WorldWideScience

Sample records for electronics recycling reuse

  1. Reduce, reuse and recycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Afrika, M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the internationally accepted waste management hierarchy (Sakai et al, 1996) into South African policy has changed the focus from “end of pipe” waste management towards waste minimisation (reuse, recycling and cleaner production...

  2. Reuse, Reduce, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Georgia

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of recycling paper in law libraries is also applicable to other types of libraries. Results of surveys of law libraries that investigated recycling practices in 1987 and again in 1990 are reported, and suggestions for reducing the amount of paper used and reusing as much as possible are offered. (LRW)

  3. Electronic waste recovery in Finland: Consumers' perceptions towards recycling and re-use of mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylä-Mella, Jenni; Keiski, Riitta L; Pongrácz, Eva

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines consumers' awareness and perceptions towards mobile phone recycling and re-use. The results are based on a survey conducted in the city of Oulu, Finland, and analysed in the theoretical framework based on the theories of planned behaviour (TPB) and value-belief-norm (VBN). The findings indicate that consumers' awareness of the importance and existence of waste recovery system is high; however, awareness has not translated to recycling behaviour. The survey reveals that 55% of respondents have two or more unused mobile phones at homes. The more phones stored at homes, the more often reasons 'I don't know where to return' and/or 'have not got to do it yet' were mentioned. This indicates that proximity and the convenience of current waste management system are inadequate in promoting the return of small waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). To facilitate re-use, and the highest level of recovery, consumers will need to be committed to return end-of-use electronics to WEEE collection centres without delays. Further, the supply and demand of refurbished mobile phones do not meet at this moment in Finland due to consumer's storing habits versus expectations of recent features under guarantee and unrealistic low prizes. The study also points out that, in order to change current storing habits of consumers, there is an explicit need for more information and awareness on mobile phone collection in Finland, especially on regarding retailers' take-back. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. P3 DESIGN OF A NATIONAL ELECTRONICS PRODUCT REUSE AND RECYCLING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Material and resource conservation are critical to sustainability; and, the ability to efficiently and effectively recover old products for reuse and recycle is an essential element in these conservation efforts. In California alone, it has been estimated that 10,000 computers a...

  5. The Three Rs: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Activities, 1991

    1991-01-01

    A student hand-out for a recycling unit defines the terms reduce, recycle, and reuse as they relate to solid waste management. Presents the characteristics of recyclable items such as yard wastes, metals, glass, and paper. Lists organizations through which more information about recycling can be obtained. (MCO)

  6. Summary Report about the Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Electronics Reuse and Recycling Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    On September 23 and 24, 2014, EPA hosted a forum to “harness the collective power of the electronics community and identify shared priorities that will advance domestic end-of-life electronics management.

  7. Factors Influencing Consumers’ Intention to Return the End of Life Electronic Products through Reverse Supply Chain Management for Reuse, Repair and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyar Kianpour

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Resource depletion, population growth and environmental problems force companies to collect their end of life (EOL products for reuse, recycle and refurbishment through reverse supply chain management (RSCM. Success in collecting the EOL products through RSCM depends on the customers’ participation intention. The objectives of this study are: (1 To examine the important factors influencing customers’ attitude to participate in RSCM; (2 To examine the important factors influencing customers’ subjective norm to participate in RSCM; (3 To examine the main factors influencing customers’ perceived behavioral control to participate in RSCM; (4 To examine the influence of attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control on customers’ participation intention in RSCM. The Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour (DTPB has been chosen as the underpinning theory for this research. The research conducted employed the quantitative approach. Non-probability (convenience sampling method was used to determine the sample and data was collected using questionnaires. Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM technique was employed. A total of 800 questionnaires were distributed among customers of electronic products in Malaysia. Finally, the questionnaire was distributed among the customers in electronic retailer companies based on convenience sampling method. The empirical results confirm that consumers perception about the risk associated with EOL electronic products, consumers’ ecological knowledge and relative advantages associated with reuse, repair and recycling can influence the attitude of consumers to return the EOL products for reuse, repair and recycling to producer.

  8. Radiological control criteria for materials considered for recycle and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Wallo, A. III.

    1995-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting technical analyses to support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, Air, Water, and Radiation Division (DOE/EH-232) in developing radiological control criteria for recycling or reuse of metals or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The criteria, framed as acceptable concentrations for release of materials for recycling or reuse, are risk-based and were developed through analysis of generic radiation exposure scenarios and pathways. The analysis includes evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and non-health-related impacts of residual radioactivity on electronics and film. The analysis considers 42 key radionuclides that DOE operations are known to generate and that may be contained in recycled or reused metals or equipment. The preliminary results are compared with similar results reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency, by radionuclide grouping. (author)

  9. Radiological control criteria for materials considered for recycle and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Wallo, A. III

    1994-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting technical analyses to support the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, Air, Water, and Radiation Division (DOE/EH-232) in developing radiological control criteria for recycling or reuse of metals or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The criteria, framed as acceptable concentrations for release of materials for recycling or reuse, are risk-based and were developed through analysis of generic radiation exposure scenarios and pathways. The analysis includes evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and non-health-related impacts of residual radioactivity on electronics and film. The analysis considers 42 key radionuclides that DOE operations are known to generate and that may be contained in recycled or reused metals or equipment. Preliminary results are compared with similar results reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency, by radionuclide grouping

  10. Recycling and reuse of wastewater from uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lechang; Gao Jie; Zhang Xueli; Wei Guangzhi; Zhang Guopu

    2010-01-01

    Uranium mining/milling process, and the sources, recycling/reuse approach and treatment methods of process wastewater are introduced. The wastewater sources of uranium mining and milling include effluent, raffinate, tailings water, mine discharge, resin form converted solution, and precipitation mother liquor. Wastewater can be recycled/reused for leachant, eluent, stripping solution,washing solution and tailings slurry. (authors)

  11. Reusing and recycling in Saskatchewan: Environmental benefits of reusing and recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    After an introduction explaining the environmental benefits of reusing and recycling, as well as providing suggestions on minimizing waste and conserving energy, a directory of recyclers and handlers of various kinds of waste in Saskatchewan is presented. Names, addresses/telephone numbers, and types of materials accepted are given for recyclers of animal products, clothing or textiles, glass, compostable materials, industrial hardware, metals, office products, paper, plastic, and tires. Collection depots in the SARCAN recycling program for beverage containers are listed, giving town name, address, hours of operation, and telephone number. Receivers of waste dangerous goods are listed under the categories of ozone-depleting substances, waste batteries, solvents, lubricating oils and oil filters, paint, flammable liquids, antifreeze, drycleaning waste, and miscellaneous.

  12. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...

  13. Water conservation, recycling, and reuse: US northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, E.

    1984-10-01

    This paper focuses upon present and future possibilities for water conservation, recycling, and reuse in New England and Middle Atlantic states. Telephone interviews and questionnaires sent to trade associations, public utility commissions, federal, state and other agencies were used to supplement information gathered in the literature. Water intake and consumptive demands in 1980 were calculated for industrial, electric utility, agricultural, and residential sectors. Corresponding information for the year 2000 were estimated using data from utilities, public utility commissions, and the US Bureau of Economic Affairs. Water supplies were estimated using the concept of safe yield. Assuming reductions in water use by industries, agriculture and by private residences in the year 2000, it was found that many users, particularly the electric utility sector, would still experience serious water supply shortfalls in several industrialized states. 20 references, 14 tables.

  14. Recycling, reducing and reusing: A theoretical framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubursi, A.A.; Butterfield, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Macroeconomic models are generally based on a particular national income accounting framework. The current approach treats waste and pollution generation in such a way that any increase in these activities increases directly the gross domestic product of the economy. A reformulation is suggested for the accounting framework so as to treat waste management and pollution abatement as services to business whose costs should be charged against business revenue. Even such costs to households may be considered as costs to output. In this way such expenses appear as a cost to society and not as a final output. A new theoretical framework is developed to correspond to the reformulated accounting principle that allows clear identification of recycling activity and waste management. The rectangular input-output framework is particularly suited for this treatment as it allows different industries to produce the same output and identifies different commodities as inputs in the production of the same output. With the new framework, it is possible to examine the socioeconomic consequences of increased use and production of recyclables. Equally important is the ability to assess the relative efficiency of alternative policies to reuse or reduce the use of products and resources through price incentives and full cost charges. 2 tabs

  15. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  16. Recycle Alaska: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. Activities Handbook, Teacher's Guide, and Student Worksheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Recycling is a very important aspect of conserving the environment for future generations. This guide addresses the topic of litter prevention for the Alaskan environment and contains 42 activities. Activity topics covered include Natural Cycles, Human Interruption of Natural Cycles, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Recycled Classroom. Grade level,…

  17. Reusing recycled aggregates in structural concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Shicong

    The utilization of recycled aggregates in concrete can minimize environmental impact and reduce the consumption of natural resources in concrete applications. The aim of this thesis is to provide a scientific basis for the possible use of recycled aggregates in structure concrete by conducting a comprehensive programme of laboratory study to gain a better understanding of the mechanical, microstructure and durability properties of concrete produced with recycled aggregates. The study also explored possible techniques to of improve the properties of recycled aggregate concrete that is produced with high percentages (≧ 50%) of recycled aggregates. These techniques included: (a) using lower water-to-cement ratios in the concrete mix design; (b) using fly ash as a cement replacement or as an additional mineral admixture in the concrete mixes, and (c) precasting recycled aggregate concrete with steam curing regimes. The characteristics of the recycled aggregates produced both from laboratory and a commercially operated pilot construction and demolition (C&D) waste recycling plant were first studied. A mix proportioning procedure was then established to produce six series of concrete mixtures using different percentages of recycled coarse aggregates with and without the use of fly ash. The water-to-cement (binder) ratios of 0.55, 0.50, 0.45 and 0.40 were used. The fresh properties (including slump and bleeding) of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) were then quantified. The effects of fly ash on the fresh and hardened properties of RAC were then studied and compared with those RAC prepared with no fly ash addition. Furthermore, the effects of steam curing on the hardened properties of RAC were investigated. For micro-structural properties, the interfacial transition zones of the aggregates and the mortar/cement paste were analyzed by SEM and EDX-mapping. Moreover, a detailed set of results on the fracture properties for RAC were obtained. Based on the experimental

  18. Constructed Wetlands for Greywater Recycle and Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concern over dwindling water supplies for urban areas as well as environmental degradation from existing urban water systems has motivated research into more resilient and sustainable water supply strategies. Greywater reuse has been suggested as a way to diversify local water su...

  19. Control criteria for residual contamination in materials considered for recycle and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is collecting data and conducting technical analyses to support the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, Air, Water, and Radiation Division (DOE/EH-232) in determining the feasibility of developing radiological control criteria for recycling or reuse of metals or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The criteria, framed as acceptable concentrations for release of materials for recycling or reuse, will be risk-based and will be developed through analysis of radiation exposure scenarios and pathways. The analysis will include evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and non-health-related impacts of residual radioactivity on electronics and film. The analyses will consider 42 key radionuclides that are generated during DOE operations and may be contained in recycled or reused metals or equipment

  20. The Recycler Electron Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Prost, L. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-03-19

    The Recycler Electron cooler was the first (and so far, the only) cooler working at a relativistic energy (γ = 9.5). It was successfully developed in 1995-2004 and was in operation at Fermilab in 2005-2011, providing cooling of antiprotons in the Recycler ring. This paper describes the cooler, difficulties in achieving the required electron beam parameters and the ways to overcome them, cooling measurements, and details of operation.

  1. Reuse and recycling of radioactive material packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerulis, Eduardo; Zapparoli, Carlos Leonel; Barboza, Marycel Figols de

    2009-01-01

    Human development is directly linked to energy consumption. The political decisions (to this human development) result in economic, social and environmental aspects, whose magnitude should maintain the sustainability of every aspect for not to collapsing. The environmental aspect has been a target of research because of the excessive emission of gases which contributes to the greenhouse effect. The production processes emit gases due to the consumption of energy to get it, but it is necessary to maintain the environmental sustainability in order to minimize the contribution to the emission of greenhouse gases. The population control and the energetic efficiency are factors that contribute to the environmental sustainability. Besides them, the culture of consumption is another factor that, when applied to the reduction of emissions, also contributes to the sustainability of the environment. The reuse of materials is one of the sub-factors which contribute to the reduction of emissions. The Radiopharmacy Directory (DIRF) at IPEN-CNEN/SP, produces radiopharmaceuticals that are necessary to improve the Brazilian population's life quality. The radiopharmaceuticals are transported in packaging to the transport of radioactive material. These packages are considered non-biodegradable, because some metals, which make up these packages, pollute the environment. These packages have increased costs, in addition, because it must be approved in tests of integrity. The reuse of packaging in favorable situations to the same purpose is a way to help the environment degradation and costs reduction. The packaging reuse in unfavorable situations disobey rules or return logistics that become effective the transport back, but the consumption culture strengthening can change this situation. This paper describes IPEN's packaging, form and quantities distribution, and the packaging that comes back to be reused. (author)

  2. Fernald scrap metal recycling and beneficial reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motl, G.P.; Burns, D.D.

    1993-10-01

    The Fernald site, formerly the Feed Materials Production Facility, produced uranium metal products to meet defense production requirements for the Department of Energy from 1953 to 1989. In this report is is described how the Fernald scrap metal project has demonstrated that contractor capabilities can be used successfully to recycle large quantities of Department of Energy scrap metal. The project has proven that the open-quotes beneficial reuseclose quotes concept makes excellent economic sense when a market for recycled products can be identified. Topics covered in this report include the scrap metal pile history, the procurement strategy, scrap metal processing, and a discussion of lessons learned

  3. Developing improved opportunities for the recycling and reuse of materials in road, bridge, and construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The use of recycled and reused materials in transportation construction reduces consumption of non-renewable : resources. The objective of this research was to develop opportunities for improving the recycling and reuse of : materials in road and bri...

  4. Reduce--recycle--reuse: guidelines for promoting perioperative waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laustsen, Gary

    2007-04-01

    The perioperative environment generates large amounts of waste, which negatively affects local and global ecosystems. To manage this waste health care facility leaders must focus on identifying correctable issues, work with relevant stakeholders to promote solutions, and adopt systematic procedural changes. Nurses and managers can moderate negative environmental effects by promoting reduction, recycling, and reuse of materials in the perioperative setting.

