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Sample records for elevated carcinoembryonic antigen

  1. COLONOSCOPY AND CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGEN VARIATIONS

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    Rita G SOUSA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Colonoscopy is essential for synchronous and metachronous cancer detection. Carcinoembryonic antigen is a colorectal cancer tumor marker, important as a follow-up tool in patients with previous colorectal cancer. False-positive carcinoembryonic antigen elevation results in multiples exams and in patient anxiety. In literature, there is reference to transient carcinoembryonic antigen increase with colonoscopy. Objective To evaluate the influence of bowel preparation and colonoscopy in carcinoembryonic antigen blood levels. Methods We prospectively studied subjects that underwent routine colonoscopy in our institution. Blood samples were collected (1 before bowel cleaning, (2 before colonoscopy and (3 immediately after colonoscopy. Blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels were determined by “Sandwich” immunoassay. The statistical methods used were the paired t-test and ANOVA. Results Thirty-seven patients (22M/15F were included; age range 28-84 (mean 56 years. Mean carcinoembryonic antigen values were 1.9, 2 and 1.8 for (1, (2 and (3, respectively. An increase in value (2 compared with (1 was observed in 20/37 patients (P = 0.018, mainly in younger patients and in patients requiring more endoluminal interventions. In 29/37 patients, the CEA value decreased from (2 to (3 (P = 1.3x10-7. Conclusions A trend for carcinoembryonic antigen increase after bowel cleaning was observed, especially in younger patients and in patients with more endoluminal interventions, but without clinical meaning.

  2. Elevated Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen, Cytokeratin 19 Fragment, and Carcinoembryonic Antigen Levels in Diabetic Nephropathy

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    Jianzhong Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We aimed to explore whether squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC, cytokeratin 19 fragment (Cyfra21-1, neuron-specific enolase (NSE, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA are elevated in diabetic nephropathy (DN and the association between urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR and tumor markers in diabetic patients. Methods. Nondialysis patients with diabetes (n=261 and 90 healthy controls were enrolled. DN was defined as an UACR ≥ 30 mg/g in the absence of a urinary tract infection or other renal abnormalities. Results. Patients with DN had significantly higher serum SCC, Cyfra21-1, and CEA levels than those with normoalbuminuria and healthy controls. The rates of positive SCC, Cyfra21-1, and CEA significantly increased with increasing urinary albumin excretion (all P for trend < 0.001. In contrast, NSE was not affected by DN. SCC, Cyfra21-1, and CEA were significantly and positively correlated with UACR. In logistic regression, after multivariable adjustment, increased UACR was associated with increased odds ratio of elevated tumor marker levels (all P for trend < 0.05. Conclusions. Serum levels of SCC, Cyfra21-1, and CEA are markedly increased with increasing urinary albumin excretion, which affects the specificity for diagnosis for lung cancer. Appropriate interpretation of tumor markers in diabetic patients is mandatory to avoid unnecessary and even hazardous biopsies.

  3. Indium 111 ZCE-025 immunoscintigraphy in occult recurrent colorectal cancer with elevated carcinoembryonic antigen level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerr, R.J.; Abdel-Nabi, H.; Merchant, B.

    1990-01-01

    We investigated the utility of scanning with indium 111 labeled to monoclonal antibody in 13 patients after curative resection of colorectal cancer who had elevated carcinoembryonic antigen levels and negative results of clinical workup. Each patient received 1 mg of anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody type ZCE 025 labeled with 5.5 mCi of 111 In, plus 9 to 39 mg of the same antibody unlabeled. Patients underwent scanning 3 to 7 days after infusion by planar and emission computed tomography. ZCE-025 monoclonal antibody imaging detected tumor recurrence or metastasis in 11 of 13 patients. In one patient the monoclonal antibody scan gave a true-negative result, and in one patient the monoclonal antibody scan failed to disclose a metachronous cecal primary. Tumor sites identified were the pelvis (2 patients), abdominal wall (2), retroperitoneum (1), lymph nodes (3); liver (2), bone (2), and lung (1). The accurate localization of colorectal carcinoma recurrences by means of 111 In ZCE-025 monoclonal antibody demonstrates the usefulness of this diagnostic agent in the setting of elevated carcinoembryonic antigen level and negative results of clinical and radiologic workup

  4. [Clinical characteristics and prognosis of colon cancer patient with extremely elevated carcinoembryonic antigen level].

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    Chen, Pengju; Yao, Yunfeng; Zhang, Dakui; Gu, Jin

    2015-10-01

    To explore the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of colon cancer patients with extremely elevated serum carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) level before operation(>50 μg/L). Clinicopathological and follow-up data of 1250 patients with colonic adenocarcinoma undergoing primary tumor resection between January 2001 and December 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. All the patients were divided into three groups according to the preoperative serum CEA levels as normal group (0-5 μg/L, 721 cases), elevated group(5-50 μg/L, 408 cases) and extremely elevated(>50 μg/L, 121 cases). Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze the overall survival and disease-free survival. Log-rank test was used to compare the survival between groups. Cox regression was used to screen the independent prognostic factors of colon cancer. Compared with normal and elevated groups, patients with extremely elevated CEA had more advanced T,N,M stages (Pcolon cancer (all PColon cancer patients with extremely elevated preoperative CEA levels are associated with more unfavorable pathological factors, advanced TNM stage and more distant metastases (especially the liver metastases) during the follow-up. The elevated degree of preoperative CEA level is an independent poor prognostic factor of patients with colon cancer.

  5. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ephraim, K.H.; Cox, P.H.; Hamer, C.J.A. v.d.; Berends, W.; Delhez, H.

    1977-01-01

    The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a complex of antigen determinants and also the carrier of these determinants. Chemically it is a glycoprotein. Its occurrence in blood serum or urine is correlated with malignant disease. Several radioimmunoassays (RIA) have been developed, one by Hoffmann-Laroche and one by the Rotterdam Radiotherapeutic Institute. Both methods and the Hoffmann assay kit are tested. Specifications are given for isolation of the antigen, preparation of the antiserum, and the execution of the RIA. Biochemical and clinical aspects are discussed

  6. Carcino-Embryonic Antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akute, O.

    1999-02-01

    Tumour marker analysis has increased our understanding of the presence of tumours in the body. Carcino-embryonic antigen, CEA, is one of the best studied tumour markers and has proved an ideal diagnostic adjuvant. It has helped in quantifying the amount of disease present in a patient and thence to make accurate prognosis on the various diagnosed ailments. At UCH, it is observed that there is an increase in cancer related ailments and therefore the need for early diagnosis is more compelling in our environment to mitigate future cost of managing advanced manifestation

  7. DIAGNOSTIC ROLE OF FLUORINE-18 (18F) FLUORODEOXYGLUCOSE POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN DETECTING RECURRENT DISEASE IN PATIENTS WITH COLORECTAL CANCER AND ELEVATED CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGEN.

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    Matovina, Emil; Mihailović, Jasna; Nikoletić, Katarina; Srbovan, Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of recurrence is an important factor for long term survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Measurement of serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen has been commonly used in the postoperative surveillance of colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of positron emission tomography-computed tomography to detect pathological substrate of elevated serum carcinoembryonic antigen in patients with colorectal cancer. The patients with colorectal cancer who underwent curative surgical resection and/ or chemotherapy, who were found in our database, were analyzed retrospectively. Forty-eight 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography studies including 45 patients (14 women, 31 men; mean age: 62.93 years) with elevated serum, carcinoembryonic antigen levels, which had been performed between January 2011 and January 2014, were evaluated. Serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen were measured within 3 months after positron emission tomography-computed tomography examination. Final diagnosis of recurrence was made by histopathological findings, radiology studies or clinical follow-up. Recurrences were diagnosed in 37 patients, the prevalence being 77.1%. Liver metastases were found in 18 patients, abdominal, pelvic and/or mediastinal lymph nodes were positive in 19 patients, 11 patients had loco regional recurrences and 4 patients had pulmonary metastasis, and bone metastases were found in one patient. One patient was diagnosed with metastasis in scar tissue. The overall sensitivity and specificity of positron emission tomography-computed tomography was 90.24% and 71.42%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 94.87% and 55.56%, respectively. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography is a powerful tool that could be used in determining colorectal cancer recurrence in patients with elevated carcinoembryonic antigen levels and could have an

  8. Interference of heparin in carcinoembryonic antigen radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.T.

    1983-01-01

    A false Roche carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) activity could be detected in all commercial and noncommercial heparin preparations examined. The possibility of 'due to contamination' has been ruled out. Using the Roche procedure, heparin solutions, in the absence of CEA, gave positive CEA activity; on the other hand, no CEA activity was detected in solutions containing only heparin when the Abbott Kit was used. When heparin was present in specimens containing CEA, the Abbott Kit underestimated the CEA activity, whereas the Roche Kit gave false elevated values. However, the negative effect of heparin could be reduced by heat treatment in the presence of plasma proteins. (Auth.)

  9. The value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in asymptomatic examinees with unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels

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    Li, Wenfeng [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wenzhou (China); Yin, Weiwei [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Division of PET/CT, Department of Radiology, Wenzhou (China); Ou, Rongying [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Wenzhou (China); Chen, Ting; Xiong, Lingling; Xu, Yunsheng [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Dermatovenereology, Wenzhou (China); Cheng, Dezhi; Xie, Deyao [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Wenzhou (China); Zheng, Xiangwu; Zhao, Liang [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Division of PET/CT, Department of Radiology, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Institutes of Intelligent and Molecular Imaging, Wenzhou (China)

    2016-04-15

    Cancer is still a clinical challenge, with many efforts invested in order to achieve timely detection. Unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels are occasionally observed in an asymptomatic population and considered as a risk factor of cancers. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) for detecting cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. This retrospective study included a total of 1920 asymptomatic examinees conducted from August 2011 through September 2013. The participants underwent CEA assay and conventional medical imaging (CEA-conventional), or CEA assay and F-18 FDG-PET/CT (CEA-PET/CT). The validity of conventional medical imaging and CEA-PET/CT scanning for detecting cancer and early-stage cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood CEA levels were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity, cancer detection rate, missed cancer detection rate, early-stage cancer detection rate, and early-stage cancer ratio using the CEA-PET/CT scanning were 96.6 %, 100 %, 10.4 %, 0.4 %, 3.7 %, and 34.5 %, respectively. In contrast, the corresponding values obtained using the conventional medical imaging were 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 100 % (P > 0.9999), 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 99.9 % (P = 0.055), 2.6 % (P < 0.0001), 2.5 % (P = 0.04), 0.7 % (P = 0.0004), and 14.5 % (P = 0.002), respectively. The F-18 FDG-PET/CT scanning significantly improved the validity of the cancer detection program in the asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in CEA levels. (orig.)

  10. Carcinoembryonic Antigen Level in Liver Disease

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    Choi, Kyoo Ok; Kim, Ki Whang; Park, Chang Yun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1978-09-15

    Carcinoembryonic antigen was initially known as tumor specific antigen and had a potential diagnostic value in the detection of digestive tract malignancies. However, subsequent studies showed CEA and CEA-like antigen present in benign disease, particularly in liver. We had collected sera from 58 patients who had liver scan and later were diagnosed clinically and histologically as liver disease. We estimated CEA values and correlations were made with liver function tests in liver cirrhosis cases. The results: 1) The raised plasma carcinoembryonic antigen level were found in 13 (68.4%) of 19 patients cirrhosis, 5 (27.8%) of 18 patients in hepatoma, 5 (71%) of 7 patients in chronic active hepatitis, all 3 patients in liver abscesses, 2 (66.7%) of 3 patients in liver abscesses, 2 (66.7%) of 3 patients in obstructive biliary disease and none in each one patient of traumatic liver hematoma, subphrenic abscess and clonorchiasis. 2) There is no linear correlation between carcinoembryonic antigen level and liver function tests including serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, SGOT and prothrombin time in liver patients.

  11. Carcinoembryonic Antigen Level in Liver Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyoo Ok; Kim, Ki Whang; Park, Chang Yun

    1978-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen was initially known as tumor specific antigen and had a potential diagnostic value in the detection of digestive tract malignancies. However, subsequent studies showed CEA and CEA-like antigen present in benign disease, particularly in liver. We had collected sera from 58 patients who had liver scan and later were diagnosed clinically and histologically as liver disease. We estimated CEA values and correlations were made with liver function tests in liver cirrhosis cases. The results: 1) The raised plasma carcinoembryonic antigen level were found in 13 (68.4%) of 19 patients cirrhosis, 5 (27.8%) of 18 patients in hepatoma, 5 (71%) of 7 patients in chronic active hepatitis, all 3 patients in liver abscesses, 2 (66.7%) of 3 patients in liver abscesses, 2 (66.7%) of 3 patients in obstructive biliary disease and none in each one patient of traumatic liver hematoma, subphrenic abscess and clonorchiasis. 2) There is no linear correlation between carcinoembryonic antigen level and liver function tests including serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, SGOT and prothrombin time in liver patients.

  12. Carcinoembryonic antigen radioimmunoassay in hepatic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburano, Tamio; Tonami, Norihisa; Hisada, Kinichi

    1976-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) radioimmunoassay with the sandwich method was performed in addition to both α 1 -fetoprotein (AFP) radioimmunoassay and liver scintigraphy to elevate the diagnostic accuracy of hepatic tumor in nuclear medicine. All of the ten healthy controls and 47 of 52 cases with benign disease showed a CEA titer less than 2.5ng/ml. 78 of 188 cases (41%) of malignant disease showed a titer of over 2.5ng/ml; however most positive cases were metastatic, especially to the liver. In metastatic liver cancer, thirtythree out of 46 cases (72%) showed a strongly positive CEA titer. Over 5ng/ml was taken as the lower limit for predicting metastasis to the liver. On the other hand, in primary liver cancer thirty-two out of 35 cases (91%) showed a strongly positive AFP titer over 200ng/ml, although only one case showed a CEA titer over 5ng/ml. Seven cases (15%) of metastatic liver cancer also showed a strongly positive AFP titer; however six of these positive cases showed a CEA titer over 5ng/ml. In metastatic liver cancer, eleven out of 46 cases (24%) showed no clearcut focal defects on liver scintigram. Nine of these negative cases showed a CEA titer over 5ng/ml, and at subsequent operation metastatic liver lesions were found. The overall diagnostic accuracy for detecting metastatic liver cancer with a combination of both methods was 95%. CEA radioimmunoassay was found to be useful for the elucidation of the nature of focal hepatic lesions in addition to AFP radioimmunoassay, and moreover could be used as an adjunct to liver scintigraphy for the detection of metastatic lesions in the liver. (auth.)

  13. Monoclonal antibodies to carcino-embryonic antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, Jinghee; McKenzie, I.F.C.

    1990-01-01

    With the aim of producing new MoAb to colorectal carcinoma, immunization with cell suspensions of a fresh colonic tumour was performed and MoAb 17C4 was obtained. To produce other MoAb to colon cancer, an immunization protocol using fresh tumour, colonic cell lines and sera from patients with colonic tumours was employed and resulted in MoAb JGT-13, LK-4 and XPX-13. MoAb I-1 and O-1 were raised against sera from patients with colon cancer to produce MoAb directed against circulating tumour associated antigens. The six antibodies gave a range of reactions with normal and malignant tissues, indicating that they most likely reacted with different epitopes. Thus, apart from the reactions of 17C4, LK-4 and XPX-13 with fresh and formalin-fixed granulocytes, none of the antibodies reacted with formalin-fixed normal tissues. Despite the apparent specificity of these MoAb for colon cancer, serum testing using MoAb gave similar results to carcino-embryonic antigen polyclonal antibodies, that is the MoAb gave no obvious advantage. 9 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  14. Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) in colorectal cancer follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer follow-up aims to detect recurrent disease as soon as possible, since earlier detection of recurrent disease is associated with greater chances for cure. A part of follow-up is the measurement of Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) in the blood of the patient. This tumor marker is

  15. Determination of carcinoembryonic antigen: experiences with a new radioimmunoassay

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    Lamerz, R [Univ., Munich; Ruider, H

    1976-04-01

    The determination of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as RIA-test was examined and tested. Labelling was carried out with /sup 125/I according to the chloramin T-method, as RIA in the form of a competitive double antibody examination. The method was tested on patients with colonic and pancreatic carcinomas.

  16. Reagents for radioimmunological determination of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, Z.; Balbierz, H.; Breberowicz, J.

    1978-01-01

    The work was undertaken to prepare the reagents for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) radioimmunoassay with double antibody method. The CEA standard of high immunoreactivity was prepared and purified. The purified CEA was used for immunozation of goats. The goat anti - CEA sera were received. IgG fraction from normal goat serum was purified and used for the production of horse anti-goat IgG serum which was then used in the radioimmunoassay of CEA. The labelling of CEA with iodine-125 has been carried out be means of the enzymatic method.(Z.R.)

  17. Doxorubicin-anti-carcinoembryonic antigen immunoconjugate activity in vitro.

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    Richardson, V J; Ford, C H; Tsaltas, G; Gallant, M E

    1989-04-01

    An in vitro model consisting of a series of 11 human cancer cell lines with varying density of expression of membrane carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been used to evaluate conjugates of doxorubicin (Adriamycin) covalently linked by a carbodiimide method to goat polyclonal antibodies and mouse monoclonal antibodies to CEA. Conjugates were produced which retained both antigen binding and drug cytotoxicity. IC50 values were determined for free drug, free drug mixed with unconjugated antibodies and for the immunoconjugates. Cell lines that were very sensitive to free drug (IC50 less than 100 ng/ml) were also found to be highly sensitive to conjugated drug and similarly cell lines resistant to drug (IC50 greater than 1,000 ng/ml) were also resistant to conjugated drug. Although there was no correlation between CEA expression and conjugates efficacy, competitive inhibition studies using autologous antibody to block conjugate binding to cells indicated immunoconjugates specificity for the CEA target.

  18. Levels of estrogen, carcinoembryonic antigen and cancer antigen of breast in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhadi, H. A.

    2005-09-01

    This study was conducted during the period from february 2004 to July 2004; with the objective of measuring the levels of estrogen (E2), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen of breast (CA-15.3) so as to facilitate the early diagnosis of breast cancer and determine the involvement of these parameters as risk factors for breast cancer. Ninety blood samples were collected from Sudanese females, divided into two groups; control group and patient groups. The patients group was sixty Sudanese females visiting the Radio Isotope Center, Khartoum (RICK) and they were confirmed as breast cancer patient by histopathology. The levels of the above mentioned parameters were determined by using radioimmunoassay technique. The results showed that, no significant (p=0.05) difference between the levels of the estrogen in patients compared to the control, on the other hand there was non significant (p>0.05) elevation in CEA levels in the patients with breast cancer compared to the control. The level of CA15.3 was significantly (p<0.0001) higher in the breast cancer patients compared to the control.(Author)

  19. Levels of estrogen, carcinoembryonic antigen and cancer antigen of breast in Sudanese female with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhadi, H. A.; Sirelkhatim, D. A.; Eltayeb, E. A.; Ahmed, W. A.; Elhussein, B.

    2006-12-01

    This study was conducted during the period from february 2004 to july 2004; with the objective of measuring the levels of estrogen (E2), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen of breast (CA-15.3) so as to facilitate the early diagnosis of breast cancer and to determine the involvement of these parameters as risk factors for breast cancer. Ninety blood samples were collected from Sudanese females, divided into two groups; control group and patients groups. The patients group was sixty Sudanese females visiting the Radio Isotope Center, Khartoum (RICK) and they were confirmed as breast cancer patients by histopathology. The levels of the above mentioned parameters were determined by using radioimmunoassay technique. The results showed that , no significant (P=0.05) difference between the levels of the estrogen in patients compared to the control, on the other hand, there was non-significant (p<0.05) elevation in CEA levels in the patients with breast cancer compared to the control. The levels of CA 15.3 was significantly (p<0.0001) higher in the breast cancer patients compared to the control.(Author)

  20. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) dynamics in stomach cancer patients receiving cryotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasoedov, D.V.; Krupka, I.N.; V'yunitskaya, L.V.

    1986-01-01

    Radioimmunologic assays of blood serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level were conducted at major stages of treatment of gastric cancer by subtotal stomach resection and gastrectomy with preliminary cryotreatment and thawing of tumor. A short-term rise in CEA level occurred in 53.9 % of cases 3-4 days after combined therapy. A decrease in CEA concentration at discharge from hospital as compared with preoperative level and that registered 3-4 days after operation was observed in 50 and 75 % of cases of combined therapy, respectively, and 47.5 and 37.5 % of controls (surgery without cryotreatment). There was nocorrelation between cryotreatment and changes in CEA level in gastric ulcer patients

  1. Carcinoembryonic antigen: an invaluable marker for advanced breast cancer.

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    Pathak K

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Serial serum Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA levels were measured in 150 individuals (50 patients with breast cancer, 50 benign breast diseases and 50 other controls. These levels were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and follow-up information. Serum CEA levels were independent of the primary tumor status, their histology, lymphoreticular response and the patients′ characteristics as well as the age, sex and the menstrual status. However, the nodal status, number of involved nodes and the grade of the tumors had significant influence on the level of serum CEA. Breast cancer patients especially those with metastasis had significantly higher serum CEA levels as compared to the controls and those with localised disease, irrespective of the site of metastasis. These levels were lowered appreciably by the disease regression and were raised or stable during the disease progression. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve showed metastasis to be more frequent in patients with pretreatment serum CEA levels above 25 ng/ml and persistent post treatment CEA levels above 15 ng/ml. Serum CEA level was found to be a valuable prognostic indicator for advanced breast cancer and serial serum CEA levels provided an average lead time of about 3.9 months before the clinical appearance of metastasis.

  2. Improved performance of a double antibody radioimmunoassay for carcinoembryonic antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.

    1979-01-01

    A new double antibody solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is critically analyzed. The aim of the study was 4-fold: (a) to define the level of sensitivity (a comparison of 3 different assay procedures revealed that the author's sequential assay was more sensitive than most previously reported RIAs, while competitive and non-equilibrium assay had wider measuring ranges); (b) to analyze recoveries of CEA in either serum, plasma or urine (the recovery , even in urine, was very close to expected values, indicating that no CEA is lost or degraded during brief storage or in the extraction procedure); (c) to evaluate inter- and intra-assay variations, since most clinical management is dependent on serial assays rather than single determinations. The coefficients of variation were low both within and between assays. A change of 3 ng CEA is required for significant change (>2 S.D.) at the normal serum level which is 16 ng CEA/ml in the authors assay. At levels above normal, a change of 4 ng is required; (d) the assay was also developed for determination of CEA levels in a large series of perchlorid acid treated serum, plasma or urine samples. This forms the basis for an assay suitable for serial assays with high sensitivity and accuracy in various neoplastic diseases. (Auth.)

  3. Evidence for carcinoembryonic antigen using radioimmunoassay and enzyme immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kungda Gao, L.

    1980-01-01

    A commercially available radioimmunoassay for the determination of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was initially compared with an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Considerable differences were found between the individual value. For three patients suffering from carcinomas of the digestive tract a better indication of the disease was given in the RIA than in the EIA. A further 110 patients with various illnesses were examined for serum CEA-levels using RIA. A method for measuring CEA in feces by RIA was developed. The normal range lies below 300 ng/ml. This assay could be of significance for the early recognition of colo-rectal carcinoma. In part II of this dissertation CEA was isolated from colo-rectal carcinomas using three different gel filtration media. It was only possible to obtain almost pure CEA (24 μg CEA per μg protein) by one of the methods. Six guinea pigs were immunized with the isolated CEA and all developed antibodies. The isolated CEA was labelled with 125 I and an own RIA saturation sequence and double antibody separation was developed. One of the antisera was able to distinguish without overlap 7 healthy patients from 7 suffering from colo-rectal carcinomas in non-extracted serum. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Establishment of carcinoembryonic antigen working standard for immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ligen; Sun Youxiang; Jiao Yan

    2001-01-01

    The author is to prepare the working standard of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) for immunoassay and determine its potency. CEA solution of 320 μg/L was prepared from purified CEA solution of 4.6 mg/L and 1% human albumin solution buffered with 50 mmol/L sodium phosphate, pH7.4. This solution was distributed in an aliquot of 0.5 mL (160 ng per ampoule) and lyophilized. The potency of CEA working standard, in terms of present standard of CEA RIA and IRMA kits made by Chinese manufacturers and in terms of 1st IRP CEA HUMAN 73/601 supplied by WHO, has been determined. Mean immunological potency of the working standard is 163 ng per ampoule with confident limit of 159-168 ng per ampoule at 95% probability level. Test of parallelism of dose-response curve for the working standard to that for 1st IRP CEA HUMAN 73/601 has been passed. CEA working standard is suitable to the kits standard for CEA radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay

  5. Recombinant carcinoembryonic antigen as a reporter gene for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenanova, Vania; Barat, Bhaswati; Olafsen, Tove; Chatziioannou, Arion; Herschman, Harvey R.; Wu, Anna M.; Braun, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Reporter genes can provide a way of noninvasively assessing gene activity in vivo. However, current reporter gene strategies may be limited by the immunogenicity of foreign reporter proteins, endogenous expression, or unwanted biological activity. We have developed a reporter gene based on carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a human protein with limited normal tissue expression. To construct a CEA reporter gene for PET, a CEA minigene (N-A3) was fused to the extracellular and transmembrane domains of the human FcγRIIb receptor. The NA3-FcγRIIb recombinant gene, driven by a CMV promoter, was transfected in Jurkat (human T cell leukemia) cells. Expression was analyzed by flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and microPET imaging. Flow cytometry identified Jurkat clones stably expressing NA3-FcγRIIb at low, medium, and high levels. High and medium NA3-FcγRIIb expression could also be detected by Western blot. Reporter gene positive and negative Jurkat cells were used to establish xenografts in athymic mice. IHC showed staining of the tumor with high reporter gene expression; medium and low N-A3 expression was not detected. MicroPET imaging, using an anti-CEA 124 I-labeled single-chain Fv-Fc antibody fragment, demonstrated that only high N-A3 expression could be detected. Specific accumulation of activity was visualized at the N-A3 positive tumor as early as 4 h. MicroPET image quantitation showed tumor activity of 1.8 ± 0.2, 15.2 ± 1.3, and 4.6 ± 1.2 percent injected dose per gram (%ID/g) at 4, 20, and 48 h, respectively. Biodistribution at 48 h demonstrated tumor uptake of 4.8 ± 0.8%ID/g. The CEA N-A3 minigene has the potential to be used as a reporter gene for imaging cells in vivo. (orig.)

  6. Radionuclide-Based Cancer Imaging Targeting the Carcinoembryonic Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Hong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, highly expressed in many cancer types, is an important target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Radionuclide-based imaging techniques (gamma camera, single photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] and positron emission tomography [PET] have been extensively explored for CEA-targeted cancer imaging both preclinically and clinically. Briefly, these studies can be divided into three major categories: antibody-based, antibody fragment-based and pretargeted imaging. Radiolabeled anti-CEA antibodies, reported the earliest among the three categories, typically gave suboptimal tumor contrast due to the prolonged circulation life time of intact antibodies. Subsequently, a number of engineered anti-CEA antibody fragments (e.g. Fab’, scFv, minibody, diabody and scFv-Fc have been labeled with a variety of radioisotopes for CEA imaging, many of which have entered clinical investigation. CEA-Scan (a 99mTc-labeled anti-CEA Fab’ fragment has already been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for cancer imaging. Meanwhile, pretargeting strategies have also been developed for CEA imaging which can give much better tumor contrast than the other two methods, if the system is designed properly. In this review article, we will summarize the current state-of-the-art of radionuclide-based cancer imaging targeting CEA. Generally, isotopes with short half-lives (e.g. 18F and 99mTc are more suitable for labeling small engineered antibody fragments while the isotopes with longer half-lives (e.g. 123I and 111In are needed for antibody labeling to match its relatively long circulation half-life. With further improvement in tumor targeting efficacy and radiolabeling strategies, novel CEA-targeted agents may play an important role in cancer patient management, paving the way to “personalized medicine”.

  7. Preparation of anti-CEA and anti-goat γ-globulin sera for radioimmunologic assay of carcinoembryonic antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusnierczyk-Glazman, H.; Breborowicz, J.

    1977-01-01

    Goats were immunized with purified carcinoembryonic antigen, and the suitability of the antisera for clinical assays of carcinoembryonic antigen was characterized. Reactivity of equine sera to goat γ-globulin as a precipitating factor in the radioimmunologic double antibody technique was also evaluated. (author)

  8. Keratin, luminal epithelial antigen and carcinoembryonic antigen in human urinary bladder carcinomas. An immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathrath, W B; Arnholdt, H; Wilson, P D

    1982-01-01

    14 urinary bladder carcinomas of all main types were investigated with antisera to "broad spectrum keratin" (aK), "luminal epithelial antigen" (aLEA) and carcinoembryonic antigen (aCEA), using an indirect immunoperoxidase method on formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections. Keratin and LEA were both present in normal transitional epithelium, papilloma and carcinoma in situ whereas CEA was absent. Transitional cell carcinomas reacted with both aK and aLEA whereas CEA was seen only in a few foci. In squamous metaplasia and squamous carcinoma reaction with aK was particularly strong, while LEA was almost lacking and CEA was present in necrotic centres. In adenocarcinomas aK and aLEA reacted equally while aCEA reacted only on the surface.

  9. Influencing factors on the serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in benign liver diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompecki, R.; Mehl, H.; Fehr, R.; Braun, H. von

    1982-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was determined in the sera of 452 patients with benign liver diseases by radioimmunoassay (CEA-RIA Kit, Abbott). The CEA-level exceeded 2.5 ng/ml in 39 percent and 5.0 ng/ml in 9 percent of the cases. Independent influences of age, nicotin, and alcohol consumption and connective tissue proliferation of the liver on the CEA level were demonstrated and quantified by two- and higher-dimensional contingency table analysis. Toxic liver diseases were combined with elevated serum CEA values more often than inflammatory diseases. This aspect could not be investigated independently since there were only a few cases of toxic liver diseases without alcohol consumption. Sex and relative body weight do not seem to affect the CEA level. Additional diseases of the gastrointestinal tract or the cardiovascular system did not influence the serum CEA level in liver diseases. Therefore, in patients with benign liver diseases, an elevated serum CEA level indicates increased proliferation of the connective tissue. Age, nicotin, and alcohol consumption have to be considered independently in the clinical judgement of elevated serum CEA levels, irrespective of the underlying disease. (orig.) [de

  10. Basic studies on the radioimmunoassay of serum carcinoembryonic antigen and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Akio

    1976-01-01

    A two antibody system for radioimmunoassay of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was established, and the specificity of the method was verified with respect to two non-specific cross-reacting antigens (NCA and NCA-2) of von Kleist and Hirsch-Marie. Diagnostic significance was evaluated by determining serum CEA levels in neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. In 66% of the patients with colo-rectal cancer, 40% of those with gastric cancer and 47 to 69% of those with cancers of the pancreas, liver and the lung, abnormal increases of CEA were found. In a few patients with atrophic gastritis and miscellaneous liver diseases, slightly elevated values were observed. Significantly higher levels of serum CEA were found in stage III and IV of gastric cancer, and a remarkable increase of the levels was noted in patients with liver metastasis. CEA increase was well correlated with the grade of anemia, with serum haptoglobin concentration, and with the grade of immunologic functions in patients with gastric cancer. In patients who responded well to chemotherapy and/or surgical treatment, serum CEA levels were definitely decreased, while in the majority of patients whose diseases state had progressed, the levels were clearly increased. The serum CEA level may not be useful for the early detection of cancer, but may be useful for monitoring cancer patients, especially for the evaluation of treatment and for conjecturing metastasis in the liver. With respect to its molecular size and isoelectric point the immunoreactive CEA examined in cancer sera was heterogenous. (Evans, J.)

  11. Basic studies on the radioimmunoassay of serum carcinoembryonic antigen and its clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, A [Sapporo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1976-02-01

    A two antibody system for radioimmunoassay of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was established, and the specificity of the method was verified with respect to two non-specific cross-reacting antigens (NCA and NCA-2) of von Kleist and Hirsch-Marie. Diagnostic significance was evaluated by determining serum CEA levels in neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. In 66% of the patients with colo-rectal cancer, 40% of those with gastric cancer and 47 to 69% of those with cancers of the pancreas, liver and the lung, abnormal increases of CEA were found. In a few patients with atrophic gastritis and miscellaneous liver diseases, slightly elevated values were observed. Significantly higher levels of serum CEA were found in stage III and IV of gastric cancer, and a remarkable increase of the levels was noted in patients with liver metastasis. CEA increase was well correlated with the grade of anemia, with serum haptoglobin concentration, and with the grade of immunologic functions in patients with gastric cancer. In patients who responded well to chemotherapy and/or surgical treatment, serum CEA levels were definitely decreased, while in the majority of patients whose diseases state had progressed, the levels were clearly increased. The serum CEA level may not be useful for the early detection of cancer, but may be useful for monitoring cancer patients, especially for the evaluation of treatment and for conjecturing metastasis in the liver. With respect to its molecular size and isoelectric point the immunoreactive CEA examined in cancer sera was heterogenous.

  12. Molecular Characteristics of Carcinoembryonic Antigen and Nonspecific Cross-reacting Antigen(Clinical Application of Tumor Antigen)

    OpenAIRE

    内山, 一晃; Uchiyama, Kazuaki

    1990-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is one of the most famous laboratory tests of tumor markers. CEA was first reported in 1965, but molecular structure of CEA was not clear untill recent years. Amino acid sequence of CEA was reported in 1987, by the success of cDNA clonig of CEA. The CEA molecule is composed of five major domains, called domain N, I, II, III, C from the -NH_2 terminal. But sugar chains of CEA are complicated and have much variety, so there are few informations about them. If CEA ...

  13. Correlation Between Preoperative Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen Levels and Expression on Pancreatic and Rectal Cancer Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LSF Boogerd

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA–targeted imaging and therapeutic agents are being tested in clinical trials. If CEA overexpression in malignant tissue corresponds with elevated serum CEA, serum CEA could assist in selecting patients who may benefit from CEA-targeted agents. This study aims to assess the relationship between serum CEA and CEA expression in pancreatic (n = 20 and rectal cancer tissues (n = 35 using histopathology. According to local laboratory standards, a serum CEA >3 ng/mL was considered elevated. In pancreatic cancer patients a significant correlation between serum CEA and percentage of CEA-expressing tumor cells was observed ( P  = .04, ρ = .47. All 6 patients with homogeneous CEA expression in the tumor had a serum CEA >3 ng/mL. Most rectal cancer tissues (32/35 showed homogeneous CEA expression, independent of serum CEA levels. This study suggests that selection of pancreatic cancer patients for CEA-targeted agents via serum CEA appears adequate. For selection of rectal cancer patients, serum CEA levels are not informative.

  14. Localization by immunoperoxidase and estimation by radioimmunoassay of carcinoembryonic antigen on colonic polyp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharkey, R.M.; Hagihara, P.F.; Goldenberg, D.M.

    1977-01-01

    A 3-layer immunoperoxidase technique was used to demonstrate carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in colonic polyps from patients with or without previous or concurrent malignancy. CEA was demonstrated in a higher percentage of the polyps received as fresh specimens that were rapidly frozen and fixed in ethanol, than in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections. Tissue CEA content of both colonic carcinomas and polyps was determined by radioimmunoassay, and it was found that benign colonic tumours had levels of tissue CEA comparable to colonic cancer, indicating that CEA concentration in a tumour does not reflect its grade of malignancy. In fact, in one case in which both colonic cancer and polyps were removed, the polyps has the higher quantities of tissue CEA. Further, tissue CEA concentration of a polyp was not dependent on its size or location. Studying the titres of circulating CEA in these patients revealed an elevation of plasma CEA in one-third of the patients with only colonic polyps, whilst the patients with cancer all had increased titres. (author)

  15. Carcinoembryonic antigen promotes colorectal cancer progression by targeting adherens junction complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajenova, Olga, E-mail: o.bazhenova@spbu.ru [Theodosius Dobzhansky Center for Genome Bioinformatics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Department of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, Creighton University, Omaha, NE 68178 (United States); Chaika, Nina [Department of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, Creighton University, Omaha, NE 68178 (United States); Tolkunova, Elena; Davydov-Sinitsyn, Alexander [Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194064 (Russian Federation); Gapon, Svetlana [Boston Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Thomas, Peter [Department of Surgery and Biomedical Sciences, Creighton University, Omaha, NE 68178 (United States); O’Brien, Stephen [Theodosius Dobzhansky Center for Genome Bioinformatics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)

    2014-06-10

    Oncomarkers play important roles in the detection and management of human malignancies. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CEACAM5) and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) are considered as independent tumor markers in monitoring metastatic colorectal cancer. They are both expressed by cancer cells and can be detected in the blood serum. We investigated the effect of CEA production by MIP101 colorectal carcinoma cell lines on E-cadherin adherens junction (AJ) protein complexes. No direct interaction between E-cadherin and CEA was detected; however, the functional relationships between E-cadherin and its AJ partners: α-, β- and p120 catenins were impaired. We discovered a novel interaction between CEA and beta-catenin protein in the CEA producing cells. It is shown in the current study that CEA overexpression alters the splicing of p120 catenin and triggers the release of soluble E-cadherin. The influence of CEA production by colorectal cancer cells on the function of E-cadherin junction complexes may explain the link between the elevated levels of CEA and the increase in soluble E-cadherin during the progression of colorectal cancer. - Highlights: • Elevated level of CEA increases the release of soluble E-cadherin during the progression of colorectal cancer. • CEA over-expression alters the binding preferences between E-cadherin and its partners: α-, β- and p120 catenins in adherens junction complexes. • CEA produced by colorectal cancer cells interacts with beta-catenin protein. • CEA over-expression triggers the increase in nuclear beta-catenin. • CEA over-expression alters the splicing of p120 catenin protein.

  16. Carcinoembryonic antigen promotes colorectal cancer progression by targeting adherens junction complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajenova, Olga; Chaika, Nina; Tolkunova, Elena; Davydov-Sinitsyn, Alexander; Gapon, Svetlana; Thomas, Peter; O’Brien, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Oncomarkers play important roles in the detection and management of human malignancies. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CEACAM5) and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) are considered as independent tumor markers in monitoring metastatic colorectal cancer. They are both expressed by cancer cells and can be detected in the blood serum. We investigated the effect of CEA production by MIP101 colorectal carcinoma cell lines on E-cadherin adherens junction (AJ) protein complexes. No direct interaction between E-cadherin and CEA was detected; however, the functional relationships between E-cadherin and its AJ partners: α-, β- and p120 catenins were impaired. We discovered a novel interaction between CEA and beta-catenin protein in the CEA producing cells. It is shown in the current study that CEA overexpression alters the splicing of p120 catenin and triggers the release of soluble E-cadherin. The influence of CEA production by colorectal cancer cells on the function of E-cadherin junction complexes may explain the link between the elevated levels of CEA and the increase in soluble E-cadherin during the progression of colorectal cancer. - Highlights: • Elevated level of CEA increases the release of soluble E-cadherin during the progression of colorectal cancer. • CEA over-expression alters the binding preferences between E-cadherin and its partners: α-, β- and p120 catenins in adherens junction complexes. • CEA produced by colorectal cancer cells interacts with beta-catenin protein. • CEA over-expression triggers the increase in nuclear beta-catenin. • CEA over-expression alters the splicing of p120 catenin protein

  17. A clinical study on carcinoembryonic antigens in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Hiroshi; Satoh, Toshihiko; Kimura, Kazuei; Togawa, Takafumi; Higuchi, Yoshisuke

    1986-01-01

    The serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigens (CEA) were determined in 57 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. The overall positive ratio was 45.6 %. The patients were classified into 2 groups, a peripheral type and a central type, according to bronchoscopic findings. The positive ratio in patients with peripheral type was 66.7 %. And the ratio with central type was 26.7 %. There was a significant difference (p < 0.005) between peripheral type and central type of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. (author)

  18. Use of radioimmunodetection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and ferritin in diagnosis of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamyatin, S.S.; Zakharychev, V.D.

    1989-01-01

    To study the diagnostic value of radioimmunoassay (RIA) of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and ferritin the level of this markers under lung cancer depending on the tumor localization and the process stage is determined. It is shown that determination of CEA and ferritin level in a number of patients with the peripheral lung cancer allows on the confirm the diagnosis. In case of the central cancer an increase of CEA level testifies to the tumor germination into the adjacent organs and lung tissue and allows one to determine the stage and operability of the disease. 10 refs.; 3 tabs

  19. The diagnostic accuracy of carcinoembryonic antigen to detect colorectal cancer recurrence – A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Caspar G; Karlsson, William K; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) has been used as a tumor marker in the follow-up of colorectal cancer for more than 40 years. Controversy exists regarding its diagnostic applicability due to a relatively low sensitivity and a questionable effect on mortality. The aim of this review...... was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of CEA in detecting recurrence after intended curative surgery for primary colorectal cancer. METHODS: Systematic literature searches were performed in PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases, and articles were chosen based on predefined inclusion criteria. Reference lists...

  20. An optimized antibody-chelator conjugate for imaging of carcinoembryonic antigen with indium-111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumerdon, G.A.; Rogers, P.E.; Lombardo, C.M.; Schnobrich, K.E.; Melvin, S.L.; Tribby, I.I.E.; Stroupe, S.D.; Johnson, D.K.; Hobart, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody to carcinoembryonic antigen showing minimal cross-reactivity with blood cells and normal tissues was derivatized with benzylisothiocyanate derivatives of EDTA and DTPA. Seven chelators per immunoglobulin could be incorporated without loss of immunoreactivity. The resulting conjugates, labeled with indium-111, showed low liver uptake in animals. A cold kit, comprising the DTPA conjugate at a molarity of antibody bound chelator exceeding 1 x 10 -4 M, gave radiochemical yields of indium labeled antibody of ≥ 95% and was stable for 1 yr. (author)

  1. Effect of radiation on the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hareyama, M.; Imai, K.; Kubo, K.; Takahashi, H.; Koshiba, H.; Hinoda, Y.; Shidou, M.; Oouchi, A.; Yachi, A.; Morita, K. (Sapporo Medical College (Japan))

    1991-05-01

    The changes of antigenic expression of cultured human gastric adenocarcinoma MKN45 cells caused by irradiation were investigated to elucidate the immune responses to localized irradiation. The expression of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) showed remarkable increases in the culture supernatant and on the surface of the membrane of irradiated cells. The expression of major histocompatibility complex Class I antigen on the membrane also was enhanced by irradiation. In addition, the irradiated cell groups, when analyzed using a CEA-specific probe, showed remarkable increases in the CEA mRNA. These enhancements increased in the 10-Gy and 15-Gy irradiated populations compared with the 5-Gy irradiated population. These results suggest that the enhancement of expression of CEA by radiation takes place at the CEA gene expression (mRNA) level but not at the protein level.

  2. Critical study and applications of the radioimmunological determination of carcinoembryonic antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troupel, Solange.

    1974-01-01

    This paper outlines our research on the development of a radioimmunological method to determine the carcinoembryonic antigen of the digestive system (ACE). The carcinoembryonic antigen is defined and situated in the framework of antigens associated with human tumours. The general principles of the radioimmunological determination are then reviewed. A detailed technical study is devoted to each of the elements involved in the reaction and to the working conditions of each method tried. A labelling procedure and a radioactive protein separation method have been worked out, guaranteeing a high specific radioactivity consistent with a good immunoreactivity. The period of effectiveness of this protein has also been determined, taking account of its deiodination. The antiserum is a very important factor in the sensitivity of the measurement. A ewe antiserum of good antibody content and volume yield was chosen, its disadvantage being the length of the determination imposed by the 48 hour preincubation time. Ammonium sulphate precipitation and double antibody techniques were used for the labelled antigen-antibody separation. In seric solution the ammonium sulphate precipitation carries down non-specifically, in the standards, a large amount of labelled antigen. This disadvantage has been offset by a method of calculation which shows the actual contribution of the labelled complex. The double antibody technique requires a special adjustment to balance quantity of second antiserum and precipitation time. The system sometimes needs an addition of serum from the animal donor of the first antibody in order to obtain an adequate separation. Where techniques are concerned, although the macro-method is suitable for determinations on perchloric extract and is still in common use we prefer to use the one described here under the name of micro-method. Finally the results obtained in experimental and clinical applications are presented [fr

  3. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen tends to decrease in poorly-differentiated colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Morina Silalahi

    2015-12-01

    This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 40 CRC subjects from July 2012 until May 2013. Determination of serum CEA and CA 19-9 levels and histopathological (cellular differentiation grades in CRC biopsies was done in all subjects. RESULTS The study involved forty CRC patients, consisting of 22 males and 18 females, with mean age of 51.93 ± 11.63 years, CEA levels of 51.93 ± 84.07 ng/ml and CA 19-9 levels of 33.81 ± 62.39 U/ml. Carcino-embryonic antigen levels tended to decrease with decreasing CRC histopathological grade, while CA 19-9 levels increased in well-differentiated CRC. However, both relationships were statistically not significant (with p=0.314 and p=0.787, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA levels tend to decrease with decreasing histopathological grade of CRC, and CA 19-9 levels tend to increase in well-differentiated CRC.

  4. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering study of carcinoembryonic antigen in serum from patients with colorectal cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Chen, Yanping; Zheng, Xiongwei; He, Cheng; Lu, Jianping; Feng, Shangyuan; Chen, Rong; Zeng, Haisan

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we developed a SERS platform for quantitative detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in serum of patients with colorectal cancers. Anti-CEA-functionalized 4-mercaptobenzoic acid-labeled Au/Ag core-shell bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared first and then used to analyze CEA antigen solutions of different concentrations. A calibration curve was established in the range from 5 × 10-3 to 5 × 105 ng/mL. Finally, this new SERS probe was applied for quantitative detection of CEA in serum obtained from 26 colorectal cancer patients according to the calibration curve. The results were in good agreement with that obtained by electrochemical luminescence method, suggesting that SERS immunoassay has high sensitivity and specificity for CEA detection in serum. A detection limit of 5 pg/ml was achieved. This study demonstrated the feasibility and great potential for developing this new technology into a clinical tool for analysis of tumor markers in the blood.

  5. Predictive Value of Carcinoembryonic and Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 Related to Some Clinical, Endoscopic and Histological Colorectal Cancer Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašević Ratko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC is an important oncological and public health problem worldwide, including Serbia. Unfortunately, half of the patients are recognized in an advanced stage of the disease, therefore, early detection through specific tumor biomarkers, such as carcinoembryonic (CEA and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9, is the only way to cope with CRC expansion.

  6. Serum CA 125, carcinoembryonic antigen, and CA 19-9 as tumor markers in borderline ovarian tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, MJA; de Bruijn, HWA; Hollema, H; ten Koor, KA; Willemse, PHB; Aalders, JG; van der Zee, AGJ

    Objectives. The goals of this study were to analyze preoperative serum levels of CA 125, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and CA 19-9 in patients with borderline ovarian tumors and to investigate if routine assessment of these markers in follow-up may lead to earlier detection of recurrence. Methods.

  7. High expression of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) 6 and 8 in primary myelofibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riley, Caroline Hasselbalch; Skov, Vibe; Larsen, Thomas Stauffer

    2011-01-01

    for the egress of CD34+ cells from the bone marrow. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) 6 has been implicated in cell adhesion, cellular invasiveness, angiogenesis, and inflammation, which are all key processes in the pathophysiology of PMF. Accordingly, CEACAMs may play an important...

  8. Reactive oxygen species modulator 1, a novel protein, combined with carcinoembryonic antigen in differentiating malignant from benign pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianmeng; Zhang, Na; Dong, Jiahui; Sun, Gengyun

    2017-05-01

    The differential diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion and benign pleural effusion remains a clinical problem. Reactive oxygen species modulator 1 is a novel protein overexpressed in various human tumors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of joint detection of reactive oxygen species modulator 1 and carcinoembryonic antigen in the differential diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion and benign pleural effusion. One hundred two consecutive patients with pleural effusion (including 52 malignant pleural effusion and 50 benign pleural effusion) were registered in this study. Levels of reactive oxygen species modulator 1 and carcinoembryonic antigen were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Results showed that the concentrations of reactive oxygen species modulator 1 both in pleural fluid and serum of patients with malignant pleural effusion were significantly higher than those of benign pleural effusion (both p pleural fluid reactive oxygen species modulator 1 were 61.54% and 82.00%, respectively, with the optimized cutoff value of 589.70 pg/mL. However, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of serum reactive oxygen species modulator 1 were only 41.38% and 86.21%, respectively, with the cutoff value of 27.22 ng/mL, indicating that serum reactive oxygen species modulator 1 may not be a good option in the differential diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion and benign pleural effusion. The sensitivity and specificity of pleural fluid carcinoembryonic antigen were 69.23% and 88.00%, respectively, at the cutoff value of 3.05 ng/mL, while serum carcinoembryonic antigen were 80.77% and 72.00% at the cutoff value of 2.60 ng/mL. The sensitivity could be raised to 88.17% in parallel detection of plural fluid reactive oxygen species modulator 1 and carcinoembryonic antigen concentration, and the specificity could be improved to 97.84% in serial detection.

  9. Development of a PMMA Electrochemical Microfluidic Device for Carcinoembryonic Antigen Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Anh, Nguyen; Van Trung, Hoang; Tien, Bui Quang; Binh, Nguyen Hai; Ha, Cao Hong; Le Huy, Nguyen; Loc, Nguyen Thai; Thu, Vu Thi; Lam, Tran Dai

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfluidic device fabricated by an inexpensive CO2 laser etching system was developed for detection of carcino-embryonic antigens (CEA). The device was capable of working in continuous mode and was designed with the aid of numerical simulation. The detection of target CEA was based on immuno-assay via magnetic particles and electrochemical sensing. The as-prepared microfluidic can be used to detect CEA at the relatively low concentration of 150 pg mL-1. The device could be reused many times, since the capture and removal of magnetic particles in the assay could be manipulated by an external magnetic field. The proposed approach appears to be suitable for high-throughput and automated analysis of large biomolecules such as tumor markers and pathogens.

  10. Serum CEA (carcino-embryonic antigen) monitoring after surgery for cancer of the rectum and colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reginster, J.Y.; Desaive, C.; Collette, J.; Zangerle, P.F.; Denis, D.; Franchimont, P.

    1984-01-01

    Fifty four patients, operated for colorectal cancer have been followed up for 2 to 100 months after surgery by carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) determinations and classical, clinical, biological, radiological, echographical, isotopical and tomoscanninvestigations. Each new serum sample has been assayed for CEA with previously collected samples within the same patients. This repetition of CEA on the same samples allows to check the good reproducibility of CEA radioimmunoassay (variation coefficient between assay is less than 10%) and to get a complete profile of CEA level evaluation within the same assay. There is a good correlation between clinical evolution and CEA levels. In 42 patients, CEA levels remained or became normal ( 20 ng ml) at the same time or before clinical and/or paraclinical evidences for metastases or local recurrence. These results showed CEA assay in a quantitative parameter to assess the follow-up of colorectal cancer complementary to clinical, biological, radiological, echographical and isotopical criterias [fr

  11. Prognostic value of determination of carcinoembryonic antigen and α-fetoprotein level in blood plasma in patients with cancer stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyslova, V.N.; Vygonnyj, I.I.

    1986-01-01

    60 donors and 129 patients with cancer stomach were examined. Tumor antigens were determined in blood plasma by the method of radioimmunoassay. The upper boundary of the norm of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) is 12 ng/ml. Increased concentration of antigens studied is detected in most patients. It is established that the level of antigens increases depending on generalization of the process, cancer stage, tumor propagation in the stomach wall, patient's age. High volumes of AFP and CEA after operation give evidence about non-radicality of operation and bad prognosis

  12. Kinetics of anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody internalization: effects of affinity, bivalency, and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael M.; Thurber, Greg M.

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical analyses suggest that the cellular internalization and catabolism of bound antibodies contribute significantly to poor penetration into tumors. Here we quantitatively assess the internalization of antibodies and antibody fragments against the commonly targeted antigen carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Although CEA is often referred to as a non-internalizing or shed antigen, anti-CEA antibodies and antibody fragments are shown to be slowly endocytosed by LS174T cells with a half-time of 10–16 h, a time scale consistent with the metabolic turnover rate of CEA in the absence of antibody. Anti-CEA single chain variable fragments (scFvs) with significant differences in affinity, stability against protease digestion, and valency exhibit similar uptake rates of bound antibody. In contrast, one anti-CEA IgG exhibits unique binding and trafficking properties with twice as many molecules bound per cell at saturation and significantly faster cellular internalization after binding. The internalization rates measured herein can be used in simple computational models to predict the microdistribution of these antibodies in tumor spheroids. PMID:18408925

  13. Diagnostic and prognostic value of carcinoembryonic antigen in pancreatic cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Q

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Qingcai Meng,1–3,* Si Shi,1–3,* Chen Liang,1–3,* Dingkong Liang,1–3 Wenyan Xu,1–3 Shunrong Ji,1–3 Bo Zhang,1–3 Quanxing Ni,1–3 Jin Xu,1–3 Xianjun Yu1–3 1Department of Pancreatic Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, 2Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, 3Pancreatic Cancer Institute, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA is one of the most widely used tumor markers and is increased in 30%–60% of patients with pancreatic cancer. Although carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9 is the most important serum biomarker in pancreatic cancer, the diagnostic and prognostic value of CEA is gradually being recognized.Materials and methods: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were searched for related literature published until January 2017. Diagnostic accuracy variables were pooled using the Meta-Disc software. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs for prognostic data were calculated and analyzed using Stata software.Results: A total of 3,650 participants enrolled in 19 studies met our inclusion criteria. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio of a CEA-based panel were 0.45 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41–0.50, 0.89 (95% CI, 0.86–0.91, 5.39 (95% CI, 3.16–9.18, and 0.55 (95% CI, 0.41–0.72, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC, 0.90 and Q-value (0.84 of the CEA-based panel indicated a significantly higher diagnostic accuracy compared with CEA or CA19-9 alone. Moreover, there was also a significant association between high levels of CEA and worse overall survival (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.31–1.56.Conclusion: Our meta-analysis indicated that elevated serum CEA level, as a vital supplementary to CA19-9, can play an important role in the clinical diagnosis of pancreatic cancer patients and predict poor prognosis. Keywords: carcinoembryonic

  14. Clinicopathological and Prognostic Significance of Cancer Antigen 15-3 and Carcinoembryonic Antigen in Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis including 12,993 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The prognostic role of serum cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA in breast cancer remains controversial. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the prognostic value of these two markers in breast cancer patients. Methods. After electronic databases were searched, 36 studies (31 including information regarding CA15-3 and 23 including information regarding CEA with 12,993 subjects were included. Based on the data directly or indirectly from the available studies, the hazard ratios (HRs and odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were pooled according to higher or lower marker levels. Results. Elevated CA15-3 or CEA was statistically significant with poorer DFS and OS in breast cancer (multivariate analysis of OS: HR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.76–2.33 for CA15-3; HR = 1.79, 95% CI 1.46–2.20 for CEA; multivariate analysis of DFS: HR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.06–1.55 for CA15-3; HR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.53–2.04 for CEA. Subgroup analysis showed that CA15-3 or CEA had significant predictive values in primary or metastasis types and different cut-offs and included sample sizes and even the study publication year. Furthermore, elevated CA15-3 was associated with advanced histological grade and younger age, while elevated CEA was related to the non-triple-negative tumor type and older age. These two elevated markers were all associated with a higher tumor burden. Conclusions. This meta-analysis showed that elevated serum CA15-3 or CEA was associated with poor DFS and OS in patients with breast cancer, and they should be tested anytime if possible.

  15. Induction of carcinoembryonic antigen expression in a three-dimensional culture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, J. M.; Brown, D.; Fitzgerald, W.; Ford, R. D.; Nachman, A.; Goodwin, T. J.; Spaulding, G.

    1994-01-01

    MIP-101 is a poorly differentiated human colon carcinoma cell line established from ascites that produces minimal amounts of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a 180 kDa glycoprotein tumor marker, and nonspecific cross-reacting antigen (NCA), a related protein that has 50 and 90 kDa isoforms, in vitro in monolayer culture. MIP-101 produces CEA when implanted into the peritoneum of nude mice but not when implanted into subcutaneous tissue. We tested whether MIP-101 cells may be induced to express CEA when cultured on microcarrier beads in three-dimensional cultures, either in static cultures as non-adherent aggregates or under dynamic conditions in a NASA-designed low shear stress bioreactor. MIP- 101 cells proliferated well under all three conditions and increased CEA and NCA production 3 - 4 fold when grown in three-dimensional cultures compared to MIP-101 cells growing logarithmically in monolayers. These results suggest that three-dimensional growth in vitro simulates tumor function in vivo and that three-dimensional growth by itself may enhance production of molecules that are associated with the metastatic process.

  16. Concentration of carcinoembryonic antigen alpha-fetoprotein and beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin in the serum of coke oven workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snit, M. [Silesian Medical Academy, Zabrze (Poland)

    1993-01-01

    Increased levels of carcinoembryonic antigen and {alpha}-fetoprotein were found in blood serum of coke oven workers, and also to some extent in smokers and in residents of industrial cities. The {beta} subunit of chorionic gonadotropin was barely detectable.

  17. Interpretation of sequential measurements of cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) based on analytical imprecision and biological variation in the monitoring of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, Malgorzata K.; Sölétormos, G; Petersen, P H

    2001-01-01

    The main objective with cancer antigen 125 (CA 125), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) monitoring of ovarian cancer patients is to detect an early change of disease activity with high reliability. We hypothesized that a monitoring scheme for ovarian cancer patie...

  18. Tumor markers cancer antigen 15.3, carcinoembryonic antigen, and tissue polypeptide antigen for monitoring metastatic breast cancer during first-line chemotherapy and follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sölétormos, G; Nielsen, D; Schiøler, V

    1996-01-01

    progressive disease, the median positive lead time was 35 days during therapy and 76 days during follow-up. Tumor marker assessment may document that a therapy is effective and ought to be continued in spite of adverse toxic effects, and that a treatment is ineffective and should be stopped to prevent......We investigated whether model systems integrating stochastic variation into criteria for marker assessment could be used for monitoring metastatic breast cancer. A total of 3989 serum samples was obtained from 204 patients receiving first-line chemotherapy and from 112 of these patients during...... follow-up. Each sample was analyzed for cancer antigen 15.3, carcinoembryonic antigen, and tissue polypeptide antigen. The efficiency for identifying progression and nonprogression was 94% during therapy and 85% during follow-up, with no false-positive marker results for progressive disease. At clinical...

  19. Prognostic Role of Carcinoembryonic Antigen Level after Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy in Patients with Rectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jung Wook; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Kim, Seok Hyung; Park, Yoon Ah; Cho, Yong Beom; Kim, Hee Cheol; Lee, Woo Yong; Park, Hee Chul; Choi, Doo Ho; Park, Joon Oh; Park, Young Suk; Chun, Ho-Kyung

    2018-05-29

    The prognostic role of post-chemoradiotherapy (CRT) carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level is not clear. We evaluated the prognostic significance of post-CRT CEA level in patients with rectal cancer after preoperative CRT. We reviewed 659 consecutive patients who underwent preoperative CRT and total mesorectal excision for non-metastatic rectal cancer. Patients were categorized into two groups according to post-CRT serum CEA level: low CEA (level was 1.7 ng/mL (range, 0.1-207.0). A high post-CRT level was significantly associated with ypStage, ypT category, tumor regression grade, and pre-CRT CEA level. The 5-year overall survival rate of the 659 patients was 87.8% with a median follow-up period of 57.0 months (range, 1.4-176.4). When the post-CRT CEA groups were divided into groups according to pre-CRT CEA level, the 5-year overall survival rates were significantly different (P level was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that operation method, differentiation, perineural invasion, postoperative chemotherapy, tumor regression grade, and post-CRT CEA level were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. The level of serum CEA after preoperative CRT was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in patients with rectal cancer.

  20. Reference Intervals of Alpha-Fetoprotein and Carcinoembryonic Antigen in the Apparently Healthy Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gao-Ming; Guo, Xu-Xiao; Ma, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Guo-Ming

    2016-12-12

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to calculate 95% reference intervals and double-sided limits of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) according to the CLSI EP28-A3 guideline. MATERIAL AND METHODS Serum AFP and CEA values were measured in samples from 26 000 healthy subjects in the Shuyang area receiving general health checkups. The 95% reference intervals and upper limits were calculated by using MedCalc. RESULTS We provided continuous reference intervals from 20 years old to 90 years old for AFP and CEA. The reference intervals were: AFP, 1.31-7.89 ng/ml (males) and 1.01-7.10 ng/ml (females); CEA, 0.51-4.86 ng/ml (males) and 0.35-3.45ng/ml (females). AFP and CEA were significantly positively correlated with age in both males (r=0.196 and r=0.198) and females (r=0.121 and r=0.197). CONCLUSIONS Different races or populations and different detection systems may result in different reference intervals for AFP and CEA. Continuous reference intervals of age changes are more accurate than age groups.

