.9% in MBC, 48.2% in alkaline phosphatase activity and 15.1% in acid phosphatase activity. Soil treated with FYM + charcoal showed highest resistance index for enzymatic activities and MBC. Similarly, the highest resilience index for acid phosphatase activity was observed in soil amended with FYM (0.40), whereas FYM + charcoal-treated soil showed the highest resilience indices for alkaline, dehydrogenase activity and MBC: 0.50, 0.22 and 0.25, respectively. This investigation showed that FYM and charcoal application, either alone or in combination, proved to be better than lime with respect to microbial functional resistance and resilience of acid soil under Cu perturbation.

  9. Roadside soils show low plant available zinc and copper concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Natalie; Walter, M Todd; Osmond, Deanna; Hunt, William

    2016-02-01

    Vehicle combustion and component wear are a major source of metal contamination in the environment, which could be especially concerning where road ditches are actively farmed. The objective of this study was to assess how site variables, namely age, traffic (vehicles day(-1)), and percent carbon (%C) affect metal accumulation in roadside soils. A soil chronosequence was established with sites ranging from 3 to 37 years old and bioavailable, or mobile, concentrations of Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) were measured along major highways in North Carolina using a Mehlich III extraction. Mobile Zn and Cu concentrations were low overall, and when results were scaled via literature values to "total metal", the results were still generally lower than previous roadside studies. This could indicate farming on lands near roads would pose a low plant toxicity risk. Zinc and Cu were not correlated with annual average traffic count, but were positively correlated with lifetime traffic load (the product of site age and traffic count). This study shows an often overlooked variable, site age, should be included when considering roadside pollution accumulation. Zinc and Cu were more strongly associated with %C, than traffic load. Because vehicle combustion is also a carbon source, it is not obvious whether the metals and carbon are simply co-accumulating or whether the soil carbon in roadside soils may facilitate previously overlooked roles in sequestering metals on-site. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Preliminary evidence that copper inhibits the degradation of DDT to DDE in pip and stonefruit orchard soils in the Auckland region, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaw, S.K.; Palmer, G.; Kim, N.D.; Wilkins, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    Studies in New Zealand orchard soils indicate that elevated Cu concentrations have reduced the ability of the indigenous soil microbial community to degrade DDT to DDE. - Orchards (n=13) were sampled as part of a larger survey investigating agrichemical residues (pesticides and trace elements) in cropping soils in the Auckland region, New Zealand. ΣDDT concentrations in orchard soils ranged from -1 . DDT (o,p'- and p,p'-) comprised at least 40% of the ΣDDT residues in 67% of orchards in which DDT residues were detected. There was a highly significant negative correlation (-0.924, P -1 ) and the ratio of DDE:DDT (0.4-5.2) in pip and stonefruit orchard soils. In further investigations involving five pip and stone fruit orchard sites and one grazing paddock it was found that soil respiration and the ratio of soil microbial carbon to soil carbon (%C mic /Org-C) in orchard soils decreased with increasing copper concentration. These findings are consistent with the conclusion that elevated soil copper concentrations in pip and stone fruit orchard soils in the Auckland region may have reduced the ability of the indigenous soil microbial community to degrade DDT to DDE

  11. Copper Pollution Increases the Resistance of Soil Archaeal Community to Changes in Water Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Yu-Rong; Cui, Li-Juan; Hu, Hang-Wei; Wang, Jun-Tao; He, Ji-Zheng

    2017-11-01

    Increasing efforts have been devoted to exploring the impact of environmental stresses on soil bacterial communities, but the work on the archaeal community is seldom. Here, we constructed microcosm experiments to investigate the responses of archaeal communities to the subsequent dry-rewetting (DW) disturbance in two contrasting soils (fluvo-aquic and red soil) after 6 years of copper pollution. Ten DW cycles were exerted on the two soils with different copper levels, followed by a 6-week recovery period. In both soils, archaeal diversity (Shannon index) in the high copper-level treatments increased over the incubation period, and archaeal community structure changed remarkably as revealed by the non-metric multidimensional scaling ordinations. In both soils, copper pollution altered the response of dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to the DW disturbance. Throughout the incubation and recovery period, the resistance of archaeal abundance to the DW disturbance was higher in the copper-polluted soils than soils without pollution. Taken together, copper pollution altered the response of soil archaeal diversity and community composition to the DW disturbance and increased the resistance of the archaeal abundance. These findings have important implications for understanding soil microbial responses to ongoing environmental change.

  12. Effect of elevated CO2 on degradation of azoxystrobin and soil microbial activity in rice soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Suman; Singh, Neera; Singh, V P

    2013-04-01

    An experiment was conducted in open-top chambers (OTC) to study the effect of elevated CO2 (580 ± 20 μmol mol(-1)) on azoxystrobin degradation and soil microbial activities. Results indicated that elevated CO2 did not have any significant effect on the persistence of azoxystrobin in rice-planted soil. The half-life values for the azoxystrobin in rice soils were 20.3 days in control (rice grown at ambient CO2 outdoors), 19.3 days in rice grown under ambient CO2 atmosphere in OTC, and 17.5 days in rice grown under elevated CO2 atmosphere in OTC. Azoxystrobin acid was recovered as the only metabolite of azoxystrobin, but it did not accumulate in the soil/water and was further metabolized. Elevated CO2 enhanced soil microbial biomass (MBC) and alkaline phosphatase activity of soil. Compared with rice grown at ambient CO2 (both outdoors and in OTC), the soil MBC at elevated CO2 increased by twofold. Elevated CO2 did not affect dehydrogenase, fluorescein diacetate, and acid phosphatase activity. Azoxystrobin application to soils, both ambient and elevated CO2, inhibited alkaline phosphates activity, while no effect was observed on other enzymes. Slight increase (1.8-2 °C) in temperature inside OTC did not affect microbial parameters, as similar activities were recorded in rice grown outdoors and in OTC at ambient CO2. Higher MBC in soil at elevated CO2 could be attributed to increased carbon availability in the rhizosphere via plant metabolism and root secretion; however, it did not significantly increase azoxystrobin degradation, suggesting that pesticide degradation was not the result of soil MBC alone. Study suggested that increased CO2 levels following global warming might not adversely affect azoxystrobin degradation. However, global warming is a continuous and cumulative process, therefore, long-term studies are necessary to get more realistic assessment of global warming on fate of pesticide.

  13. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CONTENT OF IRON AND COPPER IN THE SOILS AND WINES FROM THE LOCAL VINEYARDS OF THE CONTINENTAL CROATIA: A PRELIMINARY RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanko Ružičić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of red and white wine together with corresponding soils from the domestic vineyards of the continental Croatia were selected for analysis. Vineyard soil cover (Stagnosols and Rendzina is developed over the Plio-Quaternary non-consolidated deposits (gravel, sand, silt, clay or marly limestones. Within soils overlying non-consolidated deposits containing clays pH value range from 5.4 to 6.6, whereas maximum measured pH of 7.5 is attributed to soil developed over marly limestones. Soil and wine samples was determined by the total content of copper and iron using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. Results are compared to the maximum permitted concentrations (MPC by the relevant Croatian regulations. Copper concentrations are elevated within all measured wines (from 1.7× to 2.0× with respect to MPC and two soil samples (up to 2.4× with respect to MPC, due to extensive use of agrochemicals in the vineyards. Increased concentrations of iron within wine and corresponding soil were determined at locality with low soil pH (5.5. Preliminary research demonstrates a plausible link between the content of elements within soils developed over a specific lithology and associated wines. Increased copper concentration within wines of domestic production points to need for education of population in line with use of eco-agrochemicals. Further extensive studies with detailed physico-chemical processing of soil samples are needed (the paper is published in Croatian.

  14. The effects of copper oxy chloride waste contamination on selected soil biochemical properties at disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaka, J.; Muunganirwa, M.

    2007-01-01

    A study was carried out at a sanitary waste disposal site for Kutsaga Tobacco Research Station, Zimbabwe, which uses large amounts of copper oxy chloride for sterilization of recycled float trays in flooded bench tobacco seedling production systems. Soil samples randomly collected from six stream bank zones (bands up the valley slope) varying in their distance ranges from the centre of both the wastewater-free and wastewater-affected paths [0-5 m (B1); 6-10 m (B2); 11-15 m (B3); 16-20 m (B4); 21-25 m (B5) and 26-30 m (B6)] in two sample depths (0-15; 15-30 cm) were analysed for metal copper, organic matter contents, and soil pH and subjected to agarized incubation for microbial counts. Results suggest that the repeated disposals of copper oxy chloride waste from tobacco float tray sanitation sinks into a creek amplify metal copper loads in the soil by 500 fold. The greatest concentrations of copper in both the topsoil and upper subsoil were recorded in the B3, B4 and B5 stream bank zones of the wastewater path. The concentration of copper was significantly lower in the middle of the waste-affected creek than that in the stream bank zones. This trend in the copper concentration coincided with the lowest acidity of the soil. Overloading the soil with copper, surprisingly, enhances the content of soil organic matter. The repeated release of copper oxy chloride waste into a stream causes an accelerated build-up of metal copper and soil acidity in the stream bank on-site while contamination is translocated to either underground water reserve or surface stream water flow in the middle of the wastewater path

  15. Photogrammetry for environmental monitoring: the use of drones and hydrological models for detection of soil contaminated by copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capolupo, Alessandra; Pindozzi, Stefania; Okello, Collins; Fiorentino, Nunzio; Boccia, Lorenzo

    2015-05-01

    Campania Region of Southern Italy has a complex environmental situation, due to geogenic and anthropogenic soil pollution. Some of the pollutants such as copper are mobilized in the organic matter. It has been shown that wetlands provide physical as well as biogeochemical barriers against pollutants. Therefore, the objective of this study was to introduce and test an innovative approach able to predict copper accumulation points at plot scales, using a combination of aerial photos, taken by drones, micro-rill network modelling and wetland prediction indices usually used at catchment scales. Data were collected from an area measuring 4500 m(2) in Trentola Ducenta locality of Caserta Province of southern Italy. The photos processing with a fifth generation software for photogrammetry resulted in a high resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM), used to study micro-rill processes. The DEM was also used to test the ability of Topographic Index (TI) and the Clima-Topographic Index (CTI) to predict copper sedimentation points at plot scale (0.1-10 ha) by comparing the map of the predicted and the actual copper distribution in the field. The DEM obtained with a resolution of 30 mm showed a high potential for the study of micro-rill processes and TI and CTI indices were able to predict zones of copper accumulation at a plot scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cover crops influence soil microorganisms and phytoextraction of copper from a moderately contaminated vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, K A; Schmidt, H P; Müller, T; Kandeler, E

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the ability of summer (Avena sativa [oat], Trifolium incarnatum [crimson clover], Chenopodium [goosefoot]) and winter (Vicia villosa [hairy vetch], Secale Cereale L. [Rye], Brassica napus L. partim [rape]) cover crops, including a mixed species treatment, to extract copper from an organic vineyard soil in situ and the microbial communities that may support it. Clover had the highest copper content (14.3mgCukg(-1) DM). However, it was the amount of total biomass production that determined which species was most effective at overall copper removal per hectare. The winter crop rye produced significantly higher amounts of biomass (3532kgDMha(-1)) and, therefore, removed significantly higher amounts of copper (14,920mgCuha(-1)), despite less accumulation of copper in plant shoots. The maximum annual removal rate, a summation of best performing summer and winter crops, would be 0.033kgCuha(-1)y(-1). Due to this low annual extraction efficiency, which is less than the 6kgCuha(-1)y(-1) permitted for application, phytoextraction cannot be recommended as a general method of copper extraction from vineyards. Copper concentration did not influence aboveground or belowground properties, as indicated by sampling at two distances from the grapevine row with different soil copper concentrations. Soil microorganisms may have become tolerant to the copper levels at this site. Microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities (arylsulfatase and phosphatase) were instead driven by seasonal fluxes of resource pools. Gram+ bacteria were associated with high soil moisture, while fungi seemed to be driven by extractable carbon, which was linked to high plant biomass. There was no microbial group associated with the increased phytoextraction of copper. Moreover, treatment did not influence the abundance, activity or community structure of soil microorganisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hurricane Wilma's impact on overall soil elevation and zones within the soil profile in a mangrove forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, K.R.T.; Smith, T. J.; Anderson, G.H.; Ouellette, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Soil elevation affects tidal inundation period, inundation frequency, and overall hydroperiod, all of which are important ecological factors affecting species recruitment, composition, and survival in wetlands. Hurricanes can dramatically affect a site's soil elevation. We assessed the impact of Hurricane Wilma (2005) on soil elevation at a mangrove forest location along the Shark River in Everglades National Park, Florida, USA. Using multiple depth surface elevation tables (SETs) and marker horizons we measured soil accretion, erosion, and soil elevation. We partitioned the effect of Hurricane Wilma's storm deposit into four constituent soil zones: surface (accretion) zone, shallow zone (0–0.35 m), middle zone (0.35–4 m), and deep zone (4–6 m). We report expansion and contraction of each soil zone. Hurricane Wilma deposited 37.0 (± 3.0 SE) mm of material; however, the absolute soil elevation change was + 42.8 mm due to expansion in the shallow soil zone. One year post-hurricane, the soil profile had lost 10.0 mm in soil elevation, with 8.5 mm of the loss due to erosion. The remaining soil elevation loss was due to compaction from shallow subsidence. We found prolific growth of new fine rootlets (209 ± 34 SE g m−2) in the storm deposited material suggesting that deposits may become more stable in the near future (i.e., erosion rate will decrease). Surficial erosion and belowground processes both played an important role in determining the overall soil elevation. Expansion and contraction in the shallow soil zone may be due to hydrology, and in the middle and bottom soil zones due to shallow subsidence. Findings thus far indicate that soil elevation has made substantial gains compared to site specific relative sea-level rise, but data trends suggest that belowground processes, which differ by soil zone, may come to dominate the long term ecological impact of storm deposit.

  18. Microbiological estimation of copper, magnesium and molybdenum in soil and plant material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, E G

    1948-01-01

    A description is given of some microbiological assays for the estimation of copper, magnesium, and molybdenum in soils as well as in plant tissues. Some results obtained with the application of these tests are recorded.

  19. Elevated copper levels during larval development cause altered locomotor behavior in the adult carabid beetle Pterostichus cupreus L. (Coleoptera: Carbidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayley, M; Baatrup, E; Heimbach, U

    1995-01-01

    It is generally believed that copper causes changes in carabid communities indirectly by reducing food availability, because these animals are frequently found to have only slightly elevated metal contents even close to pollution sources. Using computer-centered video tracking, the locomotor......, but not to effect the emergence weights of adults of either sex. This toxic effect on the larvae was preserved through pupation to the surviving adults, which were normal in size and appearance, but displayed a dramatically depressed locomotor behavior. Copper analysis of these adults revealed that copper levels...

  20. Electrokinetic remediation of a copper contaminated soil - experiments and 1-D model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vereda Alonso, C.; Hansen, H.K. [Inst. for Geologi and Geoteknik, Danmarks Tekniske Univ., Lyngby (Denmark); Gomez Lahoz, C.; Rodriguez Maroto, J.M. [Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica, Univ. de Malaga (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    In this work, a set of electrokinetic soil remediation experiments has been performed in a column containing a commercial standard kaolin that was previously contaminated with copper. The profile evolution of copper concentration and pH along the soil column was obtained from these experiments. A one-dimensional numerical model has been developed to simulate the experimental results obtained from these experiments. (orig.)

  1. ARSENIC AND COPPER UPTAKE BY CABBAGES GROWN ON POLLUTED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Kim Phuong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cabbages (Brassica Juncea (L. Czern were grown in pot experiments on typical unpolluted and polluted soils with concentration changing from 20.50 - 50.00 mg As/kg and 156.00 - 413.00 mg Cu/kg dry soil. The results demonstrate the elevation of As and Cu in soil may lead to increased uptake by these cabbages subsequent entry into human food chain. It was found 11.84- 32.12 mg As/kg and 46.86 - 94.47 mg Cu/kg dry leaves. It has tendency increase uptake and accumulation of Cu in cabbage tissue with increasing cultivated time, whereas, it was found accumulation of As in cabbages tissue decreased with time prolonging. The quantity of As and Cu in these cabbages, were significant higher than 0.2 mg As/kg and 5.0 mg Cu/kg fresh vegetable, the permissible limit concentration in fresh vegetable. This indicated that human may As and Cu exposure occur through eating these vegetables.

  2. Copper(II) oxide solubility behavior in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziemniak, S.E.; Jones, M.E.; Combs, K.E.S.

    1990-02-01

    A platinum-lined, flowing autoclave facility is used to investigate the solubility behavior of copper(II) oxide (CuO) in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at temperatures between 292 and 535 K. Copper solubilities are observed to increase continuously with temperature and phosphate concentration. The measured solubility is examined via a Cu(II) ion hydrolysis/complexing model and thermodynamic functions for the hydrolysis/complexing reactions are obtained from a least- squares analysis of the data. Altogether, thermochemical properties are established for five anionic complexes: Cu(OH) 3 - , Cu(OH) 4 = , Cu(OH) 2 (HPO 4 ) = , Cu(OH) 3 (H 2 PO 4 ) = , and Cu(OH) 2 (PO 4 ) ≡ . Precise thermochemical parameters are also derived for the Cu(OH) + hydroxocomplex based on CuO solubility behavior previously observed in pure water (*) at elevated temperatures. The relative ease of Cu(II) ion hydrolysis is such that Cu(OH) 3 - species become the preferred hydroxocomplex for pH ≥ 9.4. 20 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Environmental hazard of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in metal-contaminated soils remediated by sulfosuccinamate formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Carmen Hernández-Soriano, Maria; Peña, Aránzazu; Mingorance, M Dolores

    2011-10-01

    Accumulation of metals in soil at elevated concentrations causes risks to the environmental quality and human health for more than one hundred million people globally. The rate of metal release and the alteration of metal distribution in soil phases after soil washing with a sulfosuccinamate surfactant solution (Aerosol 22) were evaluated for four contaminated soils. Furthermore, a sequential extraction scheme was carried out using selective extractants (HAcO, NH(2)OH·HCl, H(2)O(2) + NH(4)AcO) to evaluate which metal species are extracted by A22 and the alteration in metal distribution upon surfactant-washing. Efficiency of A22 to remove metals varied among soils. The washing treatment released up to 50% of Cd, 40% of Cu, 20% of Pb and 12% of Zn, mainly from the soluble and reducible soil fractions, therefore, greatly reducing the fraction of metals readily available in soil. Metal speciation analysis for the solutions collected upon soil washing with Aerosol 22 further confirmed these results. Copper and lead in solution were mostly present as soluble complexes, while Cd and Zn were present as free ions. Besides, redistribution of metals in soil was observed upon washing. The ratios of Zn strongly retained in the soil matrix and Cd complexed with organic ligands increased. Lead was mobilized to more weakly retained forms, which indicates a high bioavailability of the remaining Pb in soil after washing. Comprehensive knowledge on chemical forms of metals present in soil allows a feasible assessment of the environmental impact of metals for a given scenario, as well as possible alteration of environmental conditions, and a valuable prediction for potential leaching and groundwater contamination.

  4. Climate Impacts on Soil Carbon Processes along an Elevation Gradient in the Tropical Luquillo Experimental Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingfang Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests play an important role in regulating the global climate and the carbon cycle. With the changing temperature and moisture along the elevation gradient, the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Northeastern Puerto Rico provides a natural approach to understand tropical forest ecosystems under climate change. In this study, we conducted a soil translocation experiment along an elevation gradient with decreasing temperature but increasing moisture to study the impacts of climate change on soil organic carbon (SOC and soil respiration. As the results showed, both soil carbon and the respiration rate were impacted by microclimate changes. The soils translocated from low elevation to high elevation showed an increased respiration rate with decreased SOC content at the end of the experiment, which indicated that the increased soil moisture and altered soil microbes might affect respiration rates. The soils translocated from high elevation to low elevation also showed an increased respiration rate with reduced SOC at the end of the experiment, indicating that increased temperature at low elevation enhanced decomposition rates. Temperature and initial soil source quality impacted soil respiration significantly. With the predicted warming climate in the Caribbean, these tropical soils at high elevations are at risk of releasing sequestered carbon into the atmosphere.

  5. Physiological and biochemical responses of Salix integra Thunb. under copper stress as affected by soil flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yini; Ma, Chuanxin; Chen, Guangcai; Zhang, Jianfeng; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-06-01

    To explore the joint effect of copper (Cu) and flooding on Salix integra Thunb. (S. integra), the physiological and biochemical parameters of the seedlings grown in Cu amended soil (50, 150, 450 mg kg -1 ) with or without the flooding for 60 days were evaluated. The results suggested that the flooding significantly inhibited the root growth in terms of root length and root tips. The Cu exposures of 50 and 150 mg kg -1 notably enhanced the root growth as compared to the control. Majority of Cu was accumulated in S. integra roots, while flooding significantly reduced the Cu content, except the 150 mg kg -1 Cu treatment, but the iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) content on the root surface were both markedly increased relative to non-flooded control. The malonaldehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) contents in leaves showed a dose-response upon Cu exposure. Soil flooding enhanced the GSH level, which displayed 4.50-49.59% increases compared to its respective non-flooded treatment, while no difference was evident on MDA contents between the flooding and the non-flooded treatments. Both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities were boosted while the catalase (CAT) was suppressed with increasing Cu exposure dose, and soil flooding reduced the POD and CAT activities. The elevated Cu level caused the evident increases of root calcium (Ca), potassium (K), and sulfur (S) concentrations and decreases of root phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), and zinc (Zn) concentrations. Soil flooding increased the concentrations of Fe, S, Na, Ca, and magnesium (Mg) in S. integra root. Taken together, our results suggested S. integra has high tolerance to the joint stress from Cu and flooding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. How historical copper contamination affects soil structure and mobilization and transport of colloids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paradelo, Marcos; Møldrup, Per; Holmstrup, Martin

    between 0.01 to 0.43 pore volumes, with longer times for the most contaminated point, likely related with its higher soil density and lower air permeability. The copper pollution affected colloid and tracer transport in the soil columns. The release of colloids especially in the most contaminated points...

  7. [Effect of different soil types on the remediation of copper-pyrene compound contaminated soils by EK-oxidation process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guang-Ping; Cang, Long; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Zhou, Li-Xiang

    2011-11-01

    The effect of different soil types (red soil,yellow-brown soil and black soil) on the electrokinetic (EK)-oxidation remediation of heavy metals-organic pollutant contaminated soil was studied in laboratory-scale experiments. Copper and pyrene were chosen as model pollutant, and 12% H2O2, 10% hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin and 0.01 mol x L(-1) NaNO3 solution were added into the anode and cathode cell. The applied voltage was 1 V x cm(-1). After 15 days of EK remediation, the removal rate of pyrene and copper in red soil, yellow-brown soil and black soil were 38.5%, 46.8%, 51.3% for pyrene and 85.0%, 22.6%, 24.1% for Cu, respectively. The high pH of black soil produced high electroosmotic flow and increased the exposure of oxidants and pollutants, meanwhile the low clay content was also conducive to the desorption of pyrene. The low pH and organic matter of red soil affected the chemical species distribution of Cu and increased its removal rate. It is concluded that soil pH, clay content and heavy metal speciation in soil are the dominant factors affecting the migration and removal efficiency of pollutants.

  8. Soil and sediment concentrations of chromium, copper, and arsenic adjacent to a chromated copper arsenate-treated wetland boardwalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Lebow; Daniel Foster

    2010-01-01

    Environmental accumulation of preservative adjacent to a chromated copper arsenate (type C)–treated wetland boardwalk was evaluated. The site is considered a realistic ‘‘worst case’’ because of the large volume of treated wood, low current speeds, high annual rainfall, and environmental sensitivity. Soil and sediment samples were collected before construction and 0.5,...

  9. Determination of total and electrolabile copper in agricultural soil by using disposable modified-carbon screen-printed electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Stéphane; Cugnet, Cyril; Authier, Laurent; Lespes, Gaëtane

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate modified-carbon screen-printed working electrodes (SPE) combined with square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) to determine electrolabile and total copper in soils with the perspective to assess the environmental hazard resulting from copper anthropogenic contamination. The voltammetric method was investigated using a mineralized certified reference soil such that it can be assumed that the copper was totally under electrolabile form in the solution of mineralized soil. In optimal conditions, a copper recovery of 97% and a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 9% were found. The limits of detection and quantification for copper were 0.4 and 1.3 μg L(-1), respectively. Finally, the method was applied on soil leachates, which allowed evaluating the cupric transfer from the soil to the leachates and quantifying the electrolabile copper part in leachates.

  10. Plants increase laccase activity in soil with long-term elevated CO2 legacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Partavian, Asrin; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Vestergård, Mette

    2015-01-01

    [CO2] stimulate laccase activity. We incubated soil exposed to seven years of elevated or ambient field [CO2] in ambient or elevated [CO2] chambers for six months either with or without plants (Deschampsia flexuosa). Elevated chamber [CO2] increased D. flexuosa production and belowground respiration....... Interestingly, plants also grew larger in soil with an elevated [CO2] legacy. Plants stimulated soil microbial biomass, belowground respiration and laccase activity, and the plant-induced laccase stimulation was particularly apparent in soil exposed to long-term elevated [CO2] in the field, whereas laccase......Actively growing plants can stimulate mineralization of recalcitrant soil organic matter (SOM), and increased atmospheric [CO2] can further enhance such plant-mediated SOM degradation. Laccases are central for recalcitrant SOM decomposition, and we therefore hypothesized that plants and elevated...

  11. Avoidance tests with Folsomia candida for the assessment of copper contamination in agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteau, G.; Lynch, D.H.; MacKinley, P.

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of assessing copper accumulation in agricultural soils using avoidance tests with a Canadian strain of Folsomia candida was investigated under laboratory conditions. The avoidance response to nominal copper sulfate concentrations of 0, 200, 800, 1600 and 3200 mg kg -1 in OECD soil was inconsistent between trials with the standard plastic cup or a modified Petri dish method requiring less soil. However, combined results from three Petri dish trials decreased variability and provided a 75% avoidance level, close to the 80% criterion proposed for avoidance tests. A Copper avoidance EC 50s of 18 mg kg -1 was obtained using the Petri dish method whether tests were conducted with or without light. While Petri dish tests have potential as a cheap tool to distinguish metal contaminated soils from uncontaminated soils they would be unsuitable for tracking or quantifying changes in metal concentrations. throughout remediation. Advantages and limitations of the method have been presented. - Research highlights: → Avoidance cup test using Folsomia candida detects Cu independently of concentration. → Improved avoidance Petri dish test detects Cu in soil in function of concentration. → Cu voidance tests had similar EC50 values whether conducted with or without light. → Combining Cu avoidance test trials in OECD soil reduced the variability of results. - Improved avoidance tests having an EC 50 value similar to the background Cu concentration in uncontaminated agricultural soils can distinguish Cu contaminated and Cu free OECD soil.

  12. A laboratory test of NOM-assisted remediation of arsenic and copper contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Signe Bonde; Jensen, Julie Katrine; Borggaard, Ole K.

    2015-01-01

    Soils contaminated by arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) must be remediated because As and Cu are non-degradable and toxic. On moderately contaminated soils, As and Cu may be removed by in-situ plant uptake (phytoremediation), whereas strongly contaminated soils must be removed and cleaned by soil...... at neutral pH to enhance in-situ phytoremediation of moderately contaminated soils. Citrate (and NTA) cannot be suggested for enhancement of on-site phytoremediation because of high mobilization rates caused by these extractants, which through leaching and runoff may lead to contamination of recipient waters...

  13. Soil Carbon Dynamics Along an Elevation Gradient in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten Jr., C.T.

    2004-04-13

    The role of soil C dynamics in the exchange of CO{sub 2} between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is at the center of many science questions related to global climate change. The purpose of this report is to summarize measured trends in environmental factors and ecosystem processes that affect soil C balance along elevation gradients in the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina, USA. Three environmental factors that have potentially significant effects on soil C dynamics (temperature, precipitation, and soil N availability) vary in a predictable manner with altitude. Forest soil C stocks and calculated turnover times of labile soil C increase with elevation, and there is an apparent inverse relationship between soil C storage and mean annual temperature. Relationships between climate variables and soil C dynamics along elevation gradients must be interpreted with caution because litter chemistry, soil moisture, N availability, and temperature are confounded; all potentially interact in complex ways to regulate soil C storage through effects on decomposition. Some recommendations are presented for untangling these complexities. It is concluded that past studies along elevation gradients have contributed to a better but not complete understanding of environmental factors and processes that potentially affect soil C balance. Furthermore, there are advantages linked to the use of elevation gradients as an approach to climate change research when hypotheses are placed in a strong theoretical or mechanistic framework. Climate change research along elevation gradients can be both convenient and economical. More importantly, ecosystem processes and attributes affecting soil C dynamics along elevation gradients are usually the product of the long-term interactions between climate, vegetation, and soil type. Investigations along elevation gradients are a useful approach to the study of environmental change, and its effect

  14. Effect of elevated CO2, O3, and UV radiation on soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formánek, Pavel; Rejšek, Klement; Vranová, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have attempted to review the current knowledge on the impact of elevated CO2, O3, and UV on soils. Elevated CO2 increases labile and stabile soil C pool as well as efficiency of organic pollutants rhizoremediation and phytoextraction of heavy metals. Conversely, both elevated O3 and UV radiation decrease inputs of assimilates to the rhizosphere being accompanied by inhibitory effects on decomposition processes, rhizoremediation, and heavy metals phytoextraction efficiency. Contrary to elevated CO2, O3, or UV-B decreases soil microbial biomass, metabolisable C, and soil N t content leading to higher C/N of soil organic matter. Elevated UV-B radiation shifts soil microbial community and decreases populations of soil meso- and macrofauna via direct effect rather than by induced changes of litter quality and root exudation as in case of elevated CO2 or O3. CO2 enrichment or increased UV-B is hypothesised to stimulate or inhibit both plant and microbial competitiveness for soluble soil N, respectively, whereas O3 favours only microbial competitive efficiency. Understanding the consequences of elevated CO2, O3, and UV radiation for soils, especially those related to fertility, phytotoxins inputs, elements cycling, plant-microbe interactions, and decontamination of polluted sites, presents a knowledge gap for future research.

  15. Effect of Elevated CO2, O3, and UV Radiation on Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Formánek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have attempted to review the current knowledge on the impact of elevated CO2, O3, and UV on soils. Elevated CO2 increases labile and stabile soil C pool as well as efficiency of organic pollutants rhizoremediation and phytoextraction of heavy metals. Conversely, both elevated O3 and UV radiation decrease inputs of assimilates to the rhizosphere being accompanied by inhibitory effects on decomposition processes, rhizoremediation, and heavy metals phytoextraction efficiency. Contrary to elevated CO2, O3, or UV-B decreases soil microbial biomass, metabolisable C, and soil Nt content leading to higher C/N of soil organic matter. Elevated UV-B radiation shifts soil microbial community and decreases populations of soil meso- and macrofauna via direct effect rather than by induced changes of litter quality and root exudation as in case of elevated CO2 or O3. CO2 enrichment or increased UV-B is hypothesised to stimulate or inhibit both plant and microbial competitiveness for soluble soil N, respectively, whereas O3 favours only microbial competitive efficiency. Understanding the consequences of elevated CO2, O3, and UV radiation for soils, especially those related to fertility, phytotoxins inputs, elements cycling, plant-microbe interactions, and decontamination of polluted sites, presents a knowledge gap for future research.

  16. Effect of Elevated CO2, O3, and UV Radiation on Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejšek, Klement; Vranová, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have attempted to review the current knowledge on the impact of elevated CO2, O3, and UV on soils. Elevated CO2 increases labile and stabile soil C pool as well as efficiency of organic pollutants rhizoremediation and phytoextraction of heavy metals. Conversely, both elevated O3 and UV radiation decrease inputs of assimilates to the rhizosphere being accompanied by inhibitory effects on decomposition processes, rhizoremediation, and heavy metals phytoextraction efficiency. Contrary to elevated CO2, O3, or UV-B decreases soil microbial biomass, metabolisable C, and soil Nt content leading to higher C/N of soil organic matter. Elevated UV-B radiation shifts soil microbial community and decreases populations of soil meso- and macrofauna via direct effect rather than by induced changes of litter quality and root exudation as in case of elevated CO2 or O3. CO2 enrichment or increased UV-B is hypothesised to stimulate or inhibit both plant and microbial competitiveness for soluble soil N, respectively, whereas O3 favours only microbial competitive efficiency. Understanding the consequences of elevated CO2, O3, and UV radiation for soils, especially those related to fertility, phytotoxins inputs, elements cycling, plant-microbe interactions, and decontamination of polluted sites, presents a knowledge gap for future research. PMID:24688424

  17. X-ray CT Scanning Reveals Long-Term Copper Pollution Effects on Functional Soil Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Møldrup, Per; Homstrup, Martin

    Soil structure plays the main role in the ability of the soil to fulfill essential soil functions such as the root growth, rate of water infiltration and retention, transport of gaseous and chemicals/pollutants through the soil. Soil structure is a dynamic soil property and affected by various...... factors such as soil type, land use, and soil contamination. In this study, we quantified the soil structure using X-ray CT scanning and revealed the effect of a long history of Copper (Cu) pollution on it. A fallow field at Hygum Denmark provides this opportunity as it had a long history of Copper...... sulphate contamination in a gradient with Cu content varies from 21 mg kg-1 to 3837 mg kg-1. Total 20 intact soil columns (diameter of 10 cm and height of 8 cm) were sampled at five locations along the Cu-gradient from a depth of 5 to 15 cm below surface level. The soil columns were scanned at a voxel...

  18. Determination of iron, copper, manganese and zinc in the soils, grapes and wines of the Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Ribeiro de Lima

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the determination of iron, copper, manganese and zinc in the soils, grapes and wines of the three viticultural regions of the Azores. Iron, copper and zinc were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and manganese by graphite furnace atomic absorption. The concentrations of the four elements differed in soils of the three regions; there was no difference in the concentration in grapes, whereas significant differences were observed for the wines as regards the amounts of iron, manganese and zinc. The concentrations of these four elements in wine correspond with the mean values observed for other European regions.

  19. Bioindication of air pollution effects near a copper smelter in Brazil using mango trees and soil microbiological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Hintemann, Therese; Santana Lima, Josanidia; Kandeler, Ellen

    2003-01-01

    A field study near the copper smelter of a large industrial complex examined air pollution effects on vegetation and soil parameters in Camacari (northeast Brazil). Close to the smelter, soil pH-value was lower and total acidity as well as organic carbon contents were higher compared with a site far from the source and two reference sites. The acidification of top soil particularly and the drastically enhanced plant-available copper concentrations were caused by atmospheric deposition. High sulphur and copper deposition significantly reduced microbial biomass and altered functional diversity of soil microorganisms (arylsulphatase and xylanase). Large accumulations of sulphur, arsenic and copper were detected in mango leaves (Mangifera indica) growing downwind from the smelter suggesting potential food chain-mediated risk. - Atmospheric emissions in northeast Brazil have transformed soil pH, accumulated in soil and plants as sulphur and heavy metals, and affected the functional diversity of soil microorganisms

  20. Bioindication of air pollution effects near a copper smelter in Brazil using mango trees and soil microbiological properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Hintemann, Therese; Santana Lima, Josanidia; Kandeler, Ellen

    2003-12-01

    A field study near the copper smelter of a large industrial complex examined air pollution effects on vegetation and soil parameters in Camacari (northeast Brazil). Close to the smelter, soil pH-value was lower and total acidity as well as organic carbon contents were higher compared with a site far from the source and two reference sites. The acidification of top soil particularly and the drastically enhanced plant-available copper concentrations were caused by atmospheric deposition. High sulphur and copper deposition significantly reduced microbial biomass and altered functional diversity of soil microorganisms (arylsulphatase and xylanase). Large accumulations of sulphur, arsenic and copper were detected in mango leaves (Mangifera indica) growing downwind from the smelter suggesting potential food chain-mediated risk. - Atmospheric emissions in northeast Brazil have transformed soil pH, accumulated in soil and plants as sulphur and heavy metals, and affected the functional diversity of soil microorganisms.

  1. Relationships between soil properties and toxicity of copper and nickel to bok choy and tomato in Chinese soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Hongtao; Ma, Yibing; McLaughlin, Mike J

    2013-10-01

    The toxicity of copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) to bok choy and tomato shoot growth was investigated in a wide range of Chinese soils with and without leaching with artificial rainwater. The results showed that the variations of Ni toxicity induced by soil properties were wider than those of Cu toxicity to both tomato and bok choy plant growth. Leaching generally decreased the toxicity of Cu and Ni added to soils, which also depended on soils, metals, and test plant species. Soil factors controlling metal phytotoxicity were found to be soil pH and soil organic carbon content for Cu, and soil pH for Ni. It was also found that soil pH had stronger effects on Ni toxicity than on Cu toxicity. Predictive toxicity models based on these soil factors were developed. These toxicity models for Cu and Ni toxicity to tomato plant growth were validated using an independent data set for European soils. These models could be applied to predict the Cu and Ni phytotoxicity in not only Chinese soils but also European soils. © 2013 SETAC.

  2. The impact of a copper smelter on adjacent soil zinc and cadmium fractions and soil organic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Ling; Wu Longhua; Luo Yongming [Key Lab. of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, NJ (China); Zhang Changbo [Shanghai Academy of Environmental Sciences, SH (China); Jiang Yugen; Qiu Xiya [Soils and Fertilisers Div., Fuyang City Agricultural Bureau, Hangzhou, ZJ (China)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: We investigated the chemical fractions of Zn, Cd and Cu in soils collected from positions at different distances from a copper smelter and studied the relationships between distribution patterns of Zn, Cd and Cu, fractions and soil organic carbon (SOC), especially ''black carbon'' (BC), in contaminated soils. The relationships between soil particle size and concentrations of Zn and Cd in contaminated soil were also examined. Materials and methods: Soil samples were collected from field sites at different distances from the copper smelter, air-dried and passed through 0.25-mm and 0.149-mm nylon mesh sieves. The SOC and BC were determined. Aqua regia and sequentially extracted Zn, Cd and Cu fractions in soil and the different sizes of soil particles, and metal concentrations (Zn, Cd and Cu) in BC were also determined. Results and discussion: The soils were heavily contaminated by fly ash from the copper smelter. Concentrations of Zn, Cd and Cu in soil and SOC decreased with increasing distance from the smelter. Concentrations of Zn and Cd in the surface soil (0-15 cm) decreased from 27,017 to 892 mg kg{sup -1} and from 18.7 to 1.04 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. Soil BC and concentrations of Zn, Cd and Cu in the BC fraction showed significant and positive relationships with the corresponding aqua regia metal concentrations in soil. Soil Zn and Cd occurred predominantly in the exchangeable and reducible fractions, but residual and oxidisable fractions of Cu that were not considered mobile or bioavailable were predominant (>60%). Concentrations of Zn and Cd in the soil particle size fractions tended to increase with decreasing particle size. Conclusions: The Cd and Zn and BC were all derived from the fly ash of the smelter. Concentrations of Zn and Cd and BC in the soil decreased significantly with increasing distance from the smelter. Zinc and Cd in contaminated soils increased as particle size decreased, and were mainly in highly available

  3. Copper, zinc, and cadmium in various fractions of soil and fungi in a Swedish forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinichuk, Mykhailo M

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi profoundly affect forest ecosystems through mediating nutrient uptake and maintaining forest food webs. The accumulation of metals in each transfer step from bulk soil to fungal sporocarps is not well known. The accumulation of three metals copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in bulk soil, rhizosphere, soil-root interface, fungal mycelium and sporocarps of mycorrhizal fungi in a Swedish forest were compared. Concentrations of all three metals increased in the order: bulk soil soil-root interface (or rhizosphere) soil and sporocarps occurred against a concentration gradient. In fungal mycelium, the concentration of all three metals was about three times higher than in bulk soil, and the concentration in sporocarps was about two times higher than in mycelium. In terms of accumulation, fungi (mycelium and sporocarps) preferred Cd to Zn and Cu. Zinc concentration in sporocarps and to a lesser extent in mycelium depended on the concentration in soil, whereas, the uptake of Cu and Cd by both sporocarps and mycelium did not correlate with metal concentration in soil. Heavy metal accumulation within the fungal mycelium biomass in the top forest soil layer (0-5 cm) might account for ca. 5-9% of the total amount of Cu, 5-11% of Zn, and 16-32% of Cd. As the uptake of zinc and copper by fungi may be balanced, this implied similarities in the uptake mechanism.

  4. Distinct soil bacterial communities along a small-scale elevational gradient in alpine tundra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong eShen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The elevational diversity pattern for microorganisms has received great attention recently but is still understudied, and phylogenetic relatedness is rarely studied for microbial elevational distributions. Using a bar-coded pyrosequencing technique, we examined the biodiversity patterns for soil bacterial communities of tundra ecosystem along 2000–2500 m elevations on Changbai Mountain in China. Bacterial taxonomic richness displayed a linear decreasing trend with increasing elevation. Phylogenetic diversity and mean nearest taxon distance (MNTD exhibited a unimodal pattern with elevation. Bacterial communities were more phylogenetically clustered than expected by chance at all elevations based on the standardized effect size of MNTD metric. The bacterial communities differed dramatically among elevations, and the community composition was significantly correlated with soil total carbon, total nitrogen, C:N ratio, and dissolved organic carbon. Multiple ordinary least squares regression analysis showed that the observed biodiversity patterns strongly correlated with soil total carbon and C:N ratio. Taken together, this is the first time that a significant bacterial diversity pattern has been observed across a small-scale elevational gradient. Our results indicated that soil carbon and nitrogen contents were the critical environmental factors affecting bacterial elevational distribution in Changbai Mountain tundra. This suggested that ecological niche-based environmental filtering processes related to soil carbon and nitrogen contents could play a dominant role in structuring bacterial communities along the elevational gradient.

  5. A new method to measure effective soil solution concentration predicts copper availability to plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Zhao, F J; Sun, B; Davison, W; McGrath, S P

    2001-06-15

    Risk assessments of metal contaminated soils need to address metal bioavailability. To predict the bioavailability of metals to plants, it is necessary to understand both solution and solid phase supply processes in soils. In striving to find surrogate chemical measurements, scientists have focused either on soil solution chemistry, including free ion activities, or operationally defined fractions of metals. Here we introduce the new concept of effective concentration, CE, which includes both the soil solution concentration and an additional term, expressed as a concentration, that represents metal supplied from the solid phase. CE was measured using the technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) which, like a plant, locally lowers soil solution concentrations, inducing metal supply from the solid phase, as shown by a dynamic model of the DGT-soil system. Measurements of Cu as CE, soil solution concentration, by EDTA extraction and as free Cu2+ activity in soil solution were made on 29 different soils covering a large range of copper concentrations. Theywere compared to Cu concentrations in the plant material of Lepidium heterophyllum grown on the same soils. Plant concentrations were linearly related and highly correlated with CE but were more scattered and nonlinear with respect to free Cu2+ activity, EDTA extraction, or soil solution concentrations. These results demonstrate that the dominant supply processes in these soils are diffusion and labile metal release, which the DGT-soil system mimics. The quantity CE is shown to have promise as a quantitative measure of the bioavailable metal in soils.

  6. COPPER ACCUMULATION IN SOILS AND VEGETATION OF POLLUTED AREA COPŞA MICĂ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Vrînceanu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study carried out in order to estimate the distribution and accumulation of copper in soils and vegetation fromCopşa Mică area used a radial network centered in the source of pollution – S.C. SOMETRA S.A. Copşa Mică. Soil andplant samples taken from the radial nodes of the network were analyzed to determine the content of copper. Values ofcopper content in plant ranged between 4.2 mg/kg and 97 mg/kg. Based on these results has been obtained a regressionequation that estimates the copper content in plants as function of the total copper content in soil. The spontaneousvegetation developed in the investigated area includes plants belonging to the following species: Amaranthusretroflexus, Artemisia vulgaris, Asclepias syriaca, Calamagrostis epigeios, Calamagrostis pseudophragmites, Cynodondactylon, Daucus carota, Equisetum arvense, Phragmites australis, Picris hieracioides, Setaria glauca, Sinapisarvensis, Verbascum phlomoides and Xanthium strumarium. The copper pollution doesn’t represent a major problem inCopşa Mică area.

  7. Contrasting elevational diversity patterns for soil bacteria between two ecosystems divided by the treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guixiang; Xu, Guorui; Shen, Congcong; Tang, Yong; Zhang, Yuxin; Ma, Keming

    2016-11-01

    Above- and below-ground organisms are closely linked, but how elevational distribution pattern of soil microbes shifting across the treeline still remains unknown. Sampling of 140 plots with transect, we herein investigated soil bacterial distribution pattern from a temperate forest up to a subalpine meadow along an elevational gradient using Illumina sequencing. Our results revealed distinct elevational patterns of bacterial diversity above and below the treeline in responding to changes in soil conditions: a hollow elevational pattern in the forest (correlated with soil temperature, pH, and C:N ratio) and a significantly decreasing pattern in the meadow (correlated with soil pH, and available phosphorus). The bacterial community structure was also distinct between the forest and meadow, relating to soil pH in the forest and soil temperature in the meadow. Soil bacteria did not follow the distribution pattern of herb diversity, but bacterial community structure could be predicted by herb community composition. These results suggest that plant communities have an important influence on soil characteristics, and thus change the elevational distribution of soil bacteria. Our findings are useful for future assessments of climate change impacts on microbial community.

  8. [Effects of bio-crust on soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities in copper mine tailings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Yang, Gui-de; Sun, Qing-ye

    2009-09-01

    Bio-crust is the initial stage of natural primary succession in copper mine tailings. With the Yangshanchong and Tongguanshan copper mine tailings in Tongling City of Anhui Province as test objects, this paper studied the soil microbial biomass C and N and the activities of dehydrogenase, catalase, alkaline phosphatase, and urease under different types of bio-crust. The bio-crusts improved the soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities in the upper layer of the tailings markedly. Algal crust had the best effect in improving soil microbial biomass C and N, followed by moss-algal crust, and moss crust. Soil microflora also varied with the type of bio-crust. No'significant difference was observed in the soil enzyme activities under the three types of bio-crust. Soil alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly positively correlated with soil microbial biomass and dehydrogenase and urease activities, but negatively correlated with soil pH. In addition, moss rhizoid could markedly enhance the soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities in moss crust rhizoid.

  9. Lipase assay in soils by copper soap colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisuburamaniyan, N; Krithika, L; Dileena, K P; Sivasubramanian, S; Puvanakrishnan, R

    2004-07-01

    A simple and sensitive method for the estimation of lipase activity in soils is reported. In this method, 50mg of soil is incubated with emulsified substrate, the fatty acids liberated are treated with cupric acetate-pyridine reagent, and the color developed is measured at 715 nm. Use of olive oil in this protocol leads to an estimation of true lipase activity in soils. The problem of released fatty acids getting adsorbed onto the soil colloids is obviated by the use of isooctane, and separate standards for different soils need not be developed. Among the various surfactants used for emulsification, polyvinyl alcohol is found to be the most effective. Incubation time of 20 min, soil concentration of 50 mg, pH 6.5, and incubation temperature of 37 degrees C were found to be the most suitable conditions for this assay. During the process of enrichment of the soils with oil, interference by the added oil is avoided by the maintenance of a suitable control, wherein 50 mg of soil is added after stopping the reaction. This assay is sensitive and it could be adopted to screen for lipase producers from enriched soils and oil-contaminated soils before resorting to isolation of the microbes by classical screening methods.

  10. Temporal variability in Cu speciation, phytotoxicity, and soil microbial activity of Cu-polluted soils as affected by elevated temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing-Long; Weng, Nanyan; Fujii, Manabu; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2018-03-01

    Global warming has obtained increasing attentions due to its multiple impacts on agro-ecosystem. However, limited efforts had been devoted to reveal the temporal variability of metal speciation and phytotoxicity of heavy metal-polluted soils affected by elevated temperature under the global warming scenario. In this study, effects of elevated temperature (15 °C, 25 °C, and 35 °C) on the physicochemical properties, microbial metabolic activities, and phytotoxicity of three Cu-polluted soils were investigated by a laboratory incubation study. Soil physicochemical properties were observed to be significantly altered by elevated temperature with the degree of temperature effect varying in soil types and incubation time. The Biolog and enzymatic tests demonstrated that soil microbial activities were mainly controlled and decreased with increasing incubation temperature. Moreover, plant assays confirmed that the phytotoxicity and Cu uptake by wheat roots were highly dependent on soil types but less affected by incubation temperature. Overall, the findings in this study have highlighted the importance of soil types to better understand the temperature-dependent alternation of soil properties, Cu speciation and bioavailability, as well as phytotoxicity of Cu-polluted soils under global warming scenario. The present study also suggests the necessary of investigating effects of soil types on the transport and accumulation of toxic elements in soil-crop systems under global warming scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term soil accumulation of chromium, copper, and arsenic adjacent to preservative-treated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Lebow; D. Foster; J. Evans

    2004-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood has been used extensively in outdoor applications. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and CCA producers recently reached an agreement to limit future use of CCA for some types of applications. One area of concern is the long-term accumulation of leached CCA in soil adjacent to treated wood structures. Interpreting...

  12. Critical loads and excess loads of cadmium, copper and lead for European forest soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinds, G.J.; Bril, J.; Vries, de W.; Groenenberg, J.E.; Breeuwsma, A.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, concern has arisen about the impact of the dispersion of heavy metals in Europe. Therefore, a study (ESQUAD) was initiated to assess critical loads and steady-state concentrations of cadmium, copper and lead for European forest soils. The calculation methods used strongly resemble those

  13. Elevational Variation in Soil Amino Acid and Inorganic Nitrogen Concentrations in Taibai Mountain, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochuang Cao

    Full Text Available Amino acids are important sources of soil organic nitrogen (N, which is essential for plant nutrition, but detailed information about which amino acids predominant and whether amino acid composition varies with elevation is lacking. In this study, we hypothesized that the concentrations of amino acids in soil would increase and their composition would vary along the elevational gradient of Taibai Mountain, as plant-derived organic matter accumulated and N mineralization and microbial immobilization of amino acids slowed with reduced soil temperature. Results showed that the concentrations of soil extractable total N, extractable organic N and amino acids significantly increased with elevation due to the accumulation of soil organic matter and the greater N content. Soil extractable organic N concentration was significantly greater than that of the extractable inorganic N (NO3--N + NH4+-N. On average, soil adsorbed amino acid concentration was approximately 5-fold greater than that of the free amino acids, which indicates that adsorbed amino acids extracted with the strong salt solution likely represent a potential source for the replenishment of free amino acids. We found no appreciable evidence to suggest that amino acids with simple molecular structure were dominant at low elevations, whereas amino acids with high molecular weight and complex aromatic structure dominated the high elevations. Across the elevational gradient, the amino acid pool was dominated by alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid, histidine, serine and threonine. These seven amino acids accounted for approximately 68.9% of the total hydrolyzable amino acid pool. The proportions of isoleucine, tyrosine and methionine varied with elevation, while soil major amino acid composition (including alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine and valine did not vary appreciably with elevation (p>0.10. The compositional

  14. Soil Microbial Responses to Elevated CO2 and O3 in a Nitrogen-Aggrading Agroecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lei; Booker, Fitzgerald L.; Burkey, Kent O.; Tu, Cong; Shew, H. David; Rufty, Thomas W.; Fiscus, Edwin L.; Deforest, Jared L.; Hu, Shuijin

    2011-01-01

    Climate change factors such as elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) can exert significant impacts on soil microbes and the ecosystem level processes they mediate. However, the underlying mechanisms by which soil microbes respond to these environmental changes remain poorly understood. The prevailing hypothesis, which states that CO2- or O3-induced changes in carbon (C) availability dominate microbial responses, is primarily based on results from nitrogen (N)-limiting forests and grasslands. It remains largely unexplored how soil microbes respond to elevated CO2 and O3 in N-rich or N-aggrading systems, which severely hinders our ability to predict the long-term soil C dynamics in agroecosystems. Using a long-term field study conducted in a no-till wheat-soybean rotation system with open-top chambers, we showed that elevated CO2 but not O3 had a potent influence on soil microbes. Elevated CO2 (1.5×ambient) significantly increased, while O3 (1.4×ambient) reduced, aboveground (and presumably belowground) plant residue C and N inputs to soil. However, only elevated CO2 significantly affected soil microbial biomass, activities (namely heterotrophic respiration) and community composition. The enhancement of microbial biomass and activities by elevated CO2 largely occurred in the third and fourth years of the experiment and coincided with increased soil N availability, likely due to CO2-stimulation of symbiotic N2 fixation in soybean. Fungal biomass and the fungi∶bacteria ratio decreased under both ambient and elevated CO2 by the third year and also coincided with increased soil N availability; but they were significantly higher under elevated than ambient CO2. These results suggest that more attention should be directed towards assessing the impact of N availability on microbial activities and decomposition in projections of soil organic C balance in N-rich systems under future CO2 scenarios. PMID:21731722

  15. Offsetting global warming-induced elevated greenhouse gas emissions from an arable soil by biochar application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamminger, Chris; Poll, Christian; Marhan, Sven

    2018-01-01

    Global warming will likely enhance greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soils. Due to its slow decomposability, biochar is widely recognized as effective in long-term soil carbon (C) sequestration and in mitigation of soil GHG emissions. In a long-term soil warming experiment (+2.5 °C, since July 2008) we studied the effect of applying high-temperature Miscanthus biochar (0, 30 t/ha, since August 2013) on GHG emissions and their global warming potential (GWP) during 2 years in a temperate agroecosystem. Crop growth, physical and chemical soil properties, temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (R s ), and metabolic quotient (qCO 2 ) were investigated to yield further information about single effects of soil warming and biochar as well as on their interactions. Soil warming increased total CO 2 emissions by 28% over 2 years. The effect of warming on soil respiration did not level off as has often been observed in less intensively managed ecosystems. However, the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration was not affected by warming. Overall, biochar had no effect on most of the measured parameters, suggesting its high degradation stability and its low influence on microbial C cycling even under elevated soil temperatures. In contrast, biochar × warming interactions led to higher total N 2 O emissions, possibly due to accelerated N-cycling at elevated soil temperature and to biochar-induced changes in soil properties and environmental conditions. Methane uptake was not affected by soil warming or biochar. The incorporation of biochar-C into soil was estimated to offset warming-induced elevated GHG emissions for 25 years. Our results highlight the suitability of biochar for C sequestration in cultivated temperate agricultural soil under a future elevated temperature. However, the increased N 2 O emissions under warming limit the GHG mitigation potential of biochar. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Elevated CO2 and temperature increase soil C losses from a soybean-maize ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Christopher K; Davis, Sarah C; Hudiburg, Tara W; Bernacchi, Carl J; DeLucia, Evan H

    2017-01-01

    Warming temperatures and increasing CO 2 are likely to have large effects on the amount of carbon stored in soil, but predictions of these effects are poorly constrained. We elevated temperature (canopy: +2.8 °C; soil growing season: +1.8 °C; soil fallow: +2.3 °C) for 3 years within the 9th-11th years of an elevated CO 2 (+200 ppm) experiment on a maize-soybean agroecosystem, measured respiration by roots and soil microbes, and then used a process-based ecosystem model (DayCent) to simulate the decadal effects of warming and CO 2 enrichment on soil C. Both heating and elevated CO 2 increased respiration from soil microbes by ~20%, but heating reduced respiration from roots and rhizosphere by ~25%. The effects were additive, with no heat × CO 2 interactions. Particulate organic matter and total soil C declined over time in all treatments and were lower in elevated CO 2 plots than in ambient plots, but did not differ between heat treatments. We speculate that these declines indicate a priming effect, with increased C inputs under elevated CO 2 fueling a loss of old soil carbon. Model simulations of heated plots agreed with our observations and predicted loss of ~15% of soil organic C after 100 years of heating, but simulations of elevated CO 2 failed to predict the observed C losses and instead predicted a ~4% gain in soil organic C under any heating conditions. Despite model uncertainty, our empirical results suggest that combined, elevated CO 2 and temperature will lead to long-term declines in the amount of carbon stored in agricultural soils. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Assessment of Copper and Zinc Contamination in Soils of Industrial Estates of Arak Region (Iran (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisa Solgi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of the environment due to heavy metals is a major concern to human life and the environment. This study was conducted to investigate and quantify the copper and zinc concentrations in industrial estates soil in Arak, Iran. Methods: Four industrial estates were considered for the experimental design, including Arak 1, Arak 2, Arak 3, and Ghotbe Sanaati. For preliminary understanding of soil heavy metals pollution in industrial estates, the concentrations of zinc and copper in the soil are analyzed and investigated to evaluate their concentration and environmental quality based on the contamination factor. Results: The results indicated the soils had been polluted by heavy metals due to industrial processes that concentrate these metals in the soil. Copper concentrations varied from 15.69 to 49.55 mg/kg. Zinc concentrations were found to be between 23.02 and 144.17 mg/kg. The highest concentration of Zn was found in Arak 3 region which may be due to industrial activities while the highest concentration of Cu was observed in the soil of Arak 1 region that may be due to proximity of this industrial estate to Arak city. The findings of the contamination factor showed that the heavy metals are accumulated in the soil of industrial estates that are considered low risk for contamination with zinc and copper. Conclusion: The achievements of this research showed the location of the industrial estate, proximity to highways and main roads, and the area of green space of industrial estates are important factors in determining heavy metals concentration.

  18. Evaluation of copper and lead immobilization in contaminated soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of natural clay, calcium phosphate, poultry manure and rice husks as cheap and ecologically non-invasive amendments for immobilizing Cu and Pb in contaminated soil was assessed. A moderately contaminated soil was sampled from a cultivated field in the vicinity of an active waste dump, characterized ...

  19. [Transformation of Cu forms in Cynodon dactylon rhizosphere soil of copper tailings yard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You-bao; Huang, Yong-jie; Zhen, Quan; Yan, Mi; Yang, Hong-fei; Liu, Deng-yi

    2007-06-01

    The study on the Cu forms in Cynodon dactylon rhizosphere soil of copper tailings yard in Tongling City, Anhui Province showed that among the test Cu forms, the amount of residual form occupied the majority, while that of exchangeable form was relatively low. Compared with non-rhizosphere soil, rhizosphere soil had a higher organic matter content but a lower pH. With the growth of C. dactylon, the contents of organically combined and exchangeable Cu in rhizosphere soil increased by 7.89% and 5%, respectively, while those of carbonate-combined and Fe-Mn oxides-combined Cu decreased. The growth of C. dactylon accelerated the transformation of Cu forms in rhizosphere soil, and decreased the rhizosphere soil Cu content through its absorption.