  5. Beneficial reuse `96: The fourth annual conference on the recycle and reuse of radioactive scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    From October 22-24, 1996 the University of Tennessee`s Energy, Environment and Resources Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Center for Risk Management cosponsored Beneficial Reuse `96: The Fourth Annual Conference on the Recycle and Reuse of Radioactive Materials. Along with the traditional focus on radioactive scrap metals, this year`s conference included a wide range of topics pertaining to naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), and contaminated concrete reuse applications. As with previous Beneficial Reuse conferences, the primary goal of this year`s conference was to bring together stakeholder representatives for presentations, panel sessions and workshops on significant waste minimization issues surrounding the recycle and reuse of contaminated metals and other materials. A wide range of industry, government and public stakeholder groups participated in this year`s conference. An international presence from Canada, Germany and Korea helped to make Beneficial Reuse `96 a well-rounded affair. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. Treatment of water closet flush water for recycle and reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Results from the operation of a 37.8 m/sup 3//d extended aeration and sand filtration system in the closed-loop treatment of water closet flush water are presented. The system has operated for four and one-half years at 95 percent recycle. During this period over 30,000 m/sup 3/ of flush water was treated and reused. Water inputs into the recycle system resulted from liquid human wastes plus wastage form potable water uses. Wasted potable water inputs were from wash basins, water fountains and custodial services. Operation of both the biological treatment unit and the pressure sand filter followed acceptable conventional practice. Variations in nitrogen (ammonia, nitrite and nitrate), pH and alkalinity that were observed could be accounted for through fundamental biological, chemical and physical relationships. The pH throughout the entire recycle system varied between 5.5 and 8.4. Recycled water pH rose from a preflush pH of approximately 7.0 to a pH of 8.4 immediately after flushing. The biological unit lowered the pH and functioned between pH values of 5.5 and 7.0. A slight rise in pH between the biological unit (through storage and filtration) and water closets was observed. The predominate biomass in the biological unit was fungi. Biological solids were threadlike; however, they readily separated by gravity settling. Wastage of biological solids from the biological unit in the recycle-reuse system was the same experienced for a comparable biological unit used to treat water closet wastewater that was not recycled. Results from this study have conclusively demonstrated on a full-scale basis the acceptability of using biological oxidation and sand filtration as a treatment train in the reuse of water closet wastewater with a recycle ratio of 20.

  7. Mobile phone collection, reuse and recycling in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongondo, F.O.; Williams, I.D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We characterized the key features of the voluntary UK mobile phone takeback network via a survey. → We identified 3 flows: information; product (handsets and accessories); and incentives. → There has been a significant rise in the number of UK takeback schemes since 1997. → Most returned handsets are low quality; little data exists on quantities of mobile phones collected. → Takeback schemes increasingly divert EoL mobile phones from landfill and enable reuse/recycling. - Abstract: Mobile phones are the most ubiquitous electronic product on the globe. They have relatively short lifecycles and because of their (perceived) in-built obsolescence, discarded mobile phones represent a significant and growing problem with respect to waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). An emerging and increasingly important issue for industry is the shortage of key metals, especially the types of metals found in mobile phones, and hence the primary aim of this timely study was to assess and evaluate the voluntary mobile phone takeback network in the UK. The study has characterised the information, product and incentives flows in the voluntary UK mobile phone takeback network and reviewed the merits and demerits of the incentives offered. A survey of the activities of the voluntary mobile phone takeback schemes was undertaken in 2008 to: identify and evaluate the takeback schemes operating in the UK; determine the target groups from whom handsets are collected; and assess the collection, promotion and advertising methods used by the schemes. In addition, the survey sought to identify and critically evaluate the incentives offered by the takeback schemes, evaluate their ease and convenience of use; and determine the types, qualities and quantities of mobile phones they collect. The study has established that the UK voluntary mobile phone takeback network can be characterised as three distinctive flows: information flow; product flow (handsets and related

  8. Control levels for residual contamination in materials considered for recycle and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1993-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is collecting data and conducting technical analyses to support joint efforts by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, Air, Water and Radiation Division (DOE/EH-232); by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); and by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop radiological control criteria for the recycle and reuse of scrap materials and equipment that contain residual radioactive contamination. The initial radiological control levels are the concentrations in or on materials considered for recycle or reuse that meet the individual (human) or industrial (electronics/film) dose criteria. The analysis identifies relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and methods to determine possible non-health-related impacts from residual radioactive contamination in materials considered for recycle or reuse. The generic methodology and scenarios described here provide a basic framework for numerically deriving radiological control criteria for recycle or reuse. These will be adequately conservative for most situations

  9. Management and recycling of electronic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanskanen, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the largest growing waste streams globally. Hence, for a sustainable environment and the economic recovery of valuable material for reuse, the efficient recycling of electronic scrap has been rendered indispensable, and must still be regarded as a major challenge for today’s society. In contrast to the well-established recycling of metallic scrap, it is much more complicated to recycle electronics products which have reached the end of their life as they contain many different types of material types integrated into each other. As illustrated primarily for the recycling of mobile phones, the efficient recycling of WEEE is not only a challenge for the recycling industry; it is also often a question of as-yet insufficient collection infrastructures and poor collection efficiencies, and a considerable lack of the consumer’s awareness for the potential of recycling electronics for the benefit of the environment, as well as for savings in energy and raw materials

  10. Reusing Recycling Material as Teaching Strategy to Strengthen Environmental Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudit Zaida del Carmen Alarcón de Palma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was centered interest implement recycling reuse the material as a teaching strategy to strengthen environmental students “Adolfo Moreno” National Basic School Barinitas parish, municipality Bolivar, Barinas state values. School Year 2014 - 2015. The study was based on the paradigm of qualitative research and research in action type. From this point of view, the study focuses on participatory action this mode, it is limited in so-called field layouts. The study its characteristics was fulfilled in the following phases: diagnosis, planning, implementation, evaluation and systematization. Finally, it can be noted that the implementation of teaching strategies reuse recycle material for strengthening environmental students "Adolfo Moreno" National Basic School values; They will be incorporating parents and guardians as well as various educational actors to implement the activities involved in the proposal which seeks to change attitudes to improve through practical actions management standards and conservation practices to achieve an environmental change in institution through technical, theoretical and practical knowledge to strengthen the benefit of recyclables properly handle procedures.

  11. Review of produced water recycle and beneficial reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hum, F.; Tsang, P. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Tomographic Imaging and Porous Media Laboratory; Harding, T. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering; Kantzas, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Tomographic Imaging and Porous Media Laboratory]|[Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

    2006-11-15

    Fresh water scarcity and increasing water demands are concerns facing jurisdictions around the world. A number of water management initiatives involving produced water recycling and reuse in Alberta and Canada will have a significant impact on sustainable development in Alberta. Produced water must first be treated to meet water quality requirements and regulatory guidelines for specific applications. This paper presented a comprehensive technical and economic review of commercially available water treatment technologies and discussed technical challenges in recycling produced water for steam generation and for commercial use. It provided an introduction to fresh water allocations and oil, gas and water production volumes in Alberta. In addition to research and development activities, the paper identified guidelines from Alberta Environment and the Energy and Utilities Board. Benefits of treated produced water were discussed. Desalination technologies include both distillation processes and membrane processes. The paper provided cost estimates based on a literature view and discussed the potential water treatment for south-east Alberta. The paper also offered a number of recommendations for further research. It was concluded that treating and recycling produced water for agriculture, irrigation, commercial and domestic uses are at early stages of research and development and that regulatory guidelines on water quality, health and safety for specific industries, ownership and transfer of produced water need to be developed in order to facilitate beneficial reuse of produced water. 57 refs., 7 tabs., 14 figs.

  12. Mobile phone collection, reuse and recycling in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D

    2011-06-01

    Mobile phones are the most ubiquitous electronic product on the globe. They have relatively short lifecycles and because of their (perceived) in-built obsolescence, discarded mobile phones represent a significant and growing problem with respect to waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). An emerging and increasingly important issue for industry is the shortage of key metals, especially the types of metals found in mobile phones, and hence the primary aim of this timely study was to assess and evaluate the voluntary mobile phone takeback network in the UK. The study has characterised the information, product and incentives flows in the voluntary UK mobile phone takeback network and reviewed the merits and demerits of the incentives offered. A survey of the activities of the voluntary mobile phone takeback schemes was undertaken in 2008 to: identify and evaluate the takeback schemes operating in the UK; determine the target groups from whom handsets are collected; and assess the collection, promotion and advertising methods used by the schemes. In addition, the survey sought to identify and critically evaluate the incentives offered by the takeback schemes, evaluate their ease and convenience of use; and determine the types, qualities and quantities of mobile phones they collect. The study has established that the UK voluntary mobile phone takeback network can be characterised as three distinctive flows: information flow; product flow (handsets and related accessories); and incentives flow. Over 100 voluntary schemes offering online takeback of mobile phone handsets were identified. The schemes are operated by manufacturers, retailers, mobile phone network service operators, charities and by mobile phone reuse, recycling and refurbishing companies. The latter two scheme categories offer the highest level of convenience and ease of use to their customers. Approximately 83% of the schemes are either for-profit/commercial-oriented and/or operate to raise funds

  13. Brownfields Recover Your Resources - Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle Construction and Demolition Materials at Land Revitalization Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides background information on how the sustainable reuse of brownfield properties includes efforts to reduce the environmental impact by reusing and recycling materials generated during building construction, demolition, or renovation.

  14. Resource Recovery. Redefining the 3 Rs. Reduce...Reuse...Recycle. Resources in Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the problems of waste disposal, recycling, and resource recovery. Includes information on the social and cultural impact, the three classes of resource recovery (reuse, direct recycling, and indirect recycling), and specific products (paper, glass, plastics, metals, and so on). Includes a student quiz and possible outcomes. (JOW)

  15. Strengthening Culture of Recycling and Reusing from Environmental Axiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Del Valle Nadales Díaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to strengthen the culture of recycling and reuse from the environmental axiology in the students and teachers of the José Francisco Jiménez School, in the parish of Bolivia City of Pedraza state Barinas, under the action research method competitor. Consequently, it was developed in five phases described as: diagnosis, planning, execution, evaluation and systematization. The informants were two (2 classroom teachers, one (1 parents and representatives and two (02 students, belonging to the 6th grade of the aforementioned institution. The technique used for the collection of information was observation and interview, the instrument will be the observation guide for students and an interview guide for parents, representatives and teachers, the validity and reliability of the same was determined through of triangulation. Subsequently, the obtained results allowed to know the weaknesses in relation to the current situation of the garbage in the institution and the community in general. Based on the derivations that were generated, a set of actions aimed at students was developed in order to strengthen the entire content of environmental care in accordance with the new educational policies. In developing and evaluating the study, it was concluded that the actions carried out will be an alternative for students to process information related to the interactions of environmental systems, taking individual and collective actions in the protection and defense of the environment for sustainable development.

  16. Radiation dose assessments to support evaluations of radiological control levels for recycling or reuse of materials and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1995-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is providing Environmental Protection Support and Assistance to the USDOE, Office of Environmental Guidance. Air, Water, and Radiation Division. As part of this effort, PNL is collecting data and conducting technical evaluations to support DOE analyses of the feasibility of developing radiological control levels for recycling or reuse of metals, concrete, or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The radiological control levels will be risk-based, as developed through a radiation exposure scenario and pathway analysis. The analysis will include evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and both health and non-health-related impacts. The main objective of this report is to develop a methodology for establishing radiological control levels for recycle or reuse. This report provides the results of the radiation exposure scenario and pathway analyses for 42 key radionuclides generated during DOE operations that may be contained in metals or equipment considered for either recycling or reuse. The scenarios and information developed by the IAEA. Application of Exemption Principles to the Recycle and Reuse of Materials from Nuclear Facilities, are used as the initial basis for this study. The analyses were performed for both selected worker populations at metal smelters and for the public downwind of a smelter facility. Doses to the public downwind were estimated using the US (EPA) CAP88-PC computer code with generic data on atmospheric dispersion and population density. Potential non-health-related effects of residual activity on electronics and on film were also analyzed

  17. Radiation dose assessments to support evaluations of radiological control levels for recycling or reuse of materials and equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1995-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is providing Environmental Protection Support and Assistance to the USDOE, Office of Environmental Guidance. Air, Water, and Radiation Division. As part of this effort, PNL is collecting data and conducting technical evaluations to support DOE analyses of the feasibility of developing radiological control levels for recycling or reuse of metals, concrete, or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The radiological control levels will be risk-based, as developed through a radiation exposure scenario and pathway analysis. The analysis will include evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and both health and non-health-related impacts. The main objective of this report is to develop a methodology for establishing radiological control levels for recycle or reuse. This report provides the results of the radiation exposure scenario and pathway analyses for 42 key radionuclides generated during DOE operations that may be contained in metals or equipment considered for either recycling or reuse. The scenarios and information developed by the IAEA. Application of Exemption Principles to the Recycle and Reuse of Materials from Nuclear Facilities, are used as the initial basis for this study. The analyses were performed for both selected worker populations at metal smelters and for the public downwind of a smelter facility. Doses to the public downwind were estimated using the US (EPA) CAP88-PC computer code with generic data on atmospheric dispersion and population density. Potential non-health-related effects of residual activity on electronics and on film were also analyzed.