  1. Radioimmunologic determination of the concentration of carcinoembryonic antigen in serum of normal individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milkov, V.; Milanov, S.

    1982-01-01

    The serum concentration of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was determined by radioimmunoassay in 95 normal individuals (41 women and 54 men), 20 to 65 years of age. Depending on sex and age, the tested individuals were divided in four groups: gr. I - 27 women, 20 to 40 years of age; gr. II - 14 women, 4O to 65 years of age; gr. III -35 men, 20 to 40 years of age, and group IV - 19 men, 40 to 65 years of age. The following mean serum CEA levels were obtained in normal individuals: Group I -6.8 +- 1.07 ng/ml; group II - 9.71 +- 1.46 ng/ml; group III - 4.9 +- 0.73 ng/ml; group IV - 7.5 +- 1.5 ng/ml. The CEA levels in the serum of normal individuals varied with age and sex, but the differences were statistically insignificant (p> 0.10). Normal values fo serum CEA concentrations in normal individuals were determined. These values are meant to be used for comparison with serum CEA values in patients with malignant diseases. (author)

  2. Prognostic impact of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) on patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaoka, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Nobumasa; Hara, Kazuo; Hijioka, Susumu; Tajika, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ishihara, Makoto; Hirayama, Yutaka; Hieda, Nobuhiro; Yoshida, Tsukasa; Okuno, Nozomi; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Niwa, Yasumasa; Yamao, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is one of the most widely used tumor markers, and its level is increased in 30-60% of patients with pancreatic cancer (PC). However, little is known about the implications of CEA as a prognostic marker in metastatic PC. The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of CEA levels as a prognostic marker in patients with metastatic PC. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from a computerized database. A total of 433 patients with metastatic disease were analyzed. Median overall survival (OS) was significantly shorter for patients with high CEA (>5 ng/ml) than with normal CEA (≤5 ng/ml) (6.8 vs. 10.3 months, respectively; p CEA level was an independent predictive factor for OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45-2.26). In the high CEA group, OS in patients treated with combination chemotherapy was similar to that with single-agent chemotherapy (median, 7.1 vs. 6.8 months; HR for OS, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.71-1.40). The present results show that CEA level is an independent prognostic factor in patients with metastatic PC. A combination chemotherapy regimen may offer modest survival benefit in patients with high CEA. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Roles of Carcinoembryonic Antigen in Liver Metastasis and Therapeutic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Metastasis is a highly complicated and sequential process in which primary cancer spreads to secondary organic sites. Liver is a well-known metastatic organ from colorectal cancer. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is expressed in most gastrointestinal, breast, and lung cancer cells. Overexpression of CEA is closely associated with liver metastasis, which is the main cause of death from colorectal cancer. CEA is widely used as a diagnostic and prognostic tumor marker in cancer patients. It affects many steps of liver metastasis from colorectal cancer cells. CEA inhibits circulating cancer cell death. CEA also binds to heterogeneous nuclear RNA binding protein M4 (hnRNP M4), a Kupffer cell receptor protein, and activates Kupffer cells to secrete various cytokines that change the microenvironments for the survival of colorectal cancer cells in the liver. CEA also activates cell adhesion-related molecules. The close correlation between CEA and cancer has spurred the exploration of many CEA-targeted approaches as anticancer therapeutics. Understanding the detailed functions and mechanisms of CEA in liver metastasis will provide great opportunities for the improvement of anticancer approaches against colorectal cancers. In this report, the roles of CEA in liver metastasis and CEA-targeting anticancer modalities are reviewed. PMID:28588612

  4. Radioimmunolocalisation of tumours by external scintigraphy after administration of 131I antibody to carcinoembryonic antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, F.; Bagshawe, K.D.; Begent, R.H.J.; Jewkes, R.F.; Jones, B.E.; Keep, P.A.; Lewis, J.; Vernon, P.

    1980-01-01

    Investigations of 131 I-labelled antibody to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were performed in nude mice bearing human colonic carcinoma xenografts and in external scintigraphy of patients with various tumours. In mice, the activities of 131 I (antiCEA) and 125 I(normal γ globulin) were measured in the human colon carcinoma xenografts. The results were expressed as a ratio of uptake of specific to non-specific antibody showing that antiCEA was retained in the tumours with a maximum specificity index of 2.2 at 7 days after antibody administration. Palpable carcinomas of the colon were localised by scintiscanning in patients given 131 I-labelled antibody to CEA. However, uptake of antiCEA was also demonstrated in apparently normal colon due to non-specific uptake of antibody and the fact that some CEA is present in normal colon. Thus further development of the technique particularly as regards antibody specificity, is necessary before radioimmunolocalisation could be used as a means of detecting tumours in clinical practice. (UK)

  5. Detection of carcinoembryonic antigen using functional magnetic and fluorescent nanoparticles in magnetic separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, H. Y., E-mail: annetsai@csmu.edu.tw [Chung Shan Medical University, Department of Applied Chemistry (China); Chang, C. Y.; Li, Y. C.; Chu, W. C.; Viswanathan, K.; Bor Fuh, C., E-mail: cbfuh@ncnu.edu.tw [National Chi Nan University, Department of Applied Chemistry (China)

    2011-06-15

    We combined a sandwich immunoassay, anti-CEA/CEA/anti-CEA, with functional magnetic ({approx}80 nm) and fluorescent ({approx}180 nm) nanoparticles in magnetic separators to demonstrate a detection method for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Determination of CEA in serum can be used in clinical diagnosis and monitoring of tumor-related diseases. The CEA concentrations in samples were deduced and determined based on the reference plot using the measured fluorescent intensity of sandwich nanoparticles from the sample. The linear range of CEA detection was from 18 ng/mL to 1.8 pg/mL. The detection limit of CEA was 1.8 pg/mL. In comparison with most other detection methods, this method had advantages of lower detection limit and wider linear range. The recovery was higher than 94%. The CEA concentrations of two serum samples were determined to be 9.0 and 55 ng/mL, which differed by 6.7% (9.6 ng/mL) and 9.1% (50 ng/mL) from the measurements of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The analysis time can be reduced to one third of ELISA. This method has good potential for other biomarker detections and biochemical applications.

  6. Synuclein gamma predicts poor clinical outcome in colon cancer with normal levels of carcinoembryonic antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Xiaofang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synuclein gamma (SNCG, initially identified as a breast cancer specific gene, is aberrantly expressed in many different malignant tumors but rarely expressed in matched nonneoplastic adjacent tissues. In this study, we investigated the prognostic potential of SNCG in colon cancer particularly in the patients with normal carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA levels. Methods SNCG levels were assessed immunohistochemically in cancer tissues from 229 colon adenocarcinoma patients with a mean follow-up of 44 months. Correlations between SNCG levels and clinicopathologic features, preoperative serum CEA level, and clinical outcome were analyzed statistically using SPSS. Results SNCG levels in colon adenocarcinoma were closely associated with intravascular embolus and tumor recurrence but independent of preoperative serum CEA levels. SNCG expression was an independent prognostic factor of a shorter disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS (P P = 0.001, P = 0.001, 0.002 for 97 patients with normal preoperative serum CEA level. Conclusions Our results suggest for the first time that SNCG is a new independent predicator for poor prognosis in patients with colon adenocarcinoma, including those with normal CEA levels. Combination of CEA with SNCG improves prognostic evaluation for patients with colon adenocarcinoma.

  7. Gold nanoparticle-based low limit of detection Love wave biosensor for carcinoembryonic antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuangming; Wan, Ying; Su, Yan; Fan, Chunhai; Bhethanabotla, Venkat R

    2017-09-15

    In this work, a Love wave biosensing platform is described for detecting cancer-related biomarker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). An ST 90°-X quartz Love wave device with a layer of SiO 2 waveguide was combined with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) to amplify the mass loading effect of the acoustic wave sensor to achieve a limit of detection of 37pg/mL. The strategy involves modifying the Au NPs with anti-CEA antibody conjugates to form nanoprobes in a sandwich immunoassay. The unamplified detection limit of the Love wave biosensor is 9.4ng/mL. This 2-3 order of magnitude reduction in the limit of detection brings the SAW platform into the range useful for clinical diagnosis. Measurement electronics and microfluidics are easily constructed for acoustic wave biosensors, such as the Love wave device described here, allowing for robust platforms for point of care applications for cancer biomarkers in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of bone scintigraphy with serum tumor markers of CA 15-3 and carcinoembryonic antigen in patients with breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedik, G. K.; Kiratli, P.O.; Aras, T.; Tascioglu, B.

    2006-01-01

    To compare the bone scintigraphy findings with a carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) levels in breast carcinoma patients. We also investigated the relationship between anatomical bone type and its effect on tumor marker levels. The study was consisted of retrospective evaluation of 120 bone scans of patients with breast carcinoma admitted to the Nuclear Medicine Department, Medical Faculty, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey between January 2003 and December 2004. The mean age of the patients was 54.7 years. We grouped the results of the bone scans into 3 as normal, equivocal and metastatic. Carcinoembryonic antigen and CA 15-3 levels were recorded from the files of the patients. Upper cut levels of 4.8 U/ml for CEA and 38 U/ml for CA 15-3 was accepted. Metastatic bone areas were distributed according to their anatomical location as long, short, flat, irregular and sesamoid and effect of bone type on tumor marker was investigated. In 16 of the patients, bone scintigraphy revealed metastases. Sixty-one patients had normal scans and in 47 patients metastases could not be ruled out. In patients with metastases, CA 15-3 was elevated in 8 and CEA was higher than the upper limit in 6. For CEA and CA 15-3, the anatomical type of bone has no any effect on serum tumor marker concentration between patients with normal and elevated levels of tumor markers in metastatic patients. Tumor markers are not solely enough in predicting bone metastases. Bone scintigraphy and tumor markers should be both used in management of patients with breast carcinoma. The anatomical type of bone has no any effect on elevation of serum tumor marker concentration. (author)

  9. Radioimmunotherapy of Nude Mice Bearing Human Colon Carcinoma with I-131 Labeled Anti-carcinoembryonic Antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Tae; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Sang Eun; Choi, Yong; Chi, Dae Yoon; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Chung, Hong Keun

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of various factors on the therapeutic effect of the I-l3l labeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody(anti-CEA antibody). Tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT) was used to compare in vitro cytotoxicity of 3 Korean colon cancer cell lines (SNU-C2A, SNU-C4, SNU-C5) for selection of proper 2 cell lines in this study. The changes of the size of tumor which was xenografted to nude mice (balb/c nu/nu) were compared in 4 groups (group treated I-131 labeled anti-CEA antibody, group treated with non-radiolabeled anti-CEA antibody, group treated with I-131. labeled anti-human chorionic gonadotropin monoclonal antibody (anti-hCG antibody) as nonspecific antibody, and group injected with normal saline as a control). Immunohistochemical staining and in vivo autoradiography were performed after excision of the xenografted tumor. The results were as below mentioned. The in vitro cytotoxic effect of I-131 labeled anti-CEA antibody is most prominent in SNU-C5 cell line between 3 cancer cell lines. The changes of xenografted tumor size in both SNU-C4 and SNU-C5 cell tumors at the thirteenth day after injection of the antibodies were smallest in the group treated with I-131 labeled anti-CEA antibody (SNU-C4/SNU-C5; 324/342%) comparing with other groups, group treated with anti-CEA antibody (622/660%), group treated with I-131 anti-hCG antibody (538/546%), and control group(1030/724%) (p<0.02 in SNU-C4 and p<0.1in SNU-C5 at the 13th day after injection of antibodies). On the thirteenth day after injection of the antibodies nude mice were sacreficed to count the radiouptake of tumor and to check the changes of tumor size. Correlations between radiouptake and change of tumor size were calculated in each groups and significant negative correlation was only obtained in the group treated with I-131 anti-CEA antibody (p<0.05). There were no correlations between antigenic expression of carcinoembryonic antigen and

  10. Fabrication of graphene/gold-modified screen-printed electrode for detection of carcinoembryonic antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, K.F. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, 43400 Selangor (Malaysia); Lim, H.N., E-mail: janetlimhn@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, 43400 Selangor (Malaysia); Shams, N. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, 43400 Selangor (Malaysia); Jayabal, S.; Pandikumar, A.; Huang, N.M. [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre (LDMRC), Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-01-01

    Immunosensors based on gold nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide (AuNPs/rGO)-modified screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) were successfully synthesized using an electrochemical deposition method. The modified SPEs were characterized using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Raman spectroscopy to analyze the morphology and composition of AuNPs and rGO. Both the FESEM and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the AuNPs were successfully anchored on the thin film of rGO deposited on the surface of the SPEs. Characterization with a ferri–ferrocyanide couple [Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3−/4−}] showed that the electron transfer kinetic between the analyte and electrode was enhanced after the modification with the AuNPs/rGO composite on the electrode surface, in addition to increasing the effective surface area of the electrode. The modified SPE was immobilized with a sandwich type immunosensor to mimic the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) immunoassay. The modified SPE that was fortified with the sandwich type immunosensor exhibited double electrochemical responses in the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), with linear ranges of 0.5–50 ng/mL and 250–2000 ng/mL and limits of detection of 0.28 ng/mL and 181.5 ng/mL, respectively. - Highlights: • An AuNP/rGO-modified SPE is prepared via an in-situ electrodeposition method. • It is introduced in a sandwich-type immunoassay for the detection of CEA. • The LODs for CEA are 0.28 ng/mL for 0.5–25 ng/mL, and 181.5 ng/mL for 250–2000 ng/mL.

  11. Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen and prognosis of colorectal cancer. An independent prognostic factor still reliable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Destri, Giovanni; Rubino, Antonio Salvatore; Latino, Rosalia; Giannone, Fabio; Lanteri, Raffaele; Scilletta, Beniamino; Di Cataldo, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate whether, in a sample of patients radically treated for colorectal carcinoma, the preoperative determination of the carcinoembryonic antigen (p-CEA) may have a prognostic value and constitute an independent risk factor in relation to disease-free survival. The preoperative CEA seems to be related both to the staging of colorectal neoplasia and to the patient's prognosis, although this-to date-has not been conclusively demonstrated and is still a matter of intense debate in the scientific community. This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. A total of 395 patients were radically treated for colorectal carcinoma. The preoperative CEA was statistically compared with the 2010 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging, the T and N parameters, and grading. All parameters recorded in our database were tested for an association with disease-free survival (DFS). Only factors significantly associated (P < 0.05) with the DFS were used to build multivariate stepwise forward logistic regression models to establish their independent predictors. A statistically significant relationship was found between p-CEA and tumor staging (P < 0.001), T (P < 0.001) and N parameters (P = 0.006). In a multivariate analysis, the independent prognostic factors found were: p-CEA, stages N1 and N2 according to AJCC, and G3 grading (grade). A statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) was evident between the DFS of patients with normal and high p-CEA levels. Preoperative CEA makes a pre-operative selection possible of those patients for whom it is likely to be able to predict a more advanced staging.

  12. The diagnostic value of cytokeratins and carcinoembryonic antigen immunostaining in differentiating hepatocellular carcinomas from intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroescu, Cezar; Herlea, Vlad; Dragnea, Adrian; Popescu, Irinel

    2006-03-01

    To study the differences between the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and peripheral type of cholangiocarcinoma (CHC) using cytokeratin (CK) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) expressions and assessing their accuracy on paraffin sections in the differential diagnosis. The following antibodies were analyzed: AB1 complex (anti CK9-CK20), AB2 complex (anti CK1-CK8), pCEA, and the monoclonal antibodies against cytokeratins CK7, CK8/18, CK17 and CK19. In the mmunohistochemical studies, 15 selected surgically resected liver tumors, 10 HCCs and 5 CHCs, with well established diagnosis (by morphological criteria) were included. Other markers, such as AFP si CA 19-9, were not available. No CHC, but 50% of HCCs were positive for CEA, presenting a canalicular staining pattern. For CK 7, all but one (which was focally positive), meaning 80% of CHCs were diffusely positive, whereas only two HCCs were positive. For CK 19, 80% of CHCs were diffusely positive, while all but two HCCs (a moderately and a poorly differentiated tumor) were negative. For CK 8/18, 70% of HCCs were diffusely positive, whereas only 20% of CHCs were positive. For CK 17, 60% of CHCs were positive, while all HCCs were negative. 80% of CHCs were positive for AB1 anti-CKs complex, whereas only 50% of HCCs were positive, and relating to AB2 anti-CKs complex, 50% of HCCs were diffusely positive and only 20% of CHCs. The immunohistochemical expression of CKs and CEA might be considered helpful in addition to other diagnostic criteria for the differential diagnosis of primary carcinomas of the liver, especially in difficult cases.

  13. CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGEN LEVELS IN THE PERIPHERAL AND MESENTERIC VENOUS BLOOD OF PATIENTS WITH RECTAL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminio Cabral de REZENDE JUNIOR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Context The serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA is an important prognostic factor in colorectal cancer, however the rectum presents different routes of venous drainage, stating that the level of CEA in peripheral and mesenteric rectal tumors may be different, depending on the location of the tumor in the rectal segment. Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the peripheral and mesenteric venous levels of CEA and the association between these levels and the tumour location in the rectums of patients successfully operated on for rectal carcinoma. Methods Thirty-two patients who were surgically treated for rectal carcinoma were divided into patients with tumours located in the upper rectum (n = 11 or lower rectum (n = 21. The CEA values were assessed by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Serum and mesenteric CEA levels were associated with the tumour anatomopathological characteristics: location, histological type, cellular differentiation grade, depth of invasion into the rectal wall, angiolymphatic invasion, tumour, node, and metastasis staging; and the CEA index (≤1.0 or ≥1.0 ng /mL. Results Analysis of the serum CEA values using clinical and anatomopathological parameters revealed no significant association with tumour location, histological type, cellular differentiation grade, depth of invasion into the intestinal wall, and tumour, node, and metastasis staging. The mesenteric CEA levels were significantly associated with the tumour location (P = 0.01. The CEA values in the mesenteric venous blood and the presence of angiolymphatic invasion (P = 0.047 were significantly different. A significant relationship was found between the CEA index value and the rectal tumour location (P = 0.0001. Conclusions The CEA levels were higher in the mesenteric vein in tumours located in the upper rectum and in the presence of angiolymphatic invasion. CEA drainage from lower rectum adenocarcinomas preferentially occurs

  14. Proper exercise decreases plasma carcinoembryonic antigen levels with the improvement of body condition in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Il-Gyu; Park, Eung-Mi; Choi, Hye-Jung; Yoo, Jaehyun; Lee, Jong-Kyun; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2014-05-01

    Aging increases the risk of chronic diseases including cancers. Physical exercise has the beneficial effects for the elderly susceptible to the development of cancers, through maintaining a healthy body condition and improving the immune system. However, excessive or insufficient exercise might increase the risk for cancer. In the present study, we investigated what exercise frequency improves cancer-related biomarkers, such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), alpha fetoprotein (AFP), red blood cell (RBC), and white blood cell (WBC), and the body composition of elderly women. Fifty-four females, aged 70 to 77 years, were divided into 4 groups: control, 1-day exercise (1E), 2-3-day exercise (2-3E), and 5-day exercise (5E) groups. The control group did not participate in any physical activity, while the subjects in the exercise groups underwent the exercise program for 12 weeks. As results, CEA was significantly decreased in the exercise groups, with the lowest values in 2-3E group. In contrast, AFP, RBC and WBC were not significantly changed. CEA is an oncofetal glycoprotein that is overexpressed in adenocarcinomas. Although the function of CEA has not been fully understood, CEA has been suggested to be involved in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines via stimulating monocytes and macrophages. Moreover, body weight and body mass index were improved in the exercise groups, with the lowest levels in 5E group. Thus, we suggest that exercise for 2-3 days per week decreases the expression of CEA and improves body condition, without loading fatigue or stress, which may contribute to preventing cancer in the elderly women.

  15. [Evaluation of the diagnosis value of carcinoembryonic antigen in malignant pleural effusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y X; Tong, Z H; Zhou, X X; Liang, L R; Wang, Z; Xu, L L; Wang, X J; Wu, Y B; Li, H J; Lu, Z

    2018-02-06

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of serum and pleural fluid carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) for malignant pleural effusion (MPE). Methods: The concentration of CEA in serum and pleural fluid of 286 patients with the diagnosis confirmed by pleural biopsy through medical thoracoscopy were retrospectively analyzed. MPE was confirmed in 171 cases which were divided into two groups (adenocarcinoma group with 121cases and non-adenocarcinoma group with 50 cases) and benign pleural effusion in 115 cases. The optimal cutoff for MPE and MPE caused by adenocarcinoma were determined by using the ROC curve. Results: The concentration of serum CEA 12.27(3.80, 58.45) μg/L was significantly higher in MPE caused by adenocarcinoma than that of non-adenocarcinoma 1.91(1.08, 4.55) μg/L and benign effusion 1.32(0.86, 2.27) μg/L (both P value of serum and pleural fluid CEA for MPE was 3.10 and 5.83 μg/L, the sensitivity respectively was 67.3% and 74.3%, the specificity respectively was 87.8% and 98.3%, positive predictive value respectively was 89.2% and 98.5%, negative predictive value respectively was 64.3% and 72.0%. The cutoff value of serum and pleural fluid CEA for MPE caused by adenocarcinoma was 3.54 and 7.30 μg/L, the sensitivity respectively was 76.0% and 91.7%, the specificity respectively was 74.0% and 72.0%, positive predictive value respectively was 87.6% and 88.8%, negative predictive value respectively was 56.1% and 78.3%. Conclusions: The concentration of serum and pleural fluid CEA have diagnostic significance to MPE, especially MPE caused by adenocarcinoma. The diagnostic value of pleural fluid CEA is superior to serum CEA.

  16. [The value of B7-H4 and carcinoembryonic antigen in diagnosing the benign and malignant pleural effusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, F; Wei, Y; Li, L F; Li, G L; Wang, G J

    2017-07-23

    Objective: To evaluate the value of combined detection of negative costimulatory molecule B7-H4 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in diagnosing malignant and benign pleural effusion. Methods: Ninety-seven pleural effusion specimen were collected, 55 of which were diagnosed as malignant pleural effusion and 42 were benign pleural effusion. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to examine the concentration of B7-H4 and CEA in pleural effusion. Electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay was used to detect the CEA level in pleural effusion. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was established to analyze and evaluate the single or combined detection of B7-H4 and CEA in diagnosing malignant and benign pleural effusion. Results: The concentrations of B7-H4 and CEA in malignant pleural effusion (MPE) group were (60.08±35.04) ng/ml and (41.49±37.16) ng/ml, respectively, obviously higher than (27.26±9.55) ng/ml and (2.41±0.94) ng/ml of benign pleural effusion (BPE) group (both P 37.25 ng/ml or CEA>4.18 ng/ml, the sensitivity of diagnosis as MPE was down-regulated to 90.9% and the specificity was elevated to 88.1%. When B7-H4 >37.25 ng/ml and CEA>4.18 ng/ml, the sensitivity of diagnosis as MPE was down-regulated to 78.2% and the specificity was elevated to 97.6%. The sensitivity and specificity of combined detection of B7-H4 and CEA to diagnose MPE were elevated to 90.9% and 97.6%, respectively. The level of B7-H4 in MPE and BPE were both positively correlated with CEA ( r =0.670, P =0.001 in MPE and r =0.002, P =0.001 in BEP). Conclusions: B7-H4 is a potential tumor marker in diagnosing the benign and malignant pleural effusion. Although the diagnostic value of B7-H4 may not precede to CEA, the combined detection of B7-H4 and CEA can improve the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of MPE.

  17. 99mTc-Labeling of Monoclonal Antibody to Carcinoembryonic Antigen and Biodistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Dae Hyuk; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myu ng Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Chung, Hong Keun; Park, Jae Gahb

    1992-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate a direct method of 99m Tc labeling using β-mercaptoethanol as a reducing agent, and to investigate whether 99m Tc labeled specific monoclonal antibody against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA-92) can be used for the scintigraphic localization of human colon cancer xenograft. Purified CEA-92 IgG was fragmented into F(ab') 2 and then labeled with 99m Tc by transchelation method using glucarate as a chelator. Labeling efficiency, immunological reactivity and in vitro stability of 99m Tc CEA-92 F(ab') 2 were measured and then injected intravenously into nude mice bearing human colon cancer (SNU-C4). Scintigrams were obtained at 24 hour after injection. Then nude mice were sacrificed and the radioactivity was measured. Labeling efficiency of injected 99m Tc CEA-92 F(ab') 2 , immunoreactive fraction and in vitro stability at 24 hour of injected 99m Tc CEA-92 F(ab') 2 was 45.2%, 32.8% and 57.4%, respectively. At 24 hour after injection, %ID/g in kidney (46.77) showed high uptake, but %ID/g in tumor (1.65) was significantly higher than spleen (0.69), muscle (0.16), intestine (0.45), stomach (0.75), heart (0.48) and blood(0.45). There was no significant difference between tumor and liver (1.81). Tumor contrast as quantitated by tumor to blood ratio of 99m Tc CEA-92 F(ab') 2 was increased significantly (p 131 I-CEA-92 F(ab') 2 . The scintigram demonstrated localization of radioactivity over transplanted tumor, but significant background radioactivity was also noted over kidney and abdomen. It is concluded that CEA-92 F(ab') 2 can be labeled with 99m Tc by a direct transchelation method using β-mercaptoethanol as a reducing agent and 99m Tc labeled CEA-92 F(ab') 2 can be used for the scintigraphic localization of human colon cancer xenograft in nude mice model.

  18. The Diagnostic Significances of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen in Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Tae; Won, Kyung Hee; Kim, Yul Ja; Lee, Chong Suk; Lee, Hak Choong [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    Carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) levels were measured in the serum of 35 normal control subjects and 179 cases of various benign and malignant gastrointestinal diseases. Malignant gastrointestinal tumors include 69 cases of stomach cancer, 24 cases of hepatoma and 33 cases of colorectal cancer. Benign gastrointestinal diseases include 29 cases of peptic ulcer and 24 cases of liver cirrhosis. The results were as followings: 1) Mean serum CEA level in normal control subjects was 6.9+-3.3 ng/ml and there was no difference in mean serum CEA level between age and sex difference. 2) In malignant gastrointestinal tumors, mean serum CEA level in colorectal cancer, hepatoma and stomach cancer, were 54.3+-88.9 ng/ml, 62.1+-99.7 ng/ml respectively. Serum CEA level showed positive rate of 67% in colorectal cancer, 63% in hepatoma and 625 in stomach cancer. There was no difference in mean levels and positivity of serum CEA between these 3 malignant tumor groups. 3) Positivity of serum CEA was 61% in malignant gastrointestinal tumor group in spite of 37% in benign gastrointestinal disease group. In both mean level and positivity of serum CEA, stomach cancer was much higher than peptic ulcer. But there was no difference in mean level and positivity of serum CEA level between hepatoma and liver cirrhosis. 4) In hepatoma serum CEA level showed positive rate of 62.5% and alpha-feto protein showed a rate of 58.3%. 5) Mean serum CEA levels in patients with cancer in rectal, cecal, sigmoid colon, ascending colon and descending colon were 73.7+-106.7 ng/ml, 69+-84.8 ng/ml, 15.7+-9.1 ng/ml, 7.5+-10.6 ng/ml and 4.0 ng/ml respectively. Positive rate of serum CEA showed 86% in sigmoid colon cancer, 68% in rectal cancer and 66% in cecal cancer. 6) In considering of histological background, there was no collelation between the degree of differentiation of tumor cell and the serum CEA level in colorectal cancer. According to Duke's classification, the mean serum levels of CEA were 8.8+-11.4 ng

  19. The Diagnostic Significances of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen in Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Tae; Won, Kyung Hee; Kim, Yul Ja; Lee, Chong Suk; Lee, Hak Choong

    1983-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) levels were measured in the serum of 35 normal control subjects and 179 cases of various benign and malignant gastrointestinal diseases. Malignant gastrointestinal tumors include 69 cases of stomach cancer, 24 cases of hepatoma and 33 cases of colorectal cancer. Benign gastrointestinal diseases include 29 cases of peptic ulcer and 24 cases of liver cirrhosis. The results were as followings: 1) Mean serum CEA level in normal control subjects was 6.9±3.3 ng/ml and there was no difference in mean serum CEA level between age and sex difference. 2) In malignant gastrointestinal tumors, mean serum CEA level in colorectal cancer, hepatoma and stomach cancer, were 54.3±88.9 ng/ml, 62.1±99.7 ng/ml respectively. Serum CEA level showed positive rate of 67% in colorectal cancer, 63% in hepatoma and 625 in stomach cancer. There was no difference in mean levels and positivity of serum CEA between these 3 malignant tumor groups. 3) Positivity of serum CEA was 61% in malignant gastrointestinal tumor group in spite of 37% in benign gastrointestinal disease group. In both mean level and positivity of serum CEA, stomach cancer was much higher than peptic ulcer. But there was no difference in mean level and positivity of serum CEA level between hepatoma and liver cirrhosis. 4) In hepatoma serum CEA level showed positive rate of 62.5% and alpha-feto protein showed a rate of 58.3%. 5) Mean serum CEA levels in patients with cancer in rectal, cecal, sigmoid colon, ascending colon and descending colon were 73.7±106.7 ng/ml, 69±84.8 ng/ml, 15.7±9.1 ng/ml, 7.5±10.6 ng/ml and 4.0 ng/ml respectively. Positive rate of serum CEA showed 86% in sigmoid colon cancer, 68% in rectal cancer and 66% in cecal cancer. 6) In considering of histological background, there was no collelation between the degree of differentiation of tumor cell and the serum CEA level in colorectal cancer. According to Duke's classification, the mean serum levels of CEA were 8.8±11.4 ng

  20. The Diagnostic Significances of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen in Gastrointestinal Tract Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Tae; Won, Kyung Hee; Kim, Yul Ja; Lee, Chong Suk; Lee, Hak Choong [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    Carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) levels were measured in the serum of 35 normal control subjects and 179 cases of various benign and malignant gastrointestinal diseases. Malignant gastrointestinal tumors include 69 cases of stomach cancer, 24 cases of hepatoma and 33 cases of colorectal cancer. Benign gastrointestinal diseases include 29 cases of peptic ulcer and 24 cases of liver cirrhosis. The results were as followings: 1) Mean serum CEA level in normal control subjects was 6.9+-3.3 ng/ml and there was no difference in mean serum CEA level between age and sex difference. 2) In malignant gastrointestinal tumors, mean serum CEA level in colorectal cancer, hepatoma and stomach cancer, were 54.3+-88.9 ng/ml, 62.1+-99.7 ng/ml respectively. Serum CEA level showed positive rate of 67% in colorectal cancer, 63% in hepatoma and 625 in stomach cancer. There was no difference in mean levels and positivity of serum CEA between these 3 malignant tumor groups. 3) Positivity of serum CEA was 61% in malignant gastrointestinal tumor group in spite of 37% in benign gastrointestinal disease group. In both mean level and positivity of serum CEA, stomach cancer was much higher than peptic ulcer. But there was no difference in mean level and positivity of serum CEA level between hepatoma and liver cirrhosis. 4) In hepatoma serum CEA level showed positive rate of 62.5% and alpha-feto protein showed a rate of 58.3%. 5) Mean serum CEA levels in patients with cancer in rectal, cecal, sigmoid colon, ascending colon and descending colon were 73.7+-106.7 ng/ml, 69+-84.8 ng/ml, 15.7+-9.1 ng/ml, 7.5+-10.6 ng/ml and 4.0 ng/ml respectively. Positive rate of serum CEA showed 86% in sigmoid colon cancer, 68% in rectal cancer and 66% in cecal cancer. 6) In considering of histological background, there was no collelation between the degree of differentiation of tumor cell and the serum CEA level in colorectal cancer. According to Duke's classification, the mean serum levels of CEA were 8

  1. Clinical implications of carcinoembryonic antigen distribution in serum exosomal fraction-Measurement by ELISA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shozo Yokoyama

    Full Text Available Serum exosomal proteins have great potential as indicators of disease status in cancer, inflammatory or metabolic diseases. The association of a fraction of various serum proteins such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA with circulating exosomes has been debated. The establishment of a method to measure the exosomal fraction of such proteins might help resolve this controversy. The use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs to measure serum exosomal molecules, for example CEA, is rare in research laboratories and totally absent in clinical biology. In this study, we optimized a method for assessment of serum exosomal molecules combining a treatment by volume-excluding polymers to isolate the exosomes, their subsequent solubilization in an assay buffer and ELISA.One hundred sixteen consecutive patients with colorectal cancer were enrolled for this study between June 2015 and June 2016 at Wakayama Medical University Hospital (WMUH. Whole blood samples were collected from patients during surgery. Exosomes were isolated using the ExoQuick reagent, solubilized in an assay buffer and subjected to CEA detection by ELISA. The procedure of serum exosome isolation and the formulation of the assay buffer used for the ELISA were optimized in order to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the assay.A five-fold increase in the concentration of the exosomes in the assay buffer (using initial serum volume as a reference and the addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA resulted in more accurate measurements of the serum exosomal CEA. The thawing temperature of frozen serum samples before exosome extraction was also optimized. A validation study that included one hundred sixteen patients with colorectal cancer demonstrated that serum exosomal CEA from samples thawed at 25°C exhibited a better AUC value, sensitivity, and specificity as well as a more correct classification than serum CEA.We optimized an easy and rapid detection method for assessment of

  2. Heterologous expression of carcinoembryonic antigen in Lactococcus lactis via LcsB-mediated surface displaying system for oral vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Hu, Shumin; Du, Xue; Li, Tiejun; Han, Lanlan; Kong, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is an attractive target for immunotherapy because it is expressed minimally in normal tissue, but is overexpressed in a wide variety of malignant epithelial tissues. Lactic acid bacteria (LABs), widely used in food processes, are attractive candidates for oral vaccination. Thus, we examined whether LABs could be used as a live vaccine vector to deliver CEA antigen. CEA was cloned into an Escherichia coli/Lactococcus lactis shuttle vector pSEC:LEISS under the control of a nisin promoter. For displaying the CEA on the cell surface of the L. lactis strain, the anchor motif LcsB from the S-layer protein of Lactobacillus crispatus was fused with CEA. Intracellular and cell surface expression of the CEA-LcsB fusion was confirmed by western blot analysis. Significantly higher levels of CEA-specific secretory immunoglobulin A in the sera of mice were observed upon oral administration of strain cultures containing the CEA-LcsB fused protein. In addition, the CEA-LcsB antigen group showed a higher spleen index compared to the CEA antigen alone or negative control, demonstrating that surface-displayed CEA antigen could induce a higher immune response. These results provided the first evidence for displaying CEA antigen on the cell surfaces of LABs as oral vaccines against cancer or infectious diseases. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Diagnostic value of soluble receptor-binding cancer antigen expressed on SiSo cells and carcinoembryonic antigen in differentiating malignant from benign pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jiahui; Sun, Gengyun; Zhu, Hongbin

    2016-03-01

    Diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion (MPE) remains a major clinical challenge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of combined detection of receptor-binding cancer antigen expressed on SiSo cells (RCAS1) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in patients with MPE and benign pleural effusion (BPE). The serum and pleural fluid samples were collected from 53 patients diagnosed with MPE and 49 patients with BPE. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the concentration of RCAS1 in serum and pleural effusion. The clinical data and laboratory information, including CEA levels, were gathered from these cases. The concentration of RCAS1 in MPE was significantly higher than that of BPE (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the two serum groups. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of pleural fluid RCAS1 were 67.92 and 81.63 %, respectively, at the optimized cutoff value of 7.326 U/mL; meanwhile, the sensitivity and specificity of pleural fluid CEA were 83.02 and 91.84 % at the cutoff value of 3.93 ng/mL. The specificity could be elevated to 98.50 % in serial detection, while the sensitivity may be improved to 94.55 % in parallel detection. Serum RCAS1 concentration was only detected in 53 serum samples out of the 102 samples, indicating that serum RCAS1 may not be a better option in differential diagnosis of malignancies compared with serum CEA, of which the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 64.15 and 83.67 % at the cutoff value of 3.90 ng/mL. No significant differences were found in pleural fluid RCAS1 concentration in MPE patients with different ages, gender, and pathological types of lung cancers. The detection of RCAS1 concentration in pleural fluid is informative for the diagnosis of MPE. Joint detection of RCAS1 and CEA can improve the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. However, the diagnostic value of RCAS1 is not higher than that of CEA.

  4. Intensified follow-up in colorectal cancer patients using frequent Carcino-Embryonic Antigen (CEA) measurements and CEA-triggered imaging : Results of the randomized "CEAwatch" trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, C. J.; Zhan, Z.; van den Heuvel, E.; Grossmann, I.; Doornbos, P. M.; Havenga, K.; Manusama, E.; Klaase, J.; van der Mijle, H. C. J.; Lamme, B.; Bosscha, K.; Baas, P.; van Ooijen, B.; Nieuwenhuijzen, G.; Marinelli, A.; van der Zaag, E.; Wasowicz, D.; de Bock, G. H.; Wiggers, T.

    Aim: The value of frequent Carcino-Embryonic Antigen (CEA) measurements and CEA-triggered imaging for detecting recurrent disease in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients was investigated in search for an evidence-based follow-up protocol. Methods: This is a randomized-controlled multicenter prospective

  5. Carcino-embryonic antigen in monitoring the growth of human colon adenocarcinoma tumour cells SK-CO-1 and HT-29 in vitro and in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sölétormos, G; Fogh, J M; Sehested-Hansen, B

    1997-01-01

    A set of experimental model systems were designed to investigate (a) the inter-relationship between growth of two human cancer cell lines (SK-CO-1, HT-29) and carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) kinetics; and (b) whether neoplastic growth or CEA concentration is modulated by human growth hormone (hGH...

  6. Radioimmunoassay for carcinoembryonic antigen and alpha1-fetoprotein in the qualitative evaluation of focal hepatic lesions in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburano, T.; Tonami, N.; Tada, A.; Hisada, K.

    1980-01-01

    The combined tests of serum alpha 1 -fetoprotein (AFP) und carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were routinely performed in 210 patients with focal hepatic lesions on a 99 sup(m)Tc-colloid liver scan in order to determine whether these could provide more useful information that AFP test alone in the qualitative evaluation of focal hepatic lesions. The predictive value of hepatoma with positive AFP alone remained 80%. However, when the negative CEA was combined with positive AFP, the predictive value of hepatoma (91%) with both was greatly increased. On the other hand, the predictive value of metastatic liver cancer with positive CEA showed 92%. The combined Test of AFP and CEA may be useful for preserving high predictive values of hepatoma and metastatic liver disease. (orig.) [de

  7. In vivo localization of radiolabeled monoclonal antibody to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in a CEA-producing tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, Tetsuya; Seto, Hikaru; Taki, Kuniyasu; Soya, Toshio; Kakishita, Masao; Maeda, Masatoshi; Honda, Takashi; Koshimura, Saburou.

    1987-01-01

    To compare accumulation of the 125 I-labeled antibodies(anti-carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) monoclonal antibody and polyclonal antibody) to a CEA-producing tumor (SC-2-JCK), an in vivo localization study was performed in nude mice. The tumor-to-blood ratio at 120 hours after injection rose to 4.6 for the monoclonal antibody, but remained at 1.3 for the polyclonal antibody. However, no differences were noted between the antibodies up to 72 hours after injection. In autoradiograms, selective accumulation of the tracer was noted in the tumor for both antibodies. However, no superiority or inferiority of imaging for either of the antibodies could be definitely determined. (author)

  8. Detection of survivin, carcinoembryonic antigen and ErbB2 level in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Xia; Yang, Yan-Qi; Jin, Li-Jian; Cai, Zhi-Gang; Sun, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the survivin, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and ErbB2 in the saliva, serum and local tumor-exfoliated cells of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients, for providing reliable tumor markers for the early detection of oral malignant cancer. The saliva, serum, and local tumor-exfoliated cell samples of 26 OSCC patients without chemotherapy and 10 non-cancer patients were collected in Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, Peking University. The contents of survivin, CEA and ErbB2 using were detected usingenzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The survivin and CEA levels in saliva and local tumor-exfoliated cells of OSCC patients were significantly higher than those in the non-cancer patients (P oral malignant cancer.

  9. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA): practicability and quality of the radioimmunoassay: value for diagnosis and follow-up study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumeier, D [Univ., Munich; Wolter, B; Fateh-Moghadam, A; Knedel, M; Werber, K; Scholze, P

    1976-04-01

    The course of the carcinoembryonic antigen in male patients suffering from gastro-enteric tumors and in female patients with mastocarcinoma and pancreatic carcinoma was examined with the help of RIA. The practicability and the quality of the determination methods and their results with regard to the CEA-values in diagnostics and case control were tested. The results obtained show that the importance of the CEA-determinations lie in the case control of malignant tumors, since a successful therapy reduces the increased values and a recrudescence indicates recurrence of the tumor or formation of metastases. Especially in treatment of patients with malignant gastro-enteric tumors, the CEA-level should be determined before beginning with therapy.

  10. Progression criteria for cancer antigen 15.3 and carcinoembryonic antigen in metastatic breast cancer compared by computer simulation of marker data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sölétormos, G; Hyltoft Petersen, P; Dombernowsky, P

    2000-01-01

    .3 and carcinoembryonic antigen concentrations were combined with representative values for background variations in a computer simulation model. Fifteen criteria for assessment of longitudinal tumor marker data were obtained from the literature and computerized. Altogether, 7200 different patients, each based on 50......BACKGROUND: We investigated the utility of computer simulation models for performance comparisons of different tumor marker assessment criteria to define progression or nonprogression of metastatic breast cancer. METHODS: Clinically relevant values for progressive cancer antigen 15...... of progression. CONCLUSIONS: The computer simulation model is a fast, effective, and inexpensive approach for comparing the diagnostic potential of assessment criteria during clinically relevant conditions of steady-state and progressive disease. The model systems can be used to generate tumor marker assessment...

  11. Relationship between serum carcinoembryonic antigen level and epidermal growth factor receptor mutations with the influence on the prognosis of non-small-cell lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai ZX

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Zuxun Cai Department of Thoracic Surgery, Henan Provincial Chest Hospital, Zhengzhou City, People’s Republic of China Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA level and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR gene mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients and to analyze the influence of CEA level on postoperative survival time in lung cancer patients. Methods: A total of 296 patients who were treated in Thoracic Surgery Department of Henan Provincial Chest Hospital from September 2011 to September 2013 were recruited. The level of tumor markers, such as CEA, was determined before the surgery, and EGFR gene mutations were detected after surgery. Thereby, the relationship between tumor makers, including CEA, and EGFR mutation and its influence on prognosis could be investigated. Results: Among 296 patients, the positive rate of EGFR gene mutation was 37.84% (112/296; the mutation occurred more frequently in nonsmokers, adenocarcinoma patients, women, and patients aged <60 years (P<0.05. Both tumor markers and chemosensitivity indicators were related to the profile of EGFR mutations. Elevated squamous cell carcinoma and Cyfra21-1 as well as positively expressed ERCC1 were more common in patients with wild-type EGFR (P<0.05, whereas increased CEA level was observed more frequently in patients with EGFR gene mutation (P=0.012. The positive rate of EGFR gene mutations was higher as the serum CEA level increased, that is, the positive rate in patients with serum CEA level <5, 5–20, and >20 µg/L was 39.81%, 45.32%, and 65.47%, respectively (P=0.004. Logistic regression analysis showed that CEA level was an independent factor in predicting EGFR gene mutations, and serum CEA level was also an independent factor in affecting the prognosis of NSCLC patients, as the overall 2-year survival rate was 73.86% in elevated CEA group and 86.43% in normal group (P<0.01. Conclusion: The prognosis of

  12. Epitope mapping of the carcinoembryonic antigen by monoclonal antibodies and establishment of a new improved radioimmunoassay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroki, Masahide; Arakawa, Fumiko; Matsunaga, Akira; Okamoto, Naomi; Takakura, Kyoko; Matsuoka, Yuji; Higuchi, Hiroshi.

    1987-01-01

    A comprehensive mapping of epitopes on the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) molecule has been achieved by analyses of the specificities of 146 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) from more than 300 hybridomas established recently. The reactivities of MAbs were analyzed by radio-immunoassays (RIA) with highly purified preparations of CEA and related antigens including normal fecal antigen-1 (NFA-1), NFA-2 in normal adult feces, nonspecific cross-reacting antigen (NCA) in lung and NCA-2 in meconium. The MAbs could be divided into five groups: group I, 23 clones directed to the NCA-common part of the CEA molecule; group II, 31 clones directed to the normal fecal cross-reacting antigen (NFCA)-common part; group III, 46 clones directed to the NFA-1-common part; group IV, 33 clones reactive with the heterogeneous carbohydrate part; and group V, 13 clones directed to the CEA-distinctive part which seemed to be highly specific for CEA. Mutual inhibitions of CEA binding between MAbs of the individual groups revealed that at least 25 different subgroups can be defined i.e., 4, 7, 8, 4, and 2 subgroups in groups I to V, respectively. The epitopes recognized by the group IV MAbs were found to be sensitive to oxidation with periodate, while the epitopes defined by MAbs of the other groups were resistant to this treatment. A solid-phase sandwich-type RIA system for CEA was established by using 2 MAbs from groups II and III as the CEA catcher and an MAb of group V as the tracer. This assay was shown to exhibit improved cancer-specificity and accuracy in the estimation of serum CEA levels. (author)

  13. Comparison between serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen, sialic acid and phosphohexose isomerase in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, P.S.; Raval, G.N.; Rawal, R.M.; Balar, D.B.; Patel, G.H.; Shah, P.M.; Patel, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    The identification and application of quantifiable tumor markers as adjuncts to clinical care is a story of both success and failure. The present study compared serum levels of carcinoembryogenic antigen (CEA) with total sialic acid/total protein (TSA/TP) ration and phosphohexose isomerase (PHI) in 192 untreated lung cancer patients as well as 80 age and sex matched controls (44 non-smokers). CEA values were significantly raised (p < 0.001) in smokers as compared to the non-smokers; whereas, TSA/TP and PHI values were comparable between the groups of the groups of the controls. All the bio-markers were significantly elevated (p < 0.00.1) in untreated lung cancer patients as compared to the controls. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed higher sensitivities of TSA/TP and PHI as compared to CEA at different specificity levels between 60% and 95%. Mean values of CEA, TSA/TP and PHI were higher in non-responders compared to the responders. The results indicate that TSA/TP and PHI are superior tumor markers than CEA for lung cancer patients. (author)

  14. Novel flow cytometric analysis of the progress and route of internalization of a monoclonal anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, C H; Tsaltas, G C; Osborne, P A; Addetia, K

    1996-03-01

    A flow cytometric method of studying the internalization of a monoclonal antibody (Mab) directed against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) has been compared with Western blotting, using three human colonic cancer cell lines which express varying amounts of the target antigen. Cell samples incubated for increasing time intervals with fluoresceinated or unlabelled Mab were analyzed using flow cytometry or polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. SDS/PAGE analysis of cytosolic and membrane components of solubilized cells from the cell lines provided evidence of non-degraded internalized anti-CEA Mab throughout seven half hour intervals, starting at 5 min. Internalized anti-CEA was detected in the case of high CEA expressing cell lines (LS174T, SKCO1). Very similar results were obtained with an anti-fluorescein flow cytometric assay. Given that these two methods consistently provided comparable results, use of flow cytometry for the detection of internalized antibody is suggested as a rapid alternative to most currently used methods for assessing antibody internalization. The question of the endocytic route followed by CEA-anti-CEA complexes was addressed by using hypertonic medium to block clathrin mediated endocytosis.

  15. Carcinoembryonic antigen: assay following heat compared with perchloric acid extraction in patients with colon cancer, non-neoplastic gastrointestinal diseases, or chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, L.R.; Shuler, S.E.; Alyea, K.; Husserl, F.E.; Alton Ochsner Medical Foundation, New Orleans, LO)

    1983-01-01

    Heat inactivation has been proposed as an alternative to perchloric acid (PCA) precipitation for the extraction of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) from human plasma. A commercial RIA kit using heat inactivation was examined and results compared with those obtained with PCA precipitation. Adequate sensitivity (1.5 μg CEA/I plasma), satisfactory analytical recovery of CEA added to plasma, and dilutional linearity of samples found to have elevated CEA concentrations, were demonstrated for the heat-inactivation assay. Between-assay precision was better with the heat inactivation than with the PCA assay. Although the absolute concentration of CEA estimated after heat inactivation was consistently lower than that estimated after PCA extraction of plasma specimens, there was excellent correlation between results obtained with the two methods in colon cancer patients free of disease, colon cancer patients with residual or recurrent disease, patients with benign gastrointestinal disease, and in patients with chronic renal failure. The heat-inactivation assay is an excellent alternative to the PCA assay

  16. Combined evaluation of the Glasgow prognostic score and carcinoembryonic antigen concentration prior to hepatectomy predicts postoperative outcomes in patients with liver metastasis from colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takashi; Kawakamil, Masayo; Hara, Yoshiaki; Shioiri, Sadaaki; Yasuno, Masamichi; Teruya, Masanori; Kaminishi, Michio

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the ability of the inflammation-based Glasgow prognostic score (GPS). 106 patients who underwent curative resection for colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) were analyzed. Patients with an elevated Creactive protein concentration (>10 mg/L) and hypoalbuminemia (L) at admission were assigned a GPS 2, those with only 1 of these biochemical abnormalities were assigned a GPS 1, and those without either abnormality were assigned a GPS 0. Multivariate analysis showed that 2 variables, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) concentration > 30 ng/mL and a GPS 1 or 2, were independently prognostic of survival. Patients were classified into 3 groups on the basis of these 2 variables. Patients with GPS 1 or 2 and CEA concentration > 30 ng/mL were assigned a new score of 2, those with either 1 factor were assigned a new score of 1, and those with neither factors were assigned a new score of 0. The 5-year overall survival rates of new scores of 0, 1, 2 were 71.5%, 31.6%, and 0%, respectively (P < 0.0001). This simple staging system may be able to identify a subgroup of patients who are eligible for curative resection but show poor prognosis.

  17. Crystal structure of the anti-(carcinoembryonic antigen) single-chain Fv antibody MFE-23 and a model for antigen binding based on intermolecular contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, M K; Corper, A L; Wan, T; Sohi, M K; Sutton, B J; Thornton, J D; Keep, P A; Chester, K A; Begent, R H; Perkins, S J

    2000-03-01

    MFE-23 is the first single-chain Fv antibody molecule to be used in patients and is used to target colorectal cancer through its high affinity for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a cell-surface member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. MFE-23 contains an N-terminal variable heavy-chain domain joined by a (Gly(4)Ser)(3) linker to a variable light-chain (V(L)) domain (kappa chain) with an 11-residue C-terminal Myc-tag. Its crystal structure was determined at 2.4 A resolution by molecular replacement with an R(cryst) of 19.0%. Five of the six antigen-binding loops, L1, L2, L3, H1 and H2, conformed to known canonical structures. The sixth loop, H3, displayed a unique structure, with a beta-hairpin loop and a bifurcated apex characterized by a buried Thr residue. In the crystal lattice, two MFE-23 molecules were associated back-to-back in a manner not seen before. The antigen-binding site displayed a large acidic region located mainly within the H2 loop and a large hydrophobic region within the H3 loop. Even though this structure is unliganded within the crystal, there is an unusually large region of contact between the H1, H2 and H3 loops and the beta-sheet of the V(L) domain of an adjacent molecule (strands DEBA) as a result of intermolecular packing. These interactions exhibited remarkably high surface and electrostatic complementarity. Of seven MFE-23 residues predicted to make contact with antigen, five participated in these lattice contacts, and this model for antigen binding is consistent with previously reported site-specific mutagenesis of MFE-23 and its effect on CEA binding.

  18. A nanobody targeting carcinoembryonic antigen as a promising molecular probe for non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Meng, Ai-Min; Li, Sheng-Hua; Zhou, Xiao-Liang

    2017-07-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a biomarker and therapy target for non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which is the most common type of lung cancer. Nanobodies with high target specificity are promising candidates to function as anti‑CEA probes. In the present study, the targeting effects of an anti‑CEA nanobody obtained from phage display were investigated using technetium‑99 m (99mTc) and fluorescence labeling. In vitro binding and immunofluorescent staining assays, as well as in vivo blood clearance and biodistribution assays were performed. High specificity and affinity of the nanobody for CEA‑positive H460 cells was observed in vitro. The pharmacokinetics assay of the 99mTc‑nanobody in Wistar rats demonstrated that the nanobody had appropriate T1/2α and T1/2β, which were 20.2 and 143.5 min, respectively. The biodistribution assay using H460 xenograft‑bearing nude mice demonstrated a high ratio of signal in tumor compared with background, which confirmed that the nanobody may be useful as a molecular probe for CEA‑positive cancer, particularly in NSCLC.

  19. Cutoff Values of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) in Normal Korean Adults and Factors Influencing Serum CEA Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Soon; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    1994-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic Antigen is one of most frequently checked tumor markers in cancer management. We performed statistical analysis with serum CEA data of 2626 persons who received regular health examination and were thought to be free of active disease to determine the cutoff values of serum CEA level in normal Korean adults and to study the factors influencing serum CEA levels in normal subjects. 1) The cutoff values of serum CEA in normal Korean adults in general were 9.28 ng/ml for men, 5.90 ng/ml for women. 2) Serum CEA level was influenced by age, present smoking history, sex, and abnormal findings in chest X ray. 3) Serum CEA level had no correlation with the history of amount of alcohol consumption or obesity. 4) Cutoff values of serum CEA in normal Korean adults were tabulated according to age, sex, and smoking history. Serum CEA level was influenced by age, sex, present smoking history and abnormal findings in chest X ray and cutoff values of serum CEA were tabulated according to age, sex, and smoking history.

  20. Demonstration of monoclonal anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) antibody internalization by electron microscopy, western blotting and radioimmunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, G; Ford, C H; Gallant, M

    1992-01-01

    One of the important factors affecting the action of monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) or immunoconjugates on tumour sites depends on whether the Mab is internalized by the cancer cells in question. The underexplored subject of internalization is discussed in this paper, and a number of in vitro techniques for investigating internalization are evaluated, using a model which consists of a well characterized anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (anti-CEA) Mab and a number of CEA expressing human cancer cell lines. Employing two alternative radiolabeling assays, evidence for internalization of the anti-CEA Mab by a CEA-positive colorectal cancer cell line (LS174T) was obtained throughout the time intervals examined (5 min to 150 min). Electronmicroscopy employing horseradish-peroxidase labeled anti-CEA Mab and control antibody permitted direct visualization of anti-CEA Mab-related staining in intracellular compartments of a high CEA-expressor human colorectal cell line (SKCO1). Finally Western blots of samples derived from cytosolic and membrane components of solubilized cells from lung and colonic cancer cell lines provided evidence for internalized anti-CEA Mab throughout seven half hour intervals, starting at 5 minutes. Internalized anti-CEA was detected in all CEA expressing cell lines (LS174T, SKCO1, BENN) but not in the case of a very low CEA expressor line (COLO 320).

  1. Carcinoma-specific Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I binding glycoproteins of human colorectal carcinoma and its relation to carcinoembryonic antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Y; Yonezawa, S; Nakamura, T; Shimizu, S; Ozawa, M; Muramatsu, T; Sato, E

    1985-08-01

    Glycoproteins binding to Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) lectin, which recognizes the terminal alpha-L-fucose residue, were analyzed in 18 cases of human colorectal carcinoma by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by the Western blotting method. In the distal large bowel (descending and sigmoid colon and rectum), high-molecular-weight glycoproteins binding to UEA-I existed in carcinoma tissue but not in normal mucosa. In the proximal large bowel (ascending and transverse colon), high-molecular-weight glycoproteins binding to UEA-I were found both in normal mucosa and in carcinoma tissue, whereas those from the carcinoma tissue had an apparently lower molecular weight as compared to the weight of those from the normal mucosa. Thus there is a biochemical difference in UEA-I binding glycoproteins between the normal mucosa and the carcinoma tissue, although in our previous histochemical study no difference was observed in UEA-I binding glycoproteins of the proximal large bowel between the carcinoma tissue and the normal mucosa. Furthermore, carcinoembryonic antigen from the carcinoma tissue was found to have the same electrophoretical mobility as the UEA-I binding glycoproteins.

  2. Simultaneous Detection of α-Fetoprotein and Carcinoembryonic Antigen Based on Si Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuiyu Zhu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary hepatic carcinoma (PHC is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, resulting in death within six to 20 months. The survival rate can be improved by effective treatments when diagnosed at an early stage. The α-fetoprotein (AFP and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA have been identified as markers that are expressed at higher levels in PHC patients. In this study, we employed silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (SiNW-FETs with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microfluidic channels to simultaneously detect AFP and CEA in desalted human serum. Dual-channel PDMS was first utilized for the selective modification of AFP and CEA antibodies on SiNWs, while single-channel PDMS offers faster and more sensitive detection of AFP and CEA in serum. During the SiNW modification process, 0.1% BSA was utilized to minimize nonspecific protein binding from serum. The linear dynamic ranges for the AFP and CEA detection were measured to be 500 fg/mL to 50 ng/mL and 50 fg/mL to 10 ng/mL, respectively. Our work demonstrates the promising potential of fabricated SiNW-FETs as a direct detection kit for multiple tumor markers in serum; therefore, it provides a chance for early stage diagnose and, hence, more effective treatments for PHC patients.

  3. Radioimmunodetection of metastases of colorectal carcinoma by external scintigraphy after administration of 131I-antibody to carcinoembryonic antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.E.; Begent, R.H.J.; Jewkes, R.F.; Vernon, P.; Searle, F.; Keep, P.A.; Green, A.J.; Bagshawe, K.D.