  20. Assessment of zerovalent iron for stabilization of chromium, copper, and arsenic in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Ore, Solvita; Renella, Giancarlo; Mench, Michel; Lagerkvist, Anders; Maurice, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Stabilization of soil contaminated with trace elements is a remediation practice that does not reduce the total content of contaminants, but lowers the amounts of mobile and bioavailable fractions. This study evaluated the efficiency of Fe to reduce the mobility and bioavailability of Cr, Cu, As and Zn in a chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-contaminated soil using chemical, biochemical and biotoxicity tests. Contaminated soil was stabilized with 1% iron grit. This treatment decreased As and Cr concentrations in leachates (by 98% and 45%, respectively), in soil pore water (by 99% and 94%, respectively) and in plant shoots (by 84% and 95%, respectively). The stabilization technique also restored most of analyzed soil enzyme activities and reduced microbial toxicity, as evaluated by the BioTox TM test. After stabilization, exchangeable and bioaccessible fractions of Cu remained high, causing some residual toxicity in the treated soil. - Zerovalent iron effectively reduces mobility and bioavailability of As and Cr, but does not adequately stabilize Cu

  1. Leaching of arsenic, copper and chromium from thermally treated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Nordmark, Désirée; Hamberg, Roger; Carabante, Ivan; Simanavičienė, Rūta; Aksamitauskas, Vladislovas Česlovas

    2016-12-01

    Thermal treatment, if properly performed, is an effective way of destroying organic compounds in contaminated soil, while impact on co-present inorganic contaminants varies depending on the element. Leaching of trace elements in thermally treated soil can be altered by co-combusting different types of materials. This study aimed at assessing changes in mobility of As, Cr and Cu in thermally treated soil as affected by addition of industrial by-products prior to soil combustion. Contaminated soil was mixed with either waste of gypsum boards, a steel processing residue (Fe 3 O 4 ), fly ash from wood and coal combustion or a steel abrasive (96.5% Fe 0 ). The mixes and unamended soil were thermally treated at 800 °C and divided into a fine fraction 0.125 mm to simulate particle separation occurring in thermal treatment plants. The impact of the treatment on element behaviour was assessed by a batch leaching test, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The results suggest that thermal treatment is highly unfavourable for As contaminated soils as it increased both the As leaching in the fine particle size fraction and the mass of the fines (up to 92%). Soil amendment with Fe-containing compounds prior to the thermal treatment reduced As leaching to the levels acceptable for hazardous waste landfills, but only in the coarse fraction, which does not justify the usefulness of such treatment. Among the amendments used, gypsum most effectively reduced leaching of Cr and Cu in thermally treated soil and could be recommended for soils that do not contain As. Fly ash was the least effective amendment as it increased leaching of both Cr and As in majority of samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of water treatment residuals on soil phosphorus, copper and aluminium availability and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombi, E., E-mail: enzo.lombi@unisa.edu.a [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Building X, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); CRC CARE, PO Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia); Stevens, D.P. [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Arris Pty Ltd, PO Box 5143, Burnley, Victoria 3121 (Australia); McLaughlin, M.J. [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Soil and Land Systems, University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are produced by the treatment of potable water with coagulating agents. Beneficial recycling in agriculture is hampered by the fact that WTRs contain potentially toxic contaminants (e.g. copper and aluminium) and they bind phosphorus strongly. These issues were investigated using a plant bioassay (Lactuca sativa), chemical extractions and an isotopic dilution technique. Two WTRs were applied to an acidic and a neutral pH soil at six rates. Reductions in plant growth in amended soils were due to WTR-induced P deficiency, rather than Al or Cu toxicity. The release of potentially toxic Al from WTRs was found to be mitigated by their alkaline nature and pH buffering capacity. However, acidification of WTRs was shown to release more soluble Al than soil naturally high in Al. Copper availability was relatively low in all treatments. However, the lability of WTR-Cu increased when the WTR was applied to the soil. - The effect of water treatment residue application to soil was investigated in relation to phosphorus availability, and copper and aluminium phytotoxicity.

  3. Effect of water treatment residuals on soil phosphorus, copper and aluminium availability and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombi, E.; Stevens, D.P.; McLaughlin, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are produced by the treatment of potable water with coagulating agents. Beneficial recycling in agriculture is hampered by the fact that WTRs contain potentially toxic contaminants (e.g. copper and aluminium) and they bind phosphorus strongly. These issues were investigated using a plant bioassay (Lactuca sativa), chemical extractions and an isotopic dilution technique. Two WTRs were applied to an acidic and a neutral pH soil at six rates. Reductions in plant growth in amended soils were due to WTR-induced P deficiency, rather than Al or Cu toxicity. The release of potentially toxic Al from WTRs was found to be mitigated by their alkaline nature and pH buffering capacity. However, acidification of WTRs was shown to release more soluble Al than soil naturally high in Al. Copper availability was relatively low in all treatments. However, the lability of WTR-Cu increased when the WTR was applied to the soil. - The effect of water treatment residue application to soil was investigated in relation to phosphorus availability, and copper and aluminium phytotoxicity.

  4. Comparison of inversion accuracy of soil copper content from vegetation indices under different spectral resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhongqing; Shang, Kun; Jia, Lingjun

    2018-03-01

    Remote sensing inversion of heavy metal in vegetation leaves is generally based on the physiological characteristics of vegetation spectrum under heavy metal stress, and empirical models with vegetation indices are established to inverse the heavy metal content of vegetation leaves. However, the research of inversion of heavy metal content in vegetation-covered soil is still rare. In this study, Pulang is chosen as study area. The regression model of a typical heavy metal element, copper (Cu), is established with vegetation indices. We mainly investigate the inversion accuracies of Cu element in vegetation-covered soil by different vegetation indices according to specific spectral resolutions of ASD (Analytical Spectral Device) and Hyperion data. The inversion results of soil copper content in the vegetation-covered area shows a good accuracy, and the vegetation indices under ASD spectral resolution correspond to better results.

  5. Soil Copper and Zinc Accumulation and Bioavailability under a Long Term Vineyard Cultivation in South Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Lorenzoni

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil metal contamination, particularly by copper, is a phenomenon which often occurs in the surface layer of vineyard soils, due to the widespread application of Cu-based products in the plant disease management. Our study was focused on soil Cu and Zn accumulation and bioavailability as related to some soil properties under a long term vineyard cultivation, in a D.O.C. wine area of South Italy (Calabria region. Soils selected from different landscape units, ranging from acid to alkaline, under homogeneous climate conditions and vineyard management system, were investigated. Each soil was sampled in both a vineyard and a fallow area, at the depth levels of 0-10 cm, 10-25 cm and 25-50 cm. The experimental data were analysed by ANOVA, correlation and multiple stepwise regression procedures. As expected, the results indicated a contamination of the vineyard soils by Cu due to the repeated application of Cu-based products in the plant disease control, with increments of total Cu content up to 150% against the fallow soils. On the contrary, the results led to exclude any soil Zn pollution due to the vineyard management and to suppose a main pedogenic origin for this metal. According to the relationships between Cu content and soil properties, Cu accumulation was promoted by higher pH, clay and organic matter contents. These soil properties also showed a strong influence on metal bioavailability, which underwent a significant reduction in soils with higher pH and clay contents. A further result of great significance was the adverse impact of soil erosion, enhanced by the application of not suitable management systems in hilly areas, on soil capability to retain polluting metals. Soil pH, organic matter content and texture, as well as soil management system, are key factors in soil capability to limit polluting metal dispersion in the environment.

  6. Soil Copper and Zinc Accumulation and Bioavailability under a Long Term Vineyard Cultivation in South Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Corea

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil metal contamination, particularly by copper, is a phenomenon which often occurs in the surface layer of vineyard soils, due to the widespread application of Cu-based products in the plant disease management. Our study was focused on soil Cu and Zn accumulation and bioavailability as related to some soil properties under a long term vineyard cultivation, in a D.O.C. wine area of South Italy (Calabria region. Soils selected from different landscape units, ranging from acid to alkaline, under homogeneous climate conditions and vineyard management system, were investigated. Each soil was sampled in both a vineyard and a fallow area, at the depth levels of 0-10 cm, 10-25 cm and 25-50 cm. The experimental data were analysed by ANOVA, correlation and multiple stepwise regression procedures. As expected, the results indicated a contamination of the vineyard soils by Cu due to the repeated application of Cu-based products in the plant disease control, with increments of total Cu content up to 150% against the fallow soils. On the contrary, the results led to exclude any soil Zn pollution due to the vineyard management and to suppose a main pedogenic origin for this metal. According to the relationships between Cu content and soil properties, Cu accumulation was promoted by higher pH, clay and organic matter contents. These soil properties also showed a strong influence on metal bioavailability, which underwent a significant reduction in soils with higher pH and clay contents. A further result of great significance was the adverse impact of soil erosion, enhanced by the application of not suitable management systems in hilly areas, on soil capability to retain polluting metals. Soil pH, organic matter content and texture, as well as soil management system, are key factors in soil capability to limit polluting metal dispersion in the environment.

  7. Elevated tropospheric CO2 and O3 concentrations impair organic pollutant removal from grassland soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Fuxun; Eisenhauer, Nico; Jousset, Alexandre; Butenschoen, Olaf; Ji, Rong; Guo, Hongyan

    2018-04-03

    The concentrations of tropospheric CO 2 and O 3 have been rising due to human activities. These rising concentrations may have strong impacts on soil functions as changes in plant physiology may lead to altered plant-soil interactions. Here, the effects of eCO 2 and eO 3 on the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollutants in grassland soil were studied. Both elevated CO 2 and O 3 concentrations decreased PAH removal with lowest removal rates at elevated CO 2 and elevated O 3 concentrations. This effect was linked to a shift in soil microbial community structure by structural equation modeling. Elevated CO 2 and O 3 concentrations reduced the abundance of gram-positive bacteria, which were tightly linked to soil enzyme production and PAH degradation. Although plant diversity did not buffer CO 2 and O 3 effects, certain soil microbial communities and functions were affected by plant communities, indicating the potential for longer-term phytoremediation approaches. Results of this study show that elevated CO 2 and O 3 concentrations may compromise the ability of soils to degrade organic pollutants. On the other hand, the present study also indicates that the targeted assembly of plant communities may be a promising tool to shape soil microbial communities for the degradation of organic pollutants in a changing world.

  8. Soil respiration in northern forests exposed to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregitzer, Kurt; Loya, Wendy; Kubiske, Mark; Zak, Donald

    2006-06-01

    The aspen free-air CO2 and O3 enrichment (FACTS II-FACE) study in Rhinelander, Wisconsin, USA, is designed to understand the mechanisms by which young northern deciduous forest ecosystems respond to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and elevated tropospheric ozone (O3) in a replicated, factorial, field experiment. Soil respiration is the second largest flux of carbon (C) in these ecosystems, and the objective of this study was to understand how soil respiration responded to the experimental treatments as these fast-growing stands of pure aspen and birch + aspen approached maximum leaf area. Rates of soil respiration were typically lowest in the elevated O3 treatment. Elevated CO2 significantly stimulated soil respiration (8-26%) compared to the control treatment in both community types over all three growing seasons. In years 6-7 of the experiment, the greatest rates of soil respiration occurred in the interaction treatment (CO2 + O3), and rates of soil respiration were 15-25% greater in this treatment than in the elevated CO2 treatment, depending on year and community type. Two of the treatments, elevated CO2 and elevated CO2 + O3, were fumigated with 13C-depleted CO2, and in these two treatments we used standard isotope mixing models to understand the proportions of new and old C in soil respiration. During the peak of the growing season, C fixed since the initiation of the experiment in 1998 (new C) accounted for 60-80% of total soil respiration. The isotope measurements independently confirmed that more new C was respired from the interaction treatment compared to the elevated CO2 treatment. A period of low soil moisture late in the 2003 growing season resulted in soil respiration with an isotopic signature 4-6 per thousand enriched in 13C compared to sample dates when the percentage soil moisture was higher. In 2004, an extended period of low soil moisture during August and early September, punctuated by a significant rainfall event, resulted in soil

  9. Fingerprinting and diversity of bacterial copA genes in response to soil types, soil organic status and copper contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejon, David P H; Nowak, Virginie; Bouko, Sabrina; Pascault, Noémie; Mougel, Christophe; Martins, Jean M F; Ranjard, Lionel

    2007-09-01

    A molecular fingerprinting assay was developed to assess the diversity of copA genes, one of the genetic determinants involved in bacterial resistance to copper. Consensus primers of the copA genes were deduced from an alignment of sequences from proteobacterial strains. A PCR detection procedure was optimized for bacterial strains and allowed the description of a novel copA genetic determinant in Pseudomonas fluorescens. The copA DNA fingerprinting procedure was optimized for DNA directly extracted from soils differing in their physico-chemical characteristics and in their organic status (SOS). Particular copA genetic structures were obtained for each studied soil and a coinertia analysis with soil physico-chemical characteristics revealed the strong influence of pH, soil texture and the quality of soil organic matter. The molecular phylogeny of copA gene confirmed that specific copA genes clusters are specific for each SOS. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that this approach was sensitive to short-term responses of copA gene diversity to copper additions to soil samples, suggesting that community adaptation is preferentially controlled by the diversity of the innate copA genes rather than by the bioavailability of the metal.

  10. Effect of inorganic and organic copper fertilizers on copper nutrition in Spinacia oleracea and on labile copper in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrador, Ana; Gonzalez, Demetrio; Alvarez, Jose M

    2013-05-22

    To ensure an optimal concentration of Cu in food crops, the effectiveness of eight liquid Cu fertilizers was studied in a spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.) crop grown on Cu-deficient soil under greenhouse conditions. Plant dry matter yields, Cu concentrations in spinach plants (total and morpholino acid (MES)- and ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS)-extractable), and Cu uptakes were studied. The behavior of Cu in soil was evaluated by both single and sequential extraction procedures. The highest quantities of Cu in labile forms in the soil, total uptakes, and Cu concentrations in the plants were associated with the application of the two sources that contained Cu chelated by EDTA and/or DTPA. The fertilizers containing these Cu chelates represent a promising approach to achieve high levels of agronomic biofortification. The stronger correlations obtained between low-molecular-weight organic acid-extractable Cu in soil and the Cu concentrations and Cu uptakes by the plants show the suitability of this soil extraction method for predicting Cu available to spinach plants.

  11. The Effect of Preceding Crops on the Chemical Fractions of Copper (Cu in the Rhizosphere and the Bulk Soil and its Relationship with Copper Uptake by Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahrzad kabirinejad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preceding crops as a source of organic matter are an important source of micronutrient and can play an important role in the soil fertility and the micronutrients cycle of soil. In addition to the role of the organic matter in increasing the concentration of micronutrients in soil solution, attention also should be paid to the role of the kind and the quantity of the root’s exudates that are released in response to the incorporation of different plant residues in the rhizosphere. Present research was conducted with the objective of studying the effect of the kind of preceding crops: Trifolium (Trifolium pretense L, Sofflower (Carthamus tinectirus L, Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L, Sunflower (Heliantus annus L and control (fallow on the chemical forms of copper in the wheat rhizosphere and the bulk soil and Cu uptake by wheat and also investigating the correlation between the fractions of Cu in soil and Cu uptake in wheat. Materials and Methods: The present research was conducted as split plot in a Randomized Complete Block design (RCBD with 3 replications and 5 treatments, in field conditions. In the beginning, the preceding crops were cultivated in the experimental plots and after ending growth, preceding crops were harvested. Then the wheat was cultivated in the experimental plots. Finally, after harvesting the wheat, soil samples were collected from the two parts of the root zone (the wheat rhizosphere and the bulk soil. The soil samples were air dried ground and passed through a 2-mm sieve and stored for chemical analysis. Soil pH (in the soil saturation extract and organic matter (Walkley–Black wet digestion were measured in standard methods (1. The Total Organic Carbon (TOC was measured by Analyzer (Primacs SLC TOC Analyzer (CS22, Netherlands. The available Cu in soil was extracted by DTPA and determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy (2. The fractionation of soil Cu was carried out using the MSEP method (3. Results and

  12. Effects of copper on enchytraeids in the field under differing soil moisture regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Kristine; Christensen, Bent; Strandberg, Beate

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the combined effects of drought stress and copper pollution on enchytraeids under natural conditions in the field and to compare the results of laboratory toxicity tests with results of the field study. Such studies were conducted to increase the underst......The aims of this study were to investigate the combined effects of drought stress and copper pollution on enchytraeids under natural conditions in the field and to compare the results of laboratory toxicity tests with results of the field study. Such studies were conducted to increase...... from drought). Clear effects of copper were evident in both the field and the laboratory experiment. The field population density and species composition was highly affected by copper at concentrations in the range 300 to 500 mg Cu/kg dry soil and higher. In particular, a greatly impoverished species...... diversity was found in the copper-polluted areas. The effects of copper in the field compared reasonably well with the results of the laboratory tests. Surprisingly, possible effects of summer drought in the field were not detected in the autumn sampling, perhaps because of rapid recovery of the enchytraeid...

  13. Source and Assessment of Metal Pollution at Khetri Copper Mine Tailings and Neighboring Soils, Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punia, Anita; Siddaiah, N Siva; Singh, Saurabh K

    2017-11-01

    We present here the results of the study on metal pollution by identifying source, abundance and distribution in soil and tailings of Khetri copper complex (KCC) mines, Rajasthan India. The region is highly contaminated by copper (Cu) with higher values in the soil near overburden material (1224 mg/kg) and tailings (111 mg/kg). The average Cu (231 mg/kg) concentration of soil is ~9, 5 and 32 times higher than upper crust, world average shale (WAS) and local background soil (LS), respectively. However this reaches to ~82, 46 and 280 times higher in case of tailing when compared. The correlation and principal component analysis for soil reveals that the source of Cu, Zn, Co, Ni, Mn and Fe is mining and Pb and Cd could be result of weathering of parent rocks and other anthropogenic activities. The source for Cr in soil is both mining activities and weathering of parent rocks. The values of index of geo-accumulation (I geo ) and pollution load index for soil using LS as background are higher compared to values calculated using WAS. The metal rich sulphide bearing overburden material as well as tailings present in the open environment at KCC mines region warrants a proper management to minimize their impact on the environment.

  14. Nickel, Cobalt, Chromium and Copper in agricultural and grazing land soils of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Stefano; Sadeghi, Martiya; De Vivo, Benedetto; Lima, Annamaria; Cicchella, Domenico; Dinelli, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of the GEMAS (Geochemical Mapping of Agricultural and Grazing Land Soils) project, concentrations of Ni, Co, Cu and Cr were determined for the whole available dataset (2218 samples of agricultural soil and 2127 samples of grazing land soil) covering a total area of 5.6 million sq km all over Europe. The distribution pattern of Ni in the European soils (both agricultural and grazing land soils) shows the highest concentrations in correspondence with the Mediterranean area (especially in Greece, the Balcan Peninsula and NW Italy) with average values generally ranging between 40 mg/kg and 140 mg/kg and anomalous areas characterized by peaks higher than 2400 mg/kg. Concentrations between 10 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg characterize Continental Europe north of Alps and, partly, the Scandinavian countries. Lower concentrations (agricultural and grazing land soils. The maximum concentration peaks of Cobalt and Cr rise up to respectively 126 mg/kg and 696 mg/kg in agricultural soils and up to 255 mg/kg and 577 mg/kg in grazing land soils. Copper distribution in the soils collected across Europe, although has a general correspondence with the patterns of Ni, Co, Cr, shows some peculiarities. Specifically, Cu is characterized by high concentration values (up to 395 mg/kg in agricultural soils and 373 mg/kg in Grazing land soils) also in correspondence with the Roman Comagmatic Province and the south western coast of France characterized by a wide spread of vineyards.

  15. [Effects of elevated temperature on soil organic carbon and soil respiration under subalpine coniferous forest in western Sichuan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xin-li; Lin, Bo; Liu, Qing

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the effects of elevated temperature on the soil organic carbon content, soil respiration rate, and soil enzyme activities in subalpine Picea asperata plantations in western Sichuan Province of China, a simulation study was conducted in situ with open-top chambers from November 2005 to July 2007. The results showed that under elevated temperature, the mean air temperature and soil temperature were 0.42 degrees C and 0.25 degrees C higher than the control, respectively. In the first and the second year, the increased temperature had somewhat decreasing effects on the soil organic carbon and the C/N ratio at the soil depths of 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm. In the first year the soil organic carbon and the C/N ratio in 0-10 cm soil layer decreased by 8.69%, and 8.52%, respectively; but in the second year, the decrements were lesser. Soil respiration rate was significantly enhanced in the first year of warming, but had no significant difference with the control in the second year. In the first year of warming, the activities of soil invertase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase, protease, and urease increased, and the invertase and polyphenol oxidase activities in 0-10 cm soil layer were significantly higher than the control. In the second year of warming, the activities of invertase, protease and urease still had an increase, but those of catalase and polyphenol oxidase had a downtrend, compared with the control.

  16. Predicting Soil Physical Parameters and Copper Transport in a Polluted Field From X Ray CT-Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paradelo Pérez, Marcos; Naveed, Muhammad; Møldrup, Per

    2013-01-01

    in soils is strongly controlled by the soil structure, the capabilities of these visualization techniques could be used to predict the risk of pollutants leaching. This work was carried out using soils from a field site (Hygum) in Jutland, Denmark, a historical copper (Cu) polluted field cultivated for 80...

  17. The contrasting responses of soil microorganisms in two rice cultivars to elevated ground-level ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Youzhi; Yu, Yongjie; Tang, Haoye; Zu, Qianhui; Zhu, Jianguo; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-01-01

    Although elevated ground-level O 3 has a species–specific impact on plant growth, the differences in soil biota responses to O 3 pollution among rice cultivars are rarely reported. Using O 3 Free-Air Concentration Enrichment, the responses of the rhizospheric bacterial communities in the O 3 -tolerant (YD6) and the O 3 -sensitive (IIY084) rice cultivars to O 3 pollution and their differences were assessed by pyrosequencing at rice tillering and anthesis stages. Elevated ground-level O 3 negatively influenced the bacterial community in cultivar YD6 at both rice growth stages by decreasing the bacterial phylogenetic diversities and response ratios. In contrast, in cultivar IIY084, the bacterial community responded positively at the rice tillering stage under O 3 pollution. However, several keystone bacterial guilds were consistently negatively affected by O 3 pollution in two rice cultivars. These findings indicate that continuously O 3 pollution would negatively influence rice agroecosystem and the crop cultivar is important in determining the soil biota responses to elevated O 3 . - Highlights: • We investigated the soil biota in two rice cultivars in presence of elevated O 3 . • The contrasting responses of soil biota were found between two rice cultivars. • Some keystone bacterial guilds were consistently negatively affected by O 3 pollution. • The crop cultivar is important in determining soil biota responses to elevated O 3 . - The crop cultivar is important in determining the soil biota responses to elevated O 3

  18. Competition and habitat filtering jointly explain phylogenetic structure of soil bacterial communities across elevational gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Goberna, Marta; Liu, Yuguo; Cui, Ming; Yang, Haishui; Sun, Qixiang; Insam, Heribert; Zhou, Jinxing

    2018-04-24

    The importance of assembly processes in shaping biological communities is poorly understood, especially for microbes. Here we report on the forces that structure soil bacterial communities along a 2000 m elevational gradient. We characterized the relative importance of habitat filtering and competition on phylogenetic structure and turnover in bacterial communities. Bacterial communities exhibited a phylogenetically clustered pattern and were more clustered with increasing elevation. Biotic factors (i.e. relative abundance of dominant bacterial lineages) appeared to be most important to the degree of clustering, evidencing the role of the competitive ability of entire clades in shaping the communities. Phylogenetic turnover showed the greatest correlation to elevation. After controlling for elevation, biotic factors showed greater correlation to phylogenetic turnover than all the habitat variables (i.e. climate, soil and vegetation). Structural equation modelling also identified that elevation and soil organic matter exerted indirect effects on phylogenetic diversity and turnover by determining the dominance of microbial competitors. Our results suggest that competition among bacterial taxa induced by soil carbon contributes to the phylogenetic pattern across elevational gradient in the Tibetan Plateau. This highlights the importance of considering not only abiotic filtering but also biotic interactions in soil bacterial communities across stressful elevational gradients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Inclusion of Solar Elevation Angle in Land Surface Albedo Parameterization Over Bare Soil Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhiyuan; Wei, Zhigang; Wen, Zhiping; Dong, Wenjie; Li, Zhenchao; Wen, Xiaohang; Zhu, Xian; Ji, Dong; Chen, Chen; Yan, Dongdong

    2017-12-01

    Land surface albedo is a significant parameter for maintaining a balance in surface energy. It is also an important parameter of bare soil surface albedo for developing land surface process models that accurately reflect diurnal variation characteristics and the mechanism behind the solar spectral radiation albedo on bare soil surfaces and for understanding the relationships between climate factors and spectral radiation albedo. Using a data set of field observations, we conducted experiments to analyze the variation characteristics of land surface solar spectral radiation and the corresponding albedo over a typical Gobi bare soil underlying surface and to investigate the relationships between the land surface solar spectral radiation albedo, solar elevation angle, and soil moisture. Based on both solar elevation angle and soil moisture measurements simultaneously, we propose a new two-factor parameterization scheme for spectral radiation albedo over bare soil underlying surfaces. The results of numerical simulation experiments show that the new parameterization scheme can more accurately depict the diurnal variation characteristics of bare soil surface albedo than the previous schemes. Solar elevation angle is one of the most important factors for parameterizing bare soil surface albedo and must be considered in the parameterization scheme, especially in arid and semiarid areas with low soil moisture content. This study reveals the characteristics and mechanism of the diurnal variation of bare soil surface solar spectral radiation albedo and is helpful in developing land surface process models, weather models, and climate models.

  20. Application of a two-pool model to soil carbon dynamics under elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Xia, Jianyang; Osenberg, Craig W; Luo, Yiqi; Hungate, Bruce A

    2015-12-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase plant productivity and affect soil microbial communities, with possible consequences for the turnover rate of soil carbon (C) pools and feedbacks to the atmosphere. In a previous analysis (Van Groenigen et al., 2014), we used experimental data to inform a one-pool model and showed that elevated CO2 increases the decomposition rate of soil organic C, negating the storage potential of soil. However, a two-pool soil model can potentially explain patterns of soil C dynamics without invoking effects of CO2 on decomposition rates. To address this issue, we refit our data to a two-pool soil C model. We found that CO2 enrichment increases decomposition rates of both fast and slow C pools. In addition, elevated CO2 decreased the carbon use efficiency of soil microbes (CUE), thereby further reducing soil C storage. These findings are consistent with numerous empirical studies and corroborate the results from our previous analysis. To facilitate understanding of C dynamics, we suggest that empirical and theoretical studies incorporate multiple soil C pools with potentially variable decomposition rates. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. In situ phytoextraction of copper and cadmium and its biological impacts in acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongbiao; Fan, Yuchao; Yang, John; Xu, Lei; Zhou, Jing; Zhu, Zhenqiu

    2016-10-01

    Phytoremediation is a potential cost-effective technology for remediating heavy metal-contaminated soils. In this study, we evaluated the biomass and accumulation of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) of plant species grown in a contaminated acidic soil treated with limestone. Five species produced biomass in the order: Pennisetum sinese > Elsholtzia splendens > Vetiveria zizanioides > Setaria pumila > Sedum plumbizincicola. Over one growing season, the best accumulators for Cu and Cd were Pennisetum sinese and Sedum plumbizincicola, respectively. Overall, Pennisetum sinese was the best species for Cu and Cd removal when biomass was considered. However, Elsholtzia splendens soil had the highest enzyme activities and microbial populations, while the biological properties in Pennisetum sinese soil were moderately enhanced. Results would provide valuable insights for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-Term Effects of Legacy Copper Contamination on Microbial Activity and Soil Physical Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Møldrup, Per; Holmstrup, Martin

    Soils heavily contaminated with copper (Cu) are considered unsuitable for agricultural use due to adverse impacts on microbial activity, soil physical properties, and direct toxicity to crops. This study investigated effects of Cu pollution from timber preservation activities between 1911 and 1924...... on soil micro-organisms and subsequent effects on physical properties of a sandy loam soil. Tillage operations over the last 70 years have caused spreading of the initially localized contamination and have created a Cu concentration gradient from 20 to 3800 mg kg-1 across an agricultural field in Hygum......, Denmark. Soil samples obtained from the fallow field were used to determine total microbial activity using fluorescein diacetate and dehydrogenase assays. The physical properties measured included water-dispersible clay, bulk density, air permeability and air-filled porosity. Significant differences...

  3. A quick rhizobacterial selection tests for the remediation of copper contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braud, A M; Hubert, M; Gaudin, P; Lebeau, T

    2015-08-01

    The main objective of the study is to develop and improve quick bacterial tests to select the best candidates for the bioaugmentation of metal-contaminated soil, coupled with phytoextraction. Bacteria isolates (181) were selected from a collection originated from a Cu-contaminated sediment, on the basis of several miniaturized biochemical tests adapted to the copper contamination. Amongst them, we used a growth soil based-medium to select metal-tolerant bacteria, and their ability to grow and mobilize metals by mean of metabolites (siderophores, organic acids) was also assessed. The result of the bacterial selection tests showed differences in presence or absence of copper, especially for phosphate-solubilizing strains which ability decreased by 53% in the presence of copper hydroxide phosphate as compared to the standard tricalcium phosphate test. A promising Pseudomonas putida was selected from the collection. The study underlined the importance of choosing significant selection tests regarding the nature of the metal occurring in the soil to be cleaned-up to assess the real potential of each bacterial strain for subsequent soil bioaugmentation purposes. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Effects of Elevated Soil Carbon dioxide (CO2) Concentrations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    concentrations on spring wheat and soil chemical properties in the Sutton Bonington Campus, of the University of ... pipeline, marine tanker or road tankers to the storage site. .... Chlorophyll analysis of wheat plant was determined using the ...

  5. Distribution and mobility of exogenous copper as influenced by aging and components interactions in three Chinese soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hanzhi; Li, Qi; Chen, Wenli; Cai, Peng; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2018-04-01

    Copper contamination of soils is a global environmental problem. Soil components (organic matter, clay minerals, and microorganisms) and retention time can govern the adsorption, fixation, and distribution of copper. This study evaluated the interaction effects of soil components and aging on the distribution of exogenous copper. Three typical Chinese soils (Ultisol, Alfisol, and Histosol) were collected from Hunan, Henan, and Heilongjiang Provinces. Soils were incubated with rice straw (RS) and engineered bacteria (Pseudomonas putida X4/pIME) in the presence of exogenous copper for 12 months. Sequential extraction was employed to obtain the distribution of Cu species in soils, and the mobility factors of Cu were calculated. The relationships between soil properties and Cu fractions were analyzed with stepwise multiple linear regression. The results show that organic carbon plays a more important role in shaping the distribution of relatively mobile Cu, and iron oxides can be more critical in stabilizing Cu species in soils. Our results suggest that organic matter is the most important factor influencing copper partitioning in Ultisols, while iron oxides are more significant in Alfisols. The mobility of exogenous Cu in soils depends largely on organic carbon, amorphous Fe, and aging. The introduction of both rice straw and rice straw + engineered bacteria enhanced the stabilization of Cu in all the three soils during aging process. The introduction of bacteria could reduce copper mobility, which was indicated by the lowest mobility factors of Cu for the treatment with bacteria in Black, Red, and Cinnamon soils at the first 4, 8, and 8 months, respectively. Different measures should be taken into account regarding the content of organic matter and iron oxides depending on soil types for the risk assessment and remediation of Cu-contaminated soils.

  6. Zinc and Copper Release Kinetics in a Calcareous Soil amended with Manure and Vermicompost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid reza motaghian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Use of organic fertilizers such as vermicompost in agricultural soils with low organic matter content is almost considered as a one way for adding nutrients in these soils. However, application of these fertilizers may affect micronutrient release characteristics. Micronutrient release Kinetics in soils especially in amended soils give information about potential of amended soils to release these elements into solution. Although it is important to study kinetics of micronutrient release from soils to identify soil micronutrients buffering capacity, little attention has been paid to micronutrients desorption rate studies especially in amended soils. The rate of release micronutrients from soil solid phase by considering micronutrients as adsorbed ions or in mineral forms is an important parameter in nutrition of plants by microelements and a dynamic factor that regulates its continuous supply to growing plants; nonetheless, little attention has been paid to micronutrients kinetics inrelease studies. Material and Methods: In this study, kinetics of zinc (Zn and copper (Cu were compared in one calcareous soil amended with 0, 0.5, and 1% (w/w of manure and vermicompost in a completely randomized design and then amended and un-amended soils were incubated at field capacity, for 30 days. After incubation period, amended and un-amended soils were air-dried and were prepared to kinetics study. Kinetics of Zn and Cu release were studied by successive extraction with DTPA-TEA solution. Two grams of the amended and un-amended soils, in triplicate, suspended in 20 ml DTPA-TEA solution were equilibrated at 25±10C for 1, 8, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 336 and 504 h by shaking for 15 min. before incubation and 15 min. before the suspensions were centrifuged. Seven drops of toluene were added to each 1000 ml of extractant to inhibit microbial activity. Zinc and copper desorption with time was fitted by using different equations (Zero

  7. Distribution and elevated soil pools of mercury in an acidic subtropical forest of southwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jun; Wang, Zhangwei; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Tieshanping catchment in southwest China was supposed to a large pool of atmospheric mercury. This work was aimed to examine THg (total mercury) concentrations, pools and influence factors in the acidic forest. THg concentrations were highly elevated in the study area, which was significantly depended on TOM (total organic matter) concentrations and altitudinal elevation, whereas negatively correlated with soil pH. The pools of mercury accumulated in soils were correlated strongly with the stocks of TOM and altitude, ranged from 5.9 to 32 mg m −2 and averaged 14.5 mg m −2 , indicating that the acidic forest was a great sink of atmospheric mercury in southwest China. THg concentrations in stream waters decreased with altitude increasing and regression analyses showed that soil/air exchange flux would be increased with the decrease of altitude. Present results suggest that elevation increasing decreases THg losses as low THg concentrations in runoffs and volatilization from soils. - Highlights: • Soil THg pools and influence factors were studied at an acidic catchment in southwestern China. • THg concentrations was increased significantly with TOM concentrations and altitude increasing, decreased with pH. • THg pools in soils were highly elevated and deepened on TOM pools and altitude. • Difference in THg output by volatilization and runoff was a major reason for THg distribution at different altitudes. - Mercury pools increased with altitude increasing as mercury lost more at low elevation area in acidic subtropical forest

  8. Adsorption of cadmium and copper in representative soils of Eastern Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyvison Andrey Medrado Gonçalves

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies of heavy metals adsorption in soil play a key role in predicting environmental susceptibility to contamination by toxic elements. The objective of this study was to evaluate cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu adsorption in surface and subsurface soil. Samples of six soils: Xanthic Hapludox (XH1 and XH2, Typic Hapludox (TH, Typic Rhodudalf (TR, Typic Fluvaquent (TF, and Amazonian dark earths (ADE from Eastern Amazonian, Brazil. The soils were selected for chemical, physical and mineralogical characterization and to determine the adsorption by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. All soils characterized as kaolinitic, and among them, XH1 and XH2 showed the lowest fertility. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms revealed a higher Cu (H curve than Cd (L curve adsorption. Parameters of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms indicate that soils TR, TF and ADE has the greatest capacity and affinity for metal adsorption. Correlation between the curve adsorption parameters and the soil attributes indicates that the pH, CEC, OM and MnO variables had the best influence on metal retention. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms satisfactorily described Cu and Cd soil adsorption, where TR, TF and ADE has a lower vulnerability to metal input to the environment. Besides the pH, CEC and OM the MnO had a significant effect on Cu and Cd adsorption in Amazon soils.

  9. Molecular characterization of copper in soils using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strawn, Daniel G.; Baker, Leslie L.

    2009-01-01

    Bioavailability of Cu in the soil is a function of its speciation. In this paper we investigated Cu speciation in six soils using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and synchrotron-based micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF). The XANES and EXAFS spectra in all of the soils were the same. μ-XRF results indicated that the majority of the Cu particles in the soils were not associated with calcium carbonates, Fe oxides, or Cu sulfates. Principal component analysis and target transform of the XANES and EXAFS spectra suggested that Cu adsorbed on humic acid (HA) was an acceptable match. Thus it appears that Cu in all of the soils is primarily associated with soil organic matter (SOM). Theoretical fitting of the molecular structure in the soil EXAFS spectra revealed that the Cu in the soils existed as Cu atoms bound in a bidentate complex to O or N functional groups. - Copper speciation in six soils was investigated using XANES, EXAFS, and μ-XRF.

  10. Addressing Geographic Variability in the Comparative Toxicity Potential of Copper and Nickel in Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Comparative toxicity potentials (CTP), in life cycle impact assessment also known as characterization factors (CF), of copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) were calculated for a global set of 760 soils. An accessibility factor (ACF) that takes into account the role of the reactive, solid-phase metal pool...... findings stress the importance of dealing with geographic variability in the calculation of CTPs for terrestrial ecotoxicity of metals....

  11. Influence of phosphate and copper on reductive dechlorination of thiobencarb in California rice field soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekara, Amrith S; Tenbrook, Patti L; Palumbo, Amanda J; Johnson, Catherine S; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2005-12-28

    The potential for reductive dechlorination of the herbicide thiobencarb (TB) by microbes and its prevention in saturated anaerobic rice field soils was examined in laboratory microcosms. TB is effective in controlling both annual grasses and broadleaf weeds. In anoxic microcosms, TB was effectively degraded within 30 days to its dechlorinated product, deschlorothiobencarb (DTB), in two Sacramento Valley rice field soils. TB dechlorination, and subsequent degradation, followed pseudo-zero- (lag phase) and first-order (degradation phase) kinetics. Logistic regression analysis (r2 > 0.841) produced a half-life (t(1/2)) in nonsterile soils ranging from 10 to 15 days, which was also observed when microcosms were amended with low concentrations (copper (Cu2+; as the fungicides Cu(OH)2 and CuSO4.5H2O). High Cu2+ concentrations (>40 mg L(-1)) were added to the microcosms to determine if copper toxicity to dechlorinating microbes is concentration dependent within the range used. After 30 days, the low-copper-amended soils closely resembled the nonsterile experiments to which no Cu2+ was added while the high-copper-amended microcosms were similar to the sterile experiment. Microcosms were also separately amended with 5.7 g L(-1) phosphate (PO4(2-); as KH2PO4), a nutrient regularly applied to rice fields. Phosphate-amended experiments also showed TB degradation, but no DTB formation, indicating the phosphate played a role, possibly as a microbial inhibitor or an alternative electron acceptor, in limiting the dechlorination of TB. In summary, TB dechlorination was inhibited at high Cu(OH)2, CuSO4.5H2O, and KH2PO4 concentrations.

  12. Elevated atmospheric CO2 increases microbial growth rates and enzymes activity in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Dorodnikov, Maxim; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2010-05-01

    Increasing the belowground translocation of assimilated carbon by plants grown under elevated CO2 can cause a shift in the structure and activity of the microbial community responsible for the turnover of organic matter in soil. We investigated the long-term effect of elevated CO2 in the atmosphere on microbial biomass and specific growth rates in root-free and rhizosphere soil. The experiments were conducted under two free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) systems: in Hohenheim and Braunschweig, as well as in the intensively managed forest mesocosm of the Biosphere 2 Laboratory (B2L) in Oracle, AZ. Specific microbial growth rates (μ) were determined using the substrate-induced respiration response after glucose and/or yeast extract addition to the soil. We evaluated the effect of elevated CO2 on b-glucosidase, chitinase, phosphatase, and sulfatase to estimate the potential enzyme activity after soil amendment with glucose and nutrients. For B2L and both FACE systems, up to 58% higher μ were observed under elevated vs. ambient CO2, depending on site, plant species and N fertilization. The μ-values increased linearly with atmospheric CO2 concentration at all three sites. The effect of elevated CO2 on rhizosphere microorganisms was plant dependent and increased for: Brassica napus=Triticum aestivumyeast extract then for those growing on glucose, i.e. the effect of elevated CO2 was smoothed on rich vs. simple substrate. So, the r/K strategies ratio can be better revealed by studying growth on simple (glucose) than on rich substrate mixtures (yeast extract). After adding glucose, enzyme activities under elevated CO2 were 1.2-1.9-fold higher than under ambient CO2. This indicates the increased activity of microorganisms, which leads to accelerated C turnover in soil under elevated CO2. Our results clearly showed that the functional characteristics of the soil microbial community (i.e. specific growth rates and enzymes activity) rather than total microbial biomass

  13. Lead, arsenic, and copper content of crops grown on lead arsenate-treated and untreated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, D

    1972-01-01

    Increased lead and arsenic concentrations in the surface soil (0-15 cm), resulting from applications of lead arsenate (PbHAs0/sub 1/), increased both lead and arsenic levels in crops grown on treated plots. The lead levels in some crops approached or exceeded the Canadian residue tolerance of 2.0 ppM. Lead arsenate soil treatments did not affect copper absorption by crops. On areas such as old orchard land contaminated with lead arsenate residues it may be advisable to ascertain crops, and also to determine the lead affinity and arsenic sensitivity of the plants to be grown.

  14. Release of cadmium, copper and lead from urban soils of Copenhagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lijun; Holm, Peter E.; Marcussen, Helle; Bruun Hansen, Hans Christian

    2014-01-01

    We studied the bonding and release kinetics of Cd, Cu and Pb from different soils in the older metropolitan area of Copenhagen. Total Cd, Cu and Pb concentrations were elevated 5–27 times in the urban soils compared to an agricultural reference soil, with Cd and Pb in mainly mobilisable pools and Cu in strongly bound pools. The soils were subjected to accelerated leaching studies in Ca(NO 3 ) 2 or HNO 3 solutions resulting in release up to 78, 18 and 15% of total Cd, Cu and Pb soil concentrations over a period of 15 weeks. The relative initial Cd and Pb release rates increased 10 fold when pH decreased 2 and 3 units, respectively, while increases in Cu release rates were only seen at pH below 4. The total leachable Cu and Pb pools were higher in urban soils compared the agricultural reference soil but not for Cd. - Highlights: • Total Cd, Cu and Pb concentrations were elevated 5–27 times in the urban soils. • Cd and Pb are potentially available from acid leachable and reducible soil fractions. • Up to 78, 18 and 15% of total soil Cd, Cu and Pb could be acid leached. • Initial Cd and Pb release rates increase 10 fold with pH decrease of 2 and 3 units. • The mobility of Cu and Pb were higher in urban compared to agricultural soils. - Cadmium, Cu and Pb were studied in Copenhagen urban soils. These soils show similar initial relative release rates but higher total mobility of Cu and Pb compared to a reference soil

  15. Soil respiration patterns and rates at three Taiwanese forest plantations: dependence on elevation, temperature, precipitation, and litterfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Hung, Chih-Yu; Lin, I-Rhy; Kume, Tomonori; Menyailo, Oleg V; Cheng, Chih-Hsin

    2017-11-15

    Soil respiration contributes to a large quantity of carbon emissions in the forest ecosystem. In this study, the soil respiration rates at three Taiwanese forest plantations (two lowland and one mid-elevation) were investigated. We aimed to determine how soil respiration varies between lowland and mid-elevation forest plantations and identify the relative importance of biotic and abiotic factors affecting soil respiration. The results showed that the temporal patterns of soil respiration rates were mainly influenced by soil temperature and soil water content, and a combined soil temperature and soil water content model explained 54-80% of the variation. However, these two factors affected soil respiration differently. Soil temperature positively contributed to soil respiration, but a bidirectional relationship between soil respiration and soil water content was revealed. Higher soil moisture content resulted in higher soil respiration rates at the lowland plantations but led to adverse effects at the mid-elevation plantation. The annual soil respiration rates were estimated as 14.3-20.0 Mg C ha -1  year -1 at the lowland plantations and 7.0-12.2 Mg C ha -1  year -1 at the mid-elevation plantation. When assembled with the findings of previous studies, the annual soil respiration rates increased with the mean annual temperature and litterfall but decreased with elevation and the mean annual precipitation. A conceptual model of the biotic and abiotic factors affecting the spatial and temporal patterns of the soil respiration rate was developed. Three determinant factors were proposed: (i) elevation, (ii) stand characteristics, and (iii) soil temperature and soil moisture. The results indicated that changes in temperature and precipitation significantly affect soil respiration. Because of the high variability of soil respiration, more studies and data syntheses are required to accurately predict soil respiration in Taiwanese forests.

  16. Metal contamination of agricultural soils in the copper mining areas of Singhbhum shear zone in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Soma; Singh, Abhay Kumar; Mahato, Mukesh Kumar

    2017-06-01

    The study was intended to investigate the heavy metal contamination in the agricultural soils of the copper mining areas in Singhbhum shear zone, India. The total concentrations of the metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICPMS). Pollution levels were assessed by calculating enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (I_geo), contamination factors (CF), pollution load index ( PLI), Nemerow index and ecological risk index (RI). The metal concentrations in the soil samples exceeded the average shale values for almost all the metals. Principal component analysis resulted in extraction of three factors explaining 82.6% of the data variability and indicated anthropogenic contribution of Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Mn and Pb. The EF and I_geo values indicated very high contamination with respect to Cu followed by As and Zn in the agricultural soils. The values of PLI, RI and Nemerow index, which considered the overall effect of all the studied metals on the soils, revealed that 50% of the locations were highly polluted with respect to metals. The pollution levels varied with the proximity to the copper mining and processing units. Consequently, the results advocate the necessity of periodic monitoring of the agricultural soils of the area and development of proper management strategies to reduce the metal pollution.

  17. Influence of Matrix Composition on the Bioaccessibility of Copper, Zinc and Nickel in Urban Residential Dust and Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, P.; Beauchemin, S.; Nugent, M.; Dugandzic, R.; Lanouette, M.; Chenier, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting oral bioaccessibility of metals in household dust, in particular metal speciation, organic carbon content, and particle size, with the goal of addressing risk assessment information requirements. Investigation of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) speciation in two size fractions of dust (< 36 μ m and 80-150 μ m) using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) indicates that the two metals are bound to different components of the dust: Cu is predominately associated with the organic phase of the dust, while Zn is predominately associated with the mineral fraction. Total and bioaccessible Cu, nickel (Ni), and Zn were determined (on dry weight basis) in the < 150 μ m size fraction of a set of archived indoor dust samples (n = 63) and corresponding garden soil samples (n = 66) from the City of Ottawa, Canada. The median bioaccessible Cu content is 66 μ g g-1 in dust compared to 5 μ g g-1 in soil; the median bioaccessible Ni content is 16 μ g g-1 in dust compared to 2 μ g g-1 in soil; and the median bioaccessible Zn content is 410 μ g g-1 in dust compared to 18 μ g g-1 in soil. For the same data set, the median total Cu content is 152 μ g g-1 in dust compared to 17 μ g g-1 in soil; the median total Ni content is 41 μ g g-1 in dust compared to 13 μ g g-1 in soil; and the median total Zn content is 626 μ g g-1 in dust compared to 84 μ g g-1 in soil. Organic carbon is elevated in indoor dust (median 28%) compared to soil (median 5%), and is a key factor controlling metal partitioning and therefore bioaccessibility. The results show that house dust and soil have distinct geochemical signatures and should not be treated as identical media in exposure and risk assessments. Separate measurements of the indoor and outdoor environment are essential to improve the accuracy of residential risk assessments.

  18. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on dissolution of geological fluorapatite in water and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Su, Mu; Tian, Da; Tang, Lingyi; Zhang, Lin; Zheng, Yangfan; Hu, Shuijin

    2017-12-01

    Most of phosphorus (P) is present as insoluble phosphorus-bearing minerals or organic forms in soil. Geological fluorapatite (FAp) is the dominant mineral-weathering source of P. In this study, FAp was added into water and soil under elevated CO 2 to investigate the pathway of P release. Two types of soils (an acidic soil from subtropical China and a saline-alkali soil from Tibet Plateau, China) with similar total P content were studied. In the solution, increased CO 2 in air enhanced the dissolution of FAp, i.e., from 0.04 to 1.18ppm for P and from 2.48 to 13.61ppm for Ca. In addition, release of Ca and P from FAp reached the maximum (2.14ppm for P and 13.84ppm for Ca) under the combination of elevated CO 2 and NaCl due to the increasing ion exchange. Consistent with the results from the solution, CO 2 elevation promoted P release more significantly (triple) in the saline-alkali soil than in the acidic soil. Therefore, saline-alkali soils in Tibet Plateau would be an important reservoir of available P under the global CO 2 rise. This study sheds the light on understanding the geological cycle of phosphorus. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Determination and evaluation of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc in agricultural soils of western Macedonia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, A; Prochaska, C; Papadopoulos, F; Gantidis, N; Metaxa, E

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of major phytotoxic metals--including cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn)--in agricultural soils of Western Macedonia, Greece. We also wanted to determine the possible relationships among elements and between soil properties and elemental concentrations. Surface soil samples, n = 570, were collected and analyzed. The results of the elemental analysis showed that the mean metal concentrations were consistent with reported typical concentrations found in Greek agricultural soils in the cases of Zn and Cu. Cd exhibited lower and Ni higher mean concentrations than the typical levels reported in the literature. Metal concentrations in the majority of the examined samples (>69%) were found to be higher than the respective critical plant-deficiency levels. However, only 0.4% and 0.2% of the analyzed soil samples, respectively, exhibited Cd and Ni concentrations higher than the levels that cause plant toxicity, as referenced by other investigators. These results suggest that the soils studied can be considered as unpolluted with respect to the examined food-chain metal contaminants. However, the levels of the metal concentrations in some of the soil samples, and the low correlation of the metals with soil properties, suggest an anthropogenic rather that lithogenic origin.

  20. The influence of copper-based fungicide use in soils and aquatic sediments. Case study: Aetoliko lagoon, Western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramidis, Pavlos; Barouchas, Pantelis; Dünwald, Thomas; Unkel, Ingmar

    2017-04-01

    In the study area, in order farmers to keep their olive trees healthy, the first measure is to keep their olive trees well-fed that is the best initial defense against diseases. Copper-based fungicides are the most common fungicides to protect olive plantations against diseases such as the olive leaf spot. Pathogens are controlled by farmers with strategically timed disease control programs rely on copper sprays to protect the foliage and fruit from infection Successful disease control depends on even distribution and good retention of the copper over all of the plant surfaces before the disease develops. Artificially added copper has the ability to accumulate in soils and aquatic sediments and can cause adverse effects on flora and fauna in its environment. For the present study soil and aquatic sediments field campaign was carried out in the Aetoliko Lagoon ecosystem which is exclusively dominated by olive orchards. It is for the first time in Greece that soil as well as aquatic sediments samples of one coherent protected aquatic ecosystem were taken and compared. To determine the influence that the usage of copper-based fungicides have on the lagoon and surrounding areas, ten (10) sediment samples from the bottom of the lagoon and twenty five (25) soil samples at the different olive orchards that are bordering the water body were taken. The samples were analyzed for total copper content (total digestion) and extractable copper (DTPA and NH4NO3). Furthermore, soil / sedimentological and geochemical analyses such as pH, grain size, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and calcium carbonate content were carried out. The results show in over 80 % of the orchard soils a critical accumulation of the total amount of copper. In some of the examined soils the value of 140 mg/kg(as set by the European Union as a limit for total copper in farmland) is exceeded by the factors of 2 to 4.5. Copper content in the aquatic sediments is generally lower and varies between 43.85 mg

  1. Soil respiration in relation to photosynthesis of Quercus mongolica trees at elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yumei; Li, Mai-He; Cheng, Xu-Bing; Wang, Cun-Guo; Fan, A-Nan; Shi, Lian-Xuan; Wang, Xiu-Xiu; Han, Shijie

    2010-12-06

    Knowledge of soil respiration and photosynthesis under elevated CO(2) is crucial for exactly understanding and predicting the carbon balance in forest ecosystems in a rapid CO(2)-enriched world. Quercus mongolica Fischer ex Ledebour seedlings were planted in open-top chambers exposed to elevated CO(2) (EC = 500 µmol mol(-1)) and ambient CO(2) (AC = 370 µmol mol(-1)) from 2005 to 2008. Daily, seasonal and inter-annual variations in soil respiration and photosynthetic assimilation were measured during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. EC significantly stimulated the daytime soil respiration by 24.5% (322.4 at EC vs. 259.0 mg CO(2) m(-2) hr(-1) at AC) in 2007 and 21.0% (281.2 at EC vs. 232.6 mg CO(2) m(-2) hr(-1) at AC) in 2008, and increased the daytime CO(2) assimilation by 28.8% (624.1 at EC vs. 484.6 mg CO(2) m(-2) hr(-1) at AC) across the two growing seasons. The temporal variation in soil respiration was positively correlated with the aboveground photosynthesis, soil temperature, and soil water content at both EC and AC. EC did not affect the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. The increased daytime soil respiration at EC resulted mainly from the increased aboveground photosynthesis. The present study indicates that increases in CO(2) fixation of plants in a CO(2)-rich world will rapidly return to the atmosphere by increased soil respiration.

  2. Vegetation and Cold Trapping Modulating Elevation-dependent Distribution of Trace Metals in Soils of a High Mountain in Eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Haijian; Wu, Yanhong; Zhou, Jun; Li, Rui; Luo, Ji; Yu, Dong

    2016-04-07

    Trace metals adsorbed onto fine particles can be transported long distances and ultimately deposited in Polar Regions via the cold condensation effect. This study indicated the possible sources of silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and zinc (Zn) in soils on the eastern slope of Mt. Gongga, eastern Tibetan Plateau, and deciphered the effects of vegetation and mountain cold condensation on their distributions with elevation. The metal concentrations in the soils were comparable to other mountains worldwide except the remarkably high concentrations of Cd. Trace metals with high enrichment in the soils were influenced from anthropogenic contributions. Spatially, the concentrations of Cu and Zn in the surface horizons decreased from 2000 to 3700 m a.s.l., and then increased with elevation, whereas other metals were notably enriched in the mid-elevation area (approximately 3000 m a.s.l.). After normalization for soil organic carbon, high concentrations of Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn were observed above the timberline. Our results indicated the importance of vegetation in trace metal accumulation in an alpine ecosystem and highlighted the mountain cold trapping effect on trace metal deposition sourced from long-range atmospheric transport.

  3. Contamination of apple orchard soils and fruit trees with copper-based fungicides: sampling aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanying; Liu, Jingshuang; Liu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Accumulations of copper in orchard soils and fruit trees due to the application of Cu-based fungicides have become research hotspots. However, information about the sampling strategies, which can affect the accuracy of the following research results, is lacking. This study aimed to determine some sampling considerations when Cu accumulations in the soils and fruit trees of apple orchards are studied. The study was conducted in three apple orchards from different sites. Each orchard included two different histories of Cu-based fungicides usage, varying from 3 to 28 years. Soil samples were collected from different locations varying with the distances from tree trunk to the canopy drip line. Fruits and leaves from the middle heights of tree canopy at two locations (outer canopy and inner canopy) were collected. The variation in total soil Cu concentrations between orchards was much greater than the variation within orchards. Total soil Cu concentrations had a tendency to increase with the increasing history of Cu-based fungicides usage. Moreover, total soil Cu concentrations had the lowest values at the canopy drip line, while the highest values were found at the half distances between the trunk and the canopy drip line. Additionally, Cu concentrations of leaves and fruits from the outer parts of the canopy were significantly higher than from the inner parts. Depending on the findings of this study, not only the between-orchard variation but also the within-orchard variation should be taken into consideration when conducting future soil and tree samplings in apple orchards.

  4. Chelating agent-assisted electrokinetic removal of cadmium, lead and copper from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannis, Apostolos; Nikolaou, Aris; Pentari, Despina; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2009-01-01

    An integrated experimental program was conducted to remove Cd, Pb and Cu from contaminated soil. The chelate agents nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and ethyleneglycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) were used as washing solutions under different pH conditions and concentrations. Results showed that the extraction efficiency for Cd in decreasing order was NTA > EGTA > DTPA, while for Pb and Cu it was DTPA > NTA > EGTA. The use of higher chelate concentrations did not necessarily result in greater extraction efficiency. Electrokinetic remediation was applied by conditioning anolyte-catholyte pH to neutral values in order to avoid any potential alterations to the physicochemical soil properties. The removal efficiency for Cd was 65-95%, for Cu 15-60%, but for Pb was less than 20%. The phytotoxicity of the treated soil showed that the soil samples from the anode section were less phytotoxic than the untreated soil, but the phytotoxicity was increased in the samples from the cathode section. - Cadmium, lead and copper were extracted from contaminated soil by integrated electrokinetic and soil washing studies.

  5. Chelating agent-assisted electrokinetic removal of cadmium, lead and copper from contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannis, Apostolos, E-mail: apostolos.giannis@enveng.tuc.g [Laboratory of Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Nikolaou, Aris [Laboratory of Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Pentari, Despina [Laboratory of Inorganic and Organic Geochemistry and Organic Petrography, Department of Mineral Resources Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Gidarakos, Evangelos, E-mail: gidarako@mred.tuc.g [Laboratory of Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece)

    2009-12-15

    An integrated experimental program was conducted to remove Cd, Pb and Cu from contaminated soil. The chelate agents nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and ethyleneglycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) were used as washing solutions under different pH conditions and concentrations. Results showed that the extraction efficiency for Cd in decreasing order was NTA > EGTA > DTPA, while for Pb and Cu it was DTPA > NTA > EGTA. The use of higher chelate concentrations did not necessarily result in greater extraction efficiency. Electrokinetic remediation was applied by conditioning anolyte-catholyte pH to neutral values in order to avoid any potential alterations to the physicochemical soil properties. The removal efficiency for Cd was 65-95%, for Cu 15-60%, but for Pb was less than 20%. The phytotoxicity of the treated soil showed that the soil samples from the anode section were less phytotoxic than the untreated soil, but the phytotoxicity was increased in the samples from the cathode section. - Cadmium, lead and copper were extracted from contaminated soil by integrated electrokinetic and soil washing studies.

  6. Effects of copper and aluminum on the adsorption of sulfathiazole and tylosin on peat and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Zhiguo; Yang, Shuang; Li, Lingyun; Li, Chunmei; Zhang, Shuzhen; Shan, Xiao-quan; Wen, Bei; Guo, Baoyuan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al) on the adsorption of sulfathiazole (STZ) and tylosin (T) to peat and soil were investigated using a batch equilibration method. Results show that Cu suppressed STZ adsorption onto peat and soil at pH 5.0 due to the formation of STZ–Cu complexes and/or Cu bridge. In contrast, Al only decreased STZ adsorption at pH 6.0. As for T, both Cu and Al suppressed its adsorption over the entire pH range owing to three reasons: 1) electrostatic competition between Cu/Al and T + ; 2) Cu/Al adsorption made the soil and peat surface less negatively charged, which was unfavorable for T + adsorption; 3) the shrunken pore size of peat and soil retarded the diffusion of large-sized T into these pores. -- Highlights: • Cu decreases STZ adsorption at pH 5.0. • Al decreases STZ adsorption at pH 6.0. • Cu and Al suppress T adsorption. • Cu and Al change partial properties of peat and soil. -- Cu and Al changed the adsorption behavior of STZ and T in soil and peat via complexation and/or change in partial properties of peat and soil

  7. Phytoremediation of copper and zinc in sewage sludge amended soils using jatropha curcas and hibiscus cannabinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aishah, R.M.; Shamshuddin, J.; Fauziah, C.I.