  18. Recycle and reuse of materials and components from waste streams of nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    All nuclear fuel cycle processes utilize a wide range of equipment and materials to produce the final products they are designed for. However, as at any other industrial facility, during operation of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, apart from the main products some byproducts, spent materials and waste are generated. A lot of these materials, byproducts or some components of waste have a potential value and may be recycled within the original process or reused outside either directly or after appropriate treatment. The issue of recycle and reuse of valuable material is important for all industries including the nuclear fuel cycle. The level of different materials involvement and opportunities for their recycle and reuse in nuclear industry are different at different stages of nuclear fuel cycle activity, generally increasing from the front end to the back end processes and decommissioning. Minimization of waste arisings and the practice of recycle and reuse can improve process economics and can minimize the potential environmental impact. Recognizing the importance of this subject, the International Atomic Energy Agency initiated the preparation of this report aiming to review and summarize the information on the existing recycling and reuse practice for both radioactive and non-radioactive components of waste streams at nuclear fuel cycle facilities. This report analyses the existing options, approaches and developments in recycle and reuse in nuclear industry

  19. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: electronics recycling industry communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Julia R; Boehm, Michael W; Drummond, Charles

    2012-08-01

    Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Solid Waste Educational Resources and Activities: Let's Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    This contains games, activities, publications, and resources for students and teachers on how to reduce, reuse, recycle, and properly manage waste. It also contains a screen saver featuring runners-up from the Earth Day 2000 art contest. Activities and games include titles such as "Planet Protectors,""Recycle City,""Trash…

  1. Innovative technologies for recycling and reusing radioactively contaminated materials from DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, S.J.; Hyde, J.

    1993-01-01

    Through award of ten contracts under the solicitation, DOE is continuing efforts to develop innovative technologies for decontamination and recycling or reusing of process equipment, scrap metal, and concrete. These ten technologies are describe briefly in this report. There is great economic incentive for recycling or reusing materials generated during D ampersand D of DOE's facilities. If successfully developed, these superior technologies will enable DOE to clean its facilities by 2019. These technologies will also generate a reusable or recyclable product, while achieving D ampersand D in less time at lower cost with reduced health and safety risks to the workers, the public and the environment

  2. Recycle and reuse of radioactive scrap metals within the department of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, V.; Murphie, W.; Gresalfi, M.

    2000-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle (NMR) is pursuing recycle and reuse alternatives to burial of radioactive scrap metal. This approach is being implemented in a safe and environmentally sound manner, while significantly lowering dis-positioning cost and accelerating cleanup activities. This paper will define the NMR's success to date in promoting safe and cost effective recycle and reuse strategies for DOE's excess metals, through the use of case studies. The paper will also present actual volumes of metal moved by DOE into restricted and unrestricted uses since 1997. In addition, this paper will discuss the principle underlying the Three Building Decommissioning and Decontamination (D and D) Project in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In January 2000, the Secretary of Energy placed a moratorium on the unrestricted release of volumetrically contaminated metals from the DOE sites. Pursuant to that moratorium, the Secretary also established a ''Re-Use and Recycling Task Force'' to conduct a review of DOE policies regarding the management and release of all materials for recycle and reuse from DOE facilities. This task force was charged to develop a set of recommendations to ensure the protection of public health and the environment, openness and public trust, and fiscal responsibility. This paper will present an overview of the DOE's present range of recycle and reuse alternatives to disposal, as practiced by the NMR, and discuss the policy and issues associated with the task force mission. (authors)

  3. Development of decommissioning recycle simulator for the rational reuse of dismantled wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Eichi; Ozaki, Sachio; Hironaga, Michihiko; Nishiuchi, Tatsuo

    2002-01-01

    An expert system having a faculty of furnishing motivations for decommissioning planners to establish a rational recycle scenario has been developed and named 'recycle simulator'. This paper presents both a summarized configuration and an algorithm of the proposed system and indicates content of required data-bases and their mutual relations. Finally an instance applying the 'recycle simulator' pointed out some important factors in the reuse of demolished concrete. (author)

  4. Current status of scrap metal recycling and reuse in USA and European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Akira

    1997-01-01

    Recycling and reuse of natural resources has become a global issue to be pursued, but less effective without voluntary efforts from the every industries and of the individuals. In Japan, recycling and reuse of the scrap metal from dismantling of the nuclear facilities are currently noticed as a promising option and the responsible government organizations just started activities to develope the system for enabling and encouraging the nuclear facility owners to recycle their waste. Coincidently, there have been many reports published recently, which inform successful results of the method and the activities of the international organizations for the same intention. Taking this opportunity, current trends of scrap metal recycling and reuse in the experienced countries are reviewed and the proposals from IAEA, EC and OECD/NEA on the relating issues are summarized and compared in this paper. (author)

  5. Research on the Phenomenon of Chinese Residents’ Spiritual Contagion for the Reuse of Recycled Water Based on SC-IAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanliang Fu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recycled water has been widely recognized in the world as an effective approach to relieve the issue of water shortage. Meanwhile, with several decades of development, the insufficiency of technology is no longer the primary factor that restricts the popularization of recycled water. What makes it difficult to promote the concept of reusing recycled water in China? To solve this issue, a special experiment on the public’s attitude towards the reuse of recycled water was designed based on a Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT, so as to avoid factors like social preference that can influence the survey results, and to gain the public’s negative implicit attitude towards reusing recycled water reuse, which is close to the public’s real attitude to it. From the perspective of implicit attitude, this research testifies the “spiritual contagion” phenomenon of the public, which refers to refusing recycled water reuse because recycled water is made from sewage treatment. By comparing the implicit attitude to recycled water reuse with the explicit attitude that is acquired from self-reporting questionnaires about reusing recycled water, this research finds that the implicit attitude is more positive than the explicit attitude, which accounts for the phenomenon of “best game no one played” in the promotion of the recycled water reuse, that is, the public though applauding the environment-friendly policy, will not actually use the recycled water.

  6. Reduction of Radioactive Waste Through the Reuse and Recycle Policy of the Sealed Radioactive Sources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Marpaung

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, the utilization of sealed source for medical, industrial and research purposes has shown an accelerating increase. This situation will lead to increases in the amount of sealed radioactive. During its use, a sealed radioactive waste will eventually become either a spent sealed source or disused sealed radioactive source (DSRS, due to certain factors. The reduction of the amount of radioactive waste can be executed through the application of reuse and recycle of sealed source. The reuse and recycle policy for spent and disused sealed sources are not already specified yet. The reuse of spent sealed sources can be applied only for the sources which had been used in the medical field for radiotherapy, namely the reuse of a teletherapy Co-60 source in a calibration facility. The recycle of a spent sealed source can be performed for radioactive sources with relatively high activities and long half-lives; however, the recycling activity may only be performed by the manufacturer. To avoid legal conflicts, in the amendment to the Government Regulation No.27 Year 2002 on Management of Radioactive Waste, there will be a recommendation for a new scheme in the management of radioactive waste to facilitate the application of the principles of reduce, reuse, and recycle

  7. Reduction of Radioactive Waste Through the Reuse and Recycle Policy of the Sealed Radioactive Sources Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marpaung, T.

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years, the utilization of sealed source for medical, industrial and research purposes has shown an accelerating increase. This situation will lead to increases in the amount of sealed radioactive. During its use, a sealed radioactive waste will eventually become either a spent sealed source or disused sealed radioactive source (DSRS), due to certain factors. The reduction of the amount of radioactive waste can be executed through the application of reuse and recycle of sealed source. The reuse and recycle policy for spent and disused sealed sources are not already specified yet. The reuse of spent sealed sources can be applied only for the sources which had been used in the medical field for radiotherapy, namely the reuse of a teletherapy Co-60 source in a calibration facility. The recycle of a spent sealed source can be performed for radioactive sources with relatively high activities and long half-lives; however, the recycling activity may only be performed by the manufacturer. To avoid legal conflicts, in the amendment to the Government Regulation No.27 Year 2002 on Management of Radioactive Waste, there will be a recommendation for a new scheme in the management of radioactive waste to facilitate the application of the principles of reduce, reuse, and recycle (author)

  8. Waste Not Want Not: Water Reuse and Recycling in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Texas Water Development Board has provided more than $300 million to over 28 projects using its CWSRF to fund a diversification of water reclamation, reuse and supply development solutions to augment community resiliency in the face of drought events.

  9. Electronic waste recycling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardes, Andréa

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the characterization of electronic waste. In addition, processing techniques for the recovery of metals, polymers and ceramics are described. This book serves as a source of information and as an educational technical reference for practicing scientists and engineers, as well as for students.

  10. Reuse Recycler: High Intensity Proton Stacking at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P. [Fermilab

    2016-07-17

    After a successful career as an antiproton storage and cooling ring, Recycler has been converted to a high intensity proton stacker for the Main Injector. We discuss the commissioning and operation of the Recycler in this new role, and the progress towards the 700 kW design goal.

  11. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: Electronics recycling industry communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Julia R.; Boehm, Michael W.; Drummond, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Given a large flow rate of CRT glass ∼10% of the panel glass stream will be leaded. ► The supply of CRT waste glass exceeded demand in 2009. ► Recyclers should use UV-light to detect lead oxide during the separation process. ► Recycling market analysis techniques and results are given for CRT glass. ► Academic initiatives and the necessary expansion of novel product markets are discussed. - Abstract: Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased.

  12. Integrated wastewater management by reuse and recycling in a textile industry: a case study in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, M.R.; Trankler, J.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing stringent environmental legislation, scarcity of resources and development of treatment and management techniques for wastewater, have made recycling and reuse feasible and economical in many industrial processes. Wastewater management by integrating all available techniques was studied for reuse and recycling in a textile industry. Cotton and silk fabrics were main products of the selected industry. Approach was divided in to five parts, to achieve the objectives of reuse and recycling: in-house water consumption evaluation, segregation study, optimizing existing WWTP, treatability study and advanced treatment for final effluent to fulfill reuse criteria. Water consumption evaluation was done by in-house survey. Segregation study was performed by analyzing different wastewater streams. Efficiency of existing WWTP for COD and BOD removal was assessed and optimized. Treatability of dye wastewater by ozonation, chemical and nanofiltration was studied. Treatment study of final effluent for TDS and color removal by nanofiltration and chemical treatment was performed. Analyses show the possibilities to conserve and optimize water consumption up to 30% in the production processes by in-house improvement. Segregation study shows that up to 15% wastewater from less polluted streams can be recycled back. Adopting separate efficient treatment techniques could fulfill reuse criteria for remaining wastewater streams (50%). (author)

  13. Reduce, reuse, recycle for robust cluster-state generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsman, Clare; Brown, Katherine L.; Kendon, Vivien M.; Munro, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient generation of cluster states is crucial for engineering large-scale measurement-based quantum computers. Hybrid matter-optical systems offer a robust, scalable path to this goal. Such systems have an ancilla which acts as a bus connecting the qubits. We show that by generating the cluster in smaller sections of interlocking bricks, reusing one ancilla per brick, the cluster can be produced with maximal efficiency, requiring fewer than half the operations compared with no bus reuse. By reducing the time required to prepare sections of the cluster, bus reuse more than doubles the size of the computational workspace that can be used before decoherence effects dominate. A row of buses in parallel provides fully scalable cluster-state generation requiring only 20 controlled-phase gates per bus use.

  14. Reduce, reuse and recycle: a green solution to Canada's medical isotope shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, R; Ross, C; Wells, R G

    2014-05-01

    Due to the unforeseen maintenance issues at the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at Chalk River and coincidental shutdowns of other international reactors, a global shortage of medical isotopes (in particular technetium-99m, Tc-99m) occurred in 2009. The operation of these research reactors is expensive, their age creates concerns about their continued maintenance and the process results in a large amount of long-lived nuclear waste, whose storage cost has been subsidized by governments. While the NRU has since revived its operations, it is scheduled to cease isotope production in 2016. The Canadian government created the Non-reactor based medical Isotope Supply Program (NISP) to promote research into alternative methods for producing medical isotopes. The NRC was a member of a collaboration looking into the use of electron linear accelerators (LINAC) to produce molybdenum-99 (Mo-99), the parent isotope of Tc-99m. This paper outlines NRC's involvement in every step of this process, from the production, chemical processing, recycling and preliminary animal studies to demonstrate the equivalence of LINAC Tc-99m with the existing supply. This process stems from reusing an old idea, reduces the nuclear waste to virtually zero and recycles material to create a green solution to Canada's medical isotope shortage. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Recovery, reuse and recycling by the United States wood packaging industry: 1993-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman; E. Bradley Hager

    2007-01-01

    The packaging industry is an important market for wood materials, especially low grade hardwoods. Approximately one-third of U.S. hardwood lumber production is utilized in the production of pallets and containers. The industry recovers significant volumes of pallets and containers from the waste stream for re-use, repair, and recycling. Industry by-products (both wood...

  16. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This renewal application for a Recycled Water Reuse Permit is being submitted in accordance with the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.17 “Recycled Water Rules” and the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 for continuing the operation of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant located at the Idaho National Laboratory. The permit expires March 16, 2015. The permit requires a renewal application to be submitted six months prior to the expiration date of the existing permit. For the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant, the renewal application must be submitted by September 16, 2014. The information in this application is consistent with the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater and discussions with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality personnel.

  17. Investigation of impurities present in recycling and reusing of scrap lead for accumulator industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, A.; Irfan, N.; Chaudhry, M.M.; Nawab, S.

    2012-01-01

    Recycling and reusing are the basic strategies of reducing solid waste generated from industries. Millions of batteries containing toxic metals and poisonous wastes are discarded every year in Pakistan. Battery waste deposited in landfills increases the concentration of toxic metals in leachates obtained from landfill base. For this reason, recycling of locally available scrap lead has been focused. During reduction and refining stages, samples were obtained at various stages from a five ton lead smelting pot of an accumulator industry. Various impurities present were determined and removed in order to reuse in accumulators. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) techniques were used to analyze the samples obtained at various stages of recycling. This work has been carried out to reduce these impurities and the refining process has thus been optimized. The lead thus obtained is 99.98 % pure. (author)

  18. Reuse of materials from recyclable-waste collection for road building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messineo, A.; Panno, D.; Ticali, D.