    1982-01-01

    Patients suspected of having metastases of colorectal carcinoma but without palpable tumour deposits were given an intravenous injection of affinity purified goat antibody to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) which had been labelled with 131 I by the chloramine T method. 24 Hours later images of antibody distribution were obtained with a large field gamma camera. Computer substraction of background radioactivity was performed using the image obtained after injection of sup(99m)Technetium labelled albumen and free sup(99m)TcO 4 . 23 Scans were carried out in 16 patients and 22 scan images showed residual uptake in specific areas which were considered positive for tumour. Evidence of metastasis was found at these sites in 10 patients, at surgery in 6, by computerised tomography in 3 and by ultrasound in 1. Probable false positive results were obtained in 3 scans. Metastases are still suspected in 4 patients although localisation has not been confirmed. Radioimmunodetection appears to have potential as a method for detecting metastases of colorectal carcinoma. (Author)

  4. The carcinoembryonic antigen IgV-like N domain plays a critical role in the implantation of metastatic tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Wahid, Aws; Huang, Eric H-B; Cydzik, Marzena; Bolewska-Pedyczak, Eleonora; Gariépy, Jean

    2014-03-01

    The human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a cell adhesion molecule involved in both homotypic and heterotypic interactions. The aberrant overexpression of CEA on adenocarcinoma cells correlates with their increased metastatic potential. Yet, the mechanism(s) by which its adhesive properties can lead to the implantation of circulating tumor cells and expansion of metastatic foci remains to be established. In this study, we demonstrate that the IgV-like N terminal domain of CEA directly participates in the implantation of cancer cells through its homotypic and heterotypic binding properties. Specifically, we determined that the recombinant N terminal domain of CEA directly binds to fibronectin (Fn) with a dissociation constant in the nanomolar range (K(D) 16 ± 3 nM) and interacts with itself (K(D) 100 ± 17 nM) and more tightly to the IgC-like A(3) domain (K(D) 18 ± 3 nM). Disruption of these molecular associations through the addition of antibodies specific to the CEA N or A(3)B(3) domains, or by adding soluble recombinant forms of the CEA N, A(3) or A(3)B(3) domains or a peptide corresponding to residues 108-115 of CEA resulted in the inhibition of CEA-mediated intercellular aggregation and adherence events in vitro. Finally, pretreating CEA-expressing murine colonic carcinoma cells (MC38.CEA) with rCEA N, A3 or A(3)B(3) modules blocked their implantation and the establishment of tumor foci in vivo. Together, these results suggest a new mechanistic insight into how the CEA IgV-like N domain participates in cellular events that can have a macroscopic impact in terms of cancer progression and metastasis. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Drug-resistant colon cancer cells produce high carcinoembryonic antigen and might not be cancer-initiating cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-chung; Ling, Qing-Dong; Yu, Wan-Chun; Hung, Chunh-Ming; Kao, Ta-Chun; Huang, Yi-Wei; Higuchi, Akon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the higher levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) secreted by the LoVo human colon carcinoma cells in a medium containing anticancer drugs. Drug-resistant LoVo cells were analyzed by subcutaneously xenotransplanting them into mice. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the drug-resistant cells isolated in this study were cancer-initiating cells, known also as cancer stem cells (CSCs). Methods The production of CEA was investigated in LoVo cells that were cultured with 0–10 mM of anticancer drugs, and we evaluated the increase in CEA production by the LoVo cells that were stimulated by anticancer drug treatment. The expression of several CSC markers in LoVo cells treated with anticancer drugs was also evaluated. Following anticancer drug treatment, LoVo cells were injected subcutaneously into the flanks of severe combined immunodeficiency mice in order to evaluate the CSC fraction. Results Production of CEA by LoVo cells was stimulated by the addition of anticancer drugs. Drug-resistant LoVo cells expressed lower levels of CSC markers, and LoVo cells treated with any of the anticancer drugs tested did not generate tumors within 8 weeks from when the cells were injected subcutaneously into severe combined immunodeficiency mice. These results suggest that the drug-resistant LoVo cells have a smaller population of CSCs than the untreated LoVo cells. Conclusion Production of CEA by LoVo cells can be stimulated by the addition of anticancer drugs. The drug-resistant subpopulation of LoVo colon cancer cells could stimulate the production of CEA, but these cells did not act as CSCs in in vivo tumor generation experiments. PMID:23818760

  6. frequency of increase in serum tumor marker carcinoembryonic antigen (cea) levels in primary breast cancer (pbc) patients at the time of diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, O.; Mahmood, A.; Alvi, Z.A.; Rasul, S.; Haider, N

    2017-01-01

    To determine the frequency of increase in serum tumor marker CEA levels in PBC patients at the time of diagnosis. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Oncology Department of Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Rawalpindi, from January 2014 to November 2014. Material and Methods: Sixty three female patients with histopathologically confirmed carcinoma of breast and age range from 20 to 70 years from Oncology outpatient department (OPD)/indoor patient department at CMH Rawalpindi, were selected. All patients were staged by clinical and radiological work-up that included physical examination, all base line investigations, serum biomarkers, chest radiograph, ultrasound abdomen and pelvis, bone scan, computed tomography (CT) scan/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chest (optional). Patients serum carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) levels were carried out only by blood sampling using chemiluminescent immunoassay with immulite 2000 CEA. Data analysis were done with the help of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19 software. Cut-off values of serum CEA levels >2.5 ng/ml were taken as elevated. Results: Sixty three female breast cancer patients with histopathologically confirmed carcinoma of breast revealed elevated serum CEA levels in three stages of the disease. The median age was 47 years (range, 20-70 years). Fifteen (23.8%) patients had family history of the breast cancer. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDCA) was the commonest histology with 60 (95.23%) patients. Most of the patients had advanced stage of the disease. Node positive cases were 53 (84.1%). The frequency of abnormal CEA levels were varying from stage II to stage IV. Elevated serum CEA levels were noted in 4 (28.6%) of stage II, 19 (76%) of stage III and 17 (77.3%) patients of stage IV, respectively. Overall percentage increase in levels of serum CEA from stage I through IV were 0%, 6.34%, 30.2%, 26% respectively. The sensitivity of serum CEA in our

  7. The Genome-Wide Analysis of Carcinoembryonic Antigen Signaling by Colorectal Cancer Cells Using RNA Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Bajenova

    Full Text Available Сarcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CEACAM5, CD66 is a promoter of metastasis in epithelial cancers that is widely used as a prognostic clinical marker of metastasis. The aim of this study is to identify the network of genes that are associated with CEA-induced colorectal cancer liver metastasis. We compared the genome-wide transcriptomic profiles of CEA positive (MIP101 clone 8 and CEA negative (MIP 101 colorectal cancer cell lines with different metastatic potential in vivo. The CEA-producing cells displayed quantitative changes in the level of expression for 100 genes (over-expressed or down-regulated. They were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. The KEGG pathway analysis identified 4 significantly enriched pathways: cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, MAPK signaling pathway, TGF-beta signaling pathway and pyrimidine metabolism. Our results suggest that CEA production by colorectal cancer cells triggers colorectal cancer progression by inducing the epithelial- mesenchymal transition, increasing tumor cell invasiveness into the surrounding tissues and suppressing stress and apoptotic signaling. The novel gene expression distinctions establish the relationships between the existing cancer markers and implicate new potential biomarkers for colorectal cancer hepatic metastasis.

  8. Determination of carcinoembryonic antigen in patients with tumors of the large intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamerz, R.; Ruider, H.

    1976-01-01

    Specimens from 93 patients with histologically confirmed tumors of the large bowel (53 single, 40 sequential determinations) were investigated by a new CEA radioimmunoassay (double antibody method, direct serum determination). Of the single and preoperative sequential determinations 37-40% were normal (below 2.5 ng/ml), one third was intermediately elevated (2.6 ng/ml) and 26-28% were highly pathological leveled (over 15 ng/ml). Following operation, cases with local or regionally confined tumor showed significantly more normal or normalizing CEA levels within 1-6 weeks (17/27), whereas patients with overt metastases developed more pathological or increasingly pathological levels (8/11). (orig.) [de

  9. Radioimmunological analysis of the levels of the carcinoembryonic antigen and alpha-fetoprotein in the blood of patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbolin, V.I.; Abramov, V.F.; Tkacheva, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    The level of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) are determined in the blood of 41 patients with lung cancer and 70 healthy individuals (donors). It has been found that the CEA content in the blood of patients with lung cancer 2.6-4 times exceeds normal. No variations in the CEA and AFP levels depending upon the age and sex of the donors are revealed. A histological diagnosis of lung cancer has been made in 83.8% of the patients with CEA high concentration in the blood. Determination of the CEA level in the blood may be of diagnostic significance in the clinical picture of lung cancer

  10. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, CEA ratio, and treatment outcome of rectal cancer patients receiving pre-operative chemoradiation and surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Shih-Ching; Chu, Lee-Shing; Wang, Ling-Wei; Yang, Shung-Haur; Liang, Wen-Yih; Kuo, Ying-Ju; Lin, Jen-Kou; Lin, Tzu-Chen; Chen, Wei-Shone; Jiang, Jeng-Kae; Wang, Huann-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    To investigate serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a prognostic factor for rectal cancer patients receiving pre-operative chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Between 2000 and 2009, 138 patients with advanced rectal cancer receiving CRT before surgery at our hospital were retrospectively classified into 3 groups: pre-CRT CEA <6 ng/ml (group L; n = 87); pre-CRT CEA ≥ 6 ng/ml and post-CRT CEA <6 ng/ml (group H-L; n = 32); and both pre- and post-CRT CEA ≥ 6 ng/ml (group H-H; n = 19). CEA ratio (defined as post-CRT CEA divided by pre-CRT CEA), post-CRT CEA level and other factors were reviewed for prediction of pathologic complete response (pCR). Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) was better in groups L (69.0%) and H-L (74.5%) than in group H-H (44.9%) (p = 0.024). Pathologic complete response was observed in 19.5%, 21.9% and 5.3% of groups L, H-L and H-H respectively (p = 0.281). Multivariate analysis showed that ypN stage and pCR were independent prognostic factors for DFS and that post-CRT CEA level was independently predictive of pCR. As a whole, post-CRT CEA <2.61 ng/ml predicted pCR (sensitivity 76.0%; specificity 58.4%). For those with pre-CRT CEA ≥6 ng/ml, post-CRT CEA and CEA ratio both predicted pCR (sensitivity 87.5%, specificity 76.7%). In patients with pre-CRT serum CEA ≥6 ng/ml, those with “normalized” CEA levels after CRT may have similar DFS to those with “normal” (<6 ng/ml) pre-CRT values. Post-CRT CEA level is a predictor for pCR, especially in those with pre-CRT CEA ≥6 ng/ml

  11. Drug-resistant colon cancer cells produce high carcinoembryonic antigen and might not be cancer-initiating cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee HC

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hsin-chung Lee,1,2 Qing-Dong Ling,1,3 Wan-Chun Yu,4 Chunh-Ming Hung,4 Ta-Chun Kao,4 Yi-Wei Huang,4 Akon Higuchi3–51Graduate Institute of Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan, 2Department of Surgery, Cathay General Hospital, Da'an District, Taipei, 3Cathay Medical Research Institute, Cathay General Hospital, Hsi-Chi City, Taipei, 4Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 5Department of Reproduction, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Okura, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: We evaluated the higher levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA secreted by the LoVo human colon carcinoma cells in a medium containing anticancer drugs. Drug-resistant LoVo cells were analyzed by subcutaneously xenotransplanting them into mice. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the drug-resistant cells isolated in this study were cancer-initiating cells, known also as cancer stem cells (CSCs.Methods: The production of CEA was investigated in LoVo cells that were cultured with 0–10 mM of anticancer drugs, and we evaluated the increase in CEA production by the LoVo cells that were stimulated by anticancer drug treatment. The expression of several CSC markers in LoVo cells treated with anticancer drugs was also evaluated. Following anticancer drug treatment, LoVo cells were injected subcutaneously into the flanks of severe combined immunodeficiency mice in order to evaluate the CSC fraction.Results: Production of CEA by LoVo cells was stimulated by the addition of anticancer drugs. Drug-resistant LoVo cells expressed lower levels of CSC markers, and LoVo cells treated with any of the anticancer drugs tested did not generate tumors within 8 weeks from when the cells were injected subcutaneously into severe combined immunodeficiency mice. These results suggest that the drug-resistant LoVo cells have a smaller population of CSCs than the

  12. CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) DHEAS ... Glance Why Get Tested? Primarily to monitor cancer treatment, including response to therapy and recurrence; as an ...

  13. Diagnostic value of soluble B7-H4 and carcinoembryonic antigen in distinguishing malignant from benign pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xiaogang; Wei, Fei; Li, Jing; Dai, Lingling; Wang, Xi; Jia, Liuqun; Wang, Huan; An, Lin; Yang, Yuanjian; Zhang, Guojun; Cheng, Zhe

    2018-03-01

    To explore the diagnostic value of joint detection of soluble B7-H4 (sB7-H4) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in identifying malignant pleural effusion (MPE) from benign pleural effusion (BPE). A total of 97 patients with pleural effusion specimens were enrolled from The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University between June 2014 and December 2015. All cases were categorized into malignant pleural effusion group (n = 55) and benign pleural effusion group (n = 42) according to etiologies. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was applied to examine the levels of sB7-H4 in pleural effusion and meanwhile CEA concentrations were detected by electro-chemiluminescence immunoassays. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was established to assess the diagnostic value of sB7-H4 and CEA in pleural effusion. The correlation between sB7-H4 and CEA levels was analyzed by Pearson's product-moment. The concentrations of sB7-H4 and CEA in MPE exhibited obviously higher than those of BPE ([60.08 ± 35.04] vs. [27.26 ± 9.55] ng/ml, P = .000; [41.49 ± 37.16] vs. [2.41 ± 0.94] ng/ml, P = .000). The AUC area under ROC curve of sB7-H4 and CEA was 0.884 and 0.954, respectively. Two cutoff values by ROC curve analysis of sB7-H4 36.5 ng/ml and CEA 4.18 ng/ml were obtained, with a corresponding sensitivity (81.82%, 87.28%), specificity (90.48%, 95.24%), accuracy (85.57%, 90.72%), positive predictive value (PPV) (91.84%, 96.0%), negative predictive value (NPV) (79.17%, 85.11%), positive likelihood ratio (PLR) (8.614, 18.327), and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) (0.201, 0.134). When sB7-H4 and CEA were combined to detect pleural effusion, it obtained a higher sensitivity 90.91% and specificity 97.62%. Furthermore, correlation analysis result showed that the level of sB7-H4 was correlated with CEA level (r = .770, P = .000). sB7-H4 was a potentially valuable tumor marker in the differentiation between BPE and MPE. The combined detection of sB7-H4 and

  14. Prognostic Value of Pretreatment Carcinoembryonic Antigen After Definitive Radiotherapy With or Without Concurrent Chemotherapy for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Eng-Yen; Hsu, Hsuan-Chih; Sun, Li-Min; Chanchien, Chan-Chao; Lin, Hao; Chen, Hui-Chun; Tseng, Chih-Wen; Ou, Yu-Che; Chang, Hung-Yao; Fang, Fu-Min; Huang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Chang-Yu; Lu, Hsien-Ming; Tsai, Ching-Chou

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether pretreatment carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels have a prognostic role in patients after definitive radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the uterine cervix. Methods and Materials: A retrospective study of 550 patients was performed. The SCC antigen (SCC-Ag) and CEA levels were regarded as elevated when they were ≥2 and ≥5 ng/mL, respectively. A total of 208 patients underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the distant metastasis (DM), local failure (LF), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) rates. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards model. The hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was evaluated for the risk of a poor prognosis. Results: Compared with the patients with normal CEA/SCC-Ag levels, CEA levels ≥10 ng/mL but without elevated SCC-Ag levels was an independent factor for LF (HR, 51.81; 95% CI, 11.51–233.23; p < .001), DM (HR, 6.04; 95% CI, 1.58–23.01; p = .008), DFS (HR, 10.17; 95% CI, 3.18–32.56; p < .001), and OS (HR, 5.75; 95% CI, 1.82–18.18; p = .003) after RT alone. However, no significant role for CEA was noted in patients with SCC-Ag levels ≥2 ng/mL. In patients undergoing CCRT, a CEA level ≥10 ng/mL was an independent factor for LF (HR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.01–6.21; p = .047), DM (HR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.56–7.46; p = .002), DFS (HR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.39–5.36; p = .003), and OS (HR, 3.93; 95% CI 1.99–7.75; p < .001). A SCC-Ag level of ≥40 ng/mL was another prognostic factor for DM, DFS, and OS in patients undergoing not only CCRT, but also RT alone. The 5-year OS rate for CCRT patients with CEA <10 ng/mL and ≥10 ng/mL was 75.3% and 35.8%, respectively (p < .001). CCRT was an independent factor for better OS (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.50–0.97; p = .034). Conclusion: Pretreatment CEA levels in patients with SCC of the uterine cervix provide complementary information for

  15. Enhancement of anti-murine colon cancer immunity by fusion of a SARS fragment to a low-immunogenic carcinoembryonic antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chen-Si

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is widely understood that tumor cells express tumor-associated antigens (TAAs, of which many are usually in low immunogenicity; for example, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA is specifically expressed on human colon cancer cells and is viewed as a low-immunogenic TAA. How to activate host immunity against specific TAAs and to suppress tumor growth therefore becomes important in cancer therapy development. Results To enhance the immune efficiency of CEA in mice that received, we fused a partial CEA gene with exogenous SARS-CoV fragments. Oral vaccination of an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain transformed with plasmids encoding CEA-SARS-CoV fusion gene into BALB/c mice elicited significant increases in TNF-α and IL-10 in the serum. In addition, a smaller tumor volume was observed in CT26/CEA-bearing mice who received CEA-SARS-CoV gene therapy in comparison with those administered CEA alone. Conclusion The administration of fusing CEA-SARS-CoV fragments may provide a promising strategy for strengthening the anti-tumor efficacy against low-immunogenic endogenous tumor antigens.

  16. Enhancement of antitumor activity by using a fully human gene encoding a single-chain fragmented antibody specific for carcinoembryonic antigen

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    Shibaguchi H

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hirotomo Shibaguchi,1,* Naixiang Luo,1,* Naoto Shirasu,1,* Motomu Kuroki,2 Masahide Kuroki1 1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan; 2School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan *These authors equally contributed to this work Abstract: Human leukocyte antigen and/or costimulatory molecules are frequently lacking in metastatic tumor cells, and thus tumor cells are able to escape from the immune system. Although lymphocytes with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR is a promising approach for overcoming this challenge in cancer immunotherapy, administration of modified T cells alone often demonstrates little efficacy in patients. Therefore, in order to enhance the antitumor activity of immune cells in the cancer microenvironment, we used lymphocytes expressing CAR in combination with a fusion protein of IL-2 that contained the single-chain fragmented antibody (scFv specific for the carcinoembryonic antigen. Among a series of CAR constructs, with or without a spacer and the intracellular domain of CD28, the CAR construct containing CD8α, CD28, and CD3ζ most effectively activated and expressed INF-γ in CAR-bearing T cells. Furthermore, in comparison with free IL-2, the combination of peripheral blood mononuclear cells expressing CAR and the fusion protein containing IL-2 significantly enhanced the antitumor activity against MKN-45 cells, a human gastric cancer cell line. In conclusion, this novel combination therapy of CAR and a fusion protein consisting of a functional cytokine and a fully human scFv may be a promising approach for adoptive cancer immunotherapy. Keywords: chimeric antigen receptor, fusion protein, human scFv, CEA, combination therapy

  17. A novel lable-free electrochemical immunosensor for carcinoembryonic antigen based on gold nanoparticles-thionine-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite film modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fen-Ying; Xu, Mao-Tian; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2011-10-15

    In this paper, gold nanoparticle-thionine-reduced graphene oxide (GNP-THi-GR) nanocomposites were prepared to design a label-free immunosensor for the sensitive detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The nanocomposites with good biocompatibility, excellent redox electrochemical activity and large surface area were coated onto the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface and then CEA antibody (anti-CEA) was immobilized on the electrode to construct the immunosensor. The morphologies and electrochemistry of the formed nanocomposites were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). CV and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) studies demonstrated that the formation of antibody-antigen complexes decreased the peak current of THi in the GNP-THi-GR nanocomposites. The decreased currents were proportional to the CEA concentration in the range of 10-500 pg/mL with a detection limit of 4 pg/mL. The proposed method was simple, fast and inexpensive for the determination of CEA at very low levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of an immunomagnetic bead-based time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay for rapid determination of levels of carcinoembryonic antigen in human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Jingyuan; Liu Tiancai; Lin Guanfeng; Li Zhixiong; Zou Liping; Li Ming [Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Wu Yingsong, E-mail: wg@fimmu.com [Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic beads was used as the solid phase for TRFIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The linearity range was broadened greatly compared with conventional TRFIA method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analysis time was significantly shorter compared with conventional TRFIA method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method could be developed for practical clinical detections of tumor-associated antigens. - Abstract: A novel immunoassay for the determination of tumor markers in human serum was established by combining a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) and immunomagnetic separation. Based on a sandwich-type immunoassay format, analytes in samples were captured by magnetic beads coated with one monoclonal antibody and 'sandwiched' by another monoclonal antibody labeled with europium chelates. The immunocomplex was separated and washed by exposure to a magnetic field and treatment with enhancement solution; fluorescence was then measured according to the number of europium ions dissociated. Levels of the model analyte, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), were determined in a linear range (1-1000 ng mL{sup -1}) with a limit of detection of 0.5 ng mL{sup -1} under optimal conditions. The reproducibility, recovery, and specificity of the immunoassay were demonstrated to be acceptable. To evaluate this novel assay for clinical applications, 239 serum samples were evaluated. Compared with the conventional TRFIA and chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA), the correlation coefficients of the developed immunoassay were 0.985 and 0.975, respectively. These results showed good correlation and confirmed that our method is feasible and could be used for the clinical determination of CEA (or other tumor antigens) in human serum.

  19. Magnetic immunoassay coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for simultaneous quantification of alpha-fetoprotein and carcinoembryonic antigen in human serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Zhang, Yiwen; Xiao, Guangyang; Hu, Bin

    2015-04-01

    The absolute quantification of glycoproteins in complex biological samples is a challenge and of great significance. Herein, 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid functionalized magnetic beads were prepared to selectively capture glycoproteins, while antibody conjugated gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized as element tags to label two different glycoproteins. Based on that, a new approach of magnetic immunoassay-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was established for simultaneous quantitative analysis of glycoproteins. Taking biomarkers of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as two model glycoproteins, experimental parameters involved in the immunoassay procedure were carefully optimized and analytical performance of the proposed method was evaluated. The limits of detection (LODs) for AFP and CEA were 0.086 μg L- 1 and 0.054 μg L- 1 with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 7, c = 5 μg L- 1) of 6.5% and 6.2% for AFP and CEA, respectively. Linear range for both AFP and CEA was 0.2-50 μg L- 1. To validate the applicability of the proposed method, human serum samples were analyzed, and the obtained results were in good agreement with that obtained by the clinical chemiluminescence immunoassay. The developed method exhibited good selectivity and sensitivity for the simultaneous determination of AFP and CEA, and extended the applicability of metal nanoparticle tags based on ICP-MS methodology in multiple glycoprotein quantifications.

  20. Comparison of a chimeric anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody conjugated with visible or near-infrared fluorescent dyes for imaging pancreatic cancer in orthotopic nude mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maawy, Ali A.; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Kaushal, Sharmeela; Luiken, George A.; Hoffman, Robert M.; Bouvet, Michael

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a set of visible and near-infrared dyes conjugated to a tumor-specific chimeric antibody for high-resolution tumor imaging in orthotopic models of pancreatic cancer. BxPC-3 human pancreatic cancer was orthotopically implanted into pancreata of nude mice. Mice received a single intravenous injection of a chimeric anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody conjugated to one of the following fluorophores: 488-nm group (Alexa Fluor 488 or DyLight 488); 550-nm group (Alexa Fluor 555 or DyLight 550); 650-nm group (Alexa Fluor 660 or DyLight 650), or the 750-nm group (Alexa Fluor 750 or DyLight 755). After 24 h, the Olympus OV100 small-animal imaging system was used for noninvasive and intravital fluorescence imaging of mice. Dyes were compared with respect to depth of imaging, resolution, tumor-to-background ratio (TBR), photobleaching, and hemoglobin quenching. The longer wavelength dyes had increased depth of penetration and ability to detect the smallest tumor deposits and provided the highest TBRs, resistance to hemoglobin quenching, and specificity. The shorter wavelength dyes were more photostable. This study showed unique advantages of each dye for specific cancer imaging in a clinically relevant orthotopic model.

  1. Cerium oxide-deposited mesoporous silica nanoparticles for the determination of carcinoembryonic antigen in serum using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, H.W.; Lee, K.H.; Hur, N.H.; Lim, H.B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sandwich-type immunoassay using ICP-MS and nanoparticles to determine biomarkers. • CeO 2 -deposited mesoporous silica nanoparticles were synthesized as a probe. • Ratiometric measurement significantly improved the calibration linearity. • Excellent detection limit was achieved by signal amplification. - Abstract: CeO 2 -deposited mesoporous silica nanoparticles were synthesized as a probe to determine carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in serum by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The prepared mesoporous nanoparticles were modified and tagged to the target for sandwich-type immunoassay. Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were also synthesized and immobilized with antibody to extract the target biomarker. The calibration curve of the synthesized CeO 2 -deposited silica nanoparticles, which was plotted by the signal ratio of 140 Ce/ 57 Fe measured by ICP-MS vs. the concentration of CEA, showed excellent linearity and sensitivity owing to the signal amplification and low spectral interference. Under optimal conditions, the sandwich-type analytical method was applied to determine CEA in serum spiked in the range of 0.001–5 ng mL −1 and showed a limit of detection of 0.36 ng mL −1 . Since the deposited CeO 2 in the mesoporous silica layer can be substituted by other metal compounds, various kinds of metal-deposited nanoparticles can be prepared as probe materials for multiplex detection in bioanalysis

  2. Evaluation of the use of decision-support software in carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA-based follow-up of patients with colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verberne Charlotte J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper is a first evaluation of the use of "CEAwatch", a clinical support software system for surgeons for the follow-up of colorectal cancer (CRC patients. This system gathers Carcino-Embryonic Antigen (CEA values and automatically returns a recommendation based on the latest values. Methods Consecutive patients receiving follow-up care for CRC fulfilling our in- and exclusion criteria were identified to participate in this study. From August 2008, when the software was introduced, patients were asked to undergo the software-supported follow-up. Safety of the follow-up, experiences of working with the software, and technical issues were analyzed. Results 245 patients were identified. The software-supported group contained 184 patients; the control group contained 61 patients. The software was safe in finding the same amount of recurrent disease with fewer outpatient visits, and revealed few technical problems. Clinicians experienced a decrease in follow-up workload of up to 50% with high adherence to the follow-up scheme. Conclusion CEAwatch is an efficient software tool helping clinicians working with large numbers of follow-up patients. The number of outpatient visits can safely be reduced, thus significantly decreasing workload for clinicians.

  3. Inside-out signaling promotes dynamic changes in the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) oligomeric state to control its cell adhesion properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Prerna C; Lee, Hannah S W; Ming, Aaron Y K; Rath, Arianna; Deber, Charles M; Yip, Christopher M; Rocheleau, Jonathan V; Gray-Owen, Scott D

    2013-10-11

    Cell-cell contacts are fundamental to multicellular organisms and are subject to exquisite levels of control. The carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) can engage in both cis-homophilic (parallel) oligomerization and trans-homophilic (anti-parallel) binding. In this study, we establish that the CEACAM1 transmembrane domain has a propensity to form cis-dimers via the transmembrane-embedded (432)GXXXG(436) motif and that this basal state is overcome when activated calmodulin binds to the CEACAM1 cytoplasmic domain. Although mutation of the (432)GXXXG(436) motif reduced CEACAM1 oligomerization, it did not affect surface localization of the receptor or influence CEACAM1-dependent cellular invasion by the pathogenic Neisseria. The mutation did, however, have a striking effect on CEACAM1-dependent cellular aggregation, increasing both the kinetics of cell-cell association and the size of cellular aggregates formed. CEACAM1 association with tyrosine kinase c-Src and tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 was not affected by the (432)GXXXG(436) mutation, consistent with their association with the monomeric form of wild type CEACAM1. Collectively, our results establish that a dynamic oligomer-to-monomer shift in surface-expressed CEACAM1 facilitates trans-homophilic binding and downstream effector signaling.

  4. A Label-Free Microelectrode Array Based on One-Step Synthesis of Chitosan–Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube–Thionine for Ultrasensitive Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiren Xu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA has been an extensively used tumor marker responsible for clinical early diagnosis of cervical carcinomas, and pancreatic, colorectal, gastric and lung cancer. Combined with micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS technology, it is important to develop a novel immune microelectrode array (MEA not only for rapid analysis of serum samples, but also for cell detection in vitro and in vivo. In this work, we depict a simple approach to modify chitosan–multi-walled carbon nanotubes–thionine (CS–MWCNTs–THI hybrid film through one-step electrochemical deposition and the CS-MWCNTs-THI hybrid films are successfully employed to immobilize anti-CEA for fabricating simple, label-free, and highly sensitive electro-chemical immune MEAs. The detection principle of immune MEA was based on the fact that the increasing formation of the antigen-antibody immunocomplex resulted in the decreased response currents and the relationship between the current reductions with the corresponding CEA concentrations was directly proportional. Experimental results indicated that the label-free MEA had good selectivity and the limit of detection for CEA is 0.5 pg/mL signal to noise ratio (SNR = 3. A linear calibration plot for the detection of CEA was obtained in a wide concentration range from 1 pg/mL to 100 ng/mL (r = 0.996. This novel MEA has potential applications for detecting CEA for the research on cancer cells and cancer tissue slices as well as for effective early diagnosis.

  5. A prospective study of endoscopic ultrasonography features, cyst fluid carcinoembryonic antigen, and fluid cytology for the differentiation of small pancreatic cystic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Chai, Ningli; Feng, Jia; Linghu, Enqiang

    2017-08-24

    With improvements in imaging technologies, pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs) have been increasingly identified in recent years. However, the imaging modalities used to differentiate the categories of pancreatic cysts remain limited, which may cause confusion when planning treatment. Due to progress in endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) technology, auxiliary diagnosis by the detection of cystic fluid has become a recent trend. From March 2015 to April 2016, 120 patients with PCLs were enrolled in this study. According to the results of EUS, cyst fluid carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) analysis, and cystic fluid cytology, the patients were divided into two groups: a nonmucinous and a mucinous group. Of those, 61 patients who had undergone surgical resection were included in the analysis. The clinical features, biochemical and tumor markers of cyst fluid as well as the cytological test results of the patients were compared with histopathology results. A cyst size of 4.0 cm was used as the boundary value; a cyst ≤4.0 cm was defined as a small PCL. 87 (72.5%) lesions were ≤4.0 cm, and 33 (27.5%) lesions were >4.0 cm. Regarding the analysis of CEA and carbohydrate antigens 19-9 (CA19-9), significant differences were found between the nonmucinous and mucinous groups (P < 0.05) according to nonparametric independent samples tests. The EUS, cystic fluid CEA, and cystic fluid cytology results were compared with the tissue pathology findings using McNemar's test (P < 0.05) and showed a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 84%. A diagnostic combination of EUS, cyst fluid CEA, and cystic fluid cytology could be used to differentiate small pancreatic cystic neoplasms. Cystic fluid cytology analysis is helpful for planning treatment for pancreatic cystic tumors that pose a surgical risk.

  6. Magnetic immunoassay coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for simultaneous quantification of alpha-fetoprotein and carcinoembryonic antigen in human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xing; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Zhang, Yiwen; Xiao, Guangyang; Hu, Bin, E-mail: binhu@whu.edu.cn

    2015-04-01

    The absolute quantification of glycoproteins in complex biological samples is a challenge and of great significance. Herein, 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid functionalized magnetic beads were prepared to selectively capture glycoproteins, while antibody conjugated gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized as element tags to label two different glycoproteins. Based on that, a new approach of magnetic immunoassay-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was established for simultaneous quantitative analysis of glycoproteins. Taking biomarkers of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as two model glycoproteins, experimental parameters involved in the immunoassay procedure were carefully optimized and analytical performance of the proposed method was evaluated. The limits of detection (LODs) for AFP and CEA were 0.086 μg L{sup −1} and 0.054 μg L{sup −1} with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 7, c = 5 μg L{sup −1}) of 6.5% and 6.2% for AFP and CEA, respectively. Linear range for both AFP and CEA was 0.2–50 μg L{sup −1}. To validate the applicability of the proposed method, human serum samples were analyzed, and the obtained results were in good agreement with that obtained by the clinical chemiluminescence immunoassay. The developed method exhibited good selectivity and sensitivity for the simultaneous determination of AFP and CEA, and extended the applicability of metal nanoparticle tags based on ICP-MS methodology in multiple glycoprotein quantifications. - Highlights: • 4-Mercaptophenylboronic acid functionalized magnetic beads were prepared and characterized. • ICP-MS based magnetic immunoassay approach was developed for quantification of glycoproteins. • AFP and CEA were quantified simultaneously with Au and Ag NPs as element tags. • The developed method exhibited good selectivity and sensitivity for target glycoproteins.

  7. Cerium oxide-deposited mesoporous silica nanoparticles for the determination of carcinoembryonic antigen in serum using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, H.W. [Department of Chemistry, NSBI, Dankook University, 126 Jukjeon-dong, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K.H.; Hur, N.H. [Department of Chemistry, Sogang University, Shinsu-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, H.B., E-mail: plasma@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, NSBI, Dankook University, 126 Jukjeon-dong, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-17

    Highlights: • Sandwich-type immunoassay using ICP-MS and nanoparticles to determine biomarkers. • CeO{sub 2}-deposited mesoporous silica nanoparticles were synthesized as a probe. • Ratiometric measurement significantly improved the calibration linearity. • Excellent detection limit was achieved by signal amplification. - Abstract: CeO{sub 2}-deposited mesoporous silica nanoparticles were synthesized as a probe to determine carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in serum by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The prepared mesoporous nanoparticles were modified and tagged to the target for sandwich-type immunoassay. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were also synthesized and immobilized with antibody to extract the target biomarker. The calibration curve of the synthesized CeO{sub 2}-deposited silica nanoparticles, which was plotted by the signal ratio of {sup 140}Ce/{sup 57}Fe measured by ICP-MS vs. the concentration of CEA, showed excellent linearity and sensitivity owing to the signal amplification and low spectral interference. Under optimal conditions, the sandwich-type analytical method was applied to determine CEA in serum spiked in the range of 0.001–5 ng mL{sup −1} and showed a limit of detection of 0.36 ng mL{sup −1}. Since the deposited CeO{sub 2} in the mesoporous silica layer can be substituted by other metal compounds, various kinds of metal-deposited nanoparticles can be prepared as probe materials for multiplex detection in bioanalysis.

  8. Glycosylation Alters Dimerization Properties of a Cell-surface Signaling Protein, Carcinoembryonic Antigen-related Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (CEACAM1)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, You; Yang, Jeong-Yeh; Moremen, Kelley W.; Prestegard, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Human carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (C?/Au: EACAM1) is a cell-surface signaling molecule involved in cell adhesion, proliferation, and immune response. It is also implicated in cancer angiogenesis, progression, and metastasis. This diverse set of effects likely arises as a result of the numerous homophilic and heterophilic interactions that CEACAM1 can have with itself and other molecules. Its N-terminal Ig variable (IgV) domain has been suggested to be a principal player in these interactions. Previous crystal structures of the β-sandwich-like IgV domain have been produced using Escherichia coli-expressed material, which lacks native glycosylation. These have led to distinctly different proposals for dimer interfaces, one involving interactions of ABED β-strands and the other involving GFCC′C″ β-strands, with the former burying one prominent glycosylation site. These structures raise questions as to which form may exist in solution and what the effect of glycosylation may have on this form. Here, we use NMR cross-correlation measurements to examine the effect of glycosylation on CEACAM1-IgV dimerization and use residual dipolar coupling (RDC) measurements to characterize the solution structure of the non-glycosylated form. Our findings demonstrate that even addition of a single N-linked GlcNAc at potential glycosylation sites inhibits dimer formation. Surprisingly, RDC data collected on E. coli expressed material in solution indicate that a dimer using the non-glycosylated GFCC′C″ interface is preferred even in the absence of glycosylation. The results open new questions about what other factors may facilitate dimerization of CEACAM1 in vivo, and what roles glycosylation may play in heterophylic interactions. PMID:27471271

  9. Ablation of human colon carcinoma in nude mice by 131I-labeled monoclonal anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody F(ab')2 fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchegger, F.; Pfister, C.; Fournier, K.; Prevel, F.; Schreyer, M.; Carrel, S.; Mach, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Pooled F(ab')2 fragments of three MAbs against distinct epitopes of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were used for radioimmunotherapy of nude mice bearing a subcutaneous human colon carcinoma xenograft. 9-10 d after transplantation when tumor nodules were in exponential growth, 36 mice were treated by intravenous injection of different amounts of 131 I-labeled MAb F(ab')2. All 14 mice injected with a single dose of 2,200 (n = 10) or 2,800 microCi (n = 4) showed complete tumor remission. 8 of the 10 mice treated with 2,200 microCi survived in good health for 1 yr when they were killed and shown to be tumor free. Four of nine other mice treated with four fractionated doses of 400 microCi showed no tumor relapse for more than 9 mo. In contrast, all 15 mice injected with 1,600-3,000 microCi 131 I-control IgG F(ab')2 showed tumor growth retardation of only 1-4 wk, and 15 of 16 mice injected with unlabeled anti-CEA MAb F(ab')2 showed unmodified tumor progression as compared with untreated mice. From tissue radioactivity distributions it was calculated that by an injection of 2,200 microCi 131 I-MAb F(ab')2 a mean dose of 8,335 rad was selectively delivered to the tumor, while the tissue-absorbed radiation doses for the normal organs were: peripheral blood, 2,093; stomach, 1,668; kidney, 1,289; lung, 1,185; liver, 617; spleen, 501; small intestine, 427; large intestine, 367; bone, 337; and muscle, 198. These treatments were well tolerated since out of 19 mice with complete tumor remission only 4 required bone marrow transplantation and 17 were in good health for 6-12 mo of observation

  10. Humanised IgG1 antibody variants targeting membrane-bound carcinoembryonic antigen by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, S Q; Umana, P; Mössner, E; Ntouroupi, T; Brünker, P; Schmidt, C; Wilding, J L; Mortensen, N J; Bodmer, W F

    2009-11-17

    The effect of glycoengineering a membrane specific anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (this paper uses the original term CEA for the formally designated CEACAM5) antibody (PR1A3) on its ability to enhance killing of colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines by human immune effector cells was assessed. In vivo efficacy of the antibody was also tested. The antibody was modified using EBNA cells cotransfected with beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III and the humanised hPR1A3 antibody genes. The resulting alteration of the Fc segment glycosylation pattern enhances the antibody's binding affinity to the FcgammaRIIIa receptor on human immune effector cells but does not alter the antibody's binding capacity. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is inhibited in the presence of anti-FcgammaRIII blocking antibodies. This glycovariant of hPR1A3 enhances ADCC 10-fold relative to the parent unmodified antibody using either unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear or natural killer (NK) cells and CEA-positive CRC cells as targets. NK cells are far more potent in eliciting ADCC than either freshly isolated monocytes or granulocytes. Flow cytometry and automated fluorescent microscopy have been used to show that both versions of hPR1A3 can induce antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) by monocyte-derived macrophages. However, the glycovariant antibody did not mediate enhanced ADCP. This may be explained by the relatively low expression of FcgammaRIIIa on cultured macrophages. In vivo studies show the efficacy of glycoengineered humanised IgG1 PR1A3 in significantly improving survival in a CRC metastatic murine model. The greatly enhanced in vitro ADCC activity of the glycoengineered version of hPR1A3 is likely to be clinically beneficial.

  11. Combination of long noncoding RNA MALAT1 and carcinoembryonic antigen for the diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion caused by lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wan-Wei; Zhou, Xi-Lei; Song, Ying-Jian; Yu, Chang-Hua; Zhu, Wei-Guo; Tong, Yu-Suo

    2018-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are present in body fluids, but their potential as tumor biomarkers has never been investigated in malignant pleural effusion (MPE) caused by lung cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical significance of lncRNAs in pleural effusion, which could potentially serve as diagnostic and predictive markers for lung cancer-associated MPE (LC-MPE). RNAs from pleural effusion were extracted in 217 cases of LC-MPE and 132 cases of benign pleural effusion (BPE). Thirty-one lung cancer-associated lncRNAs were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The level of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was also determined. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) were established to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the identified lncRNAs and other biomarkers. The correlations between baseline pleural effusion lncRNAs expression and response to chemotherapy were also analyzed. Three lncRNAs ( MALAT1 , H19 , and CUDR ) were found to have potential as diagnostic markers in LC-MPE. The AUCs for MALAT1 , H19 , CUDR , and CEA were 0.891, 0.783, 0.824, and 0.826, respectively. Using a logistic model, the combination of MALAT1 and CEA (AUC, 0.924) provided higher sensitivity and accuracy in predicting LC-MPE than CEA (AUC, 0.826) alone. Moreover, baseline MALAT1 expression in pleural fluid was inversely correlated with chemotherapy response in patients with LC-MPE. Pleural effusion lncRNAs were effective in differentiating LC-MPE from BPE. The combination of MALAT1 and CEA was more effective for LC-MPE diagnosis.

  12. Prognostic value of pretreatment serum carcinoembryonic antigen and squamous cell carcinoma antigen levels for patients with stage I-III non-small cell lung cancer treated with radiation therapy alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yoshihiro; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Hayakawa, Kazushige

    1998-01-01

    Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC Ag) levels have been reported to be useful as prognostic factors, indicators of clinical response, and predictors for recurrence in patients with lung cancer treated by surgery or chemotherapy. We investigated whether pretreatment serum CEA and SCC Ag levels were useful as independent prognostic factors in patients with stage I to III non-small cell lung cancer who were treated with radiation therapy alone. The serum CEA and SCC Ag levels were measured in 158 and 47 patients, respectively, before radiation therapy. Serum CEA and SCC Ag levels were measured by sandwich radioimmunoassay using the CEA-RIA (radioimmunoassay) kit and the SCC-RIA kit. Serum CEA and SCC Ag levels were above reference values in 19% and 30% of the patients, respectively. The 5-year survival rates were significantly better for patients with a negative SCC Ag result than for those with positive SCC Ag levels (p=0.0001), though no significant difference in survival rates was seen by CEA positivity (p=0.25). SCC Ag positivity (p=0.0006) and stage (p=0.04) were the important prognostic factors, as determined by multivariate analyses. Pretreatment serum SCC Ag level may be useful as an independent prognostic factor in patients with stage I to III non-small cell lung cancer who are treated with radiation therapy alone. (author)

  13. Clinical significance of serum beta2-microglobulin and carcinoembryonic antigen in patients with cervical cancer treated with irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshiaki; Tottori, Kosei; Higuchi, Akira; Takeuchi, Shoshichi

    1979-01-01

    β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 -m) is a small polypeptide present in all body fluids. In recent years much attention has been paid to the high prevalence of elevated serum β 2 -m levels in malignancy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of β 2 -m in patients with cervical cancer treated with irradiation therapy. For comparison, as an established tumor marker, CEA was assayed in the same samples. The results were as follows: 1. Both β 2 -m and CEA values seemed to relate to the clinical stage of tumor growth. 2. The patients who ended in a poor prognosis retrospectively had the significantly elevated CEA and β 2 -m values compared to those of the patients with good prognosis. 3. CEA or β 2 -m assay by themselves had not so large value in the diagnosis of cervical cancer, but an increase in number of positive cases was obtained when the two markers were jointly considered. Because when the CEA was negative, the β 2 -m assay was capable of compensating for this deficiency. (author)

  14. Label-free electrochemical immunosensor for the carcinoembryonic antigen using a glassy carbon electrode modified with electrodeposited Prussian Blue, a graphene and carbon nanotube assembly and an antibody immobilized on gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Dexiang; Lu, Xiaocui; Dong, Xiao; Zhang, Yuzhong; Ling, Yunyun

    2013-01-01

    We described a sensitive, label-free electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen. It is based on the use of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a multi-layer films made from Prussian Blue (PB), graphene and carbon nanotubes by electrodeposition and assembling techniques. Gold nanoparticles were electrostatically absorbed on the surface of the film and used for the immobilization of antibody, while PB acts as signaling molecule. The stepwise assembly process was investigated by differential pulse voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the formation of antibody-antigen complexes partially inhibits the electron transfer of PB and decreased its peak current. Under the optimal conditions, the decrease of intensity of the peak current of PB is linearly related to the concentration of carcinoembryonic antigen in two ranges (0.2–1.0, and 1.0–40.0 ng·mL −1 ), with a detection limit of 60 pg·mL −1 (S/N = 3). The immunosensor was applied to analyze five clinical samples, and the results obtained were in agreement with clinical data. In addition, the immunosensor exhibited good precision, acceptable stability and reproducibility. (author)

  15. Clinical and experimental studies regarding the expression and diagnostic value of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 in non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Mu-qing; Du, Yan; Liu, Yi-wen; Wang, Ying-zhi; He, Yi-qing; Yang, Cui-xia; Wang, Wen-juan; Gao, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is a multifunctional Ig-like cell adhesion molecule that has a wide range of biological functions. According to previous reports, serum CEACAM1 is dysregulated in different malignant tumours and associated with tumour progression. However, the serum CEACAM1 expression in non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) is unclear. The different expression ratio of CEACAM1-S and CEACAM1-L isoform has seldom been investigated in NSCLC. This research is intended to study the serum CEACAM1 and the ratio of CEACAM1-S/L isoforms in NSCLC. The expression of the serum CEACAM1 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The protein expression and the location of CEACAM1 in tumours were observed by immunohistochemical staining. The CEACAM1 mRNA levels in tumour and normal adjacent tissues were measured using quantitative real-time PCR, and the expression patterns and the rate of CEACAM1-S and CEACAM1-L were analysed by reverse transcription-PCR. Serum CEACAM1 levels were significantly higher in NSCLC patients compared with that from normal healthy controls (P <0.0001). 17 patients (81%) among 21 showed high expression of CEACAM1 by immunohistochemical staining. Although no significant differences were found between tumour and normal tissues on mRNA expression levels of CEACAM1 (P >0.05), the CEACAM1-S and the CEACAM1-S/L (S: L) ratios were significantly higher in tumour than normal tissues (P <0.05). Our data indicated that the serum levels of CEACAM1 could discriminate lung cancer patients from health donors and that CEACAM1 might be a useful marker in early diagnosis of NSCLC. Moreover, our results showed that the expression patterns of CEACAM1 isoforms could be changed during oncogenesis, even when total CEACAM1 in tumour tissues did not show significant changes. Our study suggested that the expression ratios of CEACAM1-S/CEACAM1-L might be a better diagnostic indicator in NSCLC than the quantitative

  16. Co-ordinate action of bacterial adhesins and human carcinoembryonic antigen receptors in enhanced cellular invasion by capsulate serum resistant Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Helen A; Griffiths, Natalie J; Hill, Darryl J; Virji, Mumtaz

    2007-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) is a human specific opportunistic pathogen that occasionally penetrates mucosal barriers via the action of adhesins and invasins and evades host immune mechanisms during further dissemination via capsule expression. From in vitro studies, the primary adhesion of capsulate bacteria is believed to be mediated by polymeric pili, followed by invasion via outer membrane adhesins such as Opa proteins. As the latter requires the surface capsule to be down-modulated, invading bacteria would be serum sensitive and thus avirulent. However, there is recent evidence that capsulate bacteria may interact via Opa proteins when host cells express high levels of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs), their target receptors. Such a situation may arise following increased circulation of inflammatory cytokines that upregulate certain adhesion molecules on host cells. In this study, using a tetracycline controlled expression system, we have developed cell lines with inducible CEACAM expression to mimic post-inflammation state of target tissues and analysed the interplay between the three surface components capsule, pili and Opa proteins in cellular interactions. With two distinct cell lines, not only the level but also the rate of adhesion of capsulate Opa-expressing Nm increased concurrently with CEACAM density. Moreover, when threshold levels of receptor were reached, cellular invasion ensued in an Opa-dependent manner. In studies with cell lines intrinsically expressing pilus receptors, notable synergism in cellular interactions between pili and Opa of several meningococcal strains was observed and was independent of capsule type. A number of internalized bacteria were shown to express capsule and when directly isolated from host cells, these bacteria were as serum resistant as the inoculated phenotype. Furthermore, we observed that agents that block Opa-CEACAM binding substantially reduced cellular invasion, while maintaining

  17. Clinical value of jointly detection serum lactate dehydrogenase/pleural fluid adenosine deaminase and pleural fluid carcinoembryonic antigen in the identification of malignant pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Hu, Lijuan; Wang, Junjun; Chen, Jian; Chen, Jie; Wang, Yumin

    2017-09-01

    Limited data are available for the diagnostic value, and for the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of joint detection of serum lactate dehydrogenase (sLDH)/pleural fluid adenosine deaminase (pADA) and pleural fluid carcinoembryonic antigen (pCEA) in malignant pleural effusion (MPE). We collected 987 pleural effusion specimens (of which 318 were malignant pleural effusion, 374 were tubercular pleural effusion, and 295 were parapneumonic effusion specimens) from the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from July 2012 to March 2016. The pADA, sLDH, pleural fluid LDH (pLDH), serum C-reactive protein (sCRP), pleural fluid protein, pCEA, white blood cell (WBC), and red blood cell (RBC) were analyzed, and the clinical data of each group were collected for statistical analysis. The level of sLDH/pADA, pCEA, and RBC from the MPE group was markedly higher than the tuberculosis pleural effusion (TB) group (Mann-Whitney U=28422.000, 9278.000, 30518, P=.000, .000, .000) and the parapneumonic pleural fluid group (Mann-Whitney U=5972.500, 7113.000, 36750.500, P=.000, .000, .000). The receiver operating characteristic curve ROC showed that the area under the ROC curve (AUC) (=0.924, 0.841) of pCEA and sLDH/pADA (cutoff=4.9, 10.6) were significantly higher than other markers for the diagnosis of MPE. Thus, joint detection of pCEA and sLDH/pADA suggested that the sensitivity, specificity, and AUC was 0.94, 81.70, and 94.32 at the cutoff 0.16 and diagnostic performance was higher than pCEA or sLDH/pADA. Joint detection of sLDH/pADA and pCEA can be used as a good indicator for the identification of benign and MPE with higher sensitivity and specificity than pCEA or sLDH/pADA. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Pre-radiotherapy and post-radiotherapy serial serum Squamous Cell Carcinoma antigen (SCC) and CarcinoEmbryonic Antigen (CEA) in the monitoring of squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hyong Geun; Park, Choong Hak

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the significance of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as tumor markers in uterine cervix carcinoma. In 22 patients with histologically proven primary squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix, tumor volume was checked either by using MRI (in 20 patients) or ultrasound (in 2 patients). Pre-treatment serum SCC levels were checked in 22 patients and CEA levels in 21 patients. After curative radiotherapy, post-treatment SCC and CEA were checked regularly. SCC was raised in 68.2% and CEA was raised in 19.0% before treatment. The coefficient of correlation between tumor volume and pre-reatment SCC was 0.59382 when one extremely deviated case was excluded. And there was no correlation between tumor volume and CEA. After the treatment, SCC was raised in 9.1% and CEA was raised in 4.8%. In further follow up measurement, raise of SCC was associated with clinical relapse or persistence of disease. The specificity of raised SCC level in association with recurrent or persistent disease was 93.8%. The sensitivity in association with recurrent or persistent disease was 100%. The positive predictive values was 85.7%. The median lead time for recurrence was 1.2 months. Both SCC and CEA were good tumor markers for monitoring treatment effect in patients with raised pre-treatment levels. But the sensitivity of pretreatment CEA was low, while that of pretreatment SCC was high. And there was no additional gain by adding CEA measurements to SCC measurements

  19. Pre-radiotherapy and post-radiotherapy serial serum Squamous Cell Carcinoma antigen (SCC) and CarcinoEmbryonic Antigen (CEA) in the monitoring of squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hyong Geun; Park, Choong Hak [College of Medicine, Dankook Univ., Chunan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    To evaluate the significance of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as tumor markers in uterine cervix carcinoma. In 22 patients with histologically proven primary squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix, tumor volume was checked either by using MRI (in 20 patients) or ultrasound (in 2 patients). Pre-treatment serum SCC levels were checked in 22 patients and CEA levels in 21 patients. After curative radiotherapy, post-treatment SCC and CEA were checked regularly. SCC was raised in 68.2% and CEA was raised in 19.0% before treatment. The coefficient of correlation between tumor volume and pre-reatment SCC was 0.59382 when one extremely deviated case was excluded. And there was no correlation between tumor volume and CEA. After the treatment, SCC was raised in 9.1% and CEA was raised in 4.8%. In further follow up measurement, raise of SCC was associated with clinical relapse or persistence of disease. The specificity of raised SCC level in association with recurrent or persistent disease was 93.8%. The sensitivity in association with recurrent or persistent disease was 100%. The positive predictive values was 85.7%. The median lead time for recurrence was 1.2 months. Both SCC and CEA were good tumor markers for monitoring treatment effect in patients with raised pre-treatment levels. But the sensitivity of pretreatment CEA was low, while that of pretreatment SCC was high. And there was no additional gain by adding CEA measurements to SCC measurements.

  20. Electrochemical immunoassay for the carcinoembryonic antigen based on the use of a glassy carbon electrode modified with an octahedral Cu2O-gold nanocomposite and staphylococcal protein for signal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhen; Xu, Wei; Chen, Shuai; Chen, Jun; Qiu, Jing Fu; Li, Chao Rui

    2018-04-24

    The authors describe an electrochemical immunoassay for ultrasensitive direct determination of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). A nanocomposite consisting of octahedral Cu2O nanocrystals covered with gold nanoparticles was utilized to modify a glassy carbon electrode which gives a strongly enhanced chronoamperometric signal for H 2 O 2 which is used as an electrochemical probe. The morphology and elemental composition of the the nanocomposite was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In addition, staphylococcal protein A was placed on the electrode for efficient capture of antibody to further enhance the sensitivity of the assay. Under optimal conditions and at a typical working voltage of -0.4 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), the response covers the 2 pg·mL -1 to 20 ng·mL -1 CEA concentration range with a 200 fg·mL -1 lower detection limit. The method was successfully applied to the determination of CEA in (spiked) human serum. Graphical abstract Schematic of the fabrication of an electrochemical immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection the carcinoembryonic antigen. The sensor is based on the use of a glassy carbon electrode modified with an octahedral Cu 2 O-gold nanocomposite and staphylococcal protein A for signal amplification.

  1. Fully human IgG and IgM antibodies directed against the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA Gold 4 epitope and designed for radioimmunotherapy (RIT of colorectal cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugnière Martine

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs are needed for colon cancer radioimmunotherapy (RIT to allow for repeated injections. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA being the reference antigen for immunotargeting of these tumors, we developed human anti-CEA MAbs. Methods XenoMouse®-G2 animals were immunized with CEA. Among all the antibodies produced, two of them, VG-IgG2κ and VG-IgM, were selected for characterization in vitro in comparison with the human-mouse chimeric anti-CEA MAb X4 using flow cytometry, surface plasmon resonance, and binding to radiolabeled soluble CEA and in vivo in human colon carcinoma LS174T bearing nude mice. Results Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated binding of MAbs on CEA-expressing cells without any binding on NCA-expressing human granulocytes. In a competitive binding assay using five reference MAbs, directed against the five Gold CEA epitopes, VG-IgG2κ and VG-IgM were shown to be directed against the Gold 4 epitope. The affinities of purified VG-IgG2κ and VG-IgM were determined to be 0.19 ± 0.06 × 108 M-1 and 1.30 ± 0.06 × 108 M-1, respectively, as compared with 0.61 ± 0.05 × 108 M-1 for the reference MAb X4. In a soluble phase assay, the binding capacities of VG-IgG2κ and VG-IgM to soluble CEA were clearly lower than that of the control chimeric MAb X4. A human MAb concentration of about 10-7 M was needed to precipitate approximatively 1 ng 125I-rhCEA as compared with 10-9 M for MAb X4, suggesting a preferential binding of the human MAbs to solid phase CEA. In vivo, 24 h post-injection, 125I-VG-IgG2κ demonstrated a high tumor uptake (25.4 ± 7.3%ID/g, close to that of 131I-X4 (21.7 ± 7.2%ID/g. At 72 h post-injection, 125I-VG-IgG2κ was still concentrated in the tumor (28.4 ± 11.0%ID/g whereas the tumor concentration of 131I-X4 was significantly reduced (12.5 ± 4.8%ID/g. At no time after injection was there any accumulation of the radiolabeled MAbs in normal tissues. A pertinent analysis of

  2. Diagnostic utility of PET/CT with {sup 18}F-DOPA and {sup 18}F-FDG in persistent or recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma: the importance of calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen cutoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Lluch, Ana Reyes; Guerrero-Vazquez, Raquel; Martinez-Ortega, Antonio Jesus; Navarro-Gonzalez, Elena [Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Unidad de Gestion Clinica de Endocrinologia y Nutricion, Seville (Spain); Cuenca-Cuenca, Juan Ignacio; Tirado-Hospital, Juan Luis; Borrego-Dorado, Isabel [Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Unidad de Medicina Nuclear, Seville (Spain)

    2017-11-15

    This study sought to evaluate and compare the utility of 18-F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine ({sup 18}F-DOPA) and 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for identification of lesions in patients with recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). In addition, we analyzed the correlation between the calcitonin (Ct), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels, each doubling time (DT), and PET positivity. We evaluated the reliability of the 150 pg/mL Ct cutoff set by the American Thyroid Association guidelines for further imaging (including {sup 18}F-DOPA PET/CT). We prospectively recruited 18 patients with recurrent MTC, identified by elevation of Ct or CEA. Each patient underwent a {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and a {sup 18}F-DOPA PET/CT. Abnormal uptakes were detected with {sup 18}F-DOPA (n=12) and {sup 18}F-FDG (n=9), (sensitivity of 66.7% vs. 50%; p<0.01). Twenty-eight lesions were detected with {sup 18}F-DOPA vs. 16 lesions with {sup 18}F-FDG (1.56±1.5 vs. 0.89±1.18 lesions per patient; p=0.01). None of our patients showed additional lesions with {sup 18}F-FDG in comparison to {sup 18}F-DOPA. Patient-based detection rate increased significantly with Ct levels ≥150 pg/mL vs. Ct<150 pg/mL for both {sup 18}F-DOPA (sensitivity 90.9% vs. 28.6%; p=0.013) and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT (sensitivity 72.7% vs. 14.3%; p=0.025). Using a CEA cutoff of ≥5 ng/mL, detection rates of {sup 18}F-DOPA and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT were 81.1% and 72.7%, respectively. No correlation between Ct-DT or CEA-DT and PET positivity was found. Histological confirmation was obtained in eight patients. {sup 18}F-DOPA PET/CT appears to be superior to {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in detecting and locating lesions in patients with recurrent MTC. This technique tends to be especially useful in patients with negative results in other imaging modalities and Ct≥150 pg/mL or CEA≥5 ng/mL. (orig.)

  3. A prospective study of 2-[F-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose/positron emission tomography scan, Tc-99m-labeled arcitumomab (CEA-scan), and blind second-look laparotomy for detecting colon cancer recurrence in patients with increasing carcinoembryonic antigen levels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Libutti, S. K.; Alexander, HR.; Choyke, P.; Bartlett, DL.; Bacharach, SL.; Whatley, M.; Jousse, F.; Eckelman, WC.; Kranda, Karel; Neumann, RD.; Carrasquillo, JA.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 10 (2001), s. 779-786 ISSN 1068-9265 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4055109 Keywords : carcinoembryonic antigen * positron emission tomography * FDG Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 3.308, year: 2001

  4. Randomised Phase I/II trial assessing the safety and efficacy of radiolabelled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen I131 KAb201 antibodies given intra-arterially or intravenously in patients with unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, Asma; Garvey, Conall; Sutton, Robert; Neoptolemos, John P; Ghaneh, Paula; Shore, Susannah; Raraty, Michael GT; Vinjamuri, Sobhan; Evans, Jonathan E; Smith, Catrin Tudur; Lane, Steven; Chauhan, Seema; Bosonnet, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    Advanced pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis, and the current standard of care (gemcitabine based chemotherapy) provides a small survival advantage. However the drawback is the accompanying systemic toxicity, which targeted treatments may overcome. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and tolerability of KAb201, an anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody, labelled with I 131 in pancreatic cancer (ISRCTN 16857581). Patients with histological/cytological proven inoperable adenocarcinoma of the head of pancreas were randomised to receive KAb 201 via either the intra-arterial or intravenous delivery route. The dose limiting toxicities within each group were determined. Patients were assessed for safety and efficacy and followed up until death. Between February 2003 and July 2005, 25 patients were enrolled. Nineteen patients were randomised, 9 to the intravenous and 10 to the intra-arterial arms. In the intra-arterial arm, dose limiting toxicity was seen in 2/6 (33%) patients at 50 mCi whereas in the intravenous arm, dose limiting toxicity was noted in 1/6 patients at 50 mCi, but did not occur at 75 mCi (0/3). The overall response rate was 6% (1/18). Median overall survival was 5.2 months (95% confidence interval = 3.3 to 9 months), with no significant difference between the intravenous and intra-arterial arms (log rank test p = 0.79). One patient was still alive at the time of this analysis. Dose limiting toxicity for KAb201 with I 131 by the intra-arterial route was 50 mCi, while dose limiting toxicity was not reached in the intravenous arm

  5. An Epidermal Biosensor for Carcinoembryonic Antigen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwartz, Pauline

    2001-01-01

    .... The research we have conducted during the first and second year of the grant has allowed us to conclude that human keratinocytes in vitro can be engineered to express a chimeric cell surface receptor...

  6. An Epidermal Biosensor for Carcinoembryonic Antigen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwartz, Pauline

    2003-01-01

    .... The research we have conducted has allowed us to conclude that human keratinocytes in vitro can be engineered to express a chimeric cell surface receptor and that these modified cells could recognize...

  7. An Epidermal Biosensor for Carcinoembryonic Antigen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwartz, Pauline

    2001-01-01

    ...). An epidermal biosensor is a new approach for the early continuous, in vivo detection of the onset of disease by the using genetically modified skin cells to respond to molecules secreted by tumor cells...

  8. An Epidermal Biosensor for Carcinoembryonic Antigen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwartz, Pauline

    2003-01-01

    ...) An epidermal biosensor was conceived as a new approach for the early continuous, in vivo detection of the onset of disease by the using genetically modified skin cells to respond to molecules secreted by tumor cells...