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation can be potentially used to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils. A glasshouse experiment was conducted to determine the extent of Jatropha curcas and Hibiscus cannabinus efficiency to the remediation of zinc and copper contaminated soils amended with sewage sludge. An Oxisol (Munchong Series) and an Ultisol (Bungor Series) were used in this experiment, which was laid out using a randomized completely block design in six replication. The plants in pots having soil containing 0, 5 and 10% (w/w) sewage sludge were grown for six months. Phytoremediation can take place successfully as shown by the decrease of total Zn and Cu in the treated soils, where the concentrations of Zn and Cu in the tested soils were higher before planting as compared to after planting. Most of the Zn and Cu taken up by the tested plants were stored in the shoots (leaves+ stem). The fractionation of Zn and Cu in sewage sludge, untreated and treated soils was studied before and after planting. The results of the fractionation study showed that the dominant Zn and Cu in the soil were in their residual form. At harvest, the percentages of water soluble and exchangeable fraction were increased, implying that some of the residual fraction may have changed to other forms. In general, there was no significant difference between the different metal fractions in the Oxisol and Ultisol. (author)

  8. Statistical analysis of influence of soil source on leaching of arsenic and copper from CCA-C treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Lebow; Richard Ziobro; Linda Sites; Tor Schultz; David Pettry; Darrel Nicholas; Stan Lebow; Pascal Kamdem; Roger Fox; Douglas Crawford

    2006-01-01

    Leaching of wood preservatives affects the long-term efficacy and environmental impact of treated wood. Soil properties and wood characteristicscan affectleaching of woad preservatives, but these effects are not well understood. This paper reports a statistical analysis of the effects of soil and wood properties on leaching of arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) from southern...

  9. Cultivar specific plant-soil feedback overrules soil legacy effects of elevated ozone in a rice-wheat rotation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Qi; Yang, Yue; Bao, Xuelian; Zhu, Jianguo; Liang, Wenju; Bezemer, T. Martijn

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Tropospheric ozone has been recognized as one of the most important air pollutants. Many studies have shown that elevated ozone negatively impacts yields of important crops such as wheat or rice, but how ozone influences soil ecosystems of these crops and plant growth in rotation systems is

  10. Effects of soil properties on copper toxicity to earthworm Eisenia fetida in 15 Chinese soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiongwei; Xu, Meng; Zhou, Youya; Yan, Zengguang; Du, Yanli; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Chaoyan; Bai, Liping; Nie, Jing; Chen, Guikui; Li, Fasheng

    2016-02-01

    The bioavailability and toxicity of metals in soil are influenced by a variety of soil properties, and this principle should be recognized in establishing soil environmental quality criteria. In the present study, the uptake and toxicity of Cu to the earthworm Eisenia fetida in 15 Chinese soils with various soil properties were investigated, and regression models for predicting Cu toxicity across soils were developed. The results showed that earthworm survival and body weight change were less sensitive to Cu than earthworm cocoon production. The soil Cu-based median effective concentrations (EC50s) for earthworm cocoon production varied from 27.7 to 383.7 mg kg(-1) among 15 Chinese soils, representing approximately 14-fold variation. Soil cation exchange capacity and organic carbon content were identified as key factors controlling Cu toxicity to earthworm cocoon production, and simple and multiple regression models were developed for predicting Cu toxicity across soils. Tissue Cu-based EC50s for earthworm cocoon production were also calculated and varied from 15.5 to 62.5 mg kg(-1) (4-fold variation). Compared to the soil Cu-based EC50s for cocoon production, the tissue Cu-based EC50s had less variation among soils, indicating that metals in tissue were more relevant to toxicity than metals in soil and hence represented better measurements of bioavailability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Defoliation reduces soil biota - and modifies stimulating effects of elevated CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Marie; Christensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    defoliation increased activity and biomass of soil biota and more so at elevated CO2. Based on soil biota responses, plants defoliated in active growth therefore conserve resources, whereas defoliation after termination of growth results in release of resources. This result challenges the idea that plants via...... was needed to reduce nematodes. We found positive effects of CO2 on root density and microbial biomass. Defoliation affected soil biota negatively, whereas elevated CO2 stimulated the plant-soil system. This effect seen in June is contrasted by the effects seen in September at the same site. Late season...... assessed in the rhizosphere of manually defoliated patches of Deschampsia flexuosa in June in a full-factorial FACE experiment with the treatments: increased atmospheric CO2, increased nighttime temperatures, summer droughts, and all of their combinations. We found a negative effect of defoliation...

  12. Soil warming enhances the hidden shift of elemental stoichiometry by elevated CO2 in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiangnan; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai

    2016-01-01

    sap and their partitioning in different organs of wheat plant during grain filling were investigated. Results showed that the combination of elevated [CO2] and soil warming improved wheat grain yield, but decreased plant K, Ca and Mg accumulation and their concentrations in the leaves, stems, roots......Increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and associated soil warming along with global climate change are expected to have large impacts on grain mineral nutrition in wheat. The effects of CO2 elevation (700 μmol l(-1)) and soil warming (+2.4 °C) on K, Ca and Mg concentrations in the xylem...... and grains. The reduced grain mineral concentration was attributed to the lowered mineral uptake as exemplified by both the decreased stomatal conductance and mineral concentration in the xylem sap. These findings suggest that future higher atmospheric [CO2] and warmer soil conditions may decrease...

  13. Geostatistical interpolation of available copper in orchard soil as influenced by planting duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chuancheng; Zhang, Haibo; Tu, Chen; Li, Lianzhen; Luo, Yongming

    2018-01-01

    Mapping the spatial distribution of available copper (A-Cu) in orchard soils is important in agriculture and environmental management. However, data on the distribution of A-Cu in orchard soils is usually highly variable and severely skewed due to the continuous input of fungicides. In this study, ordinary kriging combined with planting duration (OK_PD) is proposed as a method for improving the interpolation of soil A-Cu. Four normal distribution transformation methods, namely, the Box-Cox, Johnson, rank order, and normal score methods, were utilized prior to interpolation. A total of 317 soil samples were collected in the orchards of the Northeast Jiaodong Peninsula. Moreover, 1472 orchards were investigated to obtain a map of planting duration using Voronoi tessellations. The soil A-Cu content ranged from 0.09 to 106.05 with a mean of 18.10 mg kg -1 , reflecting the high availability of Cu in the soils. Soil A-Cu concentrations exhibited a moderate spatial dependency and increased significantly with increasing planting duration. All the normal transformation methods successfully decreased the skewness and kurtosis of the soil A-Cu and the associated residuals, and also computed more robust variograms. OK_PD could generate better spatial prediction accuracy than ordinary kriging (OK) for all transformation methods tested, and it also provided a more detailed map of soil A-Cu. Normal score transformation produced satisfactory accuracy and showed an advantage in ameliorating smoothing effect derived from the interpolation methods. Thus, normal score transformation prior to kriging combined with planting duration (NSOK_PD) is recommended for the interpolation of soil A-Cu in this area.

  14. Aspect has a greater impact on alpine soil bacterial community structure than elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jieyun; Anderson, Barbara J; Buckley, Hannah L; Lewis, Gillian; Lear, Gavin

    2017-03-01

    Gradients in environmental conditions, including climate factors and resource availability, occur along mountain inclines, providing a 'natural laboratory' to explore their combined impacts on microbial distributions. Conflicting spatial patterns observed across elevation gradients in soil bacterial community structure suggest that they are driven by various interacting factors at different spatial scales. Here, we investigated the relative impacts of non-resource (e.g. soil temperature, pH) and resource conditions (e.g. soil carbon and nitrogen) on the biogeography of soil bacterial communities across broad (i.e. along a 1500 m mountain elevation gradient) and fine sampling scales (i.e. along sunny and shady aspects of a mountain ridge). Our analysis of 16S rRNA gene data confirmed that when sampling across distances of soil pH. These findings highlight the need to incorporate knowledge of multiple factors, including site aspect and soil pH for the appropriate use of elevation gradients as a proxy to explore the impacts of climate change on microbial community composition. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Soil respiration patterns and rates at three Taiwanese forest plantations: dependence on elevation, temperature, precipitation, and litterfall

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Hung, Chih-Yu; Lin, I-Rhy; Kume, Tomonori; Menyailo, Oleg V.; Cheng, Chih-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    Background Soil respiration contributes to a large quantity of carbon emissions in the forest ecosystem. In this study, the soil respiration rates at three Taiwanese forest plantations (two lowland and one mid-elevation) were investigated. We aimed to determine how soil respiration varies between lowland and mid-elevation forest plantations and identify the relative importance of biotic and abiotic factors affecting soil respiration. Results The results showed that the temporal patterns of so...

  16. Development of a simulated earthworm gut for determining bioaccessible arsenic, copper, and zinc from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wai K; Smith, Ben A; Stephenson, Gladys L; Siciliano, Steven D

    2009-07-01

    Soil physicochemical characteristics and contamination levels alter the bioavailability of metals to terrestrial invertebrates. Current laboratory-derived benchmark concentrations used to estimate risk do not take into account site-specific conditions, such as contaminant sequestration, and site-specific risk assessment requires a battery of time-consuming and costly toxicity tests. The development of an in vitro simulator for earthworm bioaccessibility would significantly shorten analytical time and enable site managers to focus on areas of greatest concern. The simulated earthworm gut (SEG) was developed to measure the bioaccessibility of metals in soil to earthworms by mimicking the gastrointestinal fluid composition of earthworms. Three formulations of the SEG (enzymes, microbial culture, enzymes and microbial culture) were developed and used to digest field soils from a former industrial site with varying physicochemical characteristics and contamination levels. Formulations containing enzymes released between two to 10 times more arsenic, copper, and zinc from contaminated soils compared with control and 0.01 M CaCl2 extractions. Metal concentrations in extracts from SEG formulation with microbial culture alone were not different from values for chemical extractions. The mechanism for greater bioaccessible metal concentrations from enzyme-treated soils is uncertain, but it is postulated that enzymatic digestion of soil organic matter might release sequestered metal. The relevance of these SEG results will need validation through further comparison and correlation with bioaccumulation tests, alternative chemical extraction tests, and a battery of chronic toxicity tests with invertebrates and plants.

  17. Diversity and feeding strategies of soil microfauna along elevation gradients in Himalayan cold deserts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav Devetter

    Full Text Available High-elevation cold deserts in Tibet and Himalaya are one of the most extreme environments. One consequence is that the diversity of macrofauna in this environment is often limited, and soil microorganisms have a more influential role in governing key surface and subsurface bioprocesses. High-elevation soil microfauna represent important components of cold ecosystems and dominant consumers of microbial communities. Still little is known about their diversity and distribution on the edge of their reproductive and metabolic abilities. In this study, we disentangle the impact of elevation and soil chemistry on diversity and distribution of rotifers, nematodes and tardigrades and their most frequent feeding strategies (microbial filter-feeders, bacterivores, fungivores, root-fungal feeders, omnivores along two contrasting altitudinal gradients in Indian NW Himalaya (Zanskar transect from 3805 to 4714 m a.s.l. and southwestern Tibet (Tso Moriri transect from 4477 to 6176 m a.s.l., using a combination of multivariate analysis, variation partitioning and generalized additive models. Zanskar transect had higher precipitation, soil moisture, organic matter and available nutrients than dry Tso Moriri transect. In total, 40 species of nematodes, 19 rotifers and 1 tardigrade were discovered. Species richness and total abundance of rotifers and nematodes showed mid-elevation peaks in both investigated transects. The optimum for rotifers was found at higher elevation than for nematodes. Diversity and distribution of soil microfauna was best explained by soil nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter. More fertile soils hosted more diverse and abundant faunal communities. In Tso Moriri, bacterivores represented 60% of all nematodes, fungivores 35%, root-fungal feeders 1% and omnivores 3%. For Zanskar the respective proportions were 21%, 13%, 56% and 9%. Elevational optima of different feeding strategies occurred in Zanskar in one elevation zone (4400-4500 m

  18. Effects of biochar and elevated soil temperature on soil microbial activity and abundance in an agricultural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamminger, Chris; Poll, Christian; Marhan, Sven

    2014-05-01

    As a consequence of Global Warming, rising surface temperatures will likely cause increased soil temperatures. Soil warming has already been shown to, at least temporarily, increase microbial activity and, therefore, the emissions of greenhouse gases like CO2 and N2O. This underlines the need for methods to stabilize soil organic matter and to prevent further boost of the greenhouse gas effect. Plant-derived biochar as a soil amendment could be a valuable tool to capture CO2 from the atmosphere and sequestrate it in soil on the long-term. During the process of pyrolysis, plant biomass is heated in an oxygen-low atmosphere producing the highly stable solid matter biochar. Biochar is generally stable against microbial degradation due to its chemical structure and it, therefore, persists in soil for long periods. Previous experiments indicated that biochar improves or changes several physical or chemical soil traits such as water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity or soil structure, but also biotic properties like microbial activity/abundance, greenhouse gas emissions and plant growth. Changes in the soil microbial abundance and community composition alter their metabolism, but likely also affect plant productivity. The interaction of biochar addition and soil temperature increase on soil microbial properties and plant growth was yet not investigated on the field scale. To investigate whether warming could change biochar effects in soil, we conducted a field experiment attached to a soil warming experiment on an agricultural experimental site near the University of Hohenheim, already running since July 2008. The biochar field experiment was set up as two-factorial randomized block design (n=4) with the factors biochar amendment (0, 30 t ha-1) and soil temperature (ambient, elevated=ambient +2.5° C) starting from August 2013. Each plot has a dimension of 1x1m and is equipped with combined soil temperature and moisture sensors. Slow pyrolysis biochar from the C

  19. Enhanced priming of old, not new soil carbon at elevated atmospheric CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergard, Mette; Reinsch, Sabine; Bengtson, Per

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations accompanied by global warming and altered precipitation patterns calls for assessment of long-term effects of these global changes on carbon (C) dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems, as changes in net C exchange between soil and atmosphere will impact the atmos......Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations accompanied by global warming and altered precipitation patterns calls for assessment of long-term effects of these global changes on carbon (C) dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems, as changes in net C exchange between soil and atmosphere will impact...... accelerate the decomposition of soil organic C (SOC), a phenomenon termed ‘the priming effect’, and the priming effect is most pronounced at low soil N availability. Hence, we hypothesized that priming of SOC decomposition in response to labile C addition would increase in soil exposed to long-term elevated...... decomposition of relatively old SOC fractions, i.e. SOC assimilated more than 8 years before sampling....

  20. Divergent Responses of Forest Soil Microbial Communities under Elevated CO2 in Different Depths of Upper Soil Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; He, Zhili; Wang, Aijie; Xie, Jianping; Wu, Liyou; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Jin, Decai; Shao, Zhimin; Schadt, Christopher W; Zhou, Jizhong; Deng, Ye

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the continuous increase of atmosphere CO 2 concentrations may have profound effects on the forest ecosystem and its functions. However, little is known about the response of belowground soil microbial communities under elevated atmospheric CO 2 (eCO 2 ) at different soil depth profiles in forest ecosystems. Here, we examined soil microbial communities at two soil depths (0 to 5 cm and 5 to 15 cm) after a 10-year eCO 2 exposure using a high-throughput functional gene microarray (GeoChip). The results showed that eCO 2 significantly shifted the compositions, including phylogenetic and functional gene structures, of soil microbial communities at both soil depths. Key functional genes, including those involved in carbon degradation and fixation, methane metabolism, denitrification, ammonification, and nitrogen fixation, were stimulated under eCO 2 at both soil depths, although the stimulation effect of eCO 2 on these functional markers was greater at the soil depth of 0 to 5 cm than of 5 to 15 cm. Moreover, a canonical correspondence analysis suggested that NO 3 -N, total nitrogen (TN), total carbon (TC), and leaf litter were significantly correlated with the composition of the whole microbial community. This study revealed a positive feedback of eCO 2 in forest soil microbial communities, which may provide new insight for a further understanding of forest ecosystem responses to global CO 2 increases. IMPORTANCE The concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has continuously been increasing since the industrial revolution. Understanding the response of soil microbial communities to elevated atmospheric CO 2 (eCO 2 ) is important for predicting the contribution of the forest ecosystem to global atmospheric change. This study analyzed the effect of eCO 2 on microbial communities at two soil depths (0 to 5 cm and 5 to 15 cm) in a forest ecosystem. Our findings suggest that the compositional and functional structures of microbial

  1. Soil Nematodes and Their Prokaryotic Prey Along an Elevation Gradient in The Mojave Desert (Death Valley National Park, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyxandra Pikus

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We characterized soil communities in the Mojave Desert across an elevation gradient. Our goal was to test the hypothesis that as soil quality improved with increasing elevation (due to increased productivity, the diversity of soil prokaryotes and nematodes would also increase. Soil organic matter and soil moisture content increased with elevation as predicted. Soil salinity did not correlate to elevation, but was highest at a mid-gradient, alluvial site. Soil nematode density, community trophic structure, and diversity did not show patterns related to elevation. Similar results were obtained for diversity of bacteria and archaea. Relationships between soil properties, nematode communities, and prokaryotic diversity were site-specific. For example, at the lowest elevation site, nematode communities contained a high proportion of fungal-feeding species and diversity of bacteria was lowest. At a high-salinity site, nematode density was highest, and overall, nematode density showed an unexpected, positive correlation to salinity. At the highest elevation site, nematode density and species richness were attenuated, despite relatively high moisture and organic matter content for the soils. Our results support emerging evidence for the lack of a relationship between productivity and the diversity of soil nematodes and prokaryotes.

  2. Elevated moisture stimulates carbon loss from mineral soils by releasing protected organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenjuan; Hall, Steven J

    2017-11-24

    Moisture response functions for soil microbial carbon (C) mineralization remain a critical uncertainty for predicting ecosystem-climate feedbacks. Theory and models posit that C mineralization declines under elevated moisture and associated anaerobic conditions, leading to soil C accumulation. Yet, iron (Fe) reduction potentially releases protected C, providing an under-appreciated mechanism for C destabilization under elevated moisture. Here we incubate Mollisols from ecosystems under C 3 /C 4 plant rotations at moisture levels at and above field capacity over 5 months. Increased moisture and anaerobiosis initially suppress soil C mineralization, consistent with theory. However, after 25 days, elevated moisture stimulates cumulative gaseous C-loss as CO 2 and CH 4 to >150% of the control. Stable C isotopes show that mineralization of older C 3 -derived C released following Fe reduction dominates C losses. Counter to theory, elevated moisture may significantly accelerate C losses from mineral soils over weeks to months-a critical mechanistic deficiency of current Earth system models.

  3. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on soil organic carbon dynamics in a mediterranean forest ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gahrooee, F.R.

    1998-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO 2 has the potential to change the composition and dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) and consequently C and N cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Because of the long-lived nature of SOM, long-lasting experiments are required for studying the

  4. Effects of copper amendment on the bacterial community in agricultural soil analyzed by the T-RFLP technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tom-Petersen, Andreas; Leser, Thomas D.; Marsh, Terence L.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of copper amendment on the bacterial community in agricultural soil was investigated by a 2-year field experiment complemented by short-term microcosm studies. In the field, the amendments led to total copper contents that were close to the safety limits laid down by European authorities....... In parallel, bioavailable copper was determined with a copper-specific bioluminescent Pseudomonas reporter strain. The amounts of total Cu as well as of bioavailable Cu in the field declined throughout the experiment. Bacterial community structure was examined by terminal restriction fragment length...... polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of community DNA amplified with primers specific for 16S rDNA from the Bacteria domain, the Rhizobium-Agrobacterium group and the Cytophaga group. Similarity analysis of T-RFLP profiles from field samples demonstrated an impact of copper at the domain level and within...

  5. Abundance and diversity of culturable Pseudomonas constitute sensitive indicators for adverse long-term copper impacts in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Maja Kristine; Brandt, Kristian Koefoed; Nybroe, Ole

    2013-01-01

    heterotrophic bacteria. This indicates that the Pseudomonas population is not resilient towards copper stress and that culturable Pseudomonas spp. comprise sensitive bio-indicators of adverse copper impacts in contaminated soils. Further this study shows that copper exposure decreases bacterial diversity...

  6. Impact of elevated precipitation, nitrogen deposition and warming on soil respiration in a temperate desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ping; Cui, Xiaoqing; Gong, Yanming; Li, Kaihui; Goulding, Keith; Liu, Xuejun

    2018-04-01

    Soil respiration (Rs) is the most important source of carbon dioxide emissions from soil to atmosphere. However, it is unclear what the interactive response of Rs would be to environmental changes such as elevated precipitation, nitrogen (N) deposition and warming, especially in unique temperate desert ecosystems. To investigate this an in situ field experiment was conducted in the Gurbantunggut Desert, northwest China, from September 2014 to October 2016. The results showed that precipitation and N deposition significantly increased Rs, but warming decreased Rs, except in extreme precipitation events, which was mainly through its impact on the variation of soil moisture at 5 cm depth. In addition, the interactive response of Rs to combinations of the factors was much less than that of any single-factor, and the main response was a positive effect, except for the response from the interaction of increased precipitation and high N deposition (60 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Although Rs was found to show a unimodal change pattern with the variation of soil moisture, soil temperature and soil NH4+-N content, and it was significantly positively correlated to soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH, a structural equation model found that soil temperature was the most important controlling factor. Those results indicated that Rs was mainly interactively controlled by the soil multi-environmental factors and soil nutrients, and was very sensitive to elevated precipitation, N deposition and warming. However, the interactions of multiple factors largely reduced between-year variation of Rs more than any single-factor, suggesting that the carbon cycle in temperate deserts could be profoundly influenced by positive carbon-climate feedback.

  7. Profile constructing and elevation design of soil reclaimed by hydraulic dredge pump in mining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longqian, C.; Aiqin, S.; Tianjian, Z. [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China). School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics; Mei, L. [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China)

    2007-07-01

    Underground coal mining is the main method of coal mining in China. The hydraulic dredge pump reclamation method is the basic method used for repairing hydraulic erosion. This paper reviewed land reclamation by hydraulic dredge pump in the Yi'an coal mine of Xuzhou mining area in the east of China, and analyzed the constructing theory of soil profiling. It examined factors such as the height of the ground-water table; the thickness of plough horizon; the length of crops root and the state of soil erosion; and the methods of profile construction and elevation design of soil reclaimed by hydraulic dredge pump. A relevant mathematical model was also developed. The paper discussed the general situation of the study site as well as the basic theory of profile constructing and the profile constructing method. The paper also discussed the elevation design of the reclaimed land. It was concluded that the practice has proved that the methods can make the reclaimed soil keep a similar characteristics to that of original cropped soil, and meet the requirements for elevation of reclaimed land. 8 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  8. Ecogeomorphology of Spartina patens-dominated tidal marshes: Soil organic matter accumulation, marsh elevation dynamics, and disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, D.R.; Ford, M.A.; Hensel, P.F.; Fagherazzi, Sergio; Marani, Marco; Blum, Linda K.

    2004-01-01

    Marsh soil development and vertical accretion in Spartina patens (Aiton) Muhl.-dominated tidal marshes is largely dependent on soil organic matter accumulation from root-rhizome production and litter deposition. Yet there are few quantitative data sets on belowground production and the relationship between soil organic matter accumulation and soil elevation dynamics for this marsh type. Spartina patens marshes are subject to numerous stressors, including sea-level rise, water level manipulations (i.e., flooding and draining) by impoundments, and prescribed burning. These stressors could influence long-term marsh sustainability by their effect on root production, soil organic matter accumulation, and soil elevation dynamics. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the interactions among vegetative production, soil organic matter accumulation and marsh elevation dynamics, or the ecogeomorphology, of Spartina patens-dominated tidal marshes. Additional studies are needed of belowground production/decomposition and soil elevation change (measured simultaneously) to better understand the links among soil organic matter accumulation, soil elevation change, and disturbance in this marsh type. From a management perspective, we need to better understand the impacts of disturbance stressors, both lethal and sub-lethal, and the interactive effect of multiple stressors on soil elevation dynamics in order to develop better management practices to safeguard marsh sustainability as sea level rises.

  9. Evaluation of potential phytoremediation of chrysanthemum in soil with excess copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Farias Menegaes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing the harmful effects of copper (Cu in the soil, using plants are slow and gradual, requiring the identification of species with fitorremediativa fitness for this process. Thus, the present work had as objective to evaluate the cultivation of chrysanthemum cv. Dark Fiji in soil added with Cu as promising phytoremediation. The experiment was conducted in the period from July to December 2014, in the greenhouse of the Floriculture UFSM. In a completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments composed of doses of Cu added to the soil, in the amounts of 250, 500, 750 and 1,000 mg kg-1 and control (without addition, with five replications. In two crop cycles both with duration of 104 days from the production of seedlings to harvest. Chrysanthemum cuttings were obtained from cuttings collected in the garden clonal itself, with 8 cm long, rooted in commercial substrate and transplanted into containers containing soil. They evaluated phytotechnical parameters and translocation factors of aerial part of bioaccumulation and bioconcentration factor of Cu in plant roots and metal extraction rate. It was observed that at all doses of Cu added to the soil, the plants showed low plant development and floriferous affecting its aesthetic quality in both crop cycles. The high accumulation of Cu in the roots is indicative of growing tolerance, cv. Dark Fiji in areas with excess of this, with phytoremediation potential.

  10. Validation of site-specific soil Ni toxicity thresholds with independent ecotoxicity and biogeochemistry data for elevated soil Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, Beverley; Gopalapillai, Yamini; Pellegrino, Amanda; Jennett, Tyson; Kikkert, Julie; Lau, Wilson; Schlekat, Christian; McLaughlin, Mike J.

    2017-01-01

    The Existing Substances Regulation Risk Assessments by the European Union (EU RA) generated new toxicity data for soil organisms exposed to Ni added to sixteen field-collected soils with low background concentration of metals and varying physico-chemical soil characteristics. Using only effective cation exchange capacity (eCEC) as a bioavailability correction, chronic toxicity of Ni in soils with a wide range of characteristics could be predicted within a factor of two. The objective of the present study was to determine whether this was also the case for three independent data sets of Ni toxicity thresholds. Two of the data sets were from Community Based Risk Assessments in Port Colborne ON, and Sudbury ON (Canada) for soils containing elevated concentrations of Ni, Co and Cu arising from many decades of Ni mining, smelting and refining. The third data set was the Metals in Asia study of soluble Ni added to field soils in China. These data yielded 72 leached and aged EC 10 /NOEC values for soil Ni, for arthropods, higher plants and woodlot structure and function. These were reduced to nine most sensitive single or geometric mean species/function endpoints, none of which were lower than the HC 5 predicted for a soil with an eCEC of 20 cmol/kg. Most of these leached and aged EC 10 /NOEC values were from soils co-contaminated with Cu, in some cases at its median HC 5 as predicted by the EU RA from soil characteristics. We conclude that the EU RA is protective of Ni toxicity to higher-tier ecological endpoints, including in mixture with Cu, before the assessment factor of 2 is applied. We suggest that for prospective risk assessment, the bioavailability based PNEC (HC 5 /2) be used as a conservative screen, but for retrospective and site-specific risk assessment, the bioavailability based HC 5 is sufficient. - Highlights: • Higher-tier ecotoxicity thresholds calculated for field soils with elevated Ni. • Adjusted for Ni bioavailability using soil eCEC and species

  11. Validation of site-specific soil Ni toxicity thresholds with independent ecotoxicity and biogeochemistry data for elevated soil Ni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Beverley; Gopalapillai, Yamini; Pellegrino, Amanda; Jennett, Tyson; Kikkert, Julie; Lau, Wilson; Schlekat, Christian; McLaughlin, Mike J

    2017-12-01

    The Existing Substances Regulation Risk Assessments by the European Union (EU RA) generated new toxicity data for soil organisms exposed to Ni added to sixteen field-collected soils with low background concentration of metals and varying physico-chemical soil characteristics. Using only effective cation exchange capacity (eCEC) as a bioavailability correction, chronic toxicity of Ni in soils with a wide range of characteristics could be predicted within a factor of two. The objective of the present study was to determine whether this was also the case for three independent data sets of Ni toxicity thresholds. Two of the data sets were from Community Based Risk Assessments in Port Colborne ON, and Sudbury ON (Canada) for soils containing elevated concentrations of Ni, Co and Cu arising from many decades of Ni mining, smelting and refining. The third data set was the Metals in Asia study of soluble Ni added to field soils in China. These data yielded 72 leached and aged EC 10 /NOEC values for soil Ni, for arthropods, higher plants and woodlot structure and function. These were reduced to nine most sensitive single or geometric mean species/function endpoints, none of which were lower than the HC 5 predicted for a soil with an eCEC of 20 cmol/kg. Most of these leached and aged EC 10 /NOEC values were from soils co-contaminated with Cu, in some cases at its median HC 5 as predicted by the EU RA from soil characteristics. We conclude that the EU RA is protective of Ni toxicity to higher-tier ecological endpoints, including in mixture with Cu, before the assessment factor of 2 is applied. We suggest that for prospective risk assessment, the bioavailability based PNEC (HC 5 /2) be used as a conservative screen, but for retrospective and site-specific risk assessment, the bioavailability based HC 5 is sufficient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Elevated CO2 Concentration, Elevated Temperature and No Nitrogen Fertilization on Methanogenic Archaeal and Methane-Oxidizing Bacterial Community Structures in Paddy Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongyan; Tago, Kanako; Hayatsu, Masahito; Tokida, Takeshi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Usui, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Asakawa, Susumu

    2016-09-29

    Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]) enhance the production and emission of methane in paddy fields. In the present study, the effects of elevated [CO2], elevated temperature (ET), and no nitrogen fertilization (LN) on methanogenic archaeal and methane-oxidizing bacterial community structures in a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experimental paddy field were investigated by PCR-DGGE and real-time quantitative PCR. Soil samples were collected from the upper and lower soil layers at the rice panicle initiation (PI) and mid-ripening (MR) stages. The composition of the methanogenic archaeal community in the upper and lower soil layers was not markedly affected by the elevated [CO2], ET, or LN condition. The abundance of the methanogenic archaeal community in the upper and lower soil layers was also not affected by elevated [CO2] or ET, but was significantly increased at the rice PI stage and significantly decreased by LN in the lower soil layer. In contrast, the composition of the methane-oxidizing bacterial community was affected by rice-growing stages in the upper soil layer. The abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria was significantly decreased by elevated [CO2] and LN in both soil layers at the rice MR stage and by ET in the upper soil layer. The ratio of mcrA/pmoA genes correlated with methane emission from ambient and FACE paddy plots at the PI stage. These results indicate that the decrease observed in the abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria was related to increased methane emission from the paddy field under the elevated [CO2], ET, and LN conditions.

  13. Sewage sludge fertiliser use: implications for soil and plant copper evolution in forest and agronomic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro-Domínguez, Nuria; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, Antonio; Mosquera-Losada, M Rosa

    2012-05-01

    Fertilisation with sewage sludge may lead to crop toxicity and environmental degradation. This study aims to evaluate the effects of two types of soils (forest and agronomic), two types of vegetation (unsown (coming from soil seed bank) and sown), and two types of fertilisation (sludge fertilisation and mineral fertilisation, with a no fertiliser control) in afforested and treeless swards and in sown and unsown forestlands on the total and available Cu concentration in soil, the leaching of this element and the Cu levels in plant. The experimental design was completely randomised with nine treatments and three replicates. Fertilisation with sewage sludge increased the concentration of Cu in soil and plant, but the soil values never exceeded the maximum set by Spanish regulations. Sewage sludge inputs increased both the total and Mehlich 3 Cu concentrations in agronomic soils and the Cu levels in plant developed in agronomic and forest soils, with this effect pronounced in the unsown swards of forest soils. Therefore, the use of high quality sewage sludge as fertiliser may improve the global productivity of forest, agronomic and silvopastoral systems without creating environmental hazards. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The morphology of radiation damage in copper irradiated with neutrons at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemm, K.R.

    1977-01-01

    This thesis is an investigation of the radiation damage morphology of high purity copper crystals irradiated with fast neutrons at temperatures in the range of 250 to 400 degrees C. At these high temperatures neutron damage is found to accumulate into large 3-dimensional rafts up to 100 μm in size, and the well known homogeneous distribution of black dot damage which is characteristic of irradiations at low temperatures is not observed. The characteristics and composition of the rafts of damage at different temperatures in the range 250 to 400 degrees C have been compared and found to differ to a large extent. It has also been shown that the background areas between rafts contain a rather low density of damage at all temperatures studied. It is therefore concluded that many of the interstitial atoms formed during irradiation migrate over large distances through the crystal lattice to precipitate at the sites of the dislocations forming the large rafts, and so denuded inter-rafts areas are left behind. It is proposed that these large rafts originate from grown-in dislocations present in the crystal before irradiation

  15. Decomposition of 14C-labeled roots in a pasture soil exposed to 10 years of elevated CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenigen, van C.J.; Gorissen, A.; Six, J.; Harris, D.; Kuikman, P.J.; Groenigen, van J.W.; Kessel, van C.

    2005-01-01

    The net flux of soil C is determined by the balance between soil C input and microbial decomposition, both of which might be altered under prolonged elevated atmospheric CO2. In this study, we determined the effect of elevated CO2 on decomposition of grass root material (Lolium perenne L.).

  16. A guide for the use of digital elevation model data for making soil surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingebiel, A.A.; Horvath, Emil H.; Reybold, William U.; Moore, D.G.; Fosnight, E.A.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    The intent of this publication is twofold: (1) to serve as a user guide for soil scientists and others interested in learning about the value and use of digital elevation model (DEM) data in making soil surveys and (2) to provide documentation of the Soil Landscape Analysis Project (SLAP). This publication provides a step-by-step guide on how digital slope-class maps are adjusted to topographic maps and orthophotoquads to obtain accurate slope-class maps, and how these derivative maps can be used as a base for soil survey premaps. In addition, guidance is given on the use of aspect-class maps and other resource data in making pre-maps. The value and use of tabular summaries are discussed. Examples of the use of DEM products by the authors and by selected field soil scientists are also given. Additional information on SLAP procedures may be obtained from USDA, Soil Conservation Service, Soil Survey Division, P.O. Box 2890, Washington, D.C. 20013, and from references (Horvath and others, 1987; Horvath and others, 1983; Klingebiel and others, 1987; and Young, 1987) listed in this publication. The slope and aspect products and the procedures for using these products have evolved during 5 years of cooperative research with the USDA, Soil Conservation Service and Forest Service, and the USDI, Bureau of Land Management.

  17. Sequential extraction and availability of copper in Cu fungicide-amended vineyard soils from Southern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa Nogueirol, Roberta; Ferracciu Alleoni, Luis Reynaldo; Ribeiro Nachtigall, Gilmar; Wellington de Melo, George

    2010-01-01

    The continuous use of cupric fungicides in vineyards, mainly copper sulfate (as a component of the bordeaux mixture), has increased Cu concentration in soils to levels near or even above the maximum established by the Commission of Soil Chemistry and Fertility of the States of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Besides the total content, the fractions of the element along the soil profile must be known, because the total content of Cu in the soil is not sufficient to express its environmental impact. The objective of this study was to evaluate the variation of Cu contentes along the soil profile and its speciation and partitioning in 29 soil samples from vineyards in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samples were collected in areas cropped with vineyards older than 15 years that had been frequently treated with the bordeaux mixture. These samples were from Nitosols, Acrisols, Cambisols and Leptosols and were analysed by sequential extractions and several chemical extractors. Soils had diverse chemical and physical attributes: clay content in the plowed layer (0-0.2 m) ranged from 120 to 610 g kg -1 , pH ranged from 5.3 to 7.3 and organic carbon contents varied from 2.9 to 51 g dm -3 . Among the 29 samples, 16 had the total Cu above the maximum limit allowed by the European Community regulations (140 mg kg -1 ). The average amount of Cu bonded to the oxide fraction accounted for 49.5% of the total Cu.

  18. Contamination of water and soil by the Erdenet copper-molybdenum mine in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battogtokh, B.; Lee, J.; Woo, N. C.; Nyamjav, A.

    2013-12-01

    As one of the largest copper-molybdenum (Cu-Mo) mines in the world, the Erdenet Mine in Mongolia has been active since 1978, and is expected to continue operations for at least another 30 years. In this study, the potential impacts of mining activities on the soil and water environments have been evaluated. Water samples showed high concentrations of sulfate, calcium, magnesium, Mo, and arsenic, and high pH values in the order of high to low as follows: tailing water > Khangal River > groundwater. Statistical analysis and the δ2H and δ18O values of water samples indicate that the tailing water directly affects the stream water and indirectly affects groundwater through recharge processes. Soil and stream sediments are highly contaminated with Cu and Mo, which are major elements of ore minerals. Based on the contamination factor (CF), the pollution load index (PLI), and the degree of contamination (Cd), soil appears to be less contaminated than stream sediments. The soil particle size is similar to that of tailing materials, but stream sediments have much coarser particles, implying that the materials have different origins. Contamination levels in stream sediments display a tendency to decrease with distance from the mine, but no such changes are found in soil. Consequently, soil contamination by metals is attributable to wind-blown dusts from the tailing materials, and stream sediment contamination is caused by discharges from uncontained subgrade ore stock materials. Considering the evident impact on the soil and water environment, and the human health risk from the Erdenet Mine, measures to mitigate its environmental impact should be taken immediately including source control, the establishment of a systematic and continuous monitoring system, and a comprehensive risk assessment. Sampling locations around the Erdenet Mine

  19. Sequential extraction and availability of copper in Cu fungicide-amended vineyard soils from Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa Nogueirol, Roberta [University of Sao Paulo (ESALQ/USP), C.P. 9, Piracicaba 13418-900, SP (Brazil); Ferracciu Alleoni, Luis Reynaldo, E-mail: alleoni@esalq.usp.br [Department of Soil Science, ESALQ/USP. C.P. 9, Piracicaba 13418-900, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro Nachtigall, Gilmar; Wellington de Melo, George [National Research Center of Grapes and Wine - Embrapa Uva e Vinho, C.P. 130, Bento Goncalves 95700-000, RS (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    The continuous use of cupric fungicides in vineyards, mainly copper sulfate (as a component of the bordeaux mixture), has increased Cu concentration in soils to levels near or even above the maximum established by the Commission of Soil Chemistry and Fertility of the States of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Besides the total content, the fractions of the element along the soil profile must be known, because the total content of Cu in the soil is not sufficient to express its environmental impact. The objective of this study was to evaluate the variation of Cu contentes along the soil profile and its speciation and partitioning in 29 soil samples from vineyards in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samples were collected in areas cropped with vineyards older than 15 years that had been frequently treated with the bordeaux mixture. These samples were from Nitosols, Acrisols, Cambisols and Leptosols and were analysed by sequential extractions and several chemical extractors. Soils had diverse chemical and physical attributes: clay content in the plowed layer (0-0.2 m) ranged from 120 to 610 g kg{sup -1}, pH ranged from 5.3 to 7.3 and organic carbon contents varied from 2.9 to 51 g dm{sup -3}. Among the 29 samples, 16 had the total Cu above the maximum limit allowed by the European Community regulations (140 mg kg{sup -1}). The average amount of Cu bonded to the oxide fraction accounted for 49.5% of the total Cu.

  20. Tree species traits influence soil physical, chemical, and biological properties in high elevation forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ayres

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that plants often have species-specific effects on soil properties. In high elevation forests in the Southern Rocky Mountains, North America, areas that are dominated by a single tree species are often adjacent to areas dominated by another tree species. Here, we assessed soil properties beneath adjacent stands of trembling aspen, lodgepole pine, and Engelmann spruce, which are dominant tree species in this region and are distributed widely in North America. We hypothesized that soil properties would differ among stands dominated by different tree species and expected that aspen stands would have higher soil temperatures due to their open structure, which, combined with higher quality litter, would result in increased soil respiration rates, nitrogen availability, and microbial biomass, and differences in soil faunal community composition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed soil physical, chemical, and biological properties at four sites where stands of aspen, pine, and spruce occurred in close proximity to one-another in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Leaf litter quality differed among the tree species, with the highest nitrogen (N concentration and lowest lignin:N in aspen litter. Nitrogen concentration was similar in pine and spruce litter, but lignin:N was highest in pine litter. Soil temperature and moisture were highest in aspen stands, which, in combination with higher litter quality, probably contributed to faster soil respiration rates from stands of aspen. Soil carbon and N content, ammonium concentration, and microbial biomass did not differ among tree species, but nitrate concentration was highest in aspen soil and lowest in spruce soil. In addition, soil fungal, bacterial, and nematode community composition and rotifer, collembolan, and mesostigmatid mite abundance differed among the tree species, while the total abundance of nematodes, tardigrades, oribatid mites, and prostigmatid

  1. Sea level and turbidity controls on mangrove soil surface elevation change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Fernanda Adame, Maria; Bennion, Vicki; Hayes, Matthew; Reef, Ruth; Santini, Nadia; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in sea level are a threat to seaward fringing mangrove forests if levels of inundation exceed the physiological tolerance of the trees; however, tidal wetlands can keep pace with sea level rise if soil surface elevations can increase at the same pace as sea level rise. Sediment accretion on the soil surface and belowground production of roots are proposed to increase with increasing sea level, enabling intertidal habitats to maintain their position relative to mean sea level, but there are few tests of these predictions in mangrove forests. Here we used variation in sea level and the availability of sediments caused by seasonal and inter-annual variation in the intensity of La Nina-El Nino to assess the effects of increasing sea level on surface elevation gains and contributing processes (accretion on the surface, subsidence and root growth) in mangrove forests. We found that soil surface elevation increased with mean sea level (which varied over 250 mm during the study) and with turbidity at sites where fine sediment in the water column is abundant. In contrast, where sediments were sandy, rates of surface elevation gain were high, but not significantly related to variation in turbidity, and were likely to be influenced by other factors that deliver sand to the mangrove forest. Root growth was not linked to soil surface elevation gains, although it was associated with reduced shallow subsidence, and therefore may contribute to the capacity of mangroves to keep pace with sea level rise. Our results indicate both surface (sedimentation) and subsurface (root growth) processes can influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with sea level rise within the same geographic location, and that current models of tidal marsh responses to sea level rise capture the major feature of the response of mangroves where fine, but not coarse, sediments are abundant.

  2. Soil properties determine the elevational patterns of base cations and micronutrients in the plant-soil system up to the upper limits of trees and shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruzhen; Wang, Xue; Jiang, Yong; Cerdà, Artemi; Yin, Jinfei; Liu, Heyong; Feng, Xue; Shi, Zhan; Dijkstra, Feike A.; Li, Mai-He

    2018-03-01

    To understand whether base cations and micronutrients in the plant-soil system change with elevation, we investigated the patterns of base cations and micronutrients in both soils and plant tissues along three elevational gradients in three climate zones in China. Base cations (Ca, Mg, and K) and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, and Zn) were determined in soils, trees, and shrubs growing at lower and middle elevations as well as at their upper limits on Balang (subtropical, SW China), Qilian (dry temperate, NW China), and Changbai (wet temperate, NE China) mountains. No consistent elevational patterns were found for base cation and micronutrient concentrations in both soils and plant tissues (leaves, roots, shoots, and stem sapwood). Soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total soil nitrogen (TN), the SOC to TN ratio (C : N), and soil extractable nitrogen (NO3- and NH4+) determined the elevational patterns of soil exchangeable Ca and Mg and available Fe, Mn, and Zn. However, the controlling role of soil pH and SOC was not universal as revealed by their weak correlations with soil base cations under tree canopies at the wet temperate mountain and with micronutrients under both tree and shrub canopies at the dry temperate mountain. In most cases, soil base cation and micronutrient availabilities played fundamental roles in determining the base cation and micronutrient concentrations in plant tissues. An exception existed for the decoupling of leaf K and Fe with their availabilities in the soil. Our results highlight the importance of soil physicochemical properties (mainly SOC, C : N, and pH) rather than elevation (i.e., canopy cover and environmental factors, especially temperature), in determining base cation and micronutrient availabilities in soils and subsequently their concentrations in plant tissues.

  3. Soil properties determine the elevational patterns of base cations and micronutrients in the plant–soil system up to the upper limits of trees and shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To understand whether base cations and micronutrients in the plant–soil system change with elevation, we investigated the patterns of base cations and micronutrients in both soils and plant tissues along three elevational gradients in three climate zones in China. Base cations (Ca, Mg, and K and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, and Zn were determined in soils, trees, and shrubs growing at lower and middle elevations as well as at their upper limits on Balang (subtropical, SW China, Qilian (dry temperate, NW China, and Changbai (wet temperate, NE China mountains. No consistent elevational patterns were found for base cation and micronutrient concentrations in both soils and plant tissues (leaves, roots, shoots, and stem sapwood. Soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC, total soil nitrogen (TN, the SOC to TN ratio (C : N, and soil extractable nitrogen (NO3− and NH4+ determined the elevational patterns of soil exchangeable Ca and Mg and available Fe, Mn, and Zn. However, the controlling role of soil pH and SOC was not universal as revealed by their weak correlations with soil base cations under tree canopies at the wet temperate mountain and with micronutrients under both tree and shrub canopies at the dry temperate mountain. In most cases, soil base cation and micronutrient availabilities played fundamental roles in determining the base cation and micronutrient concentrations in plant tissues. An exception existed for the decoupling of leaf K and Fe with their availabilities in the soil. Our results highlight the importance of soil physicochemical properties (mainly SOC, C : N, and pH rather than elevation (i.e., canopy cover and environmental factors, especially temperature, in determining base cation and micronutrient availabilities in soils and subsequently their concentrations in plant tissues.

  4. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON SOIL CARBON DENSITY FRACTIONS IN A DOUGLAS FIR MESOCOSM STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a 4-year full-factorial study of the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and temperature on Douglas fir seedlings growing in reconstructed native forest soils in mesocosms. The elevated CO2 treatment was ambient CO2 plus 200 ppm CO2. The elevated temperature treatm...

  5. Copper Recovery from Polluted Soils Using Acidic Washing and Bioelectrochemical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Karlfeldt Fedje

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Excavation followed by landfilling is the most common method for treating soils contaminated by metals. However, as this solution is not sustainable, alternative techniques are required. Chemical soil washing is one such alternative. The aim of this experimental lab-scale study is to develop a remediation and metal recovery method for Cu contaminated sites. The method is based on the washing of soil or ash (combusted soil/bark with acidic waste liquids followed by electrolytic Cu recovery by means of bioelectrochemical systems (BES. The results demonstrate that a one- or two-step acidic leaching process followed by water washing removes >80 wt. % of the Cu. Copper with 99.7–99.9 wt. % purity was recovered from the acidic leachates using BES. In all experiments, electrical power was generated during the reduction of Cu. This clearly indicates that Cu can also be recovered from dilute solutions. Additionally, the method has the potential to wash co-pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and oxy-PAHs.

  6. Effects of soil copper and nickel on survival and growth of Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Tiina Maileena

    2004-11-01

    The contribution of soil Cu and Ni pollution to the poor vitality and growth rate of Scots pine growing in the vicinity of a Cu-Ni smelter was investigated in two manipulation experiments. In the first manipulation, Cu-Ni smelter-polluted soil cores were transported from a smelter-pollution gradient to unpolluted greenhouse conditions. A 4-year-old pine seedling was planted in each core and cultivated for a 17-month period. In the second manipulation, pine seedlings from the same lot were cultivated for the same 17-month period in a quartz sand medium containing increasing doses of copper sulfate, nickel sulfate, and a combination of both. The variation in the biomass growth of the seedlings grown in the smelter-polluted soil cores was very similar to that of mature pine stands growing along the same smelter-pollution gradient in the field. In addition, the rate of Cu and Ni exposure explained a high proportion of the biomass growth variation, and had an effect on the Ca, K, and Mg status of the seedlings. According to the lethal threshold values determined on the basis of the metal sulfate exposure experiments, both the Cu and Ni content of the 0.5 km smelter-polluted soil cores were high enough to cause the death of most of the seedlings. The presence of Cu seemed to increase Ni toxicity.

  7. Composition of soil microbiome along elevation gradients in southwestern highlands of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasir, Muhammad; Azhar, Esam I; Khan, Imran; Bibi, Fehmida; Baabdullah, Rnda; Al-Zahrani, Ibrahim A; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed K

    2015-03-14

    Saudi Arabia is mostly barren except the southwestern highlands that are susceptible to environmental changes, a hotspot for biodiversity, but poorly studied for microbial diversity and composition. In this study, 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable region V6 was used to analyze soil bacterial community along elevation gradients of the southwestern highlands. In general, lower percentage of total soil organic matter (SOM) and nitrogen were detected in the analyzed soil samples. Total 33 different phyla were identified across the samples, including dominant phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria. Representative OTUs were grouped into 329 and 508 different taxa at family and genus level taxonomic classification, respectively. The identified OTUs unique to each sample were very low irrespective of the altitude. Jackknifed principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) revealed, overall differences in the bacterial community were more related to the quantity of specific OTUs than to their diversity among the studied samples. Bacterial diversity and soil physicochemical properties did not show consistent changes along the elevation gradients. The large number of OTUs shared between the studied samples suggest the presence of a core soil bacterial community in the southwestern highlands of Saudi Arabia.

  8. Using elevation gradients to study climate controls on soil carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbore, S.; Marzaioli, F.; Castanha, C.; Amundson, R.

    2009-04-01

    Elevation gradients provide the opportunity to study vegetation and climate gradients in a setting where other soil forming factors such as parent material and soil age are held constant. We use the observed changes in radiocarbon content of organic matter fractionated by density and other methods to infer the dynamics of soil carbon and how it varies with elevation along transects in the Sierra Nevada mountains in California, USA. In surface litter layers, changes in the radiocarbon content from 1992 to 2006 in litter layers show that these layers are more dynamic than originally inferred from a comparison based on changes between the 1950s and the 1990s. In mineral soils, fractions often considered to be the most slowly cycling (hydrolysis residue) showed large changes in 14C in the last decade. We use incubations to determine the mean age of carbon respired by microbes along the same gradients; these data are compared to incubations from other sites and show that climate and vegetation are a major controls of the mean age of fast-cycling carbon in litter and soils.

  9. Biochar reduces copper toxicity in Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Wolfram; Kammann, Claudia; Koyro, Hans-Werner

    2012-01-01

    Mining, smelting, land applications of sewage sludge, the use of fungicides containing copper (Cu), and other human activities have led to widespread soil enrichment and contamination with Cu and potentially toxic conditions. Biochar (BC) can adsorb several substances, ranging from herbicides to plant-inhibiting allelochemicals. However, the range of potential beneficial effects on early-stage plant growth with regard to heavy metal toxicity is largely unexplored. We investigated the ameliorating properties of a forestry-residue BC under Cu toxicity conditions on early plant growth. Young quinoa plants () were grown in the greenhouse in the presence of 0, 2, and 4% BC application (w/w) added to a sandy soil with 0, 50, or 200 μg g Cu supplied. The plants without BC showed severe stress symptoms and reduced growth shortly after Cu application of 50 μg g and died at 200 μg Cu g. Increasing BC concentrations in the growth medium significantly increased the plant performance without Cu toxicity or under Cu stress. At the 4% BC application rate, the plants with 200 μg g Cu almost reached the same biomass as in the control treatment. In the presence of BC, less Cu entered the plant tissues, which had reduced Cu concentrations in the order roots, shoots, leaves. The amelioration effect also was reflected in the plant-soil system CO gas exchange, which showed clear signs of improvement with BC presence. The most likely ameliorating mechanisms were adsorption of Cu to negatively charged BC surfaces and an improvement of the water supply. Overall, BC seems to be a beneficial amendment with the potential to ameliorate Cu toxicity in sandy soils. Further research with a broad spectrum of different soil types, BCs, and crop plants is required. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Diversity and Spatial-Temporal Distribution of Soil Macrofauna Communities Along Elevation in the Changbai Mountain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiuqin; Qiu, Lili; Jiang, Yunfeng; Wang, Yeqiao

    2017-06-01

    The understanding of patterns of vertical variation and diversity of flora and fauna along elevational change has been well established over the past century. However, it is unclear whether there is an elevational distribution pattern for soil fauna. This study revealed the diversity and spatial-temporal distribution of soil macrofauna communities in different vegetation zones from forest to alpine tundra along elevation of the Changbai Mountain, China. The abundance, richness, and Shannon-Wiener diversity index of soil macrofauna communities were compared in four distinguished vegetation zones including the coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest zone, the coniferous forest zone, the subalpine dwarf birch (Betula ermanii) forest zone, and the alpine tundra zone. Soil macrofauna were extracted in May, July, and September of 2009. In each season, the abundance and richness of the soil macrofauna decreased with the ascending elevation. The Shannon-Wiener diversity indices of the soil macrofauna were higher in the vegetation zones of lower elevation than of higher elevation. Significant differences were observed in the abundance, richness, and Shannon-Wiener diversity index for the studied vegetation zones. Soil macrofauna congregated mainly to the litter layer in the low-elevation areas and in the 0-5 cm soil layer of the higher elevation areas. The results emphasized that the diversity of soil macrofauna communities decreased as the elevation increased and possess the distinct characteristics of zonation in the mountain ecosystem. The diversity and distribution of soil macrofauna communities were influenced by mean annual precipitation, altitude, annual radiation quantity, and mean annual temperature. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Geochemical speciation and dynamic of copper in tropical semi-arid soils exposed to metal-bearing mine wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlatti, Fabio [Department of Environmental Technology, National Department of Mineral Production – DNPM, Rua Dr. José Lourenço, 90560115-280 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Graduate Course of Ecology and Natural Resources, Department of Biology, Federal University of Ceará – UFC, Building 906, 60455-760, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Otero, Xosé Luis; Macias, Felipe [Department of Edaphology and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Biology, University of Santiago de Compostela – USC, Rúa Lope Gómez de Marzoa, s/n. Campus sur, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Ferreira, Tiago Osório, E-mail: toferreira@usp.br [Department of Soil Science, University of São Paulo (ESALQ/USP), Av. Pádua Dias, 11, 13418-900, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Graduate Course of Ecology and Natural Resources, Department of Biology, Federal University of Ceará – UFC, Building 906, 60455-760, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2014-12-01

    The potentially hazardous effects of rock wastes disposed at open pit in three different areas (Pr: Ore processing; Wr: Waste rock and Bd: Border) of an abandoned copper mine were evaluated in this study, with emphasis on acid drainage generation, metal contamination and copper geochemical dynamics in soils. Samples of waste rock were analyzed by Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy with microanalysis (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Soil samples were analyzed to determine the total metal contents (XRF), mineralogy (XRD), pH (H2O and H2O2), organic and inorganic carbon, % of total N, S and P, particle size, and a sequential extraction procedure was used to identify the different copper fractions. As a result of the prevalence of carbonates over sulphides in the wastes, the soil pH remained close to neutral, with absence of acid mine drainage. The geochemical interaction between these mineral phases seems to be the main mechanism to release Cu{sup 2+} ions. Total Cu in soils from the Pr area reached 11,180 mg.kg{sup −1}, while in Wr and Bd areas the values reached, on average, 4683 and 1086 mg.kg{sup −1}, respectively, indicating a very high level of soil contamination. In the Pr and Wr, the Cu was mainly associated with carbonates and amorphous iron oxides. In the Bd areas, the presence of vegetation has influenced the geochemical behavior of copper by increasing the dissolution of carbonates, affecting the buffer capacity of soils against sulphide oxidation, reducing the pH levels and enhancing the proportion of exchangeable and organic bound Cu. The present findings show that the use of plants or organic amendments in mine sites with high concentration of Cu carbonate-containing wastes should be viewed with caution, as the practice may enhance the mobilization of copper to the environment due to an increase in the rate of carbonates dissolution. - Highlights: • The hazardous effects of mine waste rocks at

  12. Response to elevated CO2 in the temperate C3 grass Festuca arundinaceae across ten soil orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Nord

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Soils vary widely in mineral nutrient availability and physical characteristics, but the influence of this variability on plant responses to elevated CO2 remains poorly understood. As a first approximation of the effect of global soil variability on plant growth response to CO2, we evaluated the effect of CO2 on tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea grown in soils representing 10 of the 12 global soil orders plus a high-fertility control. Plants were grown in small pots in continuously stirred reactor tanks in a greenhouse. Elevated CO2 (800 ppm increased plant biomass in the high-fertility control and in two of the more fertile soils. Elevated CO2 had variable effects on foliar mineral concentration - nitrogen was not altered by elevated CO2, and phosphorus and potassium were only affected by CO2 in a small number of soils. While leaf photosynthesis was stimulated by elevated CO2 in six soils, canopy photosynthesis was not stimulated. Four principle components were identified; the first was associated with foliar minerals and soil clay, and the second with soil acidity and foliar manganese concentration. The third principle component was associated with gas exchange, and the fourth with plant biomass and soil minerals. Soils in which tall fescue did not respond to elevated CO2 account for 83% of global land area. These results show that variation in soil physical and chemical properties have important implications for plant responses to global change, and highlight the need to consider soil variability in models of vegetation response to global change.

  13. Copper desorption in flooded agricultural soils and toxicity to the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa): Implications in Everglades restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, Tham C.; Rogevich, Emily C.; Rand, Gary M.; Gardinali, Piero R.; Frakes, Robert A.; Bargar, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    Copper (Cu) desorption and toxicity to the Florida apple snail were investigated from soils obtained from agricultural sites acquired under the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. Copper concentrations in 11 flooded soils ranged from 5 to 234 mg/kg on day 0 and from 6.2 to 204 mg/kg on day 28 (steady-state). The steady-state Cu concentration in overlying water ranged from 9.1 to 308.2 μg/L. In a 28-d growth study, high mortality in snails occurred within 9 to 16 d in two of three soil treatments tested. Growth of apple snails over 28 d was affected by Cu in these two treatments. Tissue Cu concentrations by day 14 were 12-23-fold higher in snails exposed to the three soil treatments compared to controls. The endangered Florida snail kite and its main food source, the Florida apple snail, may be at risk from Cu exposure in these managed agricultural soil-water ecosystems. - Copper desorbs from agricultural soils and is toxic to the Florida apple snail

  14. Soil , phyto and zoocenosis characteristics along an elevational gradient in the Alps (NW Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, Angelo; Freppaz, Michele; Filippa, Gianluca; Buffa, Giorgio; Rivella, Enrico; Griselli, Bona; Parodi, Alessandra; Zanini, Ermanno

    2010-05-01

    From a global point of view, the distribution of biodiversity can be associated with climate. In particular, a majority of patterns of species diversity can be explained in terms of climatic gradients. Within a given mountain range, climate may affect the distribution of soils and the abundance and richness of plant species and mesofauna composition. In this study, promoted in the framework of an INTERREG Project "Biodiversità: una ricchezza da conservare" we investigate the soil, plant characteristics and mesofauna communities along two elevational gradient in Italian North Western Alps. Mountain environments are well-suited for such studies because of pronounced climatic gradients within short distances. The study areas, named San Bernardo and Vannino, are located in North Italy, close to the border of Switzerland (San Bernardo: N 46°09' E 08°10'; Vannino: N 46°23'E 08°22'). The first one ranged form 1617 m ASL to 2595 m ASL. while the second one ranged from 1786 to 2515 m ASL , with both a prevalent south aspect. Along both elevational gradients we selected 7 sites, with a vegetation cover ranging from coniferous forest (Larix, Picea and Abies) to high-elevation prairies. In each site, soil material (0-10 cm depth) was collected and in the laboratory, samples were dried and passed through a 2-mm sieve. The pH and the particle size distribution was determined following standard methods (SISS, 1998, 2000). Total C and N contents of the soil were measured with a C/H/N analyser (Elementar Vario EL). Data on the vegetation structure were collected close to each soil sampling points, covering a surface of 16 m2; each sampling site has been further divided into 4 sub-areas of 4 m2. Soil texture ranged between sand and loamy sand, without any obvious distribution with altitude. On average, in the Vannino transect soil texture was slightly coarser than at San Bernardo. A total of 118 vascular species were found at the sampling sites. Landolt ecological spectrum

  15. Prevalence of quinolone resistance genes, copper resistance genes, and the bacterial communities in a soil-ryegrass system co-polluted with copper and ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Xiaxia; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiaojuan; Sun, YiXin; Duan, Manli; Sun, Wei; Yin, Yanan; Guo, Aiyun; Zhang, Li

    2018-04-01

    The presence of high concentrations of residual antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil may pose potential health and environmental risks. This study investigated the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes, copper resistance genes (CRGs), and the bacterial communities in a soil-ryegrass pot system co-polluted with copper and ciprofloxacin (CIP; 0, 20, or 80 mg kg -1 dry soil). Compared with the samples on day 0, the total relative abundances of the PMQR genes and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were reduced significantly by 80-89% in the ryegrass and soil by the cutting stage (after 75 days). The abundances of PMQR genes and MGEs were reduced by 63-81% in soil treated with 20 mg kg -1 CIP compared with the other treatments, but the abundances of CRGs increased by 18-42%. The presence of 80 mg kg -1 CIP affected the microbial community structure in the soil by increasing the abundances of Acidobacteria and Thaumarchaeota, but decreasing those of Firmicutes. Redundancy analysis indicated that the pH and microbial composition were the main factors that affected the variations in PMQR genes, MGEs, and CRGs, where they could explain 42.2% and 33.3% of the variation, respectively. Furthermore, intI2 may play an important role in the transfer of ARGs. We found that 80 mg kg -1 CIP could increase the abundances of ARGs and CRGs in a soil-ryegrass pot system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analyses of soil cadmium and copper contents on a Domérien soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... 2Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique(INRA), Unité de ... The aim of this study is to determine the availability of cadmium (Cd) in the soil of Yonne district, ... Since cadmium (Cd) occurs in zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and.