    2006-01-01

    A right policy of waste management should look to nature: in fact in nature nothing of produced is lost; everything could be considered food to energy resource for another subject. A diffusion of right policy of waste reuse is the leit motive of this study. Heavy problem of pollution and the protection of the natural environment, is the one of the most important problem of this society, and so to think waste to reuse for civil engineering research has a double aim: a) to reduce quantity to send to dump; b) to reuse good materials for civil engineering building, as substitute of natural aggregate. It look very innovative and actual to think to possibility of reuse glass from recyclable-waste collection for road building, and so we could consider road as a valid substitute to dump. The aim is to consider waste as an element with high energetic power and value added [it

  19. Reduce, reuse and recycle: A green solution to Canada's medical isotope shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galea, R.; Ross, C.; Wells, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the unforeseen maintenance issues at the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at Chalk River and coincidental shutdowns of other international reactors, a global shortage of medical isotopes (in particular technetium-99m, Tc-99m) occurred in 2009. The operation of these research reactors is expensive, their age creates concerns about their continued maintenance and the process results in a large amount of long-lived nuclear waste, whose storage cost has been subsidized by governments. While the NRU has since revived its operations, it is scheduled to cease isotope production in 2016. The Canadian government created the Non-reactor based medical Isotope Supply Program (NISP) to promote research into alternative methods for producing medical isotopes. The NRC was a member of a collaboration looking into the use of electron linear accelerators (LINAC) to produce molybdenum-99 (Mo-99), the parent isotope of Tc-99m. This paper outlines NRC’s involvement in every step of this process, from the production, chemical processing, recycling and preliminary animal studies to demonstrate the equivalence of LINAC Tc-99m with the existing supply. This process stems from reusing an old idea, reduces the nuclear waste to virtually zero and recycles material to create a green solution to Canada's medical isotope shortage. - Highlights: • Commercial power electron accelerators are realistic option to produce 99 Mo. • Could cover national demand of Canada. • Demonstrate LINAC- 99 Mo as environmental and economical solution to isotope crisis. • Demonstrate LINAC- 99m Tc to be clinically equivalent to current fission- 99m Tc supply

  20. Reduce, reuse, and recycle: developmental evolution of trait diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jill C; Hileman, Lena C; Cubas, Pilar

    2011-03-01

    A major focus of evolutionary developmental (evo-devo) studies is to determine the genetic basis of variation in organismal form and function, both of which are fundamental to biological diversification. Pioneering work on metazoan and flowering plant systems has revealed conserved sets of genes that underlie the bauplan of organisms derived from a common ancestor. However, the extent to which variation in the developmental genetic toolkit mirrors variation at the phenotypic level is an active area of research. Here we explore evidence from the angiosperm evo-devo literature supporting the frugal use of genes and genetic pathways in the evolution of developmental patterning. In particular, these examples highlight the importance of genetic pleiotropy in different developmental modules, thus reducing the number of genes required in growth and development, and the reuse of particular genes in the parallel evolution of ecologically important traits.

  1. From collision to collaboration - Integrating informal recyclers and re-use operators in Europe: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinberg, Anne; Nesić, Jelena; Savain, Rachel; Luppi, Pietro; Sinnott, Portia; Petean, Flaviu; Pop, Flaviu

    2016-09-01

    The European Union hosts some of the world's most developed waste management systems and an ambitious policy commitment to the circular economy. The existence of informal recycling and re-use activities in Europe has been vigorously denied until quite recently, and remains a very challenging subject for the European solid waste management sector, as well as for European government and private institutions. In countries ranging from Malta to Macedonia and from France to Turkey, informal recyclers excluded from legal recycling niches increasingly collide with formalised and controlled European Union approaches to urban waste management, packaging recovery schemes, formal re-use enterprises, and extended producer responsibility systems.This review focuses on the period from 2004 through the first half of 2016. The 78 sources on European (and neighbouring) informal recycling and re-use are contextualised with global sources and experience. The articles focus on informal recovery in and at the borders of the European Union, document the conflicts and collisions, and elaborate some constructive approaches towards legalisation, integration, and reconciliation. The overarching recommendation, to locate the issue of informal recovery and integration in the framework of the European circular economy package, is supported by four specific pillars of an integration strategy: Documentation, legalisation, occupational and enterprise recognition, and preparation for structural integration. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. An evaluation of concrete recycling and reuse practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakhjiri, K.S.; MacKinney, J.

    1997-02-01

    Nuclear facilities operated by the Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD), and NRC licensees contain many concrete structures that are contaminated with radioactivity. Dismantling these structures will result in significant quantities of waste materials, both contaminated and uncontaminated. Bartlett estimates the total volume of waste from demolition of concrete structures to be on the order of 4 million cubic meters, but that only 20,000 cubic meters would be contaminated with radioactivity. Other studies suggest that as much as 5% of the concrete in these facilities would be contaminated with radioactivity. While the actual quantity of contaminated material should be fixed with greater precision, the fact that so much uncontaminated concrete exists (over 95% of the total 4 million cubic meters) suggests that a program that recycles concrete could produce substantial savings for both government agencies (DOE, DOD) and private companies (NRC licensees). This paper presents a fundamental discussion of (1) various methods of processing concrete, (2) demolition methods, especially those compatible with recycling efforts, and (3) state-of-the-art concrete dismantlement techniques.

  3. Social and economic importance of textile reuse and recycling in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruque-Ramos, J.; Amaral, M. C.; Laktim, M. C.; Santos, H. N.; Araujo, F. B.; Zonatti, W. F.

    2017-10-01

    Brazil is an important world producer of textiles. However, this industrial activity, combined with additional import and trade, generates millions of tons of textile scraps, unsold clothing and discarded post-consumption garments. There is a great potential for the recycling and reuse industry in the context of solidarity and circular economy. The present study aimed to present examples in Brazil related to waste reduction, reuse and recycling of textiles in the context of solidary economy. In this way, some representative initiatives, from Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states are presented and discussed based on these principles and approaching responsible lifestyles and environmental awareness and the refusal to waste resources in general. The main socioenvironmental benefits are related to the training of labor and local income generation, the population’s awareness of consumption patterns, saving of natural resources and raw materials, and mitigation of environmental impacts.

  4. Metal recycling experience at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Reuse, release, and recycle of metals from radiological control areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogol, S.

    1997-01-01

    Approximately 15% of the Low-Level Waste (LLW) produced at Los Alamos consists of scrap metal equipment and materials. The majority of this material is produced by decommissioning and the modification of existing facilities. To reduce this waste stream, Department of Energy Headquarters, EM-77 Office, sponsored the Reuse, Recycle, and Release of Metals from Radiological Control Areas High Return on Investment (ROI) Project to implement recycle, reuse, and release of scrap metal at the laboratory. The goal of this project was to develop cost effective alternatives to LLW disposal of scrap metal and to avoid the disposal of 2,400 m 3 of scrap metal. The ROI for this project was estimated at 948%. The ROI project was funded in March 1996 and is scheduled for completion by October 1997. At completion, a total of 2,400 m 3 of LLW avoidance will have been accomplished and a facility to continue recycling activities will be operational. This paper will present the approach used to develop effective alternatives for scrap metal at Los Alamos and then discuss the tasks identified in the approach in detail. Current scrap metal inventory, waste projections, alternatives to LLW disposal, regulatory guidance, and efforts to institutionalize the alternatives to LLW disposal will be discussed in detail

  5. An experimental school prototype: Integrating 3rs (reduce, reuse & recycle) concept into architectural design

    OpenAIRE

    Kong Seng Yeap; Sreenivasaiah Purushothama Rao

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a design project to examine the use of school as an ecological learning hub for children. Specifically, this study explores the ecological innovations that transform physical environment into three-dimensional textbooks for environmental education. A series of design workshops were carried out to gain interdisciplinary input for ecological school design. The findings suggest to integrate the concept of 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse & Recycle) into the physical environment. As a res...

  6. Reduction of Radioactive Waste Through the Reuse and Recycle Policy of the Sealed Radioactive Sources Management

    OpenAIRE

    Marpaung, T

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years, the utilization of sealed source for medical, industrial and research purposes has shown an accelerating increase. This situation will lead to increases in the amount of sealed radioactive. During its use, a sealed radioactive waste will eventually become either a spent sealed source or disused sealed radioactive source (DSRS), due to certain factors. The reduction of the amount of radioactive waste can be executed through the application of reuse and recycle of sealed ...

  7. Developing improved opportunities for the recycle and reuse of materials in road, bridge and construction projects : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Reducing waste and reusing materials is now : a part of the everyday fabric of life. Recycling : glass, paper, and plastic is an activity in many : households and businesses. Similarly, the : transportation sector generates huge quantities : of concr...

  8. Status of electronic waste recycling techniques: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbasir, Sabah M; Hassan, Saad S M; Kamel, Ayman H; El-Nasr, Rania Seif

    2018-05-08

    The increasing use of electrical and electronic equipment leads to a huge generation of electronic waste (e-waste). It is the fastest growing waste stream in the world. Almost all electrical and electronic equipment contain printed circuit boards as an essential part. Improper handling of these electronic wastes could bring serious risk to human health and the environment. On the other hand, proper handling of this waste requires a sound management strategy for awareness, collection, recycling, and reuse. Nowadays, the effective recycling of this type of waste has been considered as a main challenge for any society. Printed circuit boards (PCBs), which are the base of many electronic industries, are rich in valuable heavy metals and toxic halogenated organic substances. In this review, the composition of different PCBs and their harmful effects are discussed. Various techniques in common use for recycling the most important metals from the metallic fractions of e-waste are illustrated. The recovery of metals from e-waste material after physical separation through pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, or biohydrometallurgical routes is also discussed, along with alternative uses of non-metallic fraction. The data are explained and compared with the current e-waste management efforts done in Egypt. Future perspectives and challenges facing Egypt for proper e-waste recycling are also discussed.

  9. Resource Recovery and Reuse: Recycled Magnetically Separable Iron-based Catalysts for Phosphate Recovery and Arsenic Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmentally friendly processes that aid human and environmental health include recovering, recycling, and reusing limited natural resources and waste materials. In this study, we re-used Iron-rich solid waste materials from water treatment plants to synthesize magnetic iron-o...

  10. Is it possible to treat produced water for recycle and beneficial reuse?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hum, F.; Tsang, P.; Kantzas, A.; Harding, T. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Tomographic Imaging and Porous Media Laboratory

    2005-11-01

    In 2003, the oil and gas industry in Alberta injected 0.3 billion cubic metres of produced water into disposal wells. This paper addressed the issue of using the large volume of produced water for recycling and make water reuse a sustainable activity in Alberta to reduce fresh water demand. Although produced water represents a potential resource for recycling and beneficial reuse, it must first be treated to meet water quality criteria and regulatory guidelines for specific applications. A comprehensive technical and economic review of water treatment technologies was presented. Commonly used and new water desalination technologies were reviewed and key challenges associated with the recycling of produced water were identified. It was shown that water treatment processes are commercially available and that they are not prohibitively expensive. However, the cost of implementing treating processes to meet drinking water quality guidelines is about 3 times the current cost of municipal water supply in Alberta. For that reason, it is more feasible to recycle waste water for agricultural or petroleum applications, such as waterflooding. The water quality guidelines for these other purposes are less stringent than for drinking water and there is also growing public resistance for industry to use fresh water for commercial use. 42 refs., 3 tabs., 14 figs.

  11. A flexible environmental reuse/recycle policy based on economic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiliyannis, C A

    2007-01-01

    Environmental policies based on fixed recycling rates may lead to increased environmental impacts (e.g., landfilled wastes) during economic expansion. A rate policy is proposed, which is adjusted according to the overall strength or weakness of the economy, as reflected by overall packaging demand and consumption, production and imports-exports. During economic expansion featuring rising consumption, production or exports, the proposed flexible policy suggests a higher reuse/recycle rate. During economic slowdown a lower rate results in lower impacts. The flexible target rates are determined in terms of annual data, including consumption, imports-exports and production. Higher environmental gains can be achieved at lower cost if the flexible policy is applied to widely consumed packaging products and materials associated with low rates, or if cleaner recycling technology is adopted.

  12. Recycling and reuse of chosen kinds of waste materials in a building industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferek, B.; Harasymiuk, J.; Tyburski, J.

    2016-08-01

    The article describes the current state of knowledge and practice in Poland concerning recycling as a method of reuse of chosen groups of waste materials in building industry. The recycling of building scraps is imposed by environmental, economic and technological premises. The issue of usage of sewage residues is becoming a problem of ever -growing gravity as the presence of the increasing number of pernicious contaminants makes their utilization for agricultural purposes more and more limited. The strategies of using waste materials on Polish building sites were analyzed. The analysis of predispositions to salvage for a group of traditional materials, such as: timber, steel, building debris, insulation materials, plastics, and on the example of new materials, such as: artificial light aggregates made by appropriate mixing of siliceous aggregates, glass refuses and sewage residues in order to obtain a commodity which is apt for economic usage also was made in the article. The issue of recycling of waste materials originating from building operations will be presented in the context of the binding home and EU legal regulations. It was proved that the level of recycling of building wastes in Poland is considerably different from one which is achieved in the solid market economies, both in quantity and in assortment. The method of neutralization of building refuses in connection with special waste materials, which are sewage sludge that is presented in the article may be one of the alternative solutions to the problem of recycling of these wastes not only on the Polish scale.

  13. Applying the three R's: Reduce, reuse, and recycle in the chemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Mohamed K; Peters, Robert W

    2017-03-01

    Pollution prevention (P2) assessment was conducted by applying the three R's, reduce, reuse, and recycle, in a chemical industry for the purpose of reducing the amount of wastewater generated, reusing paint wastewater in the manufacture of cement bricks, recycling cooling water, and improving water usage efficiency. The results of this study showed that the annual wastewater flow generated from the paint manufacturing can be reduced from 1,100 m 3 to 488.4 m 3 (44.4% reduction) when a high-pressure hose is used. Two mixtures were prepared. The first mixture (A) contains cement, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, Addicrete BVF, and clean water. The second mixture (B) contains the same components used in the first mixture, except that paint wastewater was used instead of the clean water. The prepared samples were tested for water absorption, toxicity, reactivity, compressive strength, ignitability, and corrosion. The tests results indicated that using paint wastewater in the manufacture of the cement bricks improved the mechanical properties of the bricks. The toxicity test results showed that the metals concentration in the bricks did not exceed the U.S. EPA limits. This company achieved the goal of zero liquid discharge (ZLD), especially after recycling 2,800 m 3 of cooling water. The total annual saving could reach $42,570 with a payback period of 41 days. This research focused on improving the water usage efficiency, reducing the quantity of wastewater generated, and potentially reusing wastewater in the manufacture of cement bricks. Reusing paint wastewater in the manufacture of the bricks prevents the hazardous pollutants in the wastewater (calcium carbonate, styrene acrylic resins, colored pigments, and titanium dioxide) from entering and polluting the surface water and the environment. We think that this paper will help to find the most efficient and cost-effective way to manage paint wastewater and conserve fresh water resources. We also believe that this

  14. Food packaging in South Africa: reducing, re-using and recycling.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nahman, Anton

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available types of responses to these problems. One response has been from government, who have identified plastic, glass and steel cans as ‘priority wastes’ that need to be kept away from landfill sites through reduction, re-use and recycling (the others being... of potentially valuable materials, such as steel, glass, and plastics, which could otherwise have been re-processed into new products, thereby displacing the need to exploit virgin raw materials. How Have Government and Industry Responded? There have been two...