  9. Greek rheumatoid arthritis patients have elevated levels of antibodies against antigens from Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulos, Georgios; Christopoulou, V; Routsias, J G; Babionitakis, A; Antoniadis, C; Vaiopoulos, G

    2017-03-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from different ethnic groups present elevated levels of antibodies against Proteus mirabilis. This finding implicates P. mirabilis in the development of RA. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of P. mirabilis in the etiopathogenesis of RA in Greek RA patients. In this study, 63 patients with RA and 38 healthy controls were included. Class-specific antibodies IgM, IgG, and IgA against three human cross-reactive and non-cross-reactive synthetic peptides from P. mirabilis-hemolysin (HpmB), urease C (UreC), and urease F (UreF)-were performed in all subjects, using the ELISA method. RA patients had elevated levels of IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies against HpmB and UreC Proteus peptide which are significantly different compared to healthy controls: p = 0.005, p Proteus peptide-which are non-cross-reactive with human tissue antigens-were observed and their significant difference compared to healthy controls (p = 0.007, p mirabilis antigenic epitopes, such as in North European populations, albeit Greek RA patients presenting the cross-reaction antigen in a low percentage. These results indicate that P. mirabilis through the molecular mimicry mechanism leads to inflammation and damage of the joints in RA.

  10. Select transition zone prostate cancers may be radiocurable despite markedly elevated prostate-specific antigen levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Anthony V.; Kaplan, Irving

    1996-01-01

    In 1993, three men with transition zone prostate cancers were described (Stamey et al., J. Urol. 149: 510-515, 1993) who despite high prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels remained PSA failure-free at 22 months postoperatively. This report illustrates that prolonged PSA failure free survival may be achieved when external beam radiation therapy is used to treat similar patients

  11. Levels of carcinoembryonic antigen and CA 19-9 in the sera and peritoneal washing of patients undergoing surgical treatment for gastric carcinoma Níveis do antígeno carcinoembriônico e do CA 19-9 no soro e no lavado peritonial em doentes submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico do carcinoma gástrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Crepaldi-Filho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early peritoneal recurrence of gastric carcinoma following curative resection remains a great challenge in the treatment and prevention of this disease. AIM: To analyze the relationship between levels of tumor markers, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA and CA 19-9 in the sera and peritoneal washing, and anatomopathological aspects of the gastric carcinoma. METHODS: Of the 46 patients in the study, 29 (63.0% were males and 17 (37.0% females. Mean age was 63.6 ± 11.7 years (31 to 91 years. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from the upper limb vein from both patient groups after anesthetic induction, in order to determine serum levels of CEA and CA 19-9. After the end of the procedure, 50 mL of physiologic solution was introduced into the bottom of the Douglas sack and a portion aspirated to determine CEA and CA 19-9 levels in the peritoneal washing. Levels of CEA and CA 19-9 in the sera and peritoneal washing were compared to the following variables: lesion diameter ≤4 cm or >4 cm, lymph node involvement, angiolymphatic invasion, depth of invasion into gastric wall, and initial or late stage. RESULTS: Sera CEA levels were significantly higher in patients with lesions >5 cm. CEA levels in the sera and peritoneal washing were significantly greater in patients with signet ring cell gastric carcinoma. In addition, levels of CEA in peripheral blood and peritoneal washing showed significant association with the degree of carcinoma penetration into the gastric wall, while sera CEA was significantly higher in patients at more advanced stages. There was no significant difference between sera and peritoneal CEA values regarding grade of differentiation. Patients with gastric lesions measuring > 5cm and more differentiated lesions had significantly higher sera CA 19-9 values. In patients with lymph nodes invasion by gastric carcinoma, CA 19-9 levels in peritoneal washing were significantly higher than in peripheral blood. Levels of CA

  12. Racial and Ethnic Variation in Time to Prostate Biopsy After an Elevated Screening Level of Serum Prostate-specific Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, Stephanie R; Porter, Kimberly R; Hsu, Jin-Wen Y; Wallner, Lauren P; Loo, Ronald K; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2016-10-01

    To examine the racial and ethnic variation in time to prostate biopsy after an elevated screening level of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Male members of the Kaiser Permanente of Southern California health plan, 45 years of age or older, with no history of prostate cancer or a prostate biopsy, and at least 1 elevated screening level of serum PSA between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2007 were retrospectively identified (n = 59,506). All participants were passively followed via electronic health records until their time of prostate biopsy, death, membership disenrollment, or study conclusion (December 31, 2014), whichever was the initial event. Proportional hazard regression analyses were used to estimate the association between time from an elevated screening level of serum PSA to prostate biopsy, adjusting for age, benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and Charlson Comorbidity Index score. Median time until biopsy was 0.6 years (214 days), with approximately 41% of participants receiving a prostate biopsy within the study period. Results from the fully adjusted analysis indicated that the non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islanders (hazard ratio: 1.10, 95% confidence interval: [1.04, 1.15]) and the non-Hispanic blacks (hazard ratio: 1.04, 95% confidence interval: [1.00, 1.08]) had a slightly shorter time to prostate biopsy after an elevated screening level of serum PSA compared to the non-Hispanic whites. These data suggest that, within an integrated healthcare organization, minimal differences exist between racial and ethnic subgroups in their time to prostate biopsy after an elevated screening level of serum PSA. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as tumor marker in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunnet, M; Sorensen, J B

    2012-05-01

    The use of CEA as a prognostic and predictive marker in patients with lung cancer is widely debated. The aim of this review was to evaluate the results from studies made on this subject. Using the search words "CEA", "tumor markers in lung cancer", "prognostic significance", "diagnostic significance" and "predictive significance", a search was carried out on PubMed. Exclusion criteria was articles never published in English, articles before 1981 and articles evaluating tumor markers in lung cancer not involving CEA. Initially 217 articles were found, and 34 were left after selecting those relevant for the present study. Four of these included both Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) patients, and 31 dealt solely with NSCLC patients. Regarding SCLC no studies showed that serum level of CEA was a prognostic marker for overall survival (OS). The use of CEA serum level as a prognostic marker in NSCLC was investigated in 23 studies and the use of CEA plasma level in two. In 18 (17 serum, 1 plasma) of these studies CEA was found to be a useful prognostic marker for either OS, recurrence after surgery or/and progression free survival (PFS) in NSCLC patients. Interestingly, an overweight of low stage (stage I-II) disease and adenocarcinoma (AC) patients were observed in this group. The remaining 7 studies (6 serum, 1 plasma) contained an overweight of patients with squamous carcinoma (SQ). One study found evidence for that a tumor marker index (TMI), based on preoperative CEA and CYFRA21-1 serum levels, is useful as a prognostic marker for OS in NSCLC. Six studies evaluated the use of CEA as a predictive marker for risk of recurrence and risk of death in NSCLC patients. Four of these studies found, that CEA was useful as a predictive marker for risk of recurrence and risk of death measured over time. No studies found CEA levels useful as a diagnostic marker for lung cancer. With regard to NSCLC the level of CEA measured in tumor tissue in NSCLC patients, were not of prognostic, diagnostic or predictive significance for OS or recurrence after treatment. In one study CEA level was measured in Pleural Lavage Fluid (PLF) it was here found to be useful as prognostic markers for overall survival (OS) after surgery. In conclusion serum level of CEA carries prognostic and predictive information of risk of recurrence and of death in NSCLC independent of treatment or study design. The observation that TMI index could be a potential prognostic marker for OS in NSCLC is interesting. Future studies may benefit from evaluating more than one marker at a time, which may possibly create a more precise index for prognosis and recurrence in lung cancer, than is possible by the use of single biomarkers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as tumor marker in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mie Grunnet; Sorensen, J B

    2012-01-01

    The use of CEA as a prognostic and predictive marker in patients with lung cancer is widely debated. The aim of this review was to evaluate the results from studies made on this subject. Using the search words "CEA", "tumor markers in lung cancer", "prognostic significance", "diagnostic...... significance" and "predictive significance", a search was carried out on PubMed. Exclusion criteria was articles never published in English, articles before 1981 and articles evaluating tumor markers in lung cancer not involving CEA. Initially 217 articles were found, and 34 were left after selecting those...... relevant for the present study. Four of these included both Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) patients, and 31 dealt solely with NSCLC patients. Regarding SCLC no studies showed that serum level of CEA was a prognostic marker for overall survival (OS). The use of CEA...

  15. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyo, H.J.; Kim, S.G.; Shin, Y.T.; Kwon, I.S.; Chung, S.I.; Lee, J.S.; Koh, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    The serum CEA levels were measured by radioimmunoassay technique in 15 patients with chronic renal failure, who were not treated with hemodialysis, in 39 patients under hemodialysis and in 23 patients who received renal transplantation. The results were compared with those in 65 normal adults and the following results were obtained. 1) Serum CEA concentrations in 65 normal adults were in the range of 1.0 to 4.3 ng/ml with a mean value of 1.6+-0.66 ng/ml. 2) Serum CEA concentrations in 15 chronic renal failure patients who were not treated with hemodialysis, were in the range of 0.3 to 8.3 ng/ml with a mean value of 3.6+-2.10 ng/ml which was significantly higher than those of normal controls (P 0.05). 4) In 23 patients who received renal transplantation, serum CEA levels were significantly higher than normal controls (P<0.001), but not significantly different from those of chronic renal failure patients. (author)

  16. Elevated tumour marker: an indication for imaging?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMahon, Colm J

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of imaging examinations in patients with elevated tumour markers when (a) the tumour marker is not validated for as a primary diagnostic test; (b) the patient had no personal history of cancer and (c) the patient had no other imaging indication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients without known cancer who had abnormal carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA125 and\\/or CA15-3 serology over a one-year period were included. A retrospective medical record review was performed to assess the number of these cases who underwent imaging because of \\'elevated tumour marker\\' in the absence of a clinical indication for imaging. The number and result of these imaging studies were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight hundred and nineteen patients were included. Of those, 25 patients (mean age: 67.8 [range 41-91] y), were imaged to evaluate: \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. They underwent 29 imaging studies (mean [+\\/-standard deviation (SD)] per patient = 1.2 [+\\/-0.4]), and had 42 elevated tumour marker serology tests (mean [+\\/-SD] per patient = 1.7 [+\\/-0.7]). Four patients had >1 imaging test. No patient had an imaging study which diagnosed a malignancy or explained the elevated tumour marker. CONCLUSION: The non-judicious use of tumour markers can prompt further unnecessary investigations including imaging. In this study, there was no positive diagnostic yield for imaging performed for investigation of \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. \\'Elevated tumour marker\\

  17. The efficacy of postprostatectomy radiotherapy in patients with an isolated elevation of serum prostate-specific antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Justin J; King, Stephen C; Montana, Gustavo S; McKinstry, Craig A; Anscher, Mitchell S

    1995-05-15

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of radiotherapy (RT) in patients with an isolated elevation of prostate specific antigen (PSA) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods and Materials: Between November 1987 and May 1993, 53 patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate were referred for pelvic RT for an elevated PSA after RP. No patient had clinically or radiographically apparent local or distant disease, nor had any undergone prior androgen ablation. Patients received a median dose of 61.2 Gy to the prostatic bed. An undetectable PSA was required to be considered disease free (NED). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors predictive of becoming disease free after RT. Results: The median follow-up was 15 months. Of the 53 patients, 16 (30%) became NED after RT and 15 (28%) had a declining (n = 11) or stable (n = 4) PSA at last evaluation. The median time after RT to achieve an undetectable PSA was 9.3 months. At 12 and 24 months, the actuarial disease-free survival was 30 and 23%, respectively; actuarial progression-free survival was 71 and 26%, respectively. By univariate analysis, the last PSA level before RT (i.e., the pre-RT PSA) and an undetectable PSA after RP were significant predictors of becoming NED (p = 0.00001 and 0.04, respectively). However, on multivariate analysis, only the pre-RT PSA remained significant (p = 0.01). The mean pre-RT PSA differed significantly between patients who became NED after RT and those who did not (1.5 {+-} 0.2 ng/ml vs. 7.6 {+-} 1.6 ng/ml, respectively; p = 0.018). Fourteen of 27 (52%) patients with pre-RT PSA levels {<=} 2.5 ng/ml became NED, vs. only 2 of 26 (8%) patients with higher levels. There were no severe acute or late sequelae of RT. Conclusion: Prostatic-bed RT for an elevated serum PSA after RP is most effective in patients with a pre-RT PSA {<=} 2.5 ng/ml. Patients with significantly higher PSA values are unlikely to benefit from RT, possibly due to the presence of occult distant

  18. Assessing follow-up care after prostate-specific antigen elevation in American Indian / Alaska Native Men: a partnership approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilburt, Jon C; James, Katherine M; Koller, Kathryn; Lanier, Anne P; Hall, Ingrid J; Smith, Judith Lee; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Nicometo, Ann M; Petersen, Wesley O

    2013-01-01

    Although many studies conducted among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations may help to advance medical science and lead to improvements in health and health care, historically few have endeavored to share their findings, benefits, and/or expected outcomes with the communities in which they are conducted. This perceived lack of responsiveness has contributed to a perception in some AI/AN communities that researchers are disrespectful and may not make community needs a priority. In the context of a study assessing the care received by AI/AN men with incident elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, this paper describes our experience building collaborative relationships, planning, conducting analyses, and disseminating findings with four AI/AN communities. We established formal partnerships with three Northern Plains AI communities and one AN tribal health organization, convened a 12-member Community Advisory Board (CAB), and obtained study approvals from all necessary tribal and institutional review bodies before implementing our study. A menu of options for study implementation was given to key collaborators at each site. CAB members and collaborating tribes contributed to each phase of the study. After data analysis, results were shared with tribal and institutional leaders. Face-to-face communication, flexibility, and adaptability, as well as clearly defined, respectful roles contributed to the success of the study on the part of both the researchers and community partners. This study demonstrates the importance and feasibility of forging collaborative relationships with AI/AN community leaders in regions of Alaska and the Northern Plains in cancer control initiatives for AI/AN men.

  19. Determination of carcinoembryonic antigen levels in peripheral and draining venous blood in patients with colorectal carcinoma Determinação dos níveis do antígeno carcinoembriônico no sangue periférico e no efluente venoso em doentes com carcinoma colorretal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaques Waisberg

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The problem of the relationship between blood carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA levels and tissue CEA content in colorectal carcinoma, and the mechanisms for CEA release from tumor cells in tissue adjacent to the neoplasm is important to understanding the biology of colorectal carcinoma. It has not been adequately explained whether CEA in the peripheral blood is drained mainly by portal system blood or by the lymphatic system, or indeed by both systems. AIM: To study the behavior of CEA levels in peripheral blood (CEA-p and venous effluent blood (CEA-d among patients with colorectal tumors, who underwent curative operation. METHOD: A total of 28 patients were studied (12 male [42.9%] and 16 female [57.1%], mean age 66.1 years [range: 43 - 84]. Immediately after laparotomy, peripheral venous blood was extracted by antecubital venous puncture and venous effluent blood was collected from the main drainage vein of the lesions. Values of CEA-p, CEA-d and the gradient between CEA-d and CEA-p that were less than 5.0 ng/mL were considered normal. RESULTS: Eight (28.6% patients were stage A in Duke's classification, nine (32.1% stage B and 11 (39.3% stage C. The neoplasm was located in the rectum of 14 patients (50.0%, in the transverse colon in five (17.9%, in the sigmoid in four (14.3%, in the cecum and/or ascending colon in three (10.7%, and in the descending colon in two (7.1%. The histopathological examination revealed well-differentiated adenocarcinoma in all the patients. Only one patient (3.6%, Duke's classification stage C, presented neoplasm with venous invasion. The gradient between the CEA-p and CEA-d levels were normal in 25 patients (88.3% and high in three (10.7%. The mean value for CEA-p was 3.8 ± 4.1 ng/mL (0.1-21.1 ng/mL and for the drained CEA (CEA-d it was 4.5 ± 4.3 ng/mL (0.3-20.2 ng/mL, without significant difference between these values. There was a significant difference between the mean value for CEA-p and CEA-d levels

  20. The role of transurethral resection of the prostate for patients with an elevated prostate-specific antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Ju Cho

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: TURP significantly reduced the serum PSA level, which was maintained for at least 3 years. This could be helpful to screen the prostate cancer using PSA value in the patient with previous negative biopsy and elevated PSA. In addition, TURP improves IPSS, Qmax, and PVR in patients with BPH, moderate LUTS, and an elevated PSA level.

  1. Delayed radiation-induced inflammation accompanying a marked carbohydrate antigen 19-9 elevation in a patient with resected pancreatic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattes, Malcolm D.; Cardinal, Jon S.; Jacobson, Geraldine M. [West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Although carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 is a useful tumor marker for pancreatic cancer, it can also become elevated from a variety of benign and malignant conditions. Herein we describe an unusual presentation of elevated CA 19-9 in an asymptomatic patient who had previously undergone adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy for resected early stage pancreatic cancer. The rise in CA 19-9 might be due to delayed radiation-induced inflammation related to previous intra-abdominal radiation therapy with or without radiation recall induced by gemcitabine. After treatment with corticosteroids the CA 19-9 level decreased to normal, and the patient has not developed any evidence of recurrent cancer to date.

  2. Diagnostic Difficulties in Woman with Crohn’s Disease, Ascites, and Elevated Value of Serum CA125 Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kłopocka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Variety of symptoms and atypical clinical course of Crohn’s disease (CD often create the need for additional diagnostic procedures. In the described case of woman with CD, there was a suspicion of coexistence of ovarian cancer. This issue is particularly important in patients treated with immunosuppressants and biological agents. The discussion focused on the usefulness of CA125 (cancer antigen 125, mucin 16 serum level estimation in clinical practice and draws attention to the possible reasons for the increase of its value which is not associated to ovarian cancer.

  3. Radioimmunoassay to determine the cardioembryonic and carbohydrate antigens in the diagnosis of rectal cancer recurrences and metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozhiganov, E.L.; Kuznetsova, L.F.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of the results of measuring the carcinoembryonic and carbohydrate antigens using a kit of reagents in 75 patients with rectal cancer recurrences and metastases. The concentration of these antigens in healthy persons was for CEA 6.4±0.71 μg/l, the carbohydrate antigen - 19.6±2.51 units/ml. In this group of patients rectal cancer local recurrence was found in 52, metastases to the liver in 19 and metastatic involvement of the liver and lungs in 4. An elevated level of the CEA was detected in 92.8% of the patients with cancer recurrence (the mean concentration was 99.9±9.29 μg/l), and in 100% of the patients with metastases (the mean concentration was 193.4±30.42 μg/l). The content of the carbohydrate antigen in cancer recurrences was raised in 21.3% of the cases only, in metastases to the liver in 31.6% and in 2 patients with metastatic liver and lung involvement. Thus, measuring the CEA content turned out to be the most specific and sensitive test for the diagnosis of rectal cancer recurrences and metastases. The use of the carbohydrate antigen for this purpose was found ineffective

  4. Elevated Levels of Serum Tumor Markers CEA and CA15-3 Are Prognostic Parameters for Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yingbo; Sun, Xianfu; He, Yaning; Liu, Chaojun; Liu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The utility of measuring carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) levels in patients with breast cancer remains controversial. The present study aims to investigate the prognostic value of preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels in breast cancer patients. Serum preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 concentration levels were measured in a total of 432 breast cancer patients. The association of tumor markers levels with clinicopathological parameters and outcomes were analyzed. Elevated serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 were identified in 47 (10.9%) and 60(13.9%) patients, respectively. Larger tumor size, advanced axillary lymph nodal and TNM stage exhibited higher proportion of elevated CEA and CA15-3 levels. The elevation of CEA levels was significantly greater in patients with HER2 positive tumors, and the elevation of CA15-3 levels was significantly greater in ER negative breast patients. Univariate and multivariate Cox's regression analysis revealed that elevated preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 levels were independent prognostic factors for DFS and OS. When considering the combination of both markers levels, patients with both elevated markers presented the worst survival. Independent prognostic significance of elevated preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels were reconfirmed in Luminal B breast cancer. Preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 are independent prognostic parameters for breast cancer.

  5. Elevated Levels of Serum Tumor Markers CEA and CA15-3 Are Prognostic Parameters for Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingbo Shao

    Full Text Available The utility of measuring carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3 levels in patients with breast cancer remains controversial. The present study aims to investigate the prognostic value of preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels in breast cancer patients.Serum preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 concentration levels were measured in a total of 432 breast cancer patients. The association of tumor markers levels with clinicopathological parameters and outcomes were analyzed.Elevated serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 were identified in 47 (10.9% and 60(13.9% patients, respectively. Larger tumor size, advanced axillary lymph nodal and TNM stage exhibited higher proportion of elevated CEA and CA15-3 levels. The elevation of CEA levels was significantly greater in patients with HER2 positive tumors, and the elevation of CA15-3 levels was significantly greater in ER negative breast patients. Univariate and multivariate Cox's regression analysis revealed that elevated preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 levels were independent prognostic factors for DFS and OS. When considering the combination of both markers levels, patients with both elevated markers presented the worst survival. Independent prognostic significance of elevated preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels were reconfirmed in Luminal B breast cancer.Preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 are independent prognostic parameters for breast cancer.

  6. Metastatic prostate cancer with elevated serum levels of CEA and CA19-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Dar Juang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA is well known as a specific tumor marker for prostate cancer, but carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA- and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9-elevating adenocarcinomas originating in the prostate gland are rare. We report a case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland with a high serum level of CEA and CA19-9 in a 78-year-old man in whom prostate cancer (T3N1M1 had been diagnosed 2 years ago and who was treated with androgen deprivation therapy. He visited the emergency department because of a loss of appetite and abdominal pain. The serum CEA and CA19-9 levels were increased to 218.9 ng/mL (normal, <5 ng/mL and 212 ng/mL (normal, <27 ng/mL, respectively. The serum PSA level was slightly elevated (4.41 ng/mL. Computed tomography demonstrated multiple liver metastases, para-aortic lymph node enlargement, and lung metastases. A liver biopsy was performed and the specimen showed high-grade adenocarcinoma with focal positive staining for PSA. Despite chemotherapy with docetaxel, the patient died 3 months after treatment. Based on this case and a review of the literature, an aggressive variant of prostatic carcinoma with a high serum level of CEA and CA19-9 and a low PSA level was shown to progress rapidly with a poor prognosis.

  7. The Potential Ability of Plaster to Cause Breast Cancer as Indicated by CA15-3 and CEA Antigens in Women Working in Gypsum Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdul Hussein S. AL-Janabi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plaster is an important form of gypsum that mainly used in building construction. Breast cancer was investigated among women exposure to the dust of such material. The levels of CA15-3 and carcinoembryonic antigens (CEA as indicators for breast cancer were measured in the serum of 120 women working in a plaster factory. All of involved women showed a normal level of CEA, while 12.5% of them had moderately elevated levels of CA15-3. In conclusion; plaster dust has no significant effect to cause breast cancer in working women. Moderately high levels of CA15-3 in some of exposed women may relate to liver diseases. Key words: Breast Cancer, Plaster, CA15-3, CEA

  8. Hookah smoking and cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in exclusive/ever hookah smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Khan Mohammad; Chaouachi, Kamal; Mahmood, Rubaida

    2008-05-24

    We have recently published some work on CEA levels in hookah (also called narghile, shisha elsewhere) and cigarette smokers. Hookah smokers had higher levels of CEA than non-smokers although mean levels were low compared to cigarette smokers. However some of them were also users of other tobacco products (cigarettes, bidis, etc.). To find serum CEA levels in ever/exclusive hookah smokers, i.e. those who smoked only hookah (no cigarettes, bidis, etc.), prepared between 1 and 4 times a day with a quantity of up to 120 g of a tobacco-molasses mixture each (i.e. the tobacco weight equivalent of up to 60 cigarettes of 1 g each) and consumed in 1 to 8 sessions. Enhanced chemiluminescent immunometric technique was applied to measure CEA levels in serum samples from 59 exclusive male smokers with age ranging from 20-80 years (mean = 58.8 +/- 14.7 years) and 8-65 years of smoking (mean = 37.7 +/- 16.8). 36 non-smokers served as controls. Subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the number of preparations; the number of sessions and the total daily smoking time: Light (1; 1; 20 min to smokers (2-4; 3-8; >2 hrs to smokers (mean: 3.58 +/- 2.61 ng/ml; n = 59) were not significantly different (p non-smokers (2.35 +/- 0.71 ng/ml). Mean levels in light, medium and heavy smokers were: 1.06 +/- 0.492 ng/ml (n = 5); 2.52 +/- 1.15 ng/ml (n = 28) and 5.11 +/- 3.08 ng/ml (n = 26) respectively. The levels in medium smokers and non-smokers were also not significantly different (p smokers, the CEA levels were significantly higher than in non-smokers (p smokers were low compared to cigarette smokers. However, heavy hookah smoking substantially raises CEA levels. Low-nitrosamines smokeless tobacco of the SNUS Swedish type could be envisaged as an alternative to smoking for this category of users and also, in a broad harm reduction perspective, to the prevalent low-quality moist snuff called naswar.

  9. Hookah smoking and cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in exclusive/ever hookah smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Sajid, Khan Mohammad; Chaouachi, Kamal; Mahmood, Rubaida

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background We have recently published some work on CEA levels in hookah (also called narghile, shisha elsewhere) and cigarette smokers. Hookah smokers had higher levels of CEA than non-smokers although mean levels were low compared to cigarette smokers. However some of them were also users of other tobacco products (cigarettes, bidis, etc.). Objectives To find serum CEA levels in ever/exclusive hookah smokers, i.e. those who smoked only hookah (no cigarettes, bidis, etc.), prepared b...

  10. Hookah smoking and cancer: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA levels in exclusive/ever hookah smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaouachi Kamal

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently published some work on CEA levels in hookah (also called narghile, shisha elsewhere and cigarette smokers. Hookah smokers had higher levels of CEA than non-smokers although mean levels were low compared to cigarette smokers. However some of them were also users of other tobacco products (cigarettes, bidis, etc.. Objectives To find serum CEA levels in ever/exclusive hookah smokers, i.e. those who smoked only hookah (no cigarettes, bidis, etc., prepared between 1 and 4 times a day with a quantity of up to 120 g of a tobacco-molasses mixture each (i.e. the tobacco weight equivalent of up to 60 cigarettes of 1 g each and consumed in 1 to 8 sessions. Methods Enhanced chemiluminescent immunometric technique was applied to measure CEA levels in serum samples from 59 exclusive male smokers with age ranging from 20–80 years (mean = 58.8 ± 14.7 years and 8–65 years of smoking (mean = 37.7 ± 16.8. 36 non-smokers served as controls. Subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the number of preparations; the number of sessions and the total daily smoking time: Light (1; 1; ≤ 20 minutes; Medium (1–3; 1–3; >20 min to ≤ 2 hrs and Heavy smokers (2–4; 3–8; >2 hrs to ≤ 6 hrs. Because of the nature of distribution of CEA levels among our individuals, Wilcoxon's rank sum two-sample test was applied to compare the variables. Results The overall CEA levels in exclusive hookah smokers (mean: 3.58 ± 2.61 ng/ml; n = 59 were not significantly different (p ≤ 0.0937 from the levels in non-smokers (2.35 ± 0.71 ng/ml. Mean levels in light, medium and heavy smokers were: 1.06 ± 0.492 ng/ml (n = 5; 2.52 ± 1.15 ng/ml (n = 28 and 5.11 ± 3.08 ng/ml (n = 26 respectively. The levels in medium smokers and non-smokers were also not significantly different (p ≤ 0.9138. In heavy smokers, the CEA levels were significantly higher than in non-smokers (p ≤ 0.0001567. Conclusion Overall CEA levels in exclusive hookah smokers were low compared to cigarette smokers. However, heavy hookah smoking substantially raises CEA levels. Low-nitrosamines smokeless tobacco of the SNUS Swedish type could be envisaged as an alternative to smoking for this category of users and also, in a broad harm reduction perspective, to the prevalent low-quality moist snuff called naswar.

  11. Comparative Study of Carcinoembryonic Antigen Tumor Marker in Stomach and Colon Cancer Patients in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Bashir; Gul, Bushra; Ali, Sajid; Bashir, Shumaila; Mahmood, Nourin; Ahmad, Jamshed; Nawaz, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increase in morbidity and mortality rate, cancer has become an alarming threat to the human population worldwide. Since cancer is a progressive disorder, timely diagnosis would be helpful to prevent/stop cancer from progressing to severe stage. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, most of the time, tumors are diagnosed with endoscopy and biopsy; therefore rare studies exist regarding the diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GIT) carcinomas based on tumor markers, especially CEA. This study made a comparative analysis of CEA in admitted hospitalized stomach and colon cancer patients diagnosed as GIT with biopsy. In this study, a total of 66 cases were included. The level of CEA was determined in the blood of these patients using ELISA technique. Out of 66 patients, the level of CEA was high in 59.1% of the total, 60.7% in colon cancer patients and 57.9 % in stomach cancer patients. Moreover, the incidence of colorectal and stomach cancer was greater in males as compared to females. Patients were more of the age group of 40- 60 and the level of CEA was comparatively higher in patients (51.5%) with histology which was moderately differentiated, than patients with well differentiated and poorly differentiated tumor histology. CEA level was high in more than 50% of the total patients. Moreover, CEA exhibited higher sensitivity for colon than stomach cancer.

  12. Evaluation of detection methodology for carcinoembryonic antigen and application of CEA in diagnosis of gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Enlan; Li Tao

    2005-01-01

    To compare the specificity and sensitivity of different methods in detection of CEA, and to investigate the application of CEA detection in diagnosis of gastric cancer, CEA in serum of 36 patients with gastric cancer and 20 negtive reference serum was detected by ELISA, TR- FIA, RIA and CLIA. The results showed that the specificity of these 4 methods was all 100% and the sensitivity of ELISA was the lowest (19.4%) while CLIA was the highest (44.4%). Therefore, the sensitivity of ELISA should be raised and CEA, besides used as an observation index for curative effects in a part of gastric cancer patients, can not be used in diagnosis of gastric cancer. (authors)

  13. Thyroid hormones and carcinoembryonic antigen in persons with a high risk of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetukhina, E.S.; Bukhteeva, N.F.; Sapozhkova, L.P.; Maripova, Eh.M.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt was made to study CEA and thyroid hormones in high risk groups as there is evidence of their change in lung cancer patients. A questionnaire to distinguish between 4 types of the probability of lung cancer development and a method of radioimmunoassay to study the concentration of CEA and thyroid hormones in the blood serum were used. A high risk group included 320 practically healthy persons, a control group 108 patients with verified lung cancer. The results of the study have shown that the concentration of CEA and thyroid hormones increases more often in persons of the high risk group with noncancerous diseases than in persons without pathological pulmonary changes. With an increase in the degree of probability the frequency of a high concentration of CEA and thyroid hormones grows. The older the persons with a high risk of lung cancer, the higher the frequency of concentration of the thyroid hormones. Studies of CEA and thyroid hormones can be used for dynamic observation of persons with a high risk of lung cancer

  14. Tumor, serum and urine carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in upper urinary tract urothelial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovic, V.; Ignjatovic, M.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the possible diagnostic value of a CEA test in cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter. Thirty-eight patients with upper urinary tract cancer, 15 patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, 6 kidney carcinoma patients and 25 healthy adults were studied. CEA was determined in tumor tissue, serum and urine, by using a monoclonal radioimmunoassay. Increased serum CEA level was found in 7 out of 27 patients (26%) with active cancer of the renal pelvis and ureter. None of 11 patients with inactive cancer had an increased serum CEA level. No significant correlation was found between the serum CEA level and the histological grading. The tumor CEA content varied markedly, from values obtainted in normal urothelium up to 840 ng/g wet weight. CEA content of tumor tissue did not correlate with the serum level. Our data suggest that serum and urine CEA have not diagnostic accuracy for clinical diagnosis of upper tract urothelial cancer. (orig.) [de

  15. Further development of the radioimmunoassay for carcinoembryonic antigen and the use of the measurement of the carcinoembryonic antigen in stools. Weiterentwicklung des Radioimmunoassay fuer carcino-embryonales Antigen und Anwendung auf die Messung von carcino-embryonalem Antigen im Stuhl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britsch, R F

    1982-01-01

    A specific, direct CEA-RTA is presented with sequential saturation and double antibody separation and using guinea pig CEA anti-serums, whose isolated CEA was marked with /sup 125/I for tracer production and used as was for a CEA standard. This RIA was tested on serum from patients with colorectal and stomach-esophagus carcinomas and from healthy persons, whereby it showed a good sensitivity in comparison to control serums on the market. CEA is also present in a high concentration in the stools, however very nonhomogeneously distributed, by patients as well as healthy persons. An increased stool CEA value does not necessarily indicate a carcinomatic disease or even a preliminary stage. During a screening a carcinomatic intestinal disorder should not be looked for intensively unless there are first several positive stool CEA values or additional positive blood evidence in the stool. Simultaneously carried out determinations of serum and stool CEA allows for the discovery of more patients as the use of only one. (TRV)

  16. Elevated levels of serum tumor markers CA 15-3 and CEA are prognostic factors for diagnosis of metastatic breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Sang; Park, Seho; Park, Ji Min; Cho, Jung Hoon; Kim, Seung Il; Park, Byeong-Woo

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the prognostic value of tumor markers, cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels at diagnosis of systemic recurrence. After primary treatments of locoregional breast cancers, serum CA 15-3 and/or CEA concentrations were regularly measured, and systemic recurrences were identified in 351 patients between January 1999 and December 2009. The association between tumor marker levels at systemic recurrence and survival were investigated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Elevated CA 15-3 and CEA levels were identified in 194 of 349 (55.6 %) and 111 of 308 (36.0 %) patients, respectively, at diagnosis of systemic recurrence. Elevated levels of CA 15-3 and CEA were correlated with visceral or multiple recurrences and elevated preoperative levels. Elevation of CA 15-3 was more prominent in younger patients and in primary node-positive tumors, while CEA was elevated in older patients at diagnosis and in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors. Elevated tumor markers as well as ER negativity, short disease-free interval, and advanced stage at initial diagnosis showed independent prognostic significance on multivariate analysis. Among 306 patients for whom levels of both tumor markers at recurrence were available, 106 patients without elevation of either marker showed significantly better overall survival than those with elevated levels of either one or both markers, and the significance persisted in multivariate analysis. Elevated serum CA 15-3 and CEA levels at recurrence suggest increased tumor burden and may be prognostic for survival for metastatic breast cancer patients.

  17. An alphavirus vector overcomes the presence of neutralizing antibodies and elevated numbers of Tregs to induce immune responses in humans with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Michael A; Hobeika, Amy C; Osada, Takuya; Berglund, Peter; Hubby, Bolyn; Negri, Sarah; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Devi, Gayathri R; Burnett, Bruce K; Clay, Timothy M; Smith, Jonathan; Lyerly, H Kim

    2010-09-01

    Therapeutic anticancer vaccines are designed to boost patients' immune responses to tumors. One approach is to use a viral vector to deliver antigen to in situ DCs, which then activate tumor-specific T cell and antibody responses. However, vector-specific neutralizing antibodies and suppressive cell populations such as Tregs remain great challenges to the efficacy of this approach. We report here that an alphavirus vector, packaged in virus-like replicon particles (VRP) and capable of efficiently infecting DCs, could be repeatedly administered to patients with metastatic cancer expressing the tumor antigen carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and that it overcame high titers of neutralizing antibodies and elevated Treg levels to induce clinically relevant CEA-specific T cell and antibody responses. The CEA-specific antibodies mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against tumor cells from human colorectal cancer metastases. In addition, patients with CEA-specific T cell responses exhibited longer overall survival. These data suggest that VRP-based vectors can overcome the presence of neutralizing antibodies to break tolerance to self antigen and may be clinically useful for immunotherapy in the setting of tumor-induced immunosuppression.

  18. Endorectal coil MRI and MR-spectroscopic imaging in patients with elevated serum prostate specific antigen with negative trus transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Ahmad Ganie

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Prostatic biopsy directed with endorectal coil MRI and MR-spectroscopic imaging findings in patients with elevated serum PSA and prior negative biopsy, improves the early diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma and accurate localization of prostate cancer within the gland.

  19. Evaluation of ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G for distinguishing malignant ascites from benign ascites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Juan; Chang, Yan-Xiang; Niu, Chun-Yan

    2017-11-01

    The overexpression of soluble human leukocyte antigen-G is associated with malignant tumours. The purpose of our study was to detect soluble human leukocyte antigen-G concentrations in ascites and to evaluate the value of ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G for the diagnosis of malignant ascites. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect soluble human leukocyte antigen-G levels in 64 patients with malignant ascites and 30 patients with benign ascites. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G for the detection of malignant ascites. Ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G levels were significantly higher in the malignant ascites group than in the benign ascites group (20.718 ± 3.215 versus 12.467 ± 3.678 µg/L, t = 7.425, p human leukocyte antigen-G was 0.957 (95% confidence interval, 0.872-0.992). At a cut-off value of 19.60 µg/L, the sensitivity and specificity of ascitic soluble human leukocyte antigen-G were 87.5% (95% confidence interval, 71.0%-96.5%) and 100% (95% confidence interval, 88.4%-100%), respectively. With respect to area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity and specificity, ascitic carcinoembryonic antigen (0.810, 68.75% and 83.33%, respectively) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (0.710, 65.63% and 70%, respectively) significantly differed (all p human leukocyte antigen-G was 75%, which was higher than the corresponding rates for ascitic carcinoembryonic antigen (31.25%) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (6.25%; both p human leukocyte antigen-G exhibited good performance for diagnosing malignant ascites, and particularly those that were cytology-negative and biopsy-positive.

  20. Early observed transient prostate-specific antigen elevations on a pilot study of external beam radiation therapy and fractionated MRI guided High Dose Rate brachytherapy boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anurag K; Godette, Denise J; Stall, Bronwyn R; Coleman, C Norman; Camphausen, Kevin; Ménard, Cynthia; Guion, Peter; Susil, Robert C; Citrin, Deborah E; Ning, Holly; Miller, Robert W; Ullman, Karen; Smith, Sharon; Crouse, Nancy Sears

    2006-01-01

    To report early observation of transient PSA elevations on this pilot study of external beam radiation therapy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost. Eleven patients with intermediate-risk and high-risk localized prostate cancer received MRI guided HDR brachytherapy (10.5 Gy each fraction) before and after a course of external beam radiotherapy (46 Gy). Two patients continued on hormones during follow-up and were censored for this analysis. Four patients discontinued hormone therapy after RT. Five patients did not receive hormones. PSA bounce is defined as a rise in PSA values with a subsequent fall below the nadir value or to below 20% of the maximum PSA level. Six previously published definitions of biochemical failure to distinguish true failure from were tested: definition 1, rise >0.2 ng/mL; definition 2, rise >0.4 ng/mL; definition 3, rise >35% of previous value; definition 4, ASTRO defined guidelines, definition 5 nadir + 2 ng/ml, and definition 6, nadir + 3 ng/ml. Median follow-up was 24 months (range 18–36 mo). During follow-up, the incidence of transient PSA elevation was: 55% for definition 1, 44% for definition 2, 55% for definition 3, 33% for definition 4, 11% for definition 5, and 11% for definition 6. We observed a substantial incidence of transient elevations in PSA following combined external beam radiation and HDR brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Such elevations seem to be self-limited and should not trigger initiation of salvage therapies. No definition of failure was completely predictive

  1. Should modest elevations in prostate-specific antigen, International Prostate Symptom Score, or their rates of increase over time be used as surrogate measures of incident benign prostatic hyperplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Jeannette M; Hunter-Merrill, Rachel; Zheng, Yingye; Etzioni, Ruth; Gulati, Roman; Tangen, Catherine; Thompson, Ian M; Kristal, Alan R

    2013-09-01

    Although surrogate measures of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are often used in epidemiologic studies, their performance characteristics are unknown. Using data from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (n = 5,986), we evaluated prostate-specific antigen (PSA), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and their rates of change as predictors of incident BPH. BPH (n = 842 cases) was defined as medical or surgical treatment or at least 2 IPSS of 15 or higher. Proportional hazards models were used to measure the associations of baseline PSA, IPSS, and their velocities over 2 years with BPH risk, and time-dependent receiver-operating characteristic curves were used to measure their discriminatory performance. Unit increases in PSA, IPSS, and IPSS velocity were associated with 34%, 35%, and 29% (all P specificity were both above 75%. We concluded that moderate elevations in PSA, IPSS, or their rates of change should not be used as surrogate measures of incident BPH.

  2. Elevated prostate specific antigen and reduced 10-year survival among a cohort of Danish men consecutively referred from primary care to an urological department during 2005-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillig, Thore; Nielsen, Torben Kjær; Hansen, Steen Ingemann

    2017-01-01

    It remains unclear whether total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) or complex PSA (cPSA) has the best diagnostic performance. Additionally, the utility of percentage free PSA (%fPSA) is still debated. Our objectives were to compare the diagnostic performances of tPSA, cPSA, and %fPSA among patients...... diagnosed with PCa and 962 patients were found without PCa. Among the PCa patients, the median age, tPSA, cPSA, and %fPSA levels were 70.8 years, 13.4 μg/L, 10.8 μg/L, and 12.6%. For patients without PCa the results were 67.5 years, 2.5 μg/L, 1.9 μg/L, and 24.9%. The sensitivity, specificity, PVpos, PVneg......, and efficiency of tPSA and cPSA were overlapping (p > .05). In the tPSA interval >4 μg/L - ≤20 μg/L, %fPSA excluded PCa with a PVneg of 72.4%; 38.5% of PCa patients had a tPSA concentration >20 μg/L at the time of referral and these patients had a reduced 10-year survival as compared to patients with tPSA...

  3. Combinations of elevated tissue miRNA-17-92 cluster expression and serum prostate-specific antigen as potential diagnostic biomarkers for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Sujuan; Qian, Xiaosong; Li, Han; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of the miR-17-92 cluster as a disease progression marker in prostate cancer (PCa). Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to detect the microRNA (miR)-17-92 cluster expression levels in tissues from patients with PCa or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), in addition to in PCa and BPH cell lines. Spearman correlation was used for comparison and estimation of correlations between miRNA expression levels and clinicopathological characteristics such as the Gleason score and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was performed for evaluation of specificity and sensitivity of miR-17-92 cluster expression levels for discriminating patients with PCa from patients with BPH. Kaplan-Meier analysis was plotted to investigate the predictive potential of miR-17-92 cluster for PCa biochemical recurrence. Expression of the majority of miRNAs in the miR-17-92 cluster was identified to be significantly increased in PCa tissues and cell lines. Bivariate correlation analysis indicated that the high expression of unregulated miRNAs was positively correlated with Gleason grade, but had no significant association with PSA. ROC curves demonstrated that high expression of miR-17-92 cluster predicted a higher diagnostic accuracy compared with PSA. Improved discriminating quotients were observed when combinations of unregulated miRNAs with PSA were used. Survival analysis confirmed a high combined miRNA score of miR-17-92 cluster was associated with shorter biochemical recurrence interval. miR-17-92 cluster could be a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for PCa, and the combination of the miR-17-92 cluster and serum PSA may enhance the accuracy for diagnosis of PCa.

  4. Elevated insulin and reduced insulin like growth factor binding protein-3/prostate specific antigen ratio with increase in prostate size in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasulu, Karli; Nandeesha, Hanumanthappa; Dorairajan, Lalgudi Narayanan; Rajappa, Medha; Vinayagam, Vickneshwaran

    2017-06-01

    Insulin and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have growth promoting effects, while insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) has growth inhibitory effects. The present study was designed to assess the concentrations of insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and their association with prostate size in patients with BPH. Ninety 90 BPH cases and 90 controls were enrolled in the study. Insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, PSA, testosterone and estradiol were estimated in both the groups. Insulin, IGF-1 and estradiol were increased and IGFBP-3/PSA was decreased in BPH cases when compared with controls. Insulin (r=0.64, p=0.001) and IGF-1 (r=0.22, p=0.03) were positively correlated and IGFBP-3/PSA (r=-0.316, p=0.002) were negatively correlated with prostate size in BPH. Multivariate analysis showed that insulin (p=0.001) and IGFBP-3/PSA (p=0.004) predicts the prostate size in patients with BPH. Insulin was increased and IGFBP-3/PSA was reduced in BPH patients with increased prostate size. At a cutoff concentration of 527.52, IGFBP-3/PSA ratio was found to differentiate benign growth of prostate from normal prostate with 96% sensitivity and 96% specificity. Insulin is elevated and IGFBP-3/PSA is reduced with increase prostate size in BPH cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Case of Radiation Fibrosis Appearing as Mass-Like Consolidation after SBRT with Elevation of Serum CEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Terashima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of radiation fibrosis appearing as mass-like consolidation, which was difficult to distinguish from local recurrence. A 72-year-old woman was diagnosed as having primary lung cancer (cT1N0M0 stage IA in the right upper lobe and was treated with SBRT of 48 Gy in 4 fractions. After 12 months, mass-like consolidation appeared around the irradiated area, and after 13 months, it had increased in size. FDG-PET revealed high uptake (SUV max=5.61 for the consolidation. CT-guided biopsy was performed, but we could not confirm the diagnosis. Considering her poor respiratory function and her age, short-interval follow-up was performed. After 15 months, the consolidation enlarged at the dorsal side, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA became elevated (14.6 ng/mL. Serum KL-6 (436 U/mL and SP-D (204 ng/mL were also elevated. However, after 16 months, serum CEA slightly decreased. The consolidation gradually retracted on follow-up CT images. CEA, KL-6, and SP-D were also decreased by degrees. After 40 months, there is no evidence of local recurrence.

  6. Description of a computer program to assess cancer antigen 15.3, carcinoembryonic antigen, and tissue polypeptide antigen information during monitoring of metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sölétormos, G; Schiøler, V

    2000-01-01

    It is time-consuming to process and compare the clinical and marker information registered during monitoring of breast cancer patients. To facilitate the assessment, we developed a computer program for interpreting consecutive measurements. The intraindividual biological variation, the analytical...... and presented graphically. Marker concentrations to be compared are selected with the computer mouse and the significance of the difference is calculated by the program. The program has an option for calculating the lead time of marker signals vs clinical information. The program facilitates the monitoring...

  7. Elevating your elevator talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  8. Elevated Levels of Serum Tumor Markers CEA and CA15-3 Are Prognostic Parameters for Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Yingbo; Sun, Xianfu; He, Yaning; Liu, Chaojun; Liu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The utility of measuring carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) levels in patients with breast cancer remains controversial. The present study aims to investigate the prognostic value of preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels in breast cancer patients. Methods Serum preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 concentration levels were measured in a total of 432 breast cancer patients. The association of tumor markers levels with clinicopathological parameters and ...

  9. Clinical efficacy of transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy in men younger than 50 years old with an elevated prostate-specific antigen concentration (>4.0 ng/mL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chin-Heng; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Shen, She Huei; Huang, Yi-Hsiu; Chung, Hsiao-Jen; Kuo, Junne-Yih; Huang, William J S; Wu, Howard H H; Chang, Yen-Hwa; Lin, Alex T L; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2017-07-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is not commonly found in men younger than 50 years of age. However, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration has been examined more frequently at a younger age in Asia partially due to an increased awareness of prostate cancer. The purpose of our study was to investigate the efficacy and complication of PSA-triggered transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate (TRUSP) biopsies. We retrospectively reviewed TRUSP biopsies in young men with elevated PSA concentration in Taipei Veterans General Hospital. We reviewed the cases of patients younger than 50 years of age with elevated PSA concentration (>4.0 ng/mL), who received 12 cores TRUSP biopsies at TPEVGH from January 2008-December 2013. The age, family history, digital rectal examination (DRE) results, PSA concentration, free/total PSA ratio, total prostate volume, PSA density, lower urinary tract symptoms and complications after the procedure were reviewed. The pathologic findings of TRUSP biopsy and clinical follow-up were reviewed and analyzed according to the Epstein criteria. A total of 77 patients were included and were divided into 2 groups: 1) the younger group consisted of 20 patients <40 years of age; and 2) the elder group had 57 patients who were 40-50 years of age. The overall detection rate of PCa was 11.69% (9/77), and all of the PCa cases were diagnosed in the elder group (group detection rate: 15.8%). There was a significant difference in the severity of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) between these 2 groups. All PCa patients were clinically significant according to the Epstein criteria. Two patients experienced fever (2.60%) after TRUSP biopsy. From our patient cohort, it appears that no benefit was apparent for patients younger than 40 years old who received TRUSP biopsy, even with elevated PSA. However, PCa detected in men between 40 and 50 years of age were all clinically significant. Overall, our results supported current major practice guidelines which

  10. Increasing vaccine potency through exosome antigen targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Zachary C; Wei, Junping; Glass, Oliver K; Guo, Hongtao; Lei, Gangjun; Yang, Xiao-Yi; Osada, Takuya; Hobeika, Amy; Delcayre, Alain; Le Pecq, Jean-Bernard; Morse, Michael A; Clay, Timothy M; Lyerly, Herbert K

    2011-11-21

    While many tumor associated antigens (TAAs) have been identified in human cancers, efforts to develop efficient TAA "cancer vaccines" using classical vaccine approaches have been largely ineffective. Recently, a process to specifically target proteins to exosomes has been established which takes advantage of the ability of the factor V like C1C2 domain of lactadherin to specifically address proteins to exosomes. Using this approach, we hypothesized that TAAs could be targeted to exosomes to potentially increase their immunogenicity, as exosomes have been demonstrated to traffic to antigen presenting cells (APC). To investigate this possibility, we created adenoviral vectors expressing the extracellular domain (ECD) of two non-mutated TAAs often found in tumors of cancer patients, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and HER2, and coupled them to the C1C2 domain of lactadherin. We found that these C1C2 fusion proteins had enhanced expression in exosomes in vitro. We saw significant improvement in antigen specific immune responses to each of these antigens in naïve and tolerant transgenic animal models and could further demonstrate significantly enhanced therapeutic anti-tumor effects in a human HER2+ transgenic animal model. These findings demonstrate that the mode of secretion and trafficking can influence the immunogenicity of different human TAAs, and may explain the lack of immunogenicity of non-mutated TAAs found in cancer patients. They suggest that exosomal targeting could enhance future anti-tumor vaccination protocols. This targeting exosome process could also be adapted for the development of more potent vaccines in some viral and parasitic diseases where the classical vaccine approach has demonstrated limitations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Elevated C-reactive protein and hypoalbuminemia measured before resection of colorectal liver metastases predict postoperative survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takashi; Teruya, Masanori; Kishiki, Tomokazu; Endo, Daisuke; Takenaka, Yoshiharu; Miki, Kenji; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Morita, Koji

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have investigated whether the Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), an inflammation-based prognostic score measured before resection of colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM), can predict postoperative survival. Sixty-three consecutive patients who underwent curative resection for CRLM were investigated. GPS was calculated on the basis of admission data as follows: patients with both an elevated C-reactive protein (>10 mg/l) and hypoalbuminemia (l) were allocated a GPS score of 2. Patients in whom only one of these biochemical abnormalities was present were allocated a GPS score of 1, and patients with a normal C-reactive protein and albumin were allocated a score of 0. Significant factors concerning survival were the number of liver metastases (p = 0.0044), carcinoembryonic antigen level (p = 0.0191), GPS (p = 0.0029), grade of liver metastasis (p = 0.0033), and the number of lymph node metastases around the primary cancer (p = 0.0087). Multivariate analysis showed the two independent prognostic variables: liver metastases > or =3 (relative risk 2.83) and GPS1/2 (relative risk 3.07). GPS measured before operation and the number of liver metastases may be used as novel predictors of postoperative outcomes in patients who underwent curative resection for CRLM. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. [A study of growth and malignancy grading of stomach and colorectal cancers by serial serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umehara, Y; Miyahara, T; Yoshida, M; Isobe, S; Oba, N; Harada, Y

    1990-06-01

    Changes in serum CEA levels were analyzed on a time-course basis in 33 patients with stomach cancer and 20 patients with colorectal cancer. A linear relationship between log CEA and time could be evaluated and individual CEA doubling time (CEA D.T.) was calculated. The results obtained are as follows. 1) The CEA D.T. was not constant from the onset of the disease to death in stomach cancer and colorectal cancer. 2) The CEA D.T. was distributed widely with 5 to 140 days in stomach cancer and 8 to 134 days in colorectal cancer. It tended to be shortened at the terminal stage in both tumors. 3) In terms of age, sex and histology, the CEA D.T. tended to be short in the young, female and poorly differentiated cancer. These background appeared to have an influence on the growth of tumor. 4) The CEA D.T. was well correlated with the period of survival of the patients with gastric cancer (r = 0.636, p less than 0.001). The analysis of serial CEA levels on a time-course basis is considered useful in studying the relationship between tumor-bearing hosts and malignancy of the tumor.

  13. Protein expression levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in Danish ovarian cancer patients: from the Danish 'MALOVA'ovarian cancer study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogdall, E.V.; Christensen, L.; Blaakaer, J.

    2008-01-01

    from 189 women diagnosed with low malignant potential ovarian tumours (LMP, borderline ovarian tumours) and 571 women diagnosed with ovarian cancer (OC). RESULTS: Using 30% as the cut-off level for CEA over-expression, 18% of LMPs and 4% of OCs were positive. A higher proportion of mucinous tumours...... (I to IV), the highest CEA expression compared with no expression was found to be a prognostic factor (level 3 versus negative: HR = 2.12, 95%CI 1.11-4.05). FIGO stage, residual tumour after primary surgery, age at diagnosis, other histological types versus serous adenocarcinoma and low versus high...

  14. Monoclonal carcinoembryonic antigen radioimmunoassay in prostatic cancer: Validation of the method and comparison to some other tumor-associated markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovic, V.; Ignjatovic, M.; Milosavljevic, B.; Dinic, A.; Nis Univ.

    1987-01-01

    The use of a monoclonal CEA RIA and of some other biological markers for a diagnosis of prostatic cancer was investigated. The increased level of serum CEA was found in both prostatic cancer and in non-malignant disease. The low sensitivity of the CEA monoclonal assay precludes its use for a clinical diagnosis of prostatic cancer. The simultaneous use of some other biological markers (PAP, TPA, β2-microglobulin and ferritin) did increase sensitivity. However, further studies should be directed to a much more specific and sensitive marker of the human prostatic adenocarcinoma. (orig.) [de

  15. Monoclonal carcinoembryonic antigen radioimmunoassay in prostatic cancer: Validation of the method and comparison to some other tumor-associated markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovic, V; Ignjatovic, M; Milosavljevic, B; Dinic, A

    1987-04-01

    The use of a monoclonal CEA RIA and of some other biological markers for a diagnosis of prostatic cancer was investigated. The increased level of serum CEA was found in both prostatic cancer and in non-malignant disease. The low sensitivity of the CEA monoclonal assay precludes its use for a clinical diagnosis of prostatic cancer. The simultaneous use of some other biological markers (PAP, TPA, ..beta..2-microglobulin and ferritin) did increase sensitivity. However, further studies should be directed to a much more specific and sensitive marker of the human prostatic adenocarcinoma.

  16. Drug-resistant colon cancer cells produce high carcinoembryonic antigen and might not be cancer-initiating cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lee HC; Ling QD; Yu WC; Hung CM; Kao TC; Huang YW; Higuchi A

    2013-01-01

    Hsin-chung Lee,1,2 Qing-Dong Ling,1,3 Wan-Chun Yu,4 Chunh-Ming Hung,4 Ta-Chun Kao,4 Yi-Wei Huang,4 Akon Higuchi3–51Graduate Institute of Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan, 2Department of Surgery, Cathay General Hospital, Da'an District, Taipei, 3Cathay Medical Research Institute, Cathay General Hospital, Hsi-Chi City, Taipei, 4Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan, Taiwa...

  17. Immunity to tumour antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geng; Ali, Selman A; McArdle, Stephanie E B; Mian, Shahid; Ahmad, Murrium; Miles, Amanda; Rees, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade, a large number of human tumour antigens have been identified. These antigens are classified as tumour-specific shared antigens, tissue-specific differentiation antigens, overexpressed antigens, tumour antigens resulting from mutations, viral antigens and fusion proteins. Antigens recognised by effectors of immune system are potential targets for antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy. However, most tumour antigens are self-proteins and are generally of low immunogenicity and the immune response elicited towards these tumour antigens is not always effective. Strategies to induce and enhance the tumour antigen-specific response are needed. This review will summarise the approaches to discovery of tumour antigens, the current status of tumour antigens, and their potential application to cancer treatment.

  18. Precision cancer immunotherapy: optimizing dendritic cell-based strategies to induce tumor antigen-specific T-cell responses against individual patient tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Takuya; Nagaoka, Koji; Takahara, Masashi; Yang, Xiao Yi; Liu, Cong-Xiao; Guo, Hongtao; Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; Hobeika, Amy; Hartman, Zachary; Morse, Michael A; Lyerly, H Kim

    2015-05-01

    Most dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines have loaded the DC with defined antigens, but loading with autologos tumor-derived antigens would generate DCs that activate personalized tumor-specific T-cell responses. We hypothesized that DC matured with an optimized combination of reagents and loaded with tumor-derived antigens using a clinically feasible electroporation strategy would induce potent antitumor immunity. We first studied the effects on DC maturation and antigen presentation of the addition of picibanil (OK432) to a combination of zoledronic acid, tumor necrosis factor-α, and prostaglandin E2. Using DC matured with the optimized combination, we tested 2 clinically feasible sources of autologous antigen for electroloading, total tumor mRNA or total tumor lysate, to determine which stimulated more potent antigen-specific T cells in vitro and activated more potent antitumor immunity in vivo. The combination of tumor necrosis factor-α/prostaglandin E2/zoledronic acid/OK432 generated DC with high expression of maturation markers and antigen-specific T-cell stimulatory function in vitro. Mature DC electroloaded with tumor-derived mRNA [mRNA electroporated dendritic cell (EPDC)] induced greater expansion of antigen-specific T cells in vitro than DC electroloaded with tumor lysate (lysate EPDC). In a therapeutic model of MC38-carcinoembryonic antigen colon cancer-bearing mice, vaccination with mRNA EPDC induced the most efficient anti-carcinoembryonic antigen cellular immune response, which significantly suppressed tumor growth. In conclusion, mature DC electroloaded with tumor-derived mRNA are a potent cancer vaccine, especially useful when specific tumor antigens for vaccination have not been identified, allowing autologous tumor, and if unavailable, allogeneic cell lines to be used as an unbiased source of antigen. Our data support clinical testing of this strategy.

  19. Carcinoma-associated antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartorelli, A.; Accinni, R.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to novel antigens associated with breast carcinoma, anti-sera specific to said antigens, 125 I-labeled forms of said antigens and methods of detecting said antigens in serum or plasma. The invention also relates to a diagnostic kit containing standardised antigens or antisera or marked forms thereof for the detection of said antigens in human blood, serum or plasma. (author)

  20. Efficacy of 18F-FDG PET/CT in investigation of elevated CEA without known primary malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Sin-man Wong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of 18flurodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computer tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT in investigating patients with elevated carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA and without known primary malignancy, and the impact of PET/CT findings on patient management. Setting and Design: PET/CT scans done in a tertiary hospital between December 2007 and February 2012 for elevated CEA in patients without known primary malignancy were retrospectively reviewed. Materials and Methods: The PET/CT findings, patients' clinical information, level of CEA, histological diagnosis, and subsequent management were retrieved by the electronic patient record for analysis. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using SPSS version 19. Results: One hundred and one PET/CT scans were performed for patients with elevated CEA. Fifty-eight of these were performed for patients with known primary malignancy and were excluded; 43 PET/CT scans were performed for patients without known primary malignancy and were included. Thirty-three (77% had a positive PET/CT. Among the 32 patients with malignancy, 15 (47% suffered from lung cancer and 8 (25% suffered from colorectal cancer. The sensitivity (97%, specificity (82%, positive predictive value (94%, negative predictive value (90%, and accuracy (93% were calculated. Thirty (91% patients had resultant change in management. The mean CEA level for patients with malignancy (46.1 ng/ml was significantly higher than those without malignancy (3.82 ng/ml (P < 0.05. In predicting the presence of malignancy, a CEA cutoff at 7.55 ng/ml will achieve a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 73%. Conclusion: PET/CT, in our study population, appears to be sensitive, specific, and accurate in investigating patients with elevated CEA and without known primary malignancy. In addition to diagnosis of underlying primary malignancy, PET/CT also reveals occult metastases which would affect patient treatment options.Its role in

  1. Potential radioimmunoassay system for detection of Hanganutziu-Deicher type heterophile antigen(s) and antibodies in tissues and fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukuria, J C; Naiki, Masaharu; Hashimoto, Masato; Nishiura, Katsumi; Okabe, Masahiro; Kato, Shiro

    1985-06-12

    A relatively simple, specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay system has been developed for the detection of heterophile Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D) antigen(s) and antibodies. The SVI-labeled H-D antigen-active molecule used for the assay is a bovine erythrocyte major glycoprotein previously found to have a strong H-D antigen potency. Different H-D antigen-active molecules were compared for heterophile H-D antigen potency. Eight different lung cancer tissues were assayed for H-D antigen. The sera from the 8 lung cancer patients were also screened by ELISA and RIA in an attmept to correlate expression of H-D antigen on tissues with elevation of H-D antibodies.