  17. Copper bioavailability and extractability as related to chemical properties of contaminated soils from a vine-growing area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaignon, V.; Sanchez-Neira, I.; Herrmann, P.; Jaillard, B.; Hinsinger, P.

    2003-01-01

    Root Cu concentration is a good indicator of soil Cu bioavailability. - Vineyard soils have been contaminated by Cu as a consequence of the long-term use of Cu salts as fungicides against mildew. This work aimed at identifying which soil parameters were the best related to Cu bioavailability, as assessed by measuring the concentrations of Cu in shoots and roots of tomato cropped (in lab conditions) over a range of 29 (24 calcareous and five acidic) Cu-contaminated topsoils from a vine-growing area (22-398 mg Cu kg -1 ). Copper concentrations in tomato shoots remained in the adequate range and were independent of soil properties and soil Cu content. Conversely, strong, positive correlations were found between root Cu concentration, total soil Cu, EDTA- or K-pyrophosphate-extractable Cu and organic C contents in the 24 calcareous soils, suggesting a prominent role of organic matter in the retention and bioavailability of Cu. Such relations were not observed when including the five acidic soils in the investigated population, suggesting a major pH effect. Root Cu concentration appeared as a much more sensitive indicator of soil Cu bioavailability than shoot Cu concentration. Simple extractions routinely used in soil testing procedures (total and EDTA-extractable Cu) were adequate indicators of Cu bioavailability for the investigated calcareous soils, but not when different soil types were considered (e.g. acidic versus calcareous soils)

  18. Atmospheric mercury inputs in montane soils increase with elevation: evidence from mercury isotope signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Yin, Run-sheng; Feng, Xin-bin; Sommar, Jonas; Anderson, Christopher W N; Sapkota, Atindra; Fu, Xue-wu; Larssen, Thorjørn

    2013-11-25

    The influence of topography on the biogeochemical cycle of mercury (Hg) has received relatively little attention. Here, we report the measurement of Hg species and their corresponding isotope composition in soil sampled along an elevational gradient transect on Mt. Leigong in subtropical southwestern China. The data are used to explain orography-related effects on the fate and behaviour of Hg species in montane environments. The total- and methyl-Hg concentrations in topsoil samples show a positive correlation with elevation. However, a negative elevation dependence was observed in the mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) and mass-independent fractionation (MIF) signatures of Hg isotopes. Both a MIF (Δ(199)Hg) binary mixing approach and the traditional inert element method indicate that the content of Hg derived from the atmosphere distinctly increases with altitude.

  19. Elevated CO2 increases glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) in the rhizosphere of Robinia pseudoacacia L. seedlings in Pb- and Cd-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, Yonghua; Liu, Tuo; Huang, Shuping; Chang, Yafei

    2016-11-01

    Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP), which contains glycoproteins produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), as well as non-mycorrhizal-related heat-stable proteins, lipids, and humic materials, is generally categorized into two fractions: easily extractable GRSP (EE-GRSP) and total GRSP (T-GRSP). GRSP plays an important role in soil carbon (C) sequestration and can stabilize heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and manganese (Mn). Soil contamination by heavy metals is occurring in conjunction with rising atmospheric CO 2 in natural ecosystems due to human activities. However, the response of GRSP to elevated CO 2 combined with heavy metal contamination has not been widely reported. Here, we investigated the response of GRSP to elevated CO 2 in the rhizosphere of Robinia pseudoacacia L. seedlings in Pb- and Cd-contaminated soils. Elevated CO 2 (700 μmol mol -1 ) significantly increased T- and EE- GRSP concentrations in soils contaminated with Cd, Pb or Cd + Pb. GRSP contributed more carbon to the rhizosphere soil organic carbon pool under elevated CO 2  + heavy metals than under ambient CO 2 . The amount of Cd and Pb bound to GRSP was significantly higher under elevated (compared to ambient) CO 2 ; and elevated CO 2 increased the ratio of GRSP-bound Cd and Pb to total Cd and Pb. However, available Cd and Pb in rhizosphere soil under increased elevated CO 2 compared to ambient CO 2 . The combination of both metals and elevated CO 2 led to a significant increase in available Pb in rhizosphere soil compared to the Pb treatment alone. In conclusion, increased GRSP produced under elevated CO 2 could contribute to sequestration of soil pollutants by adsorption of Cd and Pb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Responses of soil microbial activity to cadmium pollution and elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi Ping; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Yong Jun; Jia, Feng An; He, Xin Hua

    2014-03-06

    To address the combined effects of cadmium (Cd) and elevated CO2 on soil microbial communities, DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) profiles, respiration, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentrations, loessial soils were exposed to four levels of Cd, i.e., 0 (Cd0), 1.5 (Cd1.5), 3.0 (Cd3.0) and 6.0 (Cd6.0) mg Cd kg(-1) soil, and two levels of CO2, i.e., 360 (aCO2) and 480 (eCO2) ppm. Compared to Cd0, Cd1.5 increased fungal abundance but decreased bacterial abundance under both CO2 levels, whilst Cd3.0 and Cd6.0 decreased both fungal and bacterial abundance. Profiles of DGGE revealed alteration of soil microbial communities under eCO2. Soil respiration decreased with Cd concentrations and was greater under eCO2 than under aCO2. Soil total C and N were greater under higher Cd. These results suggest eCO2 could stimulate, while Cd pollution could restrain microbial reproduction and C decomposition with the restraint effect alleviated by eCO2.

  1. Elevated soil lead concentrations in residential yards in Appleton, WI, a small Midwestern city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. J.; Knudsen, A. C.

    2010-12-01

    Elevated soil lead concentrations are well documented in large urban areas, having been attributed to a combination of leaded-paint, leaded-gasoline, and industrial emissions. Fewer studies, however, have been conducted in smaller communities. We analyzed 200 surface soils in the neighborhood near Lawrence University’s campus in Appleton, WI (population ~70,000). Like many larger cities Appleton has a historic city-center. However, it is has no high-density housing or commercial districts and has not seen heavy traffic. The socioeconomic pressures that lead to disrepair of inner city neighborhoods have been less prevalent here as well. At each property 3 integrated samples were taken, one adjacent to the front of the house, one in the front lawn, and one between the road and sidewalk. We correlated building and property traits (e.g. structure age, distance from road, exterior type, exterior condition, direction of exposure, and assessed home value) with soil lead concentrations determined by XRF and subsequently, mapped these data for geospatial patterns. Soil lead concentrations in the city park and campus greens were typically less than 100 ppm. The highest lead concentrations are close to campus, which has a number of civil war era buildings and homes. High lead concentrations (averaging over 1,000 ppm near the home, with concentrations as high as 10,000 ppm) were associated with aging, poorly maintained structures as expected. However, a number of well-maintained structures also show substantially elevated concentrations. These soil lead concentrations are not dissimilar to those found in much larger cities such as New Orleans, Milwaukee, and Chicago. Lead levels dropped quickly as distance from the house increased suggesting that the contamination is from lead paint and not from gasoline exhaust. Furthermore, samples taken adjacent to the main arterial through town exhibited relatively low, but slightly elevated lead levels (~250 ppm). Not surprisingly

  2. Soil warming enhances the hidden shift of elemental stoichiometry by elevated CO2 in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangnan; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai

    2016-03-22

    Increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and associated soil warming along with global climate change are expected to have large impacts on grain mineral nutrition in wheat. The effects of CO2 elevation (700 μmol l(-1)) and soil warming (+2.4 °C) on K, Ca and Mg concentrations in the xylem sap and their partitioning in different organs of wheat plant during grain filling were investigated. Results showed that the combination of elevated [CO2] and soil warming improved wheat grain yield, but decreased plant K, Ca and Mg accumulation and their concentrations in the leaves, stems, roots and grains. The reduced grain mineral concentration was attributed to the lowered mineral uptake as exemplified by both the decreased stomatal conductance and mineral concentration in the xylem sap. These findings suggest that future higher atmospheric [CO2] and warmer soil conditions may decrease the dietary availability of minerals from wheat crops. Breeding wheat cultivars possessing higher ability of mineral uptake at reduced xylem flux in exposure to climate change should be a target.

  3. Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Feller, Ilka C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by mangroves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of Belize, Honduras and Panama were selected as study sites. Methods Biological processes controlling mangrove peat formation were manipulated (in Belize) by the addition of nutrients (nitrogen or phosphorus) to Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), and the effects on the dynamics of soil elevation were determined over a 3-year period using rod surface elevation tables (RSET) and marker horizons. Peat composition and geological accretion rates were determined at all sites using radiocarbon-dated cores. Results The addition of nutrients to mangroves caused significant changes in rates of mangrove root accumulation, which influenced both the rate and direction of change in elevation. Areas with low root input lost elevation and those with high rates gained elevation. These findings were consistent with peat analyses at multiple Caribbean sites showing that deposits (up to 10 m in depth) were composed primarily of mangrove root matter. Comparison of radiocarbon-dated cores at the study sites with a sea-level curve for the western Atlantic indicated a tight coupling between peat building in Caribbean mangroves and sea-level rise over the Holocene. Main conclusions Mangroves common to the Caribbean region have adjusted to changing sea level mainly through subsurface accumulation of refractory mangrove roots. Without root and other organic inputs, submergence of these tidal forests is inevitable due to peat decomposition, physical compaction and eustatic sea-level rise. These findings have relevance for predicting the effects of sea-level rise and biophysical processes on tropical

  4. Influence of mycorrhizal associations on paper birch and jack pine seedlings when exposed to elevated copper, nickel or aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, M.D.; Browning, M.H.R.; Hutchinson, T.C.

    1986-10-01

    Acid deposition may adversely affect northern forest ecosystems by increasing the concentration of metals in the soil solution. This study investigates the effects of ectomycorrhizal fungi on paper birch and jack pine seedlings exposed to elevated Cu, Ni or Al in sand culture. One of four mycorrhizal fungi, Scleroderma flavidum, was able to reduce Ni toxicity to the birch seedlings. It did this by reducing transport of Ni to the stems. None of the fungi affected Cu toxicity in birch. In separate experiments, jack pine seedlings were exposed to combinations of Al and Ca. Infection with Rhizopogon rubescens increased seedling susceptibility to Al. Seedlings inoculated with Suillus tomentosus showed a greater growth stimulation by Ca than uninoculated jack pines. Thus, for both tree species, the mycorrhizal association could alter the response of seedlings to high concentrations of certain metals, although this varied with fungal species. 8 references.

  5. Soil hydraulic properties of topsoil along two elevation transects affected by soil erosion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nikodem, A.; Kodešová, R.; Jakšík, O.; Jirků, V.; Fér, M.; Klement, A.; Žigová, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2013) ISSN 1607-7962. [EGU General Assembly /10./. 07.04.2013-12.04.2013, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : topsoil * hydraulic properties * erosion processes Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2013/EGU2013-7924.pdf

  6. Radionuclide transport along a boreal hill slope - elevated soil water concentrations in riparian forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidman, Fredrik; Boily, Aasa; Laudon, Hjalmar [Dept. of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83 Umeaa (Sweden); Koehler, Stephan J. [Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. 7050, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    The transport of radionuclides from forest ecosystems and out into surface waters is a crucial process for understanding the long-term fate of radionuclides in the boreal landscape. Boreal forests are typically dominated by podzol soils, but the streams draining the forests are often lined by highly organic, often peat-like soils, which the radionuclides must pass through in order to reach the stream. This so-called riparian zone therefore represents a fundamentally different biogeochemical environment than ordinary forest soils, e.g. by exhibiting significantly lower pH and higher concentrations of organic colloids, which significantly can affect the mobility of many radionuclides. Since the riparian zone is the last terrestrial environment that the groundwater is in contact with before it enters the stream, previous research has demonstrated its profound impact on the stream water chemistry. Hence, the riparian soils should also be important for the transport and accumulation of radionuclides. Therefore, soil water was sampled using suction lysimeters installed at different depths along a 22 m long forested hill slope transect in northern Sweden, following the flow pathway of the groundwater from the uphill podzol to the riparian zone near the stream channel. The analyses included a wide range of hydrochemical parameters and many radiologically important elements, e.g. U, Th, Ni, C, Sr, Cs, REEs and Cl. The sampling was repeated ten times throughout a year in order to also capture the temporal variability of the soil water chemistry. The water chemistry of the investigated transect displayed a remarkable change as the groundwater approached the stream channel. Strongly increased concentrations of many elements were observed in the riparian soils. For instance, the concentrations of Th were more than 100 times higher than in the riparian zone than in the uphill forest, suggesting that the riparian zone may be a hotspot for radionuclide accumulation. The reason

  7. Performance of copper-based wood preservatives in soil bed exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow; Thomas Nilsson; Jeffrey J. Morrell

    Copper-based biocides are widely used to protect wood from biological attack in a variety of environments. Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is the dominant copper-based preservative for wood protection (J. T. MICKLEWRIGHT, 1989). First developed in India in the 1930s, CCA contains a very effective combination of materials. Copper provides protection against most...

  8. Response of two terrestrial green microalgae (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae) isolated from Cu-rich and unpolluted soils to copper stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowska, Renata; Pawlik-Skowronska, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Some algae inhabit Cu-polluted soils. Intracellular Cu-accumulation and production of non-protein thiols in response to copper stress were compared in Stichococcus minor and Geminella terricola isolated from Cu-polluted and unpolluted soils, respectively. Cu-exposed (0.5 μM) S. minor accumulated lower amounts of copper (0.38 mM) than G. terricola (4.20 mM) and maintained 8.5-fold higher level of glutathione (GSH) than G. terricola. The ratio GSH/0.5 GSSG in the Cu-treated S. minor (7.21) was 7-times higher than in G. terricola. Reduced and oxidized forms of phytochelatins were found in both algae. Under copper stress (5 μM) the ratio -SH total /Cu intracellular in S. minor ranged from 2.3 to 6.2, while it was lower than 1.0 in G. terricola. Low intracellular Cu-accumulation and maintenance of high GSH level concomitant with PCs production seem to be responsible for a higher Cu-resistance of S. minor than G. terricola. - Low intracellular Cu-accumulation and high GSH level are responsible for copper resistance of the alga inhabiting Cu-polluted soil.

  9. Application of Digital Elevation Model (DEM for description of soil microtopography changes in laboratory experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stańczyk Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the study we evaluated spatial and quantitative changes in soil surface microtopography to describe water erosion process under simulated rain with use of a non-contact optical 3D scanner. The experiment was conducted in two variants: with and without drainage layer. Two clay soils collected from farmlands from the catchment of lake Zgorzała (Warsaw were investigated. Six tests of simulated rain were applied, with 55 mm·h−1. The surface roughness and microrelief were determined immediately after every 10 min of rainfall simulation by 3D scanner. The volume of surface and underground runoff as well as soil moisture were measured. The surface points coordinates obtained while scanning were interpolated using natural neighbour method and GIS software to generate Digital Elevation Models (DEM with a 0.5 mm resolution. Two DEM-derived surface roughness indices: Random Roughness (RR and Terrain Ruggedness Index (TRI were used for microrelief description. Calculated values of both roughness factors have decreased with time under the influence of rainfall in all analyzed variants. During the sprinkling the moisture of all samples had been growing rapidly from air-dry state reaching values close to the maximum water capacity (37–48% vol. in 20–30 min. Simultaneously the intensity of surface runoff was increasing and cumulative runoff value was: 17–35% for variants with drainage and 72–83% for the variants without drainage, relative to cumulative rainfall. The observed soil surface elevation changes were associated with aggregates decomposition, erosion and sedimentation, and above all, with a compaction of the soil, which was considered to be a dominant factor hindering the assessment of the erosion intensity of the of the scanned surface.

  10. Soil propagule banks of ectomycorrhizal fungi share many common species along an elevation gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yumiko; Nara, Kazuhide

    2016-04-01

    We conducted bioassay experiments to investigate the soil propagule banks of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi in old-growth forests along an elevation gradient and compared the elevation pattern with the composition of EM fungi on existing roots in the field. In total, 150 soil cores were collected from three forests on Mt. Ishizuchi, western Japan, and subjected to bioassays using Pinus densiflora and Betula maximowicziana. Using molecular analyses, we recorded 23 EM fungal species in the assayed propagule banks. Eight species (34.8 %) were shared across the three sites, which ranged from a warm-temperate evergreen mixed forest to a subalpine conifer forest. The elevation pattern of the assayed propagule banks differed dramatically from that of EM fungi on existing roots along the same gradient, where only a small proportion of EM fungal species (3.5 %) were shared across sites. The EM fungal species found in the assayed propagule banks included many pioneer fungal species and composition differed significantly from that on existing roots. Furthermore, only 4 of 23 species were shared between the two host species, indicating a strong effect of bioassay host identity in determining the propagule banks of EM fungi. These results imply that the assayed propagule bank is less affected by climate compared to EM fungal communities on existing roots. The dominance of disturbance-dependent fungal species in the assayed propagule banks may result in higher ecosystem resilience to disturbance even in old-growth temperate forests.

  11. Elevational diversity and distribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea community in meadow soils on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kang; Kong, Weidong; Khan, Ajmal; Liu, Jinbo; Guo, Guangxia; Muhanmmad, Said; Zhang, Xianzhou; Dong, Xiaobin

    2017-09-01

    Unraveling elevational diversity patterns of plants and animals has long been attracting scientific interests. However, whether soil microorganisms exhibit similar elevational patterns remains largely less explored, especially for functional microbial communities, such as ammonia oxidizers. Here, we investigated the diversity and distribution pattern of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in meadow soils along an elevation gradient from 4400 m to the grassline at 5100 m on the Tibetan Plateau using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and sequencing methods by targeting amoA gene. Increasing elevations led to lower soil temperature and pH, but higher nutrients and water content. The results showed that AOA diversity and evenness monotonically increased with elevation, while richness was relatively stable. The increase of diversity and evenness was attributed to the growth inhibition of warm-adapted AOA phylotypes by lower temperature and the growth facilitation of cold-adapted AOA phylotypes by richer nutrients at higher elevations. Low temperature thus played an important role in the AOA growth and niche separation. The AOA community variation was explained by the combined effect of all soil properties (32.6%), and 8.1% of the total variation was individually explained by soil pH. The total AOA abundance decreased, whereas soil potential nitrification rate (PNR) increased with increasing elevations. Soil PNR positively correlated with the abundance of cold-adapted AOA phylotypes. Our findings suggest that low temperature plays an important role in AOA elevational diversity pattern and niche separation, rising the negative effects of warming on AOA diversity and soil nitrification process in the Tibetan region.

  12. How Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Responds to Elevated As under Different Si-Rich Soil Amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasley, William A; Limmer, Matthew A; Seyfferth, Angelia L

    2017-09-19

    Several strategies exist to mitigate As impacts on rice and each has its set of trade-offs with respect to yield, inorganic As content in grain, and CH 4 emissions. The addition of Si to paddy soil can decrease As uptake by rice but how rice will respond to elevated As when soil is amended with Si-rich materials is unresolved. Here, we evaluated yield impacts and grain As content and speciation in rice exposed to elevated As in response to different Si-rich soil amendments including rice husk, rice husk ash, and CaSiO 3 in a pot study. We found that As-induced yield losses were alleviated by Husk amendment, partially alleviated by Ash amendment, and not affected by CaSiO 3 amendment. Furthermore, Husk was the only tested Si-amendment to significantly decrease grain As concentrations. Husk amendment was likely effective at decreasing grain As and improving yield because it provided more plant-available Si, particularly during the reproductive and ripening phases. Both Husk and Ash provided K, which also played a role in yield improvement. This study demonstrates that while Si-rich amendments can affect rice uptake of As, the kinetics of Si dissolution and nutrient availability can also affect As uptake and toxicity in rice.

  13. Monitoring of copper, arsenic and antimony levels in agricultural soils impacted and non-impacted by mining activities, from three regions in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregori, Ida; Fuentes, Edwar; Rojas, Mariela; Pinochet, Hugo; Potin-Gautier, Martine

    2003-04-01

    This paper reports a comparative study of the concentration of three important environmental elements that are often found together in mineral deposits and then associated with mining activities; copper, arsenic and antimony. These elements were determined in 26 different agricultural soils from regions I, II and V in Chile, zones where the most important and biggest copper industries of this country are located. As background levels of these elements in soils have not been well established, in this study, both, impacted and non-impacted agricultural soils from different regions were considered. The relationships between the concentrations of these elements in soils were also examined. The concentration ranges for copper, arsenic and antimony were 11-530; 2.7-202 and 0.42-11 mg kg(-1) respectively. The copper concentrations in non-polluted soils from the north and central zone of Chile were similar. However, three sites from the north region have copper concentration as higher as 100 mg kg(-1), values that exceed the critical concentration for copper in soils. The concentration of arsenic and antimony in the north soils were higher than in non-impacted ones and, in the case of arsenic, greatly exceeded the world average concentration reported for this element in soils. The highest arsenic and antimony concentrations were found in Calama and Quillagua soils, two different sites in the Loa valley. The arsenic/antimony concentration ratio was higher in Quillagua soil. The high concentrations of three elements determined in impacted soils from region V (Puchuncaví and Catemu valleys) clearly shows the impact produced in this zone by the industrial and mining activities developed in their proximities. At Puchuncaví valley a clear decrease was observed in copper, arsenic and antimony concentrations in soils on the function of the distance from the industrial complex "Las Ventanas", and all concentrations exceeded the reported critical values for this matrix. Instead at

  14. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, Yonghua; Wang, Wenke; He, Yunhua

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and L-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings.

  15. Aggregation and C dynamics along an elevation gradient in carbonate-containing grassland soils of the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Franco, Noelia; Wiesmeier, Martin; Kiese, Ralf; Dannenmann, Michael; Wolf, Benjamin; Zistl-Schlingmann, Marcus; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2017-04-01

    C sequestration in mountainous grassland soils is regulated by physical, chemical and biological soil process. An improved knowledge of the relationship between these stabilization mechanisms is decisive to recommend the best management practices for climate change mitigation. In this regard, the identification of a successful indicator of soil structural improvement and C sequestration in mountainous grassland soils is necessary. Alpine and pre-alpine grassland soils in Bavaria represent a good example for mountainous grassland soils faced with climate change. We sampled grassland soils of the northern limestone alps in Bavaria along an elevation gradient from 550 to 1300 m above sea level. We analyzed C dynamics by a comparative analysis of the distribution of C according to aggregate size classes: large-macroaggregates (> 2000 µm), small-macroaggregates (250-2000 µm), microaggregates (63-250 µm), silt plus clay particles (soil. Our preliminary results showed higher C content and changed water-stable aggregate distribution in the high elevation sites compared to lower elevations. Magnesium carbonate seem to play an important role in stabilizing macroaggregates formed from fresh OM. In addition, the isolation of occluded microaggregates within macroaggregates will help us to improve our understanding on the effects of climate change on soil structure and on the sensitivity of different C stabilization mechanisms present in mountainous soils.

  16. Availability of arsenic, copper, lead, thallium, and zinc to various vegetables grown in slag-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzl, K; Trautmannsheimer, M; Schramel, P; Reifenhäuser, W

    2001-01-01

    To anticipate a possible hazard resulting from the plant uptake of metals from slag-contaminated soils, it is useful to study whether vegetables exist that are able to mobilize a given metal in the slag to a larger proportion than in an uncontaminated control soil. For this purpose, we studied the soil to plant transfer of arsenic, copper, lead, thallium, and zinc by the vegetables bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. 'dwarf bean Modus'), kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes L.), mangold (Beta vulgaris var. macrorhiza ), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. 'American gathering brown'), carrot (Daucus carota L. 'Rotin', 'Sperlings's'), and celery [Apium graveiolus var. dulce (Mill.) Pers.] from a control soil (Ap horizon of a Entisol) and from a contaminated soil (1:1 soil-slag mixtures). Two types of slags were used: an iron-rich residue from pyrite (FeS2) roasting and a residue from coal firing. The metal concentrations in the slags, soils, and plants were used to calculate for each metal and soil-slag mixture the plant-soil fractional concentration ratio (CRfractional,slag), that is, the concentration ratio of the metal that results only from the slag in the soil. With the exception of TI, the resulting values obtained for this quantity for As, Cu, Pb, and Zn and for all vegetables were significantly smaller than the corresponding plant-soil concentration ratios (CRcontrol soil) for the uncontaminated soil. The results demonstrate quantitatively that the ability of a plant to accumulate a given metal as observed for a control soil might not exist for a soil-slag mixture, and vice versa.

  17. Trace element concentration in soils and plants in the vicinity of Miduk copper mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Moore

    2014-10-01

    concentration in the residual and Fe-Mn oxides fractions indicated that the soil may be considered unpolluted by lead. Discussion Among the measured elements, soil contamination is mostly observed for Cu, Pb, and As. The soil of the study area is also significantly polluted by lead, especially in the old mining areas. The high concentrations of Mg, Se, and Cd extracted into the first three fractions of sequential extraction showed that the metals could be easily mobilized upon changes in ionic strength or decrease in pH and redox potential. Artemisia leaves are significantly contaminated by Cu. Arsenic and copper also accumulate in Astragalus leaves. The consumption of Artemisia and Astragalus leaves can constitute an exposure risk, especially for small domestic animals. Miduk inhabitants consume Artemisia leaves for treatment of digestive upsets. It is suggested to keep this area inaccessible to domestic animals and preferably to collect plants from distant areas. Obviously, systematic monitoring during mining should be instituted, and continuous environmental surveys should be performed to prevent future pollution problems. Acknowledgement The authors would like to thank the Research and Development Department of Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex and the Shiraz University research committee for making this study possible. References Davies B. E., 1997. Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils in an Old Industrial Area of Wales, Great Britain: Source identification through statistical data interpretation. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 94 (1-2: 85–98. Kabata-Pendias, A. and Mukherjee, A.B., 2007. Trace Elements from Soil to Human. Springer, Berlin, 550 pp. Kabata-Pendias, A. and Pendias H., 2001. Trace Elements in Soils and Plants. CRC Press, Florida, 413 pp. Liu, J., Zhong, X.M., Liang, Y.P., Luo, Y.P., Zhu, Y.N. and Zhang, X.H., 2006. Fractionation of Heavy Metals in Paddy Soils Contaminated by Electroplating Wastewater. Journal of Agro-Environment Science, 25(2: 398-401. Maiz, I

  18. Soil-landscape modelling using fuzzy c-means clustering of attribute data derived from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de S.; Stein, A.

    1998-01-01

    This study explores the use of fuzzy c-means clustering of attribute data derived from a digital elevation model to represent transition zones in the soil-landscape. The conventional geographic model used for soil-landscape description is not able to properly deal with these. Fuzzy c-means

  19. Elevated CO2 and O3t concentrations differentially affect selected groups of the fauna in temperate forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladys I. Loranger; Kurt S. Pregitzer; John S. King

    2004-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations may change soil fauna abundance. How increase of tropospheric ozone (O3t) concentration will modify these responses is still unknown. We have assessed independent and interactive effects of elevated [CO2] and [O3t] on selected groups of soil...

  20. Investigation of the copper contents in vineyard soil, grape must and wine and the relationship among them in the Huaizhuo Basin Region, China: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangyu; Ma, Tingting; Yu, Jing; Huang, Weidong; Fang, Yulin; Zhan, Jicheng

    2018-02-15

    The copper contents in vineyard soil, grape must and wine and the relationship among them in the Huaizhuo Basin Region, China, were investigated. The results showed that the copper pollution status in vineyard soils, grapes and wines in the investigated area in China is under control, with only 4 surface soil (0-20cm) samples over maximum residue limits (MRL) and no grape or wine samples over MRL. Different vineyards, grape varieties, vine ages, and training systems all significantly influenced the copper contents in the vineyard soils, grape and wines. Additionally, the copper levels in the vineyard soils, grapes and wines all had some correlation. In wine samples, the copper contents ranged from 0.52 to 663μg/L, which is only approximately one percent the level found in grapes and one ten-thousandth that found in soils. Of the wine samples, red wines showed a significantly higher copper content than white wines, while in the red/white grape and soil samples, no significant differences were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Response of copepods to elevated pCO2 and environmental copper as co-stressors--a multigenerational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C Fitzer

    Full Text Available We examined the impacts of ocean acidification and copper as co-stressors on the reproduction and population level responses of the benthic copepod Tisbe battagliai across two generations. Naupliar production, growth, and cuticle elemental composition were determined for four pH values: 8.06 (control; 7.95; 7.82; 7.67, with copper addition to concentrations equivalent to those in benthic pore waters. An additive synergistic effect was observed; the decline in naupliar production was greater with added copper at decreasing pH than for decreasing pH alone. Naupliar production modelled for the two generations revealed a negative synergistic impact between ocean acidification and environmentally relevant copper concentrations. Conversely, copper addition enhanced copepod growth, with larger copepods produced at each pH compared to the impact of pH alone. Copepod digests revealed significantly reduced cuticle concentrations of sulphur, phosphorus and calcium under decreasing pH; further, copper uptake increased to toxic levels that lead to reduced naupliar production. These data suggest that ocean acidification will enhance copper bioavailability, resulting in larger, but less fecund individuals that may have an overall detrimental outcome for copepod populations.

  2. Elevated atmospheric CO2 affected photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xia; Liu, Tuo; Zhao, Yonghua; He, Yunhua; Yang, Mingyan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated CO2 (700 ± 23 μmol mol(-1)) on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated CO2 was associated with decreased quantities of reducing sugars, starch, and soluble amino acids, and with increased quantities of soluble sugars, total sugars, and soluble proteins in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. The contents of total soluble sugars, total free amino acids, total soluble phenolic acids, and total organic acids in the rhizosphere soil under Cd stress were improved by elevated CO2. Compared to Cd stress alone, the activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, urease, L-asparaginase, β-glucosidase, neutral phosphatase, and fluorescein diacetate increased under elevated CO2 in combination with Cd stress; only cellulase activity decreased. Bacterial abundance in rhizosphere soil was stimulated by elevated CO2 at low Cd concentrations (1.31-5.31 mg Cd kg(-1) dry soil). Actinomycetes, total microbial abundance, and fungi decreased under the combined conditions at 5.31-10.31 mg Cd kg(-1) dry soil. In conclusion, increased production of soluble sugars, total sugars, and proteins in wheat seedlings under elevated CO2 + Cd stress led to greater quantities of organic compounds in the rhizosphere soil relative to seedlings grown under Cd stress only. Elevated CO2 concentrations could moderate the effects of heavy metal pollution on enzyme activity and microorganism abundance in rhizosphere soils, thus improving soil fertility and the microecological rhizosphere environment of wheat under Cd stress.

  3. Contamination of soils with heavy metals and metalloids in the vicinity of the Erdenet copper-molybdenum mining area in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, Ivan; Kosheleva, Natalia; Gunin, Petr; Bazha, Sergei; Enkh-Amgalan, Sandag

    2014-05-01

    The present study was conducted to assess soil contamination taking place in Erdenet, the Mongolian city with a gigantic ore-mining and ore-dressing complex that was founded mainly to exploit the area's huge deposits of copper and molybdenum ore. The objectives of the study were: (1) to determine the content of heavy metals and metalloids (HMs) in soils of background and urban landscapes and to evaluate environmental hazard of HMs pollution; (2) to compile geochemical maps and to define zones with anomalously high concentrations of toxic elements in the city, (3) to identify spatial patterns and leading factors of pollutant accumulation. Sampling was performed in 2011 using regular spacing of 500-700m. In total 225 samples were collected from surface soil horizons (0 - 10 cm) in different functional areas of the city and in the background area located 5-6km from the city. The sampling scheme in background area took into account the topography and geological heterogeneity of the study area. The bulk contents of HMs in soil samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry and inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Background concentrations of HMs were estimated for several soil groups formed on specific parent rocks and were compared with their global abundances in soils. The pollution of urban soils was evaluated using background soils as reference objects. Associations of HMs were identified according to the enrichment factor (EF) values and using cluster analysis with complete linkage algorithm. Visualization of soil-geochemical data was performed by local interpolation or kriging method in MapInfo 11.5 and Surfer 11. Multiple regression analysis (decision trees method) was applied to determine soil properties and landscape factors that may control HMs accumulation in soils. Background soils formed on granite and granodiorite of Permian-Selenga complex occupy the largest area and are characterized by high concentrations of V, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Sr, Cu, Zn, Mo and

  4. Experimental soil warming effects on CO2 and CH4 flux from a low elevation spruce-fir forest soil in Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey E. Rustad; Ivan J. Fernandez

    1998-01-01

    The effect of soil warming on CO2 and CH4 flux from a spruce-fir forest soil was evaluated at the Howland Integrated Forest Study site in Maine, USA from 1993 to 1995. Elevated soil temperatures (~5 °C) were maintained during the snow-free season (May-November) in replicated 15 × 15-m plots using electric cables buried 1-2...

  5. Response of free-living soil protozoa and microorganisms to elevated atmospheric CO2 and presence of mycorrhiza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, R.; Gavito, M.; Larsen, J.

    2002-01-01

    with or without the presence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus caledonium. It was hypothesised that (1) the populations of free-living soil protozoa would increase as a response to elevated CO2, (2) the effect of elevated CO2 on protozoa would be moderated by the presence of mycorrhiza and (3......) the presence of arbuscular mycorrhiza would affect soil protozoan numbers regardless of atmospheric CO2. After 3 weeks growth there was no difference in bacterial numbers (direct counts) in soil, but the number of free-living bacterial-feeding protozoa was significantly higher under elevated CO2...... elevated CO2 suggest increased bacterial production, whereas the lower populations in response to presence of mycorrhiza suggest a depressing effect on bacterial production by AM colonisation. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  6. Quantification of soil losses from tourist trails - use of Digital Elevation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Aleksandra

    2010-05-01

    Tourism impacts in protected mountain areas are one of the main concerns for land managers. Impact to environment is most visible at locations of highly concentrated activities like tourist trails, campsites etc. The main indicators of the tourist trail degradation are: vegetation loss (trampling of vegetation cover), change of vegetation type and composition, widening of the trails, muddiness and soil erosion. The last one is especially significant, since it can cause serious transformation of the land surface. Such undesirable changes cannot be repaired without high-cost management activities, and, in some cases they can made the trails difficult and unsafe to use. Scientific understanding of soil erosion related to human impact can be useful for more effective management of the natural protected areas. The aim of this study was to use of digital elevation models (DEMs) to precisely quantify of soil losses from tourist trails. In the study precise elevation data were gathered in several test fields of 4 by 5 m spatial dimension. Measurements were taken in 13 test fields, located in two protected natural areas in south Poland: Gorce National Park and Popradzki Landscape Park. The measuring places were located on trails characterized by different slope, type of vegetation and type of use. Each test field was established by four special marks, firmly dug into the ground. Elevation data were measured with the electronic total station. Irregular elevation points were surveying with essential elements of surrounding terrain surface being included. Moreover, surveys in fixed profile lines were done. For each test field a set of 30 measurements in control points has been collected and these data provide the base for verification of digital elevation models. Average density of the surveying was 70 points per square meter (1000 - 1500 elevation points per each test fields). Surveys in each test field were carried out in August and September of 2008, June 2009 and August

  7. Elevated CO2 benefits the soil microenvironment in the rhizosphere of Robinia pseudoacacia L. seedlings in Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuping; Jia, Xia; Zhao, Yonghua; Bai, Bo; Chang, Yafei

    2017-02-01

    Soil contamination by heavy metals in combination with elevated atmospheric CO 2 has important effects on the rhizosphere microenvironment by influencing plant growth. Here, we investigated the response of the R. pseudoacacia rhizosphere microenvironment to elevated CO 2 in combination with cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contamination. Organic compounds (total soluble sugars, soluble phenolic acids, free amino acids, and organic acids), microbial abundance and activity, and enzyme activity (urease, dehydrogenase, invertase, and β-glucosidase) in rhizosphere soils increased significantly (p soil microbial community in the rhizosphere. Heavy metals alone resulted in an increase in total soluble sugars, free amino acids, and organic acids, a decrease in phenolic acids, microbial populations and biomass, and enzyme activity, and a change in microbial community in rhizosphere soils. Elevated CO 2 led to an increase in organic compounds, microbial populations, biomass, and activity, and enzyme activity (except for l-asparaginase), and changes in microbial community under Cd, Pb, or Cd + Pb treatments relative to ambient CO 2 . In addition, elevated CO 2 significantly (p soils. Overall, elevated CO 2 benefited the rhizosphere microenvironment of R. pseudoacacia seedlings under heavy metal stress, which suggests that increased atmospheric CO 2 concentrations could have positive effects on soil fertility and rhizosphere microenvironment under heavy metals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Physicochemical Characteristics and Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Contaminated Soils in Copper Mining of Nulasai, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina·Tursenjan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking the mining areas, tailings and surrounding farmland soil of the Nulasai copper mine in Xinjiang as the research object, the characteristics of soil physical and characteristics of heavy metal contents in this area were studied, and their ecological and environmental risks were preliminarily evaluated. The results showed that due to the long-term impact of mining wastewater, soil pH in the Nulasai mining area was relatively low. Soil conductivity and salt content were higher than those in the surrounding farmland, while soil organic matter, available nitrogen, available potassium and available phosphorus were lower than those in the surrounding farmland. The contents of heavy metals Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn in the mining area, tailing area and farmland soil were all lower than those in Xinjiang except for Cu. Overall, the heavy metal content of the soil manifested the area > tailing area > farmland. Single factor(Pi, Nemerow comprehensive pollution index(I and potential ecological risk index(RI indicated that the ecological risk of heavy metals in the soil around the mining area was manifested tailings > mining area > farmland. The potential ecological risk index of heavy metals in 0~30 cm topsoil was higher than that in 30~70 cm deep soil, but the overall ecological risk was lower in different land use types.

  9. Micro-spatial variation of soil metal pollution and plant recruitment near a copper smelter in Central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginocchio, Rosanna; Carvallo, Gaston; Toro, Ignacia; Bustamante, Elena; Silva, Yasna; Sepulveda, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Soil chemical changes produced by metal smelters have mainly been studied on a large scale. In terms of plant survival, determination of small scale variability may be more important because less toxic microhabitats may represent safe sites for successful recruitment and thus for plant survival. Three dominant microhabitats (open spaces and areas below the canopy of Sphaeralcea obtusiloba and Baccharis linearis shrubs) were defined in a heavily polluted area near a copper smelter and characterised in terms of microclimate, general soil chemistry, total and extractable metal concentrations in the soil profile (A 0 horizon, 0-5 and 15-20 cm depth), and seedling densities. Results indicated a strong variability in microclimate and soil chemistry not only in the soil profile but also among microhabitats. Air/soil temperatures, radiation and wind speed were much lower under the canopy of shrubs, particularly during the plant growth season. Soil acidification was detected on top layers (0-5 cm depth) of all microhabitats while higher concentrations of N, Cu and Cd were detected on litter and top soil layers below shrubs when compared to open spaces; however, high organic matter content below shrubs decreased bioavailability of metals. Plant recruitment was concentrated under shrub canopies; this may be explained as a result of the nursery effect exerted by shrubs in terms of providing a more favourable microclimate, along with better soil conditions in terms of macronutrients and metal bioavailability. - Metal availability was different under shrub canopies than in open spaces

  10. Soil and Root Respiration Under Elevated CO2 Concentrations During Seedling Growth of Pinus sylvestris var. sylvestriformis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of higher CO2 concentrations (500 and 700 μmol mol-1) in atmosphere on total soil respiration and the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration during seedling growth of Pinus sylvestris var. sylvestriformis. During the four growing seasons (May-October) from 1999 to 2003, the seedlings were exposed to elevated concentrations of CO2 in open-top chambers. The total soil respiration and contribution of root respiration were measured using an LI-6400-09 soil CO2 flux chamber on June 15 and October 8, 2003. To separate root respiration from total soil respiration, three PVC cylinders were inserted approximately 30 cm deep into the soil in each chamber. There were marked diurnal changes in air and soil temperatures on June 15. Both the total soil respiration and the soil respiration without roots showed a strong diurnal pattern, increasing from before sunrise to about 14:00in the afternoon and then decreasing before the next sunrise. No increase in the mean total soil respiration and mean soil respiration with roots severed was observed under the elevated CO2 treatments on June 15, 2003, as compared to the open field and control chamber with ambient CO2. However, on October 8, 2003, the total soil respiration and soil respiration with roots severed in the open field were lower than those in the control and elevated CO2 chambers. The mean contribution of root respiration measured on June 15, 2003, ranged from 8.3% to 30.5% and on October 8, 2003,from 20.6% to 48.6%.

  11. National monitoring study in Denmark finds increased and critical levels of copper and zinc in arable soils fertilized with pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, John; Larsen, Martin Mørk; Bak, Jesper

    2016-07-01

    The increasing consumption of copper and zinc in modern farming is linked to their documented benefit as growth promoting agents and usefulness for controlling diarrhoea. Copper and zinc are inert and non-degradable in the slurry and the environment and thereby introducing new challenges and concern. Therefore, a follow-up to pervious national soil monitoring programs on heavy metals was initiated in 2014 with special focus on the historical trends in soil concentrations of copper and zinc in Danish arable soils. Hereby it is possible to analyse trends for a 28 year period. Data shows that: 1) Amendment of soils with pig slurry has led to a significant increase in soil concentrations of copper and zinc, especially in the latest monitoring period from 1998 to 2014; 2) Predicted no-effect concentrations for soil dwelling species published by the European Union is exceeded for zinc in 45% of all soil samples, with the highest proportion on sandy soils; 3) The current use of zinc and copper in pig production may lead to leaching of metals, especially zinc, from fields fertilized with pig slurry in concentrations that may pose a risk to aquatic species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Transformation of arsenic-rich copper smelter flue dust in contrasting soils: A 2-year field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarošíková, Alice; Ettler, Vojtěch; Mihaljevič, Martin; Penížek, Vít; Matoušek, Tomáš; Culka, Adam; Drahota, Petr

    2018-06-01

    Dust emissions from copper smelters processing arsenic-bearing ores represent a risk to soil environments due to the high levels of As and other inorganic contaminants. Using an in situ experiment in four different forest and grassland soils (pH 3.2-8.0) we studied the transformation of As-rich (>50 wt% As) copper smelter dust over 24 months. Double polyamide bags with 1 g of flue dust were buried at different depths in soil pits and in 6-month intervals; then those bags, surrounding soil columns, and soil pore waters were collected and analysed. Dust dissolution was relatively fast during the first 6 months (5-34%), and mass losses attained 52% after 24 months. The key driving forces affecting dust dissolution were not only pH, but also the water percolation/retention in individual soils. Primary arsenolite (As 2 O 3 ) dissolution was responsible for high As release from the dust (to 72%) and substantial increase of As in the soil (to a 56 × increase; to 1500 mg kg -1 ). Despite high arsenolite solubility, this phase persisted in the dust after 2 years of exposure. Mineralogical investigation indicated that mimetite [Pb 5 (AsO 4 ) 3 (Cl,OH)], unidentified complex Ca-Pb-Fe-Zn arsenates, and Fe oxyhydroxides partly controlled the mobility of As and other metal(loid)s. Compared to As, other less abundant contaminants (Bi, Cu, Pb, Sb, Zn) were released into the soil to a lesser extent (8-40% of total). The relatively high mobility of As in the soil can be seen from decreases of bulk As concentrations after spring snowmelt, high water-extractable fractions with up to ∼50% of As(III) in extracts, and high As concentrations in soil pore waters. Results indicate that efficient controls of emissions from copper smelters and flue dust disposal sites are needed to prevent extensive contamination of nearby soils by persistent As. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Elevated atmospheric CO2 in a semi-natural grassland: Root dynamics, decomposition and soil C balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindhoej, Erik

    2001-01-01

    This thesis focuses on how elevated atmospheric CO 2 affects a semi-natural grassland, with emphasis on root growth, decomposition and the subsequent long-term effects on soil C balances. Parts of a semi-natural grassland in Central Sweden were enclosed in open-top chambers and exposed to ambient and elevated levels of CO 2 (+350 μmol mol -1 ) from 1995 to 2000, while chamberless rings were used for controls. Root dynamics were observed with minirhizotrons while root biomass and production were studied with soil cores and ingrowth cores. Roots collected from ingrowth cores were incubated under controlled conditions for 160 days to measure root decomposition rates. Treatment-induced differences in microclimate, C input and root decomposability were entered into the ICBM soil C balance model for 30-year projections of soil C balances for the three treatments. Elevated CO 2 chambers had higher biomass production both above and below ground compared to ambient, however the root response increased over the years while the shoot response decreased. Plants grown under elevated CO 2 had greater water-use efficiency compared to ambient, which was shown in higher soil moisture and greater biomass production during slightly dry years. Elevated CO 2 chambers showed higher root appearance rates in spring and higher disappearance rates during autumn and winter. Roots from plants grown under elevated CO 2 decomposed more rapidly. The decreased input and the drier conditions in the ambient chambers were projected to lead to a 1.7% decrease in soil C over 30 years. Under elevated CO 2 , however, the increased input compensated for the higher root decomposability and moister soil conditions and lead only to a projected 1.3% decrease in soil C. This work shows that six years of elevated CO 2 exposure had extensive effects on this semi-natural grassland. The CO 2 response of the grassland was dependent on weather conditions and production increased most when under slight water stress

  14. Nitrogen-mediated effects of elevated CO2 on intra-aggregate soil pore structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Joshua S; Giménez, Daniel; Subroy, Vandana; Heck, Richard J; Prior, Stephen A; Runion, G Brett; Torbert, H Allen

    2017-04-01

    Soil pore structure has a strong influence on water retention, and is itself influenced by plant and microbial dynamics such as root proliferation and microbial exudation. Although increased nitrogen (N) availability and elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations (eCO 2 ) often have interacting effects on root and microbial dynamics, it is unclear whether these biotic effects can translate into altered soil pore structure and water retention. This study was based on a long-term experiment (7 yr at the time of sampling) in which a C 4 pasture grass (Paspalum notatum) was grown on a sandy loam soil while provided factorial additions of N and CO 2 . Through an analysis of soil aggregate fractal properties supported by 3D microtomographic imagery, we found that N fertilization induced an increase in intra-aggregate porosity and a simultaneous shift toward greater accumulation of pore space in larger aggregates. These effects were enhanced by eCO 2 and yielded an increase in water retention at pressure potentials near the wilting point of plants. However, eCO 2 alone induced changes in the opposite direction, with larger aggregates containing less pore space than under control conditions, and water retention decreasing accordingly. Results on biotic factors further suggested that organic matter gains or losses induced the observed structural changes. Based on our results, we postulate that the pore structure of many mineral soils could undergo N-dependent changes as atmospheric CO 2 concentrations rise, having global-scale implications for water balance, carbon storage, and related rhizosphere functions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A mechanistic study of the uniform corrosion of copper in compacted clay-sand soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litke, C.D.; Ryan, S.R.; King, F.

    1992-08-01

    The results of a study of the mechanism of uniform corrosion of copper under simulated nuclear fuel waste disposal conditions are presented. Evidence is given that suggests that the rate-controlling process is the transport of copper corrosion products away from the corroding surface. In the experiments described here, the copper diffused through a column of compacted clay-sand buffer. The properties of the buffer material, especially its ability to sorb copper species, are significant in determining the rate of uniform corrosion of copper. The evidence that copper diffusion is rate-controlling stems from the effect of γ-radiation on the tests. In the presence of γ-radiation, copper diffused farther along the column of compacted buffer material than in the unirradiated tests, but the corrosion rate was lower. These two effects can be best explained in terms of a slow copper-diffusion process. Irradiation is thought to reduce the extent of sorption of copper by the clay component of the buffer. This results in a more mobile copper species and a smaller interfacial flux of copper (i.e., a lower corrosion rate)

  16. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 ON ROOT FUNCTION AND SOIL RESPIRATION IN A MOJAVE DESERT ECOSYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Robert S.

    2007-12-19

    Increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration during the last 250 years are unequivocal, and CO{sub 2} will continue to increase at least for the next several decades (Houghton et al. 2001, Keeling & Whorf 2002). Arid ecosystems are some of the most important biomes globally on a land surface area basis, are increasing in area at an alarming pace (Dregne 1991), and have a strong coupling with regional climate (Asner & Heidebrecht 2005). These water-limited ecosystems also are predicted to be the most sensitive to elevated CO{sub 2}, in part because they are stressful environments where plant responses to elevated CO{sub 2} may be amplified (Strain & Bazzaz 1983). Indeed, all C{sub 3} species examined at the Nevada Desert FACE Facility (NDFF) have shown increased A{sub net} under elevated CO{sub 2} (Ellsworth et al. 2004, Naumburg et al. 2003, Nowak et al. 2004). Furthermore, increased shoot growth for individual species under elevated CO{sub 2} was spectacular in a very wet year (Smith et al. 2000), although the response in low to average precipitation years has been smaller (Housman et al. 2006). Increases in perennial cover and biomass at the NDFF are consistent with long term trends in the Mojave Desert and elsewhere in the Southwest, indicating C sequestration in woody biomass (Potter et al. 2006). Elevated CO{sub 2} also increases belowground net primary production (BNPP), with average increases of 70%, 21%, and 11% for forests, bogs, and grasslands, respectively (Nowak et al. 2004). Although detailed studies of elevated CO{sub 2} responses for desert root systems were virtually non-existent prior to our research, we anticipated that C sequestration may occur by desert root systems for several reasons. First, desert ecosystems exhibit increases in net photosynthesis and primary production at elevated CO{sub 2}. If large quantities of root litter enter the ecosystem at a time when most decomposers are inactive, significant quantities of carbon may be stored

  17. Plant-soil distribution of potentially toxic elements in response to elevated atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Benjamin D; Dijkstra, Paul; Natali, Susan M; Megonigal, J Patrick; Ketterer, Michael E; Drake, Bert G; Lerdau, Manuel T; Gordon, Gwyneth; Anbar, Ariel D; Hungate, Bruce A

    2011-04-01

    The distribution of contaminant elements within ecosystems is an environmental concern because of these elements' potential toxicity to animals and plants and their ability to hinder microbial ecosystem services. As with nutrients, contaminants are cycled within and through ecosystems. Elevated atmospheric CO2 generally increases plant productivity and alters nutrient element cycling, but whether CO2 causes similar effects on the cycling of contaminant elements is unknown. Here we show that 11 years of experimental CO2 enrichment in a sandy soil with low organic matter content causes plants to accumulate contaminants in plant biomass, with declines in the extractable contaminant element pools in surface soils. These results indicate that CO2 alters the distribution of contaminant elements in ecosystems, with plant element accumulation and declining soil availability both likely explained by the CO2 stimulation of plant biomass. Our results highlight the interdependence of element cycles and the importance of taking a broad view of the periodic table when the effects of global environmental change on ecosystem biogeochemistry are considered.

  18. Carbon allocation and decomposition of root-derived organic matter in a plant-soil system of Calluna vulgaris as affected by elevated CO2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.S.J.; Gorissenand, A.; Arp, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of elevated CO2 on C allocation in plant and soil was assessed using soil cores planted with 1-y-old heather (Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull). Plants were pulse-labeled with 14CO2 at ambient and elevated CO2 and two nitrogen regimes (low and high). After harvesting the plants, the soil was

  19. Assessment of in situ and ex situ phytorestoration with grass mixtures in soils polluted with nickel, copper, and arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarías Salinas, Montserrat; Beltrán Villavicencio, Margarita; Bustillos, Luis Gilberto Torres; González Aragón, Abelardo

    This work shows a study of in situ and ex situ phytoextraction as a polishing step in the treatment of an industrial urban soil polluted with nickel, arsenic and copper. The soil was previously washed, and phytoextraction was performed by application of a mixture of grass (Festuca rubra, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium multiforum, Pennisetum). The soil had initial heavy metals concentrations of 131 ppm for Ni, 717 for As and 2734 for Cu (mg of metal/kg of dry soil). After seeding and emerging of grass, vegetal and soil samples were taken monthly during 4 months. Biomass generation, and concentration of Ni, As and Cu in vegetal tissue and soil were determined for every sample. Plants biomass growth in ex situ process was inhibited by 37% when compared with blank soil. Grass showed remarkable phytoextraction capability in situ, it produced 38 g of biomass every 15 days (wet weight) during a period of 3 months, but then declined in the fourth month. Concentrations of metals in grass biomass were up to 83 mg Ni/kg, 649 mg As/kg and 305 mg Cu/kg dry weight. Metal reduction of 49% for Ni, and 35% for Cu and As was observed at rhizospheric soil.

  20. Soil water availability and microsite mediate fungal and bacterial phospholipid fatty acid biomarker abundances in Mojave Desert soils exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, V. L.; Schaeffer, S. M.; Ziegler, S. E.; Evans, R. D.

    2011-06-01

    Changes in the rates of nitrogen (N) cycling, microbial carbon (C) substrate use, and extracellular enzyme activities in a Mojave Desert ecosystem exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 suggest shifts in the size and/or functional characteristics of microbial assemblages in two dominant soil microsites: plant interspaces and under the dominant shrub Larrea tridentata. We used ester-linked phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarkers as a proxy for microbial biomass to quantify spatial and temporal differences in soil microbial communities from February 2003 to May 2005. Further, we used the 13C signature of the fossil CO2 source for elevated CO2 plots to trace recent plant C inputs into soil organic matter (SOM) and broad microbial groups using δ13C (‰). Differences between individual δ13CPLFA and δ13CSOM for fungal biomarkers indicated active metabolism of newer C in elevated CO2 soils. Total PLFA-C was greater in shrub microsites compared to plant interspaces, and CO2 treatment differences within microsites increased under higher soil water availability. Total, fungal, and bacterial PLFA-C increased with decreasing soil volumetric water content (VWC) in both microsites, suggesting general adaptations to xeric desert conditions. Increases in fungal-to-bacterial PLFA-C ratio with decreasing VWC reflected functional group-specific responses to changing soil water availability. While temporal and spatial extremes in resource availability in desert ecosystems contribute to the difficulty in identifying common trends or mechanisms driving microbial responses in less extreme environments, we found that soil water availability and soil microsite interacted with elevated CO2 to shift fungal and bacterial biomarker abundances in Mojave Desert soils.

  1. Using Multispectral and Elevation Data to Predict Soil Properties for a Better Management of Fertilizers at Field Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Ariane; Michaud, Aubert; Sylvain, Jean-Daniel; N'Dayegamiye, Adrien; Gasser, Marc-Olivier; Nolin, Michel; Perron, Isabelle; Grenon, Lucie; Beaudin, Isabelle; Desjardins, Jacques; Côté, Noémi

    2013-04-01

    This project aims at developing and validating an operational integrated management and localized approach at field scale using remote sensing data. It is realized in order to support the competitiveness of agricultural businesses, to ensure soil productivity in the long term and prevent diffuse contamination of surface waters. Our intention is to help agrienvironmental advisors and farmers in the consideration of spatial variability of soil properties in the management of fields. The proposed approach of soil properties recognition is based on the combination of elevation data and multispectral satellite imagery (Landsat) within statistical models. The method is based on the use of the largest possible number of satellite images to cover the widest range of soil moisture variability. Several spectral indices are calculated for each image (normalized brightness index, soil color index, organic matter index, etc.). The assignation of soils is based on a calibration procedure making use of the spatial soil database available in Canada. It includes soil profile point data associated to a database containing the information collected in the field. Three soil properties are predicted and mapped: A horizon texture, B horizon texture and drainage class. All the spectral indices, elevation data and soil data are combined in a discriminant analysis that produces discriminant functions. These are then used to produce maps of soil properties. In addition, from mapping soil properties, management zones are delineated within the field. The delineation of management zones with relatively similar soil properties is created to enable farmers to manage their fertilizers by taking greater account of their soils. This localized or precision management aims to adjust the application of fertilizer according to the real needs of soils and to reduce costs for farmers and the exports of nutrients to the stream. Mapping of soil properties will be validated in three agricultural regions in

  2. Soil seed banks along elevational gradients in tropical, subtropical and subalpine forests in Yunnan Province, southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaqin Luo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil seed banks are a vital part of ecosystems and influence community dynamics and regeneration. Although soil seed banks in different habitats have been reported, how soil seed banks vary with elevational gradients in different climatic zones is still unknown. This paper investigates seed density, species composition and nonconstituent species of forest soil seed banks in Yunnan Province, southwest China. Similarity between the soil seed bank and standing vegetation was also examined. We collected soil samples from sites spanning 12 elevations in tropical rain forests, subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests and subalpine coniferous forests, and transported them to a glasshouse for germination trials for species identification. The soil seed banks of tropical and subtropical forests had much higher seed densities and species richness than those of subalpine forests. Seeds of woody species dominated the soil seed banks of tropical and subtropical forests, while herbs dominated those of subalpine forests. The nonconstituent species in the soil seed banks were all herbs and were most abundant in tropical forests, followed by subtropical forests but were completely absent from subalpine forests.

  3. Derivation of ecological criteria for copper in land-applied biosolids and biosolid-amended agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Li, Jumei; Wang, Xiaoqing; Ma, Yibing; Smolders, Erik; Zhu, Nanwen

    2016-12-01

    The difference in availability between soil metals added via biosolids and soluble salts was not taken into account in deriving the current land-applied biosolids standards. In the present study, a biosolids availability factor (BAF) approach was adopted to investigate the ecological thresholds for copper (Cu) in land-applied biosolids and biosolid-amended agricultural soils. First, the soil property-specific values of HC5 add (the added hazardous concentration for 5% of species) for Cu 2+ salt amended were collected with due attention to data for organisms and soils relevant to China. Second, a BAF representing the difference in availability between soil Cu added via biosolids and soluble salts was estimated based on long-term biosolid-amended soils, including soils from China. Third, biosolids Cu HC5 input values (the input hazardous concentration for 5% of species of Cu from biosolids to soil) as a function of soil properties were derived using the BAF approach. The average potential availability of Cu in agricultural soils amended with biosolids accounted for 53% of that for the same soils spiked with same amount of soluble Cu salts and with a similar aging time. The cation exchange capacity was the main factor affecting the biosolids Cu HC5 input values, while soil pH and organic carbon only explained 24.2 and 1.5% of the variation, respectively. The biosolids Cu HC5 input values can be accurately predicted by regression models developed based on 2-3 soil properties with coefficients of determination (R 2 ) of 0.889 and 0.945. Compared with model predicted biosolids Cu HC5 input values, current standards (GB4284-84) are most likely to be less protective in acidic and neutral soil, but conservative in alkaline non-calcareous soil. Recommendations on ecological criteria for Cu in land-applied biosolids and biosolid-amended agriculture soils may be helpful to fill the gaps existing between science and regulations, and can be useful for Cu risk assessments in

  4. Copper quantitative determination in soils and rocks by the spectrophotometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardim, G.S.