  15. Linking Informal and Formal Electronics Recycling via an Interface Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Totoki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Informal recycling of electronics in the developing world has emerged as a new global environmental concern. The primary approach to address this problem has been command-and-control policies that ban informal recycling and international trade in electronic scrap. These bans are difficult to enforce and also have negative effects by reducing reuse of electronics, and employment for people in poverty. An alternate approach is to link informal and formal sectors so as to maintain economic activity while mitigating environmental damages. This article explores the idea of an interface organization that purchases components and waste from informal dismantlers and passes them on to formal processors. Environmental, economic and social implications of interface organizations are discussed. The main environmental questions to resolve are what e-scrap components should be targeted by the interface organization, i.e., circuit boards, wires, and/or plastic parts. Economically, when formal recycling is more profitable (e.g., for circuit boards, the interface organization is revenue positive. However, price subsidies are needed for copper wires and residual waste to incentivize informal dismantlers to turn in for formal processing. Socially, the potential for corruption and gaming of the system is critical and needs to be addressed.

  16. Kajian penerapan recycle, reuse dan recovery untuk proses produksi kulit web blue pada industri penyamakan kulit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prayitno Prayitno

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Leather tanning industries are industries that process skin to produce finish leather product by using many stages of process in which for every stage of process will generate a huge amount either liquid or solid waste. If waste are not to be treated properly, it will cause environmental pollution. Implementation of 3R programs i.e. recycle, reuse and recovery will give impact on minimizing of waste problem. In leather tanning industries for producing wet blue leather however, 3R programs have to be implemented in processes of desalting, washing liquor, flesh and fat, chrome liquor and chrome-tanned waste. In implementing 3 R the waste generated can be either reused, recycled or recoveried as follow salt as swelling agent preventing in pickling process; washing liquor waste as washing liquor for dirt washing; flesh and fat as raw material for producing tallow, soap, fertilizer and livestock fodder; chrome liquor waste as chrome agent for chrome tanning and chrome-tanned waste as filler for producing material building or livestock fodder as protein sources.

  17. Optimisation of petroleum refinery water network systems retrofit incorporating reuse, regeneration and recycle strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khor, Cheng Seong; Shah, Nilay [Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Mahadzir, Shuhaimi [Universiti Teknologi Petronas (Malaysia); Elkamel, Ali [University of Waterloo (Canada)

    2012-02-15

    Increasingly strict environmental regulations have given rise to higher requirements for operating efficiency and optimization and water has become a vital resource in the refining process and allied industries. Due to this high demand for water, plants may be exposed to supply interruptions and shortages in the future. Major concerns in the petroleum refining industry are the scarcity of fresh water supply and increasingly rigid rules on wastewater discharge, which have resulted from concerns over the environmental impact. This paper presents the efforts made to develop an optimization framework for design of petroleum refinery water network systems and retrofitting that incorporates reuse, regeneration, and recycling strategies. This framework includes the complementary advantage of water pinch analysis (WPA). Water minimization strategies were incorporated as first postulates in a superstructural representation that includes all feasible flow-sheet options for taking advantage of water reuse, regeneration and recycling opportunities. Additionally, a post-optimization analysis was carried out to evaluate the repeated treatment processes required to identify the most efficient retrofit option.

  18. Application of exemption principles to the recycle and reuse of materials from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated from the production of nuclear energy and from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine. The importance of the safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. The Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme is the IAEA's contribution to establishing and promoting, in a coherent and comprehensive manner, the basic safety philosophy for radioactive waste management and the steps necessary to ensure its implementation. The RADWASS publications will: (a) reflect the existing international consensus in the approaches and methodologies for safe waste management, including disposal, and provide mechanisms to establish consensus where it does not yet exist; and (b) provide Member States with a comprehensive series of internationally agreed upon documents to assist in the derivation of new, or to complement existing, national criteria, standards and practices. This Safety Practices publication is concerned with procedures for determining the levels of radionuclides in materials below which they can be exempted from regulatory control and recycled or reused without any further restriction. It describes how the internationally agreed upon principles for exemption can be applied in the case of recycle and reuse. The methodology is applied to derive the typical ranges of exempt concentrations for representative radionuclides. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Scrap uranium recycling via electron beam melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKoon, R.

    1993-11-01

    A program is underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to recycle scrap uranium metal. Currently, much of the material from forging and machining processes is considered radioactive waste and is disposed of by oxidation and encapsulation at significant cost. In the recycling process, uranium and uranium alloys in various forms will be processed by electron beam melting and continuously cast into ingots meeting applicable specifications for virgin material. Existing vacuum processing facilities at LLNL are in compliance with all current federal and state environmental, safety and health regulations for the electron beam melting and vaporization of uranium metal. One of these facilities has been retrofitted with an auxiliary electron beam gun system, water-cooled hearth, crucible and ingot puller to create an electron beam melt furnace. In this furnace, basic process R ampersand D on uranium recycling will be performed with the goal of eventual transfer of this technology to a production facility

  20. Reusing Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goals Recycling Green Purchasing Pollution Prevention Reusing Water Resources Environmental Management System Environmental Outreach Feature Stories Individual Permit for Storm Water Public Reading Room Sustainability » Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by

  1. Recycling and reuse of waste from electricity distribution networks as reinforcement agents in polymeric composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Matheus V G; Zattera, Ademir J

    2013-07-01

    Of the waste generated from electricity distribution networks, wooden posts treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) and ceramic insulators make up the majority of the materials for which no effective recycling scheme has been developed. This study aims to recycle and reuse this waste as reinforcement elements in polymer composites and hybrid composites, promoting an ecologically and economically viable alternative for the disposal of this waste. The CCA wooden posts were cut, crushed and recycled via acid leaching using 0.2 and 0.4N H2SO4 in triplicate at 70°C and then washed and dried. The ceramic insulators were fragmented in a hydraulic press and separated by particle size using a vibrating sieve. The composites were mixed in a twin-screw extruder and injected into the test specimens, which were subjected to physical, mechanical, thermal and morphological characterization. The results indicate that the acid treatment most effective for removing heavy metals in the wood utilizes 0.4NH2SO4. However, the composites made from wood treated with 0.2NH2SO4 exhibited the highest mechanical properties of the composites, whereas the use of a ceramic insulator produces composites with better thermal stability and impact strength. This study is part of the research and development project of ANEEL (Agência Nacional de Energia Elétrica) and funded by CPFL (Companhia Paulista de Força e Luz). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Research on the Influencing Mechanism of Traditional Cultural Values on Citizens’ Behavior Regarding the Reuse of Recycled Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the influence mechanism of traditional Chinese culture values on urban residents’ acceptance of the reuse of recycled water, this paper selects interdependent self-constructional indicators representing the dependency relation between people as the representative of traditional culture values. In this paper, interdependent self-constructional indicators are introduced based on a technology acceptance model (TAM, in order to establish a hypothesis model. Following this, the writer conducts a study that shows the influence on the acceptance of recycled water through the formation of interdependent self-construction. Finally, the influence mechanism of traditional cultural values on citizens’ behavior regarding the reuse of recycled water is determined. To start with, the writer verifies the reliability and validity of data from 584 samples, and then tests the goodness-of-fit between the sample data and the hypothesis model by AMOS21.0 (software. On this basis, the writer analyzes the direct and indirect influence through the hypothesis model and finds that the interdependent self-constructional intensity will accelerate the acceptance process of recycled water technology by positively influencing a change in the residents’ attitudes to recycled water. The conclusion shows that traditional Chinese cultural values have a certain influence on urban residents’ acceptance of the reuse of recycled water. Meanwhile, the writer clarifies the influence’s mechanism.

  3. A State of the Art on the Technology for Recycling and Reuse of the Decommissioning Concrete Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chung Hun; Choi, Wang Kyu; Min, Byung Youn; Oh, Won Zin; Lee, Kun Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    This report describes the reduction and recycling technology of decommissioning concrete waste. Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) becomes one of the most important nuclear markets especially in the developed countries including USA, UK and France where lots of the retired nuclear facilities have been waiting for decommissioning. In our country the KAERI has been carrying out the decommissioning of the retired TRIGA MARK II and III research reactors and an uranium conversion plant as the first national decommissioning project since 1998. One of the most important areas of the decommissioning is a management of a huge amount of a decommissioning waste the cost of which is more than half of the total decommissioning cost. Therefore reduction in decommissioning waste by a reuse or a recycle is an important subject of decommissioning technology development in the world. Recently much countries pay attention to recycle the large amount of concrete dismantling waste resulted from both a nuclear and a non nuclear industries. In our country, much attention was taken in a recycle of concrete dismantling waste as a concrete aggregate, but a little success has been resulted due to the disadvantages such as a weakness of hardness and surface mortar contamination. A recycle in nuclear industry and a self disposal of the radioactively contaminated concrete wastes are main directions of concrete wastes resulted from a nuclear facility decommissioning. In this report it was reviewed the state of art of the related technologies for a reduction and a recycle of concrete wastes from a nuclear decommissioning in the country and abroad. Prior to recycle and reuse in the nuclear sector, however, the regulatory criteria for the recycle and reuse of concrete waste should be established in parallel with the development of the recycling technology.

  4. A State of the Art on the Technology for Recycling and Reuse of the Decommissioning Concrete Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Chung Hun; Choi, Wang Kyu; Min, Byung Youn; Oh, Won Zin; Lee, Kun Woo

    2008-02-01

    This report describes the reduction and recycling technology of decommissioning concrete waste. Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) becomes one of the most important nuclear markets especially in the developed countries including USA, UK and France where lots of the retired nuclear facilities have been waiting for decommissioning. In our country the KAERI has been carrying out the decommissioning of the retired TRIGA MARK II and III research reactors and an uranium conversion plant as the first national decommissioning project since 1998. One of the most important areas of the decommissioning is a management of a huge amount of a decommissioning waste the cost of which is more than half of the total decommissioning cost. Therefore reduction in decommissioning waste by a reuse or a recycle is an important subject of decommissioning technology development in the world. Recently much countries pay attention to recycle the large amount of concrete dismantling waste resulted from both a nuclear and a non nuclear industries. In our country, much attention was taken in a recycle of concrete dismantling waste as a concrete aggregate, but a little success has been resulted due to the disadvantages such as a weakness of hardness and surface mortar contamination. A recycle in nuclear industry and a self disposal of the radioactively contaminated concrete wastes are main directions of concrete wastes resulted from a nuclear facility decommissioning. In this report it was reviewed the state of art of the related technologies for a reduction and a recycle of concrete wastes from a nuclear decommissioning in the country and abroad. Prior to recycle and reuse in the nuclear sector, however, the regulatory criteria for the recycle and reuse of concrete waste should be established in parallel with the development of the recycling technology

  5. An experimental school prototype: Integrating 3rs (reduce, reuse & recycle concept into architectural design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Seng Yeap

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors conducted a design project to examine the use of school as an ecological learning hub for children. Specifically, this study explores the ecological innovations that transform physical environment into three-dimensional textbooks for environmental education. A series of design workshops were carried out to gain interdisciplinary input for ecological school design. The findings suggest to integrate the concept of 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse & Recycle into the physical environment. As a result, an experimental school prototype is developed. It represents a series of recommendations that are rendered by novel ideas through the amalgamation of architecture, ecology and education. These findings promote the development of sustainable and interactive learning spaces through cross-disciplinary investigations in school architecture. Designers and practitioners interested in educational facilities design would find this article useful.

  6. Application of ceramic membranes to SAGD produced water treatment for enhanced recycle and reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnich, K. [Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Drivers for using ceramic membranes in steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) include reduced investment cost; alternative treatment technologies that reduce energy and greenhouse gas emissions; and ceramic membranes can be chemically and steam cleaned. This presentation discussed the application of ceramic membranes to SAGD produced water treatment for enhanced recycle and reuse. The presentation illustrated conventional ceramic membranes as well as surface enhanced membranes and provided background information on oil separation. Other topics that were discussed included issues regarding desalter bottoms de-oiling; challenges in de-oiling oil sands produced water; CeraMem surface enhanced membranes; surface facilities and ceramic membrane opportunities; and water treatment using ceramic membranes. The presentation concluded with a discussion of the application of ceramic membranes to SAGD next steps such as a demonstration test of industrial prototype membranes for de-oiling, and pilot testing of ceramic desilication. tabs., figs.

  7. Biological treatment: potential reusing of recycled plastics from grenhouses; La depuracin biolgica: posible reutilizacin de plsticos reciclados procedentes de invernaderos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamorano, M.; Hontaria, E. [Universidad de Granada (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to investigate recycled plastic used to cover crops as support beds in submerged biofilters for the purification of residual water, which also permit the re-used of recycled or waste products and the clarification and improvement of the effluent flow from the filter. The recycled plastic shows that the efficiency was 88% COD-removal and 84% SS-removal, without secondary clarification. The functioning of the system with this material has not improved 100%, this study has opened up a new field of investigation that will perfect the system and materials. (Author) 10 refs.