  2. Significance of radioimmunological analysis of tumor-associated antigens in the differential diagnosis of tumors of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putseva, N.M.; Chebotareva, Eh.D.; Chernyj, V.A.; Tashchiev, V.K.; Evtushenko, O.I.

    1989-01-01

    Radioimmunologic investigations are conducted in 329 patients and 118 healthy people. The content of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), ferritin (FER) and β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 -mg) is determined in the blood serum according to instructions, proposed by domestic and foreign firms. It is ascertained that in the majority of patients suffering from pancreatitis normal CA 19-9 and CEA levels are observed, and β 2 -mg indices allow one to differentiate acute pancreatitis and chronic one. Increased CA 19-9 level points out to the presence of pancreas cancer in 90% of patients, CEA - to its frequency, β 2 -mg- to the criticality of the patient condition (the presence of renal-hepatic insufficiency). Involvement of liver (hepatitis, primary cancer or metastatic injury) into the pathologic process is accompanied by a sufficient TPA and FER increase

  3. High-fat diet amplifies renal renin angiotensin system expression, blood pressure elevation, and renal dysfunction caused by Ceacam1 null deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caixia; Culver, Silas A; Quadri, Syed; Ledford, Kelly L; Al-Share, Qusai Y; Ghadieh, Hilda E; Najjar, Sonia M; Siragy, Helmy M

    2015-11-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAMl), a substrate of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase, regulates insulin action by promoting insulin clearance. Global null mutation of Ceacam1 gene (Cc1(-/-)) results in features of the metabolic syndrome, including insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, visceral adiposity, elevated blood pressure, and albuminuria. It also causes activation of the renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS). In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that high-fat diet enhances the expression of RAS components. Three-month-old wild-type (Cc1(+/+)) and Cc1(-/-) mice were fed either a regular or a high-fat diet for 8 wk. At baseline under regular feeding conditions, Cc1(-/-) mice exhibited higher blood pressure, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), and renal expression of angiotensinogen, renin/prorenin, angiotensin-converting enzyme, (pro)renin receptor, angiotensin subtype AT1 receptor, angiotensin II, and elevated PI3K phosphorylation, as detected by p85α (Tyr(508)) immunostaining, inflammatory response, and the expression of collagen I and collagen III. In Cc1(+/+) mice, high-fat diet increased blood pressure, UACR, the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II, PI3K phosphorylation, inflammatory response, and the expression of collagen I and collagen III. In Cc1(-/-) mice, high-fat intake further amplified these parameters. Immunohistochemical staining showed increased p-PI3K p85α (Tyr(508)) expression in renal glomeruli, proximal, distal, and collecting tubules of Cc1(-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet. Together, this demonstrates that high-fat diet amplifies the permissive effect of Ceacam1 deletion on renal expression of all RAS components, PI3K phosphorylation, inflammation, and fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Cell membrane antigen-antibody complex dissociation by the widely used glycine-HCL method: an unreliable procedure for studying antibody internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, G; Ford, C H

    1993-02-01

    Methods following the process of binding and internalization of antibodies to cell surface antigens have often employed low pH isoosmolar buffers in order to dissociate surface antigen-antibody complexes. One of the most widely used buffers is a 0.05 M glycine-HCL buffer pH 2.8. Since the efficacy of action of this buffer was critical to a series of internalization experiments employing monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) expressing cancer cell lines in this laboratory, we tested its performance in a number of different assays. Our results indicate that this buffer only partially dissociates antigen-antibody bonds and therefore can introduce major inaccuracies in internalization experiments.

  5. Data Elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-29

    Data Elevator: Efficient Asynchronous Data Movement in Hierarchical Storage Systems Multi-layer storage subsystems, including SSD-based burst buffers and disk-based parallel file systems (PFS), are becoming part of HPC systems. However, software for this storage hierarchy is still in its infancy. Applications may have to explicitly move data among the storage layers. We propose Data Elevator for transparently and efficiently moving data between a burst buffer and a PFS. Users specify the final destination for their data, typically on PFS, Data Elevator intercepts the I/O calls, stages data on burst buffer, and then asynchronously transfers the data to their final destination in the background. This system allows extensive optimizations, such as overlapping read and write operations, choosing I/O modes, and aligning buffer boundaries. In tests with large-scale scientific applications, Data Elevator is as much as 4.2X faster than Cray DataWarp, the start-of-art software for burst buffer, and 4X faster than directly writing to PFS. The Data Elevator library uses HDF5's Virtual Object Layer (VOL) for intercepting parallel I/O calls that write data to PFS. The intercepted calls are redirected to the Data Elevator, which provides a handle to write the file in a faster and intermediate burst buffer system. Once the application finishes writing the data to the burst buffer, the Data Elevator job uses HDF5 to move the data to final destination in an asynchronous manner. Hence, using the Data Elevator library is currently useful for applications that call HDF5 for writing data files. Also, the Data Elevator depends on the HDF5 VOL functionality.

  6. An elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loginovskiy, V.I.; Medinger, N.V.; Rasskazov, V.A.; Solonitsyn, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    An elevator is proposed which includes a body, spring loaded cams and a shut-off ring. To increase the reliability of the elevator by eliminating the possibility of spontaneous shifting of the shut-off ring, the latter is equipped with handles hinged to it and is made with evolvent grooves. The cams are equipped with rollers installed in the evolvent grooves of the shut off ring, where the body is made with grooves for the handles.

  7. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Monocular Elevation Deficiency/ Double Elevator Palsy En Español Read in Chinese What is monocular elevation deficiency (Double Elevator Palsy)? Monocular Elevation Deficiency, also known by the ...

  8. Role of 11C-choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography in evaluating patients affected by prostate cancer with suspected relapse due to prostate-specific antigen elevation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagna, F.; Bosio, G.; Abuhilal, M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of 11 C-choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in restaging patients affected by prostate cancer and suspected relapse due to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) increase. We also aimed to determine a PSA cutoff that is most suited to the study in terms of best compromise between sensitivity and specificity. Secondary endpoints were a comparison between 11 C-choline PET/CT and histological results, clinical findings, and radiological imaging (CT and magnetic resonance imaging). We retrospectively evaluated 210 patients (median±standard deviation (SD) age 70±7 years) affected by prostate cancer who underwent 11 C-choline PET/CT. 11 C-choline PET/CT imaging was positive in 116 (55.2%) patients and negative in 94 (44.8%). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the highest accuracy (sensitivity 76.8%, specificity 92.5%) for the whole population was achieved when the PSA level of 1.26 ng/ml level was used as the cutoff value for interpreting the results (P=0.0001 and the area under the ROC curve area under the curve (AUC)=0.897). For patients treated with surgery or surgery plus radiotherapy the cutoff was 0.81 ng/ml (sensitivity 73.2%, specificity 86.1%). For patients treated with radiotherapy alone, the cutoff was 2.0 ng/ml (sensitivity 81.8%, specificity 92.9%). Our results indicate that 11 C-choline PET/CT is a useful diagnostic tool in patients affected by prostate cancer and a relapsed PSA level. The highest accuracy for all patients is obtained with a PSA cutoff level of 1.26 ng/ml, above which the imaging study is performed (0.81 ng/ml for patients treated with surgery or surgery plus radiotherapy and 2.0 ng/ml for patients treated with radiotherapy alone). (author)

  9. Localization of hepatic metastases by radiolabelled anti-carcino-embryonic antigen antibody and meta-iodobenzylguanidine in a patient with medullary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liewendahl, K.; Vaelimaeki, M.; Taavitsainen, M.

    1993-01-01

    Sonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging examinations did not detect recurrence or metastases of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in a patient with a rapidly rising serum calcitonin concentration after total thyroidectomy. Scintigraphy with technetium-99m labelled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody, 99m Tc-colloid and iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine indicated liver metastases. The three scintigrams were to some extent discrepant but from the combined information the diagnosis of hepatic metastases could be established; it was subsequently verified by sonography and aspiration biopsy. This case demonstrates the usefulness of applying nuclear medicine imaging methods for the localization of hepatic MTC metastases. (orig.)

  10. Elevator wheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhornik, V.I.; Cherkov, Ye.M.; Simonov, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    An elevator wheel is suggested for unloading a sunken product from a bath of a heavy-average separator including discs of a bucket with inner walls, and covering sheets hinged to the buckets. In order to improve the degree of dehydration of the removed product, the inner wall of each bucket is made of sheets installed in steps with gaps of one in relation to the other.

  11. An elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusev, A.S.; Peshkov, L.P.; Rozin, M.M.; Shestov, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    An elevator is proposed which includes a body, a flap, a lock with a catch and a spring-loaded shut-off clamp in the form of upper and lower horizontal levers which are connected by a handle and an axle and one end of which is made in the form of an eccentric cam. The size of the eccentricity of the cam of the levers is increased toward the handle of the clamp in order to increase the operational reliability and to extend the service life.

  12. An elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastorguyev, M.A.; Maloyarovslavtesv, D.A.; Prokopov, O.I.; Tukayev, Sh.V.; Zanilov, I.F.

    1983-01-01

    An elevator is proposed which includes a body with a turning collar locking device and a rod with longitudinal grooves, which are flexibly linked with jaws positioned in grooves in the body. To increase safety through ensuring automatic locking of the jaws in the closed position, the locking device is made in the form of head on wedges, spring loaded relative to the collar and made with cams and positioned with the capability of interacting with the grooves of the rod and through the cams with the collar.

  13. Bucket elevator

    OpenAIRE

    Chromek, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Cílem této bakalářské práce je návrh svislého korečkového elevátoru, který má sloužit k dopravě obilovin s dopravní výškou 19 m a dopravovaným množstvím 100 t/hod. Práce se skládá z popisu korečkového elevátoru a jeho hlavních částí, zmiňující se v úvodní rešerši. Tato práce je zaměřena na funkční a kapacitní výpočet, určení pohonu a napínacího zařízení. Další výpočet je kontrolní, skládající se z pevnostní kontroly hnacího hřídele, výpočtu pera, životnosti ložisek a výpočtu napínacího zaříze...

  14. Development of a double-antibody radioimmunoassay for detecting ovarian tumor-associated antigen fraction OCA in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauf, S.; Urbach, G.I.

    1978-01-01

    Ovarian tumor-associated antigen isolated from human tumor tissue was shown to have a different mobility from that of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in both acrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis in agarose. The ovarian tumor antigen is composed of six species with different electrophoretic mobility in acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Three of these species were detected in Sephadex G-100 ovarian fraction OCA (from the void volume peak) and the other three species of lower apparent molecular weight were detected in fraction OCD (from the second peak). Fractions OCA and OCD did not share common antigenic determinants as determined by immunodiffusion. CEA was shown to share antigenic determinants with both OCA and OCD. A double-antibody radioimmunoassay capable of detecting nanogram quantities of plasma OCA was developed. In a preliminary study of ovarian cancer patients, OCA appeared to be a more sensitive marker for ovarian cancer than CEA. There was virtually no correlation (r 2 = 0.1) between OCA and CEA levels in these patients, as determined by radioimmunoassay

  15. Diagnostic utility of serum and pleural fluid carcinoembryonic antigen, and cytokeratin 19 fragments in patients with effusion from nonsmall cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Kumar Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To assess the diagnostic value of CEA and CYFRA 21-1 (cytokeratin 19 fragments in serum and pleural fluid in non small cell lung cancer with malignant pleural effusion (MPE. Settings and Design: Two subsets of patients were recruited with lymphocytic exudative effusion, one subset constituted diagnosed patients of NSCLC with malignant pleural effusion and the other subset of constituted with Tubercular pleural effusion. Methods and Material : CYFRA 21-1 and CEA levels were measured using Electrochemilumiscence Immunoassay (ECLIA. The test principle used the Sandwich method. For both the tests, results are determined via a calibration curve which is instrument specifically generated by 2 - point calibration and a master curve provided via reagent barcode. Statistical Analysis Used: All data are expressed as means ± SD and percentage. All the parametric variables were analysed by student-t test where as non parametric variables were compared by Mann-Whitney U-test Statistical significance was accepted for P values < 0.05. Software used were SPSS 11.5, and MS excel 2007. In order to compare the performance of the tumor markers, receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were constructed and compared with area under the curve (AUC. The threshold for each marker was selected based on the best diagnostic efficacy having achieved equilibrium between sensitivity and specificity. Results: In cases serum CYFRA21-1 levels had mean value of 34.1 ± 29.9 with a range of 1.6-128.3 where as in controls serum CYFRA21-1 levels had mean value of 1.9 ± 1.0 with a range of 0.5-4.7. In cases serum CEA levels had mean value of 24.9 ± 47.3 with a range of 1.0, 267.9 where as in controls serum CEA levels had mean value of 1.9 ± 1.4 with a range of 0.2-6.8. The difference in the means of serum CYFRA 21-l (P = 0.000 and CEA (P = 0.046 were statistically significant. In cases pleural fluid CYFRA21-1 levels had mean value of 160.1 ± 177.1 with a range of 5.4-517.2 where as in controls pleural fluid CYFRA21-1 levels had mean value of 15.9 ± 5.7 with a range of 7.2-29.6. In cases CEA pleural fluid levels had mean value of 89.8 ± 207.4 with a range of 1.0-861.2 where as in controls CEA levels had mean value of 2.5 ± 2.3 with a range of 1-8.9. The difference in the means of CYERA 21-1 (P = 0.001 between cases and controls is statistically significant. Conclusions: CYFRA21-1 (serum - pleural fluid is a sensitive marker for NSCLC with sensitivity of 96.7%, highest of any combination [Serum (CYFRA 21-1 - CEA. CEA (Serum + Pleural Fluid, Pleural Fluid (CYFRA 21-1 + CEA] and specificity of 77.8%. Levels of CYFRA21-l (serum + pleural fluid are increased in malignant pleural effusion, so it is better to be used in suspicious malignant pleural effusion showing negative cytology, particularly in the absence of a visible tumor and or unsuitability for invasive procedure.

  16. Further development of the radioimmunoassay for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and research on normal values in men, women, smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kompan, Z.

    1985-01-01

    In this work the increase in the sensitivity of detection of the assay was tested and the methods of sequential saturation and the equilibrium procedure were checked over. The higher detection sensitivity was attained by means of the sequential saturation. The increase in the incubation time of up to 72 hours resulted in a further increase of the detection sensitivity compared to 48 hours. Cattle serum, artificial buffer medium and CEA-poor human plasma were studied for their usefulness as a matrix for CEA standards. Moreover impure CEA and HPLC-cleaned CEA were also studied for the standards. The results show that HPLC-cleaned CEA gives a better accuracy. The production of standard rows in CEA-poor human plasma showed itself to be superior compared to the buffer medium and cattle serum. The reproducibility of the CEA determination was checked over. (orig./PW) [de

  17. Dendritic cells recognize tumor-specific glycosylation of carcinoembryonic antigen on colorectal cancer cells through dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gisbergen, Klaas P. J. M.; Aarnoudse, Corlien A.; Meijer, Gerrit A.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.; van Kooyk, Yvette

    2005-01-01

    Dendritic cells play a pivotal role in the induction of antitumor immune responses. Immature dendritic cells are located intratumorally within colorectal cancer and intimately interact with tumor cells, whereas mature dendritic cells are present peripheral to the tumor. The majority of colorectal

  18. Antigen injection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprosy is caused by the organism Mycobacterium leprae . The leprosy test involves injection of an antigen just under ... if your body has a current or recent leprosy infection. The injection site is labeled and examined ...

  19. Intranasal sensitization with Blomia Tropicalis antigens induces allergic responses in mice characterized by elevated antigen-specific and non-specific serum ige and peripheral blood eosinophil counts Sensibilização intranasal com antígenos de Blomia tropicalis induz respostas alérgicas em camundos caracterizadas pela elevada contagem de soro IgE antígeno-específico e não específico e de eosinófilos no sangue periférico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko Takeda

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the potential allergenicity of Blomia tropicalis (Bt antigen, IgE production of both specific and non-specific for Bt antigen was monitored in BALB/c mice after exposure to the antigen by nasal route. It was evidenced that B. tropicalis contains a functional allergen in its components. The allergenic components, however, when administered intranasally without any adjuvant, did not function to induce IgE response within a short period. On the other hand, intranasal inoculation of Bt antigens augmented serum IgE responses in mice pretreated by a subcutaneous priming injection of the same antigens. Inoculation of Bt antigen without subcutaneous priming injections induced IgE antibody production only when the antigen was continuously administered for a long period of over 24 weeks. Even when the priming injection was absent, the Bt antigen inoculated with cholera toxin (CT as a mucosal adjuvant also significantly augmented the Bt antigen-specific IgE responses depending on the dose of CT co-administered. The present study also demonstrated that Bt antigen/CT-inoculated mice showed increased non-specific serum IgE level and peripheral blood eosinophil rates without noticeable elevations of the total leukocyte counts. The immunoblot analysis demonstrated 5 main antigenic components reactive to IgE antibodies induced. These components at about 44-64 kDa position were considered to be an important candidate antigen for diagnosis of the mite-related allergy.Para avaliar a capacidade alergizante do antígeno da Blomia tropicalis (Bt a produção de IgE específica e não específica a antígeno Bt foi monitorada em camundongos BALB/c após exposição ao antígeno por via nasal. Foi evidenciado que Bt contem um alérgeno funcional em seus componentes. Os componentes alergênicos entretanto, quando administrados por via intra-nasal, sem qualquer adjuvante, não induzem resposta IgE durante um pequeno período. Por outro lado, a inocula

  20. Co-delivery of antigen and IL-12 by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles enhances antigen-specific immune responses and anti-tumor effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Takuya; Berglund, Peter; Morse, Michael A.; Hubby, Bolyn; Lewis, Whitney; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Hobeika, Amy; Burnett, Bruce; Devi, Gayathri R.; Clay, Timothy M.; Smith, Jonathan; Lyerly, H. Kim

    2013-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus-based replicon particles (VRP) encoding tumor antigens could break tolerance in the immunomodulatory environment of advanced cancer. We hypothesized that local injection of VRP expressing Interleukin-12 (IL-12) at the site of injections of VRP-based cancer vaccines would enhance the tumor-antigen-specific T cell and antibody responses and anti-tumor efficacy. Mice were immunized with VRP encoding the human tumor-associated antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (VRP-CEA(6D)) and VRP-IL-12 was also administered at the same site or at a distant location. CEA-specific T cell and antibody responses were measured. To determine antitumor activity, mice were implanted with MC38-CEA-2 cells and immunized with VRP-CEA with and without VRP-IL-12 and tumor growth and mouse survival were measured. VRP-IL-12 greatly enhanced CEA-specific T cell and antibody responses when combined with VRP-CEA(6D) vaccination. VRP IL-12 was superior to IL-12 protein at enhancing immune responses. Vaccination with VRP-CEA(6D) plus VRP-IL-12 was superior to VRP-CEA(6D) or VRP-IL-12 alone in inducing anti-tumor activity and prolonging survival in tumor-bearing mice. Importantly, local injection of VRP-IL-12 at the VRP-CEA(6D) injection site provided more potent activation of CEA-specific immune responses than VRP-IL-12 injected at a distant site from the VRP-CEA injections. Together, this study shows that VRP-IL-12 enhances vaccination with VRP-CEA(6D) and was more effective at activating CEA-specific T cell responses when locally expressed at the vaccine site. Clinical trials evaluating the adjuvant effect of VRP-IL-12 at enhancing the immunogenicity of cancer vaccines are warranted. PMID:22488274

  1. Antigen smuggling in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudrisier, Denis; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2014-06-11

    The importance of CD4 T lymphocytes in immunity to M. tuberculosis is well established; however, how dendritic cells activate T cells in vivo remains obscure. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Srivastava and Ernst (2014) report a mechanism of antigen transfer for efficient activation of antimycobacterial T cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Antigen detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissues or other specimens, using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular m...

  3. Isocyanate test antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karol, M.H.; Alarie, Y.C.

    1980-01-01

    A test antigen for detecting antibodies to a diisocyanate comprises the reaction product of a protein and a monoisocyanate derived from the same radical as the diisocyanate. The diisocyanates most usually encountered and therefore calling for antibody detection are those of toluene, hexamethylene, methylene, isophorone and naphthylene. The preferred protein is human serum albumin. (author)

  4. β-endorphin antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to the production of antigens comprising β-endorphin, βsub(h)-endorphin, or βsub(c)-endorphin, in covalent conjugation with human gammaglobulin as immunogenic carrier material, and an antibody having the property of specifically binding β-endorphin or fragments thereof, containing the (6-15) residue sequence. (U.K.)

  5. TISSUE POLYPEPTIDE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN - A DISCRIMINATIVE PARAMETER BETWEEN PROSTATE-CANCER AND BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARRINK, J; OOSTEROM, R; BONFRER, HMG; SCHRODER, FH; MENSINK, HJA

    1993-01-01

    The serum concentration of the cell proliferation marker TPS (tissue polypeptide-specific antigen) was compared with the tumour marker PSA (prostate specific antigen). PSA was found elevated in 50% of the benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) patients, in 88% of the patients with active prostate cancer

  6. Cancer antigen-125 and risk of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheung, Angel; Gong, Mengqi; Bellanti, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Background: Cancer antigen-125 (Ca-125) is traditionally recognised as a tumour marker and its role in cardiovascular diseases has been studied only in recent years. Whether Ca-125 is elevated in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and its levels predict the risk of AF remains controversial. T...

  7. Immunoliposome-PCR: a generic ultrasensitive quantitative antigen detection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Junkun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The accurate quantification of antigens at low concentrations over a wide dynamic range is needed for identifying biomarkers associated with disease and detecting protein interactions in high-throughput microarrays used in proteomics. Here we report the development of an ultrasensitive quantitative assay format called immunoliposome polymerase chain reaction (ILPCR that fulfills these requirements. This method uses a liposome, with reporter DNA encapsulated inside and biotin-labeled polyethylene glycol (PEG phospholipid conjugates incorporated into the outer surface of the liposome, as a detection reagent. The antigenic target is immobilized in the well of a microplate by a capture antibody and the liposome detection reagent is then coupled to a biotin-labeled second antibody through a NeutrAvidin bridge. The liposome is ruptured to release the reporter DNA, which serves as a surrogate to quantify the protein target using real-time PCR. Results A liposome detection reagent was prepared, which consisted of a population of liposomes ~120 nm in diameter with each liposome possessing ~800 accessible biotin receptors and ~220 encapsulated reporters. This liposome detection reagent was used in an assay to quantify the concentration of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA in human serum. This ILPCR assay exhibited a linear dose–response curve from 10-10 M to 10-16 M CEA. Within this range the assay coefficient of variance was Conclusions The ILPCR assay has several advantages over other immuno-PCR methods. The reporter DNA and biotin-labeled PEG phospholipids spontaneously incorporate into the liposomes as they form, simplifying preparation of the detection reagent. Encapsulation of the reporter inside the liposomes allows nonspecific DNA in the assay medium to be degraded with DNase I prior to quantification of the encapsulated reporter by PCR, which reduces false-positive results and improves quantitative accuracy. The ability to

  8. National Elevation Dataset (NED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a National Elevation Database (NED). The NED is a seamless mosaic of best-available elevation data. The 7.5-minute elevation...

  9. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  10. Deteksi Antigen pada Kriptokokosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robiatul Adawiyah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKriptokokosis merupakan infeksi sistemik yang disebabkan Cryptococcus sp. Predileksi jamur tersebut adalah susunan saraf pusat dan selaput otak. Terdapat 5 spesies Cryptococcus sp. yang menyebabkan penyakit pada manusia; yang paling banyak adalah Cr. neoformans dan Cr. gattii. Diagnosis kriptokokosis ditegakkan berdasarkan gejala klinis, pemeriksaan laboratoris serta radiologis. Pemeriksaan laboratoris dilakukan dengan identifikasi morfologi, serologi danPCR. Pemeriksaan secara morfologi dengan tinta India positif  bila jumlah sel jamur 10  sel/ml spesimen. Kultur dilakukan di media sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA dan niger sheed agar (NSA, jamur tumbuh setelah 5-7 hari. Deteksi antigen dan antibodi dilakukan pada cairan tubuh dan tidak membutuhkan waktu lama. Deteksi antibodi Cr.neoformans memiliki kelemahan yaitu tidak menunjukkan hasil positif pada infeksi akut, IgA masih positif setelah 1-2 tahun fase penyembuhan, IgG dapat persisten, pada individu imunokompromis menunjukkan hasil yang sangat kompleks dan dalam menentukan diagnosis sering tidak konsisten. Polisakarida adalah komponen paling berperan dalam virulensi Cr. neoformans. Komponen polisakarida terutama glucuronoxylomannan merupakan petanda penting dalam diagnosis kriptokokosis secara serologis. Deteksi antigen Cr. neoformans memiliki kelebihan yaitu menunjukkan hasil positif pada infeksi akut/kronis, sensitivitas dan spesifisitas tinggi, dapat mendeteksi polisakarida hingga 10 ng/ml sehingga dengan kadarantigen yang minimal tetap dapat mendiagnosis kriptokokosis.Kata kunci: Cr. neoformans, glucuronoxylomannan, antigenAbstractCryptococcosis is systemic infection that caused by Cryptococcus sp. Predilection of this fungi is the central nervous system and brain membrane. There are 5 species of Cryptococcus sp. that cause cryptococcosis in human; but the majority are caused by Cr. neoformans and Cr. gattii. The diagnosis of cryptococcosis is made based on clinical symptoms

  11. Optimization of Diagnostic Elisa - Based Tests for the Detection of Auto-Antibodies Against Tumor Antigens in Human Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Štefatić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancer types worldwide and it continues to be a serious public health problem. Early detection and diagnosis are of great importance in cancer management. At present, diagnostic blood tests are based on the detection of tumor-associated markers such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, the cancer antigen CA19-9 for gastrointestinal cancer, CA15-3 for breast cancer or CA125 for ovarian cancer. The lack of sensitivity and specificity of these markers prevents their general use in cancer screening of an average risk population. Therefore, new cancer biomarkers or better screening methods are necessary to improve the diagnostics of the disease. This study was directed to the optimization of a diagnostic, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA based test to identify and validate new serum markers, such as extracellular Protein Kinase A (ecPKA and Nicotinamide A-Meth- yltransferase (NNMT. In this type of assay, the cancer antigens are quantified indirectly - by detecting the presence of auto-antibodies against tumor proteins in human serum. The result of the optimization and validation process was in the case of ecPKA a reproducible and stable assay. In case of NNMT the assay was probably not sensitive enough.

  12. Antigen antibody interactions

    CERN Document Server

    DeLisi, Charles

    1976-01-01

    1. 1 Organization of the Immune System One of the most important survival mechanisms of vertebrates is their ability to recognize and respond to the onslaught of pathogenic microbes to which they are conti- ously exposed. The collection of host cells and molecules involved in this recognition­ 12 response function constitutes its immune system. In man, it comprises about 10 cells 20 (lymphocytes) and 10 molecules (immunoglobulins). Its ontogenic development is c- strained by the requirement that it be capable of responding to an almost limitless variety of molecular configurations on foreign substances, while simultaneously remaining inert to those on self components. It has thus evolved to discriminate, with exquisite precision, between molecular patterns. The foreign substances which induce a response, called antigens, are typically large molecules such as proteins and polysaccharides. The portions of these with which immunoglobulins interact are called epitopes or determinants. A typical protein epitope m...

  13. Iowa Bedrock Surface Elevation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the bedrock surface elevation in Iowa was compiled using all available data, principally information from GEOSAM, supplemented...

  14. Radioimmunoassays of hidden viral antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurath, A.R.; Strick, N.; Baker, L.; Krugman, S.

    1982-01-01

    Antigens corresponding to infectious agents may be present in biological specimens only in a cryptic form bound to antibodies and, thus, may elude detection. We describe a solid-phase technique for separation of antigens from antibodies. Immune complexes are precipitated from serum by polyethylene glycol, dissociated with NaSCN, and adsorbed onto nitrocellulose or polystyrene supports. Antigens remain topographically separated from antibodies after removal of NaSCN and can be detected with radiolabeled antibodies. Genomes from viruses immobilized on nitrocellulose can be identified by nucleic acid hybridization. Nanogram quantities of sequestered hepatitis B surface and core antigens and picogram amounts of hepatitis B virus DNA were detected. Antibody-bound adenovirus, herpesvirus, and measles virus antigens were discerned by the procedure

  15. Myeloid antigens in childhood lymphoblastic leukemia:clinical data point to regulation of CD66c distinct from other myeloid antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madzo Jozef

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant expression of myeloid antigens (MyAgs on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL cells is a well-documented phenomenon, although its regulating mechanisms are unclear. MyAgs in ALL are interpreted e.g. as hallmarks of early differentiation stage and/or lineage indecisiveness. Granulocytic marker CD66c – Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6 is aberrantly expressed on ALL with strong correlation to genotype (negative in TEL/AML1 and MLL/AF4, positive in BCR/ABL and hyperdiploid cases. Methods In a cohort of 365 consecutively diagnosed Czech B-precursor ALL patients, we analyze distribution of MyAg+ cases and mutual relationship among CD13, CD15, CD33, CD65 and CD66c. The most frequent MyAg (CD66c is studied further regarding its stability from diagnosis to relapse, prognostic significance and regulation of surface expression. For the latter, flow cytometry, Western blot and quantitative RT-PCR on sorted cells is used. Results We show CD66c is expressed in 43% patients, which is more frequent than other MyAgs studied. In addition, CD66c expression negatively correlates with CD13 (p Conclusion In contrast to general notion we show that different MyAgs in lymphoblastic leukemia represent different biological circumstances. We chose the most frequent and tightly genotype-associated MyAg CD66c to show its stabile expression in patients from diagnosis to relapse, which differs from what is known on the other MyAgs. Surface expression of CD66c is regulated at the gene transcription level, in contrast to previous reports.

  16. Improved Activation toward Primary Colorectal Cancer Cells by Antigen-Specific Targeting Autologous Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Schlimper

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive therapy of malignant diseases with cytokine-induced killer (CIK cells showed promise in a number of trials; the activation of CIK cells from cancer patients towards their autologous cancer cells still needs to be improved. Here, we generated CIK cells ex vivo from blood lymphocytes of colorectal cancer patients and engineered those cells with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR with an antibody-defined specificity for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA. CIK cells thereby gained a new specificity as defined by the CAR and showed increase in activation towards CEA+ colon carcinoma cells, but less in presence of CEA− cells, indicated by increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Redirected CIK activation was superior by CAR-mediated CD28-CD3ζ than CD3ζ signaling only. CAR-engineered CIK cells from colon carcinoma patients showed improved activation against their autologous, primary carcinoma cells from biopsies resulting in more efficient tumour cell lysis. We assume that adoptive therapy with CAR-modified CIK cells shows improved selectivity in targeting autologous tumour lesions.

  17. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments have set the stage for immunotherapy as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment. Consequently, a significant effort is required to further improve efficacy and specificity, particularly the identification of optimal therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Cancer....../testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor...... immunology and immune escape suggests that targeting oncogenic antigens may be beneficial, meaning that identification of cancer/testis antigens with oncogenic properties is of high priority. Recent work from our lab and others provide evidence that many cancer/testis antigens, in fact, have oncogenic...

  18. Research on the comparative value of radio-immunoanalyses of three embryonic antigens: alpha 1 foeto-protein ''α1FP'' alpha 2H-isoferritine ''α2HF'' and carcino-embryonnic antigen ''CEA'' for diagnonis and post-therapy observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimbaut, C.; Rudant, C.; Buffe, D.

    Alpha 1 foeto-protein, specific for 2 kinds of tumour (hepatoblastemo, teratoma), is useful in radio-immunoanalysis for the very early diagnosis of a tumour revival. Alpha 2 HF isoferritine and carcino-embryonic antigen, proteins non-specific to cancer, nevertheless possess in common the property of increasing in cases of tumours with liver metastases, though one is more specific to widespread secreting tumours while the other seems to be connected rather with an early reactivity of a tumour whatever its nature or origin. Finally a wide variation in these protein fractions is observed from one individual to another and it is therefore extremely important to make comparative determinations within a given series, the tendency of the evolution curve to rise or not being the important element in post-treatment supervision [fr

  19. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Christopher J; Ros, Vera I D; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections.

  20. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Graves

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish

  1. De stille elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Det er blevet en afgørende samværskompetence i uddannelsessystemet at stå aktivt frem og deltage verbalt i skoleklassens liv både fagligt og socialt. Men ikke alle elever deltager lige villigt verbalt i plenum. Artiklen handler om de stille elever og konsekvenserne af stillehed i skolen. Det...... foreslås at skolesystemet sanktionerer ældre elever hårdere for stillehed end yngre elever og det forklares med at skolelivet også er en kultivering henimod elevhed som social identitet og denne er der forventning om at eleverne mestrer i udskolingen....

  2. Anvendelse af prostataspecifikt antigen. En oversigt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Skaarup, P; Roosen, Jens Ulrik

    1998-01-01

    Since it was first introduced, measurement of prostate specific antigen has gained increasing interest, and prostate specific antigen is regarded as being the best tumour marker available. The antigen lacks cancer specificity, limiting the usefulness in early diagnosis, The use of prostate specific...... antigen in early diagnosis, staging, and in monitoring patients with prostate cancer is reviewed....

  3. Undervisning af tosprogede elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Artiklen fremdrager hovedresultaterne fra Virginia P. Collier's og Wayne P. Thomas's længdeundersøgelser af tosprogede elever i USA, som formentlig er de mest omfattende undersøgelser af undervisningen af tosprogede elever overhovedet. Resultaterne diskuteres i relation til udviklingen af en...

  4. Effects of elevated CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Sha; Yang, Xiaomei; Liu, Guobin; Gai, Lingtong; Zhang, Changsheng; Ritsema, Coen J.; Geissen, Violette

    2017-01-01

    Elevated CO2 and drought are key consequences of climate change and affect soil processes and plant growth. This study investigated the effects of elevated CO2 and drought on the microbial biomass and enzymatic activities in the rhizospheres of Bothriochloa ischaemum and

  5. Elevator and hydraulics; Elevator to yuatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, I. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-07-15

    A hydraulic type elevator is installed in relatively lower buildings as compared with a rope type elevator, but the ratio in the number of installation of the former elevator is increasing. This paper explains from its construction and features to especially various control systems for the riding comfort and safety. A direct push-up system with hydraulic jacks arranged beneath a car, and an indirect push-up system that has hydraulic jacks arranged on flank of a car and transmits the movement of a plunger via a rope are available. The latter system eliminates the need of large holes to embed hydraulic jacks. While the speed is controlled by controlling flow rates of high-pressure oil, the speed, position, acceleration and even time differential calculus of the acceleration must be controlled severely. The system uses two-step control for the through-speed and the landing speed. Different systems that have been realized may include compensation for temperatures in flow rate control valves, load pressures, and oil viscosity, from learning control to fuzzy control for psychological effects, or control of inverters in motors. 13 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Chemoselective ligation and antigen vectorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras-Masse, H

    2001-01-01

    The interest in cocktail-lipopeptide vaccines has now been confirmed by phase I clinical trials: highly diversified B-, T-helper or cytotoxic T-cell epitopes can be combined with a lipophilic vector for the induction of B- and T-cell responses of predetermined specificity. With the goal of producing an improved vaccine that should ideally induce a multispecific response in non-selected populations, increasing the diversity of the immunizing mixture represents one of the most obvious strategies.The selective delivery of antigens to professional antigen-presenting cells represents another promising approach for the improvement of vaccine efficacy. In this context, the mannose-receptor represents an attractive entry point for the targeting to dendritic cells of antigens linked to clustered glycosides or glycomimetics. In all cases, highly complex but fully characterized molecules must be produced. To develop a modular and flexible strategy which could be generally applicable to a large set of peptide antigens, we elected to explore the potentialities of chemoselective ligation methods. The hydrazone bond was found particularly reliable and fully compatible with sulphide ligation. Hydrazone/thioether orthogonal ligation systems could be developed to account for the nature of the antigens and the solubility of the vector systems. Copyright 2001 The International Association for Biologicals.

  7. Elevators or stairs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sachin; O’Byrne, Michael; Wilson, Merne; Wilson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Staff in hospitals frequently travel between floors and choose between taking the stairs or elevator. We compared the time savings with these two options. Methods: Four people aged 26–67 years completed 14 trips ranging from one to six floors, both ascending and descending. We compared the amount of time per floor travelled by stairs and by two banks of elevators. Participants reported their fatigue levels using a modified Borg scale. We performed two-way analysis of variance to compare the log-transformed data, with participant and time of day as independent variables. Results: The mean time taken to travel between each floor was 13.1 (standard deviation [SD] 1.7) seconds by stairs and 37.5 (SD 19.0) and 35.6 (SD 23.1) seconds by the two elevators (F = 8.61, p elevator equaled about 15 minutes a day. Self-reported fatigue was less than 13 (out of 20) on the Borg scale for all participants, and they all stated that they were able to continue their duties without resting. The extra time associated with elevator use was because of waiting for its arrival. There was a difference in the amount of time taken to travel by elevator depending on the time of day and day of the week. Interpretation: Taking the stairs rather than the elevator saved about 15 minutes each workday. This 3% savings per workday could translate into improved productivity as well as increased fitness. PMID:22159365

  8. Elevated temperature fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomkins, B.

    1979-01-01

    The application of fracture mechanics concepts to cracks at elevated temperatures is examined. Particular consideration is given to the characterisation of crack tip stress-strain fields and parameters controlling crack extension under static and cyclic loads. (author)

  9. Indsatser for tosprogede elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dines; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    Fagligt set klarer tosprogede elever sig dårligere i skolen og det videre uddannelsessystem end ’danske’ elever. Kommuner og folkeskoler har derfor sat en række tiltag i værk, som sigter mod at forbedre de tosprogede elevers skole- og uddannelsessituation. Rapporten kortlægger og analyserer...... af klasseundervisningen. Analysen viser, at de elever, der bliver taget ud af klassen for at få ekstra undervisning i dansk som andetsprog, klarer sig dårligere end elever, der modtager ekstraundervisningen i klassen eller uden for skoletid. Undersøgelsen er baseret på spørgeskemaundersøgelser blandt...... kommunale forvaltningschefer, skoleledere, lærere og forældre til børn i 2. klasse samt lærere til og elever i 9. klasse, SFI’s forløbsundersøgelse af årgang 1995 og registerdata. Undersøgelsen er via Ministeriet for Børn og Undervisning betalt med midler fra satspuljeaftalen 2009 om integration....

  10. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graves, C.J.; Ros, V.I.D.; Stevenson, B.; Sniegowski, P.D.; Brisson, D.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide

  11. Concepts and applications for influenza antigenic cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Influenza antigenic cartography projects influenza antigens into a two or three dimensional map based on immunological datasets, such as hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays. A robust antigenic cartography can facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection since the antigenic map can simplify data interpretation through intuitive antigenic map. However, antigenic cartography construction is not trivial due to the challenging features embedded in the immunological data, such as data incompleteness, high noises, and low reactors. To overcome these challenges, we developed a computational method, temporal Matrix Completion-Multidimensional Scaling (MC-MDS), by adapting the low rank MC concept from the movie recommendation system in Netflix and the MDS method from geographic cartography construction. The application on H3N2 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A viruses demonstrates that temporal MC-MDS is effective and efficient in constructing influenza antigenic cartography. The web sever is available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap. PMID:21761589

  12. A large, benign prostatic cyst presented with an extremely high serum prostate-specific antigen level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Kuang; Pemberton, Richard

    2016-01-08

    We report a case of a patient who presented with an extremely high serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level and underwent radical prostatectomy for presumed prostate cancer. Surprisingly, the whole mount prostatectomy specimen showed only small volume, organ-confined prostate adenocarcinoma and a large, benign intraprostatic cyst, which was thought to be responsible for the PSA elevation. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. Antigenic determinants and functional domains in core antigen and e antigen from hepatitis B virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salfeld, J.; Pfaff, E.; Noah, M.; Schaller, H.

    1989-01-01

    The precore/core gene of hepatitis B virus directs the synthesis of two polypeptides, the 21-kilodalton subunit (p21c) forming the viral nucleocapsid (serologically defined as core antigen [HBcAg]) and a secreted processed protein (p17e, serologically defined as HBe antigen [HBeAg]). Although most of their primary amino acid sequences are identical, HBcAg and HBeAg display different antigenic properties that are widely used in hepatitis B virus diagnosis. To locate and to characterize the corresponding determinants, segments of the core gene were expressed in Escherichia coli and probed with a panel of polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoassays or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blots, and competition assays. Three distinct major determinants were characterized. It is postulated that HBcAg and HBeAg share common basic three-dimensional structure exposing the common linear determinant HBe1 but that they differ in the presentation of two conformational determinants that are either introduced (HBc) or masked (HBe2) in the assembled core. The simultaneous presentation of HBe1 and HBc, two distinctly different antigenic determinants with overlapping amino acid sequences, is interpreted to indicate the presence of slightly differently folded, stable conformational states of p21c in the hepatitis virus nucleocapsid

  14. A polyvalent vaccine for high-risk prostate patients: "are more antigens better?"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slovin, Susan F; Ragupathi, Govind; Fernandez, Celina

    2007-01-01

    vaccine of synthetic "self" antigens broke immunologic tolerance against two or more antigens in all 30 vaccinated patients, was safe, but antibody titers against several of the antigens were lower than those seen in individual monovalent trials. No impact on PSA slope was detected. We address......We have shown the immunogenicity and safety of synthetic carbohydrate vaccines when conjugated to the carrier keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and given with the adjuvant, QS-21, in patients with biochemically relapsed prostate cancer. To determine whether immune response could be further enhanced...... and mixed with QS-21. Eight vaccinations were administered over 13 months. All 30 patients had significant elevations in antibody titers to at least two of the six antigens; 22 patients had increased reactivity with FACS. These serologic responses were lower than that seen previously in patients treated...

  15. National Elevation Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2002-01-01

    The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is a new raster product assembled by the U.S. Geological Survey. NED is designed to provide National elevation data in a seamless form with a consistent datum, elevation unit, and projection. Data corrections were made in the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts, perform edge matching, and fill sliver areas of missing data. NED has a resolution of one arc-second (approximately 30 meters) for the conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the island territories and a resolution of two arc-seconds for Alaska. NED data sources have a variety of elevation units, horizontal datums, and map projections. In the NED assembly process the elevation values are converted to decimal meters as a consistent unit of measure, NAD83 is consistently used as horizontal datum, and all the data are recast in a geographic projection. Older DEM's produced by methods that are now obsolete have been filtered during the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts that are commonly found in data produced by these methods. Artifact removal greatly improves the quality of the slope, shaded-relief, and synthetic drainage information that can be derived from the elevation data. Figure 2 illustrates the results of this artifact removal filtering. NED processing also includes steps to adjust values where adjacent DEM's do not match well, and to fill sliver areas of missing data between DEM's. These processing steps ensure that NED has no void areas and artificial discontinuities have been minimized. The artifact removal filtering process does not eliminate all of the artifacts. In areas where the only available DEM is produced by older methods, then "striping" may still occur.

  16. Shedding of CD9 antigen into cerebrospinal fluid by acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komada, Y; Ochiai, H; Shimizu, K; Azuma, E; Kamiya, H; Sakurai, M

    1990-07-01

    The accurate identification of small numbers of leukemic cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) presents a diagnostic problem in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We demonstrated that soluble CD9 antigen was shed into CSF obtained from children with ALL, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which used the activity of CD9 antigen to bind the Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1) and a monoclonal antibody, SJ-9A4, simultaneously. Using RCA1/SJ-9A4 ELISA, CD9 antigen was detectable in CSF but not in plasma from 12 cases of CD9+ ALL in central nervous system (CNS) relapse. However, CD9 antigen was not released into CSF from 11 cases of CD9- ALL with CNS involvement, 136 cases of CD9+ ALL in complete remission (CR), 29 cases of CD9- ALL in CR, or 21 cases of aseptic meningitis. Interestingly, the levels of CD9 antigen were elevated in CSF from 7 of 10 CD9+ ALL patients without cytologically proven CNS involvement at diagnosis, with subsequent return to undetectable levels after initial induction chemotherapy was begun. In addition, sequential analysis of CSF from a 5-year-old boy with CD9+ ALL in CNS relapse showed that levels of CD9 antigen correlated well with the number of leukemic cells in CSF. Serial quantitative analysis of CD9 antigen in CSF could be useful to detect the proliferation of residual leukemic cells before the clinical manifestation.

  17. Interaktive tavler - interaktive elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusch, Charlotte F.; Otzen, Elsebeth

    Abstract, Poster-præsentation 13.-14. juni 2012, Pilotprojekt: Interaktive tavler – interaktive elever Lektor, cand. pæd., Elsebeth Otzen og Lektor, cand. mag., Charlotte Reusch, Institut for Skole og Læring, Læreruddannelsen, Professionshøjskolen Metropol, København Hvordan motiverer en interaktiv...... tavle lærere og elever? Hvad sker der mellem elev, stof og lærer, når læreren bliver i stand til at billedliggøre og dynamisere sine oplæg på tavlen? Bliver læreroplæg prioriteret? Bliver eleverne aktive, eller ender den interaktive tavle med blot at understøtte lærerens envejskommunikation til klassen......? Og hvad sker der mellem eleverne? Disse spørgsmål var igangsættende for arbejdet med pilotprojektet Interaktive tavler – interaktive elever, som blev afviklet i skoleåret 2010-2011. Projektet blev udført af en tværfaglig gruppe, bestående af lektorer i matematik, biologi og dansk i læreruddannelsen...

  18. Udeskole og elevers handlekompetence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Elever elsker at komme væk fra undervisningen i skolen. Er det positivt eller negativt? Og hvad har betydning for, at eleverne får mest muligt ud af oplevelserne uden for skolen? Forskellige former for udeskole giver nogle oplagte muligheder, så eleverne udvikler sig som engagerede borgere i et...

  19. Interaktive tavler - interaktive elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusch, Charlotte; Otzen, Elsebeth

    Abstract, Poster-præsentation 13.-14. juni 2012, Pilotprojekt: Interaktive tavler ? interaktive elever Lektor, cand. pæd., Elsebeth Otzen og Lektor, cand. mag., Charlotte Reusch, Institut for Skole og Læring, Læreruddannelsen, Professionshøjskolen Metropol, København Hvordan motiverer en interaktiv...... tavle lærere og elever? Hvad sker der mellem elev, stof og lærer, når læreren bliver i stand til at billedliggøre og dynamisere sine oplæg på tavlen? Bliver læreroplæg prioriteret? Bliver eleverne aktive, eller ender den interaktive tavle med blot at understøtte lærerens envejskommunikation til klassen......? Og hvad sker der mellem eleverne? Disse spørgsmål var igangsættende for arbejdet med pilotprojektet Interaktive tavler ? interaktive elever, som blev afviklet i skoleåret 2010-2011. Projektet blev udført af en tværfaglig gruppe, bestående af lektorer i matematik, biologi og dansk i læreruddannelsen...

  20. Radioprotective activity of shigella antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemparskaya, N.N.; Gorbunova, E.S.; Dobronravova, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using experimental microbe antigenous preparation out of Flexner and Zonne shigellas as a protector and a remedy in the case of gamma irradiation, is investigated. The experiments are carried out on mice of both sexes immunized before or after irradiation by two methods: subcutaneously and enerally. It is found that in most cases investigated, the introduction of the experimental preparation 3, 5, 7 and 10 days before irradiation increases the survivability of animals [ru

  1. Localization of tumors by radiolabelled antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, H.J.; Primus, F.J.

    1975-01-01

    A method of utilizing radiolabelled antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigens for determining the site of tumors which produce or are associated with carcinoembryonic antigen is disclosed. 3 claims, no drawings

  2. Chlorphenesin: an antigen-associated immunosuppressant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, H Y; Neter, E

    1970-07-01

    Chlorphenesin (3-p-chlorophenoxy-1,2-propanediol), when injected intravenously together with either of two common bacterial antigens, inhibits the antibody response of the rabbit. The antigens studied are those common to Enterobacteriaceae and to gram-positive bacteria. The immunosuppression is contingent upon incubation of chlorphenesin and antigen in vitro prior to administration, since separate injection of antigen and inhibitor or of mixtures without prior incubation yields undiminished antibody response. Chlorphenesin, as shown by hemagglutination-inhibition tests, does not alter the antigenic determinants, because antibody neutralization occurs in the presence or absence of the drug. The immunosuppressive effect is reversible, since precipitation of chlorphenesin at 4 C substantially restores immunogenicity. Animals immunized with antigen-drug mixtures, which fail to respond with significant antibody production, nonetheless are immunologically primed. It is concluded that chlorphenesin represents another example of antigen-associated immunosuppressants.

  3. Presentation of lipid antigens to T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Lucia; De Libero, Gennaro

    2008-04-15

    T cells specific for lipid antigens participate in regulation of the immune response during infections, tumor immunosurveillance, allergy and autoimmune diseases. T cells recognize lipid antigens as complexes formed with CD1 antigen-presenting molecules, thus resembling recognition of MHC-peptide complexes. The biophysical properties of lipids impose unique mechanisms for their delivery, internalization into antigen-presenting cells, membrane trafficking, processing, and loading of CD1 molecules. Each of these steps is controlled at molecular and celular levels and determines lipid immunogenicity. Lipid antigens may derive from microbes and from the cellular metabolism, thus allowing the immune system to survey a large repertoire of immunogenic molecules. Recognition of lipid antigens facilitates the detection of infectious agents and the initiation of responses involved in immunoregulation and autoimmunity. This review focuses on the presentation mechanisms and specific recognition of self and bacterial lipid antigens and discusses the important open issues.

  4. Prostate-specific antigen superior serum marker for prostatic carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaney, J A; Allen, M A; Keane, T; Duffy, J J

    1987-05-01

    A new immunoradiometric assay based on dual monoclonal antibody reaction system (Hybritech-TANDEM/sup R/) was used to measure serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in 39 patients with prostatic carcinoma (CaP), in 57 with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in 14 without prostatic disease. Serum PSA was elevated in 82% of patients with CaP while PAP was elevated in only 54%. In this and other studies, PSA is superior to conventional serum markers in sensitivity, prediction of CaP stage and in longitudinal monitoring of disease. A 16% false positive rate precludes PSA as a screening test. The assay used was found to be simple and reliable.

  5. Prostate-specific antigen superior serum marker for prostatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaney, J.A.; Allen, M.A.; Keane, T.; Duffy, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    A new immunoradiometric assay based on dual monoclonal antibody reaction system (Hybritech-TANDEM R ) was used to measure serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in 39 patients with prostatic carcinoma (CaP), in 57 with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in 14 without prostatic disease. Serum PSA was elevated in 82% of patients with CaP while PAP was elevated in only 54%. In this and other studies, PSA is superior to conventional serum markers in sensitivity, prediction of CaP stage and in longitudinal monitoring of disease. A 16% false positive rate precludes PSA as a screening test. The assay used was found to be simple and reliable. (author)

  6. Skuldertesten "Kombineret Elevation"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Overkær, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Formål: At udarbejde en testprotokol for testen Kombineret Elevation (KE) og undersøge test-retest variationen ved test af elite svømmere, samt diskutere testens relevans og validitet. Materiale og Metode: 9 elite og 10 sub-elite svømmere, heraf var 11 mænd og 8 kvinder, gennemførte testen KE 2...

  7. Experiences of Uncertainty in Men With an Elevated PSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Caitlin; Brasel, Alicia; Underwood, Willie; Orom, Heather

    2015-05-15

    A significant proportion of men, ages 50 to 70 years, have, and continue to receive prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests to screen for prostate cancer (PCa). Approximately 70% of men with an elevated PSA level will not subsequently be diagnosed with PCa. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 13 men with an elevated PSA level who had not been diagnosed with PCa. Uncertainty was prominent in men's reactions to the PSA results, stemming from unanswered questions about the PSA test, PCa risk, and confusion about their management plan. Uncertainty was exacerbated or reduced depending on whether health care providers communicated in lay and empathetic ways, and provided opportunities for question asking. To manage uncertainty, men engaged in information and health care seeking, self-monitoring, and defensive cognition. Results inform strategies for meeting informational needs of men with an elevated PSA and confirm the primary importance of physician communication behavior for open information exchange and uncertainty reduction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. A spider elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butylkin, A.V.; Butylkin, V.A.; Izosimov, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    A spider elevator is proposed which contains a body, a wedge clamp with wedges hinged to each other, a subassembly for holding the wedge clamp in the open and closed positions and a mechanism for changing the wedge clamp, which is made in the form of levers with ears for cleats and installed in the body with the capability of turning. To increase reliability in the operational mode through using the external force for clamping the pipe, the free ends of the levers are hinged with the body by a power cylinder.

  9. Elevator Control Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ceder, Frederick; Nordin, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate if it is eective to switch strategies for elevators during one day in an oce building. This essay describes some of the strategies in use today, followed by a comparison and analysis of two of the strategies described. We have also implemented optimizations to one of these strategies. From our test results we can conclude that our optimized strategy worked and produced better results on average waiting time and total traveling time than the two stra...

  10. Immune responses of B. malayi thioredoxin (TRX) and venom allergen homologue (VAH) chimeric multiple antigen for lymphatic filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anugraha, Gandhirajan; Jeyaprita, Parasurama Jawaharlal; Madhumathi, Jayaprakasam; Sheeba, Tamilvanan; Kaliraj, Perumal

    2013-12-01

    Although multiple vaccine strategy for lymphatic filariasis has provided tremendous hope, the choice of antigens used in combination has determined its success in the previous studies. Multiple antigens comprising key vaccine candidates from different life cycle stages would provide a promising strategy if the antigenic combination is chosen by careful screening. In order to analyze one such combination, we have used a chimeric construct carrying the well studied B. malayi antigens thioredoxin (BmTRX) and venom allergen homologue (BmVAH) as a fusion protein (TV) and evaluated its immune responses in mice model. The efficacy of fusion protein vaccine was explored in comparison with the single antigen vaccines and their cocktail. In mice, TV induced significantly high antibody titer of 1,28,000 compared to cocktail vaccine TRX+VAH (50,000) and single antigen vaccine TRX (16,000) or VAH (50,000). Furthermore, TV elicited higher level of cellular proliferative response together with elevated levels of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5 indicating a Th1/Th2 balanced response. The isotype antibody profile showed significantly high level of IgG1 and IgG2b confirming the balanced response elicited by TV. Immunization with TV antigen induced high levels of both humoral and cellular immune responses compared to either cocktail or antigen given alone. The result suggests that TV is highly immunogenic in mice and hence the combination needs to be evaluated for its prophylactic potential.

  11. Characterization of Leishmania Soluble Exo-Antigen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cui, Liwang

    2003-01-01

    .... Vaccine development is the ultimate solution for this problem. Our previous research indicates that Leishmania parasites secrete, excrete, or shed antigens into the medium during in vitro culture...

  12. Binding of hydrophobic antigens to surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A first aspect of the present invention is a method of detecting antibodies comprising the steps of: i) providing a first group of beads comprising a surface modified with C1-C10 alkyl groups comprising amine, ammonium, ether and/or hydroxyl groups, ii) contacting said first group of beads......-antigen-antibody conjugates, and v) detecting said bead-antigen-antibody conjugates. Further aspects include an antibody detection kit, a bead-antigen conjugate and a composition comprising at least two different groups of bead-antigen-conjugates....

  13. Automatic pipe elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haney, K.M.; Willis, C.A.

    1987-03-17

    This patent describes an elevator adapted for use with a power swivel for supporting a drilling or production tubular, the elevator comprising: at least two jaws, each jaw having a clamping surface; a connector member for supporting the jaws, the connector member comprising an upper end, a lower end, means for coupling the upper end to the power swivel, means for coupling the lower end to a tubular. The member also comprises means for defining a passageway extending from the upper end to the lower end through the connector member to allow drilling mud to be passed from the power swivel through the bore, into the tubular; and linkage means mounted between the connector member and the jaws for coupling the jaws to the connector member and for maintaining the clamping surfaces of the jaws in clamping engagement with the tubular when the connector member and the tubular are urged apart relative to one another. The linkage means is configured such that the force by which the clamping surfaces clamp the tubular increases as the force urging the connector member and the tubular apart increases.

  14. Elevation data for floodplain mapping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Floodplain Mapping Technologies; National Research Council; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council

    2007-01-01

    .... Elevation Data for Floodplain Mapping shows that there is sufficient two-dimensional base map imagery to meet FEMA's flood map modernization goals, but that the three-dimensional base elevation data...

  15. Malakoplakia of the prostate diagnosed by elevated PSA level and transrectal prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacit Nuri Görgel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Malakoplakia is an inflammation which is thought to develop secondary to chronic Escherichia coli infections. Although often seen in the genitourinary tract, it can also be seen in colon, stomach, lung, liver, bone, uterus, and skin. In this case report, we present prostatic malakoplakia diagnosed by elevated prostate-specific antigen level and transrectal prostate biopsy.

  16. An elevator wheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhornik, V.I.; Cherkov, Ye.M.; Simonov, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    This invention deals with mineral enrichment and is primarily for unloading submerged products of enrichment during separation in heavy mediums. An elevator wheel is proposed for unloading the submerged product from the bath of a heavy to medium separator which includes ladle disks with internal walls and overlapping sheets hinged to the ends. In order to increase the degree of dehydration of the unloaded product, the internal wall of each ladle is made of sheets installed in stages with clearances relative to each other. The advantages of the proposed device include an improvement in the degree of dehydration of the submerged product in the ladles and a reduction in the carry away of the heavy medium with the enrichment products.

  17. Virosomes for antigen and DNA delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daemen, T; de Mare, A; Bungener, L; de Jonge, J; Huckriede, A; Wilschut, J

    2005-01-01

    Specific targeting and delivery as well as the display of antigens on the surface of professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are key issues in the design and development of new-generation vaccines aimed at the induction of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Prophylactic vaccination

  18. Radioimmunoassay for a human prostate specific antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, T.; Miki, M.; Ohishi, Y.; Kido, A.; Morikawa, J.; Ogawa, Y.

    1983-01-01

    As a marker for prostatic cancer, a prostate-specific antigen was purified from human prostatic tissues. Double antibody radioimmunoassay utilizing immune reaction was developed on the basis of the purified prostatic antigen (PA). Measurement results have revealed that PA radioimmunoassay is much better than prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) radioimmunoassay in the diagnosis of prostatic cancer

  19. Trichinella britovi human infection in Spain : antibody response to surface, excretory/secretory and somatic antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Osorio M.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A third outbreak of Trichinella britovi with 140 people involved, occurred in Granada Spain (December 1998. The source of infection was sausage made from uninspected wild boar meat. Fifty-two patients agreed to participated in this study. An elevated eosinophil level (> 5 % was detected in 59.6 % of patients, and persisted in most of these cases for two months. A moderate IgG response was observed. At the onset of symptoms, Western blot (WB test detected more positive cases than Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF. Six months from infection, ELISA revealed fewer positive cases than the other two tests. It would appear that the response to somatic antigens starts earlier than those to cuticular and excretory/secretory (ES antigens and that the response to ES antigens is the first to decrease.

  20. Bordetella bronchiseptica antigen enhances the production of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigen-specific immunoglobulin G in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Seol-Hwa; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Joo, Hong-Gu

    2017-09-30

    We previously demonstrated that Bordetella ( B .) bronchiseptica antigen (Ag) showed high immunostimulatory effects on mouse bone marrow cells (BMs) while Mycoplasma ( M .) hyopneumoniae Ag showed low effects. The focus of this study was to determine if B. bronchiseptica Ag can enhance the M. hyopneumoniae Ag-specific immune response and whether the host's immune system can recognize both Ags. MTT assay results revealed that each or both Ags did not significantly change BM metabolic activity. Flow cytometry analysis using carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester showed that B. bronchiseptica Ag can promote the division of BMs. In cytokine and nitric oxide (NO) assays, B. bronchiseptica Ag boosted production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in M. hyopneumoniae Ag-treated BMs, and combined treatment with both Ags elevated the level of NO in BMs compared to that from treatment of M. hyopneumoniae Ag alone. Immunoglobulin (Ig)G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the sera of Ag-injected mice clearly indicated that B. bronchiseptica Ag can increase the production of M. hyopneumoniae Ag-specific IgG. This study provided information valuable in the development of M. hyopneumoniae vaccines and showed that B. bronchiseptica Ag can be used both as a vaccine adjuvant and as a vaccine Ag.