    1982-01-01

    Rocks samples were collected and processed according to newly published techniques. Copper standard solutions were freshly prepared in the laboratory. Copper qualitative analysis was carried out by paper chromatography, using n-butanol in 4N hydrochloric acid as the mobile phase and rubeanic acid, as developer. Quantitative analyses by spectrophotometry at 435 nm revealed that copper concentrations varied from 10 to 560 ppm in the analysed samples. (C.L.B.) [pt

  5. Digital Elevation Models of Differences (DODs): implementation for assessment of soil erosion on recreational trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, A.; Ewertowski, M.

    2012-04-01

    Introduction: Tourism's negative impact on protected mountain areas is one of the main concerns for land managers. The impact on the natural environment is the most visible at locations of highly concentrated activities such as tourist trails, campsites, etc. The main indicators of the tourist trail degradation are vegetation loss (trampling of vegetation cover), change of vegetation type and composition, trail widening, muddiness and soil erosion. The last one is especially significant, since it can cause serious transformation to the land surface. Such undesirable changes cannot be repaired without high-cost management activities and in some cases they can made the trails difficult and unsafe to use. The scientific understanding of soil erosion in relation to human impact can be useful for a more effective management of protected natural areas (PNAs). The main objectives of this study are: (1) to analyse the spatial aspect of surface changes in microscale; (2) to quantify precisely the short-term rate of soil loss and deposition. Study area and methods: To gather precise and objective elevation data, an electronic total station with microprism were used. Measurements were taken in 12 test fields, located in two protected natural areas in south Poland: the Gorce National Park and Popradzki Landscape Park. The measuring places were located on the trails characterized by different slope, types of vegetation, and types of use. Each of the test fields was established by four special marks, firmly dug into the ground. Five sessions of measurement was carried out for each test field: August/September 2008, June 2009, August/September 2009, June 2010, August/September 2010. Generated DEMs (based on field surveys' results) were subtracted from each other, and thus we obtained a spatial picture of the loss or deposition of soil in each cell of the model, from one survey session to another. The subtraction of DEMs from subsequent time periods (DEMs of Difference - DoDs gave

  6. Endophytic fungi and soil microbial community characteristics over different years of phytoremediation in a copper tailings dam of Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jia; Miaowen, Cao; Juhui, Jing; Jinxian, Liu; Baofeng, Chai

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a survey of native grass species infected by endophytic fungi in a copper tailings dam over progressive years of phytoremediation. We investigated how endophytic fungi, soil microbial community structure and soil physiochemical properties and enzymatic activity varied in responses to heavy metal pollution over different stages of phytoremediation. endophyte infection frequency increased with years of phytoremediation. Rates of endophyte infection varied among different natural grass species in each sub-dam. Soil carbon content and soil enzymatic activity gradually increased through the years of phytoremediation. endophyte infection rates of Bothriochloa ischaemum and Festuca rubra were positively related to levels of cadmium (Cd) pollution levels, and fungal endophytes associated with Imperata cylindrical and Elymus dahuricus developed tolerance to lead (Pb). The structure and relative abundance of bacterial communities varied little over years of phytoremediation, but there was a pronounced variation in soil fungi types. Leotiomycetes were the dominant class of resident fungi during the initial phytoremediation period, but Pezizomycetes gradually became dominant as the phytoremediation period progressed. Fungal endophytes in native grasses as well as soil fungi and soil bacteria play different ecological roles during phytoremediation processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2001-01-01

    For Austria there exists a comprehensive soil data collection, integrated in a GIS (geographical information system). The content values of pollutants (cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, mercury, radio-cesium) are given in geographical charts and in tables by regions and by type of soil (forests, agriculture, greenland, others) for the whole area of Austria. Erosion effects are studied for the Austrian region. Legal regulations and measures for an effective soil protection, reduction of soil degradation and sustainable development in Austria and the European Union are discussed. (a.n.)

  8. Soil 13C–15N dynamics in an N2-fixing clover system under long-term exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenigen, van C.J.; Six, J.; Harris, D.; Blum, H.; Kessel, van C.

    2003-01-01

    Reduced soil N availability under elevated CO2 may limit the plant's capacity to increase photosynthesis and thus the potential for increased soil C input. Plant productivity and soil C input should be less constrained by available soil N in an N2-fixing system. We studied the effects of Trifolium

  9. Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Drought Affect Soil Microbial Community and Functional Diversity Associated with Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Under the background of climate change, the increase of atmospheric CO2 and drought frequency have been considered as significant influencers on the soil microbial communities and the yield and quality of crop. In this study, impacts of increased ambient CO2 and drought on soil microbial structure and functional diversity of a Stagnic Anthrosol were investigated in phytotron growth chambers, by testing two representative CO2 levels, three soil moisture levels, and two soil cover types (with or without Glycine max. The 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA fragments were amplified to analyze the functional diversity of fungi and bacteria. Results showed that rhizosphere microbial biomass and community structure were significantly affected by drought, but effects differed between fungi and bacteria. Drought adaptation of fungi was found to be easier than that of bacteria. The diversity of fungi was less affected by drought than that of bacteria, evidenced by their higher diversity. Severe drought reduced soil microbial functional diversity and restrained the metabolic activity. Elevated CO2 alone, in the absence of crops (bare soil, did not enhance the metabolic activity of soil microorganisms. Generally, due to the co-functioning of plant and soil microorganisms in water and nutrient use, plants have major impacts on the soil microbial community, leading to atmospheric CO2 enrichment, but cannot significantly reduce the impacts of drought on soil microorganisms.

  10. Some Like it High! Phylogenetic Diversity of High-Elevation Cyanobacterial Community from Biological Soil Crusts of Western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čapková, Kateřina; Hauer, Tomáš; Řeháková, Klára; Doležal, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    The environment of high-altitudinal cold deserts of Western Himalaya is characterized by extensive development of biological soil crusts, with cyanobacteria as dominant component. The knowledge of their taxonomic composition and dependency on soil chemistry and elevation is still fragmentary. We studied the abundance and the phylogenetic diversity of the culturable cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae in soil crusts along altitudinal gradients (4600-5900 m) at two sites in the dry mountains of Ladakh (SW Tibetan Plateau and Eastern Karakoram), using both microscopic and molecular approaches. The effects of environmental factors (altitude, mountain range, and soil physico-chemical parameters) on the composition and biovolume of phototrophs were tested by multivariate redundancy analysis and variance partitioning. Both phylogenetic diversity and composition of morphotypes were similar between Karakorum and Tibetan Plateau. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene revealed strains belonging to at least five genera. Besides clusters of common soil genera, e.g., Microcoleus, Nodosilinea, or Nostoc, two distinct clades of simple trichal taxa were newly discovered. The most abundant cyanobacterial orders were Oscillatoriales and Nostacales, whose biovolume increased with increasing elevation, while that of Chroococales decreased. Cyanobacterial species richness was low in that only 15 morphotypes were detected. The environmental factors accounted for 52 % of the total variability in microbial data, 38.7 % of which was explained solely by soil chemical properties, 14.5 % by altitude, and 8.4 % by mountain range. The elevation, soil phosphate, and magnesium were the most important predictors of soil phototrophic communities in both mountain ranges despite their different bedrocks and origin. The present investigation represents a first record on phylogenetic diversity of the cyanobacterial community of biological soil crusts from Western Himalayas and first record

  11. Extreme pollution of soils by emissions of the copper-nickel industrial complex in the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashulina, G. M.

    2017-07-01

    The distribution of the total Ni, Cu, Co, Cd, Pb, and Zn contents was studied in the soil profiles of six catenas in the zone subjected to emissions of the copper-nickel industrial complex, which is the largest source of SO2 and heavy metals in northern Europe. The results show that, at present, the concentrations of Ni and Cu in the upper organic soil horizons in the impact zone reach extreme levels of 9000 and 6000 mg/kg, respectively. Under conditions of the long-term intense multi-element industrial emissions, the modern levels of the accumulation of polluting substances in soils greatly depend on the indirect factors, such as the degree of the technogenic degradation of soils with the loss of a significant part of soil organic matter, the reaching of threshold saturation of the topsoil with polluting metals, and competitive relationships between chemical elements. The state of the ecosystems in the impact zone varied greatly and did not always agree with the contents of the main metals-pollutants in the soils. The moisture conditions determined by the landscape position affected significantly the resistance of the ecosystems to emissions.

  12. Assessment of Copper and Zinc in Soils of a Vineyard Region in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Cecília Gabrielli dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This soil acidification may increase the bioavailability of copper (Cu and zinc (Zn in soils. The objective of this study was to verify the concentrations of Cu and Zn in soils of a vineyard region, including sample acidification, to simulate acid rain. The study was developed in an area of vineyard cultivation, with an adjacent land having other crops grown, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Soil samples were collected and GPS located under different uses and coverings. The extracted solutions used to determine the available Cu and Zn forms were diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA, pH 7.3, and calcium chloride 0.01 M. The total forms were obtained by HNO3 digestion. The amounts of Cu and Zn extracted using DTPA were considered high in most of the samples and were greater in the areas cultivated with vineyards that had received fungicide applications for several decades. The total forms were higher in vineyard soils. The amounts of Cu and Zn extracted using CaCl2 did not have good correlation with vineyards or with other metals' forms. The results confirmed that the soil was enriched with Cu and Zn due to the management of the vineyards with chemicals for several decades.

  13. Elevated CO2 did not mitigate the effect of a short-term drought on biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertin, Timothy M.; Phillips, Susan L.; Reed, Sasha C.; Belnap, Jayne

    2012-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are critical components of arid and semi-arid ecosystems that contribute significantly to carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fixation, water retention, soil stability, and seedling recruitment. While dry-land ecosystems face a number of environmental changes, our understanding of how biocrusts may respond to such perturbation remains notably poor. To determine the effect that elevated CO2 may have on biocrust composition, cover, and function, we measured percent soil surface cover, effective quantum yield, and pigment concentrations of naturally occurring biocrusts growing in ambient and elevated CO2 at the desert study site in Nevada, USA, from spring 2005 through spring 2007. During the experiment, a year-long drought allowed us to explore the interacting effects that elevated CO2 and water availability may have on biocrust cover and function. We found that, regardless of CO2 treatment, precipitation was the major regulator of biocrust cover. Drought reduced moss and lichen cover to near-zero in both ambient and elevated CO2 plots, suggesting that elevated CO2 did not alleviate water stress or increase C fixation to levels sufficient to mitigate drought-induced reduction in cover. In line with this result, lichen quantum yield and soil cyanobacteria pigment concentrations appeared more strongly dependent upon recent precipitation than CO2 treatment, although we did find evidence that, when hydrated, elevated CO2 increased lichen C fixation potential. Thus, an increase in atmospheric CO2 may only benefit biocrusts if overall climate patterns shift to create a wetter soil environment.

  14. Effects of manufactured nano-copper on copper uptake, bioaccumulation and enzyme activities in cowpea grown on soil substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunkunle, Clement O; Jimoh, Mahboob A; Asogwa, Nnaemeka T; Viswanathan, K; Vishwakarma, Vinita; Fatoba, Paul O

    2018-07-15

    Increased use of nanoparticles-based products in agriculture portends important implications for agriculture. Therefore, the impact of nano-copper particles (nano-Cu for 65 days. Results indicated significant (Pnano-Cu levels compared to control, and bioaccumulation increased in seeds by at least 250%. Response of antioxidant enzymes to both nano-Cu types was concentration-dependent. Activity of APX and GR was enhanced in leaves and roots in response to both nano-Cu treatments in similar patterns compared to control. Both nano-Cu increased CAT activity in roots while SOD activity reduced in both leaves and roots. This shows that response of antioxidant enzymes to nano-Cu toxicity was organ-specific in cowpea. Malondialdehyde, a measure of lipid peroxidation, increased at 500 -1000 mg/kg of 25 nm nano-Cu in leaves by average of 8.4%, and 60-80 nm nano-Cu in root by 52.8%, showing particle-size and organ-dependent toxicity of nano-Cu. In conclusion, exposure of cowpea to nano-Cu treatments increased both the uptake and bioaccumulation of Cu, and also promoted the activity of APX and GR in root and leaf tissues of cowpea. Therefore, APX- and GR-activity level could be a useful predictive biomarker of nano-Cu toxicity in cowpea. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration: effects of increased carbon input in a Lolium perenne soil on microorganisms and decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van J.H.; Gorissen, A.; Polci, D.

    2000-01-01

    Effects of ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (350 and 700 μl l-1) on net carbon input into soil, the production of root-derived material and the subsequent microbial transformation were investigated. Perennial ryegrass plants (L. perenne L.) were labelled in a continuously labelled

  16. Some like it high! Phylogenetic diversity of high-elevation cyanobacterial community from biological soil crusts of Western Himalaya.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapková, K.; Hauer, T.; Řeháková, Klára; Doležal, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 1 (2016), s. 113-123 ISSN 0095-3628 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : soil crusts * cyanobacterial diversity * Western Himalayas * high-elevation * desert * phosphorus Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.630, year: 2016

  17. Elevated CO2 and nitrogen effects on soil CO2 flux from a pasture upon return to cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil CO2 efflux patterns associated with converting pastures back to row crop production remain understudied in the Southeastern U.S. A 10-year study of bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flüggé) response to elevated CO2 was conducted using open top field chambers on a Blanton loamy sand (loamy siliceous,...

  18. Soil seed banks along elevational gradients in tropical, subtropical and subalpine forests in Yunnan Province, southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaqin Luo; Min Cao; Min Zhang; Xiaoyang Song; Jieqiong Li; Akihiro Nakamura; Roger Kitching

    2017-01-01

    Soil seed banks are a vital part of ecosystems and influence community dynamics and regeneration.Although soil seed banks in different habitats have been reported,how soil seed banks vary with elerational gradients in different climatic zones is still unknown.This paper investigates seed density,species composition and nonconstituent species of forest soil seed banks in Yunnan Province,southwest China.Similarity between the soil seed bank and standing vegetation was also examined.We collected soil samples from sites spanning 12 elevations in tropical rain forests,subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests and subalpine coniferous forests,and transported them to a glasshouse for germination trials for species identification.The soil seed banks of tropical and subtropical forests had much higher seed densities and species richness than those of subalpine forests.Seeds of woody species dominated the soil seed banks of tropical and subtropical forests,while herbs dominated those of subalpine forests.The nonconstituent species in the soil seed banks were all herbs and were most abundant in tropical forests,followed by subtropical forests but were completely absent from subalpine forests.

  19. Indications for the tracking of elevated nitrogen levels through the fungal route in a soil food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogervorst, R.F.; Dijkhuis, M.A.J.; Schaar, M.A. van der; Berg, M.P.; Verhoef, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of N in soil can be tracked via fungi in the soil food web. - The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of elevated N in dead organic matter on the growth of fungi and to establish the consequences for the development of microbivores. Therefore, three fungal species were cultured on Scots pine litter differing in N content. The growth of the soil fungal species Trichoderma koningii, Penicillium glabrum and Cladosporium cladosporioides was directly influenced by the N content (ranging from 1.25 to 2.19% N) of the substrate. For all three fungal species maximum growth was highest at intermediate N content (1.55%) of the substrate. The fungivorous collembolan Orchesella cincta reached highest asymptotic body mass when fed with C. cladosporioides, grown on litter medium with intermediate N content (1.55%). The growth of O. cincta was lower when fed with C. cladosporioides from litter medium with the highest N content (2.19%). Similar results were obtained in mesocosm experiments in which pine litter with three levels of N (1.11, 1.78, 2.03% N) was used as substrate for the fungi. On litter with the highest N content (2.03%) hyphal length and asymptotic body mass of O. cincta were reduced. The results show that the N content of the substrate determines the growth of both fungi and fungivores, and suggest that elevated levels of N in soil track through the fungal part of the soil food web

  20. Indications for the tracking of elevated nitrogen levels through the fungal route in a soil food web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogervorst, R.F.; Dijkhuis, M.A.J.; Schaar, M.A. van der; Berg, M.P.; Verhoef, H.A

    2003-11-01

    Elevated levels of N in soil can be tracked via fungi in the soil food web. - The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of elevated N in dead organic matter on the growth of fungi and to establish the consequences for the development of microbivores. Therefore, three fungal species were cultured on Scots pine litter differing in N content. The growth of the soil fungal species Trichoderma koningii, Penicillium glabrum and Cladosporium cladosporioides was directly influenced by the N content (ranging from 1.25 to 2.19% N) of the substrate. For all three fungal species maximum growth was highest at intermediate N content (1.55%) of the substrate. The fungivorous collembolan Orchesella cincta reached highest asymptotic body mass when fed with C. cladosporioides, grown on litter medium with intermediate N content (1.55%). The growth of O. cincta was lower when fed with C. cladosporioides from litter medium with the highest N content (2.19%). Similar results were obtained in mesocosm experiments in which pine litter with three levels of N (1.11, 1.78, 2.03% N) was used as substrate for the fungi. On litter with the highest N content (2.03%) hyphal length and asymptotic body mass of O. cincta were reduced. The results show that the N content of the substrate determines the growth of both fungi and fungivores, and suggest that elevated levels of N in soil track through the fungal part of the soil food web.

  1. Effect of aluminum, zinc, copper, and lead on the acid-base properties of water extracts from soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motuzova, G. V.; Makarychev, I. P.; Petrov, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    The potentiometric titration of water extracts from the upper horizons of taiga-zone soils by salt solutions of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, and Zn) showed that their addition is an additional source of the extract acidity because of the involvement of the metal ions in complexation with water-soluble organic substances (WSOSs). At the addition of 0.01 M water solutions of Al(NO3)3 to water extracts from soils, Al3+ ions are also involved in complexes with WSOSs, which is accompanied by stronger acidification of the extracts from the upper horizon of soddy soils (with a near-neutral reaction) than from the litter of bog-podzolic soil (with a strongly acid reaction). The effect of the Al3+ hydrolysis on the acidity of the extracts is insignificantly low in both cases. A quantitative relationship was revealed between the release of protons and the ratio of free Cu2+ ions to those complexed with WSOSs at the titration of water extracts from soils by a solution of copper salt.

  2. SOIL RESPIRATION RESPONSE TO THREE YEARS OF ELEVATED CO-2 AND N FERTILIZATION IN PONDEROSA PINE (PINUS PONDEROSA DOUG. EX LAWS.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We measured growing season soil CO-2 evolution under elevated atmospheric (CO-2) and soil nitrogen (N) additions. Our objectives were to determine treatment effects, quantify seasonal variation, and compare two measurement techniques. Elevated (CO-2) treatments were applied in op...

  3. Soil respiration response to three years of elevated CO2 and N fertilization in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Laws.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Katherine J. Elliott; Dale W. Johnson; David T. Tingey; Mark G. Johnson

    1997-01-01

    We measured growing season soil CO2 evolution under elevated atmospheric [CO2 and soil nitrogen (N) additions. Our objectives were to determine treatment effects, quantify seasonal variation, and compare two measurement techniques. Elevated [CO2] treatments were applied in open-top chambers...

  4. Elevated CO2, not defoliation, enhances N cycling and increases short-term soil N immobilization regardless of N addition in a semiarid grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated CO2 and defoliation effects on nitrogen (N) cycling in rangeland soils remain poorly understood. Here we tested whether effects of elevated CO2 and defoliation (clipping to 2.5 cm height) on N cycling depended on soil N availability (addition of 1 vs. 11 g N/m2) in intact mesocosms extracte...

  5. Microbe-driven turnover offsets mineral-mediated storage of soil carbon under elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulman, Benjamin N.; Phillips, Richard P.; Oishi, A. Christopher; Shevliakova, Elena; Pacala, Stephen W.

    2014-12-01

    The sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) to changing environmental conditions represents a critical uncertainty in coupled carbon cycle-climate models. Much of this uncertainty arises from our limited understanding of the extent to which root-microbe interactions induce SOC losses (through accelerated decomposition or `priming') or indirectly promote SOC gains (via `protection' through interactions with mineral particles). We developed a new SOC model to examine priming and protection responses to rising atmospheric CO2. The model captured disparate SOC responses at two temperate free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments. We show that stabilization of `new' carbon in protected SOC pools may equal or exceed microbial priming of `old' SOC in ecosystems with readily decomposable litter and high clay content (for example, Oak Ridge). In contrast, carbon losses induced through priming dominate the net SOC response in ecosystems with more resistant litters and lower clay content (for example, Duke). The SOC model was fully integrated into a global terrestrial carbon cycle model to run global simulations of elevated CO2 effects. Although protected carbon provides an important constraint on priming effects, priming nonetheless reduced SOC storage in the majority of terrestrial areas, partially counterbalancing SOC gains from enhanced ecosystem productivity.

  6. Experimental soil warming effects on C, N, and major element cycling in a low elevation spruce-fir forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey E. Rustad; Ivan J. Fernandez; Stephanie Arnold

    1996-01-01

    The effect of global warming on north temperate and boreal forest soils has been the subject of much recent debate. These soils serve as major reservoirs for C, N, and other nutrients necessary for forest growth and productivity. Given the uncertainties in estimates of organic matter turnover rates and storage, it is unclear whether these soils will serve as short or...

  7. Redistribution of fractions of zinc, cadmium, nickel, copper, and lead in contaminated calcareous soils treated with EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Mohsen; Khanlari, Zahra V

    2007-11-01

    Effect of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the fractionation of zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in contaminated calcareous soils was investigated. Soil samples containing variable levels of contamination, from 105.9 to 5803 mg/kg Zn, from 2.2 to 1361 mg/kg Cd, from 31 to 64.0 mg/kg Ni, from 24 to 84 mg/kg Cu, and from 109 to 24,850 mg/kg Pb, were subjected to EDTA treatment at different dosages of 0, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg. Metals in the incubated soils were fractionated after 5 months by a sequential extraction procedure, in which the metal fractions were experimentally defined as exchangeable (EXCH), carbonate (CARB), Mn oxide (MNO), Fe oxide (FEO), organic matter (OM), and residual (RES) fractions. In contaminated soils without EDTA addition, Zn, Ni, Cu, and Pb were predominately present in the RES fraction, up to 60.0%, 32.3%, 41.1%, and 36.8%, respectively. In general, with the EDTA addition, the EXCH and CARB fractions of these metals increased dramatically while the OM fraction decreased. The Zn, Ni, Cu, and Pb were distributed mostly in RES, OM, FEO, and CARB fractions in contaminated soils, but Cd was found predominately in the CARB, MNO, and RES fractions. The OM fraction decreased with increasing amounts of EDTA. In the contaminated soils, EDTA removed some Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni from MNO, FEO, and OM fractions and redistributed them into CARB and EXCH fractions. Based on the relative percent in the EXCH and CARB fractions, the order of solubility was Cd > Pb > Ni > Cu > Zn for contaminated soils, before adding of EDTA, and after adding of EDTA, the order of solubility was Pb > Cd > Zn > Ni > Cu. The risk of groundwater contamination will increase after applying EDTA and it needed to be used very carefully.

  8. Under fungal attack on a metalliferous soil: ROS or not ROS? Insights from Silene paradoxa L. growing under copper stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taiti, Cosimo; Giorni, Elisabetta; Colzi, Ilaria; Pignattelli, Sara; Bazihizina, Nadia; Buccianti, Antonella; Luti, Simone; Pazzagli, Luigia; Mancuso, Stefano; Gonnelli, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how the adaptation to metalliferous environments can influence the plant response to biotic stress. In a metallicolous and a non-metallicolous population of Silene paradoxa the induction of oxidative stress and the production of callose and volatiles were evaluated in the presence of copper and of the PAMP fungal protein cerato-platanin, separately and in combination. Our results showed incompatibility between the ordinary ROS-mediated response to fungal attack and the acquired mechanisms of preventing oxidative stress in the tolerant population. A similar situation was also demonstrated by the sensitive population growing in the presence of copper but, in this case, with a lack of certain responses, such as callose production. In addition, in terms of the joint behaviour of emitted volatiles, multivariate statistics showed that not only did the populations respond differently to the presence of copper or biotic stress, but also that the biotic and abiotic stresses interacted in different ways in the two populations. Our results demonstrated that the same incompatibility of hyperaccumulators in ROS-mediated biotic stress signals also seemed to be exhibited by the excluder metallophyte, but without the advantage of being able to rely on the elemental defence for plant protection from natural enemies. - Highlights: • Silene paradoxa plants from metalliferous and nonmetalliferous soil were studied. • Plants were exposed to Cerato-platanin in presence/absence of Cu in culture media. • ROS response was fully present in nonmetallicolous plants only in the absence of Cu. • Similar ROS response in metallicolous plants with or without Cu. - The adaptation to high concentrations of copper was found to interfere with the ordinary ROS-mediated response to fungal attack in an excluder metallophyte.

  9. Impact of copper based fungicides on the degradation of 4,4 DDT to 4,4 DDE in PIP and stonefruit orchard soils in the Walkato Region, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaw, S. [Univ. of Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand)]|[Environment Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand); Palmer, G.; Wilkins, A. [Univ. of Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand); Kim, N. [Environment Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2003-07-01

    There is growing awareness in New Zealand that a proportion of horticultural land has been contaminated with trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) and organochlorine pesticides (e.g. DDT, DDD, DDE and dieldrin) as a result of historic applications of agrichemicals (including pesticides, fertilisers and soil amendments). We have recently reported a significant negative correlation between Cu concentrations and the ratio of DDE to DDT in Auckland pip and stonefruit orchard soils and provided evidence that elevated levels of Cu in orchard soils were impacting on microbial activity. The specific objective of the study reported here was to determine whether the DDE:DDT ratio and Cu were similarly correlated in another fruit growing region of New Zealand, namely the Waikato region. DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane) was widely used in the New Zealand to control chewing insects. DDT is degraded in soil by biotic and abiotic processes to form DDD (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane) and DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)etylene). Cu is the active ingredient in a wide range of current and historic fungicides. Elevated levels of copper in horticultural soils have been demonstrated to negatively impact on the soil microbial community. Orchards (n=7) were sampled as part of a larger survey investigating agrichemical residues (organochlorine pesticides and trace elements) in cropping soils in the Waikato region, New Zealand. ?DDT concentrations in orchard soils ranged from 0.37 to 34.5 mg kg{sup -1}. There was a significant negative correlation (-0.84, p<0.02) between Cu concentration (242 to 523 mg kg{sup -1}) and the ratio of p,p'-DDE to p,p'-DDT (0.8 to 3.6) in pip and stonefruit orchard soils. The ratio of soil microbial carbon to soil carbon (% C{sub mic}/Org-C) in orchard soils decreased compared to reference soils. The microbial metabolic quotient aCO2 increased in orchard soils compared to reference soils. These results indicate

  10. Influence of Elevation Data Resolution on Spatial Prediction of Colluvial Soils in a Luvisol Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Penížek

    Full Text Available The development of a soil cover is a dynamic process. Soil cover can be altered within a few decades, which requires updating of the legacy soil maps. Soil erosion is one of the most important processes quickly altering soil cover on agriculture land. Colluvial soils develop in concave parts of the landscape as a consequence of sedimentation of eroded material. Colluvial soils are recognised as important soil units because they are a vast sink of soil organic carbon. Terrain derivatives became an important tool in digital soil mapping and are among the most popular auxiliary data used for quantitative spatial prediction. Prediction success rates are often directly dependent on raster resolution. In our study, we tested how raster resolution (1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 meters influences spatial prediction of colluvial soils. Terrain derivatives (altitude, slope, plane curvature, topographic position index, LS factor and convergence index were calculated for the given raster resolutions. Four models were applied (boosted tree, neural network, random forest and Classification/Regression Tree to spatially predict the soil cover over a 77 ha large study plot. Models training and validation was based on 111 soil profiles surveyed on a regular sampling grid. Moreover, the predicted real extent and shape of the colluvial soil area was examined. In general, no clear trend in the accuracy prediction was found without the given raster resolution range. Higher maximum prediction accuracy for colluvial soil, compared to prediction accuracy of total soil cover of the study plot, can be explained by the choice of terrain derivatives that were best for Colluvial soils differentiation from other soil units. Regarding the character of the predicted Colluvial soils area, maps of 2 to 10 m resolution provided reasonable delineation of the colluvial soil as part of the cover over the study area.

  11. Influence of Elevation Data Resolution on Spatial Prediction of Colluvial Soils in a Luvisol Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penížek, Vít; Zádorová, Tereza; Kodešová, Radka; Vaněk, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    The development of a soil cover is a dynamic process. Soil cover can be altered within a few decades, which requires updating of the legacy soil maps. Soil erosion is one of the most important processes quickly altering soil cover on agriculture land. Colluvial soils develop in concave parts of the landscape as a consequence of sedimentation of eroded material. Colluvial soils are recognised as important soil units because they are a vast sink of soil organic carbon. Terrain derivatives became an important tool in digital soil mapping and are among the most popular auxiliary data used for quantitative spatial prediction. Prediction success rates are often directly dependent on raster resolution. In our study, we tested how raster resolution (1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 meters) influences spatial prediction of colluvial soils. Terrain derivatives (altitude, slope, plane curvature, topographic position index, LS factor and convergence index) were calculated for the given raster resolutions. Four models were applied (boosted tree, neural network, random forest and Classification/Regression Tree) to spatially predict the soil cover over a 77 ha large study plot. Models training and validation was based on 111 soil profiles surveyed on a regular sampling grid. Moreover, the predicted real extent and shape of the colluvial soil area was examined. In general, no clear trend in the accuracy prediction was found without the given raster resolution range. Higher maximum prediction accuracy for colluvial soil, compared to prediction accuracy of total soil cover of the study plot, can be explained by the choice of terrain derivatives that were best for Colluvial soils differentiation from other soil units. Regarding the character of the predicted Colluvial soils area, maps of 2 to 10 m resolution provided reasonable delineation of the colluvial soil as part of the cover over the study area. PMID:27846230

  12. Effects of soil temperature and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on gas exchange, in vivo carboxylation and chlorophyll fluorescence in jack pine and white birch seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.; Dang, Q-L.

    2005-01-01

    The interactive effects of soil temperature and elevated carbon dioxide on the photosynthetic functions of white birch and jack pine were investigated. Elevated carbon dioxide was found to significantly decrease the allocation of electron transport to photorespiration in both species by increasing electron allocation to Rubisco carboxylation. Photosynthetic down-regulation occurred in both species after four months in elevated carbon dioxide as evidenced by decreases in maximal carboxylation rate which were unaffected by soil temperature. 50 refs., 5 figs

  13. Copper and zinc accumulation, fractionation and migration in vineyard soils from Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Brunetto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate Cu and Zn migration and fractions in sandy soil of vineyards. In Urussanga (SC, Brazil, soil samples were collected from a 4-year-old and 15-yearold vineyard, and from a forested area. In the soils, the chemical characteristics of Cu and Zn were analyzed by the EDTA method, which determines the fraction available in soil; 3050B method of the USEPA for total concentrations, which represents the pseudo-soil contents in the soil; and chemical fractionation, which estimates soluble fraction, exchangeable fraction, fraction associated with clay minerals, fraction associated with organic matter and residual fraction. The results show that there is accumulation of Cu and Zn in sandy soils cultivated with grapevines and with frequent fungicide applications. These higher levels were found in soils with longer cultivation time (15 years old, but were restricted to the superficial layers of the soil. Most of the Cu was extracted by EDTA method, and it may be considered as available to plants. The EDTA also extracted a small part of Zn. Most of the Cu in the vineyard soils can be characterized by low geochemical mobility, but in the uppermost soil layers of the oldest vineyard, there was an increase in Cu content associated with soil organic matter. Most of the Zn in the vineyard soil was associated with minerals, which indicates low mobility and also low potential for toxicity to plants and microorganisms.

  14. ELEVATED TEMPERATURE, SOIL MOISTURE AND SEASONALITY BUT NOT CO2 AFFECT CANOPY ASSIMILATION AND SYSTEM RESPIRATION IN SEEDLING DOUGLAS-FIR ECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and air temperature on C cycling in trees and associated soil system, focusing on canopy CO2 assimilation (Asys) and system CO2 loss through respiration (Rsys). We hypothesized that both elevated CO2 and elevated temperature...

  15. DOES SOIL CO2 EFFLUX ACCLIMATIZETO ELEVATED TEMPERATURE AND CO2 DURING LONG-TERM TREATMENT OF DOUGLAS-FIR SEEDLINGS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the effects of elevated soil temperature and atmospheric CO2 efflux (SCE) during the third an fourth years of study. We hypothesized that elevated temperature would stimulate SCE, and elevated CO2 would also stimulate SCE with the stimulation being greater at hig...

  16. Dryland biological soil crust cyanobacteria show unexpected decreases in abundance under long-term elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Blaire; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Yeager, Chris M.; Belnap, Jayne; Evans, R. David; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2012-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) cover soil surfaces in many drylands globally. The impacts of 10 years of elevated atmospheric CO2 on the cyanobacteria in biocrusts of an arid shrubland were examined at a large manipulated experiment in Nevada, USA. Cyanobacteria-specific quantitative PCR surveys of cyanobacteria small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes suggested a reduction in biocrust cyanobacterial biomass in the elevated CO2 treatment relative to the ambient controls. Additionally, SSU rRNA gene libraries and shotgun metagenomes showed reduced representation of cyanobacteria in the total microbial community. Taxonomic composition of the cyanobacteria was similar under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions, indicating the decline was manifest across multiple cyanobacterial lineages. Recruitment of cyanobacteria sequences from replicate shotgun metagenomes to cyanobacterial genomes representing major biocrust orders also suggested decreased abundance of cyanobacteria sequences across the majority of genomes tested. Functional assignment of cyanobacteria-related shotgun metagenome sequences indicated that four subsystem categories, three related to oxidative stress, were differentially abundant in relation to the elevated CO2 treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that elevated CO2 affected a generalized decrease in cyanobacteria in the biocrusts and may have favoured cyanobacteria with altered gene inventories for coping with oxidative stress.

  17. Nitrogen fertilization has a stronger effect on soil nitrogen-fixing bacterial communities than elevated atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthrong, Sean T; Yeager, Chris M; Gallegos-Graves, Laverne; Steven, Blaire; Eichorst, Stephanie A; Jackson, Robert B; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2014-05-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is the primary supply of N to most ecosystems, yet there is considerable uncertainty about how N-fixing bacteria will respond to global change factors such as increasing atmospheric CO2 and N deposition. Using the nifH gene as a molecular marker, we studied how the community structure of N-fixing soil bacteria from temperate pine, aspen, and sweet gum stands and a brackish tidal marsh responded to multiyear elevated CO2 conditions. We also examined how N availability, specifically, N fertilization, interacted with elevated CO2 to affect these communities in the temperate pine forest. Based on data from Sanger sequencing and quantitative PCR, the soil nifH composition in the three forest systems was dominated by species in the Geobacteraceae and, to a lesser extent, Alphaproteobacteria. The N-fixing-bacterial-community structure was subtly altered after 10 or more years of elevated atmospheric CO2, and the observed shifts differed in each biome. In the pine forest, N fertilization had a stronger effect on nifH community structure than elevated CO2 and suppressed the diversity and abundance of N-fixing bacteria under elevated atmospheric CO2 conditions. These results indicate that N-fixing bacteria have complex, interacting responses that will be important for understanding ecosystem productivity in a changing climate.

  18. Using scaling factors for evaluating spatial and temporal variability of soil hydraulic properties within one elevation transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikodem, Antonín; Kodešová, Radka; Jakšík, Ondřej; Fér, Miroslav; Klement, Aleš

    2016-04-01

    This study was carried out in Southern Moravia, in the Czech Republic. The original soil unit in the wider area is a Haplic Chernozem developed on loess. The intensive agricultural exploitation in combination with terrain morphology has resulted in a highly diversified soil spatial pattern. Nowadays the original soil unit is preserved only on top of relatively flat parts, and is gradually transformed by water erosion up to Regosols on the steepest slopes, while colluvial soils are formed in terrain depressions and at toe slopes due to sedimentation of previously eroded material. Soils within this area has been intensively investigated during the last several years (e.g. Jakšík et al., 2015; Vašát et al., 2014, 2015a,b). Soil sampling (disturbed and undisturbed 100-cm3 soil samples) was performed at 5 points of one elevation transect in November 2010 (after wheat sowing) and August 2011 (after wheat harvest). Disturbed soil samples were used to determine basic soil properties (grain size distribution and organic carbon content etc.). Undisturbed soil samples were used to determine the soil water retention curves and the hydraulic conductivity functions using the multiple outflow tests in Tempe cells and a numerical inversion with HYDRUS 1-D. Scaling factors (alpha-h for pressure head, alpha-theta for soil water contents and alpha-k for hydraulic conductivities) were used here to express soil hydraulic properties variability. Evaluated scaling factors reflected position within the elevation transect as well as time of soil sampling. In general large values of alpha-h, lower values of alpha-k and similar values of alpha-theta were obtained in 2010 in comparison to values obtained in 2011, which indicates development of soil structure during the vegetation season. Jakšík, O., Kodešová, R., Kubiš, A., Stehlíková, I., Drábek, O., Kapička, A. (2015): Soil aggregate stability within morphologically diverse areas. Catena, 127, 287-299. Vašát, R., Kode

  19. SOIL RESPIRED D13C SIGNATURES REFLECT ROOT EXUDATE OR ROOT TURNOVER SIGNATURES IN AN ELEVATED CO2 AND OZONE MESOCOSM EXPERIMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulk tissue and root and soil respired d13C signatures were measured throughout the soil profile in a Ponderosa Pine mesocosm experiment exposed to ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations. For the ambient treatment, root (0-1mm, 1-2mm, and >2mm) and soil d13C signatures were ?24...

  20. Nitrification and nitrogen mineralization in agricultural soils contaminated by copper mining activities in Central Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Moya, Héctor; Verdejo, José; Yáñez, Carolina; Álvaro, Juan E.; Sauvé, Sébastien; Neaman, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Microbiological bioassays of nitrification and nitrogen mineralization have been used for evaluation of soil quality on metal-contaminated soils. We evaluated the effectiveness of nitrification and nitrogen mineralization bioassays as quality indicators of soil degradation caused by metal contamination. We performed standard tests based on protocols of ISO 14238 (2012) and ISO 15685 (2012) on 90 soil samples collected from agricultural areas in central Chile that were historically contaminate...

  1. Elevated CO2 shifts the functional structure and metabolic potentials of soil microbial communities in a C4 agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jinbo; He, Zhili; Shi, Shengjing; Kent, Angela; Deng, Ye; Wu, Liyou; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong

    2015-03-20

    Atmospheric CO2 concentration is continuously increasing, and previous studies have shown that elevated CO2 (eCO2) significantly impacts C3 plants and their soil microbial communities. However, little is known about effects of eCO2 on the compositional and functional structure, and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities under C4 plants. Here we showed that a C4 maize agroecosystem exposed to eCO2 for eight years shifted the functional and phylogenetic structure of soil microbial communities at both soil depths (0-5 cm and 5-15 cm) using EcoPlate and functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0) analyses. The abundances of key genes involved in carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycling were significantly stimulated under eCO2 at both soil depths, although some differences in carbon utilization patterns were observed between the two soil depths. Consistently, CO2 was found to be the dominant factor explaining 11.9% of the structural variation of functional genes, while depth and the interaction of depth and CO2 explained 5.2% and 3.8%, respectively. This study implies that eCO2 has profound effects on the functional structure and metabolic potential/activity of soil microbial communities associated with C4 plants, possibly leading to changes in ecosystem functioning and feedbacks to global change in C4 agroecosystems.

  2. Corrosive effect of the type of soil in the systems of grounding more used (copper and stainless steel) for local soil samples from the city of Tunja (Colombia), by means of electrochemical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, L.; Salas, Y.; Blanco, J.

    2016-02-01

    In this work electrochemical techniques were used to determine the corrosion behaviour of copper and stainless steel electrodes, used in grounding varying soil type with which they react. A slight but significant change in the corrosion rate, linear polarization resistance and equivalent parameters in the technique of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy circuit was observed. Electrolytes in soils are slightly different depending on laboratory study, but the influence was noted in the retention capacity of water, mainly due to clays, affecting ion mobility and therefore measures such as the corrosion rate. Behaviour was noted in lower potential for copper corrosion, though the corrosion rate regardless of the type of soil, was much higher for electrodes based on copper, by several orders of magnitude.

  3. The Decline of Soil Infiltration Capacity Due To High Elevation Groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Isri Ronald Mangangka

    2008-01-01

    Infiltration capacity of soil mainly depends on two factors; the particle size and the moisture content of the soil. Groundwater increases the soil moisture, not only below the water table but also within the capillary zone, above the water table. Field experiment in a high groundwater area was conducted to understand the relationship among the groundwater, soil moisture and infiltration capacity. Using a single ring infiltrometer, the effect of groundwater in the infiltration rate was observ...

  4. Soil Conditions Rather Than Long-Term Exposure to Elevated CO2 Affect Soil Microbial Communities Associated with N-Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristof Brenzinger

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuously rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations may lead to an increased transfer of organic C from plants to the soil through rhizodeposition and may affect the interaction between the C- and N-cycle. For instance, fumigation of soils with elevated CO2 (eCO2 concentrations (20% higher compared to current atmospheric concentrations at the Giessen Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (GiFACE sites resulted in a more than 2-fold increase of long-term N2O emissions and an increase in dissimilatory reduction of nitrate compared to ambient CO2 (aCO2. We hypothesized that the observed differences in soil functioning were based on differences in the abundance and composition of microbial communities in general and especially of those which are responsible for N-transformations in soil. We also expected eCO2 effects on soil parameters, such as on nitrate as previously reported. To explore the impact of long-term eCO2 on soil microbial communities, we applied a molecular approach (qPCR, T-RFLP, and 454 pyrosequencing. Microbial groups were analyzed in soil of three sets of two FACE plots (three replicate samples from each plot, which were fumigated with eCO2 and aCO2, respectively. N-fixers, denitrifiers, archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers, and dissimilatory nitrate reducers producing ammonia were targeted by analysis of functional marker genes, and the overall archaeal community by 16S rRNA genes. Remarkably, soil parameters as well as the abundance and composition of microbial communities in the top soil under eCO2 differed only slightly from soil under aCO2. Wherever differences in microbial community abundance and composition were detected, they were not linked to CO2 level but rather determined by differences in soil parameters (e.g., soil moisture content due to the localization of the GiFACE sets in the experimental field. We concluded that +20% eCO2 had little to no effect on the overall microbial community involved in N-cycling in the

  5. Soil Conditions Rather Than Long-Term Exposure to Elevated CO2 Affect Soil Microbial Communities Associated with N-Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenzinger, Kristof; Kujala, Katharina; Horn, Marcus A; Moser, Gerald; Guillet, Cécile; Kammann, Claudia; Müller, Christoph; Braker, Gesche

    2017-01-01

    Continuously rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations may lead to an increased transfer of organic C from plants to the soil through rhizodeposition and may affect the interaction between the C- and N-cycle. For instance, fumigation of soils with elevated CO 2 ( e CO 2 ) concentrations (20% higher compared to current atmospheric concentrations) at the Giessen Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (GiFACE) sites resulted in a more than 2-fold increase of long-term N 2 O emissions and an increase in dissimilatory reduction of nitrate compared to ambient CO 2 ( a CO 2 ). We hypothesized that the observed differences in soil functioning were based on differences in the abundance and composition of microbial communities in general and especially of those which are responsible for N-transformations in soil. We also expected e CO 2 effects on soil parameters, such as on nitrate as previously reported. To explore the impact of long-term e CO 2 on soil microbial communities, we applied a molecular approach (qPCR, T-RFLP, and 454 pyrosequencing). Microbial groups were analyzed in soil of three sets of two FACE plots (three replicate samples from each plot), which were fumigated with e CO 2 and a CO 2 , respectively. N-fixers, denitrifiers, archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers, and dissimilatory nitrate reducers producing ammonia were targeted by analysis of functional marker genes, and the overall archaeal community by 16S rRNA genes. Remarkably, soil parameters as well as the abundance and composition of microbial communities in the top soil under e CO 2 differed only slightly from soil under a CO 2 . Wherever differences in microbial community abundance and composition were detected, they were not linked to CO 2 level but rather determined by differences in soil parameters (e.g., soil moisture content) due to the localization of the GiFACE sets in the experimental field. We concluded that +20% e CO 2 had little to no effect on the overall microbial community involved in N

  6. Transport of copper as affected by titania nanoparticles in soil columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Jing [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Shan Xiaoquan, E-mail: xiaoquan@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Wen Bei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Lin Jinming [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Owens, Gary [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Zhou Shuairen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2011-05-15

    The effects of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the transport of Cu through four different soil columns were studied. For two soils (HB and DX), TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles acted as a Cu carrier and facilitated the transport of Cu. For a third soil (BJ) TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles also facilitated Cu transport but to a much lesser degree, but for a fourth soil (HLJ) TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles retarded the transport of Cu. Linear correlation analysis indicated that soil properties rather than sorption capacities for Cu primary governed whether TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles-facilitated Cu transport. The TiO{sub 2}-associated Cu of outflow in the Cu-contaminated soil columns was significantly positively correlated with soil pH and negatively correlated with CEC and DOC. During passage through the soil columns 46.6-99.9% of Cu initially adsorbed onto TiO{sub 2} could be 'stripped' from nanoparticles depending on soil, where Cu desorption from TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles increased with decreasing flow velocity and soil pH. - Highlights: > TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles could facilitate or retard the transport of Cu in soils. > Soil properties primarily governed TiO{sub 2}-facilitated Cu transport. > Cu initially adsorbed onto TiO{sub 2} could be 'stripped' duing transport. - TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles play an important role in mediating and transporting Cu in soil columns.

  7. DISSOLVED ORGANIC-MATTER, CADMIUM, COPPER AND ZINC IN PIG SLURRY-SIZE AND SOIL SOLUTION-SIZE EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY FRACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DELCASTILHO, P; DALENBERG, JW; BRUNT, K; BRUINS, AP

    1993-01-01

    Sephadex size exclusion chromatography was used to prepare molecular size fractions from liquid pig slurry, before and after aerobic interaction with a loamy-sand soil. In the liquid fractions organic matter was characterized and some components were identified. The distribution of zinc and copper

  8. Secondary poisoning of cadmium, copper and mercury: implications for the Maximum Permissible Concentrations and Negligible Concentrations in water, sediment and soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit CE; Wezel AP van; Jager T; Traas TP; CSR

    2000-01-01

    The impact of secondary poisoning on the Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPCs) and Negligible Concentrations (NCs) of cadmium, copper and mercury in water, sediment and soil have been evaluated. Field data on accumulation of these elements by fish, mussels and earthworms were used to derive

  9. Metal/metalloid content in plant parts and soils of Corylus spp. influenced by mining-metallurgical production of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radojevic, Ana A; Serbula, Snezana M; Kalinovic, Tanja S; Kalinovic, Jelena V; Steharnik, Mirjana M; Petrovic, Jelena V; Milosavljevic, Jelena S

    2017-04-01

    The town of Bor and its surroundings (Serbia) have been under environmental pollution for more than a century, due to exploitation of large copper deposits. Naturally present Corylus spp. were sampled in the surroundings of the mine and flotation tailings at 12 sites distributed in six zones with different pollution loads, under the assumption that all the zones were endangered except for the background. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn inputs from soil and the air were evaluated in plant parts, in terms of absorption, accumulation and indication abilities of Corylus spp. The obtained results showed that As and Cu were the most enriched elements in soil, and their concentration exceeded the limit and remediation values proposed by the regulation. Plant parts (root, branch, leaf and catkin) also showed enrichment of most studied elements in wide ranges. According to the enrichment factor for plant, metal/metalloid inputs, particularly in leaves, were from anthropogenic origin. Plant absorption which occurred at the soil-root interface was low, based on the bioaccumulation factor, which could be indicative of resistance mechanisms of root to abiotic stress induced by a high content of elements in soil substrate. The values of bioaccumulation coefficient suggested weak and intermediate absorption and exclusion abilities of Corylus spp. to the studied elements. Element concentrations differ in unwashed and washed leaves, as well as pollution loads in plant and soil samples from the background, traffic and the sites with clear mining-metallurgical influence. Therefore, Corylus spp. could be promising in biomonitoring studies.

  10. Application of magnetic methods for assessment of soil restoration in the vicinity of metallurgical copper-processing plant in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, N; Petrovský, E; Kapicka, A; Jordanova, D; Petrov, P

    2017-04-01

    Copper ore mining and processing are among the most harmful anthropogenic influences for the environment and they are a subject of international and national law regulations. Recultivation of areas influenced by mining and processing industry is commonly applied and monitored in order to restore as much as possible the natural environment. In this study, environmental magnetic methods are applied in order to assess the degree of soil restoration in terms of soil development, after remediation of waste dump from Cu-processing plant. Soils developed under birch forest stands of different age (5, 15, and 25 years) as well as raw waste material were sampled along depth down to 20-30 cm. Variations in magnetic parameters and ratios obtained (magnetic susceptibility, frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic remanence (ARM), isothermal remanence (IRM), ARM/IRM 100mT ) suggest the presence of magnetic enhancement in the upper 0-15 cm, the thickness of this layer varying depending on the age of the forest stand. Magnetic mineral responsible for this enhancement is of magnetite type, while waste material contains a large amount of hematite, as evidenced by coercivity analysis of IRM acquisition curves and thermal demagnetization of composite IRM. Magnetic grain-sized proxy parameters suggest that magnetite particles are coarser, magnetically stable, while no or minor amount of superparamagnetic grains were detected at room temperature. A well-defined linear regression between the topsoil magnetic susceptibility and the approximate age of the forest stand provides an indication that the magnetic enhancement is of pedogenic origin. It is concluded that the observed magnetic enhancement of recultivated soils studied is linked to a combined effect of pedogenic contribution and possible additions of industrial ashes as a liming agent for soil restoration.

  11. Effects of vegetation on chemical and mineralogical characteristics of soils developed on a decantation bank from a copper mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Beatriz; Vega, Flora A; Silva, Luis F O; Andrade, Luisa

    2012-04-01

    Open cast mining has a strong impact on the environment, the intensity depending on the morphology of the deposit and on the nature of the minerals. At Touro mine (NW Spain) there is a large area covered by tailings, one of which, called the "sedimentation bank", was used to deposit sludge resulting from the extraction of copper in the flotation plant. Three zones were selected and the soils were sampled to analyse the changes brought about by vegetation on the chemical and mineralogical properties of the soils developed over the sedimentation bank and its development over time. The vegetation increased the pH, contents of organic material, nitrogen, clay and free oxides of Fe and Al, and the cationic exchange capacity of the soils. The decrease in the sulphide content, benefited by the vegetation process, led to a reduction in the total content of Cr and Cu. The vegetation also contributed towards the alteration of the primary minerals. The transformation of jarosite, the formation of nanocrystals of hematite, goethite, hydroxypolymers, and amorphous minerals that contained Cu, Cr and Pb were observed. Nevertheless the high Cu and Cr contents indicate that it is advisable to change the restoration process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Numerical modelling of ground vibration caused by elevated high-speed railway lines considering structure-soil-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucinskas, Paulius; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Persson, Kent

    2016-01-01

    Construction of high speed railway lines has been an increasing trend in recent years. Countries like Denmark and Sweden plan to expand and upgrade their railways to accommodate high-speed traffic. To benefit from the full potential of the reduced commuting times, these lines must pass through...... densely populated urban areas with the collateral effect of increased noise and vibrations levels. This paper aims to quantify the vibrations levels in the area surrounding an elevated railway line built as a multi-span bridge structure. The proposed model employs finite-element analysis to model......-space. The paper analyses the effects of structure-soil-structure interaction on the dynamic behaviour of the surrounding soil surface. The effects of different soil stratification and material properties as well as different train speeds are assessed. Finally, the drawbacks of simplifying the numerical model...

  13. Influence of humified organic matter on copper behavior in acid polluted soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Calvino, D.; Soler-Rovira, P.; Polo, A.; Arias-Estevez, M.; Plaza, C.

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this work was to identify the role of soil humic acids (HAs) in controlling the behavior of Cu(II) in vineyard soils by exploring the relationship between the chemical and binding properties of HA fractions and those of soil as a whole. The study was conducted on soils with a sandy loam texture, pH 4.3-5.0, a carbon content of 12.4-41.0 g kg -1 and Cu concentrations from 11 to 666 mg kg -1 . The metal complexing capacity of HA extracts obtained from the soils ranged from 0.69 to 1.02 mol kg -1 , and the stability constants for the metal ion-HA complexes formed, log K, from 5.07 to 5.36. Organic matter-quality related characteristics had little influence on Cu adsorption in acid soils, especially if compared with pH, the degree of Cu saturation and the amount of soil organic matter. - The effect of organic matter quality on Cu adsorption in acid soils was low compared with other soil characteristics such as pH or degree of Cu saturation.

  14. Plant uptake and availability of antimony, lead, copper and zinc in oxic and reduced shooting range soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockmann, Kerstin; Tandy, Susan; Studer, Björn; Evangelou, Michael W H; Schulin, Rainer

    2018-03-19

    Shooting ranges polluted by antimony (Sb), lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are used for animal grazing, thus pose a risk of contaminants entering the food chain. Many of these sites are subject to waterlogging of poorly drained soils. Using field lysimeter experiments, we compared Sb, Pb, Cu and Zn uptake by four common pasture plant species (Lolium perenne, Trifolium repens, Plantago lanceolata and Rumex obtusifolius) growing on a calcareous shooting range soil under waterlogged and drained conditions. To monitor seasonal trends, the same plants were collected at three times over the growing season. Additionally, variations in soil solution concentrations were monitored at three depths over the experiment. Under reducing conditions, soluble Sb concentrations dropped from ∼50 μg L -1 to ∼10 μg L -1 , which was attributed to the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) and the higher retention of the trivalent species by the soil matrix. Shoot Sb concentrations differed by a factor of 60 between plant species, but remained at levels <0.3 μg g -1 . Despite the difference in soil solution concentrations between treatments, total Sb accumulation in shoots for plants collected on the waterlogged soil did not change, suggesting that Sb(III) was much more available for plant uptake than Sb(V), as only 10% of the total Sb was present as Sb(III). In contrast to Sb, Pb, Cu and Zn soil solution concentrations remained unaffected by waterlogging, and shoot concentrations were significantly higher in the drained treatment for many plant species. Although showing an increasing trend over the season, shoot metal concentrations generally remained below regulatory values for fodder plants (40 μg g -1  Pb, 150 μg g -1 Zn, 15-35 μg g -1 Cu), indicating a low risk of contaminant transfer into the food chain under both oxic and anoxic conditions for the type of shooting range soil investigated in this study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  15. Sorption of diuron, atrazine, and copper ion on chars with long-term natural oxidation in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C.; Lin, T.; Lai, C.

    2011-12-01

    Biochar has been proposed as a measure to sequestrate carbon (C) and to increase soil fertility in sustainable agriculture. However, its sorption characteristics to herbicides, such as lowing herbicides efficacy, may constrain its agricultural application. This assertion may be arguable because most studies so far were conducted with the newly produced char and barely considered the "ageing effect" of old char since it could be oxidized over long time. In this study, historical char samples were collected and compared with the newly produced char. Batch sorption studies of diuron, atrazine, and copper ion onto chars was performed. Greater sorption of Cu was observed on the historical char samples and reached a saturated sorption at 30 mg g-1 for Cu, much higher adsorption value than newly produced char at 4 mg g-1. In contrast, sorption of diuron and atrazine on newly produced char had the highest sorption capacity than the historical char samples. The historical chars also had much higher negative charge than the newly produced char, but its surface area were lower than the new char. The results indicated that change in surface functional groups through natural oxidation rather than the change of surface area may have more pronounced influences on sorption characteristics, in which the negative charge on the historical chars' surface could hinder the adsorption of diuron and atrazine while enhance the sorption to copper ion. Biological assay to test the toxicity of diuron and copper ion for both historical and new chars on rye seed were conducted and will be presented in our poster.

  16. Iodinated chlorin p6 copper complex induces anti-proliferative effect in oral cancer cells through elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbadhikary, Paromita; Dube, Alok

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the anticancer chemotoxicity of previously reported iodinated chlorin p 6 copper complex (ICp 6 -Cu), a novel chlorophyll derivative in which copper is attached to the side chain carboxylate groups via coordination. Human oral carcinoma cells NT8e, 4451 and the non-cancerous keratinocyte HaCaT cells were treated with ICp 6 -Cu for 48 h in dark and cell viability, proliferation and morphological alterations were examined. ICp 6 -Cu showed pronounced cytotoxicity in cancer cells with IC 50 ∼40 μM, whereas, the viability of HaCaT cells was not affected. Cell proliferation assay revealed that ICp 6 -Cu at IC 50 concentration led to complete inhibition of cell proliferation in both the cell lines. Cell morphology studied by confocal microscopy showed absence of cell death via necrosis or apoptosis. Instead, the treated cells displayed distinct features of non-apoptotic death such as highly vacuolated cytoplasm, lysosomal membrane permeabilization and damage to cytoskeleton F-actin filaments. In addition, ICp 6 -Cu treatment led to time dependent increase in the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the cytotoxicity of ICp 6 -Cu was significantly inhibited by pre-treatment of cells with antioxidants (glutathione and trolox). These findings revealed that ICp 6 -Cu is a potent chemotoxic agent which can induce cytotoxic effect in cancer cells through elevation of intracellular ROS. It is suggested that ICp 6 -Cu may provide tumor selective chemotoxicity by exploiting difference of redox environment in normal and cancer cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Modelling nitrogen saturation and carbon accumulation in heathland soils under elevated nitrogen deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, C.D.; Caporn, S.J.M.; Carroll, J.A.; Pilkington, M.G.; Wilson, D.B.; Ray, N.; Cresswell, N.