  8. Re-design, re-use and recycle of temporary houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslan, Hakan [Department of Construction, Faculty of Technical Education, University of Abant Izzet Baysal, Duzce 81100 (Turkey)

    2007-01-15

    Disasters are recurring to global problems, which results in homelessness. The affected region had economical, environmental and social problems as well. In relief and reconstruction phases, the need for integrated management appeared in order to use the national sources actively and productively. Especially housing implementations had an important role for future development of the affected region. For accelerating the reconstruction of the region and forming a sustainable community, which maintains itself socially, environmentally and economically over time; energy usage for construction should be kept to a minimum. Past research in Turkey shows that the cost of temporary houses (to be used as the short term shelter) had a ratio of 10-15% of the total expenses of whole construction activity. For saving money and protecting the environment and conserving scarce resources, the affected region must consider the option of temporary houses to meet their short and long-term need during the reconstruction process. After the end of usage, temporary houses should be able to be re-used for the same or new function. This study is a test of re-design and re-use of a temporary housing site; by using recycled materials, minimum energy and voluntary participation so that this site can finally become a permanent housing site. (author)

  9. Dioxins, Furans and PCBs in Recycled Water for Indirect Potable Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Rodriguez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of potential health impacts of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in recycled water for indirect potable reuse was conducted. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs for 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD and dibenzofurans (PCDFs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs congeners have been developed by the World Health Organization to simplify the risk assessment of complex mixtures. Samples of secondary treated wastewater in Perth, Australia were examined pre-and post-tertiary treatment in one full-scale and one pilot water reclamation plant. Risk quotients (RQs were estimated by expressing the middle-bound toxic equivalent (TEQ and the upper-bound TEQ concentration in each sampling point as a function of the estimated health target value. The results indicate that reverse osmosis (RO is able to reduce the concentration of PCDD, PCDF and dioxin-like PCBs and produce water of high quality (RQ after RO=0.15. No increased human health risk from dioxin and dioxin-like compounds is anticipated if highly treated recycled water is used to augment drinking water supplies in Perth. Recommendations for a verification monitoring program are offered.

  10. Dioxins, Furans and PCBs in Recycled Water for Indirect Potable Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Cook, Angus; Devine, Brian; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Linge, Kathryn; Weinstein, Philip

    2008-01-01

    An assessment of potential health impacts of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in recycled water for indirect potable reuse was conducted. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners have been developed by the World Health Organization to simplify the risk assessment of complex mixtures. Samples of secondary treated wastewater in Perth, Australia were examined pre-and post-tertiary treatment in one full-scale and one pilot water reclamation plant. Risk quotients (RQs) were estimated by expressing the middle-bound toxic equivalent (TEQ) and the upper-bound TEQ concentration in each sampling point as a function of the estimated health target value. The results indicate that reverse osmosis (RO) is able to reduce the concentration of PCDD, PCDF and dioxin-like PCBs and produce water of high quality (RQ after RO=0.15). No increased human health risk from dioxin and dioxin-like compounds is anticipated if highly treated recycled water is used to augment drinking water supplies in Perth. Recommendations for a verification monitoring program are offered. PMID:19151430

  11. Response to waste electrical and electronic equipments in China: legislation, recycling system, and advanced integrated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, China has been suffering from negative environmental impacts from distempered waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) recycling activities. For the purpose of environmental protection and resource reusing, China made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. This article reviews progresses of three major fields in the development of China's WEEE recycling industry: legal system, formal recycling system, and advanced integrated process. Related laws concerning electronic waste (e-waste) management and renewable resource recycling are analyzed from aspects of improvements and loopholes. The outcomes and challenges for existing formal recycling systems are also discussed. The advantage and deficiency related to advanced integrated recycling processes for typical e-wastes are evaluated respectively. Finally, in order to achieve high disposal rates of WEEE, high-quantify separation of different materials in WEEE and high added value final products produced by separated materials from WEEE, an idea of integrated WEEE recycling system is proposed to point future development of WEEE recycling industry. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  12. Electron beam irradiation and adsorption as possibilities for wastewater reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrely, Sueli I.; Higa, Marcela C.; Pinheiro, Alessandro; Morais, Aline V.; Fungaro, Denise A.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of water for life and for the industrial processes is forcing the development of combined technologies for wastewater improvement. The limitations of biological treatment for reducing micro-pollutants and the constant introduction of different chemical into environment make Ionizing Radiation a more interesting technique for pollutants abatement. Electron Accelerators are the main radiation source for cleaning waters purpose. Remazol Orange and Black B were decomposed by Electron Beam Irradiation. Another research consisted in reuse of burnt coal for cleaning wastewater and the Orange and Red dyes were adsorbed onto zeolitic material. Both color and toxicity were the main parameters to evaluate the efficacy of the process and also the recommended criteria which allow further industrial reuse. Real effluents were also treated by both technologies in batch scale. The radiation dose suggested for real effluents varied from 2.5kGy up to 5kGy. The characteristics of obtained zeolite will be presented. The removal of color and toxicity was enough to allow the industrial reuse of those products (wastewater). (author)

  13. A proposal for improving sustainability practice through the implementations of reuse and recycle technique in Malaysian construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Wan Nadzri; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Saad, Rohaizah; Anuar, Herman Shah; Ibrahim, Siti Halipah

    2016-08-01

    Construction and demolition waste is often seen as the major contributor to the solid waste stream that is going to landfill, hence, making it the area of focus for improvement. In the construction industry, reuse and recycle principles have been promoted in order to reduce waste and protect the environment. Construction and demolition waste including demolished concrete, bricks and masonry, wood and other materials such as dry wall, glass, insulation, roofing, wire, pipe, rock and soil constitute a significant component of the total waste. Without proper reuse and recycle policies, these construction and demolition wastes would quickly fill all the remaining landfill space, which has already been growing in scarce around this region. Based on the feedback received, on average, a third of respondents said they currently have a lotto benefit from the use of reduce and reuse. In addition, they also agreed that the existing policies help and support the min carrying out the reduce and reuse practices. Respondents also agreed that other stakeholders in the construction industry currently have an excellent awareness in term of implementation of the reduce and reuse in their practices.

  14. Reuse, Recycle, Reweigh: Combating Influenza through Efficient Sequential Bayesian Computation for Massive Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Jennifer A; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Suchard, Marc A

    Massive datasets in the gigabyte and terabyte range combined with the availability of increasingly sophisticated statistical tools yield analyses at the boundary of what is computationally feasible. Compromising in the face of this computational burden by partitioning the dataset into more tractable sizes results in stratified analyses, removed from the context that justified the initial data collection. In a Bayesian framework, these stratified analyses generate intermediate realizations, often compared using point estimates that fail to account for the variability within and correlation between the distributions these realizations approximate. However, although the initial concession to stratify generally precludes the more sensible analysis using a single joint hierarchical model, we can circumvent this outcome and capitalize on the intermediate realizations by extending the dynamic iterative reweighting MCMC algorithm. In doing so, we reuse the available realizations by reweighting them with importance weights, recycling them into a now tractable joint hierarchical model. We apply this technique to intermediate realizations generated from stratified analyses of 687 influenza A genomes spanning 13 years allowing us to revisit hypotheses regarding the evolutionary history of influenza within a hierarchical statistical framework.

  15. Waste Management Options for Long-Duration Space Missions: When to Reject, Reuse, or Recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Diane L.; Palaszewski, Bryan A.; Gokoglu, Suleyman; Gallo, Christopher A.; Balasubramaniam, Ramaswamy; Hegde, Uday G.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of waste generated on long-duration space missions away from Earth orbit creates the daunting challenge of how to manage the waste through reuse, rejection, or recycle. The option to merely dispose of the solid waste through an airlock to space was studied for both Earth-moon libration point missions and crewed Mars missions. Although the unique dynamic characteristics of an orbit around L2 might allow some discarded waste to intersect the lunar surface before re-impacting the spacecraft, the large amount of waste needed to be managed and potential hazards associated with volatiles recondensing on the spacecraft surfaces make this option problematic. A second option evaluated is to process the waste into useful gases to be either vented to space or used in various propulsion systems. These propellants could then be used to provide the yearly station-keeping needs at an L2 orbit, or if processed into oxygen and methane propellants, could be used to augment science exploration by enabling lunar mini landers to the far side of the moon.

  16. Characteristics of recycled and electron beam irradiated high density polyethylene samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Jessica R.; Gabriel, Leandro; Geraldo, Aurea B.C.; Moura, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Polymers modification by irradiation is a well-known process that allows degradation and cross-linking in concurrent events; this last is expected when an increase of mechanical properties is required. Actually, the interest of recycling and reuse of polymeric material is linked to the increase of plastics ending up in waste streams. Therefore, these both irradiation and recycling process may be conducted to allow a new use to this material that would be discarded by an improvement of its mechanical properties. In this work, the High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) matrix has been recycled five times from original substrate. The electron beam irradiation process was applied from 50 kGy to 200 kGy in both original and recycled samples; in this way, mechanical properties and thermal characteristics were evaluated. The results of applied process and material characterization are discussed. (author)

  17. Characteristics of recycled and electron beam irradiated high density polyethylene samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Jessica R.; Gabriel, Leandro; Geraldo, Aurea B.C.; Moura, Eduardo, E-mail: jrcardoso@ipen.br, E-mail: lgabriell@gmail.com, E-mail: ageraldo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Polymers modification by irradiation is a well-known process that allows degradation and cross-linking in concurrent events; this last is expected when an increase of mechanical properties is required. Actually, the interest of recycling and reuse of polymeric material is linked to the increase of plastics ending up in waste streams. Therefore, these both irradiation and recycling process may be conducted to allow a new use to this material that would be discarded by an improvement of its mechanical properties. In this work, the High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) matrix has been recycled five times from original substrate. The electron beam irradiation process was applied from 50 kGy to 200 kGy in both original and recycled samples; in this way, mechanical properties and thermal characteristics were evaluated. The results of applied process and material characterization are discussed. (author)

  18. Electric vehicle recycling 2020: Key component power electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulach, Winfried; Schüler, Doris; Sellin, Guido; Elwert, Tobias; Schmid, Dieter; Goldmann, Daniel; Buchert, Matthias; Kammer, Ulrich

    2018-04-01

    Electromobility will play a key role in order to reach the specified ambitious greenhouse gas reduction targets in the German transport sector of 42% between 1990 and 2030. Subsequently, a significant rise in the sale of electric vehicles (EVs) is to be anticipated in future. The amount of EVs to be recycled will rise correspondingly after a delay. This includes the recyclable power electronics modules which are incorporated in every EV as an important component for energy management. Current recycling methods using car shredders and subsequent post shredder technologies show high recycling rates for the bulk metals but are still associated with high losses of precious and strategic metals such as gold, silver, platinum, palladium and tantalum. For this reason, the project 'Electric vehicle recycling 2020 - key component power electronics' developed an optimised recycling route for recycling power electronics modules from EVs which is also practicable in series production and can be implemented using standardised technology. This 'WEEE recycling route' involves the disassembly of the power electronics from the vehicle and a subsequent recycling in an electronic end-of-life equipment recycling plant. The developed recycling process is economical under the current conditions and raw material prices, even though it involves considerably higher costs than recycling using the car shredder. The life cycle assessment shows basically good results, both for the traditional car shredder route and the developed WEEE recycling route: the latter provides additional benefits from some higher recovery rates and corresponding credits.

  19. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: Good Earth and the Electronics Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descy, Don E.

    2007-01-01

    According to the National Safety Council, 63 million computers became obsolete in 2005 alone, and it is estimated that the total number in storage in 2007 numbers upwards of 500 million computers (Earth 911, 2007). This article describes the steps that one should take before disposing of an obsolete computer. First and foremost, all personal…

  20. Optics of Electron Beam in the Recycler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burov, A.; Kroc, T.; Lebedev, V.; Nagaitsev, S.; Prost, L.; Pruss, S.; Shemyakin, A.; Sutherland, M.; Warner, A.; Kazakevich, G.; Tiunov, M.

    2006-01-01

    Electron cooling of 8.9 GeV/c antiprotons in the Recycler ring (Fermilab) requires high current and good quality of the DC electron beam. Electron trajectories of ∼0.2 A or higher DC electron beam have to be parallel in the cooling section, within ∼ 0.2 mrad, making the beam envelope cylindrical. These requirements yielded a specific scheme of the electron transport from a gun to the cooling section, with electrostatic acceleration and deceleration in the Pelletron. Recuperation of the DC beam limits beam losses at as tiny level as ∼0.001%, setting strict requirements on the return electron line to the Pelletron and a collector. To smooth the beam envelope in the cooling section, it has to be linear and known at the transport start. Also, strength of the relevant optic elements has to be measured with good accuracy. Beam-based optic measurements are being carried out and analysed to get this information. They include beam simulations in the Pelletron, differential optic (beam response) measurements and simulation, beam profile measurements with optical transition radiation, envelope measurements and analysis with orifice scrapers. Current results for the first half-year of commissioning are presented. Although electron cooling is already routinely used for pbar stacking, its efficiency is expected to be improved

  1. Electronic waste: chemical characterization glasses of tubes cathode rays with viability for recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Norma Maria O.; Morais, Crislene R. Silva; Lima, Lenilde Mergia Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Electronic waste, or e-waste, often makes incorrect destinations, which causes serious environmental problems. The aim of this study was to analyze the X-ray fluorescence to study the recycling technology for the glass of Cathode Ray Tubes or, popularly, 'picture tubes', identified by the acronym CRT (Cathode Ray Tubes), which integrate computer monitors. It was observed that the glass screen and funnel analyzed have different chemical compositions. As the silicon oxide (SiO2), the largest component of these glasses percentage 59.89% and 48.63% respectively for the screen and funnel this oxide is responsible for forming the vitreous network. The study of recycling of computer monitors it is important, since about 45% of existing materials on a monitor are made of glass, since it is 100% recyclable and can be reused, thus reducing the amount of waste deposited in the environment. (author)

  2. Recycling of Dilute Deacetylation Black Liquor to Enable Efficient Recovery and Reuse of Spent Chemicals and Biomass Pretreatment Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Chen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Deacetylation/dilute alkaline pretreatment followed by mechanical refining (DMR has been proven as an effective process for biomass sugar liberation without severe chemical modification to lignin. Previous research has been focused on optimizing deacetylation conditions, reducing energy consumptions in mechanical refining, and improving sugar yields and titers in enzymatic hydrolysis. To successfully commercialize this process, another critical challenge is to develop a robust process to balance water usage, recover spent chemicals, and utilize waste carbons from the dilute deacetylation waste liquor. In this work, a new process modification and strategy is pioneered to recycle and reuse the weak black liquor (WBL in order to reduce water, chemical, and energy usage while increasing both inorganic and organic contents in the WBLto facilitate downstream processing. Results suggest that the accumulation did not lower acetyl and lignin removal in alkaline pretreatment, resulting in comparable sugar yields in enzymatic hydrolysis. Sodium and potassium were found to be the two most important inorganic compounds in the recycled WBL. Moreover, the accumulated sodium and phenolic compounds did not inhibit the downstream ethanol fermentation processes. Finally, techno-economic analysis (TEA showed a decrease in the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP by ~5 to 15 cents per gallon of ethanol resulting from the inclusion of the recycling of weak black liquor when compared to a conventional non-recycling process.