  1. Studies on antigenic cross-reactivity of Trichuris ovis with host mucosal antigens in goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Patra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ascertain whether immunodominant antigens of Trichuris ovis might share and cross react with host molecule. Methods: Two crude protein preparations from anterior and posterior parts of Trichuris ovis were characterized along with host mucosal antigen by double immunodiffusion, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting technique. Conventional scanning electron microscopy was performed as per standard procedure. Results: Sharp and distinct bands of three antigens have been found in double immunodiffusion using hyperimmune serum raised in rabbit indicating the presence of specific antibody against each antigen. All three antigens have shown major and minor bands with molecular weight ranging from 15 to 110 kDa during sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Conclusions: The antigenic cross-reactivity was thought to result from shared antigens. The existence of paracloacal papillae found in the anterior part of the male was not a unique feature for species differentiation.

  2. The value of serum Hepatitis B surface antigen quantification in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The value of serum Hepatitis B surface antigen quantification in determining viralactivity in chronic Hepatitis B virus infection. ... ofCHB andalso higher in hepatitis e antigen positive patients compared to hepatitis e antigen negative patients.

  3. Group control of elevators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, Yasukazu; Hikita, Shiro; Tuji, Sintaro (Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1988-09-05

    Items to be evaluated in the group control of elevators, and a typical control system are described. A new system in which the fuzzy rule base is employed is introduced together with the configuration. The items to be evaluated are waiting time, riding time, accuracy of forecasting, energy saving, and ease of usage. The everage waiting time of less than 20 seconds with less than 3% waiting rate of more than 60 seconds is accepted as a satisfactory service condition. There are many conflicting matters in group-controlling, and the study for the controlling must deal with the optimization of multi-purpose problems. The standards for group-control evaluation differ according to building structures and the tastes of users, and an important problem is where to give emphasis of the evaluation. The TRAFFIC PATTERN LEARNING METHOD has been applied in the system for careful control to accommodate the traffic. No specific function is provided for the evaluation, but the call allocation is made by fuzzy rule-base. The configuration of a new group-control system is introduced. 7 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  4. Leukemia-associated antigens in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G; Capellaro, D; Greaves, M

    1975-12-01

    Rabbit antisera raised against acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells were used to distinguish ALL from other leukemias, to identify rare leukemia cells in the bone marrow of patients in remission, and to define human leukemia-associated antigens. Antibody binding was studied with the use of immunofluorescence reagents and the analytic capacity of the Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter-1 (FACS-1). The results indicated that most non-T-cell ALL have three leukemia-associated antigens on their surface which are absent from normal lymphoid cells: 1) an antigen shared with myelocytes, myeloblastic leukemia cells, and fetal liver (hematopoietic) cells; 2) an antigen shared with a subset of intermediate normoblasts in normal bone marrow and fetal liver; and 3) an antigen found thus far only on non-T-cell ALL and in some acute undifferentiated leukemias, which we therefore regard as a strong candidate for a leukemia-specific antigen. These antigens are absent from a subgroup of ALL patients in which the lymphoblasta express T-cell surface markers. Preliminary studies on the bone marrow samples of patients in remission indicated that rare leukemia cells were present in some samples. The implications of these findings with respect to the heterogeneity and cell origin(s) of ALL, its diagnosis, and its potential monitoring during treatment were discussed.

  5. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations amplify Alternaria alternata sporulation and total antigen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Although the association between rising levels of carbon dioxide, the principle anthropogenic greenhouse gas, and pollen production has been established, few data are available regarding the function of rising carbon dioxide on quantitative or qualitative changes in allergenic fungal sp...

  6. Cellular immune response from Chagasic patients to CRA or FRA recombinant antigens of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorena, Virginia M B; Verçosa, Alinne F A; Machado, Raquel C A; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Cavalcanti, Maria G A; Silva, Edimilson D; Ferreira, Antonio G P; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Pereira, Valéria R A; Gomes, Yara M

    2008-01-01

    We propose to analyze the relation between the cellular immune response of Chagas' disease patients after in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with recombinant antigens cytoplasmatic repetitive antigen (CRA) or flagellar repetitive antigen (FRA) of T. cruzi and the chronic clinical forms of disease. Cells were stimulated using phytohemagglutinin, CRA, FRA, or a soluble antigen of Epimastigota (Ag-Epi) for 24 hr, 72 hr, or 6 days. The proliferation of cells was evaluated after 6 days of culture by quantification of incorporated 3H-thymidine. Cytokines were measured in the supernatants obtained after 24 hr (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha and interleukin [IL]-4), 72 hr (IL-10), and 6 days (interferon [IFN]-gamma) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cells of the Chagas patients stimulated with the recombinant antigens exhibited higher proliferation responses compared with that of non-Chagas (NC) individuals. However, when proliferation was compared between patients with the cardiac form (CF) or indeterminate form (IF), it was not possible to establish a difference in the response. So far as the cytokines secreted in the culture supernatants after stimulation in vitro with T. cruzi antigens were concerned, the results showed that CRA, as well as Epi-Ag, were able to stimulate the production of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma in Chagas patients as compared with NC individuals. However, the cytokine levels after stimulation with the T. cruzi antigens were not different between the patients with CF and IF. CRA was capable of inducing a T helper type 1 (Th1) immune response, with elevated production of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma in Chagas patients that are carriers of CF and IF clinical forms. (Copyright ) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Posttransplant chimeric antigen receptor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melody; Zakrzewski, Johannes; James, Scott; Sadelain, Michel

    2018-03-08

    Therapeutic T-cell engineering is emerging as a powerful approach to treat refractory hematological malignancies. Its most successful embodiment to date is based on the use of second-generation chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting CD19, a cell surface molecule found in most B-cell leukemias and lymphomas. Remarkable complete remissions have been obtained with autologous T cells expressing CD19 CARs in patients with relapsed, chemo-refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Allogeneic CAR T cells may also be harnessed to treat relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, the use of donor T cells poses unique challenges owing to potential alloreactivity. We review different approaches to mitigate the risk of causing or aggravating graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), including CAR therapies based on donor leukocyte infusion, virus-specific T cells, T-cell receptor-deficient T cells, lymphoid progenitor cells, and regulatory T cells. Advances in CAR design, T-cell selection and gene editing are poised to enable the safe use of allogeneic CAR T cells without incurring GVHD. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  8. Lærer-elev-relationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Per Fibæk; Nielsen, Anne Maj

    2015-01-01

    I kapitlet belyser vi relationskompetence i forholdet mellem lærer og elever og hvordan læreren kan arbejde med forhold til elever og med sin opmærksomhed på relationsarbejdet. Afslutningsvis ser vi på hvordan lærere fortsat kan udvikle deres relationskompetence.......I kapitlet belyser vi relationskompetence i forholdet mellem lærer og elever og hvordan læreren kan arbejde med forhold til elever og med sin opmærksomhed på relationsarbejdet. Afslutningsvis ser vi på hvordan lærere fortsat kan udvikle deres relationskompetence....

  9. Tanzania Elevation and Surface Characteristics

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The dataset displays Elevation, Slope, Aspect, Topographic Position Index, Terrain Ruggedness, and Roughness based on Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) (3...

  10. Tumor Associated Antigenic Peptides in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tiwari, Raj

    1999-01-01

    .... We proposed to identify these novel antigens in an experimental rat model using purified preparations of the heat shock protein gp96 and a library of synthetic distinct antibodies that were available...

  11. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test On This Page What is the PSA ... parts of the body before being detected. The PSA test may give false-positive or false-negative ...

  12. Elevation of the diaphragmatic cupola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, V.M.; Talesnik, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    Altogether 45 patients with elevation of the diaphragmatic cupola were examined. A high frequency of erroneous initial interpretation of examination results was noted in inflammatory and tumorous lesions and congenital conditions. Routine and contrast methods (pneumoperitoneum, bronchography, pleurography and fistulography) were used. Disease-related methods of X-ray investigation were proposed. A variety of causes of diaphragm elevation was indicated

  13. Falsely elevated triiodothyronine values in radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skovsted, L.; Moelholm Hansen, J.E.; Nygaard, B.

    1995-01-01

    Five patients with falsely elevated serum triiodothyronine (T 3 ) concentrations (>9 nmol/l) in a radioimmunoassay are reported. The high T 3 -values disagreed with the other thyroid variables investigated as well as with the clinical observations. In sera from all patients a normal non-specific binding of T 3 was found, thus excluding abnormal serum-protein-binding of the hormone. An ethanol extraction of T 3 from serum before RIA reduced the T 3 content in serum from all patients to normal levels (2.0-2.4 nmol/l). These findings indicate the presence in the sera of substances, probably of protein nature, that were interfering with the assay by binding the reagent-antibody and not the antigen. Addition of non-immune rabbit serum prevented this interference and normalized the T 3 -values (1.8-2.4 nmol/l). Thus the interfering substance in T 3 -RIA could be an anti-rabbit antibody, the interaction of which can be eliminated by a minor modification of the assay making it possible to differentiate true from false T 3 -values. (au) 16 refs

  14. Space Station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  15. Allosensibilisation to erythrocyte antigens (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Mineeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article literature review of the causes of allosensibilisation to erythrocyte antigens are presented. It is shown that the ability to produce antierythrocyte antibodies is affected by many factors, principal of whom it is difficult to identify. For the allosensibilisation development requires genetically determined differences in erythrocyte antigens phenotypes of donor and recipient, mother and fetus, which can lead to immune response and antibodies production. The biochemical nature of erythrocyte antigens, antigen dose (the amount of transfused doses, the number of antigens determinants on donor and fetus erythrocytes, the number of pregnancies are important. Individual patient characteristics: age, gender, diseases, the use of immunosuppressive therapy and the presence of inflammatory processes, are also relevant. Note that antibody to one erythrocyte antigens have clinical value, and to the other – have no. The actual data about frequency of clinically significant antibodies contribute to the development of post-transfusion hemolytic complications prophylaxis as well as the improvement of laboratory diagnosis of hemolytic disease of the newborn in the presence of maternal antierythrocyte antibodies.

  16. Cationic liposomes promote antigen cross-presentation in dendritic cells by alkalizing the lysosomal pH and limiting the degradation of antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao J

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Jie Gao,1–3 Lukasz J Ochyl,1,3 Ellen Yang,4 James J Moon1,3,5 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Biointerfaces Institute, 4Department of Chemistry, 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: Cationic liposomes (CLs have been widely examined as vaccine delivery nanoparticles since they can form complexes with biomacromolecules, promote delivery of antigens and adjuvant molecules to antigen-presenting cells (APCs, and mediate cellular uptake of vaccine components. CLs are also known to trigger antigen cross-presentation – the process by which APCs internalize extracellular protein antigens, degrade them into minimal CD8+ T-cell epitopes, and present them in the context of major histocompatibility complex-I (MHC-I. However, the precise mechanisms behind CL-mediated induction of cross-presentation and cross-priming of CD8+ T-cells remain to be elucidated. In this study, we have developed two distinct CL systems and examined their impact on the lysosomal pH in dendritic cells (DCs, antigen degradation, and presentation of peptide:MHC-I complexes to antigen-specific CD8+ T-cells. To achieve this, we have used 3β-[N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethane-carbamoyl] cholesterol (DC-Chol and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP as the prototypical components of CLs with tertiary amine groups and compared the effect of CLs and anionic liposomes on lysosomal pH, antigen degradation, and cross-presentation by DCs. Our results showed that CLs, but not anionic liposomes, elevated the lysosomal pH in DCs and reduced antigen degradation, thereby promoting cross-presentation and cross-priming of CD8+ T-cell responses. These studies shed new light on CL-mediated cross-presentation and suggest that intracellular fate of vaccine

  17. Expression and Antigenic Evaluation of VacA Antigenic Fragment of Helicobacter Pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Leila; Ghaznavi-Rad, Ehsanollah; Soufian, Safieh; Farjadi, Vahideh; Abtahi, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s) : Helicobacter pylori, a human specific gastric pathogen is a causative agent of chronic active gastritis. The vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) is an effective virulence factor involved in gastric injury. The aim of this study was to construct a recombinant protein containing antigenic region of VacA gene and determine its antigenicity. Materials and Methods: The antigenic region of VacA gene was detected by bioinformatics methods. The polymerase chain reaction method was used to amplify a highly antigenic region of VacA gene from chromosomal DNA of H. pylori. The eluted product was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET32a. The target protein was expressed in the Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. The bacteria including pET32a-VacA plasmids were induced by IPTG. The antigenicity was finally studied by western blotting using sera of 15 H. pylori infected patients after purification. Results: Enzyme digestion analysis, PCR and DNA sequencing results showed that the target gene was inserted correctly into the recombinant vector. The expressed protein was purified successfully via affinity chromatography. Data indicated that antigenic region of VacA protein from Helicobacter pylori was recognized by all 15 patient’s sera. Conclusion : Our data showed that antigenic region of VacA protein can be expressed by in E. co.li. This protein was recognized by sera patients suffering from H. pylori infection. the recombinant protein has similar epitopes and close antigenic properties to the natural form of this antigen. Recombinant antigenic region of VacA protein also seems to be a promising antigen for protective and serologic diagnosis . PMID:23997913

  18. Expression and Antigenic Evaluation of VacA Antigenic Fragment of Helicobacter Pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Hasanzadeh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Helicobacter pylori, a human specific gastric pathogen is a causative agent of chronic active gastritis. The vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA is an effective virulence factor involved in gastric injury. The aim of this study was to construct a recombinant protein containing antigenic region of VacA gene and determine its antigenicity.   Materials and Methods: The antigenic region of VacA gene was detected by bioinformatics methods. The polymerase chain reaction method was used to amplify a highly antigenic region of VacA gene from chromosomal DNA of H. pylori. The eluted product was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET32a. The target protein was expressed in the Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 pLysS. The bacteria including pET32a-VacA plasmids were induced by IPTG. The antigenicity was finally studied by western blotting using sera of 15 H. pylori infected patients after purification. Results: Enzyme digestion analysis, PCR and DNA sequencing results showed that the target gene was inserted correctly into the recombinant vector. The expressed protein was purified successfully via affinity chromatography. Data indicated that antigenic region of VacA protein from Helicobacter pylori was recognized by all 15 patient’s sera. Conclusion : Our data showed that antigenic region of VacA protein can be expressed by in E. co.li. This protein was recognized by sera patients suffering from H. pylori infection. the recombinant protein has similar epitopes and close antigenic properties to the natural form of this antigen. Recombinant antigenic region of VacA protein also seems to be a promising antigen for protective and serologic diagnosis .

  19. Context-Aware Elevator Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Strang, Thomas; Bauer, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Research on context-aware systems is usually user-centric and thus focussed on the context of a specific user to serve his or her needs in an optimized way. In this paper, we want to apply core concepts developed in research on context-awareness in a system-centric way, namely to elevator systems. We show with three different examples that the performance of an elevator system can be significantly improved if the elevator control has access to contextual knowledge. The first example demons...

  20. Antigen Cross-Presentation of Immune Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, Barbara; Stout, Madeleine; Fiebiger, Edda

    2014-01-01

    The ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to cross-present tumor antigens has long been a focus of interest to physicians, as well as basic scientists, that aim to establish efficient cell-based cancer immune therapy. A prerequisite for exploiting this pathway for therapeutic purposes is a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the induction of tumor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses when initiated by DCs via cross-presentation. The ability of humans DC to perform cross-presentation is of utmost interest, as this cell type is a main target for cell-based immunotherapy in humans. The outcome of a cross-presentation event is guided by the nature of the antigen, the form of antigen uptake, and the subpopulation of DCs that performs presentation. Generally, CD8α+ DCs are considered to be the most potent cross-presenting DCs. This paradigm, however, only applies to soluble antigens. During adaptive immune responses, immune complexes form when antibodies interact with their specific epitopes on soluble antigens. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) immune complexes target Fc-gamma receptors on DCs to shuttle exogenous antigens efficiently into the cross-presentation pathway. This receptor-mediated cross-presentation pathway is a well-described route for the induction of strong CD8+ T cell responses. IgG-mediated cross-presentation is intriguing because it permits the CD8− DCs, which are commonly considered to be weak cross-presenters, to efficiently cross-present. Engaging multiple DC subtypes for cross-presentation might be a superior strategy to boost CTL responses in vivo. We here summarize our current understanding of how DCs use IgG-complexed antigens for the efficient induction of CTL responses. Because of its importance for human cell therapy, we also review the recent advances in the characterization of cross-presentation properties of human DC subsets. PMID:24744762

  1. Studies on antigenic cross-reactivity of Trichuris ovis with host mucosal antigens in goat

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam Patra; Seikh Sahanawaz Alam; Sonjoy Kumar Borthakur; Hridayesh Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain whether immunodominant antigens of Trichuris ovis might share and cross react with host molecule. Methods: Two crude protein preparations from anterior and posterior parts of Trichuris ovis were characterized along with host mucosal antigen by double immunodiffusion, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting technique. Conventional scanning electron microscopy was performed as per standard procedure. Results: Sharp...

  2. FEMA DFIRM Base Flood Elevations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally,...

  3. Advanced energy saving hydraulic elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido, A.; Sevilleja, J.; Servia, A.

    1993-08-24

    An hydraulic elevator is described comprising: a counterweighted elevator comprising a car, a counterweight, and a rope connecting the car and the counterweight; a ram having a first reaction surface for driving one of the car or the counterweight upwardly and a second reaction surface for driving one of the car or the counterweight downwardly; multiplier means for moving the car a distance greater than a stroke of the ram, the multiplier means connecting the ram to the counterweighted elevator, the multiplier means comprising: a first pulley; a second pulley; means for rigidly connecting the first and second pulley, the means having a length corresponding to a rise of the hydraulic elevator, the means attaching to the ram; and a pulley rope which: has a first end attaching to a first fixed point, extends about the first pulley, extends about the second pulley, and has a second end attaching to a second fixed point.

  4. Space Elevators Preliminary Architectural View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullum, L.; Swan, P. A.

    Space Systems Architecture has been expanded into a process by the US Department of Defense for their large scale systems of systems development programs. This paper uses the steps in the process to establishes a framework for Space Elevator systems to be developed and provides a methodology to manage complexity. This new approach to developing a family of systems is based upon three architectural views: Operational View OV), Systems View (SV), and Technical Standards View (TV). The top level view of the process establishes the stages for the development of the first Space Elevator and is called Architectural View - 1, Overview and Summary. This paper will show the guidelines and steps of the process while focusing upon components of the Space Elevator Preliminary Architecture View. This Preliminary Architecture View is presented as a draft starting point for the Space Elevator Project.

  5. Coastal Digital Elevation Models (DEMs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digital elevation models (DEMs) of U.S. and other coasts that typically integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography. The DEMs support NOAA's mission to understand...

  6. Base Flood Elevation (BFE) Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally if...

  7. Elevated Fixed Platform Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Elevated Fixed Platform (EFP) is a helicopter recovery test facility located at Lakehurst, NJ. It consists of a 60 by 85 foot steel and concrete deck built atop...

  8. Energy efficient elevators and escalators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrao, Carlos; Fong, Joao; Almeida, Anibal de (Dep. Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)); Rivet, Luc

    2009-07-01

    Elevators and escalators are the crucial element that makes it practical to live and work several floors above ground - more than 4,3 million units are installed in Europe. Due to ageing of the European population the installation of elevators in single family houses is experiencing a significant growth, as well as equipping existing buildings. Elevators use about 4% of the electricity in tertiary sector buildings. High untapped saving potentials exist with respect to energy-efficient technologies, investment decisions and behavioural approaches, in these sectors. This paper presents preliminary results from the IEE project E4, whose overall objective is the improvement of the energy performance of elevators and escalators, in tertiary sector buildings and in multi family residential buildings. The project is characterizing people conveyors electricity consumption in the tertiary sector and in residential buildings in the EU. The installed park is characterised by a survey among elevators national associations in each country. An assessment of the barriers has been made in the first phase of the project and will be presented. Monitoring campaigns in elevators and escalators are being conducted in each country according to a common developed methodology. More than fifty elevators and escalators will be audited. This will allow the collection of load curves (start up, travel up and down, travel full and empty), including the characterization of standby consumption. Standby consumption of an elevator can represent up to 80% of the total energy consumed per year, and can be drastically reduced. This paper presents the preliminary results of the first ten audits performed in Portugal by Isr-UC.

  9. Human Tumor Antigens Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Olivera J

    2017-05-01

    The question of whether human tumors express antigens that can be recognized by the immune system has been answered with a resounding YES. Most were identified through spontaneous antitumor humoral and cellular immune responses found in cancer patients and include peptides, glycopeptides, phosphopeptides, viral peptides, and peptides resulting from common mutations in oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes, or common gene fusion events. Many have been extensively tested as candidates for anticancer vaccines. More recently, attention has been focused on the potentially large number of unique tumor antigens, mutated neoantigens, that are the predicted products of the numerous mutations revealed by exome sequencing of primary tumors. Only a few have been confirmed as targets of spontaneous immunity and immunosurveillance, and even fewer have been tested in preclinical and clinical settings. The field has been divided for a long time on the relative importance of shared versus mutated antigens in tumor surveillance and as candidates for vaccines. This question will eventually need to be answered in a head to head comparison in well-designed clinical trials. One advantage that shared antigens have over mutated antigens is their potential to be used in vaccines for primary cancer prevention. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(5); 347-54. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Original antigenic sin responses to influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyang; Skountzou, Ioanna; Compans, Richard; Jacob, Joshy

    2009-09-01

    Most immune responses follow Burnet's rule in that Ag recruits specific lymphocytes from a large repertoire and induces them to proliferate and differentiate into effector cells. However, the phenomenon of "original antigenic sin" stands out as a paradox to Burnet's rule of B cell engagement. Humans, upon infection with a novel influenza strain, produce Abs against older viral strains at the expense of responses to novel, protective antigenic determinants. This exacerbates the severity of the current infection. This blind spot of the immune system and the redirection of responses to the "original Ag" rather than to novel epitopes were described fifty years ago. Recent reports have questioned the existence of this phenomenon. Hence, we revisited this issue to determine the extent to which original antigenic sin is induced by variant influenza viruses. Using two related strains of influenza A virus, we show that original antigenic sin leads to a significant decrease in development of protective immunity and recall responses to the second virus. In addition, we show that sequential infection of mice with two live influenza virus strains leads to almost exclusive Ab responses to the first viral strain, suggesting that original antigenic sin could be a potential strategy by which variant influenza viruses subvert the immune system.

  11. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Isabel; Ilieva, Kristina M; Crescioli, Silvia; Lombardi, Sara; Figini, Mariangela; Cheung, Anthony; Spicer, James F; Tutt, Andrew N J; Nestle, Frank O; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Lacy, Katie E; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2018-01-01

    Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα) as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1) specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the antigen-positive cells was 1:100 or higher. In PBMC pools, beads conjugated to recombinant antigens FRα and HER2 bound antigen-specific anti-FRα MOv18 and anti-HER2 Trastuzumab antibody-expressing cells, respectively. From melanoma patient-derived B cells selected with melanoma cell line-derived protein-coated fluorescent beads, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognized melanoma antigen-coated beads. This approach may be further developed to facilitate analysis of B cells and their antibody profiles at the single cell level and to help unravel humoral immune repertoires.

  12. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Correa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1 specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the antigen-positive cells was 1:100 or higher. In PBMC pools, beads conjugated to recombinant antigens FRα and HER2 bound antigen-specific anti-FRα MOv18 and anti-HER2 Trastuzumab antibody-expressing cells, respectively. From melanoma patient-derived B cells selected with melanoma cell line-derived protein-coated fluorescent beads, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognized melanoma antigen-coated beads. This approach may be further developed to facilitate analysis of B cells and their antibody profiles at the single cell level and to help unravel humoral immune repertoires.

  13. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Isabel; Ilieva, Kristina M.; Crescioli, Silvia; Lombardi, Sara; Figini, Mariangela; Cheung, Anthony; Spicer, James F.; Tutt, Andrew N. J.; Nestle, Frank O.; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Lacy, Katie E.; Karagiannis, Sophia N.

    2018-01-01

    Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα) as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1) specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the antigen-positive cells was 1:100 or higher. In PBMC pools, beads conjugated to recombinant antigens FRα and HER2 bound antigen-specific anti-FRα MOv18 and anti-HER2 Trastuzumab antibody-expressing cells, respectively. From melanoma patient-derived B cells selected with melanoma cell line-derived protein-coated fluorescent beads, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognized melanoma antigen-coated beads. This approach may be further developed to facilitate analysis of B cells and their antibody profiles at the single cell level and to help unravel humoral immune repertoires. PMID:29628923

  14. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizak, B. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland); Plucienniczak, A. [Polish Academy ofd Sciences. Microbiology and Virology Center, Lodz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs.

  15. Harnessing Dendritic Cells for Tumor Antigen Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nierkens, Stefan [Department of Tumor Immunology, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein 28, Nijmegen 6525 GA (Netherlands); Janssen, Edith M., E-mail: edith.janssen@cchmc.org [Division of Molecular Immunology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Research Foundation, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)

    2011-04-26

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen presenting cells that are crucial for the induction of anti-tumor T cell responses. As a consequence, research has focused on the harnessing of DCs for therapeutic interventions. Although current strategies employing ex vivo-generated and tumor-antigen loaded DCs have been proven feasible, there are still many obstacles to overcome in order to improve clinical trial successes and offset the cost and complexity of customized cell therapy. This review focuses on one of these obstacles and a pivotal step for the priming of tumor-specific CD8{sup +} and CD4{sup +} T cells; the in vitro loading of DCs with tumor antigens.

  16. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizak, B.; Plucienniczak, A.

    1995-01-01

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs

  17. Observations of pretreatment prostate-specific antigen doubling time in 107 patients referred for definitive radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W. Robert; Hanks, Gerald E.; Corn, Benjamin W.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To determine pretreatment prostate-specific antigen doubling times (PSADT) in patients referred for definitive radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: One hundred and seven patients with histologically proven nonmetastatic prostate cancer and an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) who were referred for radiation therapy had three serum PSA values obtained prior to the start of definitive therapy. Prostate-specific antigen doubling times were calculated by linear regression. Results: Prostate-specific antigen values increased during the period of observation in 78 patients (73%). Forty-three patients (40%) had calculated PSADT of less than 2 years and of those patients with pretreatment serum PSA values of greater than 10 ng/mL more than 50% has calculated PSADT of less than 2 years. Conclusions: A significant minority of patients referred for radiotherapy have calculated PSADT of less than 2 years. The significance of this relatively fast growth rate is as yet undetermined, but suggests that patients referred for radiotherapy may have aggressive disease prior to treatment

  18. Original antigenic sin: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatti, Anup; Monsalve, Diana M; Pacheco, Yovana; Chang, Christopher; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Gershwin, M Eric

    2017-09-01

    The concept of "original antigenic sin" was first proposed by Thomas Francis, Jr. in 1960. This phenomenon has the potential to rewrite what we understand about how the immune system responds to infections and its mechanistic implications on how vaccines should be designed. Antigenic sin has been demonstrated to occur in several infectious diseases in both animals and humans, including human influenza infection and dengue fever. The basis of "original antigenic sin" requires immunological memory, and our immune system ability to autocorrect. In the context of viral infections, it is expected that if we are exposed to a native strain of a pathogen, we should be able to mount a secondary immune response on subsequent exposure to the same pathogen. "Original antigenic sin" will not contradict this well-established immunological process, as long as the subsequent infectious antigen is identical to the original one. But "original antigenic sin" implies that when the epitope varies slightly, then the immune system relies on memory of the earlier infection, rather than mount another primary or secondary response to the new epitope which would allow faster and stronger responses. The result is that the immunological response may be inadequate against the new strain, because the immune system does not adapt and instead relies on its memory to mount a response. In the case of vaccines, if we only immunize to a single strain or epitope, and if that strain/epitope changes over time, then the immune system is unable to mount an accurate secondary response. In addition, depending of the first viral exposure the secondary immune response can result in an antibody-dependent enhancement of the disease or at the opposite, it could induce anergy. Both of them triggering loss of pathogen control and inducing aberrant clinical consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Salvage radiotherapy for prostate-specific antigen relapse after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. A single-center experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Takahiro; Nakayama, Masashi; Suzuki, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and prognostic factors of salvage radiotherapy for prostate-specific antigen relapse after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer at a single center in Japan. A retrospective review of the medical records of 51 patients who underwent salvage radiotherapy for prostate-specific antigen relapse after radical prostatectomy was carried out. Salvage radiotherapy was undergone for the single indication of at least two consecutive prostate-specific antigen elevations >0.1 ng/ml. Salvage radiotherapy was delivered to the prostatic bed at a total dose of 60 or 64 Gy. Late toxicity was scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 3.0. A total dose of 60 and 64 Gy were administered to 26 and 25 patients, respectively. The median prostate-specific antigen level at the initiation of radiotherapy was 0.29 ng/ml (range, 0.11-1.10 ng/ml). With a median follow-up of 57.3 months (range, 9.9-134.0 months), the prostate-specific antigen relapse-free rate at 5 years was 50.7%. Multivariate analysis using Cox's proportional hazards regression model revealed that the Gleason score at radical prostatectomy ≥8 significantly predicted prostate-specific antigen relapse after salvage radiotherapy (hazard ratio 4.531; 95% confidence interval 1.413-14.535; P=0.011). The prostate-specific antigen relapse-free rate at 5 years in the Gleason score at radical prostatectomy ≤7 and at radical prostatectomy ≥8 was 62.7 and 15.4%, respectively. Salvage radiotherapy was effective for prostate-specific antigen relapse after radical prostatectomy with tolerable toxicities in Japanese patients. A high Gleason score seemed to be a poor prognostic factor. (author)

  20. Safety, tumor trafficking and immunogenicity of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells specific for TAG-72 in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hege, Kristen M; Bergsland, Emily K; Fisher, George A; Nemunaitis, John J; Warren, Robert S; McArthur, James G; Lin, Andy A; Schlom, Jeffrey; June, Carl H; Sherwin, Stephen A

    2017-01-01

    T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have established efficacy in the treatment of B-cell malignancies, but their relevance in solid tumors remains undefined. Here we report results of the first human trials of CAR-T cells in the treatment of solid tumors performed in the 1990s. Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) were treated in two phase 1 trials with first-generation retroviral transduced CAR-T cells targeting tumor-associated glycoprotein (TAG)-72 and including a CD3-zeta intracellular signaling domain (CART72 cells). In trial C-9701 and C-9702, CART72 cells were administered in escalating doses up to 10 10 total cells; in trial C-9701 CART72 cells were administered by intravenous infusion. In trial C-9702, CART72 cells were administered via direct hepatic artery infusion in patients with colorectal liver metastases. In both trials, a brief course of interferon-alpha (IFN-α) was given with each CART72 infusion to upregulate expression of TAG-72. Fourteen patients were enrolled in C-9701 and nine in C-9702. CART72 manufacturing success rate was 100% with an average transduction efficiency of 38%. Ten patients were treated in CC-9701 and 6 in CC-9702. Symptoms consistent with low-grade, cytokine release syndrome were observed in both trials without clear evidence of on target/off tumor toxicity. Detectable, but mostly short-term (≤14 weeks), persistence of CART72 cells was observed in blood; one patient had CART72 cells detectable at 48 weeks. Trafficking to tumor tissues was confirmed in a tumor biopsy from one of three patients. A subset of patients had 111 Indium-labeled CART72 cells injected, and trafficking could be detected to liver, but T cells appeared largely excluded from large metastatic deposits. Tumor biomarkers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and TAG-72 were measured in serum; there was a precipitous decline of TAG-72, but not CEA, in some patients due to induction of an interfering antibody to the TAG-72

  1. Antigen processing and remodeling of the endosomal pathway: requirements for antigen cross-presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compeer, Ewoud Bernardus; Flinsenberg, Thijs Willem Hendrik; van der Grein, Susanna Geertje; Boes, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen as peptide/class I major histocompatibility complex complexes plays a central role in the elicitation of CD8(+) T cell clones that mediate anti-viral and anti-tumor immune responses. While it has been clear that there are specific subsets of professional antigen presenting cells capable of antigen cross-presentation, identification of mechanisms involved is still ongoing. Especially amongst dendritic cells (DC), there are specialized subsets that are highly proficient at antigen cross-presentation. We here present a focused survey on the cell biological processes in the endosomal pathway that support antigen cross-presentation. This review highlights DC-intrinsic mechanisms that facilitate the cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen, including receptor-mediated uptake, maturation-induced endosomal sorting of membrane proteins, dynamic remodeling of endosomal structures and cell surface-directed endosomal trafficking. We will conclude with the description of pathogen-induced deviation of endosomal processing, and discuss how immune evasion strategies pertaining endosomal trafficking may preclude antigen cross-presentation.

  2. Antigen processing and remodeling of the endosomal pathway: requirements for antigen cross-presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewoud Bernardus Compeer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen as peptide/class I MHC complexes plays a central role in the elicitation of CD8+ T cell clones that mediate anti-viral and anti-tumor immune responses. While it has been clear that there are specific subsets of professional antigen presenting cells (APC capable of antigen cross-presentation, description of mechanisms involved is still ongoing. Especially amongst dendritic cells (DC, there are specialized subsets that are highly proficient at antigen cross-presentation. We here present a focused survey on the cell biological processes in the endosomal pathway that support antigen cross-presentation. This review highlight DC-intrinsic mechanisms that facilitate the cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen, including receptor-mediated uptake, recycling and maturation including the sorting of membrane proteins, dynamic remodeling of endosomal structures and cell-surface directed endosomal trafficking. We will conclude with description of pathogen-induced deviation of endosomal processing, and discuss how immune evasion strategies pertaining endosomal trafficking may preclude antigen cross-presentation.

  3. Identification of antigenic proteins of setaria cervi by immunoblotting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushal, N.A.; Kaushal, D.C.; Ghatak, S.

    1987-01-01

    Identification and characterization of antigenic proteins of Setaria cervi (bovine filarial parasite) adults and microfilariae was done by immunoblotting technique using hyperimmune rabbit sera against S. cervi and Brugia malayi. The antigens recognized by these sera were detected by using 125 I protein-A followed by autoradiography. Fifteen different antigens were observed to be common between adult and microfilarial stages of the parasite. Some stage specific antigens were also identified. Many antigens of S. cervi adults and microfilariae were also recognized by rabbit anti-B.malayi serum showing the existence of common antigenic determinants between the bovine and human filarial parasites

  4. Complex behavior of elevators in peak traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2003-08-01

    We study the dynamical behavior of elevators in the morning peak traffic. We present a stochastic model of the elevators to take into account the interactions between elevators through passengers. The dynamics of the elevators is expressed in terms of a coupled nonlinear map with noises. The number of passengers carried by an elevator and the time-headway between elevators exhibit the complex behavior with varying elevator trips. It is found that the behavior of elevators exhibits a deterministic chaos even if there are no noises. The chaotic motion depends on the loading parameter, the maximum capacity of an elevator, and the number of elevators. When the loading parameter is superior to the threshold, each elevator carries a full load of passengers throughout its trip. The dependence of the threshold (transition point) on the elevator capacity is clarified.

  5. Vessels for elevated temperature service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, W.J.; Porowski, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction (background; elevated temperature concerns; design tools); design of pressure vessels for elevated temperature per ASME code; basic elevated temperature failure modes; allowable stresses and strains per ASME code (basic allowable stress limits; ASME code limits for bending; time-fraction summations; strain limits; buckling and instability; negligible creep and stress-rupture effects); combined membrane and bending stresses in creep regime; thermal stress cycles; bounding methods based on elastic core concept (bounds on accumulated strains; more accurate bounds; strain ranges; maximum stresses; strains at discontinuities); elastic follow-up; creep strain concentrations; time-dependent fatigue (combined creep rupture and fatigue damage; limits for inelastic design analyses; limits for elastic design analyses); flaw evaluation techniques; type 316 stainless steel; type 304 stainless steel; steel 2 1/4Cr1Mo; Inconel 718; Incolloy 800; Hastelloy X; detailed inelastic design analyses. (U.K.)

  6. Troponin elevation in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Mavridis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Troponin (tr elevation in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH patients is often difficult to be appropriately assessed by clinicians, causing even disagreements regarding its management between neurosurgeons and cardiologists. The purpose of this article was to review the literature regarding the clinical interpretation of tr elevation in SAH. We searched for articles in PubMed using the key words: “troponin elevation” and “subarachnoid hemorrhage”. All of them, as well as relative neurosurgical books, were used for this review. Some type of cardiovascular abnormality develops in most SAH patients. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a frequent SAH complication, due to catecholamine surge which induces cardiac injury, as evidenced by increased serum tr levels, electrocardiographic (ECG changes and cardiac wall motion abnormalities. Tr elevation, usually modest, is an early and specific marker for cardiac involvement after SAH and its levels peak about two days after SAH. Cardiac tr elevation predictors include poor clinical grade, intraventricular hemorrhage, loss of consciousness at ictus, global cerebral edema, female sex, large body surface area, lower systolic blood pressure, higher heart rate and prolonged Q-Tc interval. Elevated tr levels are associated with disability and death (especially tr >1 μg/L, worse neurological grade, systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, longer intensive care unit stay and incidence of vasospasm. Tr elevation is a common finding in SAH patients and constitutes a rightful cause of worry about the patients' cardiac function and prognosis. It should be therefore early detected, carefully monitored and appropriately managed by clinicians.

  7. Historie i spillefilm - for elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Lone Guldbrandt

    2016-01-01

    MOOC om historiebrug i spillefilm, hvor elever kan lære om, hvordan spillefilm bruger fortiden, og om hvordan vores opfattelse af historien både sætter sig spor i filmene og bliver påvirket af dem.......MOOC om historiebrug i spillefilm, hvor elever kan lære om, hvordan spillefilm bruger fortiden, og om hvordan vores opfattelse af historien både sætter sig spor i filmene og bliver påvirket af dem....

  8. Tether Elevator Crawler Systems (TECS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Frank R.

    1987-01-01

    One of the needs of the experimenters on the space station is access to steady and controlled-variation microgravity environments. A method of providing these environments is to place the experiment on a tether attached to the space station. This provides a high degree of isolation from structural oscillations and vibrations. Crawlers can move these experiments along the tethers to preferred locations, much like an elevator. This report describes the motion control laws developed for these crawlers and the testing of laboratory models of these tether elevator crawlers.

  9. [Radiocompetitive method of H antigen determination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, G B; Sokolov, Ia A; Liashenko, V A

    1978-06-01

    The authors describe a radiocompetitive method of H-d-monomere determination with the sensitivity of 2 ng/ml in double antibodies modification; this method was used for comparing the immunological affinity of the affiliated H-antigens. A difference between the immunological affinity to the antibodies in a monomere, polymere and the flagellum was shown.

  10. Immune responses to red blood cell antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegmann, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    The research described in this thesis is aimed towards elucidation of the mechanism of action of anti-D. Anti-D is administered prophylactivly to prevent alloimmunization against the immunogenic D-antigen to D⁻ pregnant women carrying a D⁺ fetus. The plasma of women who became immunized during

  11. Antigen dynamics of follicular dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesters, B.A.

    2015-01-01

    Stromal-derived follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are a major depot for antigen that are essential for formation of germinal centers, the site where memory and effector B cells differentiate and high-affinity antibody production takes place. Historically, FDCs have been characterized as ‘accessory’

  12. Evaluation of an Antigen-Antibody

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    replication would lead to the production of various antigens. Today with BMT history of over 30 years, infection ... Study design: The study involved both retrospective and prospective laboratory-based analysis of ..... core protein of a molecular mass 19 x 103 Da, one picogram (pg) of virus core corresponds to 1.3 x. 105 HCV ...

  13. Lea blood group antigen on human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunstan, R.A.; Simpson, M.B.; Rosse, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    One- and two-stage radioligand assays were used to determine if human platelets possess the Lea antigen. Goat IgG anti-Lea antibody was purified by multiple adsorptions with Le(a-b-) human red blood cells, followed by affinity chromatography with synthetic Lea substance and labeling with 125 I. Human IgG anti-Lea antibody was used either in a two stage radioassay with 125 I-labeled mouse monoclonal IgG anti-human IgG as the second antibody or, alternatively, purified by Staph protein A chromatography, labeled with 125 I, and used in a one-stage radioassay. Platelets from donors of appropriate red blood cell phenotypes were incubated with the antisera, centrifuged through phthalate esters, and assayed in a gamma scintillation counter. Dose response and saturation curve analysis demonstrate the presence of Lewis a antigen on platelets from Lea+ donors. Furthermore, platelets from an Le(a-b-) donor incubated in Le (a+b-) plasma adsorb Lea antigen in a similar manner to red blood cells. The clinical significance of these antigens in platelet transfusion remains undefined

  14. Antigenic characterisation of lyssaviruses in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Ngoepe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There are at least six Lyssavirus species that have been isolated in Africa, which include classical rabies virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, Shimoni bat virus and Ikoma lyssavirus. In this retrospective study, an analysis of the antigenic reactivity patterns of lyssaviruses in South Africa against a panel of 15 anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies was undertaken. A total of 624 brain specimens, collected between 2005 and 2009, confirmed as containing lyssavirus antigen by direct fluorescent antibody test, were subjected to antigenic differentiation. The lyssaviruses were differentiated into two species, namely rabies virus (99.5% and Mokola virus (0.5%. Furthermore, rabies virus was further delineated into two common rabies biotypes in South Africa: canid and mongoose. Initially, it was found that the canid rabies biotype had two reactivity patterns; differential staining was observed with just one monoclonal antibody. This difference was likely to have been an artefact related to sample quality, as passage in cell culture restored staining. Mongoose rabies viruses were more heterogeneous, with seven antigenic reactivity patterns detected. Although Mokola viruses were identified in this study, prevalence and reservoir host species are yet to be established. These data demonstrate the usefulness of monoclonal antibody typing panels in lyssavirus surveillance with reference to emergence of new species or spread of rabies biotypes to new geographic zones.

  15. Radioimmunoassay for hepatitis B core antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagnelli, E.; Pereira, C.; Triolo, G.; Vernace, S.; Paronetto, F.

    1982-01-01

    Serum hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) is an important marker of hepatitis B virus replication. We describe an easy, sensitive radioimmunoassay for determination of HBcAg in detergent-treated serum pellets containing Dane particles. Components of a commercial kit for anticore determination are used, and HBcAG is measured by competitive inhibition of binding of 125 I-labeled antibodies to HBcAg with HBcAg-coated beads. We assayed for HBcAG in the sera of 49 patients with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive chronic hepatitis, 50 patients with HBsAg-negative chronic hepatitis, and 30 healthy volunteers. HBcAg was detected in 41% of patients with HBsAg-positive chronic hepatitis but not in patients with HBsAg-negative chronic hepatitis. Hepatitis Be antigen (an antigen closely associated with the core of Dane particles) determined in the same sera by radioimmunoassay, was not detected in 50% of HBcAg-positive sera

  16. Antigenic and genetic variability of human metapneumoviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Herfst (Sander); L. Sprong; P.A. Cane; E. Forleo-Neto; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); R.L. de Swart (Rik); B.G. van den Hoogen (Bernadette)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractHuman metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a member of the subfamily Pneumovirinae within the family Paramyxo- viridae. Other members of this subfamily, respiratory syncytial virus and avian pneumovirus, can be divided into subgroups on the basis of genetic or antigenic differences or both. For

  17. Understanding original antigenic sin in influenza with a dynamical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Keyao

    2011-01-01

    Original antigenic sin is the phenomenon in which prior exposure to an antigen leads to a subsequent suboptimal immune response to a related antigen. Immune memory normally allows for an improved and rapid response to antigens previously seen and is the mechanism by which vaccination works. I here develop a dynamical system model of the mechanism of original antigenic sin in influenza, clarifying and explaining the detailed spin-glass treatment of original antigenic sin. The dynamical system describes the viral load, the quantities of healthy and infected epithelial cells, the concentrations of naïve and memory antibodies, and the affinities of naïve and memory antibodies. I give explicit correspondences between the microscopic variables of the spin-glass model and those of the present dynamical system model. The dynamical system model reproduces the phenomenon of original antigenic sin and describes how a competition between different types of B cells compromises the overall effect of immune response. I illustrate the competition between the naïve and the memory antibodies as a function of the antigenic distance between the initial and subsequent antigens. The suboptimal immune response caused by original antigenic sin is observed when the host is exposed to an antigen which has intermediate antigenic distance to a second antigen previously recognized by the host's immune system.

  18. The role of preoperative serum cancer antigen 125 in malignant ovarian germ cell tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hyun Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the role of preoperative serum cancer antigen 125 (CA 125 in malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (MOGCTs. Materials and methods: Using information from medical databases of Asan Medical Center (Seoul, Korea, we investigated 161 patients with histologically diagnosed MOGCTs and whose preoperative serum CA 125 had been checked. We determined the optimal cutoff value of CA 125 as > 249.5 U/mL in MOGCTs using a receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: The median patient age was 24 years (range, 6–52 years. The most common histologic type was immature teratoma. Most patients had stage I disease. Thirty-two patients (19.9% had elevated preoperative serum CA 125 levels over 249.5 U/mL. On univariate analysis, tumor size, advanced stage, the presence of ascites, ovarian surface involvement, and tumor rupture were significantly associated with elevated preoperative CA 125 levels (>249.5 U/mL. In the median follow-up time of 87 months (range, 9–271 months, 14 patients had a recurrence, and 5 died of the disease. Patients with an elevated serum preoperative CA 125 level (>249.5 U/mL had poorer disease-free survival, but this was not statistically significant. However, elevated preoperative CA 125 (>249.5 U/mL was significantly associated with poorer overall survival. Conclusions: Elevated preoperative serum CA 125 may have prognostic value in patients with MOGCTs. Keywords: CA-125 antigen, Ovarian germ cell cancer, Prognosis

  19. Radioimmunoassay for tumor antigen of human cervical squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, H.; Torigoe, T.

    1977-01-01

    A heterologous antiserum for human cervical squamous cell carcinoma was prepared and specificity determined by Ouchterlony immunodiffusion and immunofluorescence studies. With this antiserum, a tumor antigen was purified from human cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissue. The specificities of the antigen and the antiserum were then re-examined by a radioimmunoassay method using 125 I-labeled purified antigen. Although normal cervical tissue extract showed a moderate cross-reactivity in the radioimmunoassay, the circulating antigen activity could not be detected in normal women or in several patients with other carcinomas, whereas 27 of 35 patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma showed detectable serum antigen activity. All patients with advanced stages of cervical squamous cell carcinoma showed detectable antigen levels. These results indicate that there is a quantitative abnormality, at least, of this tumor antigen in patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma and that the radioimmunoassay for the antigen is a potentially useful tool in clinical care

  20. Evaluating the use of dedicated swab for rapid antigen detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating the use of dedicated swab for rapid antigen detection testing in group a ... African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology ... Several generations of rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) have been developed to facilitate ...

  1. Cysteine proteases as potential antigens in antiparasitic DNA vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff; Buchmann, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    En litteraturgennemgang af muligheder for at bruge cystein proteaser som antigener i antiparasitære vacciner.......En litteraturgennemgang af muligheder for at bruge cystein proteaser som antigener i antiparasitære vacciner....

  2. Dannelsen af den ansvarlige elev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Denne artikel handler om den del af lærergerningen, der har at gøre med udarbejdelse af elevplaner. Der tages udgangspunkt i en foucaultsk forståelse, hvor beskrivelsen af den enkelte elev udtrykker et særligt normativt ideal om, hvilke former for elevhed der er de ønskværdige i den danske...

  3. Methylphenidatinduceret ST-elevations-myokardieinfarkt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth; Ruwald, Anne-Christine Huth; Tønder, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Adult attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder (ADHD) is increasingly diagnosed and treated with methylphenidate. We present the case of an 20 year-old man, who was diagnosed with ADHD and suffered a ST elevation acute myocardial infarction due to coronary vasospasm related to an overdose...

  4. Elevated lactate during psychogenic hyperventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Avest, E.; Patist, F. M.; ter Maaten, J. C.; Nijsten, M. W. N.

    Study objective Elevated arterial lactate levels are closely related to morbidity and mortality in various patient categories. In the present retrospective study, the relation between arterial lactate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2)) and pH was systematically investigated in patients who

  5. Rapidly boosted Plasma IL-5 induced by treatment of human Schistosomiasis haematobium is dependent on antigen dose, IgE and eosinophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Shona; Jones, Frances M.; Fofana, Hassan K. M.

    2013-01-01

    IgE specific to worm antigen (SWA) and pre-treatment eosinophil number, are associated with human immunity to re-infection with schistosomes after chemotherapeutic treatment. Treatment significantly elevates circulating IL-5 24-hr post-treatment of Schistosoma mansoni. Here we investigate...

  6. Antigenic evaluation of a recombinant baculovirus-expressed Sarcocystis neurona SAG1 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G D; Lakritz, J; Saville, W J; Livingston, R S; Dubey, J P; Middleton, J R; Marsh, A E

    2004-10-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the primary parasite associated with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). This is a commonly diagnosed neurological disorder in the Americas that infects the central nervous system of horses. Current serologic assays utilize culture-derived parasites as antigen. This method requires large numbers of parasites to be grown in culture, which is labor intensive and time consuming. Also, a culture-derived whole-parasite preparation contains conserved antigens that could cross-react with antibodies against other Sarcocystis species and members of Sarcocystidae such as Neospora spp., Hammondia spp., and Toxoplasma gondii. Therefore, there is a need to develop an improved method for the detection of S. neurona-specific antibodies. The sera of infected horses react strongly to surface antigen 1 (SnSAG1), an approximately 29-kDa protein, in immunoblot analysis, suggesting that it is an immunodominant antigen. The SnSAG1 gene of S. neurona was cloned, and recombinant S. neurona SAG1 protein (rSnSAG1-Bac) was expressed with the use of a baculovirus system. By immunoblot analysis, the rSnSAG1-Bac antigen detected antibodies to S. neurona from naturally infected and experimentally inoculated equids, cats, rabbit, mice, and skunk. This is the first report of a baculovirus-expressed recombinant S. neurona antigen being used to detect anti-S. neurona antibodies in a variety of host species.

  7. 21 CFR 660.40 - Hepatitis B Surface Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. 660.40 Section 660.40...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.40 Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product...

  8. Elevation of PSA after prostate radiotherapy: Rebound or biochemical recurrence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledano, A.; Kanoui, A.; Chiche, R.; Lamallem, H.; Beley, S.; Thibault, F.; Sebe, P.

    2008-01-01

    The fact that external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy are now considered to be curative techniques has led to major review of the modalities of follow-up after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. The problem concerns both the diagnosis of recurrence, rapidly announced by elevation of prostatic-specific antigen (PSA), usually at a subclinical stage, and the validity of criteria of biochemical recurrence to allow comparison of various study. Physicians involved in follow-up should be aware of the potential of bounce in PSA follow-up after external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy. The PSA bounce phenomenon was defined by a rise of PSA values (+ 0.1 -0.8 ng/ml) with a subsequent fall. Biochemical failure after external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy (with or without hormonotherapy) was defined by Phoenix criteria by a rise of 2 ng/ml above an initial PSA nadir. This definition was more correlated to PSA bounce phenomenon. (authors)

  9. Increased projection of MHC and tumor antigens in murine B16-BL6 melanoma induced by hydrostatic pressure and chemical crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, V; Eisenthal, A; Skornick, Y; Shinitzky, M

    1993-05-01

    The B16-BL6 melanoma, like most spontaneously arising tumors, is poorly immunogenic and expresses low levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens. Treatment of cells of this tumor in vitro by hydrostatic pressure in the presence of adenosine 2',3'-dialdehyde (oxAdo), a membrane-impermeant crosslinker, caused elevated projection of MHC and a specific tumor antigen as demonstrated by flow-cytometric analysis. Maximum projection of both the MHC and the tumor antigens could be reached by application of 1200 atm for 15 min in the presence of 20 mM oxAdo. It is not yet clear whether this passive increase in availability of antigens on the cell surface originated from a dormant pool of antigens in the plasma membrane or from pressure-induced fusion of antigen-rich intracellular organelles (e.g. the endoplasmic reticulum). The immunogenic properties of the antigen-enriched B16-BL6 cells are described in the following paper.

  10. Characterization of gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines established from CEA424/SV40 T antigen-transgenic mice with or without a human CEA transgene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nöckel, Jessica; Engel, Natasja K van den; Winter, Hauke; Hatz, Rudolf A; Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Kammerer, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is one of the most frequent cancers worldwide. Patients with gastric cancer at an advanced disease stage have a poor prognosis, due to the limited efficacy of available therapies. Therefore, the development of new therapies, like immunotherapy for the treatment of gastric cancer is of utmost importance. Since the usability of existing preclinical models for the evaluation of immunotherapies for gastric adenocarcinomas is limited, the goal of the present study was to establish murine in vivo models which allow the stepwise improvement of immunotherapies for gastric cancer. Since no murine gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines are available we established four cell lines (424GC, mGC3, mGC5, mGC8) from spontaneously developing tumors of CEA424/SV40 T antigen (CEA424/Tag) mice and three cell lines derived from double-transgenic offsprings of CEA424/Tag mice mated with human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-transgenic (CEA424/Tag-CEA) mice (mGC2 CEA , mGC4 CEA , mGC11 CEA ). CEA424/Tag is a transgenic C57BL/6 mouse strain harboring the Tag under the control of a -424/-8 bp CEA gene promoter which leads to the development of invasive adenocarcinoma in the glandular stomach. Tumor cell lines established from CEA424/Tag-CEA mice express the well defined tumor antigen CEA under the control of its natural regulatory elements. The epithelial origin of the tumor cells was proven by morphological criteria including the presence of mucin within the cells and the expression of the cell adhesion molecules EpCAM and CEACAM1. All cell lines consistently express the transgenes CEA and/or Tag and MHC class I molecules leading to their susceptibility to lysis by Tag-specific CTL in vitro. Despite the presentation of CTL-epitopes derived from the transgene products the tumor cell lines were tumorigenic when grafted into C57BL/6, CEA424/Tag or CEA424/Tag-CEA-transgenic hosts and no significant differences in tumor take and tumor growth were observed in the different hosts

  11. Elevator deflections on the icing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Randall K.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of elevator deflection of the horizontal stabilizer for certain icing parameters is investigated. Elevator deflection can severely change the lower and upper leading-edge impingement limits, and ice can accrete on the elevator itself. Also, elevator deflection had practically no effect on the maximum local collection efficiency. It is shown that for severe icing conditions (large water droplets), elevator deflections that increase the projected height of the airfoil can significantly increase the total collection efficiency of the airfoil.

  12. HLA antigens in juvenile onset diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, T; Toyota, T; Ouchi, E

    1980-11-01

    To study association between juvenile onset diabetes (JOD) and major histocompatibility gene complex, 40 patients with childhood onset diabetes and 120 healthy subjects were typed for HLA. Bw54 was present in 33 percent of the patients with JOD, while it appeared in 8 percent of the controls. Expressed as a relative risk, the antigen Bw54 confers a susceptibility to the development of JOD which is 5.3 times that in the controls. JOD shows a little high degree of association with A9 (78%). However, the A9-antigen is common in the Japanese and appears in 58 percent. Though less striking, the decreased frequency of B12 was 3 percent of JOD, less than 15 percent of the controls (p less than 0.05). There was no association between Bw54 and JOD with family history of diabetes.

  13. Radionuclide-labelled antigens in serological epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felsenfeld, O.; Parrott, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of tests using radionuclide-labelled antigens in serological surveys was studied, with particular attention to the likely availability of facilities and personnel in the tropics and arctics, where measurements may be disturbed by climatic influences. The methodology required was to be simple, rapid and suitable for examining large numbers of sera, as for epidemological surveys. In the introduction, limitations of labelled antigen tests are discussed, the choice of radionuclide and measurement methods, test procedures and evaluation of results. Collection, preservation and shipment of speciments (serum, faeces, cerebrospinal fluid, sputum, etc.) are described. Experiments with bacteria and bacterial toxins (Enterobacteriaceae, vibrios, staphylococci, meningococci, etc.), with protozoa and metazoa (Entamoeba hystolytica, Schistosoma mansoni, Trypanosoma cruzi, Plasmodia and other parasites), with viruses (vaccinia, adeno-, polio-, and influenza viruses, etc.), and with fungi are discussed

  14. Når elever producerer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremholm, Jesper; Hansen, Rune; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard

    2017-01-01

    Dette kapitel præsenterer centrale resultater fra studiet Elevopgaver og elevproduktion i det 21. århundrede der blandt andet rummer den første større kvantitative undersøgelse af opgavedidaktik og elevers produktive arbejde i den danske grundskole. Studiet omfatter også en kvalitativ del, og i...... undersøgelsen præsenteres og diskuteres gennem en række konkrete eksempler fra de berørte fag. I forhold til elevers produktive arbejde peger undersøgelsens resultater både på potentialer og særlige barrierer i forbindelse med at udvikle en kompetenceorienteret undervisning. I kapitlet argumenteres desuden...

  15. Primary pulmonary immunity to a soluble antigen in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, D.N.; Bice, D.E.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Schuyler, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    In order to study primary lung immunity to soluble antigen, Beagle dogs underwent trans-bronchoscopic instillation of 10 mg keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) into the right cardiac lobe and saline into the left cardiac lobe. Over the next 3 wk, specific immune responses were monitored in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids obtained from immunized and control lung lobes. Primary lung immunization of dogs with KLH resulted in easily measurable specific IgG, IgM, and IgA responses in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Important class differences were noted to exist for these responses. Levels of specific IgG and IgA in BAL remained elevated at 21 days after immunization, while BAL-specific IgM levels fell to control values by 12 days after immunization. In unimmunized lung lobes, specific antibody levels in BAL and production of specific antibody by bronchoalveolar lavage cells was far greater for IgG than for IgM or IgA. Finally, despite easily detectable specific IgA in serum and BAL fluid, production of specific IgA by peripheral blood mononuclear cells or bronchoalveolar lavage cells after primary lung immunization with KLH could not be demonstrated, suggesting that specific IgA was produced by a compartment of cells poorly sampled in blood and BAL. (author)

  16. Primary pulmonary immunity to a soluble antigen in the dog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, D N; Bice, D E; Muggenburg, B A; Schuyler, M R

    1988-12-01

    In order to study primary lung immunity to soluble antigen, Beagle dogs underwent trans-bronchoscopic instillation of 10 mg keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) into the right cardiac lobe and saline into the left cardiac lobe. Over the next 3 wk, specific immune responses were monitored in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids obtained from immunized and control lung lobes. Primary lung immunization of dogs with KLH resulted in easily measurable specific IgG, IgM, and IgA responses in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Important class differences were noted to exist for these responses. Levels of specific IgG and IgA in BAL remained elevated at 21 days after immunization, while BAL-specific IgM levels fell to control values by 12 days after immunization. In unimmunized lung lobes, specific antibody levels in BAL and production of specific antibody by bronchoalveolar lavage cells was far greater for IgG than for IgM or IgA. Finally, despite easily detectable specific IgA in serum and BAL fluid, production of specific IgA by peripheral blood mononuclear cells or bronchoalveolar lavage cells after primary lung immunization with KLH could not be demonstrated, suggesting that specific IgA was produced by a compartment of cells poorly sampled in blood and BAL. (author)

  17. Læring mellem elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgsen, Marianne; Davidsen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    I denne rapport præsenteres resultater fra følgeforskningen til projektet Læring gennem Bevægelse, som er gennemført på Søndervangskolen i Hammel i perioden august 2009 - maj 2010. Projektet er gennemført i samspil mellem lærere, it-vejleder, elever og skolens ledelse. Projektets overordnede formål...