    2006-01-01

    A simple model of nitrogen (N) saturation, based on an extension of the biogeochemical model MAGIC, has been tested at two long-running heathland N manipulation experiments. The model simulates N immobilisation as a function of organic soil C/N ratio, but permits a proportion of immobilised N to be accompanied by accumulation of soil carbon (C), slowing the rate of C/N ratio change and subsequent N saturation. The model successfully reproduced observed treatment effects on soil C and N, and inorganic N leaching, for both sites. At the C-rich upland site, N addition led to relatively small reductions in soil C/N, low inorganic N leaching, and a substantial increase in organic soil C. At the C-poor lowland site, soil C/N ratio decreases and N leaching increases were much more dramatic, and soil C accumulation predicted to be smaller. The study suggests that (i) a simple model can effectively simulate observed changes in soil and leachate N; (ii) previous model predictions based on a constant soil C pool may overpredict future N leaching; (iii) N saturation may develop most rapidly in dry, organic-poor, high-decomposition systems; and (iv) N deposition may lead to significantly enhanced soil C sequestration, particularly in wet, nutrient-poor, organic-rich systems. - Enhanced carbon sequestration may slow the rate of nitrogen saturation in heathlands

  18. A Simple Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Copper in Some Real, Environmental, Biological, Food and Soil Samples Using Salicylaldehyde Benzoyl Hydrazone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jamaluddin Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A very simple, ultra-sensitive, highly selective and non-extractive spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace amounts copper(II has been developed. Salicylaldehy debenzoyl hydrazone (SAL-BH has been proposed as a new analytical reagent for the direct non-extractive spectrophotometric determination of copper(II. SAL-BH reacts with copper in a slightly acidic (0.0001-0.005 M H2SO4 in 40% 1,4-dioxane media with copper(II to give a highly absorbent greenish yellow chelate with a molar ratio 1:1(CuII: SAL-BH The reaction is instantaneous and the maximum absorption was obtained at 404 nm and remains stable for 72 h. The average molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity were found to be 1.4×105 L mol-1 cm-1 and 5.0 ng cm-2 of copper(II, respectively. Linear calibration graphs were obtained for 0.01 – 18 mg L-1 of CuII. The detection limit and quantification limit of the reaction system were found to be 1 ng mL-1 and 10 µg L-1, respectively. A large excess of over 50 cations, anions and complexing agents (e.g., tartrate, oxalate, citrate, phosphate, thiocyanate etc. do not interfere in the determination. The method is highly selective for copper and was successfully used for the determination of copper in several standard reference materials (steels and alloys as well as in some environmental waters (portable and polluted, biological (human blood and urine, food and soil samples and solutions containing both copper(I and copper(II as well as some complex synthetic mixtures. The results of the proposed method for biological and food samples were comparable with AAS and were found to be in good agreement. The method has high precision and accuracy (s = ± 0.01 for 0.5 mg L-1.

  19. Effects of elevated nitrogen deposition on soil microbial biomass carbon in major subtropical forests of southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui WANG; Jiangming MO; Xiankai LU; Jinghua XUE; Jiong LI; Yunting FANG

    2009-01-01

    The effects of elevated nitrogen deposition on soil microbial biomass carbon (C) and extractable dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in three types of forest of southern China were studied in November, 2004 and June, 2006. Plots were established in a pine forest (PF), a mixed pine and broad-leaved forest (MF) and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (MEBF) in the Dinghushan Nature Reserve. Nitrogen treatments included a control (no N addition), low N (50 kg N/(hm2.a)), medium N (100 kg N/ (hm2. a)) and high N (150 kg N/(hm2. a)). Microbial biomass C and extractable DOC were determined using a chloro-form fumigation-extraction method. Results indicate that microbial biomass C and extractable DOC were higher in June, 2006 than in November, 2004 and higher in the MEBF than in the PF or the MF. The response of soil microbial biomass C and extractable DOC to nitrogen deposition varied depending on the forest type and the level of nitrogen treatment. In the PF or MF forests, no significantly different effects of nitrogen addition were found on soil microbial biomass C and extractable DOC. In the MEBF, however, the soil microbial biomass C generally decreased with increased nitrogen levels and high nitrogen addition significantly reduced soil microbial biomass C. The response of soil extractable DOC to added nitrogen in the MEBF shows the opposite trend to soil microbial biomass C. These results suggest that nitrogen deposition may increase the accumulation of soil organic carbon in the MEBF in the study region.

  20. Time and moisture effects on total and bioavailable copper in soil water extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tom-Petersen, Andreas; Hansen, H.C.B.; Nybroe, O.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental risk assessment of heavy metals in soil frequently involves testing of freshly spiked soils kept under stable humidity conditions, but it has been questioned whether these assessments are representative of the field situation. Furthermore, the poor correspondence that is often found...

  1. Soil microbial and physical properties and their relations along a steep copper gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Møldrup, Per; Holmstrup, Martin

    2012-01-01

    years; from background concentrations up to 3837 mg Cu kg–1) on soil microbial enzyme activity, physical properties and resilience to compression. Soil samples and cores were taken from a fallow sandy loam field in Denmark. Microbial activity was quantified using fluorescein diacetate (FDA...

  2. Environmental-geochemical characteristics of Cu in the soil and water in copper-rich deposit area of southeastern Hubei Province, along the middle Yangtze River, Central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ling; Wang Lu; Yin Kedong; Lv Ying; Zhang Derong

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the natural Cu background concentration and Cu natural and anthropogenic contamination in soil, water and crop were investigated systematically in Huangshi area. The results show that regional geology is the dominant factor controlling the natural Cu background concentration in soil and water, and that pH is important to control the vertical distribution of Cu in soil under the same geographical and climatic conditions. The mineralization of rock bodies causes the natural Cu increase in soil and water, whereas, a large number of mining-smelting plants and chemical works are the main sources of Cu anthropogenic contamination. Cu in naturally and anthropogenically polluted soil displays differences in total and available contents, vertical distribution patterns and physico-chemical properties, the same happens in water. - Consider the rock-soil-water-crop as a system to study the geochemical activities and environmental pollution of copper.

  3. Prediction of the long term accumulation and leaching of copper in Dutch agricultural soils: a risk assessment study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenenberg, J.E.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Vries, de W.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a model study to assess whether current copper inputs on agricultural land lead to accumulation of copper and in time to an exceedance of a Predicted No Effect Concentration. A copper mass balance model was applied to the whole Netherlands. Future copper concentrations after

  4. Effects of long-term elevated CO2 on N2-fixing, denitrifying and nitrifying enzyme activities in forest soils under Pinus sylvestriformis in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jun-Qiang; HAN Shi-Jie; REN Fei-Rong; ZHOU Yu-Mei; ZHANG Yan

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of elevated CO2 on soil N process at Changbai Mountain in Jilin Province,northeastern China (42o24'N,128o06'E,and 738 m elevation).A randomized complete block design of ambient and elevated CO2 was established in an open-top chamber facility in the spring of 1999.Changpai Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris var.sylvestriformis seeds were sowed in May,1999 and CO2 fumigation treatments began after seeds germination.In each year,the exposure started at the end of April and stopped at the end of October.Soil samples were collected in June and August 2006 and in June 2007,and soil nitrifying,denitrifying and N2-fixing enzyme activities were measured.Results show that soil nitrifying enzyme activities (NEA) in the 5-10 cm soil layer were significantly increased at elevated CO2 by 30.3% in June 2006,by 30.9% in August 2006 and by 11.3% in June 2007.Soil denitrifying enzyme activities (DEA) were significantly decreased by elevated CO2 treatment in June 2006 (P < 0.012) and August 2006 (P < 0.005) samplings in our study; no significant difference was detected in June 2007,and no significant changes in N2-fixing enzyme activity were found.This study suggests that elevated CO2 can alter soil nitrifying enzyme and denitrifying enzyme activities.

  5. Combinational effects of sulfomethoxazole and copper on soil microbial community and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aiju; Cao, Huansheng; Yang, Yan; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Liu, Xiao

    2016-03-01

    Sulfonamides and Cu are largely used feed additives in poultry farm. Subsequently, they are spread onto agricultural soils together with contaminated manure used as fertilizer. Both sulfonamides and Cu affect the soil microbial community. However, an interactive effect of sulfonamides and Cu on soil microorganisms is not well understood. Therefore, a short-time microcosm experiment was conducted to investigate the interaction of veterinary antibiotic sulfomethoxazole (SMX) and Cu on soil microbial structure composition and functions. To this end, selected concentrations of SMX (0, 5, and 50 mg kg(-1)) and Cu (0, 300, and 500 mg kg(-1)) were combined, respectively. Clear dose-dependent effects of SMX on microbial biomass and basal respiration were determined, and these effects were amplified in the presence of additional Cu. For activities of soil enzymes including β-glucosidase, urease, and protease, clear reducing effects were determined in soil samples containing 5 or 50 mg kg(-1) of SMX, and the interaction of SMX and Cu was significant, particularly in soil samples containing 50 mg kg(-1) SMX or 500 mg kg(-1) Cu. SMX amendments, particularly in combination with Cu, significantly reduced amounts of the total, bacterial, and fungal phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in soil. Moreover, the derived ratio of bacteria to fungi decreased significantly with incremental SMX and Cu, and principal component analysis of the PLFAs showed that soil microbial composition was significantly affected by SMX interacted with Cu at 500 mg kg(-1). All of these results indicated that the interaction of SMX and Cu was synergistic to amplify the negative effect of SMX on soil microbial biomass, structural composition, and even the enzymatic function.

  6. Ecotoxicological effects of copper and selenium combined pollution on soil enzyme activities in planted and unplanted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Liang, Dongli; Liu, Juanjuan; Xie, Junyu

    2013-04-01

    The present study explored the joint effects of Cu and Se pollution mechanisms on soil enzymes to provide references for the phytoremediation of contaminated areas and agricultural environmental protection. Pot experiments and laboratory analyses were carried out to study the individual and combined influences of Cu and Se on soil enzyme activities. The activities of four soil enzymes (urease, catalase, alkaline phosphatase, and nitrate reductase) were chosen. All soil enzyme activities tested were inhibited by Cu and Se pollution, either individually or combined, in varying degrees, following the order nitrate reductase>urease>catalase>alkaline phosphatase. Growing plants stimulated soil enzyme activity in a similar trend compared with treatments without plants. The joint effects of Cu and Se on catalase activity showed synergism at low concentrations and antagonism at high concentrations, whereas the opposite was observed for urease activity. However, nitrate reductase activity showed synergism both with and without plant treatments. The half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of exchangeable fractions had a similar trend with the EC50 of total content and was lower than that of total content. The EC50 values of nitrate reductase and urease activities were significantly lower for both Se and Cu (p<0.05), which indicated that they were more sensitive than the other two enzymes. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  7. Impact of soil properties on critical concentrations of cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, and mercury in soil and soil solution in view of ecotoxicological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Wim; Lofts, Steve; Tipping, Ed; Meili, Markus; Groenenberg, Jan E; Schütze, Gudrun

    2007-01-01

    Risk assessment for metals in terrestrial ecosystems, including assessments of critical loads, requires appropriate critical limits for metal concentrations in soil and soil solution. This chapter presents an overview of methodologies used to derive critical (i) reactive and total metal concentrations in soils and (ii) free metal ion and total metal concentrations in soil solution for Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Hg, taking into account the effect of soil properties related to ecotoxicological effects. Most emphasis is given to the derivation of critical free and total metal concentrations in soil solution, using available NOEC soil data and transfer functions relating solid-phase and dissolved metal concentrations. This approach is based on the assumption that impacts on test organisms (plants, microorganisms, and soil invertebrates) are mainly related to the soil solution concentration (activity) and not to the soil solid-phase content. Critical Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Hg concentrations in soil solution vary with pH and DOC level. The results obtained are generally comparable to those derived for surface waters based on impacts to aquatic organisms. Critical soil metal concentrations, related to the derived soil solution limits, can be described as a function of pH and organic matter and clay content, and varying about one order of magnitude between different soil types.

  8. [Effects of short-term elevated CO2 concentration and drought stress on the rhizosphere effects of soil carbon, nitrogen and microbes of Bothriochloa ischaemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lie; Liu, Guo Bin; Li, Peng; Xue, Sha

    2017-10-01

    A water control pot experiment was conducted in climate controlled chambers to study soil carbon, nitrogen and microbial community structure and their rhizosphere effects in the rhizosphere and non rhizosphere soil of Bothriochloa ischaemum at elevated CO2 concentrations (800 μmol·mol -1 ) under three water regimes, i.e., well watered (75%-80% of field capacity, FC), moderate drought stress (55%-60% of FC), and severe drought stress (35%-40% of FC). The results showed that elevated CO2 concentration and drought stress did not have significant impacts on the content of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen or dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the rhizosphere and bulk soils or their rhizosphere effects. Elevated CO2 concentration significantly decreased dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) content in the rhizosphere soil under moderate drought stress, increased DOC/DON, and significantly increased the negative rhizosphere effect of DON and positive rhizosphere effect of DOC/DON. Drought stress and elevated CO2 concentration did not have significant impacts on the rhizosphere effect of total and bacterial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA). Drought stress under elevated CO2 concentration significantly increased the G + /G - PLFA in the rhizosphere soil and decreased the G + /G - PLFA in the bulk soil, so its rhizosphere effect significantly increased, indicating that the soil microbial community changed from chemoautotroph microbes to heterotrophic microbes.

  9. HEAVY METALS ABUNDANCE IN THE SOILS OF THE PANTELIMON – BRĂNEŞTI AREA, ILFOV COUNTY a CADMIUM, COBALT, CHROMIUM, COPPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lacatusu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available More than 20 years later, a new research on heavy metals (cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper contents in the soil cover of the Pantelimon – Brăneşti area located East of the Bucharest Municipality and exposed for several decades to the influence of industrial emissions from two non-ferrous metallurgy plants is presented. A 5,912.72 ha area was investigated, 544 samples taken by geometric horizons (0-20; 20-40; 40-60 cm from 215 points have been analyzed.The dominant soils are: Preluvosols, Chernozems, Phaeozems. The analytical data showed that all the heavy metals contents are below the maximum allowable limits and of the alarm thresholds. Higher cadmium and copper concentrations have been registered in the 40-60 cm layer and higher chromium and copper concentrations in the 0-20 cm layer. Cadmium and cobalt distributions are non-central, with a right asymmetry, and the chromium and copper ones are slightly symmetric. The surface distribution of the heavy metals shows the presence of some high contents areas distributed insularly, with a higher frequency around the industrial units. The geochemical abundance indexes are higher than 1 for cadmium and lower for cobalt, chromium, and copper, and the pedo-geochemical abundance indexes are lower than 1 only for chromium.

  10. Copper availability as related to soil copper fractions in oxisols under liming Calagem e os teores disponíveis e as frações de cobre em latossolos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clístenes Williams Araújo do Nascimento

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the chemical forms of copper in soils and the relationships of these forms with soil copper availability are important for predicting the copper behavior in the soil-plant system. The present work studies the influence of liming on the available contents of copper as well as on the forms of copper fractions in six types of Oxisols. Soil samples, with and without liming, received copper at rates of 0.0, 20.0 and 40.0 mg dm-3 and remained incubated for 30 days. Then, available copper was extracted with Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3, DTPA and EDTA solutions, and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Additionally, soil samples were extracted in a sequential procedure to determine Cu in fractions of soil, as follows: exchangeable-Cu fraction, organic matter-Cu fraction, Mn oxide-Cu fraction, amorphous Fe oxide-Cu fraction, crystalline Fe oxide-Cu fraction, residual-Cu fraction, and the total Cu content in the soil. Soil samples to which Cu was added presented higher Cu retention in the organic matter fraction with a small percentage retained in the exchangeable-Cu fraction. Liming resulted in a decrease of Cu in the exchangeable and organic matter fractions and an increase in the Fe and Mn oxide fractions and in the residual fraction. Without liming, the organic matter fraction presented the highest contribution to Cu content found in the soil extracts obtained with all extractors, except EDTA. For treatments with liming, Cu contents in the organic matter fraction were better correlated to Cu contents in extracts obtained with DTPA and Mehlich-3.O conhecimento das formas químicas em que se encontra o cobre em solos, e suas relações com os teores disponíveis, são importantes para a previsão do seu comportamento no sistema solo-planta. Nesse sentido, este trabalho estuda a influência da calagem sobre os teores disponíveis e sobre o fracionamento de Cu em amostras de seis Latossolos. Essas amostras, submetidas ou não a

  11. Are there links between responses of soil microbes and ecosystem functioning to elevated CO2, N deposition and warming? A global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Vandegehuchte, Martijn L; Shaw, E Ashley; Dam, Marie; Post, Keith H; Ramirez, Kelly S; Sylvain, Zachary A; de Tomasel, Cecilia Milano; Wall, Diana H

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in research to understand how global changes' impacts on soil biota translate into altered ecosystem functioning. However, results vary between global change effects, soil taxa, and ecosystem processes studied, and a synthesis of relationships is lacking. Therefore, here we initiate such a synthesis to assess whether the effect size of global change drivers (elevated CO2, N deposition, and warming) on soil microbial abundance is related with the effect size of these drivers on ecosystem functioning (plant biomass, soil C cycle, and soil N cycle) using meta-analysis and structural equation modeling. For N deposition and warming, the global change effect size on soil microbes was positively associated with the global change effect size on ecosystem functioning, and these relationships were consistent across taxa and ecosystem processes. However, for elevated CO2, such links were more taxon and ecosystem process specific. For example, fungal abundance responses to elevated CO2 were positively correlated with those of plant biomass but negatively with those of the N cycle. Our results go beyond previous assessments of the sensitivity of soil microbes and ecosystem processes to global change, and demonstrate the existence of general links between the responses of soil microbial abundance and ecosystem functioning. Further we identify critical areas for future research, specifically altered precipitation, soil fauna, soil community composition, and litter decomposition, that are need to better quantify the ecosystem consequences of global change impacts on soil biodiversity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Modified natural diatomite and its enhanced immobilization of lead, copper and cadmium in simulated contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Xinxin; Kang, Shenghong; Wang, Huimin; Li, Hongying; Zhang, Yunxia; Wang, Guozhong; Zhao, Huijun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We modify natural diatomite using the facile acid treatment and ultrasonication. • Modification add pore volume, surface area and electronegativity of natural diatomite. • Modified diatomite is superior to natural diatomite in soil heavy metal remediation. • Modified diatomite can be promising for in-situ immobilization of heavy metal in soil. - Abstract: Natural diatomite was modified through facile acid treatment and ultrasonication, which increased its electronegativity, and the pore volume and surface area achieved to 0.211 cm 3 g −1 and 76.9 m 2 g −1 , respectively. Modified diatomite was investigated to immobilize the potential toxic elements (PTEs) of Pb, Cu and Cd in simulated contaminated soil comparing to natural diatomite. When incubated with contaminated soils at rates of 2.5% and 5.0% by weight for 90 days, modified diatomite was more effective in immobilizing Pb, Cu and Cd than natural diatomite. After treated with 5.0% modified diatomite for 90 days, the contaminated soils showed 69.7%, 49.7% and 23.7% reductions in Pb, Cu and Cd concentrations after 0.01 M CaCl 2 extraction, respectively. The concentrations of Pb, Cu and Cd were reduced by 66.7%, 47.2% and 33.1% in the leaching procedure, respectively. The surface complexation played an important role in the immobilization of PTEs in soils. The decreased extractable metal content of soil was accompanied by improved microbial activity which significantly increased (P < 0.05) in 5.0% modified diatomite-amended soils. These results suggested that modified diatomite with micro/nanostructured characteristics increased the immobilization of PTEs in contaminated soil and had great potential as green and low-cost amendments

  13. Modified natural diatomite and its enhanced immobilization of lead, copper and cadmium in simulated contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Xinxin, E-mail: xxye@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Centre for Environmental and Energy Nanomaterials, Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Kang, Shenghong; Wang, Huimin [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Centre for Environmental and Energy Nanomaterials, Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Li, Hongying [Institute of Soil and Fertilizer, Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhang, Yunxia [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Centre for Environmental and Energy Nanomaterials, Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wang, Guozhong, E-mail: gzhwang@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Centre for Environmental and Energy Nanomaterials, Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhao, Huijun [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Centre for Environmental and Energy Nanomaterials, Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Centre for Clean Environment and Energy, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, Queensland 4222 (Australia)

    2015-05-30

    Highlights: • We modify natural diatomite using the facile acid treatment and ultrasonication. • Modification add pore volume, surface area and electronegativity of natural diatomite. • Modified diatomite is superior to natural diatomite in soil heavy metal remediation. • Modified diatomite can be promising for in-situ immobilization of heavy metal in soil. - Abstract: Natural diatomite was modified through facile acid treatment and ultrasonication, which increased its electronegativity, and the pore volume and surface area achieved to 0.211 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1} and 76.9 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, respectively. Modified diatomite was investigated to immobilize the potential toxic elements (PTEs) of Pb, Cu and Cd in simulated contaminated soil comparing to natural diatomite. When incubated with contaminated soils at rates of 2.5% and 5.0% by weight for 90 days, modified diatomite was more effective in immobilizing Pb, Cu and Cd than natural diatomite. After treated with 5.0% modified diatomite for 90 days, the contaminated soils showed 69.7%, 49.7% and 23.7% reductions in Pb, Cu and Cd concentrations after 0.01 M CaCl{sub 2} extraction, respectively. The concentrations of Pb, Cu and Cd were reduced by 66.7%, 47.2% and 33.1% in the leaching procedure, respectively. The surface complexation played an important role in the immobilization of PTEs in soils. The decreased extractable metal content of soil was accompanied by improved microbial activity which significantly increased (P < 0.05) in 5.0% modified diatomite-amended soils. These results suggested that modified diatomite with micro/nanostructured characteristics increased the immobilization of PTEs in contaminated soil and had great potential as green and low-cost amendments.

  14. [Leaching Remediation of Copper and Lead Contaminated Lou Soil by Saponin Under Different Conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hong-xia; Yang, Ya-li; Li, Zhen; Xu, Yan; Li, Rong-hua; Meng, Zhao-fu; Yang, Ya-ti

    2015-04-01

    In order to investigate the leaching remediation effect of the eco-friendly biosurfactant saponin for Cu and Pb in contaminated Lou soil, batch tests method was used to study the leaching effect of saponin solution on single Cu, Pb contaminated Lou soil and mixed Cu and Pb contaminated Lou soil under different conditions such as reaction time, mass concentration of saponin, pH, concentration of background electrolyte and leaching times. The results showed that the maximum leaching removal effect of Cu and Pb in contaminated Lou soil was achieved by complexation of the heavy metals with saponin micelle, when the mass concentration of saponin solution was 50 g x L(-1), pH was 5.0, the reaction time was 240 min, and there was no background electrolyte. In single and mixed contaminated Lou soil, the leaching percentages of Cu were 29.02% and 25.09% after a single leaching with 50 g x L(-1) saponin under optimal condition, while the single leaching percentages of Pb were 31.56% and 28.03%, respectively. The result indicated the removal efficiency of Pb was more significant than that of Cu. After 4 times of leaching, the cumulative leaching percentages of Cu reached 58.92% and 53.11%, while the cumulative leaching percentages of Pb reached 77.69% and 65.32% for single and mixed contaminated Lou soil, respectively. The fractionation results of heavy metals in soil before and after a single leaching showed that the contents of adsorbed and exchangeable Cu and Pb increased in the contaminated soil, while the carbonate-bound, organic bound and sulfide residual Cu and Pb in the contaminated Lou soil could be effectively removed by saponin.

  15. Soil Warming Elevates the Abundance of Collembola in the Songnen Plain of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiumin Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil warming and precipitation control in the context of soil warming on Collembola community was studied in Songnen grassland, China. Treatments included (1 control; (2 soil warming; (3 soil warming with low precipitation; and (4 soil warming with high precipitation. The open top chambers were used to increase the soil temperature, and the low and high precipitation were created by covering 30% of the chamber and artificial addition after rainfall through the three-year long field experiment. Soil samples were taken and collembolans were extracted in the 15th in June, August and October from 2010 to 2012. Abundance of total Collembola and dominant morphospecies Orchesellides sp.1 was significantly increased by soil warming. Total Collembola abundance was not affected by the precipitation. However, the abundance of Mesaphorura sp.1 was significantly increased by warming with low precipitation treatment. Collembola species richness, diversity and evenness were not impacted by any treatment through all the sampling times. These results suggest that more attention should be paid to the Collembola community variation under global warming in the future.

  16. Distinct responses of soil microbial communities to elevated CO2 and O3 in a soybean agro-ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhili; Xiong, Jinbo; Kent, Angela D; Deng, Ye; Xue, Kai; Wang, Gejiao; Wu, Liyou; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong

    2014-03-01

    The concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and tropospheric ozone (O3) have been rising due to human activities. However, little is known about how such increases influence soil microbial communities. We hypothesized that elevated CO2 (eCO2) and elevated O3 (eO3) would significantly affect the functional composition, structure and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities, and that various functional groups would respond to such atmospheric changes differentially. To test these hypotheses, we analyzed 96 soil samples from a soybean free-air CO2 enrichment (SoyFACE) experimental site using a comprehensive functional gene microarray (GeoChip 3.0). The results showed the overall functional composition and structure of soil microbial communities shifted under eCO2, eO3 or eCO2+eO3. Key functional genes involved in carbon fixation and degradation, nitrogen fixation, denitrification and methane metabolism were stimulated under eCO2, whereas those involved in N fixation, denitrification and N mineralization were suppressed under eO3, resulting in the fact that the abundance of some eO3-supressed genes was promoted to ambient, or eCO2-induced levels by the interaction of eCO2+eO3. Such effects appeared distinct for each treatment and significantly correlated with soil properties and soybean yield. Overall, our analysis suggests possible mechanisms of microbial responses to global atmospheric change factors through the stimulation of C and N cycling by eCO2, the inhibition of N functional processes by eO3 and the interaction by eCO2 and eO3. This study provides new insights into our understanding of microbial functional processes in response to global atmospheric change in soybean agro-ecosystems.

  17. Evolution of Bioavailable Copper and Major Soil Cations in Contaminated Soils Treated with Ethylenediaminedisuccinate: A Two-Year Experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komárek, M.; Michálková, Z.; Száková, J.; Vaněk, A.; Grygar, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 5 (2011), s. 525-530 ISSN 0007-4861 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : soil remediation * chelating agent * metal * bioavailability Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 1.018, year: 2011

  18. Modified natural diatomite and its enhanced immobilization of lead, copper and cadmium in simulated contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xinxin; Kang, Shenghong; Wang, Huimin; Li, Hongying; Zhang, Yunxia; Wang, Guozhong; Zhao, Huijun

    2015-05-30

    Natural diatomite was modified through facile acid treatment and ultrasonication, which increased its electronegativity, and the pore volume and surface area achieved to 0.211 cm(3) g(-1) and 76.9 m(2) g(-1), respectively. Modified diatomite was investigated to immobilize the potential toxic elements (PTEs) of Pb, Cu and Cd in simulated contaminated soil comparing to natural diatomite. When incubated with contaminated soils at rates of 2.5% and 5.0% by weight for 90 days, modified diatomite was more effective in immobilizing Pb, Cu and Cd than natural diatomite. After treated with 5.0% modified diatomite for 90 days, the contaminated soils showed 69.7%, 49.7% and 23.7% reductions in Pb, Cu and Cd concentrations after 0.01 M CaCl2 extraction, respectively. The concentrations of Pb, Cu and Cd were reduced by 66.7%, 47.2% and 33.1% in the leaching procedure, respectively. The surface complexation played an important role in the immobilization of PTEs in soils. The decreased extractable metal content of soil was accompanied by improved microbial activity which significantly increased (Psoils. These results suggested that modified diatomite with micro/nanostructured characteristics increased the immobilization of PTEs in contaminated soil and had great potential as green and low-cost amendments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 on soil urease and phosphatase activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijun; Wu, Zhijie; Huang, Guohong; Zhou, Likai

    2002-10-01

    The response of soil urease and phosphatase activities at different rice growth stages to free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) was studied. The results showed that comparing with the ambient atmospheric CO2 concentration (370 mumol.mol-1), FACE (570 mumol.mol-1) significantly increased the urease activity of 0-5 cm soil layer at the vigorous growth stage of rice, whole that of 5-10 cm layer had no significant change during the whole growing season. Phosphatase activity of 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm soil layers significantly increased, and the peak increment was at the vigorous growth stage of rice.

  20. Soil respiration, root biomass, and root turnover following long-term exposure of northern forests to elevated atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt S. Pregitzer; Andrew J. Burton; John S. King; Donald R. Zak

    2008-01-01

    The Rhinelander free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment is designed to understand ecosystem response to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (+CO2) and elevated tropospheric ozone (+O3). The objectives of this study were: to understand how soil respiration responded to the experimental treatments; to...

  1. Decomposition of soil and plant carbon from pasture systems after 9 years of exposure to elevated CO2: impact on C cycling and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de M.A.; Six, J.; Harris, D.; Blums, H.; Kessel, van C.

    2004-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 may alter decomposition rates through changes in plant material quality and through its impact on soil microbial activity. This study examines whether plant material produced under elevated CO2 decomposes differently from plant material produced under ambient CO2. Moreover,

  2. Glycine uptake in heath plants and soil microbes responds to elevated temperature, CO2 and drought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Luise C.; Michelsen, Anders; Jonasson, Sven

    2009-01-01

    the responses to single factors treatments. The soil microbes were superior to plants in the short-term competition for the added glycine, as indicated by an 18 times larger 15N recovery in the microbial biomass compared to the plant biomass. The soil microbes acquired glycine largely as an intact compound (87...... here present results from a field experiment in which the effects of these three climate change factors are investigated solely and in all combinations at a temperate heath dominated by heather (Calluna vulgaris) and wavy hair-grass (Deschampsia flexuosa). Climate induced increases in plant production...... may increase plant root exudation of dissolved organic compounds such as amino acids, and the release of amino acids during decomposition of organic matter. Such free amino acids in soil serve as substrates for soil microorganisms and are also acquired as nutrients directly by plants. We investigated...

  3. Symbiotic Effect of Trichoderma atroviride on Growth Characteristics and Yield of two Cultivars of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. in a Contaminated Soil Treated with Copper Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E TashakoriFard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural soils can be a threat to crop production due to plant toxicity. In the recent years, hyperaccumulator plants are cultivated to cleaning up the soils which contaminated with pollutants especially heavy metals. However, the biomass of these plants is low and metal specific. Many studies have shown that microorganisms can be used to significantly reduce the toxicity of heavy metals. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the role of Trichoderma atroviride on the growth characteristics of tow cultivars of rapeseed in different levels on copper. Materials and Methods In this study, a pot experiment was conducted in factorial arrangement based completely randomized design with three replicates. Treatment were T. atroviride fungi at two levels of inoculated and non-inoculated plants, four levels of copper nitrate including 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg l-1 and two cultivars of rapeseed consist of Hayola 401 and Sarigol. Trichoderma atroviride was prepared from Mycology Lab of Sari Agricultural Science and Natural Resource University. PDA medium (potato extract, dextrose and agar was kept for a week at 25˚C to propagation of fungal strain. The used medium was previously sterilized in autoclave for 30 minutes. So, this fungus propagated in Wheat's bran for five days. Healthy and uniform seeds of rapeseeds were separated from rogues and infertile ones. Seeds disinfected in hypochlorite sodium 0.5% for five minute and then washed with distilled water three times. After preparing fungus spore suspension of 108 CFU per ml water, 50 g wheat' bran mixed to the soil of each pot. Twenty sterilized seeds sown in 2 cm of soil depth in 25×30 cm pot with 10 kg capacity. Copper nitrate was used to pollute treated soil. During this experiment did not used any pesticides and herbicides and all weed controlled manually. Some growth and yield related parameters such as plant height, number of secondary branches

  4. Copper concentration of vineyard soils as a function of pH variation and addition of poultry litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Ribeiro Nachtigall

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Copper (Cu concentration was evaluated as a function of pH variation and addition of poultry litter to a Dystrophic Lithic Udorthent and a Humic Dystrudept from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, cultivated with vines treated with successive applications of Cu-based product. Samples were collected from the surface layer (0 to 10 cm. Soluble Cu concentration was determined using DTPA and Mehlich III as extractants, and exchangeable Cu was determined in CaCl2. The availability of Cu was mainly affected by the soil pH. CaCl2 extractant had the best correlation with Cu concentration in contaminated soils, according to treatments applied. The addition of poultry litter did not reduce Cu availability in these soils. Total soil Cu content varied between 1,300 and 1,400 mg kg-1 in both soils. Copper available fractions, extracted by DTPA, CaCl2 and Mehlich III, averaged 35, 0.2 and 63%, respectively, of the total Cu present in the soil.Avaliaram-se os teores de Cu em função da variação do pH e da adição de cama-de-frango de dois solos com elevados teores deste elemento. Foram coletadas amostras da camada superficial (0 a 10 cm de um typical dystrophic Lithic Udorthent - LU (Neossolo Litólico distrófico típico e de um Humic Dystrudept - HD (Cambissolo Húmico alumínico típico da região da Serra do RS, cultivados com parreirais que receberam aplicações sucessivas de produtos à base de Cu. Foram determinados os teores de Cu solúvel em DTPA e pelo método Mehlich III, além do Cu trocável em CaCl2. A disponibilidade de Cu foi afetada principalmente pelo pH do solo. O extrator CaCl2 foi o que melhor se correlacionou com os teores de Cu em solos contaminados em função dos tratamentos aplicados. A adição de cama-de-frango não diminuiu a disponibilidade de Cu destes solos. Os teores de Cu total variaram entre 1.300 e 1.400 mg kg-1 nos dois solos. Considerando os teores totais de Cu nos solos, as frações "disponíveis", extra

  5. Assessment of soil nitrogen and phosphorous availability under elevated CO2 and N-fertilization in a short rotation poplar plantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagomarsino, A.; Moscatelli, M.C.; Hoosbeek, M.R.; Angelis, de P.; Grego, S.

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthetic stimulation by elevated [CO2] is largely regulated by nitrogen and phosphorus availability in the soil. During a 6 year Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment with poplar trees in two short rotations, inorganic forms of soil nitrogen, extractable phosphorus, microbial and total

  6. A MIXED MODEL ANALYSIS OF SOIL CO2 EFFLUX AND NIGHT-TIME RESPIRATION RESPONSES TO ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: We investigated the effects of elevated soil temperature and atmospheric CO2 on soil CO2 efflux and system respiration responses. The study was conducted in sun-lit controlled-environment chambers using two-year-old Douglas-fir seedlings grown in reconstructed litter-so...

  7. The effect of elevated cadmium content in soil on the uptake of nitrogen by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciecko, Z.; Kalembasa, S.; Wyszkowski, M.; Rolka, E. [University of Warmia & Mazury Olsztyn, Olsztyn (Poland). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cadmium (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg Cd/kg of soil) contamination in soil with the application of different substances (compost, brown coal, lime and bentonite) on the intake of nitrogen by some plants. The correlations between the nitrogen content in the plants and the cadmium concentration in the soil, as well as the plant yield and the content of micro- and macroelements in the plants were determined. Plant species and cadmium dose determined the effects of soil contamination with cadmium on the content of nitrogen. Large doses of cadmium caused an increase in nitrogen content in the Avena sativa straw and roots and in the Zea mays roots. Soil contamination with cadmium resulted in a decrease of nitrogen content in the Avena sativa grain, in above-ground parts and roots of the Lupinus luteus, in the above-ground parts of the Zea mays and in the above-ground parts and roots of Phacelia tanacaetifolia. Among the experimental different substances, the application of bentonite had the strongest and a usually negative effect on the nitrogen content in plants. The greatest effect of bentonite was on Avena sativa grain, above-ground parts Zea mays and Lupinus luteus and Phacelia tanacaetifolia. The content of nitrogen in the plants was generally positively correlated with the content of the macroelements and some of the microelements, regardless of the substances added to the soil.

  8. 226Ra/238U disequilibrium in an upland organic soil exhibiting elevated natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdall, M.; O'Dea, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study into the anomalous 226 Ra/ 238 U disequilibrium ( 226 Ra/ 238 U of 0.5-9) exhibited by an upland organic soil in Co. Donegal, Ireland. Radiochemical speciation of 226 Ra, 238 U and 228 Ra indicates that in this organic soil the high 226 Ra/ 238 U ratio is due to loss of 238 U relative to 226 Ra via oxidation and mobilisation of 238 U in the upper layers of the soil and subsequent loss in solution. At the lower, more reducing depths of the soil profile, 238 U and 226 Ra are essentially in equilibrium. Loss of 238 U appears to occur primarily from the easily oxidised organic and iron oxide fractions of the soil, samples exhibiting high 226 Ra/ 238 U ratios displaying significantly lower 238 U levels in these fractions than samples whose ratio is below the average value for the soil of the valley. Selective enrichment of 226 Ra by plants or preferential leaching of 226 Ra from the underlying rock is not supported by the results of this study

  9. Stair-Step Pattern of Soil Bacterial Diversity Mainly Driven by pH and Vegetation Types Along the Elevational Gradients of Gongga Mountain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiabao; Shen, Zehao; Li, Chaonan; Kou, Yongping; Wang, Yansu; Tu, Bo; Zhang, Shiheng; Li, Xiangzhen

    2018-01-01

    Ecological understandings of soil bacterial community succession and assembly mechanism along elevational gradients in mountains remain not well understood. Here, by employing the high-throughput sequencing technique, we systematically examined soil bacterial diversity patterns, the driving factors, and community assembly mechanisms along the elevational gradients of 1800-4100 m on Gongga Mountain in China. Soil bacterial diversity showed an extraordinary stair-step pattern along the elevational gradients. There was an abrupt decrease of bacterial diversity between 2600 and 2800 m, while no significant change at either lower (1800-2600 m) or higher (2800-4100 m) elevations, which coincided with the variation in soil pH. In addition, the community structure differed significantly between the lower and higher elevations, which could be primarily attributed to shifts in soil pH and vegetation types. Although there was no direct effect of MAP and MAT on bacterial community structure, our partial least squares path modeling analysis indicated that bacterial communities were indirectly influenced by climate via the effect on vegetation and the derived effect on soil properties. As for bacterial community assembly mechanisms, the null model analysis suggested that environmental filtering played an overwhelming role in the assembly of bacterial communities in this region. In addition, variation partition analysis indicated that, at lower elevations, environmental attributes explained much larger fraction of the β-deviation than spatial attributes, while spatial attributes increased their contributions at higher elevations. Our results highlight the importance of environmental filtering, as well as elevation-related spatial attributes in structuring soil bacterial communities in mountain ecosystems.

  10. Effect of various copper supplements to feed of laying hens on cu content in eggs, liver, excreta, soil, and herbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrivan, M; Skrivanová, V; Marounek, M

    2006-02-01

    Copper is often added to poultry diets as an antimicrobial agent at doses greatly exceeding the nutritional requirement. In this study, the basal diet of laying hens containing 9.2 mg Cu/kg was supplemented with CuSO(4) x 5H(2)O at 0, 25, 65, 115, and 240 mg Cu/kg dry matter (DM). At Cu dietary concentration just below the level permitted by the European Union (35 mg/kg), the Cu content in the egg yolk was significantly (p eggshell, and liver, respectively. When Cu concentration in the diet was doubled, the effect of Cu on Cu content in eggshell and liver was statistically significant as well. In no liver sample was the hygienic limit of Cu content (80 mg/kg) exceeded. Supplementation of diets with Cu increased Cu concentration in excreta linearly from 25.3 to 396.8 mg/kg DM. Dried excreta were used for fertilization of grassland at 21 g N/m(2). Three months later, soil and herbage were sampled and analyzed. The Cu concentration in soil increased from 25.3 to only 46.4 mg/kg DM when dietary Cu concentration rose from 9.2 to 243.7 mg Cu/kg DM. Corresponding Cu concentrations in herbage were 6.8 and 19.2 mg/kg DM. It can be concluded that the deposition of Cu in eggs and liver of hens fed Cu-supplemented diets does not represent a hygienic risk. The accumulation of Cu in soil fertilized with excreta of Cu-fed hens and in herbage was limited.

  11. Soil Degradation Evaluated by a 27 years Landsat image (Vis-Nir-Swir-Tir), climate and digital elevation derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dematte, J. A., Sr.; Santos, N. V.; de Almeida Malzoni, M. M.; Poppiel, R. R.; Fongaro, C. T.; Rizzo, R.; Safanelli, J. L.; Sayão, V. M.; Mendes, W. S.

    2017-12-01

    According to Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 30% of the global soils are degraded. Therefore, novel researches on soil degradation process are imperative to prevent damages on social and environmental dynamics. Since we have a wide world dimension, and few manpower, we have to focus on high dimensional evaluation techniques such as remote sensing. The main goal of this work was to develop a method, based on a 27 years time-series of satellite images (Landsat), from which determine the most important factors on soil degradation. The area is located in south Brazil with a 1400 km2 area. The steps of the method are as follows: a) we collected images from the area and based on a novel technique determined the areas with exposed soils; b) we quantified soil properties such as clay and capacity of ionic exchange based on pixel spectra signature; c) the technique also indicated how many times a single pixel was with bare soil during the period; d) we also determined the surface temperature based on band 6; e) using elevation model we created the layers LS factor, drainage density, topographic wetness index, solar radiation; f) we also determined climate information (water balance); g) organic matter (OM) was also estimated. All factors from item a to f were balanced and overlapped (GIS) to generate an index of soil degradation, SD (fig 1a) - values from 1 (low risk) to 5 (high risk). We concluded that 30% of the area is degraded. SD presented coherent values with OM and validate the method. We observed that areas with higher SD (5) contain 43.6% less OM than the ones with low risk (1). In addition, the soil spectral reflectance curve was analyzed concluding that degraded soils shows higher intensity. The current land use (fig 1b) was correlated demonstrating that a higher risk of SD happens mainly in sugar cane (41.6%) in contrast to pasture (16.9%) and forestry (11.7%). Therefore, this approach allows land uses decision-making and public policies.

  12. Retention of copper originating from different fungicides in contrasting soil types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komárek, Michael; Vanek, Ales; Chrastný, Vladislav; Száková, Jirina; Kubová, Karolina; Drahota, Petr; Balík, Jirí

    2009-07-30

    This work described the retention of Cu from two different commonly used pesticides, the Bordeaux mixture (CuSO(4)+Ca(OH)(2)) and Cu-oxychloride (3Cu(OH)(2).CuCl(2)), and from Cu(NO(3))(2) in contrasting soil types (Leptosol, Chernozem, Cambisol). Thermodynamic modeling showed that Cu speciation was similar in all fungicide solutions. However, the retention of Cu differed with the fungicide used (maximum retention from the Bordeaux mixture) which indicates that different retention processes occurred in the studied soils. The suggested mechanisms include: specific and non-specific adsorption (especially on soil organic matter), precipitation of newly formed phases, such as CuO, Cu(OH)(2), Cu(2)(OH)(3)NO(3), CuCO(3)/Cu(2)(OH)(2)CO(3) and in the case of the Bordeaux mixture, precipitation of various Cu-hydroxysulfates. These phases were identified by the speciation model. The retention of fungicide-derived Cu in the studied soil types followed well the Freundlich isotherm and was directly controlled by the chemical form of Cu. This fact should be taken into account for both environmental and practical applications.

  13. Retention of copper originating from different fungicides in contrasting soil types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarek, Michael, E-mail: komarek@af.czu.cz [Department of Agro-Environmental Chemistry and Plant Nutrition, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 21, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vanek, Ales [Department of Soil Science and Soil Protection, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 21, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Chrastny, Vladislav [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of South Bohemia, Studentska 13, 370 05, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Szakova, Jirina; Kubova, Karolina [Department of Agro-Environmental Chemistry and Plant Nutrition, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 21, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Drahota, Petr [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Charles University Prague, Albertov 6, 128 43, Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Balik, Jiri [Department of Agro-Environmental Chemistry and Plant Nutrition, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 21, Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-30

    This work described the retention of Cu from two different commonly used pesticides, the Bordeaux mixture (CuSO{sub 4} + Ca(OH){sub 2}) and Cu-oxychloride (3Cu(OH){sub 2}.CuCl{sub 2}), and from Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} in contrasting soil types (Leptosol, Chernozem, Cambisol). Thermodynamic modeling showed that Cu speciation was similar in all fungicide solutions. However, the retention of Cu differed with the fungicide used (maximum retention from the Bordeaux mixture) which indicates that different retention processes occurred in the studied soils. The suggested mechanisms include: specific and non-specific adsorption (especially on soil organic matter), precipitation of newly formed phases, such as CuO, Cu(OH){sub 2}, Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}NO{sub 3}, CuCO{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3} and in the case of the Bordeaux mixture, precipitation of various Cu-hydroxysulfates. These phases were identified by the speciation model. The retention of fungicide-derived Cu in the studied soil types followed well the Freundlich isotherm and was directly controlled by the chemical form of Cu. This fact should be taken into account for both environmental and practical applications.

  14. Retention of copper originating from different fungicides in contrasting soil types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, Michael; Vanek, Ales; Chrastny, Vladislav; Szakova, Jirina; Kubova, Karolina; Drahota, Petr; Balik, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    This work described the retention of Cu from two different commonly used pesticides, the Bordeaux mixture (CuSO 4 + Ca(OH) 2 ) and Cu-oxychloride (3Cu(OH) 2 .CuCl 2 ), and from Cu(NO 3 ) 2 in contrasting soil types (Leptosol, Chernozem, Cambisol). Thermodynamic modeling showed that Cu speciation was similar in all fungicide solutions. However, the retention of Cu differed with the fungicide used (maximum retention from the Bordeaux mixture) which indicates that different retention processes occurred in the studied soils. The suggested mechanisms include: specific and non-specific adsorption (especially on soil organic matter), precipitation of newly formed phases, such as CuO, Cu(OH) 2 , Cu 2 (OH) 3 NO 3 , CuCO 3 /Cu 2 (OH) 2 CO 3 and in the case of the Bordeaux mixture, precipitation of various Cu-hydroxysulfates. These phases were identified by the speciation model. The retention of fungicide-derived Cu in the studied soil types followed well the Freundlich isotherm and was directly controlled by the chemical form of Cu. This fact should be taken into account for both environmental and practical applications.

  15. Potential and drawbacks of EDDS-enhanced phytoextraction of copper from contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarek, Michael, E-mail: komarek@af.czu.c [Department of Agro-Environmental Chemistry and Plant Nutrition, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vanek, Ales [Department of Soil Science and Soil Protection, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Mrnka, Libor; Sudova, Radka [Department of Mycorrhizal Symbioses, Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Lesni 322, 252 43 Pruhonice (Czech Republic); Szakova, Jirina [Department of Agro-Environmental Chemistry and Plant Nutrition, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Tejnecky, Vaclav [Department of Soil Science and Soil Protection, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 21 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Chrastny, Vladislav [Czech Geological Survey, Geologicka 6, 152 00 Prague 5 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branisovska 31, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-15

    Incubation and pot experiments using poplar (Populus nigra L. cv. Wolterson) were performed in order to evaluate the questionable efficiency of EDDS-enhanced phytoextraction of Cu from contaminated soils. Despite the promising conditions of the experiment (low contamination of soils with a single metal with a high affinity for EDDS, metal tolerant poplar species capable of producing high biomass yields, root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi), the phytoextraction efficiency was not sufficient. The EDDS concentrations used in this study (3 and 6 mmol kg{sup -1}) enhanced the mobility (up to a 100-fold increase) and plant uptake of Cu (up to a 65-fold increase). However, despite EDDS degradation and the competition of Fe and Al for the chelant, Cu leaching cannot be omitted during the process. Due to the low efficiency, further research should be focused on other environment-friendly methods of soil remediation. - Research focused on EDDS-enhanced phytoextraction of metals from contaminated soils has probably reached a dead-end.

  16. Potential and drawbacks of EDDS-enhanced phytoextraction of copper from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarek, Michael; Vanek, Ales; Mrnka, Libor; Sudova, Radka; Szakova, Jirina; Tejnecky, Vaclav; Chrastny, Vladislav

    2010-01-01

    Incubation and pot experiments using poplar (Populus nigra L. cv. Wolterson) were performed in order to evaluate the questionable efficiency of EDDS-enhanced phytoextraction of Cu from contaminated soils. Despite the promising conditions of the experiment (low contamination of soils with a single metal with a high affinity for EDDS, metal tolerant poplar species capable of producing high biomass yields, root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi), the phytoextraction efficiency was not sufficient. The EDDS concentrations used in this study (3 and 6 mmol kg -1 ) enhanced the mobility (up to a 100-fold increase) and plant uptake of Cu (up to a 65-fold increase). However, despite EDDS degradation and the competition of Fe and Al for the chelant, Cu leaching cannot be omitted during the process. Due to the low efficiency, further research should be focused on other environment-friendly methods of soil remediation. - Research focused on EDDS-enhanced phytoextraction of metals from contaminated soils has probably reached a dead-end.

  17. Seismic response of elevated rectangular water tanks considering soil structure interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visuvasam, J.; Simon, J.; Packiaraj, J. S.; Agarwal, R.; Goyal, L.; Dhingra, V.

    2017-11-01

    The overhead staged water tanks are susceptible for high lateral forces during earthquakes. Due to which, the failure of beam-columns joints, framing elements and toppling of tanks arise. To avoid such failures, they are analyzed and designed for lateral forced induced by devastating earthquakes assuming the base of the structures are fixed and considering functional needs, response reduction, soil types and severity of ground shaking. In this paper, the flexible base was provided as spring stiffness in order to consider the effect of soil properties on the seismic behaviour of water tanks. A linear time history earthquake analysis was performed using SAP2000. Parametric studies have been carried out based on various types of soils such as soft, medium and hard. The soil stiffness values highly influence the time period and base shear of the structure. The ratios of time period of flexible to fixed base and base shear of flexible to fixed base were observed against capacities of water tank and the overall height of the system. The both responses are found to be increased as the flexibility of soil medium decreases

  18. [Aluminum dissolution and changes of pH in soil solution during sorption of copper by aggregates of paddy soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hai-Bo; Zhao, Dao-Yuan; Qin, Chao; Li, Yu-Jiao; Dong, Chang-Xun

    2014-01-01

    Size fractions of soil aggregates in Lake Tai region were collected by the low-energy ultrasonic dispersion and the freeze-desiccation methods. The dissolution of aluminum and changes of pH in soil solution during sorption of Cu2+ and changes of the dissolution of aluminum at different pH in the solution of Cu2+ by aggregates were studied by the equilibrium sorption method. The results showed that in the process of Cu2+ sorption by aggregates, the aluminum was dissoluted and the pH decreased. The elution amount of aluminum and the decrease of pH changed with the sorption of Cu2+, both increasing with the increase of Cu2+ sorption. Under the same conditions, the dissolution of aluminum and the decrease of pH were in the order of coarse silt fraction > silt fraction > sand fraction > clay fraction, which was negatively correlated with the amount of iron oxide, aluminum and organic matter. It suggested that iron oxide, aluminum and organic matters had inhibitory and buffering effect on the aluminum dissolution and the decrease of pH during the sorption of Cu2+.

  19. Electrochemical techniques implementation for corrosion rate measurement in function of humidity level in grounding systems (copper and stainless steel) in soil samples from Tunja (Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Y.; Guerrero, L.; Blanco, J.; Jimenez, C.; Vera-Monroy, S. P.; Mejía-Camacho, A.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, DC electrochemical techniques were used to determine the corrosion rate of copper and stainless-steel electrodes used in grounding, varying the level of humidity, in sandy loam and clay loam soils. The maximum corrosion potentials were: for copper -211 and -236mV and for stainless steel of -252 and -281mV, in sandy loam and clay loam respectively, showing that in sandy loam the values are higher, about 30mV. The mechanism by which steel controls corrosion is by diffusion, whereas in copper it is carried out by transfer of mass and charge, which affects the rate of corrosion, which in copper reached a maximum value of 5mm/yr and in Steel 0.8mm/yr, determined by Tafel approximations. The behaviour of the corrosion rate was mathematically adjusted to an asymptotic model that faithfully explains the C.R. as a function of humidity, however, it is necessary to define the relation between the factor □ established in the model and the precise characteristics of the soil, such as the permeability or quantity of ions present.

  20. Comparative study on effects of four energy plants growth on chemical fractions of heavy metals and activity of soil enzymes in copper mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yang, Shiyong; Yang, Hongfei; Huang, Yongjie; Zheng, Liming; Yuan, Jing; Zhou, Shoubiao

    2018-05-12

    Four gramineous energy plants, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, M. floridulus, Phragmites australis, and Arundo donax were grown on copper tailings in the field for four years. Their phytoremediation potential was examined in terms of their effects on the fractions of heavy metals and soil enzyme activities. Results showed that plantation of these four gramineous plants has improved the proportion of organic material (OM)-binding fraction of heavy metals in copper tailings as a whole, and reduced the proportion of exchangeable and residual fractions. In particular, M. sacchariflorus growth improved significantly the proportion of the OM-binding fractions of Cu (1.73 times), Cd (1.71 times), Zn (1.18 times), and Pb (3.14 times) (P tailings to some extent. In particular, the activity of soil phosphatase and urease in planted tailings differed significantly from that of control (P tailings.

  1. Interactions between plant growth and soil nutrient cycling under elevated CO2: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de M.A.; Groenigen, van K.J.; Six, J.; Hungate, B.; Kessel, van C.

    2006-01-01

    free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) and open top chamber (OTC) studies are valuable tools for evaluating the impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 on nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Using meta-analytic techniques, we summarized the results of 117 studies on plant biomass production,

  2. The effect of elevated CO2 and temperature on nutrient uptake by plants grown in basaltic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasenor Iribe, E.; Dontsova, K.; Juarez, S.; Le Galliard, J. F.; Chollet, S.; Llavata, M.; Massol, F.; Barré, P.; Gelabert, A.; Daval, D.; Troch, P.; Barron-Gafford, G.; Van Haren, J. L. M.; Ferrière, R.

    2017-12-01

    Mineral weathering is an important process in soil formation. The interactions between the hydrologic, geologic and atmospheric cycles often determine the rate at which weathering occurs. Elements and nutrients weathered from the soil by water can be removed from soils in the runoff and seepage, but they can also remain in situ as newly precipitated secondary minerals or in biomass as a result of plant uptake. Here we present data from an experiment that was conducted at the controlled environment facility, Ecotron Ile-de-France (Saint-Pierre-les-Nemours, France) that studied mineral weathering and plant growth in granular basaltic material with high glass content that is being used to simulate soil in large scale Biosphere 2 Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO) project. The experiment used 3 plant types: velvet mesquite (Prosopis velutina), green spangletop (Leptochloa dubia), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa), which were grown under varying temperature and CO2 conditions. We hypothesized that plants grown under warmer, higher CO2 conditions would have larger nutrient concentrations as more mineral weathering would occur. Results of plant digestions and analysis showed that plant concentrations of lithogenic elements were significantly influenced by the plant type and were different between above- and below-ground parts of the plant. Temperature and CO2 treatment effects were less pronounced, but we observed significant temperature effect on plant uptake. A number of major and trace elements showed increase in concentration with increase in temperature at elevated atmospheric CO2. Effect was observed both in the shoots and in the roots, but more significant differences were observed in the shoots. Results presented here indicate that climate change would have strong effect on plant uptake and mobility of weathered elements during soil formation and give further evidence of interactions between abiotic and biological processes in terrestrial ecosystems.

  3. [Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen application on cotton biomass, nitrogen utilization and soil urease activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Ning; Yin, Fei-hu; Chen, Yun; Gao, Zhi-jian; Liu, Yu; Shi, Lei

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a semi-open-top artificial climate chamber was used to study the effect of CO2 enrichment (360 and 540 µmol · mol(-1)) and nitrogen addition (0, 150, 300 and 450 kg · hm(-2)) on cotton dry matter accumulation and distribution, nitrogen absorption and soil urease activity. The results showed that the dry matter accumulation of bud, stem, leaf and the whole plant increased significantly in the higher CO2 concentration treatment irrespective of nitrogen level. The dry matter of all the detected parts of plant with 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen addition was significantly higher than those with the other nitrogen levels irrespective of CO2 concentration, indicating reasonable nitrogen fertilization could significantly improve cotton dry matter accumulation. Elevated CO2 concentration had significant impact on the nitrogen absorption contents of cotton bud and stem. Compared to those under CO2 concentration of 360 µmol · mol(-1), the nitrogen contents of bud and stem both increased significantly under CO2 concentration of 540 µmol · mol(-1). The nitrogen content of cotton bud in the treatment of 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen was the highest among the four nitrogen fertilizer treatments. While the nitrogen contents of cotton stem in the treatments of 150 kg · hm(-2) and 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels were higher than those in the treatment of 0 kg · hm(-2) and 450 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels. The nitrogen content of cotton leaf was significantly influenced by the in- teraction of CO2 elevation and N addition as the nitrogen content of leaf increased in the treatments of 0, 150 and 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels under the CO2 concentration of 540 µmol · mol(-1). The nitrogen content in cotton root was significantly increased with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer level under elevated CO2 (540 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment. Overall, the cotton nitrogen absorption content under the elevated CO2 (540 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment was higher than that

  4. Diversity and feeding strategies of soil microfauna along elevation gradients in Himalayan cold deserts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Devetter, Miloslav; Háněl, Ladislav; Řeháková, Klára; Doležal, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 11 (2017), č. článku e0187646. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LTC17019 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : diversity * feeding strategies * soil microfauna * Himalayan cold deserts Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  5. Elevated enzyme activities in soils under the invasive nitrogen-fixing tree Falcataria moluccana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven D. Allison; Caroline Nielsen; R. Flint. Hughes

    2006-01-01

    Like other N-fixing invasive species in Hawaii, Falcataria moluccana dramatically alters forest structure, litterfall quality and quantity, and nutrient dynamics. We hypothesized that these biogeochemical changes would also affect the soil microbial community and the extracellular enzymes responsible for carbon and nutrient mineralization. Across...

  6. Tree leaf and root traits mediate soil faunal contribution to litter decomposition across an elevational gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujii, Saori; Cornelissen, Johannes H.C.; Berg, Matty P.; Mori, Akira S.

    2018-01-01

    © 2018 British Ecological Society. Plant litter decomposition is key to carbon and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Soil fauna are important litter decomposers, but how their contribution to decomposition changes with alterations in plant composition and climate is not well established.

  7. Diversity and feeding strategies of soil microfauna along elevation gradients in Himalayan cold deserts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Devetter, M.; Háněl, L.; Řeháková, Klára; Doležal, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 11 (2007), č. článku e0187646. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-19376S; GA ČR GA13-13368S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : soil microfauna * Himalayas * cold desert Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology

  8. Phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil potential by woody plants on Tonglushan ancient copper spoil heap in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wei; Bao, Jianguo; Zheng, Jin; Xu, Fen; Wang, Liuming

    2018-01-02

    Fast-growing metal-accumulating woody plants are considered potential candidates for phytoremediation of metals. Tonglushan mining, one of the biggest Cu production bases in China, presents an important source of the pollution of environment. The sample was collected at Tonglushan ancient copper spoil heap. The aims were to measure the content of heavy metal in the soil and woody plants and to elucidate the phytoremediation potential of the plants. The result showed that soil Cu, Cd and Pb were the main contamination, the mean contents of which were 3166.73 mg/kg, 3.66 mg/kg and 137.06 mg/kg respectively, which belonged to severe contamination. Fourteen species from 14 genera of 13 families were collected and investigated; except for Ligutrum lucidum, the other 13 woody plants species were newly recorded in this area. In addition, to assess the ability of metal accumulation of these trees, we proposed accumulation index. Data suggested that Platanus × acerilolia, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ligutrum lucidum, Viburnum awabuki, Firmiana simplex, Robina pseudoacacia, Melia azedarach and Osmanthus fragrans exhibited high accumulated capacity and strong tolerance to heavy metals. Therefore, Platanus × acerilolia and Broussonetia papyrifera can be planted in Pb contaminated areas; Viburnum awabuki, Firmiana simplex, Robina pseudoacacia and Melia azedarach are the suitable trees for Cd contaminated areas; Viburnum awabuki, Melia azedarach, Ligutrum lucidum, Firmiana simplex, Osmanthus fragrans and Robina pseudoacacia are appropriate to Cu, Pb and Cd multi-metal contaminated areas.

  9. Increased resin flow in mature pine trees growing under elevated CO2 and moderate soil fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.A. Novick; G.G. Katul; H.R. McCarthy; R. Oren

    2012-01-01

    Warmer climates induced by elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) are expected to increase damaging bark beetle activity in pine forests, yet the effect of eCO2 on resin production—the tree’s primary defense against beetle attack—remains largely unknown. Following growth-differentiation balance theory, if extra carbohydrates produced under eCO2 are not consumed by respiration...