  3. Factors relevant to the recycling or reuse of components arising from the decommissioning and refurbishment of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear facilities is a topic of great interest to many Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) because of the large number of older nuclear facilities which are or soon will be retired from service. To assist in the development of the required decommissioning expertise, the IAEA is developing reports and recommendations which will eventually form an integrated information base covering in a systematic way the wide range of topics associated with decommissioning. This information is required so that Member States can decommission their nuclear facilities in a safe, timely and cost effective manner and the IAEA can effectively respond to requests for assistance. One area which warrants more detailed analyses is an assessment of the factors important to the recycling or reuse of components arising from the refurbishment or decommissioning of nuclear plants, the topic of the present report. The document provides an up to date review of the engineering, social, scientific and administrative factors relevant to the safe recycling or reuse of components arising from decommissioning or refurbishment of nuclear facilities. This report should be of interest to owners, operators, policy makers and regulators involved with nuclear facilities, especially those in developing countries. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. 76 FR 71861 - America Recycles Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... electronics annually, and without following proper recycling and management practices, the disposal of our old..., and prevent the recovery and reuse of valuable resources. For the well- being of our people and our..., management, and recycling that will accelerate our burgeoning electronics recycling market and create jobs...

  5. Potential reuse of petroleum-contaminated soil: A directory of permitted recycling facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, S.; Wolf, G.; Avery, M.; Nash, J.H.

    1992-06-01

    Soil contaminated by virgin petroleum products leaking from underground storage tanks is a pervasive problem in the United States. Economically feasible disposal of such soil concerns the responsible party (RP), whether the RP is one individual small business owner, a group of owners, or a large multinational corporation. They may need a starting point in their search for an appropriate solution, such as recycling. The report provides initial assistance in two important areas. First it discusses four potential recycling technologies that manufacture marketable products from recycled petroleum-contaminated soil: the hot mix asphalt process, the cold mix asphalt system, cement production, and brick manufacturing. The report also presents the results of a project survey designed to identify recycling facilities. It lists recycling facilities alphabetically by location within each state, organized by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region. The report also includes detailed addresses, recycling locations, telephone numbers, and contacts for these facilities. The scope of the project limits listings to fixed facilities or small mobile facility owners that recycle soil contaminated by virgin petroleum products into marketable commodities. It does not address site-specific or commercial hazardous waste remediation facilities

  6. Frontiers and prospects for recycling Waste Electrical and Electronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the frontlines and projections for the recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Nigeria. The paper identified the sources of WEEE, showed chemical characterization of some WEEE components and presented measures to minimize these wastes through recycling opportunities.

  7. Electron Cloud Measurements in Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffrey Scott [Indiana U.; Backfish, M. [Fermilab; Tan, C. Y. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    This conference paper presents a series of electron cloud measurements in the Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler. A new instability was observed in the Recycler in July 2014 that generates a fast transverse excitation in the first high intensity batch to be injected. Microwave measurements of electron cloud in the Recycler show a corresponding depen- dence on the batch injection pattern. These electron cloud measurements are compared to those made with a retard- ing field analyzer (RFA) installed in a field-free region of the Recycler in November. RFAs are also used in the Main Injector to evaluate the performance of beampipe coatings for the mitigation of electron cloud. Contamination from an unexpected vacuum leak revealed a potential vulnerability in the amorphous carbon beampipe coating. The diamond-like carbon coating, in contrast, reduced the electron cloud signal to 1% of that measured in uncoated stainless steel beampipe.

  8. The formal electronic recycling industry: Challenges and opportunities in occupational and environmental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Diana Maria; Dong, Zhao

    2016-10-01

    E-waste includes electrical and electronic equipment discarded as waste without intent of reuse. Informal e-waste recycling, typically done in smaller, unorganized businesses, can expose workers and communities to serious chemical health hazards. It is unclear if formalization into larger, better-controlled electronics recycling (e-recycling) facilities solves environmental and occupational health problems. To systematically review the literature on occupational and environmental health hazards of formal e-recycling facilities and discuss challenges and opportunities to strengthen research in this area. We identified 37 publications from 4 electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Environmental Index, NIOSHTIC-2) specific to chemical exposures in formal e-recycling facilities. Environmental and occupational exposures depend on the degree of formalization of the facilities but further reduction is needed. Reported worker exposures to metals were often higher than recommended occupational guidelines. Levels of brominated flame-retardants in worker's inhaled air and biological samples were higher than those from reference groups. Air, dust, and soil concentrations of metals, brominated flame-retardants, dioxins, furans, polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbons, or polychlorinated biphenyls found inside or near the facilities were generally higher than reference locations, suggesting transport into the environment. Children of a recycler had blood lead levels higher than public health recommended guidelines. With mounting e-waste, more workers, their family members, and communities could experience unhealthful exposures to metals and other chemicals. We identified research needs to further assess exposures, health, and improve controls. The long-term solution is manufacturing of electronics without harmful substances and easy-to-disassemble components. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Approach and issues toward development of risk-based release standards for radioactive scrap metal recycle and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Nieves, L.A.; Nabelssi, B.K.; LePoire, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities is expected to generate large amounts of slightly radioactive scrap metal (RSM). It is likely that some of these materials will be suitable for recycling and reuse. The amount of scrap steel from DOE facilities, for instance, is estimated to be more than one million tons (Hertzler 1993). However, under current practice and without the establishment of acceptable recycling standards, the RSM would be disposed of primarily as radioactive low-level waste (LLW). In the United States, no specific standards have been developed for the unrestricted release of bulk contaminated materials. Although standards for unrestricted release of radioactive surface contamination (NRC 1974) have existed for about 20 years, the release of materials is not commonly practiced because of the lack of risk-based justifications. Recent guidance from international bodies (IAEA 1988) has established a basis for deriving risk-based release limits for radioactive materials. It is important, therefore, to evaluate the feasibility of recycling and associated issues necessary for the establishment of risk-based release limits for the radioactive metals

  10. Recycle and reuse of components arising from decommissioning nuclear installations: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stearn, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Recycling offers savings in both acquiring new materials and disposing of old. But this must be set against the associated economic, social and administrative costs. There is considerable experience of the problems involved and research is in hand to expand the authors understanding of these. Materials may be recycled within the nuclear industry only if there is a ready use for it. Release for unrestricted use depends on the existence of suitable criteria and a means to assure compliance with them. The interaction between these two factors could be a deciding factor. Work is in hand to prepare workable release criteria based on a dose to the public of not more than 10 microsieverts, and a figure of 1 Bq/gm is proposed. Quality assurance will be important in any recycling program. Public acceptance is crucial and unrestricted release must not operate so as to jeopardize this

  11. Re-use of construction and demolition residues and industrial wastes for the elaboration or recycled eco-efficient concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan Valdes, A.; Medina Martinez, C.; Guerra Romero, M. I.; Llamas Garcia, B.; Moran del Pozo, J. M.; Tascon Vegas, A.

    2010-01-01

    Production of residues from industries and construction and demolition sectors has increased during last years. The total amount of debris produced according to different estimations reaches values close to 42 million tonnes yr - 1. Much of this waste has been thrown to landfill, without considering its potential for reuse, recycling or valuation. The aim of this research is to describe some of the physical and mechanical properties of different laboratory-mixed concretes, using various proportions of additional materials recovered from industrial waste and demolition rubble. The added materials are included either as admixtures (forestry residues, cork dust, steel fibre) or in partial substitution of natural aggregates (wire from electrical residues, tyre rubber, white ceramic, sanitary porcelain or shale). The laboratory tests have followed the standard En protocols. Assay results were variable according to the nature of the material added to the mix: organic materials and shale, despite the steel fibre reinforcement, reduce the compression strength, but are suitable for the manufacture of lightweight concrete for agricultural pavements, with certain flexion resistance and a relatively good behaviour to impact. The substitution of natural aggregates with ceramic and porcelain wastes produces a significant increase in compression resistance, making them suitable for the manufacture of concrete with characteristic resistances above 40 MPa, which can be used both for structures or other agricultural elements: separators, feeders, slat floors. As a conclusion can be stated the possibility of reuse these wastes for the production of structural or non-structural concrete, with different applications in agricultural engineering. (Author) 36 refs.

  12. Electronic waste and informal recycling in Kathmandu, Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Thapa, Khim B.; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2018-01-01

    In the absence of relevant policies and supporting infrastructure, many developing countries are struggling to establish a resource-oriented waste management system. In countries like Nepal, where informal recycling practices are prevalent, the lack of understanding of the existing system hinders...... surveys, and site observations was conducted to understand the local recycling sector, the lifecycle of electronic products, and the relevant stakeholders. E-waste is found to be an integral part of the existing solid waste management chain and, therefore, needs to be addressed collectively. We identify...... any advancement in this sector. We characterize the informal recycling chain in Kathmandu, where a workforce of more than 10,000 people handles the recyclable items in various waste streams, including electronic waste (e-waste). A field study, supported by key informant interviews, questionnaire...

  13. Reuse of the Reflective Light and the Recycle Heat Energy in Concentrated Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chien Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex solar unit with microcrystalline silicon solar cells placed around the centered GaAs triple junction solar cell has been proposed and carried out. With the same illumination area and intensity, the total resultant power shows that the excess microcrystalline silicon solar cells increase the total output power by 13.2% by absorbing the reflective light from the surface of optical collimators. Furthermore, reusing the residual heat energy generated from the above-mentioned mechanism helps to increase the output power by around 14.1%. This mechanism provides a simple method to enhance the utility rate of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV system. Such concept can be further applied to the aerospace industry and the development of more efficient CPV solar energy applications.

  14. Re-use of construction and demolition residues and industrial wastes for the elaboration or recycled eco-efficient concretes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan Valdes, A.; Medina Martinez, C.; Guerra Romero, M. I.; Llamas Garcia, B.; Moran del Pozo, J. M.; Tascon Vegas, A.

    2010-07-01

    Production of residues from industries and construction and demolition sectors has increased during last years. The total amount of debris produced according to different estimations reaches values close to 42 million tonnes yr{sup -}1. Much of this waste has been thrown to landfill, without considering its potential for reuse, recycling or valuation. The aim of this research is to describe some of the physical and mechanical properties of different laboratory-mixed concretes, using various proportions of additional materials recovered from industrial waste and demolition rubble. The added materials are included either as admixtures (forestry residues, cork dust, steel fibre) or in partial substitution of natural aggregates (wire from electrical residues, tyre rubber, white ceramic, sanitary porcelain or shale). The laboratory tests have followed the standard EN protocols. Assay results were variable according to the nature of the material added to the mix: organic materials and shale, despite the steel fibre reinforcement, reduce the compression strength, but are suitable for the manufacture of lightweight concrete for agricultural pavements, with certain flexion resistance and a relatively good behaviour to impact. The substitution of natural aggregates with ceramic and porcelain wastes produces a significant increase in compression resistance, making them suitable for the manufacture of concrete with characteristic resistances above 40 MPa, which can be used both for structures or other agricultural elements: separators, feeders, slat floors. As a conclusion can be stated the possibility of reuse these wastes for the production of structural or non-structural concrete, with different applications in agricultural engineering. (Author) 36 refs.

  15. Recycled water reuse permit renewal application for the materials and fuels complex industrial waste ditch and industrial waste pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Name, No

    2014-10-01

    This renewal application for the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (IWRP) WRU-I-0160-01 at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Industrial Waste Ditch (IWD) and Industrial Waste Pond (IWP) is being submitted to the State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). This application has been prepared in compliance with the requirements in IDAPA 58.01.17, Recycled Water Rules. Information in this application is consistent with the IDAPA 58.01.17 rules, pre-application meeting, and the Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (September 2007). This application is being submitted using much of the same information contained in the initial permit application, submitted in 2007, and modification, in 2012. There have been no significant changes to the information and operations covered in the existing IWRP. Summary of the monitoring results and operation activity that has occurred since the issuance of the WRP has been included. MFC has operated the IWP and IWD as regulated wastewater land treatment facilities in compliance with the IDAPA 58.01.17 regulations and the IWRP. Industrial wastewater, consisting primarily of continuous discharges of nonhazardous, nonradioactive, routinely discharged noncontact cooling water and steam condensate, periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from the MFC facility process holdup tanks, and precipitation runoff, are discharged to the IWP and IWD system from various MFC facilities. Wastewater goes to the IWP and IWD with a permitted annual flow of up to 17 million gallons/year. All requirements of the IWRP are being met. The Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Industrial Wastewater System will be updated to include any new requirements.