  18. Science on a space elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.); Jorgensen, A. M. (Anders M.)

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low cost access can be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe in-situ science stations mounted on a science-dedicated space elevator tether. The concept presented here involves a carbon nanotube ribbon that is constructed by an existing space elevator and then science sensors are stationed along the ribbon at differing altitudes. The finished ribbon can be moved across the earth to the position at which its scientific measurements are to be taken. The ability to station scientific, in-situ instrumentation at different altitudes for round-the-clock observations is a unique capability of the SE. The environments that the science packages sense range from the troposphere out beyond the magnetopause of the magnetosphere on the solar side of the earth. Therefore, the very end of the SE can sense the solar wind. The measurements at various points along its length include temperature, pressure, density, sampling, chemical analyses, wind speed, turbulence, free oxygen, electromagnetic radiation, cosmic rays, energetic particles and plasmas in the earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind. There exist some altitudes that are difficult to access with aircraft or balloons or rockets and so remain relatively unexplored. The space elevator solves these problems and opens these regions up to in-situ measurements. Without the need for propulsion, the SE provides a more benign and pristine environment for atmospheric measurements than available with powered aircraft. Moreover, replacing and upgrading instrumentation is expected to be very cost effective with the SE. Moving and stationing the science SE affords the opportunity to sense multiple regions of the atmosphere. The SE's geosynchronous, orbital motion through the magnetosphere, albeit nominally with Earth's magnetic field, will trace a plane

  19. Conservation of myeloid surface antigens on primate granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letvin, N L; Todd, R F; Palley, L S; Schlossman, S F; Griffin, J D

    1983-02-01

    Monoclonal antibodies reactive with myeloid cell surface antigens were used to study evolutionary changes in granulocyte surface antigens from primate species. Certain of these granulocyte membrane antigens are conserved in phylogenetically distant species, indicating the potential functional importance of these structures. The degree of conservation of these antigens reflects the phylogenetic relationship between primate species. Furthermore, species of the same genus show similar patterns of binding to this panel of anti-human myeloid antibodies. This finding of conserved granulocyte surface antigens suggests that non-human primates may provide a model system for exploring uses of monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of human myeloid disorders.

  20. A competitive-inhibiton radioimmunoassay for influenza virus envelope antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, G.; Styk, B.; Vareckova, E.; Polakova, K.

    1976-01-01

    A double-antibody competitive-inhibition radioimmunoassay for influenza virus envelope antigens is described. A viral antigen preparation from influenza A virus recombinant MRC11 [antigenically identical to A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2)] consisting of haemagglutinin and neuraminidase was labelled with radioiodine. Rabbit antisera were allowed to react with the labelled antigen and the resultant antigen-antibody complexes were precipitated with the appropriate antiglobulin. The competitive-inhibition radioimmunoassay very sensitively elucidated differences even among closely related influenza virus strains. Attempts have been made to eliminate neuraminidase from radioimmunoprecipitation to obtain a competitive-inhibition radioimmunoassay system for haemagglutinin alone. (author)

  1. Cell-mediated immune response of synovial fluid lymphocytes to ureaplasma antigen in Reiter's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlica Ljiljana

    2003-01-01

    Cl. Bacteriology: Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated by cell culture using cycloheximide-treated McCoy cells [10], while Ureaplasma urealyticum was identified according to its biochemical properties grown on cell-free liquid medium [9]. RESULTS Proliferative response of the PB lymphocytes to stimulation by mitogen and ureaplasma antigen did not differ between RS and RA patients. Also, there was no difference in proliferative response of SF lymphocytes to mitogen stimulation between RS and RA patients (Figure 1. However, proliferation of SF lymphocytes stimulated by ureaplasma antigen was significantly elevated in RS patients compared with the control group. This difference is statistically significant (p<0.05 (Figure 2. Difference in proliferative response of the PB and SF lymphocytes stimulated by the ureaplasma antigen was not found in RS patients. DISCUSSION It was found that SF lymphocytes of RS patients showed significantly elevated proliferative response to stimulation by the ureaplasma antigen compared with SF lymphocytes of the control group. There was no difference when the lymphocytes were stimulated by the mitogen. Our findings suggest that elevated proliferative response of lymphocytes is the sign of stimulation cell-mediated immunity to antigen present in inflamed joint. Hence, the main immune response to Ureaplasma is on the cell-mediated level in the affected joint. This confirms the earlier finding reported by Ford et all. who concluded that synovial rather than peripheral blood lymphocytes indicate the microbiological cause of arthritis [11,12]. Horowitz etal. demonstrated the correlation between clinical remission after antibiotic therapy and eradication of Ureaplasma, together with a decrease in cellular immune response synovial fluid lymphocytes to ureaplasma antigen stimulation [13]. In that study Horowitz did not find statisticaly significant difference of ureaplasma proliferative response between PB and SF lymphocytes in patients with RS. We obtained the

  2. Polyclonal antibodies for the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi circulating antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith S Málaga-Machaca

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi antigens in clinical samples is considered an important diagnostic tool for Chagas disease. The production and use of polyclonal antibodies may contribute to an increase in the sensitivity of immunodiagnosis of Chagas disease.Polyclonal antibodies were raised in alpacas, rabbits, and hens immunized with trypomastigote excreted-secreted antigen, membrane proteins, trypomastigote lysate antigen and recombinant 1F8 to produce polyclonal antibodies. Western blot analysis was performed to determine specificity of the developed antibodies. An antigen capture ELISA of circulating antigens in serum, plasma and urine samples was developed using IgY polyclonal antibodies against T. cruzi membrane antigens (capture antibody and IgG from alpaca raised against TESA. A total of 33 serum, 23 plasma and 9 urine samples were analyzed using the developed test. Among serum samples, compared to serology, the antigen capture ELISA tested positive in 55% of samples. All plasma samples from serology positive subjects were positive in the antigen capture ELISA. All urine positive samples had corresponding plasma samples that were also positive when tested by the antigen capture ELISA.Polyclonal antibodies are useful for detection of circulating antigens in both the plasma and urine of infected individuals. Detection of antigens is direct evidence of the presence of the parasite, and could be a better surrogate of current infection status.

  3. Ultraviolet light-induced suppression of antigen presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spellman, C.W.; Tomasi, T.B.

    1983-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation of animals results in the development of specific T suppressor cells that inhibit antitumor immune responses. It is thought that suppression may arise as a consequence of altered antigen presentation by UV-irradiated epidermal cells. This hypothesis is based on evidence demonstrating that specific lymphoid tissues from UV-irradiated hosts exhibit impaired antigen-presenting function and that animals cannot be contact sensitized when antigens are applied to a UV-irradiated skin site. Langerhans cells of the skin are likely candidates as targets of UV-induced defects in antigen presentation as they bear Fc and C3b receptors, express Ia antigens, are of bone marrow origin, and are capable of presenting antigen in vitro. We speculate on the possible clinical usefulness of UV-induced tolerance to specific antigens such as those encountered in monoclonal antibody therapy and tissue transplantation

  4. Review of Mycobacteriumavium subsp. paratuberculosis antigen candidates with diagnostic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Aagaard, Claus; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2011-01-01

    antigens, heat shock antigens and hypothetical antigens. Strategies for evaluation of novel antigen candidates are discussed critically. Relatively few of the described antigens were evaluated for their use in CMI based diagnostic assays and so far, no obvious candidate has been identified...... to development of antibodies and shedding of detectable amounts of MAP. At present, available diagnostic assays are limited by the lack of MAP specific antigens included in these assays resulting in poor specificity. The objective of this review is to provide a systematic overview of diagnostic MAP antigen...... faeces; however, these diagnostic tools are often not applicable until years after infection. Detection of MAP specific cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses can serve as an alternative and be implemented in a diagnostic tool. CMI responses can be measured at an early stage of infection, prior...

  5. Characterization of Antigen-Specific B Cells Using Nominal Antigen-Coated Flow-Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Ahmed; Lepetit, Maud; Crochette, Romain; Giral, Magali; Lepourry, Julie; Pallier, Annaick; Castagnet, Stéphanie; Dugast, Emilie; Guillot-Gueguen, Cécile; Jacq-Foucher, Marylène; Saulquin, Xavier; Cesbron, Anne; Laplaud, David; Nicot, Arnaud; Brouard, Sophie; Soulillou, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    In order to characterize the reactivity of B cells against nominal antigens, a method based on the coupling of antigens onto the surface of fluorescent core polystyrene beads was developed. We first demonstrate that murine B cells with a human MOG-specific BCR are able to interact with MOG-coated beads and do not recognize beads coated with human albumin or pp65. B cells purified from human healthy volunteer blood or immunized individuals were tested for their ability to interact with various nominal antigens, including viral, vaccine, self and alloantigens, chosen for their usefulness in studying a variety of pathological processes. A substantial amount of B cells binding self-antigen MOG-coated beads can be detected in normal blood. Furthermore, greater frequencies of B cell against anti-Tetanic Toxin or anti-EBNA1 were observed in primed individuals. This method can reveal increased frequencies of anti-HLA committed B cells in patients with circulating anti-HLA antibodies compared to unsensitized patients and normal individuals. Of interest, those specific CD19 cells were preferentially identified within CD27−IgD+ (i-e naïve) subset. These observations suggest that a broad range of medical situations could benefit from a tool that allows the detection, the quantification and the characterization of antigen-specific blood B cells. PMID:24386360

  6. Limited antigenic variation in the Trypanosoma cruzi candidate vaccine antigen TSA-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, J M; Zingales, B; Bottazzi, M E; Hotez, P; Zhan, B

    2014-12-01

    Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi) is one of the most important neglected tropical diseases in the Western Hemisphere. The toxicities and limited efficacies of current antitrypanosomal drugs have prompted a search for alternative technologies such as a therapeutic vaccine comprised of T. cruzi antigens, including a recombinant antigen encoding the N-terminal 65 kDa portion of Trypomastigote surface antigen-1 (TSA-1). With at least six known genetically distinct T. cruzi lineages, variability between the different lineages poses a unique challenge for the development of broadly effective therapeutic vaccine. The variability across the major lineages in the current vaccine candidate antigen TSA-1 has not previously been addressed. To assess the variation in TSA-1, we cloned and sequenced TSA-1 from several different T. cruzi strains representing three of the most clinically relevant lineages. Analysis of the different alleles showed limited variation in TSA-1 across the different strains and fit with the current theory for the evolution of the different lineages. Additionally, minimal variation in known antigenic epitopes for the HLA-A 02 allele suggests that interlineage variation in TSA-1 would not impair the range and efficacy of a vaccine containing TSA-1. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Neuronal surface antigen antibodies in limbic encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graus, F; Saiz, A; Lai, M; Bruna, J; López, F; Sabater, L; Blanco, Y; Rey, M J.; Ribalta, T; Dalmau, J

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To report the frequency and type of antibodies against neuronal surface antigens (NSA-ab) in limbic encephalitis (LE). Methods: Analysis of clinical features, neuropathologic findings, and detection of NSA-ab using immunochemistry on rat tissue and neuronal cultures in a series of 45 patients with paraneoplastic (23) or idiopathic (22) LE. Results: NSA-ab were identified in 29 patients (64%; 12 paraneoplastic, 17 idiopathic). Thirteen patients had voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC)-ab, 11 novel NSA (nNSA)-ab, and 5 NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-ab. nNSA-ab did not identify a common antigen and were more frequent in paraneoplastic than idiopathic LE (39% vs 9%; p = 0.03). When compared with VGKC-ab or NMDAR-ab, the nNSA associated more frequently with intraneuronal antibodies (11% vs 73%; p = 0.001). Of 12 patients (9 nNSA-ab, 2 VGKC-ab, 1 NMDAR-ab) with paraneoplastic LE and NSA-ab, concomitant intraneuronal antibodies occurred in 9 (75%). None of these 12 patients improved with immunotherapy. The autopsy of three of them showed neuronal loss, microgliosis, and cytotoxic T cell infiltrates in the hippocampus and amygdala. These findings were compatible with a T-cell mediated neuronal damage. In contrast, 13 of 17 (76%) patients with idiopathic LE and NSA-ab (8 VGKC-ab, 4 NMDAR-ab, 1 nNSA-ab) and 1 of 5 (20%) without antibodies had clinical improvement (p = 0.04). Conclusions: In paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (LE), novel antibodies against neuronal surface antigens (nNSA-ab) occur frequently, coexist with antibodies against intracellular antigens, and these cases are refractory to immunotherapy. In idiopathic LE, the likelihood of improvement is significantly higher in patients with NSA-ab than in those without antibodies. GLOSSARY GAD = glutamic acid decarboxylase; LE = limbic encephalitis; NMDAR = N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor; NSA = neuronal surface antigens; nNSA = novel NSA; SCLC = small-cell lung cancer; VGKC = voltage-gated potassium channels

  8. Use of Digital Rectal Examination as an Adjunct to Prostate Specific Antigen in the Detection of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Joshua A; Oromendia, Clara; Shoag, Jonathan E; Mittal, Sameer; Cosiano, Michael F; Ballman, Karla V; Vickers, Andrew J; Hu, Jim C

    2018-04-01

    Guidelines from the NCCN ® (National Comprehensive Cancer Network®) advocate digital rectal examination screening only in men with elevated prostate specific antigen. We investigated the effect of prostate specific antigen on the association of digital rectal examination and clinically significant prostate cancer in a large American cohort. We evaluated the records of the 35,350 men who underwent digital rectal examination in the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening trial for the development of clinically significant prostate cancer (Gleason 7 or greater). Followup was 343,273 person-years. The primary outcome was the rate of clinically significant prostate cancer among men with vs without suspicious digital rectal examination. We performed competing risks regression to evaluate the interaction between time varying suspicious digital rectal examination and prostate specific antigen. A total of 1,713 clinically significant prostate cancers were detected with a 10-year cumulative incidence of 5.9% (95% CI 5.6-6.2). Higher risk was seen for suspicious vs nonsuspicious digital rectal examination. Increases in absolute risk were small and clinically irrelevant for normal (less than 2 ng/ml) prostate specific antigen (1.5% vs 0.7% risk of clinically significant prostate cancer at 10 years), clinically relevant for elevated (3 ng/ml or greater) prostate specific antigen (23.0% vs 13.7%) and modestly clinically relevant for equivocal (2 to 3 ng/ml) prostate specific antigen (6.5% vs 3.5%). Digital rectal examination demonstrated prognostic usefulness when prostate specific antigen was greater than 3 ng/ml, limited usefulness for less than 2 ng/ml and marginal usefulness for 2 to 3 ng/ml. These findings support the restriction of digital rectal examination to men with higher prostate specific antigen as a reflex test to improve specificity. It should not be used as a primary screening modality to improve sensitivity. Copyright

  9. Pathological Outcome following Radical Prostatectomy in Men with Prostate Specific Antigen Greater than 10 ng/ml and Histologically Favorable Risk Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiwoong; Kwon, Young Suk; Kim, Sinae; Han, Christopher Sejong; Farber, Nicholas; Kim, Jongmyung; Byun, Seok Soo; Kim, Wun-Jae; Jeon, Seong Soo; Kim, Isaac Yi

    2016-05-01

    Active surveillance is now the treatment of choice in men with low risk prostate cancer. Although there is no consensus on which patients are eligible for active surveillance, prostate specific antigen above 10 ng/ml is generally excluded. In an attempt to determine the validity of using a prostate specific antigen cutoff of 10 ng/ml to counsel men considering active surveillance we analyzed a multi-institution database to determine the pathological outcome in men with prostate specific antigen greater than 10 ng/ml but histologically favorable risk prostate cancer. We queried a prospectively maintained database of men with histologically favorable risk prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy between 2003 and 2015. The cohort was categorized into 3 groups based on prostate specific antigen level, including low-less than 10 ng/ml, intermediate-10 or greater to less than 20 and high-20 or greater. Associations of prostate specific antigen group with adverse pathological and oncologic outcomes were analyzed. Of 2,125 patients 1,327 were categorized with histologically favorable risk disease. However on multivariate analyses the rates of up staging and upgrading were similar between the intermediate and low prostate specific antigen groups. In contrast compared to the intermediate prostate specific antigen group the high group had higher incidences of up staging (p = 0.02) and upgrading to 4 + 3 or greater disease (p = 0.046). Biochemical recurrence-free survival rates revealed no pairwise intergroup differences except between the low and high groups. Patients with preoperatively elevated prostate specific antigen between 10 and less than 20 ng/ml who otherwise had histologically favorable risk prostate cancer were not at higher risk for adverse pathological outcomes than men with prostate specific antigen less than 10 ng/ml. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Expression, purification and protective antigen analysis of cell wall protein MRP of Streptococcus suis type 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping-ping; Pian, Ya-ya; Yuan, Yuan; Zheng, Yu-ling; Jiang, Yong-qiang; Xiong, Zheng-ying

    2012-02-01

    To amplify the mrp gene of Streptococcus suis type 2 05ZYH33, express it in E.coli BL21 in order to acquire high purity recombinant protein MRP, then evaluate the protective antigen of recombinant protein MRP. Using PCR technology to obtain the product of mrp gene of 05ZYH33, and then cloned it into the expression vector pET28a(+). The recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography, later immunized New Zealand rabbit to gain anti-serum, then test the anti-serum titer by ELISA. The opsonophagocytic killing test demonstrated the abilities of protective antigen of MRP. The truncated of MRP recombinant protein in E.coli BL21 expressed by inclusion bodies, and purified it in high purity. After immunoprotection, the survival condition of CD-1 was significantly elevated. The survival rate of wild-type strain 05ZYH33 in blood was apparently decreased after anti-serum opsonophagocyticed, but the mutant delta; MRP showed no differences. MRP represent an important protective antigen activity.

  11. Genetic diversity and antigenicity variation of Babesia bovis merozoite surface antigen-1 (MSA-1) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Takemae, Hitoshi; Simking, Pacharathon; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2016-07-01

    Babesia bovis, an intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite, causes severe clinical disease in cattle worldwide. The genetic diversity of parasite antigens often results in different immune profiles in infected animals, hindering efforts to develop immune control methodologies against the B. bovis infection. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity of the merozoite surface antigen-1 (msa-1) gene using 162 B. bovis-positive blood DNA samples sourced from cattle populations reared in different geographical regions of Thailand. The identity scores shared among 93 msa-1 gene sequences isolated by PCR amplification were 43.5-100%, and the similarity values among the translated amino acid sequences were 42.8-100%. Of 23 total clades detected in our phylogenetic analysis, Thai msa-1 gene sequences occurred in 18 clades; seven among them were composed of sequences exclusively from Thailand. To investigate differential antigenicity of isolated MSA-1 proteins, we expressed and purified eight recombinant MSA-1 (rMSA-1) proteins, including an rMSA-1 from B. bovis Texas (T2Bo) strain and seven rMSA-1 proteins based on the Thai msa-1 sequences. When these antigens were analyzed in a western blot assay, anti-T2Bo cattle serum strongly reacted with the rMSA-1 from T2Bo, as well as with three other rMSA-1 proteins that shared 54.9-68.4% sequence similarity with T2Bo MSA-1. In contrast, no or weak reactivity was observed for the remaining rMSA-1 proteins, which shared low sequence similarity (35.0-39.7%) with T2Bo MSA-1. While demonstrating the high genetic diversity of the B. bovis msa-1 gene in Thailand, the present findings suggest that the genetic diversity results in antigenicity variations among the MSA-1 antigens of B. bovis in Thailand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanism for elevated temperature leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenna, B.T.; Murphy, K.D.

    1979-01-01

    Long-term, elevated temperature leaching and subsequent electron microprobe analysis of simulated waste glass and ceramic materials have been completed. A cyclic leaching pattern was found in all systems over a 20-month period. It appears that the leaching of mobile ions by simple diffusional processes is modified by more complex chemical interactions. The release of immobile ions is primarily a function of their chemical interactions in the matrix which suggests that these ions may be complex species when released into solution. A mechanism is proposed which incorporates these ideas and the cyclic phenomenon observed

  13. PLC VVVF Elevator Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yujian; Gui, Tianyu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to introduce the PLC VVVF elevator and its control system. The thesis can be divided into three parts. The first part is about the overview of the lift: the kinds of the lift and the structure of the lift, it shows the knowledge about the components and the operating systems of the lift. The second part is about the PLC control system, it’s about the operations of the lift from the introduction about the hardware and software of the PLC control system. And the thi...

  14. Amorphisation during elevated temperature implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.; Elliman, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    Transition state theory is employed to predict the rates of amorphous zone recrystallization by direct thermal and radiation mediated thermal annealing processes. These rates are functions of zone radius and are employed to describe the competition between amorphous zone generation and annealing during elevated temperature heavy ion implantation of, particularly, Si and the accumulation of amorphousness with increasing ion fluence. This analysis predicts a change from monotonic to sigmoidal to biexponential accumulation functions with increasing annealing rate or substrate temperature in agreement with experiments. A logarithmic dependence of ion flux density upon substrate temperature for the achievement of defined fractional amorphisation is predicted and is also in agreement with the experiment. (author)

  15. Abnormal antigens in breast cancer tissues and production of monoclonal antibodies against one of these antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, M. E. A.

    2010-02-01

    Breast cancer is associated with up regulation, down regulation of normal antigens or abnormal antigens. These antigens are very useful candidates as targets for the different breast cancer therapies and for vaccination trials. This study was done to characterize abnormal antigens, extract one of them and to produce monoclonal antibodies against the extracted antigen. One hundred and twenty Sudanese female patients were included in this study after informed consent. The mean age was 47. 2 years (16-80). Two tissue samples were obtained from each patient and they were confirmed as normal and cancerous breast tissues microscopically. 2D PAGE was used to analyze the protein content of samples. LC/MS and nr. fast a database search were used for separation and indentification of the abnormal proteins. Three different patterns of 2D Page results were obtained, the first pattern involved detection of four abnormal proteins in 26.7% of the patient cancerous tissues while they were undetected in the normal tissues of the same patients. In the second 2D PAGE result pattern the cancerous and the normal tissues of 67.5% patients were identical and they did not contain the four abnormal proteins while the third 2D PAGE pattern involved the presence of two abnormal antigens (from the four) in the cancerous tissues of 5.8% of the patients and they were absent from the normal tissues of the same patients. The four abnormal proteins were identified as, human Thioredoxin (D60nmutant), x-ray crystal structure of human galectin-1, retrocopy of tropomyosin 3(rc TPM3) and beta-tropomyosin (isoform 2). The primary and the secondary structures were obtained from the SWISSPROT and the PDB databases. Beta tropomyosin spot was extracted and used as antigen for monoclonal antibody production. Monoclonal antibody against beta- tropomyosin with a concentration of 0.35 mg/ml and a G11 anti beta-tropomyosin hybridoma cell line were produced. The monoclonal antibody was with single bad and

  16. Abnormal antigens in breast cancer tissues and production of monoclonal antibodies against one of these antigens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, M E. A. [University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2010-02-15

    Breast cancer is associated with up regulation, down regulation of normal antigens or abnormal antigens. These antigens are very useful candidates as targets for the different breast cancer therapies and for vaccination trials. This study was done to characterize abnormal antigens, extract one of them and to produce monoclonal antibodies against the extracted antigen. One hundred and twenty Sudanese female patients were included in this study after informed consent. The mean age was 47. 2 years (16-80). Two tissue samples were obtained from each patient and they were confirmed as normal and cancerous breast tissues microscopically. 2D PAGE was used to analyze the protein content of samples. LC/MS and nr. fast a database search were used for separation and indentification of the abnormal proteins. Three different patterns of 2D Page results were obtained, the first pattern involved detection of four abnormal proteins in 26.7% of the patient cancerous tissues while they were undetected in the normal tissues of the same patients. In the second 2D PAGE result pattern the cancerous and the normal tissues of 67.5% patients were identical and they did not contain the four abnormal proteins while the third 2D PAGE pattern involved the presence of two abnormal antigens (from the four) in the cancerous tissues of 5.8% of the patients and they were absent from the normal tissues of the same patients. The four abnormal proteins were identified as, human Thioredoxin (D60nmutant), x-ray crystal structure of human galectin-1, retrocopy of tropomyosin 3(rc TPM3) and beta-tropomyosin (isoform 2). The primary and the secondary structures were obtained from the SWISSPROT and the PDB databases. Beta tropomyosin spot was extracted and used as antigen for monoclonal antibody production. Monoclonal antibody against beta- tropomyosin with a concentration of 0.35 mg/ml and a G11 anti beta-tropomyosin hybridoma cell line were produced. The monoclonal antibody was with single bad and

  17. Protamine-based nanoparticles as new antigen delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Aramundiz, José Vicente; Peleteiro Olmedo, Mercedes; González-Fernández, África; Alonso Fernández, María José; Csaba, Noemi Stefánia

    2015-11-01

    The use of biodegradable nanoparticles as antigen delivery vehicles is an attractive approach to overcome the problems associated with the use of Alum-based classical adjuvants. Herein we report, the design and development of protamine-based nanoparticles as novel antigen delivery systems, using recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen as a model viral antigen. The nanoparticles, composed of protamine and a polysaccharide (hyaluronic acid or alginate), were obtained using a mild ionic cross-linking technique. The size and surface charge of the nanoparticles could be modulated by adjusting the ratio of the components. Prototypes with optimal physicochemical characteristics and satisfactory colloidal stability were selected for the assessment of their antigen loading capacity, antigen stability during storage and in vitro and in vivo proof-of-concept studies. In vitro studies showed that antigen-loaded nanoparticles induced the secretion of cytokines by macrophages more efficiently than the antigen in solution, thus indicating a potential adjuvant effect of the nanoparticles. Finally, in vivo studies showed the capacity of these systems to trigger efficient immune responses against the hepatitis B antigen following intramuscular administration, suggesting the potential interest of protamine-polysaccharide nanoparticles as antigen delivery systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An Ultrasensitive Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassay for Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 in Serum Based on Antibody Labeled Fe3O4 Nanoparticles as Capture Probes and Graphene/CdTe Quantum Dot Bionanoconjugates as Signal Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ning; Zhou, Jing; Xiong, Ping; Li, Tianhua; Jiang, Shan; Cao, Yuting; Jiang, Qianli

    2013-01-01

    The CdTe quantum dots (QDs), graphene nanocomposite (CdTe-G) and dextran–Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized for developing an ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassay for Carcinoembryonic antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) in serums. Firstly, the capture probes (CA 19-9 Ab1/Fe3O4) for enriching CA 19-9 were synthesized by immobilizing the CA 19-9’s first antibody (CA 19-9 Ab1) on magnetic nanoparticles (dextran-Fe3O4). Secondly, the signal probes (CA 19-9 Ab2/CdTe-G), which can emit an ECL signal, were formed by attaching the secondary CA 19-9 antibody (CA 19-9 Ab2) to the surface of the CdTe-G. Thirdly, the above two probes were used for conjugating with a serial of CA 19-9 concentrations. Graphene can immobilize dozens of CdTe QDs on their surface, which can emit stronger ECL intensity than CdTe QDs. Based on the amplified signal, ultrasensitive antigen detection can be realized. Under the optimal conditions, the ECL signal depended linearly on the logarithm of CA 19-9 concentration from 0.005 to 100 pg/mL, and the detection limit was 0.002 pg/mL. Finally, five samples of human serum were tested, and the results were compared with a time-resolved fluorescence assay (TRFA). The novel immunoassay provides a stable, specific and highly sensitive immunoassay protocol for tumor marker detection at very low levels, which can be applied in early diagnosis of tumor. PMID:23685872

  19. Phase I study utilizing a novel antigen-presenting cell-targeted vaccine with Toll-like receptor stimulation to induce immunity to self-antigens in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Michael A; Chapman, Robert; Powderly, John; Blackwell, Kimberly; Keler, Tibor; Green, Jennifer; Riggs, Renee; He, Li-Zhen; Ramakrishna, Venky; Vitale, Laura; Zhao, Biwei; Butler, Stephen A; Hobeika, Amy; Osada, Takuya; Davis, Thomas; Clay, Timothy; Lyerly, H Kim

    2011-07-15

    The use of tumor-derived proteins as cancer vaccines is complicated by tolerance to these self-antigens. Tolerance may be broken by immunization with activated, autologous, ex vivo generated and antigen-loaded, antigen-presenting cells (APC); however, targeting tumor antigen directly to APC in vivo would be a less complicated strategy. We wished to test whether targeted delivery of an otherwise poorly immunogenic, soluble antigen to APC through their mannose receptors (MR) would induce clinically relevant immunity. Two phase I studies were conducted with CDX-1307, a vaccine composed of human chorionic gonadotropin beta-chain (hCG-β) fused to an MR-specific monoclonal antibody, administered either locally (intradermally) or systemically (intravenously) in patients with advanced epithelial malignancies. An initial dose escalation of single-agent CDX-1307 was followed by additional cohorts of CDX-1307 combined with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 agonist polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly-ICLC) and TLR7/8 agonist resiquimod to activate the APC. CDX-1307 induced consistent humoral and T-cell responses to hCG-β when coadministered with TLR agonists. Greater immune responses and clinical benefit, including the longest duration of stable disease, were observed with immunization combined with local TLR agonists. Immune responses were induced equally efficiently in patients with elevated and nonelevated levels of serum hCG-β. Antibodies within the serum of vaccinated participants had tumor suppressive function in vitro. Toxicity consisted chiefly of mild injection site reactions. APC targeting and activation induce adaptive immunity against poorly immunogenic self-antigens which has implications for enhancing the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy.

  20. Diffusion rates for elevated releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1983-11-01

    A search of the literature related to diffusion from elevated sources has determined that an adequate data base exists for use in developing parameterizations for estimating diffusion rates for material released from free standing stacks at nuclear power plants. A review of published data analyses indicates that a new parameterization of horizontal diffusion rates specifically for elevated releases is not likely to significantly change the magnitudes of horizontal diffusion coefficients on the average. However, the uncertainties associated with horizontal diffusion coefficient estimates under any given set of atmospheric conditions could be reduced by a new parameterization. Similarly, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates would be unlikely to significantly alter the magnitudes of diffusion coefficients for unstable atmospheric conditons. However, for neutral and stable atmospheric conditions, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates might increase vertical diffusion coefficients significantly. The increase would move ground-level time-integrated concentration maxima closer to the plant and would increase the maxima. 55 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  1. Operation experience with elevated ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vankova, Katerina; Kysela, Jan; Malac, Miroslav; Petrecky, Igor; Svarc, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The 10 VVER units in the Czech and Slovak Republics are all in very good water chemistry and radiation condition, yet questions have arisen regarding the optimization of cycle chemistry and improved operation in these units. To address these issues, a comprehensive experimental program for different water chemistries of the primary circuit was carried out at the Rez Nuclear Research Institute, Czech Republic, with the goal of judging the influence of various water chemistries on radiation build-up. Four types of water chemistries were compared: standard VVER water chemistry (in common use), direct hydrogen dosing without ammonia, standard VVER water chemistry with elevated ammonia levels, and zinc dosing to standard VVER water chemistry. The test results showed that the types of water chemistry other than the common one have benefits for the operation of the nuclear power plant (NPP) primary circuit. Operation experience with elevated ammonia at NPP Dukovany Units 3 and 4 is presented which validates the experimental results, demonstrating improved corrosion product volume activity. (orig.)

  2. [Limbic encephalitis with antibodies against intracellular antigens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Akihiko; Kamei, Satoshi

    2010-04-01

    Limbic encephalitis is a paraneoplastic syndrome that is often associated with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), breast cancer, testicular tumors, teratoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma and thymoma. The common clinical manifestations of limbic encephalitis are subacute onset, cognitive dysfunction, seizures and psychiatric symptoms. Paraneoplastic neurological disorders are considered to occur because of cytotoxic T cell responses and antibodies against target neuronal proteins that are usually expressed by an underlying tumor. The main intracellular antigens related to limbic encephalitis are Hu, Ma2, and less frequently CV2/CRMP5 and amphiphysin. The anti-Hu antibody, which is involved in cerebellar degeneration and extensive or multifocal encephalomyelitis such as limbic encephalitis is closely associated with a history of smoking and SCLC. The anti-Ma2 antibody is associated with encephalitis of the limbic system, hypothalamus and brain-stem. For this reason, some patients with limbic encephalitis have sleep disorders (including REM sleep abnormalities), severe hypokinesis and gaze palsy in addition to limbic dysfunction. In men aged less than 50 years, anti-Ma2 antibody encephalitis is almost always associated with testicular germ-cell tumors that are occasionally difficult to detect. In older men and women, the most common tumors are non-SCLC and breast cancer. Limbic encephalitis associated with cell-surface antigens (e.g., voltage-gated potassium channels, NMDA receptors) is mediated by antibodies and often improves after a reduction in the antibody titer and after tumor resection. Patients with antibodies against intracellular antigens, except for those with anti-Ma2 antibodies and testicular tumors, are less responsive. Early diagnosis and treatment with immunotherapy, tumor resection or both are important for improving or stabilizing the condition of limbic encephalitis.

  3. Digitial Elevation Model (DEM) 100K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the terminology adopted by the USG to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. The standard DEM consists of a...

  4. Digtial Elevation Model (DEM) 250K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. The standard DEM consists of a...

  5. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) 24K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. The standard DEM consists of a...

  6. Bucket elevator type continuous unloader; Basket elevator gata renzokushiki anroda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-20

    This unloader was delivered to Wakayama branch of Sumikin Butsuryu in the site of Wakayama steel plant of Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd. for landing sub-materials for ironworks. Main specifications: (1) Capacity: 400t/h for limestone, 280t/h for gypsum, (2) Kinds of ships: 5,000DWT maximum, (3) Boom swing radius: 20m. Features: (1) Simple light-weight unloader for not large ships for main materials but small coastal service ships which works with not swing motion but only traveling and normal-directional motion of the under structure of a bucket elevator unit, (2) Various useful functions such as ground conveyance, truck loading, back yard stacking and back yard shipment for handling of various sub-materials. (translated by NEDO)

  7. Prostate specific antigen and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yang

    2000-01-01

    Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA), a serine proteases, is a glycoprotein consisting of a single polypeptide chain. Secreted exclusively by epithelial cells of the prostate gland, PSA is found largely in seminal plasma. Only a small amount of PSA can be found in normal serum. Serum PSA levels are found to be, considerably increased in prostate cancer patients. A number of studies on PSA have made great achievement on its biochemistry, analytical method and clinical application. PSA as one of the most important tumor marker, is used to help diagnosis and monitor the therapeutic efficacy of prostate cancer

  8. Antigen Presentation Keeps Trending in Immunotherapy Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbasi, Anusha; Ribas, Antoni

    2018-04-19

    Through a gain-of-function kinome screen, MEX3B was identified as a mediator of resistance to T-cell immunotherapy not previously identified using CRISPR-based screens. MEX3B is a posttranscriptional regulator of HLA-A, validating the critical role of tumor-intrinsic antigen presentation in T-cell immunotherapy and indicating a new putative molecular target. Clin Cancer Res; 24(14); 1-3. ©2018 AACR. See related article by Huang et al., p. xxxx . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. History of Elevators and Related Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Shigeru; Watanabe, Eiki

    The history of traction drive elevators in Japan is described. The electrical technologies such as the microprocessor car control and the VVVF motor control made remarkable progress leading to higher reliability and energy savings. Then, the various machine-room-less elevators have been developed and the space saving technology, such as the shuttle and the double-deck elevators become important, too. The elevators used for evacuation in case of emergencies are also discussed.

  10. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... elevator. (a) Identification. A wheelchair elevator is a motorized lift device intended for medical...

  11. 46 CFR 183.540 - Elevators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elevators. 183.540 Section 183.540 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Miscellaneous Systems and Requirements § 183.540 Elevators. Each elevator on a vessel must meet the requirements of ANSI A 17.1 ...

  12. Global variation in elevational diversity patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinfeng Guo; Douglas A. Kelt; Zhongyu Sun; Hongxiao Liu; Liangjun Hu; Hai Ren; Jun We

    2013-01-01

    While horizontal gradients of biodiversity have been examined extensively in the past, vertical diversity gradients (elevation, water depth) are attracting increasing attention. We compiled data from 443 elevational gradients involving diverse organisms worldwide to investigate how elevational diversity patterns may vary between the Northern and Southern hemispheres...

  13. Overview of Plant-Made Vaccine Antigens against Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Clemente

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an overview of vaccine antigens against malaria produced in plants. Plant-based expression systems represent an interesting production platform due to their reduced manufacturing costs and high scalability. At present, different Plasmodium antigens and expression strategies have been optimized in plants. Furthermore, malaria antigens are one of the few examples of eukaryotic proteins with vaccine value expressed in plants, making plant-derived malaria antigens an interesting model to analyze. Up to now, malaria antigen expression in plants has allowed the complete synthesis of these vaccine antigens, which have been able to induce an active immune response in mice. Therefore, plant production platforms offer wonderful prospects for improving the access to malaria vaccines.

  14. Tissue distribution of histo-blood group antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, V; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2000-01-01

    carrier carbohydrate chains. Histo-blood group antigens are found in most epithelial tissues. Meanwhile, several factors influence the type, the amount, and the histological distribution of histoblood group antigens, i.e. the ABO, Lewis, and saliva-secretor type of the individual, and the cell- and tissue......The introduction of immunohistochemical techniques and monoclonal antibodies to specific carbohydrate epitopes has made it possible to study in detail the tissue distribution of histo-blood group antigens and related carbohydrate structures. The present paper summarizes the available data...... concerning the histological distribution of histo-blood group antigens and their precursor structures in normal human tissues. Studies performed have concentrated on carbohydrate antigens related to the ABO, Lewis, and TTn blood group systems, i.e. histo-blood group antigens carried by type 1, 2, and 3 chain...

  15. Strategies to enhance immunogenicity of cDNA vaccine encoded antigens by modulation of antigen processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platteel, Anouk C M; Marit de Groot, A; Andersen, Peter; Ovaa, Huib; Kloetzel, Peter M; Mishto, Michele; Sijts, Alice J A M

    2016-01-01

    Most vaccines are based on protective humoral responses while for intracellular pathogens CD8(+) T cells are regularly needed to provide protection. However, poor processing efficiency of antigens is often a limiting factor in CD8(+) T cell priming, hampering vaccine efficacy. The multistage cDNA

  16. Mycobacterium leprae antigens involved in human immune responses. I. Identification of four antigens by monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, W.J.; Hellqvist, L.; Basten, A.; Raison, R.L.

    1985-12-01

    Four distinct antigens were identified in soluble sonicates of Mycobacterium leprae by using a panel of 11 monoclonal antibodies. Cross-reactivity studies with other mycobacterial species were conducted by using ELISA and immunoblot assays, and demonstrated that determinants on two of the antigens were present in many mycobacteria, whereas the other two were limited in distribution. Competitive inhibition experiments with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies showed cross-inhibition between antibodies identifying two of the four antigenicbands. These two bands, of M/sub tau/ 4.5 to 6 KD and 30 to 40 KD, were resistant to protease treatment after immunoblotting. In contrast the two other bands of 16 and 70 KD were protease-sensitive. Although all four bands reacted with some human lepromatous leprosy sera in immunoblots, the 4.5 to 6 KD and 30 to 40 KD bands were most prominent. Lepromatous leprosy sera also inhibited the binding of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies to each of the four antigens, with the mean titer causing 50% inhibition being higher for antibodies reacting with the 4.5 to 6 KD and 30 to 40 KD bands. These findings indicated that all four antigens were involved in the human B cell response to M. leprae.

  17. Hepatitis B surface antigen incorporated in dissolvable microneedle array patch is antigenic and thermostable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Danielle; Renaud, Frédéric; Dewar, Vincent; Strodiot, Laurent; Wauters, Florence; Janimak, Jim; Shimada, Toshio; Nomura, Tatsuya; Kabata, Koki; Kuruma, Koji; Kusano, Takayuki; Sakai, Masaki; Nagasaki, Hideo; Oyamada, Takayoshi

    2017-11-01

    Alternatives to syringe-based administration are considered for vaccines. Intradermal vaccination with dissolvable microneedle arrays (MNA) appears promising in this respect, as an easy-to-use and painless method. In this work, we have developed an MNA patch (MNAP) made of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) and chondroitin sulphate (CS). In swines, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) formulated with the saponin QS-21 as adjuvant, both incorporated in HES-based MNAP, demonstrated the same level of immunogenicity as a commercially available aluminum-adjuvanted HBsAg vaccine, after two immunizations 28 days apart. MNAP application was associated with transient skin reactions (erythema, lump, scab), particularly evident when the antigen was delivered with the adjuvant. The thermostability of the adjuvanted antigen when incorporated in the HES-based matrix was also assessed by storing MNAP at 37, 45 or 50 °C for up to 6 months. We could demonstrate that antigenicity was retained at 37 and 45 °C and only a 10% loss was observed after 6 months at 50 °C. Our results are supportive of MNAP as an attractive alternative to classical syringe-based vaccination. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Mycobacterium leprae antigens involved in human immune responses. I. Identification of four antigens by monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, W.J.; Hellqvist, L.; Basten, A.; Raison, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Four distinct antigens were identified in soluble sonicates of Mycobacterium leprae by using a panel of 11 monoclonal antibodies. Cross-reactivity studies with other mycobacterial species were conducted by using ELISA and immunoblot assays, and demonstrated that determinants on two of the antigens were present in many mycobacteria, whereas the other two were limited in distribution. Competitive inhibition experiments with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies showed cross-inhibition between antibodies identifying two of the four antigenicbands. These two bands, of M/sub tau/ 4.5 to 6 KD and 30 to 40 KD, were resistant to protease treatment after immunoblotting. In contrast the two other bands of 16 and 70 KD were protease-sensitive. Although all four bands reacted with some human lepromatous leprosy sera in immunoblots, the 4.5 to 6 KD and 30 to 40 KD bands were most prominent. Lepromatous leprosy sera also inhibited the binding of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies to each of the four antigens, with the mean titer causing 50% inhibition being higher for antibodies reacting with the 4.5 to 6 KD and 30 to 40 KD bands. These findings indicated that all four antigens were involved in the human B cell response to M. leprae

  19. Re-purification of labelled ferritin antigen with HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haoyi; Jin Lichun

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To improve the quality of long-term stored labelled ferritin antigen with HPLC. Methods: The antigen was analyzed and purified with HPLC and again analyzed with RIA afterwards. Results: Ferritin antigen underwent significant polymerization after long-term (aggregation) storage. After re-purification with HPLC, its immuno-activity and labelled specific radioactivity were both significantly improved. Conclusion: Quality of stored ferritin RIA kit could be greatly improved after re-purification with HPLC

  20. Monoclonal antibodies to Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis antigens.

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, T; Díaz, A M; Zlotnik, H

    1990-01-01

    Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis whole-cell extracts were used as antigens to generate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Six stable hybrid cell lines secreting anti-Nocardia spp. MAbs were obtained. These were characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot (immunoblot), and immunofluorescence assay. Although all the MAbs exhibited different degrees of cross-reactivity with N. asteroides and N. brasiliensis antigens as well as with culture-filtrate antigens from Myco...

  1. Immunoregulation by Taenia crassiceps and Its Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto N. Peón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Taenia crassiceps is a cestode parasite of rodents (in its larval stage and canids (in its adult stage that can also parasitize immunocompromised humans. We have studied the immune response elicited by this helminth and its antigens in mice and human cells, and have discovered that they have a strong capacity to induce chronic Th2-type responses that are primarily characterized by high levels of Th2 cytokines, low proliferative responses in lymphocytes, an immature and LPS-tolerogenic profile in dendritic cells, the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and, specially, alternatively activated macrophages. We also have utilized the immunoregulatory capabilities of this helminth to successfully modulate autoimmune responses and the outcome of other infectious diseases. In the present paper, we review the work of others and ourselves with regard to the immune response induced by T. crassiceps and its antigens, and we compare the advances in our understanding of this parasitic infection model with the knowledge that has been obtained from other selected models.

  2. Autoantibodies and their antigens in autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2009-08-01

    Autoantibody detection assists in the diagnosis and allows differentiation of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) type 1 (AIH-1), characterized by antinuclear antibody (ANA) and/or smooth muscle antibody (SMA), and type 2 (AIH-2), distinguished by the presence of antibodies to liver-kidney microsome type 1 (anti-LKM1) and/or antibodies to liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1). Detection of atypical perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) and anti-soluble liver antigen (SLA) antibodies can act as an additional pointer toward the diagnosis of AIH, particularly in the absence of the conventional autoantibodies. Routine autoantibody testing by indirect immunofluorescence has been recently complemented by molecular assays based on purified or recombinant antigens. Although the AIH-1-specific ANA and SMA targets need better definition, those of anti-LKM1 and anti-LC1 in AIH-2 have been clearly identified; the fine specificity of antibody reactivity and its clinical relevance to disease pathogenesis are the focus of ongoing investigation. This article critically discusses the current knowledge of the diagnostic and clinical significance of AIH-related autoantibody reactivities, focusing on key issues that the physician needs to be aware of to be able to request the appropriate testing and to interpret correctly the laboratory results within the clinical context of the patient. Copyright Thieme Medical Publishers.

  3. Myocarditis with ST elevation and elevated cardiac enzymes misdiagnosed as an ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Seth H; Crandall, Mark A; Jaffe, Allan S

    2012-12-01

    Acute myocarditis can mimic ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Quickly determining the correct diagnosis is critical given the "time is muscle" implication with a STEMI and the potential adverse effects associated with use of fibrinolytic therapy. A 46-year-old man presented to a rural emergency department with chest pain, and an electrocardiogram (ECG) read as showing 0.1 mV of ST-segment elevation in leads III and aVF. His initial cardiac troponin T was 0.44 ng/mL. He received fibrinolytic therapy for presumed STEMI. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was later performed and showed epicardial delayed enhancement consistent with myocarditis. Upon further questioning, he acknowledged 3 days of stuttering chest discomfort and a recent upper respiratory infection, as well as similar chest pain in his wife. A systematic evaluation is essential for acute chest pain, including a focused history, identification of cardiac risk factors, and ECG interpretation. A history of recent viral illness, absence of cardiac risk factors, or ECG findings inconsistent with a single anatomic lesion would suggest a potential alternate diagnosis to STEMI. This case emphasizes the importance of a focused history in the initial evaluation of chest pain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of protective antigens for vaccination against systemic salmonellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk eBumann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent medical need for improved vaccines with broad serovar coverage and high efficacy against systemic salmonellosis. Subunit vaccines offer excellent safety profiles but require identification of protective antigens, which remains a challenging task. Here, I review crucial properties of Salmonella antigens that might help to narrow down the number of potential candidates from more than 4000 proteins encoded in Salmonella genomes, to a more manageable number of 50-200 most promising antigens. I also discuss complementary approaches for antigen identification and potential limitations of current pre-clinical vaccine testing.

  5. I-125 input into antibodies molecules specific to australian antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukayumov, A. M.; Chistyakov, P.G.; Garajshina, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    There are experimental data on I-125 input into antibodies molecules specific to superficial antigen of hepatitis B virus (australian antigen). Three ways of input are submitted: with the help of T chloramine usage, Bolton-Hunter Reagent and with the help of iodogen. There are also comparative characteristics of iodized products obtained: molar radioactivity, radiochemical frequency, immuno - reactivity. The report also discusses advantages and disadvantages of the used methods for inputting I-125 into antibodies to australian antigen in order to study the possibility of creating radio immunological test system for detecting superficial antigen of B hepatitis

  6. ANTIGENICITY OF COW'S MILK PROTEINS IN TWO ANIMAL MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    T.R. Neyestani; M. Djalali M. I'ezeshki

    2000-01-01

    Antigenicity of proteins found in cow's milk is age dependent. This is primarily due to infants possessing a more permeable intestinal wall than that in adults. Thus infants may acquire cow's milk allergy during their first year of life. While milk antigen specific IgE may cause allergy in susceptible subjects, there is some evidence indicating that milk antigen specific IgG may play some role in chronic disease development. The puropose of this study was to determine the antigenicity of cow'...

  7. Bayesian nonparametric clustering in phylogenetics: modeling antigenic evolution in influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybis, Gabriela B; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Bedford, Trevor; Rambaut, Andrew; Lemey, Philippe; Suchard, Marc A

    2018-01-30

    Influenza is responsible for up to 500,000 deaths every year, and antigenic variability represents much of its epidemiological burden. To visualize antigenic differences across many viral strains, antigenic cartography methods use multidimensional scaling on binding assay data to map influenza antigenicity onto a low-dimensional space. Analysis of such assay data ideally leads to natural clustering of influenza strains of similar antigenicity that correlate with sequence evolution. To understand the dynamics of these antigenic groups, we present a framework that jointly models genetic and antigenic evolution by combining multidimensional scaling of binding assay data, Bayesian phylogenetic machinery and nonparametric clustering methods. We propose a phylogenetic Chinese restaurant process that extends the current process to incorporate the phylogenetic dependency structure between strains in the modeling of antigenic clusters. With this method, we are able to use the genetic information to better understand the evolution of antigenicity throughout epidemics, as shown in applications of this model to H1N1 influenza. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Radioimmunoassay for the detection of Australia-SH antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhardt, H [Giessen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Zentrum fuer Innere Medizin

    1974-06-01

    Among infectious diseases, hepatitis presents a great problem in all countries with a high medical standard. The number of Australia antigen-positive cases rises from year to year, due to the increase in drug-fixer hepatitis and blood transfusions. Highly sensitive and at the same time practicable methods are therefore required for the identification of Australia antigen carriers and their elimination as blood donors. The most sensitive of all currently used tests for the detection of Australia antigen is the 'solid phase' radioimmunoassay since it permits an objective and quantitative measurement of the antigen.

  9. Community and ecosystem responses to elevational gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundqvist, Maja K.; Sanders, Nate; Wardle, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Community structure and ecosystem processes often vary along elevational gradients. Their responses to elevation are commonly driven by changes in temperature, and many community- and ecosystem-level variables therefore frequently respond similarly to elevation across contrasting gradients...... elevational gradients for understanding community and ecosystem responses to global climate change at much larger spatial and temporal scales than is possible through conventional ecological experiments. However, future studies that integrate elevational gradient approaches with experimental manipulations...... will provide powerful information that can improve predictions of climate change impacts within and across ecosystems....

  10. Intra-abdominal recurrence of colorectal cancer detected by radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS system)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardi, A.; Workman, M.; Mojzisik, C.; Hinkle, G.; Nieroda, C.; Martin, E.W. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Since 1986, 32 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer have undergone second-look radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS system). The primary tumor was located in the right and transverse colon in 11 patients, left and sigmoid colon in 16, and rectum in five. The carcinoembryonic antigen level was elevated in 30 patients (94%); all patients underwent a computed tomographic scan of the abdomen and pelvis. The overall sensitivity of the computed tomographic scan was 41% (abdomen other than liver, 27%; liver, 58%; and pelvis, 22%). The RIGS system identified recurrent tumor in 81% of the patients. The most common site of metastasis was the liver (41%), independent of the primary location. Local/regional recurrences alone accounted for 40% of all recurrences. In six patients (18%), recurrent tumor was found only with the RIGS system. The RIGS system is more dependable in localizing clinically obscure metastases than other methods, and carcinoembryonic antigen testing remains the most accurate preoperative method to indicate suspected recurrences

  11. Comparison of antigen-specific T-cell responses of tuberculosis patients using complex or single antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, A S; Amoudy, H A; Wiker, H G

    1998-01-01

    GroES, rPstS, rGroEL and rDnaK) antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The responses of PBMC to these defined antigens were compared with the corresponding results obtained with complex antigens, such as whole-cell M. tuberculosis, M. tuberculosis culture filtrate (MT-CF) and cell wall antigens, as well...... as the vaccine strain, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). In addition, M. tuberculosis and MT-CF-induced T-cell lines were tested in the same assays against the panel of purified and complex antigens. The compiled data from PBMC and T-cell lines tested for antigen-induced proliferation and IFN...

  12. Ovarian Cyst Enlargement in a 14 Year Old Female with Persistent Ascities, Severe Hypothyroidism and Elevated Serum CA-125 Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamed, F; Eftekhari, K; Kiani, M A; Rabbani, A

    2012-06-01

    A 14 year old female complained of abdominal pain and distention with vomiting. The physical exam showed thyroid enlargement and ascites. The imaging evaluation demonstrated a large ovarian cyst. Laboratory tests depicted hypothyroidism and marked elevation of Carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA-125) levels. As the bone age was 10 years, more retarded than the chronological age, Van Wyk and Grumbach syndrome was suspected. Treatment with thyroid hormone was initiated and the condition improved dramatically with disappearance of symptoms and signs 5 weeks later.

  13. Antigenic determinants of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and development of assays specific for different forms of PSA.

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, O.; Peter, A.; Andersson, I.; Nilsson, K.; Grundstr?m, B.; Karlsson, B.

    1997-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were raised against prostate-specific antigen (PSA) by immunization with purified free PSA, i.e. not in complex with any protease inhibitor (F-PSA) and PSA in complex with alpha1-anti-chymotrypsin (PSA-ACT). Epitope mapping of PSA using the established monoclonal antibody revealed a complex pattern of independent and partly overlapping antigenic domains in the PSA molecule. Four independent antigenic domains and at least three partly overlapping domains were exposed both...

  14. Characterization of antigen association with accessory cells: specific removal of processed antigens from the cell surface by phospholipases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falo, L.D. Jr.; Haber, S.I.; Herrmann, S.; Benacerraf, B.; Rock, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    To characterize the basis for the cell surface association of processed antigen with the antigen-presenting cell (APC) the authors analyzed its sensitivity to enzymatic digestion. Antigen-exposed APC that are treated with phospholipase and then immediately fixed lose their ability to stimulate antigen-plus-Ia-specific T-T hybridomas. This effect is seen with highly purified phospholipase A 2 and phospholipase C. In addition it is observed with three distinct antigens - ovalbumin, bovine insulin, and poly(LGlu 56 LLys 35 LPhe 9 )[(GluLysPhe)/sub n/]. The effect of phospholipases is highly specific. Identically treated APC are equivalent to control in their ability to stimulate alloreactive hybridomas specific for precisely the same Ia molecule that is corecognized by antigen-plus-Ia-specific hybrids. Furthermore, the antigen-presenting function of enzyme-treated, fixed APC can be reconstituted by the addition of exogenous in vitro processed or processing independent antigens. In parallel studies 125 I-labeled avidin was shown to specifically bind to APC that were previously exposed and allowed to process biotin-insulin. Biotin-insulin-exposed APC that are pretreated with phospholipase bind significantly less 125 I-labeled avidin than do untreated, exposed APC. Identical enzyme treatment does not reduce the binding of avidin to a biotinylated antibody already bound to class II major histocompatibility complex molecules of APC. These studies demonstrate that phospholipase effectively removes processed cell surface antigen

  15. Endothelial cells present antigens in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tellides George

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immune recognition of vascular endothelial cells (EC has been implicated in allograft rejection, protection against pathogens, and lymphocyte recruitment. However, EC pervade nearly all tissues and predominate in none, complicating any direct test of immune recognition. Here, we examined antigen presentation by EC in vivo by testing immune responses against E. coli β-galactosidase (β-gal in two lines of transgenic mice that express β-gal exclusively in their EC. TIE2-lacZ mice express β-gal in all EC and VWF-lacZ mice express β-gal in heart and brain microvascular EC. Results Transgenic and congenic wild type FVB mice immunized with β-gal expression vector DNA or β-gal protein generated high titer, high affinity antisera containing comparable levels of antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes, suggesting equivalent activation of T helper cell subsets. The immunized transgenic mice remained healthy, their EC continued to express β-gal, and their blood vessels showed no histological abnormalities. In response to β-gal in vitro, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from immunized transgenic and FVB mice proliferated, expressed CD25, and secreted IFN-γ. Infection with recombinant vaccinia virus encoding β-gal raised equivalent responses in transgenic and FVB mice. Hearts transplanted from transgenic mice into FVB mice continued to beat and the graft EC continued to express β-gal. These results suggested immunological ignorance of the transgene encoded EC protein. However, skin transplanted from TIE2-lacZ onto FVB mice lost β-gal+ EC and the hosts developed β-gal-specific antisera, demonstrating activation of host immune effector mechanisms. In contrast, skin grafted from TIE2-lacZ onto VWF-lacZ mice retained β-gal+ EC and no antisera developed, suggesting a tolerant host immune system. Conclusion Resting, β-gal+ EC in transgenic mice tolerize specific lymphocytes that would otherwise respond against β-gal expressed by EC within

  16. Dynamic multibody modeling for tethered space elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents a fundamental modeling strategy for dealing with powered and propelled bodies moving along space tethers. The tether is divided into a large number of discrete masses, which are connected by viscoelastic springs. The tether is subject to the full range of forces expected in Earth orbit in a relatively simple manner. Two different models of the elevator dynamics are presented. In order to capture the effect of the elevator moving along the tether, the elevator dynamics are included as a separate body in both models. One model treats the elevator's motion dynamically, where propulsive and friction forces are applied to the elevator body. The second model treats the elevator's motion kinematically, where the distance along the tether is determined by adjusting the lengths of tether on either side of the elevator. The tether model is used to determine optimal configurations for the space elevator. A modal analysis of two different configurations is presented which show that the fundamental mode of oscillation is a pendular one around the anchor point with a period on the order of 160 h for the in-plane motion, and 24 h for the out-of-plane motion. Numerical simulation results of the effects of the elevator moving along the cable are presented for different travel velocities and different elevator masses.

  17. Predictors of backrest elevation in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grap, Mary Jo; Munro, Cindy L; Bryant, Sandra; Ashtiani, Brooke

    2003-04-01

    Low backrest and supine positions are associated with increased mortality and ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). Data are not available across ICU settings about the level of backrest position used and its relationship to enteral feeding and hemodynamic status. The purpose of this descriptive study was to document the level of backrest elevation and position and identify factors associated with and predict positioning in a medical, surgical and neuroscience intensive care unit. Data were collected randomly in each unit over a 6-week period, resulting in 506 observations for170 patients. Backrest elevation was determined by electronic bed read-out or bed frame elevation gauge. BP, HR and enteral feeding status were retrieved from the medical record. Results showed that mean backrest elevation was 19.2 degrees and 70% of subjects were supine. No difference in backrest elevation among units was found. Significant correlations between backrest elevation and systolic BP (r=0.15, P=0.006); and backrest and diastolic BP (r=0.13, P=0.02) were found. There was no difference in backrest elevation between patients being fed and not being fed. Differences in backrest elevation for intubated versus nonintubated patients approached significance (P=0.07) with intubated patients at lower backrest elevations. In summary, use of higher backrest elevations (>30 degrees ) is minimal, is not related to feeding and minimally related to hemodynamic status. Strategies to meet published recommendations for backrest elevation (30-45 degrees ) must include repeated feedback about nurse's use of backrest elevation and estimates of elevation.

  18. The space station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The elevator is an unmanned mobile structure which operates on a ten kilometer tether spanning the distance between the Space Station and a tethered platform. Elevator capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design are discussed. Engineering development of the tethered elevator is the result of work conducted in the following areas: structural configurations; robotics, drive mechanisms; and power generation and transmission systems. The structural configuration of the elevator is presented. The structure supports, houses, and protects all systems on board the elevator. The implementation of robotics on board the elevator is discussed. Elevator robotics allow for the deployment, retrieval, and manipulation of tethered objects. Robotic manipulators also aid in hooking the elevator on a tether. Critical to the operation of the tethered elevator is the design of its drive mechanisms, which are discussed. Two drivers, located internal to the elevator, propel the vehicle along a tether. These modular components consist of endless toothed belts, shunt-wound motors, regenerative power braking, and computer controlled linear actuators. The designs of self-sufficient power generation and transmission systems are reviewed. Thorough research indicates all components of the elevator will operate under power provided by fuel cells. The fuel cell systems will power the vehicle at seven kilowatts continuously and twelve kilowatts maximally. A set of secondary fuel cells provides redundancy in the unlikely event of a primary system failure. Power storage exists in the form of Nickel-Hydrogen batteries capable of powering the elevator under maximum loads.

  19. Tissue polypeptide antigen activity in cerebrospinal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, F; Söletormos, Georg; Dombernowsky, P

    1991-01-01

    Tissue polypeptide antigen (TPpA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was measured in 59 consecutive breast cancer patients with suspected central nervous system (CNS) metastases. Subsequently, we determined that 13 patients had parenchymal brain metastases, 10 had leptomeningeal carcinomatosis......, and 36 had no CNS involvement. The concentration of TPpA, which is a nonspecific marker for cell proliferation, was significantly higher in patients with CNS metastases than in those without it (P less than .0001; Mann-Whitney test). A tentative cutoff value for CNS metastases was set at 95 U/L TPp...... metastases, no correlation was found between TPpA activity in corresponding CSF and blood samples (correlation coefficient, Spearman's rho = .4; P greater than .1). In three patients treated for leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, the measurements of CSF TPpA showed correlation between the presence of tumor cells...