  10. Influence of humic substances on enhanced remediation of soil polluted by a copper-nickel smelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregubova, Polina; Turbaevskaya, Valeria; Korneecheva, Mariya; Kupriyanova, Yuliya; Koptsik, Galina

    2017-04-01

    The problem of technogenic contamination through the anthropogenic activity is quite urgent nowadays. Long-term air pollution with sulphur dioxide and heavy metals (HM) by injuring vegetation and inhibition of plant and soil microorganisms growth and activity causes appearance of the barren areas - highly damaged eroded ecosystems requiring remediation. There are a lot of remediation ways, but an appropriate restoration method, which does not expensive, does not demand special technical support and corresponds to the natural conditions of soil development is still open to question. We suggest application of exogenous humic substances as the possible environmentally friendly solution of HM toxicity problem and soil health restoration. Using of humates can result in the improvement of soil properties, localization of contamination by decreasing of HM mobility and bioavailability through binding them in relatively immobile complexes, and in stabilization of organic pool. But practice of scientific society as well as our previous investigations demonstrates ambiguous influence of exogenic humic substances on the behavior of HM depending on origin, doses, molecular weight of organic matter and state of microorganisms. In this research we have provided series of short-term (45 days) experiments dedicated to the evaluation of suitable doses of humates of different origin - coal and peat - inoculated by nitrogen fixers and mycorhizae-forming fungi in comparison with lime and NPK-fertilizer on the properties of contaminated soil and mobility of HM. The object of investigation was Al-Fe-humus abrazems from the vicinity of mining-and-metallurgical integrated work located in the Kola Peninsula, Russia. This soil is characterized by the absence of vegetation, complete loss of the organic horizon in result of the erosion processes, low pH (pH H2O 4.1-5.0), low exchangeable acidity (0.8-1.6 cmolc/kg), and depletion of organic mater (content of total carbon is 0.3-0.5%). The main

  11. Aided phytoextraction of Cu, Pb, Zn, and As in copper-contaminated soils with tobacco and sunflower in crop rotation: Mobility and phytoavailability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattab-Hambli, Nour; Motelica-Heino, Mikael; Mench, Michel

    2016-02-01

    Copper-contaminated soils were managed with aided phytoextraction in 31 field plots at a former wood preservation site, using a single incorporation of compost (OM) and dolomitic limestone (DL) followed by a crop rotation with tobacco and sunflower. Six amended plots, with increasing total soil Cu, and one unamended plot were selected together with a control uncontaminated plot. The mobility and phytoavailability of Cu, Zn, Cr and As were investigated after 2 and 3 years in soil samples collected in these eight plots. Total Cu, Zn, Cr and As concentrations were determined in the soil pore water (SPW) and available soil Cu and Zn fractions by DGT. The Cu, Zn, Cr and As phytoavailability was characterized by growing dwarf beans on potted soils and determining the biomass of their plant parts and their foliar ionome. Total Cu concentrations in the SPW increased with total soil Cu. Total Cu, Zn, Cr and As concentrations in the SPW decreased in year 3 as compared to year 2, likely due to annual shoot removals by the plants and the lixiviation. Available soil Cu and Zn fractions also declined in year 3. The Cu, Zn, Cr and As phytoavailability, assessed by their concentration and mineral mass in the primary leaves of beans, was reduced in year 3. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microbe-driven turnover offsets mineral-mediated storage of soil carbon under elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin N. Sulman; Richard P. Phillips; A. Christopher Oishi; Elena Shevliakova; Stephen W. Pacala

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) to changing environmental conditions represents a critical uncertainty in coupled carbon cycle–climate models1.Much of this uncertainty arises from our limited understanding of the extent to which root–microbe interactions induce SOC losses (through accelerated decomposition or ‘priming’2) or indirectly promote SOC gains (...

  13. Effects of soil water content and elevated CO2 concentration on the monoterpene emission rate of Cryptomeria japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Tomoki; Amagai, Takashi; Tani, Akira

    2018-04-11

    Monoterpenes emitted from plants contribute to the formation of secondary pollution and affect the climate system. Monoterpene emission rates may be affected by environmental changes such as increasing CO 2 concentration caused by fossil fuel burning and drought stress induced by climate change. We measured monoterpene emissions from Cryptomeria japonica clone saplings grown under different CO 2 concentrations (control: ambient CO 2 level, elevated CO 2 : 1000μmolmol -1 ). The saplings were planted in the ground and we did not artificially control the SWC. The relationship between the monoterpene emissions and naturally varying SWC was investigated. The dominant monoterpene was α-pinene, followed by sabinene. The monoterpene emission rates were exponentially correlated with temperature for all measurements and normalized (35°C) for each measurement day. The daily normalized monoterpene emission rates (E s0.10 ) were positively and linearly correlated with SWC under both control and elevated CO 2 conditions (control: r 2 =0.55, elevated CO 2 : r 2 =0.89). The slope of the regression line of E s0.10 against SWC was significantly higher under elevated CO 2 than under control conditions (ANCOVA: P<0.01), indicating that the effect of CO 2 concentration on monoterpene emission rates differed by soil water status. The monoterpene emission rates estimated by considering temperature and SWC (Improved G93 algorithm) better agreed with the measured monoterpene emission rates, when compared with the emission rates estimated by considering temperature alone (G93 algorithm). Our results demonstrated that the combined effects of SWC and CO 2 concentration are important for controlling the monoterpene emissions from C. japonica clone saplings. If these relationships can be applied to the other coniferous tree species, our results may be useful to improve accuracy of monoterpene emission estimates from the coniferous forests as affected by climate change in the present and

  14. Electrochemical determination of the levels of cadmium, copper and lead in polluted soil and plant samples from mining areas in Zamfara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modupe Mabel Ogunlesi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of lead, copper and cadmium in soil and plant samples collected from Abare and Dareta villages in Anka local government area of Zamfara State, Nigeria have been electrochemically determined. The study was carried out because of the high mortality of women and children under five, reported for these areas in June 2010. The cause was ascribed to the lead poisoning which has been related to the mining and processing of gold-containing ores. Linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry technique was used with the glassy carbon working, Ag/AgCl reference and platinum auxiliary electrodes. Voltammetric peaks for lead, copper and cadmium that were observed at -495 mV, -19.4 mV and -675 mV, respectively, have formed a basis for construction of the corresponding calibration plots. The concentrations (in mg/kg of lead, copper and cadmium in the soil samples were found in the ranges of 18.99−26087.70, 2.96−584.60 and 0.00−1354.25, respectively. The concentration values for lead were far above already established USEPA (2002 and WHO (1996 maximum permissible limits for residential areas. The concentrations of lead, copper and cadmium in the food samples ranged between 5.70−79.91, 11.17−41.21 and 0.00−5.74 mg/kg. Several of these values are found well above the FAO/WHO limits of 0.1, 2 and 0.1 mg/kg, respectively. The results indicate that in addition to the lead poisoning, copper and cadmium poisoning may also be responsible for sudden and high mortality in this population.

  15. Aging of Dissolved Copper and Copper-based Nanoparticles in Five Different Soils: Short-term Kinetics vs. Long-term Fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the growing availability and use of copper-based nanomaterials (Cu-NMs), there is increasing concern regarding their release and potential impact on the environment. In this study, the short term (≤5 d) aging profile and the long-term (135 d) speciation of dissolved Cu, cop...

  16. Stabilization of lead and copper contaminated firing range soil using calcined oyster shells and fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Park, Jae-Woo; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Hyun, Seunghun; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Park, Jeong-Hun; Ok, Yong Sik

    2013-12-01

    A stabilization/solidification treatment scheme was devised to stabilize Pb and Cu contaminated soil from a firing range using renewable waste resources as additives, namely waste oyster shells (WOS) and fly ash (FA). The WOS, serving as the primary stabilizing agent, was pre-treated at a high temperature to activate quicklime from calcite. Class C FA was used as a secondary additive along with the calcined oyster shells (COS). The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated by means of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and the 0.1 M HCl extraction tests following a curing period of 28 days. The combined treatment with 10 wt% COS and 5 wt% FA cause a significant reduction in Pb (>98 %) and Cu (>96 %) leachability which was indicated by the results from both extraction tests (TCLP and 0.1 M HCl). Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses are used to investigate the mechanism responsible for Pb and Cu stabilization. SEM-EDX results indicate that effective Pb and Cu immobilization using the combined COS-FA treatment is most probably associated with ettringite and pozzolanic reaction products. The treatment results suggest that the combined COS-FA treatment is a cost effective method for the stabilization of firing range soil.

  17. The effect of elevated CO2 and N on decomposition of wheat straw and alfalfa residues in calcareous and non calcareous soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Razavi Darbar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of plant residue in soils is considered as an important agricultural practice for maintaining soil fertility in sustainable agricultural system. CO2 levels, nitrogen fertilization and plant residues are factors which highly affect decomposition of added organic matter to soil. In this research controlled chambers were used to investigate the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (350 vs. 760 CO2 ppm under two N fertilization levels (0 vs. 500 kg N ha-1 and two replicates on decomposition of wheat and alfalfa residues in two calcareous (32.66 % CaCO3 and non calcareous soils (3.4 % CaCO3 at 6 times (0, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 90 under laboratory condition. Soil moistures were adjusted at 70% of field capacity. The results showed that elevated CO2 significantly increased decomposition of residues in both calcareous and non calcareous soils. In the samples that received N fertilizer, decomposition of wheat straw and alfalfa residues increased in both soils. From the obtained results, we concluded that in all treatments the amount of decomposition of wheat straw and alfalfa residues in calcareous soil were higher than non calcareous soils.

  18. Low concentration of copper inhibits colonization of soil by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices and radically changes the microbial community structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagerberg, David; Manique, Nina; Brandt, Kristian K.

    2011-01-01

    . To avoid indirect effects through the plant, copper was only added to root-free microcosm compartments. [Cu]bio was measured using a Pseudomonas fluorescens biosensor strain. In the range of 0–1.5 μg g−1 [Cu]bio, a log–log linear relationship between added copper and [Cu]bio was found. Microbial...... colonization of the root-free compartment was evaluated by whole-cell fatty acid analysis (WCFA) and amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). The WCFA analysis showed that the AM fungus soil colonization was severely inhibited by Cu with a 50% reduction of mycorrhizal growth at 0.26 μg g−1 [Cu......]bio. The growth of other main microbial groups was not significantly affected by copper. However, ARDRA analysis showed a very strong effect of copper on the bacterial community composition probably caused by an increased proportion of Cu-resistant bacteria. Our results suggest that problems with plant yield may...

  19. Effect of humic acid on the underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry of copper in acetic acid soil extract solutions at mercaptoacetic acid-modified gold electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, Gregoire; Beni, Valerio; Dillon, Patrick H.; Barry, Thomas; Arrigan, Damien W.M

    2004-05-24

    Electrochemical measurements were undertaken for the investigation of the underpotential deposition-stripping process of copper at bare and modified gold electrodes in 0.11 M acetic acid, the first fraction of the European Union's Bureau Communautaire de References (BCR) sequential extraction procedure for fractionating metals within soils and sediments. Gold electrodes modified with mercaptoacetic acid showed higher sensitivity for the detection of copper than bare gold electrodes, both in the absence and in the presence of humic acid in acetic acid solutions, using the underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry (UPD-SV) method. In the presence of 50 mg l{sup -1} of humic acid, the mercaptoacetic acid modified electrode proved to be 1.5 times more sensitive than the bare gold electrode. The mercaptoacetic acid monolayer formed on the gold surface provided efficient protection against the adsorption of humic acid onto the gold electrode surface. Variation of the humic acid concentration in the solution showed little effect on the copper stripping signal at the modified electrode. UPD-SV at the modified electrode was applied to the analysis of soil extract samples. Linear correlation of the electrochemical results with atomic spectroscopic results yielded the straight-line equation y ({mu}g l{sup -1}) = 1.10x - 44 (ppb) (R=0.992, n=6), indicating good agreement between the two methods.

  20. The content of chromium and copper in plants and soil fertilized with sewage sludge with addition of various amounts of CaO and lignite ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wysokiński Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of fertilization with fresh sewage sludge with the addition of calcium oxide and lignite ash in the proportions dry mass 6:1, 4:1, 3:1 and 2:1 on the content of chromium and copper in plants and soil and uptake of these elements was investigated in pot experiment. Sewage sludge were taken from Siedlce (sludge after methane fermentation and Łuków (sludge stabilized in oxygenic conditions, eastern Poland. The chromium content in the biomass of the test plants (maize, sunflower and oat was higher following the application of mixtures of sewage sludge with ash than of the mixtures with CaO. The copper content in plants most often did not significantly depend on the type of additives to the sludge. Various amounts of additives to the sewage sludge did not have a significant effect on the contents of either of the studied trace elements in plants. The contents of chromium and copper in soil after 3 years of cultivation of plants were higher than before the experiment, but these amounts were not significantly differentiated depending on the type and the amount of the used additive (i.e. CaO vs. ash to sewage sludge.

  1. Concentrations of arsenic, copper, cobalt, lead and zinc in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kříbek, B.; Majer, V.; Knésl, I.; Nyambe, I.; Mihaljevič, M.; Ettler, V.; Sracek, O.

    2014-11-01

    The concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in washed leaves and washed and peeled tubers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt mining district have been analyzed. An enrichment index (EI) was used to distinguish between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. This index is based on the average ratio of the actual and median concentration of the given contaminants (As, Co, Cu, mercury (Hg), Pb and Zn) in topsoil. The concentrations of copper in cassava leaves growing on contaminated soils reach as much as 612 mg kg-1 Cu (total dry weight [dw]). Concentrations of copper in leaves of cassava growing on uncontaminated soils are much lower (up to 252 mg kg-1 Cu dw). The concentrations of Co (up to 78 mg kg-1 dw), As (up to 8 mg kg-1 dw) and Zn (up to 231 mg kg-1 dw) in leaves of cassava growing on contaminated soils are higher compared with uncontaminated areas, while the concentrations of lead do not differ significantly. The concentrations of analyzed chemical elements in the tubers of cassava are much lower than in its leaves with the exception of As. Even in strongly contaminated areas, the concentrations of copper in the leaves and tubers of cassava do not exceed the daily maximum tolerance limit of 0.5 mg kg-1/human body weight (HBW) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.025 mg kg-1/HBW for lead and the highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.015 mg kg-1/HBW for arsenic are exceeded predominantly in the vicinity of smelters. Therefore, the preliminary assessment of dietary exposure to metals through the consumption of uncooked cassava leaves and tubers has been identified as a moderate hazard to human health. Nevertheless, as the surfaces of leaves are strongly contaminated by metalliferous dust in the polluted areas, there is still a potential hazard

  2. Effects of plant diversity, N fertilization, and elevated carbon dioxide on grassland soil N cycling in a long-term experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kevin E; Hobbie, Sarah E; Tilman, David; Reich, Peter B

    2013-04-01

    The effects of global environmental changes on soil nitrogen (N) pools and fluxes have consequences for ecosystem functions such as plant productivity and N retention. In a 13-year grassland experiment, we evaluated how elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ), N fertilization, and plant species richness alter soil N cycling. We focused on soil inorganic N pools, including ammonium and nitrate, and two N fluxes, net N mineralization and net nitrification. In contrast with existing hypotheses, such as progressive N limitation, and with observations from other, often shorter, studies, elevated CO2 had relatively static and small, or insignificant, effects on soil inorganic N pools and fluxes. Nitrogen fertilization had inconsistent effects on soil N transformations, but increased soil nitrate and ammonium concentrations. Plant species richness had increasingly positive effects on soil N transformations over time, likely because in diverse subplots the concentrations of N in roots increased over time. Species richness also had increasingly positive effects on concentrations of ammonium in soil, perhaps because more carbon accumulated in soils of diverse subplots, providing exchange sites for ammonium. By contrast, subplots planted with 16 species had lower soil nitrate concentrations than less diverse subplots, especially when fertilized, probably due to greater N uptake capacity of subplots with 16 species. Monocultures of different plant functional types had distinct effects on N transformations and nitrate concentrations, such that not all monocultures differed from diverse subplots in the same manner. The first few years of data would not have adequately forecast the effects of N fertilization and diversity on soil N cycling in later years; therefore, the dearth of long-term manipulations of plant species richness and N inputs is a hindrance to forecasting the state of the soil N cycle and ecosystem functions in extant plant communities. © 2012 Blackwell

  3. Impact of soil properties on critical concentrations of cadmium, lead, copper, zinc and mercury in soil and soil solution in view of ecotoxicological effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Lofts, S.; Tipping, E.; Meili, M.; Groenenberg, J.E.; Schutze, G.

    2007-01-01

    Concern about the input of metals to terrestrial ecosystems is related to (i) the ecotoxicological impact on soil organisms and plants (Bringmark et al. 1998; Palmborg et al. 1998) and also on aquatic organisms resulting from runoff to surface water and (ii) the uptake via food chains into animal

  4. Plant-Mediated Changes in Soil N-Cycling Genes during Revegetation of Copper Mine Tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen limitation represents a major bottleneck during the revegetation of mine tailings. However, controls over key nitrogen-cycling genes in rhizospheric soils under differential vegetation management remain poorly understood. The abundance and transcriptional activity of nitrogen-cycling genes and the enzymatic activity of nitrogen transformation are mediated differentially during revegetation of mine tailings by Imperata cylindrica and Chrysopogon zizanioides plants. Results showed that the highest total organic carbon (TOC, total nitrogen (TN, and NH4+-N contents were found in the rhizosphere of I. cylindrica. The nifH gene abundances differed between I. cylindrica and C. zizanioides, and were higher in I. cylindrica which demonstrated by 3.39-fold higher mRNA transcript abundance of the nifH gene and a 2.15-fold higher nitrogen fixation rate in the rhizosphere. In addition, C. zizanioides exhibited a 4.94-fold higher transcript abundance of the archaeal amoA gene and the highest nitrification rate (1.706 ± 0.293 μg N-NO2- g−1 h−1 in the rhizosphere. In conclusion, I. cylindrica and C. zizanioides stimulated the abundances and activities of nifH gene and archaeal amoA gene, respectively. In addition, I. cylindrica appears to be capable of enhancing nitrogen fixation and exhibited accelerated nitrogen accumulation, which may be particularly useful for the rehabilitation of mine tailings.

  5. Senegalese artisanal gold mining leads to elevated total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in soils, sediments, and rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline R. Gerson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest source of global mercury (Hg anthropogenic inputs to the environment is derived from artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM activities in developing countries. While our understanding of global Hg emissions from ASGM is growing, there is limited empirical documentation about the levels of total mercury (THg and methylmercury (MeHg contamination near ASGM sites. We measured THg and MeHg concentrations in soil (n = 119, sediment (n = 22, and water (n = 25 from four active ASGM villages and one non-ASGM reference village in Senegal, West Africa. Nearly all samples had THg and MeHg concentrations that exceeded the reference village concentrations and USEPA regulatory standards. The highest median THg concentrations were found in huts where mercury-gold amalgams were burned (7.5 μg/g, while the highest median MeHg concentrations and percent Hg as MeHg were found in river sediments (4.2 ng/g, 0.41%. Median river water concentrations of THg and MeHg were also elevated compared to values at the reference site (22 ng THg/L, 0.037 ng MeHg/L in ASGM sites. This study provides direct evidence that Hg from ASGM is entering both the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems where it is converted in soils, sediment, and water to the neurotoxic and bioavailable form of MeHg.

  6. Understorey productivity in temperate grassy woodland responds to soil water availability but not to elevated [CO2 ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Luke; Bradstock, Ross A; Resco de Dios, Victor; Duursma, Remko A; Velasco, Sabrina; Boer, Matthias M

    2018-06-01

    Rising atmospheric [CO 2 ] and associated climate change are expected to modify primary productivity across a range of ecosystems globally. Increasing aridity is predicted to reduce grassland productivity, although rising [CO 2 ] and associated increases in plant water use efficiency may partially offset the effect of drying on growth. Difficulties arise in predicting the direction and magnitude of future changes in ecosystem productivity, due to limited field experimentation investigating climate and CO 2 interactions. We use repeat near-surface digital photography to quantify the effects of water availability and experimentally manipulated elevated [CO 2 ] (eCO 2 ) on understorey live foliage cover and biomass over three growing seasons in a temperate grassy woodland in south-eastern Australia. We hypothesised that (i) understorey herbaceous productivity is dependent upon soil water availability, and (ii) that eCO 2 will increase productivity, with greatest stimulation occurring under conditions of low water availability. Soil volumetric water content (VWC) determined foliage cover and growth rates over the length of the growing season (August to March), with low VWC (productivity. However, eCO 2 did not increase herbaceous cover and biomass over the duration of the experiment, or mitigate the effects of low water availability on understorey growth rates and cover. Our findings suggest that projected increases in aridity in temperate woodlands are likely to lead to reduced understorey productivity, with little scope for eCO 2 to offset these changes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Identification of copper-induced genes in Pseudomonas fluorescens and use of a reporter strain to monitor bioavailable copper in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tom-Petersen, Andreas; Hosbond, Carsten; Nybroe, Ole

    2001-01-01

    -amended soil microcosms in a concentration-dependent manner. The chelator EDTA reduced the availability of Cu to P. fluorescens in soil. This showed that complex-bound Cu is not necessarily available to bacteria, We compared chemical analysis of soluble Cu and the reporter assay on soil solutions from Cu-containing......-Cu15, the gene interrupted by the transposon encoded a protein carrying a Cu-binding domain but with low homology to known proteins. DF57-Cu15 was the most suitable Cu reporter due to its high specific response and tolerance to Cu in pure culture. DF57-Cu15 responded to soil solutions from Cu...... soil microcosms supplemented with either manure or straw. Organic matter increased the amount of soluble Cu but not the amount of bioavailable Cu. Probably, Cu binds with high affinity to organic constituents in pig manure or barley straw. Hence, determination of soluble Cu by chemical analysis cannot...

  8. Effect of EDTA and Citric Acid on Phytoextraction of Copper and Zinc from a Naturally Contaminated Soil by Maize (Zea mays L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Taheripur

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mining and smelting activities have contributed to increasing levels of copper (Cu and zinc (Zn in soils around of Sarcheshmeh copper mine (Kerman, Iran. Soil chemical analysis showed that the available of Cu and Zn (extracted with DTPA-TEA were 260.1 and 9.2 mg kg-1 soil, respectively. Phytoextraction is one of the most popular and useful phytoremediation techniques for removal of heavy metals from polluted soils. For chemically-assisted phytoextraction, different chelating agents such as EDTA and citric acid are applied to soil to increase the availability of heavy metals in soil for uptake by plants. A pot experiment was conducted to elucidate the performance of chelating agents addition in improving phytoextraction of Cu and zinc Zn from a naturally contaminated soil by maize (Zea mays L. cultivars. Materials and Methods: A factorial experiment in a completely randomized design was carried out bythree factors of chelate type, chelate concentrations and maize cultivars with three replications in 2012 at ShahreKord University. Chelating agents were Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid (EDTA and citric acid (CA. They were applied in concentration levels of 0, 0.75 and 1.5 mmole kg-1 soil with irrigation water. The three maize cultivars used were single cross 704 (SC-704, three v cross 647 (TVC-647, and single cross 677 (SC-677. The pots were 23 cm in diameter and 23 cm deep, and were filled with 4 kg of a silty loam, calcareous soil taken from the surface layer of Sarcheshmeh copper mine area. Maize plant s was grown under greenhouse conditions over 90 days. After the harvest, soil available Cu and Zn contents (extracted with DTPA-TEA were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS. Plant samples (shoot and root were dried for 48 h at 70ºC to determine their dry matter content (yield. Total Cu and Zn concentrations in root and shoot of maize were measured after digestion plant samples by AAS method. The shoot and root

  9. Laboratory evaluation of emissivity of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alex, Z.C.; Behari, J.

    1998-01-01

    A procedure for the rapid and safe analysis of soils with widely differing organic matter contents has been investigated and validated. Surface soils, totalling 295 and sampled on a grid basis, representing 22% of the land-base of the Republic of Ireland, have been analysed for cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc. Soil concentrations of cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel exhibit patterns of regionalised elevation. Implications of this elevation are considered in relation to sewage sludge application to land, future requirement for baseline surveys and concerns over concentrations in food products. (author)

  10. ELEVATED CO2 AND ELEVATED TEMPERATURE HAVE NO EFFECT ON DOUGLAS-FIR FINE-ROOT DYNAMICS IN NITROGEN-POOR SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here, we investigate fine-root production, mortality and standing crop of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 and elevated air temperature. We hypothesized that these treatments would increase fine-root production, but that mortality ...

  11. Changes in Soil Organic Matter Abundance, Molecular Composition, and Diversity in an Arid Ecosystem in Response to Long-term Elevated CO2 Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, N. J.; Tfaily, M.; Evans, R. D.; Koyama, A.

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about how soils in arid ecosystems will respond to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration yet arid and semi-arid ecosystems cover more than 40% of Earth's land surface. Previous work in the Mojave Desert (Evans et al., 2014 Nature Climate Change) reported higher soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (N) concentrations following 10 years exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2 at the Nevada Desert Free-Air-Carbon dioxide-Enrichment (FACE) Facility (NDFF). In this study, we investigated potential mechanisms that resulted in increased SOC and total N accumulation and stabilization using high resolution mass spectrometry at the NDFF site. Samples were collected from soil profiles to 1 m in depth with a 0.2 m a increment under the dominant evergreen shrub Larrea tridentata. The differences in the molecular composition and diversity of soil organic matter (SOM) were more evident in surface soils and declined with depth, and were consistent with higher SOC and total N concentrations under elevated than ambient CO2. Our molecular analysis also suggested increased root exudation and/or microbial necromass from stabilization of labile C and N contributed to SOM and N stocks. Increased microbial activity and metabolism under elevated CO2 compared to ambient plots suggested that elevated CO2 altered microbial carbon (C) use patterns, reflecting changes in the quality and quantity of SOC inputs. We found that plant-derived compounds were primary substrates for microbial activity under elevated CO2 and microbial products were the main constituents of stabilized SOM. Our results suggest that arid ecosystems are a potential large C sink under elevated CO2, give the extensive coverage of the land surface, and that labile compounds are transformed to stable SOM via microbial processes. Arid systems are limited by water, and thus may have a different C storage potential under changing climates than other ecosystems that are limited by nitrogen or phosphorus.

  12. Contrasting effects of elevated CO2 and warming on temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition in a Chinese paddy field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaozhi; Wang, Bingyu; Wang, Jinyang; Pan, Genxing; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2015-10-01

    Climate changes including elevated CO2 and temperature have been known to affect soil carbon (C) storage, while the effects of climate changes on the temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter (SOM) are unclear. A 365-day laboratory incubation was used to investigate the temperature sensitivity for decomposition of labile (Q 10-L) and recalcitrant (Q 10-R) SOMs by comparing the time required to decompose a given amount of C at 25 and 35 °C. Soils were collected from a paddy field that was subjected to four treatments: ambient CO2 and temperature, elevated CO2 (500 μmol/mol), enhanced temperature (+2 °C), and their combination. The results showed that the temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition increased with increasing SOM recalcitrance in this paddy soil (Q 10-L = 2.21 ± 0.16 vs. Q 10-R = 2.78 ± 0.42; mean ± SD). Elevated CO2 and enhanced temperature showed contrasting effects on the temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition. Elevated CO2 stimulated Q 10-R but had no effect on Q 10-L; in contrast, enhanced temperature increased Q 10-L but had no effect on Q 10-R. Furthermore, the elevated CO2 combined with enhanced temperature treatment significantly increased Q 10-L and Q 10-R by 18.9 and 10.2 %, respectively, compared to the ambient conditions. Results suggested that the responses of SOM to temperature, especially for the recalcitrant SOM pool, were altered by climate changes. The greatly enhanced temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition by elevated CO2 and temperature indicates that more CO2 will be released to the atmosphere and losses of soil C may be even greater than that previously expected in paddy field.

  13. Elevated UV-B radiation incident on Quercus robur leaf canopies enhances decomposition of resulting leaf litter in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsham, K.K.; Greenslade, P.D.; Kennedy, V.H.; McLeod, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    We examined whether the exposure of Quercus robur L. to elevated UV-B radiation (280–315 nm) during growth would influence leaf decomposition rate through effects on litter quality. Saplings were exposed for eight months at an outdoor facility in the UK to a 30% elevation above the ambient level of erythemally weighted UV-B radiation under UV-B treatment arrays of fluorescent lamps filtered with cellulose diacetate, which transmitted both UV-B and UV-A (315–400 nm) radiation. Saplings were exposed to elevated UV-A alone under control arrays of lamps filtered with polyester and to ambient radiation under unenergised arrays of lamps. Abscised leaves from saplings were enclosed in 1 mm2 mesh nylon bags, placed in a Quercus–Fraxinus woodland and were sampled at 0.11, 0.53, 1.10 and 1.33 years for dry weight loss, chemical composition and saprotrophic fungal colonization. At abscission, litters from UV-A control arrays had ≈ 7.5% higher lignin/nitrogen ratios than those from UV-B treatment and ambient arrays (P < 0.06). Dry weight loss of leaves treated with elevated UV-B radiation during growth was 2.5% and 5% greater than that of leaves from UV-A control arrays at 0.53 and 1.33 years, respectively. Litter samples from UV-B treatment arrays lost more nitrogen and phosphorus than samples from ambient arrays and more carbon than samples from UV-A control arrays. The annual fractional weight loss of litter from UV-B treatment arrays was 8% and 6% greater than that of litter from UV-A control and ambient arrays, respectively. Regression analyses indicated that the increased decomposition rate of UV-B treated litters was associated with enhanced colonization of leaves by basidiomycete fungi, the most active members of the soil fungal community, and that the frequency of these fungi was negatively associated with the initial lignin/nitrogen ratio of leaves. (author)

  14. Relationship between organic matter humification and bioavailability of sludge-borne copper and cadmium during long-term sludge amendment to soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongtao, E-mail: liuht@igsnrr.ac.cn

    2016-10-01

    Recycling of sludge as soil amendment poses certain risk of heavy metals contamination. This study investigated the relationship between organic matter in composted sludge and its heavy metals bioavailability over 7 years. Periodic monitoring indicated a gradual increase in organic matter degradation, accompanied by changing degrees of polymerization, i.e., ratio of humic acid (HA)/fulvic acid (FA) coupled with incremental exchangeable fraction of copper (Cu) in sludge, with a growing rate of 74.7%, rather than that in soil. However, cadmium (Cd) in composted sludge exhibited an independent manner. Linear-regression analysis revealed that the total proportion of the Cu active fraction (exchangeable plus carbonate bound) was better correlated with the degree of polymerization (DP) and humification ratio (HR) than the degradation ratio of organic matter. Overall, amount of uptaken Cu was more dependent on the humification degree of organic matter, especially the proportion of HA in humus. - Highlights: • Organic matter in sludge degraded with time goes after sludge was recycled to soil. • DP in sludge is well coupled with incremental uptaken fraction of its borne copper. • Profiles of Cadmium fractions in sludge exhibit an independent manner.

  15. Enhanced litter input rather than changes in litter chemistry drive soil carbon and nitrogen cycles under elevated CO2: a microcosm study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingli Lui; John S. King; Fitzgerald L. Booker; Christian P. Giardina; H. Lee Allen; Shuijin Hu

    2009-01-01

    Elevated CO2 has been shown to stimulate plant productivity and change litter chemistry. These changes in substrate availability may then alter soil microbial processes and possibly lead to feedback effects on N availability. However, the strength of this feedback, and even its direction, remains unknown. Further, uncertainty remains whether...

  16. Soil biology research across latitude, elevation and disturbance gradients: A review of forest studies from Puerto Rico during the past 25 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle González; D. Lodge

    2017-01-01

    Progress in understanding changes in soil biology in response to latitude, elevation and disturbance gradients has generally lagged behind studies of above-ground plants and animals owing to methodological constraints and high diversity and complexity of interactions in below-ground food webs. New methods have opened research opportunities in below-ground systems,...

  17. [Rare earth elements content in farmland soils and crops of the surrounding copper mining and smelting plant in Jiangxi province and evaluation of its ecological risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shu-Lan; Huang, Yi-Zong; Wang, Fei; Xu, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Gao, Zhu; Hu, Ying; Qiao Min; Li, Jin; Xiang, Meng

    2015-03-01

    Rare earth elements content in farmland soils and crops of the surrounding copper mining and smelting plant in Jiangxi province was studied. The results showed that copper mining and smelting could increase the content of rare earth elements in soils and crops. Rare earth elements content in farmland soils of the surrounding Yinshan Lead Zinc Copper Mine and Guixi Smelting Plant varied from 112.42 to 397.02 mg x kg(-1) and 48.81 to 250.06 mg x kg(-1), and the average content was 254.84 mg x kg(-1) and 144.21 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The average contents of rare earth elements in soils in these two areas were 1.21 times and 0.68 times of the background value in Jiangxi province, 1.36 times and 0.77 times of the domestic background value, 3.59 times and 2.03 times of the control samples, respectively. Rare earth elements content in 10 crops of the surrounding Guixi Smelting Plant varied from 0.35 to 2.87 mg x kg(-1). The contents of rare earth elements in the leaves of crops were higher than those in stem and root. The contents of rare earth elements in Tomato, lettuce leaves and radish leaves were respectively 2.87 mg x kg(-1), 1.58 mg x kg(-1) and 0.80 mg x kg(-1), which were well above the hygienic standard limit of rare earth elements in vegetables and fruits (0.70 mg x kg(-1)). According to the health risk assessment method recommended by America Environmental Protection Bureau (USEPA), we found that the residents' lifelong average daily intake of rare earth elements was 17.72 mg x (kg x d)(-1), lower than the critical value of rare earth elements damage to human health. The results suggested that people must pay attention to the impact of rare earth elements on the surrounding environment when they mine and smelt copper ore in Jiangxi.

  18. Application of bioassays to evaluate a copper contaminated soil before and after a pilot-scale electrokinetic remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Quanying [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou Dongmei [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)], E-mail: dmzhou@issas.ac.cn; Cang Long [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Sun Tianran [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2009-02-15

    Remediation programmes are considered to be complete when human risk-based criteria are met. However, these targets are often unsatisfied with the ecological parameters that may be important with regard to future soil use. Five soil subsamples, collecting along a pilot-scale soil column after electrokinetic treatment, were studied, from which about 42.0%-93.3% soil Cu had been successfully removed. A series of biological assays including soil microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, soil urease activity, earthworm assays, and seed assays were used to evaluate their ecological risks. The results showed that the bioassay data from the treatment variants did not supposedly reflecting the decreased soil Cu concentrations after the electrokinetic treatment, but were highly correlated with some soil physicochemical characteristics. It suggests that bioassays are necessary to assess the ecotoxicity of soil after electrokinetic treatment. - There has been a motivation towards using biological indicators for risk assessment of contaminated soil after electrokinetic remediation.

  19. Application of bioassays to evaluate a copper contaminated soil before and after a pilot-scale electrokinetic remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Quanying; Zhou Dongmei; Cang Long; Sun Tianran

    2009-01-01

    Remediation programmes are considered to be complete when human risk-based criteria are met. However, these targets are often unsatisfied with the ecological parameters that may be important with regard to future soil use. Five soil subsamples, collecting along a pilot-scale soil column after electrokinetic treatment, were studied, from which about 42.0%-93.3% soil Cu had been successfully removed. A series of biological assays including soil microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, soil urease activity, earthworm assays, and seed assays were used to evaluate their ecological risks. The results showed that the bioassay data from the treatment variants did not supposedly reflecting the decreased soil Cu concentrations after the electrokinetic treatment, but were highly correlated with some soil physicochemical characteristics. It suggests that bioassays are necessary to assess the ecotoxicity of soil after electrokinetic treatment. - There has been a motivation towards using biological indicators for risk assessment of contaminated soil after electrokinetic remediation

  20. Few apparent short-term effects of elevated soil temperature and increased frequency of summer precipitation on the abundance and taxonomic diversity of desert soil micro- and meso-fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, B.J.; Neher, D.A.; Housman, D.C.; Belnap, J.

    2011-01-01

    Frequent hydration and drying of soils in arid systems can accelerate desert carbon and nitrogen mobilization due to respiration, microbial death, and release of intracellular solutes. Because desert microinvertebrates can mediate nutrient cycling, and the autotrophic components of crusts are known to be sensitive to rapid desiccation due to elevated temperatures after wetting events, we studied whether altered soil temperature and frequency of summer precipitation can also affect the composition of food web consumer functional groups. We conducted a two-year field study with experimentally-elevated temperature and frequency of summer precipitation in the Colorado Plateau desert, measuring the change in abundance of nematodes, protozoans, and microarthropods. We hypothesized that microfauna would be more adversely affected by the combination of elevated temperature and frequency of summer precipitation than either effect alone, as found previously for phototrophic crust biota. Microfauna experienced normal seasonal fluctuations in abundance, but the effect of elevated temperature and frequency of summer precipitation was statistically non-significant for most microfaunal groups, except amoebae. The seasonal increase in abundance of amoebae was reduced with combined elevated temperature and increased frequency of summer precipitation compared to either treatment alone, but comparable with control (untreated) plots. Based on our findings, we suggest that desert soil microfauna are relatively more tolerant to increases in ambient temperature and frequency of summer precipitation than the autotrophic components of biological soil crust at the surface.

  1. Leaf area index drives soil water availability and extreme drought-related mortality under elevated CO2 in a temperate grassland model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Anthony; Leishman, Michelle R

    2014-01-01

    The magnitude and frequency of climatic extremes, such as drought, are predicted to increase under future climate change conditions. However, little is known about how other factors such as CO2 concentration will modify plant community responses to these extreme climatic events, even though such modifications are highly likely. We asked whether the response of grasslands to repeat extreme drought events is modified by elevated CO2, and if so, what are the underlying mechanisms? We grew grassland mesocosms consisting of 10 co-occurring grass species common to the Cumberland Plain Woodland of western Sydney under ambient and elevated CO2 and subjected them to repeated extreme drought treatments. The 10 species included a mix of C3, C4, native and exotic species. We hypothesized that a reduction in the stomatal conductance of the grasses under elevated CO2 would be offset by increases in the leaf area index thus the retention of soil water and the consequent vulnerability of the grasses to extreme drought would not differ between the CO2 treatments. Our results did not support this hypothesis: soil water content was significantly lower in the mesocosms grown under elevated CO2 and extreme drought-related mortality of the grasses was greater. The C4 and native grasses had significantly higher leaf area index under elevated CO2 levels. This offset the reduction in the stomatal conductance of the exotic grasses as well as increased rainfall interception, resulting in reduced soil water content in the elevated CO2 mesocosms. Our results suggest that projected increases in net primary productivity globally of grasslands in a high CO2 world may be limited by reduced soil water availability in the future.

  2. Low moisture availability inhibits the enhancing effect of increased soil temperature on net photosynthesis of white birch (Betula papyrifera) seedlings grown under ambient and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambebe, Titus F; Dang, Qing-Lai

    2009-11-01

    White birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) seedlings were grown under two carbon dioxide concentrations (ambient: 360 micromol mol(-1) and elevated: 720 micromol mol(-1)), three soil temperatures (5, 15 and 25 degrees C initially, increased to 7, 17 and 27 degrees C, respectively, 1 month later) and three moisture regimes (low: 30-40%; intermediate: 45-55% and high: 60-70% field water capacity) in greenhouses. In situ gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured after 2 months of treatments. Net photosynthetic rate (A(n)) of seedlings grown under the intermediate and high moisture regimes increased from low to intermediate T(soil) and then decreased to high T(soil). There were no significant differences between the low and high T(soil), with the exception that A(n) was significantly higher under high than low T(soil) at the high moisture regime. No significant T(soil) effect on A(n) was observed at the low moisture regime. The intermediate T(soil) increased stomatal conductance (g(s)) only at intermediate and high but not at low moisture regime, whereas there were no significant differences between the low and high T(soil) treatments. Furthermore, the difference in g(s) between the intermediate and high T(soil) at high moisture regime was not statistically significant. The low moisture regime significantly reduced the internal to ambient CO2 concentration ratio at all T(soil). There were no significant individual or interactive effects of treatment on maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco, light-saturated electron transport rate, triose phosphate utilization or potential photochemical efficiency of photosystem II. The results of this study suggest that soil moisture condition should be taken into account when predicting the responses of white birch to soil warming.

  3. Response of detritus food web and litter quality to elevated CO2 and crop cultivars and their feedback to soil functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhengkun; Chen, Xiaoyun; Zhu, Chunwu; Bonkowski, Michael; Hu, Shuijin; Li, Huixin; Hu, Feng; Liu, Manqiang

    2017-04-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (eCO2) often increase plant growth and alter the belowground detritus soil food web. Interactions with agriculture management may further modify soil process and the associated ecosystem functionality. Little attention, however, has been directed toward assessing the responses of soil food web and their feedback to soil functionality, particularly in wetland agroecosystems. We report results from a long-term free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment in a rice paddy field that examined the responses of detritus food webs to eCO2 (200 ppm higher than ambient CO2 (aCO2)) of two rice cultivars with distinctly weak and strong responses to eCO2. Soil detritus food web components, including soil microbes and microfauna, soil environment as well as resources availability variables, were determined at the rice ripening stage. To obtain the information of soil functionality, indicated by litter decomposition and enzyme activities, we adopted a reciprocal transplant approach that fully manipulate the factors of litter straw and food web components for the incubation of 120 days. Results about the field investigation showed that eCO2 lead to a higher C/N ratio of litter and soil compared to aCO2, especially for the strong responsive cultivar. eCO2-induced enhanced carbon input stimulated the fungal decomposition pathway by increasing fungal biomass, fungi: bacteria ratio and fungivorous nematode. Results from the manipulative incubation experiment showed eCO2-induced lower quality of straw decreased cumulative C mineralization, but changes in detritus food web induced by eCO2 and strongly responsive cultivar lead to an increased CO2 respiration coincidently within each straw type, mainly due to the adaption to the high C/N ratio environment which increased their functional breadth. Based on SEMs and curves of carbon mineralization rate, soil communities showed significant effects on C release at the early stage through mediating enzyme

  4. Multi-criteria analysis of soil pollution by heavy metals in the vicinity of the Copper Smelting Plant in Bor (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEVENKA PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the consequences on soil pollution of one hund­red years of manufacturing in the Copper Mining and Smelting Complex RTB-Bor (Serbia. Soil sediments were taken via a probe from the surface layer of the soil at twelve different measuring points. The measuring points were all within 20 km of the smelting plant, which included both urban and rural zones. Soil sampling was performed using a soil core sampler in such way that a core of a soil of radius 5 cm and depth of 30 cm was removed. Subsequently, the samples were analyzed for pH and heavy metal concentrations (Cu, Pb, As, Cd, Mn, Ni and Hg using different spectrometric methods. The obtained results for the heavy metal contents in the samples show high values: 2,540 mg kg-1 Cu; 230 mg kg-1 Pb; 6 mg kg-1 Cd; 530 mg kg-1 Ni; 1,300 mg kg-1 Mn; 260 mg kg-1 As and 0.3 mg kg-1 Hg. In this study, critical zones of polluted soil were iden­tified and ranked according to their metal contents by the multi-criteria deci­sion method Preference Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation/Geo­metrical Analysis for Interactive Assistance – PROMETHEE/GAIA, which is the preferred multivariate method commonly used in chemometric studies. The ranking results clearly showed that the most polluted zones are at locations holding the vital functions of the town. Therefore, due to the high bioavail­abi­lity of heavy metals through com­plex reactions with organic species in the sediments, consequences for human health could drastically emerge if these metals enter the food chain.

  5. Soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus stoichiometry of three dominant plant communities distributed along a small-scale elevation gradient in the East Dongting Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Cong; Li, Feng; Xie, Yong-hong; Deng, Zheng-miao; Chen, Xin-sheng

    2018-02-01

    Soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry greatly affects plant community succession and structure. However, few studies have examined the soil stoichiometric changes in different vegetation communities of freshwater wetland ecosystems along an elevation gradient distribution. In the present study, soil nutrient concentrations (C, N, and P), soil stoichiometry (C:N, C:P, and N:P ratios), and other soil physicochemical characteristics were measured and analyzed in 62 soil samples collected from three dominant plant communities (Carex brevicuspis, Artemisia selengensis, and Miscanthus sacchariflorus) in the East Dongting Lake wetlands. The concentration ranges of soil organic carbon (SOC), total soil nitrogen (TN), and total soil phosphorus (TP) were 9.42-45.97 g/kg, 1.09-5.50 g/kg, and 0.60-1.70 g/kg, respectively. SOC and TN concentrations were the highest in soil from the C. brevicuspis community (27.48 g/kg and 2.78 g/kg, respectively) and the lowest in soil from the A. selengensis community (17.97 g/kg and 1.71 g/kg, respectively). However, the highest and lowest TP concentrations were detected in soil from the A. selengensis (1.03 g/kg) and M. sacchariflorus (0.89 g/kg) communities, respectively, and the C:N ratios were the highest and lowest in soil from the M. sacchariflorus (12.72) and A. selengensis (12.01) communities, respectively. C:P and N:P ratios were the highest in soil from the C. brevicuspis community (72.77 and 6.46, respectively) and the lowest in soil from the A. selengensis community (45.52 and 3.76, respectively). Correlation analyses confirmed that SOC concentrations were positively correlated with TN and TP, and C:N and N:P ratios were positively correlated with C:P. These data indicated that soil C, N, and P stoichiometry differed significantly among different plant communities and that these differences might be accounted for by variations in the hydrological conditions of the three communities.

  6. Effects of elevated CO2 concentrations and fly ash amended soils on trace element accumulation and translocation among roots, stems and seeds of Glycine max (L.) Merr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.H.; Klumpp, A.; Fangmeier, A.; Pignata, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    The carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) levels of the global atmosphere and the emissions of heavy metals have risen in recent decades, and these increases are expected to produce an impact on crops and thereby affect yield and food safety. In this study, the effects of elevated CO 2 and fly ash amended soils on trace element accumulation and translocation in the root, stem and seed compartments in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] were evaluated. Soybean plants grown in fly ash (FA) amended soil (0, 1, 10, 15, and 25% FA) at two CO 2 regimes (400 and 600 ppm) in controlled environmental chambers were analyzed at the maturity stage for their trace element contents. The concentrations of Br, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in roots, stems and seeds in soybeans were investigated and their potential risk to the health of consumers was estimated. The results showed that high levels of CO 2 and lower concentrations of FA in soils were associated with an increase in biomass. For all the elements analyzed except Pb, their accumulation in soybean plants was higher at elevated CO 2 than at ambient concentrations. In most treatments, the highest concentrations of Br, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Pb were found in the roots, with a strong combined effect of elevated CO 2 and 1% of FA amended soils on Pb accumulation (above maximum permitted levels) and translocation to seeds being observed. In relation to non-carcinogenic risks, target hazard quotients (TQHs) were significant in a Chinese individual for Mn, Fe and Pb. Also, the increased health risk due to the added effects of the trace elements studied was significant for Chinese consumers. According to these results, soybean plants grown for human consumption under future conditions of elevated CO 2 and FA amended soils may represent a toxicological hazard. Therefore, more research should be carried out with respect to food consumption (plants and animals) under these conditions and their consequences for human health.

  7. Fungal inoculation and elevated CO2 mediate growth of Lolium mutiforum and Phytolacca americana, metal uptake, and metal bioavailability in metal-contaminated soil: evidence from DGT measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ningning; Wang, Fangli; Zhang, Changbo; Tang, Shirong; Guo, Junkang; Ju, Xuehai; Smith, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    Fungal inoculation and elevated CO2 may mediate plant growth and uptake of heavy metals, but little evidence from Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films (DGT) measurement has been obtained to characterize the process. Lolium mutiforum and Phytolacca americana were grown at ambient and elevated CO2 on naturally Cd and Pb contaminated soils inoculated with and without Trichoderma asperellum strain C3 or Penicillium chrysogenum strain D4, to investigate plant growth, metal uptake, and metal bioavailability responses. Fungal inoculation increased plant biomass and shoot/root Cd and Pb concentrations. Elevated CO2 significantly increased plants biomass, but decreased Cd and Pb concentrations in shoot/root to various extents, leading to a metal dilution phenomenon. Total Cd and Pb uptake by plants, and DGT-measured Cd and Pb concentrations in rhizosphere soils, were higher in all fungal inoculation and elevated CO2 treatments than control treatments, with the combined treatments having more influence than either treatment alone. Metal dilution phenomenon occurred because the increase in DGT-measured bioavailable metal pools in plant rhizosphere due to elevated CO2 was unable to match the increase in requirement for plant uptake of metals due to plant biomass increase.

  8. Interactive effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition on fatty acid molecular and isotope composition of above- and belowground tree biomass and forest soil fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griepentrog, Marco; Eglinton, Timothy I; Hagedorn, Frank; Schmidt, Michael W I; Wiesenberg, Guido L B

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and reactive nitrogen (N) concentrations have been increasing due to human activities and impact the global carbon (C) cycle by affecting plant photosynthesis and decomposition processes in soil. Large amounts of C are stored in plants and soils, but the mechanisms behind the stabilization of plant- and microbial-derived organic matter (OM) in soils are still under debate and it is not clear how N deposition affects soil OM dynamics. Here, we studied the effects of 4 years of elevated (13C-depleted) CO2 and N deposition in forest ecosystems established in open-top chambers on composition and turnover of fatty acids (FAs) in plants and soils. FAs served as biomarkers for plant- and microbial-derived OM in soil density fractions. We analyzed above- and belowground plant biomass of beech and spruce trees as well as soil density fractions for the total organic C and FA molecular and isotope (δ13C) composition. FAs did not accumulate relative to total organic C in fine mineral fractions, showing that FAs are not effectively stabilized by association with soil minerals. The δ13C values of FAs in plant biomass increased under high N deposition. However, the N effect was only apparent under elevated CO2 suggesting a N limitation of the system. In soil fractions, only isotope compositions of short-chain FAs (C16+18) were affected. Fractions of 'new' (experimental-derived) FAs were calculated using isotope depletion in elevated CO2 plots and decreased from free light to fine mineral fractions. 'New' FAs were higher in short-chain compared to long-chain FAs (C20-30), indicating a faster turnover of short-chain compared to long-chain FAs. Increased N deposition did not significantly affect the quantity of 'new' FAs in soil fractions, but showed a tendency of increased amounts of 'old' (pre-experimental) C suggesting that decomposition of 'old' C is retarded by high N inputs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The potential for portable X-ray fluorescence determination of soil copper at ancient metallurgy sites, and considerations beyond measurements of total concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, M; Rogan, G; Wilson, S C; Grave, P; Kealhofer, L; Yukongdi, P

    2018-01-15

    Copper (Cu) at ancient metallurgy sites represents the earliest instance of anthropogenically generated metal pollution. Such sites are spread across a wide range of environments from Eurasia to South America, and provide a unique opportunity to investigate the past and present extent and impact of metalworking contamination. Establishing the concentration and extent of soil Cu at archaeometallurgy sites can enhance archaeological interpretations of site use but can also, more fundamentally, provide an initial indication of contamination risk from such sites. Systematic evaluations of total soil Cu concentrations at ancient metalworking sites have not been conducted, due in part to the limitations of conventional laboratory-based protocols. In this paper, we first review what is known about Cu soil concentrations at ancient metallurgy sites. We then assess the benefits and challenges of portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (pXRF) as an alternative, rapid technique for the assessment of background and contaminant levels of Cu in soils. We conclude that pXRF is an effective tool for identifying potential contamination. Finally, we provide an overview of some major considerations beyond total Cu concentrations, such as bioavailability assessments, that will need to be considered at such sites to move toward a complete assessment of environmental and human risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of elevated [CO2] and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of Mountain Maple (Acer spicatum L. seedlings to light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Danyagri

    Full Text Available Global climate change is expected to affect how plants respond to their physical and biological environments. In this study, we examined the effects of elevated CO2 ([CO2] and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of mountain maple (Acer spicatum L. seedlings to light availability. The seedlings were grown at ambient (392 µmol mol(-1 and elevated (784 µmol mol(-1 [CO2], low and high soil moisture (M regimes, at high light (100% and low light (30% in the greenhouse for one growing season. We measured net photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (g s, instantaneous water use efficiency (IWUE, maximum rate of carboxylation (V cmax, rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J, triose phosphate utilization (TPU, leaf respiration (R d, light compensation point (LCP and mid-day shoot water potential (Ψx. A and g s did not show significant responses to light treatment in seedlings grown at low soil moisture treatment, but the high light significantly decreased the C i/C a in those seedlings. IWUE was significantly higher in the elevated compared with the ambient [CO2], and the effect was greater at high than the low light treatment. LCP did not respond to the soil moisture treatments when seedlings were grown in high light under both [CO2]. The low soil moisture significantly reduced Ψx but had no significant effect on the responses of other physiological traits to light or [CO2]. These results suggest that as the atmospheric [CO2] rises, the physiological performance of mountain maple seedlings in high light environments may be enhanced, particularly when soil moisture conditions are favourable.

  11. Effects of elevated [CO2] and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of Mountain Maple (Acer spicatum L.) seedlings to light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyagri, Gabriel; Dang, Qing-Lai

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to affect how plants respond to their physical and biological environments. In this study, we examined the effects of elevated CO2 ([CO2]) and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of mountain maple (Acer spicatum L.) seedlings to light availability. The seedlings were grown at ambient (392 µmol mol(-1)) and elevated (784 µmol mol(-1)) [CO2], low and high soil moisture (M) regimes, at high light (100%) and low light (30%) in the greenhouse for one growing season. We measured net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g s), instantaneous water use efficiency (IWUE), maximum rate of carboxylation (V cmax), rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J), triose phosphate utilization (TPU)), leaf respiration (R d), light compensation point (LCP) and mid-day shoot water potential (Ψx). A and g s did not show significant responses to light treatment in seedlings grown at low soil moisture treatment, but the high light significantly decreased the C i/C a in those seedlings. IWUE was significantly higher in the elevated compared with the ambient [CO2], and the effect was greater at high than the low light treatment. LCP did not respond to the soil moisture treatments when seedlings were grown in high light under both [CO2]. The low soil moisture significantly reduced Ψx but had no significant effect on the responses of other physiological traits to light or [CO2]. These results suggest that as the atmospheric [CO2] rises, the physiological performance of mountain maple seedlings in high light environments may be enhanced, particularly when soil moisture conditions are favourable.

  12. Coevolution of nonlinear trends in vegetation, soils, and topography with elevation and slope aspect: A case study in the sky islands of southern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jon D.; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Breshears, David D.; Brooks, Paul D.; Chorover, Jon; Durcik, Matej; Harman, Ciaran J.; Huxman, Travis E.; Lohse, Kathleen A.; Lybrand, Rebecca; Meixner, Tom; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Papuga, Shirley A.; Rasmussen, Craig; Schaap, Marcel; Swetnam, Tyson L.; Troch, Peter A.

    2013-06-01

    among vegetation dynamics, pedogenesis, and topographic development affect the "critical zone"—the living filter for Earth's hydrologic, biogeochemical, and rock/sediment cycles. Assessing the importance of such feedbacks, which may be particularly pronounced in water-limited systems, remains a fundamental interdisciplinary challenge. The sky islands of southern Arizona offer an unusually well-defined natural experiment involving such feedbacks because mean annual precipitation varies by a factor of five over distances of approximately 10 km in areas of similar rock type (granite) and tectonic history. Here we compile high-resolution, spatially distributed data for Effective Energy and Mass Transfer (EEMT: the energy available to drive bedrock weathering), above-ground biomass, soil thickness, hillslope-scale topographic relief, and drainage density in two such mountain ranges (Santa Catalina: SCM; Pinaleño: PM). Strong correlations exist among vegetation-soil-topography variables, which vary nonlinearly with elevation, such that warm, dry, low-elevation portions of these ranges are characterized by relatively low above-ground biomass, thin soils, minimal soil organic matter, steep slopes, and high drainage densities; conversely, cooler, wetter, higher elevations have systematically higher biomass, thicker organic-rich soils, gentler slopes, and lower drainage densities. To test if eco-pedo-geomorphic feedbacks drive this pattern, we developed a landscape evolution model that couples pedogenesis and topographic development over geologic time scales, with rates explicitly dependent on vegetation density. The model self-organizes into states similar to those observed in SCM and PM. Our results highlight the potential importance of eco-pedo-geomorphic feedbacks, mediated by soil thickness, in water-limited systems.

  13. Restoration with pioneer plants changes soil properties and remodels the diversity and structure of bacterial communities in rhizosphere and bulk soil of copper mine tailings in Jiangxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Yanling; Tan, Yinjing; Wu, Zhaoxiang; Lu, Ping; Zhang, Guohua; Yu, Faxin

    2018-05-25

    To unravel the ecological function played by pioneer plants in the practical restoration of mine tailings, it is vital to explore changes of soil characteristics and microbial communities in rhizosphere and bulk soil following the adaptation and survival of plants. In the present study, the diversity and structure of rhizospheric bacterial communities of three pioneer plants in copper mine tailings were investigated by Illumina MiSeq sequencing, and the effects of pioneer plants on soil properties were also evaluated. Significant soil improvement was detected in rhizospheric samples, and Alnus cremastogyne showed higher total organic matter, total nitrogen, and available phosphorus than two other herbaceous plants. Microbial diversity indices in rhizosphere and bulk soil of reclaimed tailings were significantly higher than bare tailings, even the soil properties of bulk soil in reclaimed tailings were not significantly different from those of bare tailings. A detailed taxonomic composition analysis demonstrated that Alphaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, and Gemmatimonadetes showed significantly higher relative abundance in rhizosphere and bulk soil. In contrast, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes were abundant in bare tailings, in which Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Lactococcus made up the majority of the bacterial community (63.04%). Many species within known heavy metal resistance and nutrient regulatory microorganism were identified in reclaimed tailings, and were more abundant among rhizospheric microbes. Hierarchical clustering and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) analysis demonstrated that the bacterial profiles in the rhizosphere clustered strictly together according to plant types, and were distinguishable from bulk soil. However, we also identified a large shared OTUs that occurred repeatedly and was unaffected by highly diverse soil properties in rhizosphere and bulk samples. Redundancy analysis indicated that water

  14. In situ stabilization of trace metals in a copper-contaminated soil using P-spiked Linz-Donawitz slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negim, Osama; Mench, Michel; Bes, Clémence; Motelica-Heino, Mikael; Amin, Fouad; Huneau, Frédéric; Le Coustumer, Philippe

    2012-03-01

    A former wood exploitation revealing high Cu and As concentration of the soils served as a case study for assisted phytoextraction. P-spiked Linz-Donawitz (LD) slag was used as a soil additive to improve physico-chemical soil properties and in situ stabilize Cu and other trace metals in a sandy Cu-contaminated soil (630 mg kg⁻¹ soil). The LD slag was incorporated into the contaminated soil to consist four treatments: 0% (T1), 1% (T2), 2% (T3), and 4% (T4). A similar uncontaminated soil was used as a control (CTRL). After a 1-month reaction period, potted soils were used for a 2-week growth experiment with dwarf beans. Soil pH increased with the incorporation rate of LD slag. Similarly the soil electrical conductivity (EC, in millisiemens per centimetre) is ameliorated. Bean plants grown on the untreated soil (T1) showed a high phytotoxicity. All incorporation rates of LD slag increased the root and shoot dry weight yields compared to the T1. The foliar Ca concentration of beans was enhanced for all LD slag-amended soil, while the foliar Mg, K, and P concentrations were not increased. Foliar Cu, Zn, and Cr concentrations of beans decreased with the LD slag incorporation rate. P-spiked LD slag incorporation into polluted soil allow the bean growth and foliar Ca concentration, but also to reduce foliar Cu concentration below its upper critical value avoiding an excessive soil EC and Zn deficiency. This dual effect can be of interest for soil remediation at larger scale.