  20. Chemiluminescence immunoassay for prostate-specific antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuefeng; Liu Yibing; Jia Juanjuan; Xu Wenge; Li Ziying; Chen Yongli; Han Shiquan

    2008-01-01

    The chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) for serum total prostate-specific antigen (T-PSA) was developed. The reaction of luminol with hydrogen peroxide was introduced into this chemiluminescence system. The detection limit is established as 0.12 μg/L (n=10, mean of zero standard + 2SD) and the analytical recovery of PSA is 83.8%-118.7%. The intra-assay and inter-assay CVs vary from 4.4%-5.0% and 6.2%-11.7%, respectively. The experimental correlation coefficient of dilution is found to be 0.999. Compared with immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) kits, the correlative equation is y=1.07x+0.68, and correlation coefficient r=0.97. The standard range for the method is 1.5-80 μg/L, and it presents good linearity. (authors)

  1. T cell recognition of breast cancer antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nadia Viborg; Andersen, Sofie Ramskov; Andersen, Rikke Sick

    Recent studies are encouraging research of breast cancer immunogenicity to evaluate the applicability ofimmunotherapy as a treatment strategy. The epitope landscape in breast cancer is minimally described, thus it is necessary to identify T cell targets to develop immune mediated therapies.......This project investigates four proteins commonly upregulated in breast cancer and thus probable tumor associated antigens (TAAs). Aromatase, prolactin, NEK3, and PIAS3 contribute to increase growth, survival, and motility of malignant cells. Aspiring to uncover novel epitopes for cytotoxic T cells, a reverse...... recognition utilizing DNA barcode labeled MHC multimers to screen peripheral blood lymphocytes from breast cancer patients and healthy donor samples. Signif-icantly more TAA specific T cell responses were detected in breast cancer patients than healthy donors for both HLA-A*0201 (P

  2. Engineering antigen-specific immunological tolerance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontos, Stephan; Grimm, Alizee J.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2015-05-01

    Unwanted immunity develops in response to many protein drugs, in autoimmunity, in allergy, and in transplantation. Approaches to induce immunological tolerance aim to either prevent these responses or reverse them after they have already taken place. We present here recent developments in approaches, based on engineered peptides, proteins and biomaterials, that harness mechanisms of peripheral tolerance both prophylactically and therapeutically to induce antigenspecific immunological tolerance. These mechanisms are based on responses of B and T lymphocytes to other cells in their immune environment that result in cellular deletion or ignorance to particular antigens, or in development of active immune regulatory responses. Several of these approaches are moving toward clinical development, and some are already in early stages of clinical testing.

  3. Cytokine responses to novel antigens in an Indian population living in an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Om Prakash; Stober, Carmel B; Singh, Abhishek Kr; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Sundar, Shyam

    2012-01-01

    There are no effective vaccines for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a neglected parasitic disease second only to malaria in global mortality. We previously identified 14 protective candidates in a screen of 100 Leishmania antigens as DNA vaccines in mice. Here we employ whole blood assays to evaluate human cytokine responses to 11 of these antigens, in comparison to known defined and crude antigen preparations. Whole blood assays were employed to measure IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 responses to peptide pools of the novel antigens R71, Q51, L37, N52, L302.06, J89, M18, J41, M22, M63, M57, as well as to recombinant proteins of tryparedoxin peroxidase (TRYP), Leishmania homolog of the receptor for activated C kinase (LACK) and to crude soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA), in Indian patients with active (n = 8) or cured (n = 16) VL, and in modified Quantiferon positive (EHC(+ve), n = 20) or modified Quantiferon negative (EHC(-ve), n = 9) endemic healthy controls (EHC). Active VL, cured VL and EHC(+ve) groups showed elevated SLA-specific IFN-γ, but only active VL patients produced IL-10 and EHC(+ve) did not make TNF-α. IFN-γ to IL-10 and TNF-α to IL-10 ratios in response to TRYP and LACK antigens were higher in cured VL and EHC(+ve) exposed individuals compared to active VL. Five of the eleven novel candidates (R71, L37, N52, J41, and M22) elicited IFN-γ and TNF-α, but not IL-10, responses in cured VL (55-87.5% responders) and EHC(+ve) (40-65% responders) subjects. Our results are consistent with an important balance between pro-inflammatory IFNγ and TNFγ cytokine responses and anti-inflammatory IL-10 in determining outcome of VL in India, as highlighted by response to both crude and defined protein antigens. Importantly, cured VL patients and endemic Quantiferon positive individuals recognise 5 novel vaccine candidate antigens, confirming our recent data for L. chagasi in Brazil, and their potential as cross-species vaccine candidates.

  4. Cytokine responses to novel antigens in an Indian population living in an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash Singh

    Full Text Available There are no effective vaccines for visceral leishmaniasis (VL, a neglected parasitic disease second only to malaria in global mortality. We previously identified 14 protective candidates in a screen of 100 Leishmania antigens as DNA vaccines in mice. Here we employ whole blood assays to evaluate human cytokine responses to 11 of these antigens, in comparison to known defined and crude antigen preparations.Whole blood assays were employed to measure IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 responses to peptide pools of the novel antigens R71, Q51, L37, N52, L302.06, J89, M18, J41, M22, M63, M57, as well as to recombinant proteins of tryparedoxin peroxidase (TRYP, Leishmania homolog of the receptor for activated C kinase (LACK and to crude soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA, in Indian patients with active (n = 8 or cured (n = 16 VL, and in modified Quantiferon positive (EHC(+ve, n = 20 or modified Quantiferon negative (EHC(-ve, n = 9 endemic healthy controls (EHC.Active VL, cured VL and EHC(+ve groups showed elevated SLA-specific IFN-γ, but only active VL patients produced IL-10 and EHC(+ve did not make TNF-α. IFN-γ to IL-10 and TNF-α to IL-10 ratios in response to TRYP and LACK antigens were higher in cured VL and EHC(+ve exposed individuals compared to active VL. Five of the eleven novel candidates (R71, L37, N52, J41, and M22 elicited IFN-γ and TNF-α, but not IL-10, responses in cured VL (55-87.5% responders and EHC(+ve (40-65% responders subjects.Our results are consistent with an important balance between pro-inflammatory IFNγ and TNFγ cytokine responses and anti-inflammatory IL-10 in determining outcome of VL in India, as highlighted by response to both crude and defined protein antigens. Importantly, cured VL patients and endemic Quantiferon positive individuals recognise 5 novel vaccine candidate antigens, confirming our recent data for L. chagasi in Brazil, and their potential as cross-species vaccine candidates.

  5. Space elevator systems level analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.)

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. It involves new, untried technologies in most of its subsystems. Thus the successful construction of the SE requires a significant amount of development, This in turn implies a high level of risk for the SE. This paper will present a systems level analysis of the SE by subdividing its components into their subsystems to determine their level of technological maturity. such a high-risk endeavor is to follow a disciplined approach to the challenges. A systems level analysis informs this process and is the guide to where resources should be applied in the development processes. It is an efficient path that, if followed, minimizes the overall risk of the system's development. systems level analysis is that the overall system is divided naturally into its subsystems, and those subsystems are further subdivided as appropriate for the analysis. By dealing with the complex system in layers, the parameter space of decisions is kept manageable. Moreover, A rational way to manage One key aspect of a resources are not expended capriciously; rather, resources are put toward the biggest challenges and most promising solutions. This overall graded approach is a proven road to success. The analysis includes topics such as nanotube technology, deployment scenario, power beaming technology, ground-based hardware and operations, ribbon maintenance and repair and climber technology.

  6. Phase-preserved optical elevator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Han, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhi; Duan, Yubo; Chu, Chia-Wei; Barbastathis, George; Qiu, Cheng Wei

    2013-03-25

    The unique superiority of transformation optics devices designed from coordinate transformation is their capability of recovering both ray trajectory and optical path length in light manipulation. However, very few experiments have been done so far to verify this dual-recovery property from viewpoints of both ray trajectory and optical path length simultaneously. The experimental difficulties arise from the fact that most previous optical transformation optics devices only work at the nano-scale; the lack of intercomparison between data from both optical path length and ray trajectory measurement in these experiments obscured the fact that the ray path was subject to a subwavelength lateral shift that was otherwise not easily perceivable and, instead, was pointed out theoretically [B. Zhang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233903, 2010]. Here, we use a simple macroscopic transformation optics device of phase-preserved optical elevator, which is a typical birefringent optical phenomenon that can virtually lift an optical image by a macroscopic distance, to demonstrate decisively the unique optical path length preservation property of transformation optics. The recovery of ray trajectory is first determined with no lateral shift in the reflected ray. The phase preservation is then verified with incoherent white-light interferometry without ambiguity and phase unwrapping.

  7. Defense of a space elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.)

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low-cost access is to be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe a defensive system of the SE. The primary scenario adopted for this analysis is the SE based on a floating platform in the ocean along the equator. A second possible scenario is the SE stationed on land (island or continent) on or near the equator. The SE will capture the imaginations of people around the world. It will become a symbol of power, capability, wealth and prestige for the country that builds it. As such, it will become a prime terrorist target. Moreover, the tremendous economic leverage afforded by the SE might motivate rogue nations to plot its destruction. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the requirements for defense of the SE. For the purposes of this paper it is assumed that the SE is to be deployed by the United States or one of its companies, and the resources of the US are available for its defense.

  8. Dissecting antigen processing and presentation routes in dermal vaccination strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platteel, Anouk C M; Henri, Sandrine; Zaiss, Dietmar M; Sijts, Alice J A M

    2017-01-01

    The skin is an attractive site for vaccination due to its accessibility and presence of immune cells surveilling this barrier. However, knowledge of antigen processing and presentation upon dermal vaccination is sparse. In this study we determined antigen processing routes that lead to CD8(+) T cell

  9. Protein antigen adsorption to the DDA/TDB liposomal adjuvant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamborg, Mette; Jorgensen, Lene; Bojsen, Anders Riber

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the nature of adjuvant-antigen interactions is important for the future design of efficient and safe subunit vaccines, but remains an analytical challenge. We studied the interactions between three model protein antigens and the clinically tested cationic liposomal adjuvant composed...... of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) and trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate (TDB)....

  10. Protein modeling of apical membrane antigen-1(AMA-1) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apical membrane Antigen-1(AMA-1), an asexual blood stage antigen of Plasmodium cynomolgi, is an important candidate for testing as a component of malarial vaccine. The degree of conservation of. AMA-1 sequences implies a conserved function for this molecule across different species of Plasmodium. Since the AMA-1 ...

  11. Identification of Surface Exposed Elementary Body Antigens of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to identify the surface exposed antigenic components of Cowdria ruminantium elementary body (EB) by biotin labeling, determine effect of reducing and non-reducing conditions and heat on the mobility of these antigens and their reactivity to antibodies from immunized animals by Western blotting.

  12. Antigen Loss Variants: Catching Hold of Escaping Foes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Maulik; Müller, Rolf; Pogge von Strandmann, Elke

    2017-01-01

    Since mid-1990s, the field of cancer immunotherapy has seen steady growth and selected immunotherapies are now a routine and preferred therapeutic option of certain malignancies. Both active and passive cancer immunotherapies exploit the fact that tumor cells express specific antigens on the cell surface, thereby mounting an immune response specifically against malignant cells. It is well established that cancer cells typically lose surface antigens following natural or therapy-induced selective pressure and these antigen-loss variants are often the population that causes therapy-resistant relapse. CD19 and CD20 antigen loss in acute lymphocytic leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, respectively, and lineage switching in leukemia associated with mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene rearrangements are well-documented evidences in this regard. Although increasing number of novel immunotherapies are being developed, majority of these do not address the control of antigen loss variants. Here, we review the occurrence of antigen loss variants in leukemia and discuss the therapeutic strategies to tackle the same. We also present an approach of dual-targeting immunoligand effectively retargeting NK cells against antigen loss variants in MLL-associated leukemia. Novel immunotherapies simultaneously targeting more than one tumor antigen certainly hold promise to completely eradicate tumor and prevent therapy-resistant relapses.

  13. Detection of Rabies antigen in brains of suspected Rabid dogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To detect the presence of rabies antigen in brains of suspected rabid dogs. Materials and Methods: Ninety six (96) brain specimens from suspected rabid dogs were examined for the presence of rabies antigen using Seller's staining technique and enzyme immunoassay. Results: The two techniques were both ...

  14. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus E antigen among Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the prevalence of hepatitis B virus 'e' antigen (HBeAg) among individuals determined to be hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen- positive and analyzed the gender/age category associated with more active HBV infection and whether alteration in the levels of alanine aminotransferase could be associated with ...

  15. Antigen-targeting strategies using single-domain antibody fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, Joao Nuno Silva

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies display high selectivity and affinity and have been the preferred platform for antigen targeting. Despite the development of antigen-delivery systems that enable T cell activation, targeting approaches that enhance antibody responses need improvement. This need specially applies to poorly

  16. Antigenic analysis of some Nigerian street rabies virus using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors studied 12 street rabies virus isolates from 3 states of Nigeria using both the anti-nucleocapsid and anti-glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies and cross-protection tests. It was observed that all the viruses were rabies having divergent antigenic presentation. Also noticed was an antigenic shift when the viruses ...

  17. Screening Immunomodulators To Skew the Antigen-Specific Autoimmune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, Laura; Sullivan, Bradley P; Hartwell, Brittany L; Garza, Aaron; Berkland, Cory

    2017-01-03

    Current therapies to treat autoimmune diseases often result in side effects such as nonspecific immunosuppression. Therapies that can induce antigen-specific immune tolerance provide an opportunity to reverse autoimmunity and mitigate the risks associated with global immunosuppression. In an effort to induce antigen-specific immune tolerance, co-administration of immunomodulators with autoantigens has been investigated in an effort to reprogram autoimmunity. To date, identifying immunomodulators that may skew the antigen-specific immune response has been ad hoc at best. To address this need, we utilized splenocytes obtained from mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in order to determine if certain immunomodulators may induce markers of immune tolerance following antigen rechallenge. Of the immunomodulatory compounds investigated, only dexamethasone modified the antigen-specific immune response by skewing the cytokine response and decreasing T-cell populations at a concentration corresponding to a relevant in vivo dose. Thus, antigen-educated EAE splenocytes provide an ex vivo screen for investigating compounds capable of skewing the antigen-specific immune response, and this approach could be extrapolated to antigen-educated cells from other diseases or human tissues.

  18. Histoplasma Urinary Antigen Testing Obviates the Need for Coincident Serum Antigen Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, Diane; Procop, Gary W; Ansari, Mohammad Q

    2018-03-07

    Serum and urine antigen (SAg, UAg) detection are common tests for Histoplasma capsulatum. UAg detection is more widely used and reportedly has a higher sensitivity. We investigated whether SAg detection contributes meaningfully to the initial evaluation of patients with suspected histoplasmosis. We reviewed 20,285 UAg and 1,426 SAg tests ordered from 1997 to 2016 and analyzed paired UAg and SAg tests completed on the same patient within 1 week. We determined the positivity rate for each test. Of 601 paired specimens, 542 were concurrent negatives and 48 were concurrent positives (98% agreement). Medical records were available for eight of 11 pairs with discrepant results. UAg was falsely positive in six instances, truly positive once, and falsely negative once. These findings support using a single antigen detection test, rather than both UAg and SAg, as an initial screen for suspected histoplasmosis. This aligns with the current practice of most physicians.

  19. A late IL-33 response after exposure to Schistosoma haematobium antigen is associated with an up-regulation of IL-13 in human eosinophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, S.; Jones, F. M.; Fofana, H. K. M.

    2013-01-01

    IL-33, a proposed alarmin, stimulates innate immune cells and Th2 cells to produce IL-13 and is rapidly upregulated upon antigen exposure in murine helminth infection. The human IL-33 response to helminth antigen was analysed in Malians infected with Schistosoma haematobium by disrupting parasite...... integrity via chemotherapy. Plasma IL-33 was measured pretreatment, and 24 h and 9 weeks post-treatment. At 24 h post-treatment, IL-33 levels were low. Nine week post-treatment IL-33 levels were elevated and were associated with an increase in intracellular IL-13 in eosinophils. Up......-regulation of intracellular IL-13 in eosinophils was also associated with eosinophil expression of ST2L, the IL-33 receptor. IL-33 may play an important downstream role in the human response to schistosome adult worm antigen exposure....

  20. Psychological impact of serial prostate-specific antigen tests in Japanese men waiting for prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Minoru; Nukui, Akinori; Kamai, Takao

    2017-02-01

    It is common to repeat prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements for men with intermediate PSA elevation before prostate biopsy. In this scenario, men with persistently elevated PSA values may have considerable psychological distress. We attempted to determine whether elevated PSA values have psychological effects on these men in association with the timing of measurement, PSA kinetics, and biopsy results. In order to investigate the initial and late effects of PSA tests on psychological distress during serial measurements, two groups of men with screen-positive results (PSA ≥3 ng/ml) were studied-205 men whose first questionnaires regarding anxiety and depression were taken at initial screening (group A), and 103 men whose questionnaires were taken at repeated measurement for prior PSA elevation (group B). The level of distress was generally low. There were no significant differences in distress between the two groups, suggesting a constant psychological effect by elevated PSA values over a long period of time. The distress of men in group A increased significantly as PSA levels rose and decreased when they fell to normal range. On the other hand, the distress of men in group B did not change regardless of PSA kinetics, indicating that their psychological condition seemed susceptible to subtle PSA change only in the initial phase of measurements. Unexpectedly, men with benign results showed insignificant but higher distress after prostate biopsy. Although a small fraction of men have psychological distress caused by changes in PSA levels, the benefits, risks (psychological and physical), and limitations of PSA tests must be adequately explained to the patients before entering the screening program.

  1. Mosaic VSGs and the scale of Trypanosoma brucei antigenic variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P J Hall

    Full Text Available A main determinant of prolonged Trypanosoma brucei infection and transmission and success of the parasite is the interplay between host acquired immunity and antigenic variation of the parasite variant surface glycoprotein (VSG coat. About 0.1% of trypanosome divisions produce a switch to a different VSG through differential expression of an archive of hundreds of silent VSG genes and pseudogenes, but the patterns and extent of the trypanosome diversity phenotype, particularly in chronic infection, are unclear. We applied longitudinal VSG cDNA sequencing to estimate variant richness and test whether pseudogenes contribute to antigenic variation. We show that individual growth peaks can contain at least 15 distinct variants, are estimated computationally to comprise many more, and that antigenically distinct 'mosaic' VSGs arise from segmental gene conversion between donor VSG genes or pseudogenes. The potential for trypanosome antigenic variation is probably much greater than VSG archive size; mosaic VSGs are core to antigenic variation and chronic infection.

  2. Clinical performance of LOCI™-based tumor marker assays for tumor markers CA 15-3, CA 125, CEA, CA 19-9 and AFP in gynecological cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolscheid-Pommerich, Ramona C; Keyver-Paik, Mignon; Hecking, Thomas; Kuhn, Walther; Hartmann, Gunther; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Holdenrieder, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    Evidence is sparse regarding the clinical performance of luminescent oxygen channeling immunoassays-based tumor marker assays in gynecological cancer. Analyzing serum samples of 336 patients with Dimension™Vista1500, we investigated the diagnostic power of carbohydrate antigen 15-3, carbohydrate antigen 125, carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, and alpha-fetoprotein in patients suffering from different types of gynecological cancer and precancerous gynecological diseases and compared findings to appropriate control groups. The cohort comprised 177 female patients with gynecological cancers (73 breast, 22 cervical, 16 endometrial, 17 vulva, and 49 ovarian cancers), 26 patients with precancerous gynecological diseases (11 vulva, 4 cervical, and 10 breast), 109 patients with benign gynecological diseases, and 24 healthy controls. Discriminative power was assessed by areas under the curve in receiver operating characteristic curves, and sensitivities were determined at a fixed specificity of 95%. Levels of biomarkers in healthy controls were in the expected ranges and a discriminative power between gynecological cancers and healthy controls was observed for several tumor markers. Established tumor type-associated markers were elevated in specific gynecological cancers and benign controls as well as within precancerous gynecological diseases and healthy control group. In ovarian cancer, carbohydrate antigen 125 and carbohydrate antigen 15-3 were significantly elevated compared to the respective benign diseases. Carbohydrate antigen 125 was the most conclusive marker (area under the curve = 0.86% and 77.6% sensitivity at 95% specificity). In breast cancer, carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 15-3 were significantly higher than in the respective benign diseases. Carcinoembryonic antigen achieved the most conclusive area under the curve (0.65) with 31.5% sensitivity at 95% specificity. None of the investigated markers was found to be of

  3. Long term follow up results of serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen level in uterine cervix cancer treated by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hyong Geun

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the long term significance of the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen (Ag) as a tumor marker in uterine cervix carcinoma. The SCC antigen levels of pre-radiotherapy and serial post-radiotherapy serum were analyzed in 48 patients who received radiotherapy with histologically proven primary SCC of the uterine cervix. Pre-radiotherapy SCC Ag level was high (≥2 ng/ml) at 79.2%. After the treatment, the SCC Ag level was significantly decreased. The SCC Ag level measured at about 3 months after radiotherapy was high at 23.0%. In further follow up measurements, a rise of the SCC Ag to a high level was well associated with clinical relapse. The specificity of the elevated SCC Ag level in association with recurrent or persistent disease was 100%, and the sensitivity was 85.7%. In 3 of 4 lung metastasis cases, lung lesions were detected in chest PA before elevation of the SCC Ag level. The median lead time of the high SCC Ag level to clinical recurrence was 4 months. SCC Ag was a good tumor marker for monitoring treatment effect in patients with increased pre-treatment levels except in case of early lung metastasis. Elevation of the SCC Ag level after radiotherapy accurately predicted the treatment failure with lead time of 4 months. But, in early lung metastasis cases, the SCC level may be normal temporarily. Thus, chest PA should be checked to evaluate the presence of lung metastasis

  4. Broadband phase-preserved optical elevator

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Yuan; Han, Tiancheng; Zhang, Baile; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Barbastathis, George

    2011-01-01

    Phase-preserved optical elevator is an optical device to lift up an entire plane virtually without distortion in light path or phase. Using transformation optics, we have predicted and observed the realization of such a broadband phase-preserved optical elevator, made of a natural homogeneous birefringent crystal without resorting to absorptive and narrowband metamaterials involving time-consuming nano-fabrication. In our demonstration, the optical elevator is designed to lift a sheet upwards...

  5. Antigenic Relationships among Human Pathogenic Orientia tsutsugamushi Isolates from Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L James

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a common cause of undiagnosed febrile illness in certain tropical regions, but can be easily treated with antibiotics. The causative agent, Orientia tsutsugamushi, is antigenically variable which complicates diagnosis and efforts towards vaccine development.This study aimed to dissect the antigenic and genetic relatedness of O. tsutsugamushi strains and investigate sero-diagnostic reactivities by titrating individual patient sera against their O. tsutsugamushi isolates (whole-cell antigen preparation, in homologous and heterologous serum-isolate pairs from the same endemic region in NE Thailand. The indirect immunofluorescence assay was used to titrate Orientia tsutsugamushi isolates and human sera, and a mathematical technique, antigenic cartography, was applied to these data to visualise the antigenic differences and cross-reactivity between strains and sera. No functional or antigen-specific analyses were performed. The antigenic variation found in clinical isolates was much less pronounced than the genetic differences found in the 56kDa type-specific antigen genes. The Karp-like sera were more broadly reactive than the Gilliam-like sera.Antigenic cartography worked well with scrub typhus indirect immunofluorescence titres. The data from humoral responses suggest that a Karp-like strain would provide broader antibody cross-reactivity than a Gilliam-like strain. Although previous exposure to O. tsutsugamushi could not be ruled out, scrub typhus patient serum antibody responses were characterised by strong homologous, but weak heterologous antibody titres, with little evidence for cross-reactivity by Gilliam-like sera, but a broader response from some Karp-like sera. This work highlights the importance of antigenic variation in O. tsutsugamushi diagnosis and determination of new serotypes.

  6. Soil nematodes show a mid-elevation diversity maximum and elevational zonation on Mt. Norikura, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ke; Moroenyane, Itumeleng; Tripathi, Binu; Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Takahashi, Koichi; Yamamoto, Naomichi; An, Choa; Cho, Hyunjun; Adams, Jonathan

    2017-06-08

    Little is known about how nematode ecology differs across elevational gradients. We investigated the soil nematode community along a ~2,200 m elevational range on Mt. Norikura, Japan, by sequencing the 18S rRNA gene. As with many other groups of organisms, nematode diversity showed a high correlation with elevation, and a maximum in mid-elevations. While elevation itself, in the context of the mid domain effect, could predict the observed unimodal pattern of soil nematode communities along the elevational gradient, mean annual temperature and soil total nitrogen concentration were the best predictors of diversity. We also found nematode community composition showed strong elevational zonation, indicating that a high degree of ecological specialization that may exist in nematodes in relation to elevation-related environmental gradients and certain nematode OTUs had ranges extending across all elevations, and these generalized OTUs made up a greater proportion of the community at high elevations - such that high elevation nematode OTUs had broader elevational ranges on average, providing an example consistent to Rapoport's elevational hypothesis. This study reveals the potential for using sequencing methods to investigate elevational gradients of small soil organisms, providing a method for rapid investigation of patterns without specialized knowledge in taxonomic identification.

  7. On a lunar space elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, E. H.

    We consider a space elevator system for lunar surface access that consists of a space station in circumlunar orbit, a cable reaching down to some meters above the surface and a magnetically levitated vehicle driven by a linear motor. It accelerates the load to be lifted to the speed of the cable end. Loads to be delivered are either put on the vehicle and slowed down by it or they are slowed down by a sand braking technique in a mare terrain. It is technically possible to operate this transport system nearly without fuel supply from Earth. We calculate various steel cable dimensions for a static stress maximum of 1/5th of the tensile strength. The process of takeover is considered in detail. Five ways of eliminating the adverse large cable elongation due to the load are described. The touchdown process and behaviour of the cable after disconnection are analysed. The positive difference between the speed of the load at takeover and cable end can excite a large inplane swing motion. We propose to damp it by a dissipative pulley that hangs in a loop of wire leading to the ends of two beams mounted on the space station tangentially to the orbit, the pulley's core being connected with the load. Roll librations are damped by energy losses in the elastic beams; damping can be reinforced by viscous beam elements and/or controlled out-of-plane motions of the beams. We argue in favour of the possibility of fast deployment. The problems of vehicle vibrations and agglutination at sand braking blades are underlined and their combined experimental investigation is suggested.

  8. An Automatic System for Elevator Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Haidar Sharif; Ibrahim Furkan Ince

    2015-01-01

    An elevator is a conveyor device or transport equipment that moves people or goods between floors or levels or decks of a building, vessel, or other structures. It has become a part and parcel of modern life in developed countries. The number of floors in high buildings, skyscrapers, and towers generate the usage of elevators. If it is simply assumed that each floor has at least two elevators in a thirty-floor building, people call the elevators in each floor even they are already occupied in...

  9. Antigenic variation and the genetics and epigenetics of the PfEMP1 erythrocyte surface antigens in Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnot, David E; Jensen, Anja T R

    2011-01-01

    . Sterile immunity is not achieved and chronic parasitization of apparently healthy adults is the norm. In this article, we analyse the best understood malaria "antigenic variation" system, that based on Plasmodium falciparum's PfEMP1-type cytoadhesion antigens, and critically review recent literature...

  10. Case of rhesus antigen weak D type 4.2. (DAR category detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Golovkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serological methods of Rhesus antigens identification in humans cannot identify D-antigen variants. In this article the serological characteristics of Rhesus antigen D weak type 4.2. (Category DAR are described.

  11. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/labtests/prostatespecificantigenpsatest.html Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. What is a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test? A prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test measures ...

  12. Intra-Abdominal Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor with Elevated Serum CA 125: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheau-Fang Yang

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT is a rare and highly aggressive tumor usually involving the peritoneum. It occurs more commonly in young males and is characterized by distinctive clinical, histologic, and immunophenotypic features. The histogenesis of DSRCT remains unknown. Coexpression of epithelial, mesenchymal, and neural antigens in the same cell provides evidence that DSRCT may arise from a primitive pluripotent stem cell with divergent differentiation. Recently, according to cytogenetic studies, some authors have proposed that the divergent differentiation of DSRCT may be the result of the fusion of Ewing's sarcoma gene and Wilms' tumor suppressor gene. Clinically, an elevated serum CA 125 concentration is found in some patients with DSRCT. We present the case of a 29-year-old man with diffuse intra-abdominal DSRCT and elevated serum CA 125 concentration and briefly review the relevant literature.

  13. Elevated levels of T cell activation antigen CD27 and increased interleukin-4 production in human lymphatic filariasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Sartono, E.; Kruize, Y. C.; Kurniawan, A.; van der Pouw-Kraan, T.; van der Meide, P. H.; Selkirk, M. E.; Partono, F.; Hintzen, R. Q.; van Lier, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    To assess the immunological changes occurring during filarial infection with or without elephantiasis, 145 patients in different clinical groups from an endemic area in Indonesia were compared with respect to plasma levels of both soluble CD25 (sCD25) and sCD27; interleukin-4 (IL-4) and

  14. Nonspecific Presentation of a Multiloculated Prostatic Abscess After Transurethral Prostatic Biopsy for Elevated Prostate-specific Antigen Level

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi, Nilay M.; Lin, Joseph; Schaeffer, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Prostate postbiopsy infectious complications typically present in the form of prostatitis and uncommonly urosepsis. Prostatic abscesses are generally found after multiple bouts of prostatitis and are associated with a clinically septic picture requiring intensive care unit admission and resuscitation. We report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with prostatic abscess in the setting of nonspecific urinary symptoms after transrectal ultrasonography–guided prostate biopsy. At 4-month f...

  15. National requirements for improved elevation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Gregory I.; Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Jason, Allyson L.; Maune, David F.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of surveys, structured interviews, and workshops conducted to identify key national requirements for improved elevation data for the United States and its territories, including coastlines. Organizations also identified and reported the expected economic benefits that would be realized if their requirements for improved elevation were met (appendixes 1–3). This report describes the data collection methodology and summarizes the findings. Participating organizations included 34 Federal agencies, 50 States and two territories, and a sampling of local governments, tribes, and nongovernmental orgnizations. The nongovernmental organizations included The Nature Conservancy and a sampling of private sector businesses. These data were collected in 2010-2011 as part of the National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA), a study to identify program alternatives for better meeting the Nation’s elevation data needs. NEEA tasks included the collection of national elevation requirements; analysis of the benefits and costs of meeting these requirements; assessment of emerging elevation technologies, lifecycle data management needs, and costs for managing and distributing a national-scale dataset and derived products; and candidate national elevation program alternatives that balance costs and benefits in meeting the Nation’s elevation requirements. The NEEA was sponsored by the National Digital Elevation Program (NDEP), a government coordination body with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as managing partner that includes the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), among the more than a dozen agencies and organizations. The term enhanced elevation data as used in this report refers broadly to three-dimensional measurements of land or

  16. Molecular mimics of the tumour antigen MUC1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharappel C James

    Full Text Available A key requirement for the development of cancer immunotherapy is the identification of tumour-associated antigens that are differentially or exclusively expressed on the tumour and recognized by the host immune system. However, immune responses to such antigens are often muted or lacking due to the antigens being recognized as "self", and further complicated by the tumour environment and regulation of immune cells within. In an effort to circumvent the lack of immune responses to tumour antigens, we have devised a strategy to develop potential synthetic immunogens. The strategy, termed mirror image phage display, is based on the concept of molecular mimicry as demonstrated by the idiotype/anti-idiotype paradigm in the immune system. Here as 'proof of principle' we have selected molecular mimics of the well-characterised tumour associated antigen, the human mucin1 protein (MUC1 from two different peptide phage display libraries. The putative mimics were compared in structure and function to that of the native antigen. Our results demonstrate that several of the mimic peptides display T-cell stimulation activity in vitro when presented by matured dendritic cells. The mimic peptides and the native MUC1 antigenic epitopes can cross-stimulate T-cells. The data also indicate that sequence homology and/or chemical properties to the original epitope are not the sole determining factors for the observed immunostimulatory activity of the mimic peptides.

  17. 78 FR 14697 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... Communities affected elevation above ground [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Modified Cecil County, Maryland... 1 to Stone Run At the Stone Run +271 Town of Rising Sun, confluence. Unincorporated Areas of Cecil County. Approximately 460 feet +359 downstream of Pierce Road. Tributary 2 to Stone Run At the Stone Run...

  18. 75 FR 31361 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... source(s) elevation ground [caret] Elevation Communities affected in meters (MSL) Effective Modified... American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. [caret] Mean Sea Level, rounded to the nearest 0.1.... Stone County, Mississippi, and Incorporated Areas Church House Branch Approximately 0.5 mile None +211...

  19. High elevation white pines educational website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Michele Laskowski

    2011-01-01

    The high elevation five-needle white pines are facing numerous challenges ranging from climate change to invasion by a non-native pathogen to escalation of pest outbreaks. This website (http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/highelevationwhitepines/) serves as a primer for managers and the public on the high elevation North American five-needle pines. It presents information on each...

  20. 46 CFR 120.540 - Elevators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elevators. 120.540 Section 120.540 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Miscellaneous Systems and Requirements § 120.540 Elevators....

  1. Insect Population Dynamics in Commercial Grain Elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data were collected in 1998-2002 from wheat stored in commercial grain elevators in south-central Kansas. Storage bins at these elevators had concrete walls and were typically 6-9 m in diameter and 30-35 m tall. A vacuum-probe sampler was used to collect ten 3-kg grain samples in the top 12 m of the...

  2. 75 FR 69892 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ...: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding Location Depth... county +899 City of Norwich, Town boundary. of Greene, Town of North Norwich, Town of Oxford, Town of...). Susquehanna River At the downstream county +965 Town of Afton, Town of boundary. Bainbridge, Village of Afton...

  3. 77 FR 6980 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding Location Depth in feet above ground [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Modified Unincorporated Areas of Nowata County... Bayou An area bounded by the +100 Town of Mayersville, county boundary to the Unincorporated Areas of...

  4. 76 FR 1535 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding Location Depth in feet above ground [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Modified Unincorporated Areas of Poinsett County... with the St. Francis River...... +212 Areas of Poinsett County. Approximately 0.45 mile downstream of...

  5. 75 FR 29253 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ...: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet above State City/town/county Source of... +21 Town of Ebro, upstream of the Unincorporated Areas confluence with the of Washington County. East... County, Colorado, and Incorporated Areas Willow Creek At the confluence with None +8,154 Unincorporated...

  6. 75 FR 68710 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ...: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding Location Depth... County, California Docket Nos.: FEMA-B-7762, FEMA-B-7795, and FEMA-B-1053 California Unincorporated Oregon Slough..... City of Montague +2503 Areas of Siskiyou and County. Unincorporated Siskiyou County...

  7. 76 FR 50918 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet State City/town/county Source of flooding... affected [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Modified Jones County, Texas, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1122 Lake Fort Phantom Hill Just downstream of County +1642 City of Abilene, Highway 1082...

  8. 78 FR 10066 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... follows: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet State City/town/county Source...). Scriba Creek Approximately 0.90 mile +546 Town of Amboy. upstream of County Route 23 (Potter Road.... Town of Palermo Maps are available for inspection at the Palermo Town Municipal Offices, 53 County...

  9. 77 FR 49379 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding Location Depth in feet above ground [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Modified Unincorporated Areas of Washington County... of the +35 Areas of railroad. Washington County. Approximately 2.1 miles upstream of the railroad...

  10. 75 FR 43418 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... follows: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding... +869 Town of Peoria, upstream of Main Street. Unincorporated Areas of Ottawa County. Approximately 1.... Town of Peoria Maps are available for inspection at the Ottawa County Courthouse, 102 East Central...

  11. 78 FR 21272 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... below for the modified BFEs for each community listed. These modified elevations have been published in... [Amended] 0 2. The tables published under the authority of Sec. 67.11 are amended as follows: * Elevation... Austin. upstream of 29th Avenue Southwest (County Highway 28). At the downstream side of +1205 I and M...

  12. Microglial MHC antigen expression after ischemic and kainic acid lesions of the adult rat hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finsen, B.R.; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1993-01-01

    Leukocyte common antigen, macrophages, blood-brain barrier, neural degeneration, fascia dentata, neuropathology......Leukocyte common antigen, macrophages, blood-brain barrier, neural degeneration, fascia dentata, neuropathology...

  13. Antigen-specific tolerance inhibits autoimmune uveitis in pre-sensitized animals by deletion and CD4+CD25+ T-regulatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Bharati; Jha, Purushottam; Bora, Puran S; Bora, Nalini S

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to inhibit experimental autoimmune anterior uveitis (EAAU) by establishing antigen-specific immune tolerance in animals pre-sensitized with melanin-associated antigen (MAA). Intravenous administration of MAA on days 6, 7, 8 and 9 post-immunization induced tolerance and inhibited EAAU in all Lewis rats. The number of cells (total T cells, CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells) undergoing apoptosis dramatically increased in the popliteal lymph nodes (LNs) of the tolerized animals compared with non-tolerized animals. In addition, Fas ligand (FasL), TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) and caspase-8 were upregulated in tolerized rats. Proliferation of total lymphocytes, CD4(+)T cells and CD8(+) T cells (harvested from the popliteal LNs) in response to antigenic stimulation was drastically reduced in the state of tolerance compared with the cells from non-tolerized animals. The level of interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-2 decreased, whereas TGF-beta2 was elevated in the state of tolerance. Furthermore, the number of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) increased in the popliteal LNs of tolerized animals compared with non-tolerized animals. In conclusion, our results suggest that deletion of antigen-specific T cells by apoptosis and active suppression mediated by Tregs has an important role in the induction of antigen specific immune tolerance in animals with an established immune response against MAA.

  14. A murine model of type 2 autoimmune hepatitis: Xenoimmunization with human antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Pascal; Djilali-Saiah, Idriss; Vitozzi, Susana; Alvarez, Fernando

    2004-04-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterized by an immune-mediated injury of the hepatic parenchyma of unknown pathogenesis. Type 2 AIH is identified by the presence of anti-liver-kidney microsomes type 1 (anti-LKM1) and anti-liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1) autoantibodies. The current study shows that a murine model of AIH can be generated by DNA immunization against type 2 AIH self-antigens (P450 2D6 and formiminotransferase-cyclodeaminase). A pCMV plasmid containing the N-terminal region of mouse CTLA-4 and the antigenic region of human CYP2D6 (672-1,377 bp) and human formiminotransferase cyclodeaminase (FTCD; 1,232-1,668 bp) was used for DNA immunization of C57BL/6 female mice. Immunized mice showed elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), with peaks at 4 and 7 months postinjection. Periportal, portal, and intralobular liver inflammatory infiltrates were observed at histology. Mainly CD4+ lymphocytes, but also CD8+ and B lymphocytes, were found in the liver. Cytotoxic-specific T cells were found in both the liver and spleen of these animals. Mice developed anti-LKM1 and anti-LC1 antibodies of immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) subclass, against specific mouse autoantigens. The ALT levels correlated with both the presence of anti-LKM1/anti-LC1 antibodies and the presence of liver necroinflammation. In conclusion, in mice, DNA immunization against human autoantigens breaks tolerance and induces an autoimmune liver disease. Molecular mimicry between foreign and self-antigens explains the liver injury. This model of AIH resembles human type 2 AIH and will be helpful for the study of its pathogenesis.

  15. The benefits of improved national elevation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Gregory I.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how the National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA) has identified substantial benefits that could come about if improved elevation data were publicly available for current and emerging applications and business uses such as renewable energy, precision agriculture, and intelligent vehicle navigation and safety. In order to support these diverse needs, new national elevation data with higher resolution and accuracy are needed. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative was developed to meet the majority of these needs and it is expected that 3DEP will result in new, unimagined information services that would result in job growth and the transformation of the geospatial community. Private-sector data collection companies are continuously evolving sensors and positioning technologies that are needed to collect improved elevation data. An initiative of this scope might also provide an opportunity for companies to improve their capabilities and produce even higher data quality and consistency at a pace that might not have otherwise occurred.

  16. Prostatic specific antigen for prostate cancer detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Nogueira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Prostate-specific antigen (PSA has been used for prostate cancer detection since 1994. PSA testing has revolutionized our ability to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients. In the last two decades, PSA screening has led to a substantial increase in the incidence of prostate cancer (PC. This increased detection caused the incidence of advanced-stage disease to decrease at a dramatic rate, and most newly diagnosed PC today are localized tumors with a high probability of cure. PSA screening is associated with a 75% reduction in the proportion of men who now present with metastatic disease and a 32.5% reduction in the age-adjusted prostate cancer mortality rate through 2003. Although PSA is not a perfect marker, PSA testing has limited specificity for prostate cancer detection, and its appropriate clinical application remains a topic of debate. Due to its widespread use and increased over-detection, the result has been the occurrence of over-treatment of indolent cancers. Accordingly, several variations as regards PSA measurement have emerged as useful adjuncts for prostate cancer screening. These procedures take into consideration additional factors, such as the proportion of different PSA isoforms (free PSA, complexed PSA, pro-PSA and B PSA, the prostate volume (PSA density, and the rate of change in PSA levels over time (PSA velocity or PSA doubling time. The history and evidence underlying each of these parameters are reviewed in the following article.

  17. Prostatic specific antigen for prostate cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lucas; Corradi, Renato; Eastham, James A

    2009-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been used for prostate cancer detection since 1994. PSA testing has revolutionized our ability to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients. In the last two decades, PSA screening has led to a substantial increase in the incidence of prostate cancer (PC). This increased detection caused the incidence of advanced-stage disease to decrease at a dramatic rate, and most newly diagnosed PC today are localized tumors with a high probability of cure. PSA screening is associated with a 75% reduction in the proportion of men who now present with metastatic disease and a 32.5% reduction in the age-adjusted prostate cancer mortality rate through 2003. Although PSA is not a perfect marker, PSA testing has limited specificity for prostate cancer detection, and its appropriate clinical application remains a topic of debate. Due to its widespread use and increased over-detection, the result has been the occurrence of over-treatment of indolent cancers. Accordingly, several variations as regards PSA measurement have emerged as useful adjuncts for prostate cancer screening. These procedures take into consideration additional factors, such as the proportion of different PSA isoforms (free PSA, complexed PSA, pro-PSA and B PSA), the prostate volume (PSA density), and the rate of change in PSA levels over time (PSA velocity or PSA doubling time). The history and evidence underlying each of these parameters are reviewed in the following article.

  18. Use of mammary epithelial antigens as markers in mammary neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceriani, R.L.; Peterson, J.A.; Blank, E.W.

    1979-01-01

    Cell-type specific antigens of the mammary epithelial cells can be used as markers of breast neoplasia. Methods are proposed for the detection of metastatic mammary tissue in vivo by injection of [ 125 I]-labeled antibodies against the mammary epithelial antigens. In addition, the reduced expression of mammary epithelial cell antigens in neoplastic breast cells, quantitated here on a cell per cell basis by flow cytofluorimetry, is a marker of neoplasia and an indication of a deletion accompanying the neoplastic transformation of these cells. (Auth.)

  19. Antigen-induced pleural eosinophilia is suppressed in diabetic rats: role of corticosteroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L Diaz

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have evidenced for the existence of interactive regulatory mechanisms between insulin and steroid hormones in different systems. In this study, we have investigated whether endogenous corticosteroids could be implicated in the hyporeactivity to antigen challenge observed in sensitized diabetic rats. Alloxinated rats showed a long-lasting increase in the blood glucose levels and a reduction in the number of pleural mast cells at 48 and 72 hr, but not at 24 hr after alloxan administration. In parallel, they also showed a significant elevation in the plasma levels of corticosterone together with an increase in the adrenal/body weight ratio. Antigen-evoked eosinophil accumulation appeared significantly reduced in rats pretreated with dexamethasone as well as in those rendered diabetic 72 hr after alloxan. In the same way, naive animals treated with dexamethasone also responded with a significant decrease in the number of pleural mast cells. Interestingly, when sensitized diabetic rats were pretreated with the steroid antagonist RU 38486 a reversion of the reduction in the allergen-induced eosinophil accumulation was noted. We conclude that the down-regulation of the allergic inflammatory response in diabetic rats is close-related to reduction in mast cell numbers and over expression of endogenous corticosteroids.

  20. Spontaneous loss and alteration of antigen receptor expression in mature CD4+ T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyoizumi, Seishi; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Hirai, Yuko; Kusunoki; Yoichiro; Tanabe, Kazumi; Umeki, Shigeko; Nakamura, Nori; Yamakido, Michio; Hamamoto, Kazuko.

    1990-04-01

    The T-cell receptor CD3 (TCR/CD3) complex plays a central role in antigen recognition and activation of mature T cells, and therefore abnormalities in the expression of the complex should induce unresponsiveness of T cells to antigen stimulus. Using flow cytometry, we detected and enumerated variant cells with loss or alteration of surface TCR/CD3 expression among human mature CD4 + T cells. The presence of variant CD4 + T cells was demonstrated by isolating and cloning them from peripheral blood, and their abnormalities can be accounted for by alterations in TCR expression such as defects of protein expression and partial protein deletion. The variant frequency in peripheral blood increased with aging in normal donors and was highly elevated in patients with ataxia telangiectasia, an autosomal recessive inherited disease with defective DNA repair and variable T-cell immunodeficiency. These findings suggest that such alterations in TCR expression are induced by somatic mutagenesis of TCR genes and can be important factors related to age-dependent and genetic disease-associated T-cell dysfunction. (author)

  1. Monoclonal antibody against a serotype antigen of Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) endodontalis and characteristics of the antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanazawa, S; Sagiya, T; Amano, S; Nishikawa, H; Kitano, S

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of three serotypes (O1K1, O1K2, and O1K-) of Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) endodontalis. In the present study, a hybridoma cell line producing monoclonal antibody (BEE11) specific for serotype O1K1 of P. endodontalis was established. The specificity of the antibody was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoslot blot analysis. BEE11 antibody reacted with strains ATCC 35406, HG 400, and HG 421 of the bacterium. However, it did not react with HG 422 or HG 948. Also, the antibody did not react with any of the black-pigmented Bacteroides strains tested. Although the antibody reacted with total cell envelope and capsule materials, it did not do so with lipopolysaccharide. The antibody reacted with antigen material having a molecular mass of 110 kilodaltons (kDa), as judged from fractionation by Superose 12 prep gel chromatography. When the peak fraction from the Superose 12 column was subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot (immunoblot) analysis, the reactivity was detected as a single band at an apparent molecular mass of about 52 kDa. The antigen material purified partially by high-performance liquid chromatography was sensitive to trypsin, V8 protease, and heating to 80 degrees C but not to neuraminidase. Therefore, the present study shows that BEE11 antibody recognizes a serotype antigen of P. endodontalis which may be a dimer consisting of monomers having molecular masses of approximately 52 kDa and sensitivity to proteases and heat. Images PMID:2370106

  2. Radiolabelled parasite antigens as tools for diagnosis and identification of protective antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhouse, R.M.E.; Cabrera, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Radiolabelling specific compartments and molecules of parasites provides a valuable tool for establishing parasite antigen-host response systems with utility and/or importance in protection, diagnosis and pathology. The combined immunological, biochemical and molecular biological expertise currently available forms a sufficient basis for a relatively logical and effective programme directed towards the ultimate eradication of tropical diseases. The organization of carefully selected and clinically well characterized sera and patients, representing the range of commonly occurring parasitic infections, would be of great practical value in the pursuance of this goal. (author)

  3. Antigen specific T-cell responses against tumor antigens are controlled by regulatory T cells in patients with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaschik, Boris; Su, Yun; Huter, Eva; Ge, Yingzi; Hohenfellner, Markus; Beckhove, Philipp

    2012-04-01

    Immunotherapy is a promising approach in an effort to control castration resistant prostate cancer. We characterized tumor antigen reactive T cells in patients with prostate cancer and analyzed the suppression of antitumor responses by regulatory T cells. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 57 patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer, 8 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and 16 healthy donors. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and antigen specific interferon-γ secretion of isolated T cells was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. T cells were functionally characterized and T-cell responses before and after regulatory T-cell depletion were compared. As test tumor antigens, a panel of 11 long synthetic peptides derived from a total of 8 tumor antigens was used, including prostate specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase. In patients with prostate cancer we noted a 74.5% effector T-cell response rate compared with only 25% in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and 31% in healthy donors. In most patients 2 or 3 tumor antigens were recognized. Comparing various disease stages there was a clear increase in the immune response against prostate specific antigens from intermediate to high risk tumors and castration resistant disease. Regulatory T-cell depletion led to a significant boost in effector T-cell responses against prostate specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase. Tumor specific effector T cells were detected in most patients with prostate cancer, especially those with castration resistant prostate cancer. Since effector T-cell responses against prostate specific antigens strongly increased after regulatory T-cell depletion, our results indicate that immunotherapy efficacy could be enhanced by decreasing regulatory T cells. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Antigenic Relationships among Human Pathogenic Orientia tsutsugamushi Isolates from Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. James (Sarah ); Blacksell, S.D. (Stuart D.); Nawtaisong, P. (Pruksa); Tanganuchitcharnchai, A. (Ampai); D.J. Smith (Derek James); Day, N.P.J. (Nicholas P. J.); Paris, D.H. (Daniel H.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractScrub typhus is a common cause of undiagnosed febrile illness in certain tropical regions, but can be easily treated with antibiotics. The causative agent, Orientia tsutsugamushi, is antigenically variable which complicates diagnosis and efforts towards vaccine development.

  5. Goodbye warts, hello vitiligo: Candida antigen-induced depigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Erin N; Burkhart, Craig N; Morrell, Dean S

    2013-01-01

    Depigmentation after the use of topical immune modulators is a rare but reported event. Herein we present what is to our knowledge the first case of vitiligo at a site of Candida antigen injection. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. ABO blood group antigens in oral mucosa. What is new?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    2002-01-01

    which represent secondary gene products. They are synthesized in a stepwise fashion from a precursor by the action of different glycosyltransferases. In non-keratinized oral mucosa, a sequential elongation of the carbohydrates is associated with differentiation of epithelial cells, resulting...... in expression of precursors on basal cells and A/B antigens on spinous cells. Reduction or complete deletion of A/B antigen expression in oral carcinomas has been reported, a phenotypic change that is correlated with invasive and metastatic potential of the tumours and with the mortality rates of the patients....... Disappearance of the antigens is ascribed to the absence of A or B transferase gene expression. Several studies have shown that loss of A and B antigen expression is associated with increased cell motility, invasion in matrigel, and tumourigenecity in syngenic animals. In vivo studies of human oral wound...

  7. Immune activation by casein dietary antigens in bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severance, E.G.; Dupont, D.; Dickerson, F.B.; Stallings, C.R.; Origoni, A.E.; Krivogorsky, B.; Yang, S.; Haasnoot, W.; Yolken, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Inflammation and other immune processes are increasingly linked to psychiatric diseases. Antigenic triggers specific to bipolar disorder are not yet defined. We tested whether antibodies to bovine milk caseins were associated with bipolar disorder, and whether patients recognized

  8. Microradioimmunoassay for antibodies to tumor-associated antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.C.C.; Berczi, I.; Froese, G.; Tsay, H.M.; Sehon, A.H.

    1975-01-01

    A versatile microradioimmunoassay for the detection of antibodies to tumor-associated and other tissue antigens was described. The method involved: the preparation of solid-phase antigen with cultured (already adhered) or noncultured cells (sedimented by centrifugation) fixed to Micro-Test plates with neutral buffered formaldehyde or absolute methanol; the incubation of the antigen with test or control sera; and the incubation of the antigen with radioiodinated antiglobulin antibody. The nonspecific background of radioactivity was reduced to an acceptable level by the fixed cells being precoated in the wells with 0.5 percent bovine serum albumin in phosphate-buffered saline which was also used for the dilution of sera and labeled antiglobulin antibody. Tumor cells in primary cultures gave a high background, as compared to long-term cultures, which was due to the presence of immunoglobulins (most likely tumor-specific antibody). The specific antibody response to a syngeneic mouse tumor was demonstrated by this technique. (auth)

  9. The Antigen Presenting Cells Instruct Plasma Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eXu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The professional antigen presenting cells (APCs, including many subsets of dendritic cells and macrophages, not only mediate prompt but nonspecific response against microbes, but also bridge the antigen-specific adaptive immune response through antigen presentation. In the latter, typically activated B cells acquire cognate signals from T helper cells in the germinal center of lymphoid follicles to differentiate into plasma cells, which generate protective antibodies. Recent advances have revealed that many APC subsets provide not only signal 1 (the antigen, but also signal 2 to directly instruct the differentiation process of plasma cells in a T cell-independent manner. Herein, the different signals provided by these APC subsets to direct B cell proliferation, survival, class switching and terminal differentiation are discussed. We furthermore propose that the next generation of vaccines for boosting antibody response could be designed by targeting APCs.

  10. The antigen presenting cells instruct plasma cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Banchereau, Jacques

    2014-01-06

    The professional antigen presenting cells (APCs), including many subsets of dendritic cells and macrophages, not only mediate prompt but non-specific response against microbes, but also bridge the antigen-specific adaptive immune response through antigen presentation. In the latter, typically activated B cells acquire cognate signals from T helper cells in the germinal center of lymphoid follicles to differentiate into plasma cells (PCs), which generate protective antibodies. Recent advances have revealed that many APC subsets provide not only "signal 1" (the antigen), but also "signal 2" to directly instruct the differentiation process of PCs in a T-cell-independent manner. Herein, the different signals provided by these APC subsets to direct B cell proliferation, survival, class switching, and terminal differentiation are discussed. We furthermore propose that the next generation of vaccines for boosting antibody response could be designed by targeting APCs.

  11. Prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women attending antenatal ... Majigo Mtebe, Nyambura Moremi, Jeremiah Seni, Stephen E. Mshana. Abstract. In developing countries there is no routine screening of hepatitis B virus ...

  12. Vaccination and the TAP-independent antigen processing pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Daniel; Lorente, Elena; Barriga, Alejandro; Johnstone, Carolina; Mir, Carmen

    2013-09-01

    The cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocyte-mediated cellular response is important for the elimination of virus-infected cells and requires the prior recognition of short viral peptide antigens previously translocated to the endoplasmic reticulum by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). However, individuals with nonfunctional TAP complexes or infected cells with TAP molecules blocked by specific viral proteins, such as the cowpoxvirus, a component of the first source of early empirical vaccination against smallpox, are still able to present several HLA class I ligands generated by the TAP-independent antigen processing pathways to specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Currently, bioterrorism and emerging infectious diseases have renewed interest in poxviruses. Recent works that have identified HLA class I ligands and epitopes in virus-infected TAP-deficient cells have implications for the study of both the effectiveness of early empirical vaccination and the analysis of HLA class I antigen processing in TAP-deficient subjects.

  13. Use of Recombinant Antigens for the Diagnosis of Invasive Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laín

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive candidiasis is a frequent and often fatal complication in immunocompromised and critically ill patients. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis remains difficult due to the lack of specific clinical symptoms and a definitive diagnostic method. The detection of antibodies against different Candida antigens may help in the diagnosis. However, the methods traditionally used for the detection of antibodies have been based on crude antigenic fungal extracts, which usually show low-reproducibility and cross-reactivity problems. The development of molecular biology techniques has allowed the production of recombinant antigens which may help to solve these problems. In this review we will discuss the usefulness of recombinant antigens in the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis.

  14. Chitosan-based delivery systems for protein therapeutics and antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amidi, M.; Mastrobattista, E.; Jiskoot, W.; Hennink, W.E.

    Therapeutic peptides/proteins and protein-based antigens are chemically and structurally labile compounds, which are almost exclusively administered by parenteral injections. Recently, non-invasive mucosal routes have attracted interest for administration of these biotherapeutics. Chitosan-based

  15. ST Elevations and Elevated Cardiac Enzymes Not Always a STEMI: Two Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Fernández, Juan; Deliz-Guzmán, Claudia; Andino-Colón, César; Claudio-Hernández, Héctor; Lugo-Amador, Nannette

    2016-01-01

    Chest pain is a common complaint in the emergency department (ED). Besides a careful history and physical exam; electrocardiogram, laboratory tests and imaging studies are widely available diagnostic tests that are used for patient assessment. When ST elevation and elevated cardiac enzymes are present the most likely diagnosis are ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or myocarditis. In this case report we present two low risk patients for major adverse cardiac event with ST elevation and elevated cardiac enzymes and how a careful risk assessment and detailed electrocardiogram evaluation could help differentiating between these two diagnoses.

  16. HSP: bystander antigen in atopic diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost A Aalberse

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years insight in the complex interactions between innate and adaptive immunity in the regulation of an inflammatory response has increased enormously. This has revived the interest in stress proteins; proteins that are expressed during cell stress. As these proteins can attract and trigger an immunological response they can act as important mediators in this interaction. In this respect, of special interest are proteins that may act as modulators of both innate and adaptive immunity. Heat shock proteins (HSPs are stress proteins that have these, and more, characteristics. More than two decades of studies on HSPs has revealed that they are part of intrinsic, natural mechanisms that steer inflammation. This has provoked comprehensive explorations of the role of HSPs in various human inflammatory diseases.Most studies have focused on classical autoimmune diseases. This has led to the development of clinical studies with HSPs that have shown promise in Phase II/III clinical trials. Remarkably, only very little is yet known of the role of HSPs in atopic diseases. In allergic disease a number of studies have investigated the possibility that allergen-specific regulatory T cell (Treg function is defective in individuals with allergic diseases. This raises the question whether methods can be identified to improve the Treg repertoire. Studies from other inflammatory diseases have suggested HSPs may have such a beneficial effect on the T cell repertoire. Based on the immune mechanisms of atopic diseases, in this review we will argue that, as in other human inflammatory conditions, understanding immunity to HSPs is likely also relevant for atopic diseases. Specifically, we will discuss why certain HSPs such as HSP60 connect the immune response to environmental antigens with regulation of the inflammatory response.Thus they provide a molecular link that may eventually even help to better understand the immune pathological basis of the hygiene

  17. Cloning and Expressing Recombinant Protective Antigen Domains of B. anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    future predictive modeling toolkits. 1 1. Introduction The use of Bacillus anthracis as a bio - weapon in the United States in 2001 affirmed the need...for improved sensing and detection of biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Protective Antigen (PA) protein of Bacillus anthracis is the...Cloning and Expressing Recombinant Protective Antigen Domains of B. anthracis by Deborah A. Sarkes, Joshua M. Kogot, Irene Val-Addo

  18. Production of Antigens and Antibodies for Diagnosis of Arbovirus Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-20

    for Germiston, Qalyub, Sicilian, vesicular stomatitis Indiana, and Ganjam viruses. The antigens were inactivated with beta-propiolactone. Rabbits were...vesicular stomatitis Indiana, and Ganjam viruses. The antigens were inactivated with beta-propiolactone. Rabbits were immunized successfully intravenously...370 sm4 6 229 Sicilian Sabin sm37,Vero2 1 23 VS-Indiana Ind. Lab sm7 1 45 Ganjam IG 619 sm5 1 67 Additionally, 22 viruses were passaged in baby mice

  19. [Synthesis of protective antigens during submerged cultivation of Vibrio cholerae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, V A; Syrova, N A; Gromova, O V; Tershkina, N E; Devdariani, Z L; Dzhaparidze, M N; Meleshchenko, M V; Dobrova, G V; Beliakova, N I; Ermakov, N M; Eliseev, Iu Iu

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of dot immunoanalysis for evaluating the dynamics of the synthesis of O-antigen, cholera toxin, neuraminidase, adhesin CFA1 in the process of the reactor cultivation of V. cholerae used for the production of oral chemical cholera vaccine is shown. The established regularities of the synthesis of the protective antigens of V. cholerae in the process of scaled-up cultivation are discussed.

  20. Prevalence of Weak D Antigen In Western Indian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvi Sadaria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discovery of Rh antigens in 1939 by Landsteiner and Weiner was the revolutionary stage in blood banking. Of these antigens, D, which decides Rh positivity or negativity, is the most antigenic. A problem is encountered when an individual has a weakened expression of D (Du, i.e., fewer numbers of D antigens on red cell membrane. Aims and Objectives: To know the prevalence of weak D in Indian population because incidence varies in different population. To determine the risk of alloimmunization among Rh D negative patients who receives the blood of weak D positive donors. Material and Methods: Rh grouping of 38,962 donors who came to The Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion of Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad from 1st January 2013 to 30th September 2014 was done using the DIAGAST (Automated Grouping. The samples that tested negative for D antigen were further analysed for weak D (Du by indirect antiglobulin test using blend of Ig G and Ig M Anti D. This was done using Column agglutination method in ID card (gel card. Results: The total number of donors studied was 38,962. Out of these 3360(8.6% were tested Rh D negative. All Rh D negative donors were tested for weak D (Du. 22 (0.056% of total donors and 0.65% of Rh negative donors turned out to be weak D (Du positive. Conclusion: The prevalence of weak D (Du in Western Indian population is 0.056 %, So the risk of alloimmunization in our setting due to weak D (Du antigen is marginal. But, testing of weak D antigen is necessary in blood bank because weak D antigen is immunogenic and can produce alloimmunization if transfused to Rh D negative subjects.