  15. Accumulation, sources and health risks of trace metals in elevated geochemical background soils used for greenhouse vegetable production in southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haidong; Huang, Biao; Dong, Linlin; Hu, Wenyou; Akhtar, Mohammad Saleem; Qu, Mingkai

    2017-03-01

    Greenhouse vegetable cultivation with substantive manure and fertilizer input on soils with an elevated geochemical background can accumulate trace metals in soils and plants leading to human health risks. Studies on trace metal accumulation over a land use shift duration in an elevated geochemical background scenario are lacking. Accumulation characteristics of seven trace metals in greenhouse soil and edible plants were evaluated along with an assessment of the health risk to the consumers. A total of 118 greenhouse surface soils (0-20cm) and 30 vegetables were collected from Kunming City, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, and analyzed for total Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, As, Hg, and Cr content by ICP-MS and AFS. The trace metals were ordered Cu>Cd>Hg>Zn>Pb>As>Cr in greenhouse soils accumulation level, and the geo-accumulation index suggested the soil more severely polluted with Cd, Cu, Hg and Zn. The greenhouse and open-field soils had significant difference in Cd, Cr and Zn. The duration of shift from paddy to greenhouse land-use significantly influenced trace metal accumulation with a dramatic change during five to ten year greenhouse land-use, and continuous increase of Cd and Hg. A spatial pattern from north to south for Cd and Hg and a zonal pattern for Cu and Zn were found. An anthropogenic source primarily caused trace metal accumulation, where the principal component analysis/multiple linear regression indicated a contribution 61.2%. While the assessment showed no potential risk for children and adults, the hazard health risks index was greater than one for adolescents. The extended duration of land use as greenhouses caused the trace metal accumulation, rotation in land use should be promoted to reduce the health risks. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Application of magnetic methods for assessment of soil restoration in the vicinity of metallurgical copper-processing plant in Bulgaria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jordanova, N.; Petrovský, Eduard; Kapička, Aleš; Jordanova, D.; Petrov, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 189, č. 4 (2017), 158/1-158/14 ISSN 0167-6369 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG15036 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : environmental magnetism * copper mining * technosols * pedogenic magnetic minerals Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 1.687, year: 2016

  17. Copper mobilization affected by weather conditions in a stormwater detention system receiving runoff waters from vineyard soils (Champagne, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banas, D., E-mail: damien.banas@u-psud.f [Univ. Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Lab. Eco-Toxicologie, BP 1039, F-51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Univ. Nancy, UR-AFPA, INRA, 2 Av. Foret Haye, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Marin, B., E-mail: beatrice.marin@univ-reims.f [Univ. Reims Champagne-Ardenne, EA3795 GEGENA, 2 Esplanade Roland Garros, F-51100 Reims (France); Skraber, S., E-mail: skraber@lippmann.l [Centre de Recherche Public, Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41 rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Chopin, E.I.B., E-mail: chopin@oakland.ed [Oakland University, Department of Chemistry, Rochester, MI 48309 (United States); Zanella, A., E-mail: augusto.zanella@unipd.i [Univ. Padova, Facolta di Agraria, Viale dell' Universita 16, I-35020 Legnaro (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    Copper, a priority substance on the EU-Water Framework Directive list, is widely used to protect grapevines against fungus diseases. Many vineyards being located on steep slopes, large amounts of Cu could be discharged in downstream systems by runoff water. The efficiency of stormwater detention basins to retain copper in a vineyard catchment was estimated. Suspended solids, dissolved (Cu{sub diss}) and total Cu (Cu{sub tot}) concentrations were monitored in runoff water, upstream, into and downstream from a detention pond. Mean Cu{sub tot} concentrations in entering water was 53.6 mug/L whereas it never exceeded 2.4 mug/L in seepage. Cu{sub tot} concentrations in basin water (>100 mug/L in 24% of the samples) exceeded LC{sub 50} values for several aquatic animals. Copper was principally sequestered by reduced compounds in the basin sediments (2/3 of Cu{sub tot}). Metal sequestration was reversible since sediment resuspension resulted in Cu remobilization. Wind velocity controlled resuspension, explained 70% of Cu{sub diss} variability and could help predicting Cu mobilization. - Copper in stormwater basin is efficiently retained but can be released during windy events or after dredging.

  18. Reactivity of fly ash from copper smelters in an Oxisol: implications for smelter-polluted soil systems in the tropics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ettler, V.; Petráňová, Veronika; Vítková, M.; Mihaljevič, M.; Šebek, O.; Kříbek, B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2016), s. 115-124 ISSN 1439-0108 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : cobalt * copper * fly ash * leaching * Oxisol * smelting Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.522, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11368-015-1174-7

  19. Copper mobilization affected by weather conditions in a stormwater detention system receiving runoff waters from vineyard soils (Champagne, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banas, D.; Marin, B.; Skraber, S.; Chopin, E.I.B.; Zanella, A.

    2010-01-01

    Copper, a priority substance on the EU-Water Framework Directive list, is widely used to protect grapevines against fungus diseases. Many vineyards being located on steep slopes, large amounts of Cu could be discharged in downstream systems by runoff water. The efficiency of stormwater detention basins to retain copper in a vineyard catchment was estimated. Suspended solids, dissolved (Cu diss ) and total Cu (Cu tot ) concentrations were monitored in runoff water, upstream, into and downstream from a detention pond. Mean Cu tot concentrations in entering water was 53.6 μg/L whereas it never exceeded 2.4 μg/L in seepage. Cu tot concentrations in basin water (>100 μg/L in 24% of the samples) exceeded LC 50 values for several aquatic animals. Copper was principally sequestered by reduced compounds in the basin sediments (2/3 of Cu tot ). Metal sequestration was reversible since sediment resuspension resulted in Cu remobilization. Wind velocity controlled resuspension, explained 70% of Cu diss variability and could help predicting Cu mobilization. - Copper in stormwater basin is efficiently retained but can be released during windy events or after dredging.

  20. Effect of soil metal contamination on glyphosate mineralization: role of zinc in the mineralization rates of two copper-spiked mineral soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bojeong; Kim, Young Sik; Kim, Bo Min; Hay, Anthony G; McBride, Murray B

    2011-03-01

    A systematic investigation into lowered degradation rates of glyphosate in metal-contaminated soils was performed by measuring mineralization of [(14)C]glyphosate to (14)CO(2) in two mineral soils that had been spiked with Cu and/or Zn at various loadings. Cumulative (14)CO(2) release was estimated to be approximately 6% or less of the amount of [(14)C]glyphosate originally added in both soils over an 80-d incubation. For all but the highest Cu treatments (400 mg kg(-1)) in the coarse-textured Arkport soil, mineralization began without a lag phase and declined over time. No inhibition of mineralization was observed for Zn up to 400 mg kg(-1) in either soil, suggesting differential sensitivity of glyphosate mineralization to the types of metal and soil. Interestingly, Zn appeared to alleviate high-Cu inhibition of mineralization in the Arkport soil. The protective role of Zn against Cu toxicity was also observed in the pure culture study with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, suggesting that increased mineralization rates in high Cu soil with Zn additions might have been due to alleviation of cellular toxicity by Zn rather than a mineralization specific mechanism. Extensive use of glyphosate combined with its reduced degradation in Cu-contaminated, coarse-textured soils may increase glyphosate persistence in soil and consequently facilitate Cu and glyphosate mobilization in the soil environment. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  1. Changes in the microbial community structure of bacteria, archaea and fungi in response to elevated CO(2) and warming in an Australian native grassland soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Helen L; Mele, Pauline M; Bougoure, Damian S; Allan, Claire Y; Norng, Sorn; Piceno, Yvette M; Brodie, Eoin L; Desantis, Todd Z; Andersen, Gary L; Williams, Amity L; Hovenden, Mark J

    2012-12-01

    The microbial community structure of bacteria, archaea and fungi is described in an Australian native grassland soil after more than 5 years exposure to different atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) (ambient, +550 ppm) and temperatures (ambient, + 2°C) under different plant functional types (C3 and C4 grasses) and at two soil depths (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm). Archaeal community diversity was influenced by elevated [CO2], while under warming archaeal 16S rRNA gene copy numbers increased for C4 plant Themeda triandra and decreased for the C3 plant community (P fungi in soil responded differently to elevated [CO2], warming and their interaction. Taxa identified as significantly climate-responsive could show differing trends in the direction of response ('+' or '-') under elevated CO2 or warming, which could then not be used to predict their interactive effects supporting the need to investigate interactive effects for climate change. The approach of focusing on specific taxonomic groups provides greater potential for understanding complex microbial community changes in ecosystems under climate change. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature on the soil profile methane distribution and diffusion in rice-wheat rotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Zhaozhi; Zhang, Man; Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Xuhui; Pan, Genxing; Zou, Jianwen; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this experiment was to determine the impacts of climate change on soil profile concentrations and diffusion effluxes of methane in a rice-wheat annual rotation ecosystem in Southeastern China. We initiated a field experiment with four treatments: ambient conditions (CKs), CO2 concentration elevated to ~500 μmol/mol (FACE), temperature elevated by ca. 2°C (T) and combined elevation of CO2 concentration and temperature (FACE+T). A multilevel sampling probe was designed to collect the soil gas at four different depths, namely, 7 cm, 15 cm, 30 cm and 50 cm. Methane concentrations were higher during the rice season and decreased with depth, while lower during the wheat season and increased with depth. Compared to CK, mean methane concentration was increased by 42%, 57% and 71% under the FACE, FACE+T and T treatments, respectively, at the 7 cm depth during the rice season (pCO2 concentration and temperature could significantly increase soil profile methane concentrations and their effluxes from a rice-wheat field annual rotation ecosystem (p<0.05). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Heavy metal bioaccumulation in selected medicinal plants collected from Khetri copper mines and comparison with those collected from fertile soil in Haridwar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharia, R S; Dutta, R K; Acharya, R; Reddy, A V R

    2010-02-01

    Heavy metal distribution in medicinal plants is gaining importance not only as an alternative medicine, but also for possible concern due to effects of metal toxicity. The present study has been focused on emphasizing the heavy metal status and bioaccumulation factors of V, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se (essential metals) and Cr, Ni, Cd, As and Pb (potentially toxic metals) in medicinal plants grown under two different environmental conditions e.g., near to Khetri copper mine and those in fertile soils of Haridwar, both in India, using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (relative method) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The copper levels in the medicinal plants from Khetri were found to be 3-4 folds higher (31.6-76.5 mg kg(-1)) than those from Haridwar samples (7.40-15.3 mg kg(-1)), which is correlated with very high copper levels (763 mg kg(-1)) in Khetri soil. Among various heavy metals, Cr (2.60-5.92 mg kg(-1)), Cd (1.47-2.97 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (3.97-6.63 mg kg(-1)) are also higher in concentration in the medicinal plants from Khetri. The essential metals like Mn (36.4-69.3 mg kg(-1)), Fe (192-601 mg kg(-1)), Zn (24.9-49.9 mg kg(-1)) and Se (0.13-0.91 mg kg(-1)) and potentially toxic metals like Ni (3.09-9.01 mg kg(-1)) and As (0.41-2.09 mg kg(-1)) did not show much variations in concentration in the medicinal plants from both Khetri and Haridwar. The medicinal plants from Khetri, e.g., Ocimum sanctum, Cassia fistula, Withania somnifera and Azadirachta Indica were found rich in Ca and Mg contents while Aloe barbadensis showed moderately high Ca and Mg. Higher levels of Ca-Mg were found to correlate with Zn (except Azadirachta Indica). The bioaccumulation factors (BAFS) of the heavy metals were estimated to understand the soil-to-plant transfer pattern of the heavy metals. Significantly lower BAF values of Cu and Cr were found in the medicinal plants from Khetri, indicating majority fraction of these metals are precipitated and were immobilized species

  4. Effect of elevated Al and pH on the growth and root morphology of Al-tolerant and Al-sensitive wheat seedlings in an acid soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Toufiq Iqbal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium ion (Al3+ toxicity and hydrogen ion (H+ activity are the major constraints for plant growth in acid soil. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of pH and Al on the growth response and changes in root morphology of Al-tolerant (ET8 and Al-sensitive (ES8 wheat seedlings. Different levels of AlCl3 and CaCO3 were added to the soils to manipulate soil pH and extractable Al. The results showed that the bulk soil pH remained constant at pH 4.1 with further applications of AlCl3, and that the seedlings died at the 200 mg AlCl3/kg treatments. The ET8 seedlings responded better than the ES8 seedlings in both low and high Al and pH. The ET8 seedlings had higher root surface areas and root tip numbers than the ES8 seedlings in the Al treatment. In contrast, the ES8 had higher root diameters than the ET8 seedlings due to the elevated Al supply. Apoplast Al increased with the increase of soil available extractable Al, and declined with the decrease of soil extractable Al. The ET8 seedlings accumulated more Al in their apoplast than the ES8 seedlings. This study concluded that accumulation of Al in the apoplast is also involved in Al tolerance mechanism with the addition of organic acid exudation.

  5. Short-term responses and resistance of soil microbial community structure to elevated CO2 and N addition in grassland mesocosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonin, Marie; Nunan, Naoise; Bloor, Juliette M G; Pouteau, Valérie; Niboyet, Audrey

    2017-05-01

    Nitrogen (N) addition is known to affect soil microbial communities, but the interactive effects of N addition with other drivers of global change remain unclear. The impacts of multiple global changes on the structure of microbial communities may be mediated by specific microbial groups with different life-history strategies. Here, we investigated the combined effects of elevated CO2 and N addition on soil microbial communities using PLFA profiling in a short-term grassland mesocosm experiment. We also examined the linkages between the relative abundance of r- and K-strategist microorganisms and resistance of the microbial community structure to experimental treatments. N addition had a significant effect on microbial community structure, likely driven by concurrent increases in plant biomass and in soil labile C and N. In contrast, microbial community structure did not change under elevated CO2 or show significant CO2 × N interactions. Resistance of soil microbial community structure decreased with increasing fungal/bacterial ratio, but showed a positive relationship with the Gram-positive/Gram-negative bacterial ratio. Our findings suggest that the Gram-positive/Gram-negative bacteria ratio may be a useful indicator of microbial community resistance and that K-strategist abundance may play a role in the short-term stability of microbial communities under global change. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Determination of Cu, Zn and Cd in Soil, Water and Food Products in the Vicinity of RMG Gold and Copper Mine, Kazreti, Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guranda Avkopashvili

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Functioning of polymetallic factories are considerable harming the ecological systems in the environment. Operation of RMG Gold and Copper Mine in the SE part of Georgia causes severe ecological problems in the region. It is vital that conducted monitoring near the areas where industrial activities are underway. The study is aimed at eco-monitoring of the Bolnisi municipality, Georgia. The monitoring was conducted of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd in system “water-soil-plant” in the area of Kazreti (Madneuli – villages: Balichi, Ratevani, Naxiduri, Xidiskhuri. According to the results obtained in the soil, content of heavy metals are significantly higher than the allowable concentration limit. In spite of this in crops of the plants which were grown on this soil, content of Cu and Zn does not exceed the allowed concentration limits, Cd content was not found. Study plants were green been, mauhroom, green walnut, green pepper, cucumber, cherry, potato, tomato, walnut, garlic, dry been and corn. Study water were rivers Kazretula and Mashavera's water. Rivers Kazretula and Mashavera water content Zn and Cd concentration.

  7. Models for the field-based toxicity of copper and zinc salts to wheat in 11 Australian soils and comparison to laboratory-based models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warne, Michael St.J.; Heemsbergen, Diane; McLaughlin, Mike; Bell, Mike; Broos, Kris; Whatmuff, Mark; Barry, Glenn; Nash, David; Pritchard, Deb; Penney, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory-based relationships that model the phytotoxicity of metals using soil properties have been developed. This paper presents the first field-based phytotoxicity relationships. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown at 11 Australian field sites at which soil was spiked with copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) salts. Toxicity was measured as inhibition of plant growth at 8 weeks and grain yield at harvest. The added Cu and Zn EC10 values for both endpoints ranged from approximately 3 to 4760 mg/kg. There were no relationships between field-based 8-week biomass and grain yield toxicity values for either metal. Cu toxicity was best modelled using pH and organic carbon content while Zn toxicity was best modelled using pH and the cation exchange capacity. The best relationships estimated toxicity within a factor of two of measured values. Laboratory-based phytotoxicity relationships could not accurately predict field-based phytotoxicity responses. - Field-based toxicity of Cu and Zn to wheat can be modelled using soil properties. Laboratory-based models should not be used to estimate toxicity in the field

  8. Evaluación de la toxicidad de cobre en suelos a través de biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo en eisenia foetida Assessment of copper toxicity in soils using biomarkers of oxidative stress in eisenia foetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Gaete

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper toxicity in soil was evaluated using biomarkers of oxidative stress (catalase enzyme activity, superoxide dismutase and lipid peroxidation in the earthworm Eisenia foetida. Agricultural topsoils from mining areas of the Aconcagua river basin were collected. Total copper concentrations were in the range of 94-959 mg kg-1, while the exchangeable copper concentrations were in the range of 46-2225 µg kg-1. Earthworms exposed to soil with exchangeable copper concentrations above 32 µg kg-1 showed an increase in catalase activity. Parameters of antioxidant activity were more sensitive than the weight change and thus can be used as appropriate biomarkers in Eisenia foetida.

  9. Electrodialytic Soil Remediation. Improved conditions and acceleration of the process by addition of desorbing agents to the soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik; Hansen, Lene

    1998-01-01

    The principel of electrodialytic soil remediation was improved when ammonia was added to a calcareous copper polluted soil......The principel of electrodialytic soil remediation was improved when ammonia was added to a calcareous copper polluted soil...

  10. Zinc, copper and manganese availability in soils treated with alkaline sewage sludge from Paraná state (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Dalpisol

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Paraná, most of the sludge generated in sewage treatment plants is subjected to the prolonged alkaline stabilization process. Although it is known that the alkaline sewage sludge contains micronutrients such as Zn, Cu and Mn, little is known about the availability of these elements in soils treated with this type of sewage sludge. Thus, the objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of alkaline sewage sludge from Paraná on Zn, Cu and Mn availability in soils. Twenty sewage treatment plants were selected throughout Paraná, where alkaline sewage sludge and the most representative agricultural soil of the each region were collected. Each soil was incubated for 60 days with alkaline sewage sludge rates (0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 Mg ha-1 from their region. Subsequently, Zn, Cu and Mn availability was determined using the Mehlich-1 extractant. The alkaline sewage sludge increased Zn availability and decreased Mn availability in most soils. Cu showed intermediate results, with increased availability, primarily in medium texture soils and decrease in most of the clayey soils. In soils with pH close to ideal for the plant growth, the alkaline sewage sludge rate should be carefully calculated so that there is no excessive increase in the pH and Zn, Cu and Mn imbalance.

  11. Voltammetric behaviour at gold electrodes immersed in the BCR sequential extraction scheme media Application of underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry to determination of copper in soil extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beni, Valerio; Newton, Hazel V.; Arrigan, Damien W.M.; Hill, Martin; Lane, William A.; Mathewson, Alan

    2004-01-30

    The development of mercury-free electroanalytical systems for in-field analysis of pollutants requires a foundation on the electrochemical behaviour of the chosen electrode material in the target sample matrices. In this work, the behaviour of gold working electrodes in the media employed in the BCR sequential extraction protocol, for the fractionation of metals in solid environmental matrices, is reported. All three of the BCR sequential extraction media are redox active, on the basis of acidity and oxygen content as well as the inherent reducing or oxidising nature of some of the reagents employed: 0.11 M acetic acid, 0.1 M hydroxylammonium chloride (adjusted to pH 2) and 1 M ammonium acetate (adjusted to pH 2) with added trace hydrogen peroxide. The available potential ranges together with the demonstrated detection of target metals in these media are presented. Stripping voltammetry of copper or lead in the BCR extract media solutions reveal a multi-peak behaviour due to the stripping of both bulk metal and underpotential metal deposits. A procedure based on underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry (UPD-SV) was evaluated for application to determination of copper in 0.11 M acetic acid soil extracts. A preliminary screening step in which different deposition times are applied to the sample enables a deposition time commensurate with UPD-SV to be selected so that no bulk deposition or stripping occurs thus simplifying the shape and features of the resulting voltammograms. Choice of the suitable deposition time is then followed by standards addition calibration. The method was validated by the analysis of a number of BCR 0.11 M acetic acid soil extracts. Good agreement was obtained been the UPD-SV method and atomic spectroscopic results.

  12. Voltammetric behaviour at gold electrodes immersed in the BCR sequential extraction scheme media Application of underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry to determination of copper in soil extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beni, Valerio; Newton, Hazel V.; Arrigan, Damien W.M.; Hill, Martin; Lane, William A.; Mathewson, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The development of mercury-free electroanalytical systems for in-field analysis of pollutants requires a foundation on the electrochemical behaviour of the chosen electrode material in the target sample matrices. In this work, the behaviour of gold working electrodes in the media employed in the BCR sequential extraction protocol, for the fractionation of metals in solid environmental matrices, is reported. All three of the BCR sequential extraction media are redox active, on the basis of acidity and oxygen content as well as the inherent reducing or oxidising nature of some of the reagents employed: 0.11 M acetic acid, 0.1 M hydroxylammonium chloride (adjusted to pH 2) and 1 M ammonium acetate (adjusted to pH 2) with added trace hydrogen peroxide. The available potential ranges together with the demonstrated detection of target metals in these media are presented. Stripping voltammetry of copper or lead in the BCR extract media solutions reveal a multi-peak behaviour due to the stripping of both bulk metal and underpotential metal deposits. A procedure based on underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry (UPD-SV) was evaluated for application to determination of copper in 0.11 M acetic acid soil extracts. A preliminary screening step in which different deposition times are applied to the sample enables a deposition time commensurate with UPD-SV to be selected so that no bulk deposition or stripping occurs thus simplifying the shape and features of the resulting voltammograms. Choice of the suitable deposition time is then followed by standards addition calibration. The method was validated by the analysis of a number of BCR 0.11 M acetic acid soil extracts. Good agreement was obtained been the UPD-SV method and atomic spectroscopic results

  13. Metal concentrations in the soils and native plants surrounding the old flotation tailings pond of the copper mining and smelting complex Bor (Serbia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonijević, M M; Dimitrijević, M D; Milić, S M; Nujkić, M M

    2012-03-01

    In this study concentrations of metals in the native plants and soils surrounding the old flotation tailings pond of the copper mine were determined. It has been established that the soil is heavily contaminated with copper, iron and arsenic, the mean concentrations being 1585.6, 29,462.5 and 171.7 mg kg(-1) respectively. All the plants, except manganese, accumulated metallic elements in concentrations which were either in the range of critical and phytotoxic values (Pb and As) or higher (Zn), and even much higher (Cu and Fe) than these values. Otherwise, the accumulation of Mn, Pb and As was considerably lower than that of Cu, Fe and Zn. In most plants the accumulation of target metals was highest in the root. Several plant species showed high bioaccumulation and translocation factor values, which classify them into species for potential use in phytoextraction. The BCF and TF values determined in Prunus persica were 1.20 and 3.95 for Cu, 1.5 and 6.0 for Zn and 1.96 and 5.44 for Pb. In Saponaria officinalis these values were 2.53 and 1.27 for Zn, and in Juglans regia L. they were 8.76 and 17.75 for Zn. The translocation factor in most plants, for most metals, was higher than one, whereas the highest value was determined in Populus nigra for Zn, amounting to 17.8. Among several tolerant species, the most suitable ones for phytostabilization proved to be Robinia pseudoacacia L. for Zn and Verbascum phlomoides L., Saponaria officinalis and Centaurea jacea L. for Mn, Pb and As. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  14. Warming and the dependence of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) establishment on summer soil moisture within and above its current elevation range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Andrew B.; Castanha, Cristina; Germino, Matthew J.; Kueppers, Lara M.

    2013-01-01

    Continued changes in climate are projected to alter the geographic distributions of plant species, in part by affecting where individuals can establish from seed. We tested the hypothesis that warming promotes uphill redistribution of subalpine tree populations by reducing cold limitation at high elevation and enhancing drought stress at low elevation. We seeded limber pine (Pinus flexilis) into plots with combinations of infrared heating and water addition treatments, at sites positioned in lower subalpine forest, the treeline ecotone, and alpine tundra. In 2010, first-year seedlings were assessed for physiological performance and survival over the snow-free growing season. Seedlings emerged in midsummer, about 5–8 weeks after snowmelt. Low temperature was not observed to limit seedling photosynthesis or respiration between emergence and October, and thus experimental warming did not appear to reduce cold limitation at high elevation. Instead, gas exchange and water potential from all sites indicated a prevailing effect of summer moisture stress on photosynthesis and carbon balance. Infrared heaters raised soil growing degree days (base 5 °C, p p 3 m-3 consistently corresponded with moderate and severe indications of drought stress in midday stem water potential, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, and respiration. Seedling survival was greater in watered plots than in heated plots (p = 0.01), and negatively related to soil growing degree days and duration of exposure to θ 3 m-3 in a stepwise linear regression model (p seasonal moisture stress and high soil surface temperature imposed a strong limitation to limber pine seedling establishment across a broad elevation gradient, including at treeline, and that these limitations are likely to be enhanced by further climate warming.

  15. Lack of photosynthetic or stomatal regulation after 9 years of elevated [CO2] and 4 years of soil warming in two conifer species at the alpine treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Kathrin; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Hagedorn, Frank; Schaub, Marcus; Buchmann, Nina

    2014-02-01

    Alpine treelines are temperature-limited vegetation boundaries. Understanding the effects of elevated [CO2 ] and warming on CO2 and H2 O gas exchange may help predict responses of treelines to global change. We measured needle gas exchange of Larix decidua Mill. and Pinus mugo ssp. uncinata DC trees after 9 years of free air CO2 enrichment (575 µmol mol(-1) ) and 4 years of soil warming (+4 °C) and analysed δ(13) C and δ(18) O values of needles and tree rings. Tree needles under elevated [CO2 ] showed neither nitrogen limitation nor end-product inhibition, and no down-regulation of maximal photosynthetic rate (Amax ) was found. Both tree species showed increased net photosynthetic rates (An ) under elevated [CO2 ] (L. decidua: +39%; P. mugo: +35%). Stomatal conductance (gH2O ) was insensitive to changes in [CO2 ], thus transpiration rates remained unchanged and intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) increased due to higher An . Soil warming affected neither An nor gH2O . Unresponsiveness of gH2O to [CO2 ] and warming was confirmed by δ(18) O needle and tree ring values. Consequently, under sufficient water supply, elevated [CO2 ] induced sustained enhancement in An and lead to increased C inputs into this ecosystem, while soil warming hardly affected gas exchange of L. decidua and P. mugo at the alpine treeline. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Copper desorption in a soil with variable charge Dessorção de cobre em solo com carga variável

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Casagrande

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption processes of heavy metals in soils have been more extensively studied than desorption, in spite of this latter process being related to nutrient bioavailability in the soil solution. Copper desorption from surface (0-0.2 m and subsurface (1.0 - 1.2 m samples of an Anionic Acrudox was studied at two pH values (4.5 and 7.5. Soil samples were incubated with Cu rates varying from 0 to 400 mg kg-1, during 4 and 12 weeks, in the presence of CaCl2 as support electrolyte at concentrations of 0.01 and 0.001 mol L-1. Complete soil adsorption of added Cu was observed at pH 7.5 in all incubation periods, indicating that a 24h-shaking period was enough to reach equilibrium and maximum adsorption. Copper adsorption varied with the incubation period and was much lower at pH 4.5 than at pH 7.5, after the 24 hour-incubation period. After 4 and 12 weeks, Cu adsorption values were higher and similar for all soil samples, irrespective of pH or depth of sampling. The effect of the incubation period on soil Cu adsorption surpassed the pH effect for all Cu rates. The hysteresis was expressive, suggesting that Cu enhances high-energy bonds with the soil colloids. Calcium chloride was not efficient in promoting native soil Cu desorption in the studied concentrations.A adsorção de metais pesados aos solos é mais estudada do que sua dessorção. No entanto, o processo de dessorção está diretamente relacionado à disponibilidade dos elementos às plantas. A dessorção de cobre em amostras superficiais (0-0,2 m e subsuperficiais (1,0-1,2 m de um Latossolo Vermelho acriférrico foi estudada em dois valores de pH (4,5 e 7,5. Foram adicionados até 400 mg kg-1 de Cu em amostras incubadas por 4 e 12 semanas, tendo o CaCl2 como eletrólito suporte nas concentrações de 0,01 e 0,001 mol L-1. No pH mais elevado (7,5, em todos os períodos de incubação, as amostras adsorveram praticamente todo o cobre adicionado, indicando que o tempo de 24 h de agitação para

  17. Regional-scale fluxes of zinc, copper, and nickel into and out of the agricultural soils of the Kermanshah province in western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi Doabi, Shahab; Karami, Mahin; Afyuni, Majid

    2016-04-01

    It is important to study the status and trend of soil contamination with trace elements to make sustainable management strategies for agricultural soils. This study was conducted in order to model zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and nickel (Ni) accumulation rates in agricultural soils of Kermanshah province using input and output fluxes mass balance and to evaluate the associated uncertainties. The input and output fluxes of Zn, Cu, and Ni into (from) the agricultural soils of Kermanshah province via livestock manure, mineral fertilizers, municipal waste compost, pesticides, atmospheric deposition, and crop removal were assessed for the period 2000-2014. The data were collected to compute the fluxes at both township and regional scales from available databases such as regional agricultural statistics. The basic units of the balance were 9 townships of Kermanshah province. Averaged over the entire study region, the estimated net fluxes of Zn, Cu, and Ni into agricultural soils were 341, 84, and131 g ha year(-1), with a range of 211 to 1621, 61 to 463, and 114 to 679 among the townships. The livestock manure was responsible for 55, 56, and 67 % of the total Zn, Cu, and Ni inputs at regional scale, while municipal waste compost and mineral fertilizers accounted for approximately 19, 38, and 15 % and 24, 4, and 14 % of the total Zn, Cu, and Ni inputs, respectively. Atmospheric deposition was a considerable source only for Ni and at township scale (7-29 % of total Ni input). For Zn, Cu, and Ni, the input-to-output ratio of the fluxes ranged from 1.8 to 48.9, 2 to 48.2, and 4 to 303 among townships and averaged 2.8, 3, and 9 for the entire study area, respectively. Considering that outputs other than with crop harvests are minor, this means that Zn, Cu, and Ni (in particular Ni) stocks are rapidly building up in soils of some parts of the study region. Uncertainties in the livestock manure and crop removal data were the main sources of estimation uncertainty in this study

  18. Elevating your elevator talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  19. Toxicological effects, mechanisms, and implied toxicity thresholds in the roots of Vicia faba L. seedlings grown in copper-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghua; Huang, Zhicheng; Wang, Chengrun; Zhong, Li; Tian, Yuan; Li, Dongdong; Zhang, Gaojian; Shi, Jian

    2015-09-01

    Copper (Cu) contamination has become a global concern because of industrial, agricultural, and other anthropogenic activities. In the present experiments, the toxicological effects, mechanisms, and potential toxicity thresholds were investigated in the roots of Vicia faba L. seedlings that were cultivated in Cu-amended soils (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg kg(-1)) for 20 days, based on an analysis of the soil physicochemical properties, native Cu, available Cu, and root-enriched Cu contents. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) isozymes and activities, as well as glutathione (GSH) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), changed like biphasic dose-response curves, cooperating to control the redox homeostasis. The APX and POD enzymes exhibited enhanced activities and became H2O2 scavengers primarily when the catalase (CAT) activities tended to decrease. Endoprotease (EP) isozymes and activities might be enhanced to degrade carbonylated proteins and alleviate metabolic disturbance in the roots. Additionally, HSP70 may not be suitable as a biomarker for relatively higher soil Cu concentrations and relatively longer exposure times for the roots. As a result, the isozymes and activities of SOD, CAT, and EP, as well as GSH, can be adopted as the most sensitive biomarkers. The toxicity threshold is estimated as 0.76-1.21 mg kg(-1) of available Cu in the soils or 25.04-36.65 μg Cu g(-1) dry weights (DW) in the roots.

  20. Effect of sewage sludge or compost on the sorption and distribution of copper and cadmium in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaca-Paulin, R.; Esteller-Alberich, M.V.; Lugo-de la Fuente, J.; Zavaleta-Mancera, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    The application of biosolids such as sewage sludge is a concern, because of the potential release of toxic metals after decomposition of the organic matter. The effect of application of sewage sludge (Sw) and compost (C) to the soil (S) on the Cu and Cd sorption, distribution and the quality of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the soil, was investigated under controlled conditions. Visible spectrophotometry, infrared spectroscopy, sorption isotherms (simple and competitive sorption systems), and sequential extraction methods were used. The E 4 /E 6 (λ at 465 and 665 nm) ratio and the infrared spectra (IR) of DOM showed an aromatic behaviour in compost-soil (C-S); in contrast sewage sludge-soil (Sw-S) showed an aliphatic behaviour. Application of either Sw or C increased the Cu sorption capacity of soil. The Cd sorption decreased only in soil with a competitive metal system. The availability of Cu was low due to its occurrence in the acid soluble fraction (F3). The Cu concentration varied in accordance with the amounts of Cu added. The highest Cd concentration was found in the exchangeable fraction (F2). The Sw and C applications did not increase the Cd availability in the soil

  1. Monitoring of Soil Contamination by Heavy Metals in the Impact Zone of Copper-Nickel Smelter on the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashulina, G. M.

    2018-04-01

    The results of landscape monitoring of the concentrations of acid-extractable Ni, Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn in soils of the local impact zone of the Severonikel industrial complex on the Kola Peninsula are discussed. The aim of monitoring studies was to reveal the spatial and temporal regularities of variation in the degree of soil contamination by heavy metals. In 2001-2011, the concentrations of acid-extractable compounds of the elements in the upper part of organic soil horizons around this plant exceeded their background concentrations by two orders of magnitude for Cu and Co and by three orders of magnitude for Ni. The degree of topsoil contamination with Ni, Cu, and Co generally corresponded to the distance of the plots from the contamination source and to the modern technogenic load. However, because of the long period of the emissions, their extreme amounts, and complex composition, indirect factors—the degree of technogenic soil degradation, the loss of soil organic matter, saturation of the surface soil layers by the contaminating metals, and competitive relationships between the elements—also affect soil contamination level. The concentrations of all the studied metals in the topsoil are characterized by considerable (1.5 to 7 times) variability in their long-term dynamics. The most important factors of this variability for Ni, Cu, and Co are the organic matter content of the samples and the amount of atmospheric precipitation in the year preceding the sampling. An inverse relationship between element concentrations in the soils and the amount of atmospheric precipitation attests to the dynamic nature and reversible character of the accumulation of heavy metals in the soils.

  2. Leaching of Copper and Zinc in a Garden Soil Receiving Poultry and Livestock Manures from Intensive Farming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The leaching characteristics of a garden soil may be greatly affected by application of poultry and livestock manures from intensive farming.Packed soil columns of a garden soil(CK)and the soils after respectively receiving 2% pig manure (PM),chicken manure(CM),and commercial organic manure(OM)were leached with 0.05 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2 and 0.01 mol L-1 EDTA solutions.The leachate EC(electric conductivity)values gradually increased at the beginning and then reached a stable value when the soil columns were leached with 0.05 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2 solution.The leachate EC values showed a peak-shape when leached with 0.01 mol L-1 EDTA solution.In all the soil columns,the pH values of the leachates decreased with increase of displacement volumes when the Ca(NO3)2 solution was used.The total amounts of Cu and Zn eluted from the four soil columns were significantly correlated with the extracted soil Cu and Zn concentrations by 1.0 mol L-1 NH4NO3,but were not correlated with the leachate dissolved organic carbon(DOC)contents.The Zn concentration in the leachate of the PM-treated soil column with 0.05 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2 solution was above the Quality Standard III for Ground Water of China(GB/T 14848-93,Zn < 1.0 mg L-1).When compared with 0.05 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2,the EDTA solution significantly accelerated Cu and Zn elutions in the manure-treated columns.This suggested that applying poultry and livestock manures from intensive farming to farmland might pose a threat to the groundwater quality.

  3. Morphological and functional responses of a metal-tolerant sunflower mutant line to a copper-contaminated soil series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbas, Aliaksandr; Kolbas, Natallia; Marchand, Lilian; Herzig, Rolf; Mench, Michel

    2018-04-02

    The potential use of a metal-tolerant sunflower mutant line for biomonitoring Cu phytoavailability, Cu-induced soil phytotoxicity, and Cu phytoextraction was assessed on a Cu-contaminated soil series (13-1020 mg Cu kg -1 ) obtained by fading a sandy topsoil from a wood preservation site with a similar uncontaminated soil. Morphological and functional plant responses as well as shoot, leaf, and root ionomes were measured after a 1-month pot experiment. Hypocotyl length, shoot and root dry weight (DW) yields, and leaf area gradually decreased as soil Cu exposure rose. Their dose-response curves (DRC) plotted against indicators of Cu exposure were generally well fitted by sigmoidal curves. The half-maximal effective concentration (EC 50 ) of morphological parameters ranged between 203 and 333 mg Cu kg -1 soil, corresponding to 290-430 μg Cu L -1 in the soil pore water, and 20 ± 5 mg Cu kg -1 DW in the shoots. The EC 10 for shoot Cu concentration (13-15 mg Cu kg -1 DW) coincided to 166 mg Cu kg -1 soil. Total chlorophyll content and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were early biomarkers (EC 10 : 23 and 51 mg Cu kg -1 soil). Their DRC displayed a biphasic response. Photosynthetic pigment contents, e.g., carotenoids, correlated with TAC. Ionome was changed in Cu-stressed roots, shoots, and leaves. Shoot Cu removal peaked roughly at 280 μg Cu L -1 in the soil pore water.

  4. Soil CO2 flux in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen fertilization: patterns and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Katherine J. Elliott; D.W. Johnson

    1995-01-01

    The evolution of carbon dioxide (CO2) from soils is due to the metabolic activity of roots, mycorrhizae, and soil micro- and macro-organisms. Although precise estimates of carbon (C) recycled to the atmosphere from belowground sources are unavailable, Musselman and Fox (1991) propose that the belowground contribution exceeds 100 Pg y-1...

  5. The effect of heat waves, elevated [CO2 ] and low soil water availability on northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauweraerts, Ingvar; Wertin, Timothy M; Ameye, Maarten; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O; Steppe, Kathy

    2013-02-01

    The frequency and intensity of heat waves are predicted to increase. This study investigates whether heat waves would have the same impact as a constant increase in temperature with the same heat sum, and whether there would be any interactive effects of elevated [CO2 ] and soil moisture content. We grew Quercus rubra seedlings in treatment chambers maintained at either ambient or elevated [CO2 ] (380 or 700 μmol CO2 mol(-1) ) with temperature treatments of ambient, ambient +3 °C, moderate heat wave (+6 °C every other week) or severe heat wave (+12 °C every fourth week) temperatures. Averaged over a 4-week period, and the entire growing season, the three elevated temperature treatments had the same average temperature and heat sum. Half the seedlings were watered to a soil water content near field capacity, half to about 50% of this value. Foliar gas exchange measurements were performed morning and afternoon (9:00 and 15:00 hours) before, during and after an applied heat wave in August 2010. Biomass accumulation was measured after five heat wave cycles. Under ambient [CO2 ] and well-watered conditions, biomass accumulation was highest in the +3 °C treatment, intermediate in the +6 °C heat wave and lowest in the +12 °C heat wave treatment. This response was mitigated by elevated [CO2 ]. Low soil moisture significantly decreased net photosynthesis (Anet ) and biomass in all [CO2 ] and temperature treatments. The +12 °C heat wave reduced afternoon Anet by 23% in ambient [CO2 ]. Although this reduction was relatively greater under elevated [CO2 ], Anet values during this heat wave were still 34% higher than under ambient [CO2 ]. We concluded that heat waves affected biomass growth differently than the same amount of heat applied uniformly over the growing season, and that the plant response to heat waves also depends on [CO2 ] and soil moisture conditions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Effects of elevated CO2 concentrations and fly ash amended soils on trace element accumulation and translocation among roots, stems and seeds of Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J H; Klumpp, A; Fangmeier, A; Pignata, M L

    2011-03-15

    The carbon dioxide (CO(2)) levels of the global atmosphere and the emissions of heavy metals have risen in recent decades, and these increases are expected to produce an impact on crops and thereby affect yield and food safety. In this study, the effects of elevated CO(2) and fly ash amended soils on trace element accumulation and translocation in the root, stem and seed compartments in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] were evaluated. Soybean plants grown in fly ash (FA) amended soil (0, 1, 10, 15, and 25% FA) at two CO(2) regimes (400 and 600 ppm) in controlled environmental chambers were analyzed at the maturity stage for their trace element contents. The concentrations of Br, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in roots, stems and seeds in soybeans were investigated and their potential risk to the health of consumers was estimated. The results showed that high levels of CO(2) and lower concentrations of FA in soils were associated with an increase in biomass. For all the elements analyzed except Pb, their accumulation in soybean plants was higher at elevated CO(2) than at ambient concentrations. In most treatments, the highest concentrations of Br, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Pb were found in the roots, with a strong combined effect of elevated CO(2) and 1% of FA amended soils on Pb accumulation (above maximum permitted levels) and translocation to seeds being observed. In relation to non-carcinogenic risks, target hazard quotients (TQHs) were significant in a Chinese individual for Mn, Fe and Pb. Also, the increased health risk due to the added effects of the trace elements studied was significant for Chinese consumers. According to these results, soybean plants grown for human consumption under future conditions of elevated CO(2) and FA amended soils may represent a toxicological hazard. Therefore, more research should be carried out with respect to food consumption (plants and animals) under these conditions and their consequences for human health. Copyright © 2010

  7. Effects of elevated CO2 on soil organic matter turnover and plant nitrogen uptake: First results from a dual labeling mesocosm experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Lucia Muriel; Weber, Enrico; Schrumpf, Marion; Zaehle, Sönke

    2017-04-01

    The response of plant growth to elevated concentrations of CO2 (eCO2) is often constrained by plant nitrogen (N) uptake. To overcome potential N limitation, plants may invest photosynthetically fixed carbon (C) into N acquiring strategies, including fine root biomass, root exudation, or C allocation to mycorrhizal fungi. In turn, these strategies may affect the decomposition of soil organic matter, leading to uncertainties in net effects of eCO2 on C storage. To gain more insight into these plant-soil C-N-interactions, we combined C and N stable isotope labeling in a mesocosm experiment. Saplings of Fagus sylvatica L. were exposed to a 13CO2 enriched atmosphere at near ambient (380 ppm) or elevated (550 ppm) CO2 concentrations for four months of the vegetation period in 2016. Aboveground and belowground net CO2 fluxes were measured separately and the 13C label enabled partitioning of total soil CO2 efflux into old, soil derived and new, plant-derived C. We used ingrowth cores to assess effects of eCO2on belowground C allocation and plant N uptake in more detail and in particular we evaluated the relative importance of ectomycorrhizal associations. In the soil of each sapling, ingrowth cores with different mesh sizes allowed fine roots or only mycorrhizal hyphae to penetrate. In one type of ingrowth core each, we incorporated fine root litter that was enriched in 15N. Additionally, total N uptake was estimated by using 15N enriched saplings and unlabeled control plants. We found that eCO2 increased aboveground net CO2 exchange rates by 19% and total soil respiration by 11%. The eCO2 effect for GPP and also for NPP was positive (+23% and +11%, respectively). By combining gaseous C fluxes with data on new and old C stocks in bulk soil and plants through destructive harvesting in late autumn 2016, we will be able to infer net effects of eCO2 on the fate of C in these mesocosms. Biomass allocation patterns can reveal physiological responses to high C availability under

  8. Variabilidade espacial e disponibilidade de cobre e zinco em solos de vinhedos e adjacências Spatial variability and copper and zinc availability in vineyards and nearby soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Souza Valladares

    2009-09-01

    agrochemicals that are composed by zinc and copper. The objective of this work was to assess the concentration of available copper and zinc, extracted by DTPA, and evaluate its spatial distribution using geostatistics in experimental and commercial vineyards and under other land uses and covers in the surroundings of the cultivated areas. Soil samples were collected at the 0.0-0.15 and 0.15-0.30 m depth in 100 locations. Two catchment areas located at the APTA-Fruits Center of the Secretary of Agriculture of São Paulo State in Jundiaí, Brazil were used in that study. It is a vineyard area with predominance of Umbrept and Udult soils. Initially data were assessed with descriptive statistics, hypothesis test and Pearson linear simple correlation. For the spatial analysis it was utilized semivariograms and crossed semivariograms, and kriging for data interpolation and isolines map generation. High contents of copper and zinc were verified in the area, being the higher ones in the soil under vineyard, probably due to the intensive use of agrochemicals. In these latter soils it was found high positive correlation between copper and zinc content, pH, organic matter, and base saturation. Higher copper and zinc contents were found in the commercial vineyards compared to the experimental fields. The spatial analysis of data allowed to evaluate the spatial distribution of copper and zinc content as well as to verify the positive spatial correlation between those two elements in the 0.15-0.30 m depth by crossed semivariogram.

  9. Transformation of arsenic-rich copper smelter flue dust in contrasting soils: A 2-year field experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jarošíková, A.; Ettler, V.; Mihaljevič, M.; Penížek, V.; Matoušek, Tomáš; Culka, A.; Drahota, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 237, JUN (2018), s. 83-92 ISSN 0269-7491 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : arsenic * smelter dust * soil Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 5.099, year: 2016

  10. Physiological and nutritional status of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.) grown in soil with interaction of high doses of copper and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiecher, Tadeu L; Tiecher, Tales; Ceretta, Carlos A; Ferreira, Paulo A A; Nicoloso, Fernando T; Soriani, Hilda H; Tassinari, Adriele; Paranhos, Juçara Terezinha; De Conti, Lessandro; Brunetto, Gustavo

    2016-09-01

    Vineyard sandy acid soils from South Brazil have experienced heavy metal contamination due to replacement of copper (Cu)-based by zinc (Zn)-based products to control foliar diseases. Thus, we evaluate physiological and nutritional status of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.), a common interrow crop in vineyards from this region. Soil was collected in a natural field from Santana do Livramento, in Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. Black oat was cultivated for 30 days in a greenhouse with application of 0, 30, and 60 mg Cu kg(-1) combined with 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 mg Zn kg(-1). After the trial period, dry matter accumulation of roots and shoots, Cu and Zn contents in roots and shoots, chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) activity were determined. Cu and Zn toxicity was evidenced by the decrease in plant growth of black oat as well as by the decrease of photochemical efficiency associated with the decrease in photosynthetic pigment content, especially with the highest doses of Cu and Zn. Furthermore, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (CAT and POD) was increased in intermediate doses of Zn, indicating the activation of the antioxidant system, but the stress condition in treatments with high levels of Cu and Zn was not reversed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Depths to Ice-cemented Soils in High-elevation Quartermain Mountains, Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is comprised of four surveyed valleys focusing on the depth to ground ice in the high-elevation Quartermain Mountains in the Beacon Valley area:...

  12. Fine root biomass, necromass and chemistry during seven years of elevated aluminium concentrations in the soil solution of a middle-aged Picea abies stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldhuset, Toril D; Lange, Holger; de Wit, Helene A

    2006-10-01

    Toxic effects of aluminium (Al) on Picea abies (L.) Karst. (Norway spruce) trees are well documented in laboratory-scale experiments, but field-based evidence is scarce. This paper presents results on fine root growth and chemistry from a field manipulation experiment in a P. abies stand that was 45 years old when the experiment started in 1996. Different amounts of dissolved aluminium were added as AlCl3 by means of periodic irrigation during the growing season in the period 1997-2002. Potentially toxic concentrations of Al in the soil solution were obtained. Fine roots were studied from direct cores (1996) and sequential root ingrowth cores (1999, 2001, 2002) in the mineral soil (0-40 cm). We tested two hypotheses: (1) elevated concentration of Al in the root zone leads to significant changes in root biomass, partitioning into fine, coarse, living or dead fractions, and distribution with depth; (2) elevated Al concentration leads to a noticeable uptake of Al and reduced uptake of Ca and Mg; this results in Ca and Mg depletion in roots. Hypothesis 1 was only marginally supported, as just a few significant treatment effects on biomass were found. Hypothesis 2 was supported in part; Al addition led to increased root concentrations of Al in 1999 and 2002 and reduced Mg/Al in 1999. Comparison of roots from subsequent root samplings showed a decrease in Al and S over time. The results illustrated that 7 years of elevated Al(tot) concentrations in the soil solution up to 200 microM are not likely to affect root growth. We also discuss possible improvements of the experimental approach.

  13. Aeolian controls of soil geochemistry and weathering fluxes in high-elevation ecosystems of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Corey R.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Kettterer, Michael E.; Neff, Jason C.

    2013-01-01

    When dust inputs are large or have persisted for long periods of time, the signature of dust additions are often apparent in soils. The of dust will be greatest where the geochemical composition of dust is distinct from local sources of soil parent material. In this study the influence of dust accretion on soil geochemistry is quantified for two different soils from the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado, USA. At both study sites, dust is enriched in several trace elements relative to local rock, especially Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Mass-balance calculations that do not explicitly account for dust inputs indicate the accumulation of some elements in soil beyond what can be explained by weathering of local rock. Most observed elemental enrichments are explained by accounting for the long-term accretion of dust, based on modern isotopic and geochemical estimates. One notable exception is Pb, which based on mass-balance calculations and isotopic measurements may have an additional source at one of the study sites. These results suggest that dust is a major factor influencing the development of soil in these settings and is also an important control of soil weathering fluxes. After accounting for dust inputs in mass-balance calculations, Si weathering fluxes from San Juan Mountain soils are within the range observed for other temperate systems. Comparing dust inputs with mass-balanced based flux estimates suggests dust could account for as much as 50–80% of total long-term chemical weathering fluxes. These results support the notion that dust inputs may sustain chemical weathering fluxes even in relatively young continental settings. Given the widespread input of far-traveled dust, the weathering of dust is likely and important and underappreciated aspect of the global weathering engine.

  14. Aeolian controls of soil geochemistry and weathering fluxes in high-elevation ecosystems of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Corey R.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Ketterer, Michael E.; Neff, Jason C.

    2013-04-01

    When dust inputs are large or have persisted for long periods of time, the signature of dust additions are often apparent in soils. The of dust will be greatest where the geochemical composition of dust is distinct from local sources of soil parent material. In this study the influence of dust accretion on soil geochemistry is quantified for two different soils from the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado, USA. At both study sites, dust is enriched in several trace elements relative to local rock, especially Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Mass-balance calculations that do not explicitly account for dust inputs indicate the accumulation of some elements in soil beyond what can be explained by weathering of local rock. Most observed elemental enrichments are explained by accounting for the long-term accretion of dust, based on modern isotopic and geochemical estimates. One notable exception is Pb, which based on mass-balance calculations and isotopic measurements may have an additional source at one of the study sites. These results suggest that dust is a major factor influencing the development of soil in these settings and is also an important control of soil weathering fluxes. After accounting for dust inputs in mass-balance calculations, Si weathering fluxes from San Juan Mountain soils are within the range observed for other temperate systems. Comparing dust inputs with mass-balanced based flux estimates suggests dust could account for as much as 50-80% of total long-term chemical weathering fluxes. These results support the notion that dust inputs may sustain chemical weathering fluxes even in relatively young continental settings. Given the widespread input of far-traveled dust, the weathering of dust is likely and important and underappreciated aspect of the global weathering engine.

  15. Shifts in bryophyte carbon isotope ratio across an elevation × soil age matrix on Mauna Loa, Hawaii: do bryophytes behave like vascular plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Mashuri; Sack, Lawren

    2011-05-01

    The carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)C) of vascular plant leaf tissue is determined by isotope discrimination, primarily mediated by stomatal and mesophyll diffusion resistances and by photosynthetic rate. These effects lead to predictable trends in leaf δ(13)C across natural gradients of elevation, irradiance and nutrient supply. Less is known about shifts in δ(13)C for bryophytes at landscape scale, as bryophytes lack stomata in the dominant gametophyte phase, and thus lack active control over CO(2) diffusion. Twelve bryophyte species were sampled across a matrix of elevation and soil ages on Mauna Loa, Hawaii Island. We tested hypotheses based on previous findings for vascular plants, which tend to have less negative δ(13)C at higher elevations or irradiances, and for leaves with higher leaf mass per area (LMA). Across the matrix, bryophytes spanned the range of δ(13)C values typical of C(3) vascular plants. Bryophytes were remarkably similar to vascular plants in exhibiting less negative δ(13)C with increasing elevation, and with lower overstory cover; additionally δ(13)C was related to bryophyte canopy projected mass per area, a trait analogous to LMA in vascular plants, also correlated negatively with overstory cover. The similarity of responses of δ(13)C in bryophytes and vascular plants to environmental factors, despite differing morphologies and diffusion pathways, points to a strong direct role of photosynthetic rate in determining δ(13)C variation at the landscape scale.

  16. Copper hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common...

  17. Elevated CO2 increases Cs uptake and alters microbial communities and biomass in the rhizosphere of Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth) grown on soils spiked with various levels of Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ningning; Zhang, Ximei; Wang, Fangli; Zhang, Changbo; Tang, Shirong

    2012-01-01

    General concern about increasing global atmospheric CO 2 levels owing to the ongoing fossil fuel combustion and elevated levels of radionuclides in the environment, has led to growing interest in the responses of plants to interactive effects of elevated CO 2 and radionuclides in terms of phytoremediation and food safety. To assess the combined effects of elevated CO 2 and cesium contamination on plant biomass, microbial activities in the rhizosphere soil and Cs uptake, Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed, C3 specie) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth, C4 specie) were grown in pots of soils containing five levels of cesium (0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg −1 ) under two levels of CO 2 (360 and 860 μL L −1 , respectively). Shoot and root biomass of P. americana and Amaranthus crentus was generally higher under elevated CO 2 than under ambient CO 2 for all treatments. Both plant species exhibited higher Cs concentration in the shoots and roots under elevated CO 2 than ambient CO 2 . For P. americana grown at 0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg −1 , the increase magnitude of Cs concentration due to elevated CO 2 was 140, 18, 11, 34 and 15% in the shoots, and 150, 20, 14, 15 and 19% in the roots, respectively. For A. cruentus, the corresponding value was 118, 28, 21, 14 and 17% in the shoots, and 126, 6, 11, 17 and 22% in the roots, respectively. Higher bioaccumulation factors were noted for both species grown under elevated CO 2 than ambient CO 2 . The populations of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, and the microbial C and N in the rhizosphere soils of both species were higher at elevated CO 2 than at ambient CO 2 with the same concentration of Cs. The results suggested that elevated CO 2 significantly affected plant biomass, Cs uptake, soil C and N concentrations, and community composition of soil microbes associated with P. americana and A. cruentus roots. The knowledge gained from this investigation constitutes an important advancement in

  18. Phytoavailability and fractionation of copper, manganese, and zinc in soil following application of two composts to four crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Warman, Phil R

    2004-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of compost addition to soil on fractionation and bioavailability of Cu, Mn, and Zn to four crops. Soils growing Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.) and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) were amended (by volume) with 0, 20, 40, and 60% Source-Separated Municipal Solid Waste (SS-MSW) compost, and dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.) were amended with 0, 20, 40, and 60% of high-Cu manure compost (by volume). The SS-MSW compost applications increased the concentration of Cu and Zn in all fractions, increased Mn in acid extractable (ACID), iron and manganese oxides (FeMnOX), and organic matter (OM) fractions, but decreased slightly exchangeable-Mn. Addition of 60% high-Cu manure compost to the soil increased Cu EXCH, ACID, FeMnOX, and OM fractions, but decreased EXCH-Mn, and did not change EXCH-Zn. Addition of both composts to soil reduced bioavailability and transfer factors for Cu and Zn. Our results suggest that mature SS-MSW and manure composts with excess Cu and Zn could be safely used as soil conditioners for agricultural crops.

  19. Soil-applied zinc and copper suppress cadmium uptake and improve the performance of cereals and legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Ghulam; Javed, Wasim; Hussain, Amir; Qadir, Manzoor; Aslam, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of soil-applied Zn and Cu on absorption and accumulation of Cd applied through irrigation water in legume (chickpea and mung bean) and cereal (wheat and maize) crops. The results revealed that Cd in irrigation water at higher levels (2 and 5 mg L -1 ) significantly (p soil application of Zn and Cu, singly or combined, favored the biomass production. Plant tissue Cd concentration increased linearly with the increasing application of Cd via irrigation water. While Cd application caused a redistribution of metals in grains, straw, and roots with the highest concentration of Cd, Zn, and Cu occurred in roots followed by straw and grains. Zinc addition to soil alleviated Cd toxicity by decreasing Cd concentration in plant tissues due to a possible antagonistic effect. The addition of Cu to the soil had no consistent effects on Zn and Cd contents across all crops. Inhibitory effects of Cd on the uptake and accumulation of Zn and Cu have also been observed at higher Cd load. Thus, soil-applied Zn and Cu antagonized Cd helping the plant to cope with its toxicity and suppressed the toxic effects of Cd in plant tissues, thus favoring plant growth.

  20. Soil and Plant Water Relations Determine Photosynthetic Responses of C3 and C4 Grasses in a Semi‐arid Ecosystem under Elevated CO2

    OpenAIRE

    LECAIN, DANIEL R.; MORGAN, JACK A.; MOSIER, ARVIN R.; NELSON, JIM A.

    2003-01-01

    To model the effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 on semi‐arid grasslands, the gas exchange responses of leaves to seasonal changes in soil water, and how they are modified by CO2, must be understood for C3 and C4 species that grow in the same area. In this study, open‐top chambers were used to investigate the photosynthetic and stomatal responses of Pascopyrum smithii (C3) and Bouteloua gracilis (C4) grown at 360 (ambient CO2) and 720 µmol mol–1 CO2 (elevated CO2) in a semi‐arid shortgrass s...

  1. Variability in the growth and nodulation of soybean in response to elevation and soil properties in the himalayan region of kashmir-pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, N.; Abbasi, M.K.

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the variability of soybean nodulation and growth in relation to elevation and soil properties across the slopping uplands of the Himalayan region of Rawalakot Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan in order to find efficient native N2 fixing bacteria adapted to local soil and climatic characteristics. Soils from twenty two different sites with variable altitude were collected and analyzed for different physico-chemical characteristics including the quantitative estimation of rhizobium population through most probable number (MPN) technique. Soybean cultivar William-82 was grown in these soils under greenhouse condition for determining the nodulation potential (number and mass) and plant growth characteristics. Morphology of the nodules were observed through optical and transmission electron microscopy. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Biplot graph were used to jointly interpret the relationship between variables and soils (treatments). Soil altitude ranged from 855 m to 3000 m while organic matter content varied between 0.8% to 3.5% and pH from 6.0 to 8.1. The indigenous rhizobia population varied between 5.0 x104 to 8.0 x106 CFU g-1 showing the existence of a substantial rhizobial population in these soils. The number of nodules per plant varied from 7 to 40 (CV 38%) suggesting site/location as an important factor contributing towards rhizobia population and impacting root nodulation. The electron microscopy of green plant nodules showed densely populated bacteria in these cells and nodule tissue cells were completel