  16. Second life. Reuse of used electric and electronic equipment; Second Life. Wiederverwendung gebrauchter Elektro- und Elektronikgeraete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broehl-Kerner, Horst; Elander, Maria; Koch, Martin; Vendramin, Claudio [Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft Arbeit e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    In project Second Life the existing basic conditions and framework, as well as the different aspects of high-quality reuse were researched and documented. In addition, innovative attempts of the procurement were tested and the feasibility of a quality labeling for electric and electronic devices was analyzed and documented. The results deliver at all important levels of consideration the topically necessary orientation on the subject of reuse of E- devices referring to the product spectrum focused in the project. On the basis of the achieved project results the project partners work on the following aims for the future: First, Informal interlinking of the stakeholder and actors brought together in the project via a new homepage (www.bagsecondlife.de) and newsletter of bag arbeit department for Labour and Environment (FAU) in order to inform about new and changing legislation more actually and also to help them participating in activities of creating contents of a label. Second, establishing a label (e.g. ''ECO Second'') that will be successful on the market. An important base for the project work is the interdisciplinary cooperation of four partners from different fields of action. Thus they were able to cover the required expertise in the fields of protection of environment and climate as well as environmental communication. Both the last aspects were introduced by the Deutsche Umwelthilfe. The operational or practical aspects were represented by Arbeitskreis Recycling and Werkstatt Frankfurt as well as by FAU. Project coordination, spreading of information and the necessary law expertise were perceived from bag arbeit respectively members of FAU-board. With the contributions of Oekopol GmbH and Dr. Bruening engineering to norms, rules, market sphere and ecological classification of the plan, demanded and necessary technical expert's assessment were integrated. Further single results of the project are the project homepage mentioned above

  17. Waste minimization, recycling and reuse in operations support services fleet maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trego, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Government regulations and smart business practices demand that organizations dramatically reduce both the type and volume of waste generated by their operations. This article describes successful waste minimization and recycling programs created by the Fleet Maintenance, Operations Support Services Division, Westinghouse Hanford Company. These comprehensive programs have greatly reduced waste formerly produced in maintaining 3,528 government-owned vehicles and nearly 200 emergency power generators at the Hanford Site. The actions are integral to preventing future contamination of the Site as well as to cleaning up the complexity of wastes from almost 50 years of defense production. The results of the Fleet Maintenance programs are impressive, recording cost savings of $290,000 in fiscal year 1993 and $965,000 since 1988

  18. Technical and environmental characterisation of recycled aggregate for reuse in bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorlini Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste mud coming from an aggregate washing plant was formerly used as filling material for a pond, aimed at the recovery of an abandoned quarry. Once completed the filling capacity of the pond, the need for identifying a possible reuse of mud produced by the plant arose in order to avoid landfill disposal. Therefore, mud has been geometrically, physically and chemically characterised for its recovery as construction material. A variety of tests was carried out on mud samples as required by EN technical specifications and by Italian environmental standards, focusing particularly on leaching behaviour. The tested material showed satisfactory physical and chemical properties and a release of pollutants below the limits set by the Italian code. Many mix-designs for the production of unfired bricks made of waste mud, sand and straw, stabilised and non-stabilised with lime, gypsum or cement, were developed. The bricks were tested in order to evaluate mechanical properties and leaching behaviour. Mud bricks provided remarkable compressive strength, even if not suitable for structural elements. The use as interior design to minimise humidity changes and to facilitate a thermal insulation is fostered, thus strengthening the so-called green building economy.

  19. Biomaterials recycling: bioglasses obtained from reuse of hydroxyapatite (HA) bovine bone with term exceeded validity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.C.; Santos, S.C.; Braga, F.J.C.; Aparecida, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    The hydroxyapatite (HA) is a reference bioceramic for bone replacement and regeneration medical practice, becoming one of the most produced and researched bone graft material. Since it is a material for biomedical application, the manufacture and storage of this bioceramic must comply with severe conservation criteria, and its validity date is the lawful major factor for disposal. Materials with the exceeded expiration date are usually discarded and incinerated, resulting in ash, environmental contamination and energy expenditure. This study evaluates the possibility of reuse of bovine HA collected after its validity date as raw material to obtain bioglass, aiming to natural resources saving and environmental emissions mitigation. 45S5 similar compositions were obtained by melting the materials at 1500 ° C, followed by rapid cooling and annealing thermal treatment (500 ° C for 2h), analytical grade chemical reagents were used to set the final composition. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and hydrolysis resistance techniques. The results of comparative chemical resistance (Hydrolytic) tests indicate the potential use of the materials developed for bone replacement applications. (author)

  20. Review of processes for the release of DOE real and non-real property for reuse and recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranek, N.L.; Kamboj, S.; Hensley, J.; Chen, S.Y.; Blunt, D.

    1997-11-01

    This report summarizes the underlying historical and regulatory framework supporting the concept of authorizing release for restricted or unrestricted reuse or recycle of real and non-real U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) properties containing residual radioactive material. Basic radiation protection principles as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection are reviewed, and international initiatives to investigate radiological clearance criteria are reported. Applicable requirements of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Environmental Protection Agency, DOE, and the State of Washington are discussed. Several processes that have been developed for establishing cleanup and release criteria for real and non-real DOE property containing residual radioactive material are presented. Examples of DOE real property for which radiological cleanup criteria were established to support unrestricted release are provided. Properties discussed include Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Project sites, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project sites, the Shippingport decommissioning project, the south-middle and south-east vaults in the 317 area at Argonne National Laboratory, the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor at DOE's Savannah River Site, the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor at Argonne National Laboratory, and the Weldon Spring site. Some examples of non-real property for which DOE sites have established criteria to support unrestricted release are also furnished. 10 figs., 4 tabs

  1. An Analysis of Regulatory Strategies for Recycling and Re-Use of Metals in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Gumley

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers regulatory strategies that promote more efficient use of material inputs within the Australian economy, with particular focus on recycling and recovery of metals, drawing upon the concept of a “circular economy”. It briefly reviews the nature of regulation and trends in regulatory strategies within changing policy contexts, and then examines the regulatory framework applicable to the various phases in the life cycle of metals, ranging from extraction of minerals to processing and assimilation of metals into finished products, through to eventual disposal of products as waste. Discussion focuses upon the regulatory strategies applied in each phase and the changing roles of government and business operators within global distribution networks. It is concluded that the prevailing political agenda favoring deregulation and reduced taxation may be a major barrier to development of new styles of regulation and more effective use of taxation powers that is needed to support a more circular economy in metals. The implication for future research is the need to substantiate the outcomes of reflexive regulatory strategies with well-designed empirical studies.

  2. Solid waste from aluminum recycling process: characterization and reuse of its economically valuable constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, M C; Hypolito, R

    2005-01-01

    Due to economic advantages, many companies in Brazil recover Al from the process of crushing and water-leaching of secondary aluminum dross. Wastes from this process (non-metallic products and salts) are usually landfilled or disposed without treatment, causing many environmental damages. The purpose of this work is to investigate, in a recycling company sited in Sao Paulo metropolitan area (Brazil), the potential use of the non-metallic product (NMP) in the production of concrete blocks and to evaluate the presence of important chemical compounds that may be useful for other applications. Chemical and mineralogical analyses revealed that NMP is composed of refractory and abrasive oxides (alpha-Al2O3, MgAl2O4, SiO2) and an important source of transition alumina: alpha-Al(OH)3. Concrete blocks were made by adding two parts of NMP to one part of cement and four parts of sand. The blocks were tested according to the Brazilian standard (NBR7173/1982) and they passed dimension, humidity and absorption tests but not compressive strength tests. However, particular NMP constituents have accelerated the strength rate development of the blocks, thus decreasing working time. The commercial use of NMP can reduce the amount of discarded wastes contributing to environmental preservation.

  3. Recycling and Reuse of Materials Arising from the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities. A Report by the NEA Co-operative Program on Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooms, Bart; Verwaest, Isi; Legee, Frederic; Nokhamzon, Jean-Guy; Pieraccini, Michel; Poncet, Philippe; Franzen, Nicole; Vignaroli, Tiziano; Herschend, Bjoern; Benest, Terry; Loudon, David; Favret, Derek; Weber, Inge; )

    2017-01-01

    Large quantities of materials arising from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities are non-radioactive per se. An additional, significant share of materials is of very low-level or low-level radioactivity and can, after having undergone treatment and a clearance process, be recycled and reused in a restricted or unrestricted way. Recycle and reuse options today provide valuable solutions to minimise radioactive waste from decommissioning and at the same time maximise the recovery of valuable materials. The NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning (CPD) prepared this overview on the various approaches being undertaken by international and national organisations for the management of slightly contaminated material resulting from activities in the nuclear sector. The report draws on CPD member organisations' experiences and practices related to recycling and reuse, which were gathered through an international survey. It provides information on improvements and changes in technologies, methodologies and regulations since the 1996 report on this subject, with the conclusions and recommendations taking into account 20 years of additional experience that will be useful for current and future practitioners. Case studies are provided to illustrate significant points of interest, for example in relation to scrap metals, concrete and soil

  4. Savana: Re-using Electronic Health Records with Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Hernández Medrano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Health information grows exponentially (doubling every 5 years, thus generating a sort of inflation of science, i.e. the generation of more knowledge than we can leverage. In an unprecedented data-driven shift, today doctors have no longer time to keep updated. This fact explains why only one in every five medical decisions is based strictly on evidence, which inevitably leads to variability. A good solution lies on clinical decision support systems, based on big data analysis. As the processing of large amounts of information gains relevance, automatic approaches become increasingly capable to see and correlate information further and better than the human mind can. In this context, healthcare professionals are increasingly counting on a new set of tools in order to deal with the growing information that becomes available to them on a daily basis. By allowing the grouping of collective knowledge and prioritizing “mindlines” against “guidelines”, these support systems are among the most promising applications of big data in health. In this demo paper we introduce Savana, an AI-enabled system based on Natural Language Processing (NLP and Neural Networks, capable of, for instance, the automatic expansion of medical terminologies, thus enabling the re-use of information expressed in natural language in clinical reports. This automatized and precise digital extraction allows the generation of a real time information engine, which is currently being deployed in healthcare institutions, as well as clinical research and management.

  5. Challenges in legislation, recycling system and technical system of waste electrical and electronic equipment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengen; Ding, Yunji; Liu, Bo; Pan, De'an; Chang, Chein-chi; Volinsky, Alex A

    2015-11-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been one of the fastest growing waste streams worldwide. Effective and efficient management and treatment of WEEE has become a global problem. As one of the world's largest electronic products manufacturing and consumption countries, China plays a key role in the material life cycle of electrical and electronic equipment. Over the past 20 years, China has made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. Centered on the legal, recycling and technical systems, this paper reviews the progresses of WEEE recycling in China. An integrated recycling system is proposed to realize WEEE high recycling rate for future WEEE recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment Of Wastewater For Reuse With Mobile Electron Beam Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.; Zommer, N.

    2012-01-01

    The use of alternative disinfectants to chlorine for the wastewater treatment has received increasing attention in recent years to treat either liquid or solids streams within wastewater treatment plants for pathogens and trace organics (TOrCs). Although several technologies have come to the forefront as an alternative to chlorine (e.g., ultraviolet [UV] and hydrogen peroxide), the majority of these technologies are chemically based, with the exception of UV. An attractive physical disinfection approach is by electron beam (EB) irradiation. EB treatment of wastewater leads to their purification from various pollutants. It is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis: hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom [Pikaev (1986)]. Sometimes methods such as EB with biological treatment, adsorption and others improve the effect of EB treatment of the wastewater purification. In the process of EB treatment of wastewater there are utilized chemical transformations of pollutants induced by ionizing radiation. At sufficiently high absorbed doses these transformations can result in complete decomposition (removal) of the substance. Under real conditions, i.e., at rather high content of pollutants in a wastewater and economically acceptable doses, partial decomposition of pollutant takes place as well as transformations of pollutant molecules that result in improving subsequent purification stages, efficiency of the process being notably influenced by irradiation conditions and wastewater composition [Woods and Pikaev (1994)]. (author)

  7. Treatment Of Wastewater For Reuse With Mobile Electron Beam Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, Y. R. [EB TECH Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Zommer, N. [Pele Inc., Milpitas Californaa (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The use of alternative disinfectants to chlorine for the wastewater treatment has received increasing attention in recent years to treat either liquid or solids streams within wastewater treatment plants for pathogens and trace organics (TOrCs). Although several technologies have come to the forefront as an alternative to chlorine (e.g., ultraviolet [UV] and hydrogen peroxide), the majority of these technologies are chemically based, with the exception of UV. An attractive physical disinfection approach is by electron beam (EB) irradiation. EB treatment of wastewater leads to their purification from various pollutants. It is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis: hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom [Pikaev (1986)]. Sometimes methods such as EB with biological treatment, adsorption and others improve the effect of EB treatment of the wastewater purification. In the process of EB treatment of wastewater there are utilized chemical transformations of pollutants induced by ionizing radiation. At sufficiently high absorbed doses these transformations can result in complete decomposition (removal) of the substance. Under real conditions, i.e., at rather high content of pollutants in a wastewater and economically acceptable doses, partial decomposition of pollutant takes place as well as transformations of pollutant molecules that result in improving subsequent purification stages, efficiency of the process being notably influenced by irradiation conditions and wastewater composition [Woods and Pikaev (1994)]. (author)

  8. Archetype-based data warehouse environment to enable the reuse of electronic health record data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Ruiz, Luis; Moner, David; Maldonado, José A; Kolstrup, Nils; Bellika, Johan G

    2015-09-01

    The reuse of data captured during health care delivery is essential to satisfy the demands of clinical research and clinical decision support systems. A main barrier for the reuse is the existence of legacy formats of data and the high granularity of it when stored in an electronic health record (EHR) system. Thus, we need mechanisms to standardize, aggregate, and query data concealed in the EHRs, to allow their reuse whenever they are needed. To create a data warehouse infrastructure using archetype-based technologies, standards and query languages to enable the interoperability needed for data reuse. The work presented makes use of best of breed archetype-based data transformation and storage technologies to create a workflow for the modeling, extraction, transformation and load of EHR proprietary data into standardized data repositories. We converted legacy data and performed patient-centered aggregations via archetype-based transformations. Later, specific purpose aggregations were performed at a query level for particular use cases. Laboratory test results of a population of 230,000 patients belonging to Troms and Finnmark counties in Norway requested between January 2013 and November 2014 have been standardized. Test records normalization has been performed by defining transformation and aggregation functions between the laboratory records and an archetype. These mappings were used to automatically generate open EHR compliant data. These data were loaded into an archetype-based data warehouse. Once loaded, we defined indicators linked to the data in the warehouse to monitor test activity of Salmonella and Pertussis using the archetype query language. Archetype-based standards and technologies can be used to create a data warehouse environment that enables data from EHR systems to be reused in clinical research and decision support systems. With this approach, existing EHR data becomes available in a standardized and interoperable format, thus opening a world

  9. Electron beam radiation effects on recycled polyamide-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evora, Maria Cecilia; Silva, Leonardo G. de Andrade e

    2001-01-01

    Applications of electron beam processing in the treatment of polymers are commonly used. The interaction of high energy radiation with polymers may cause permanent modifications in the polymer's physicochemical structure. The induced modifications may result in degradation of the polymer or in improvement of its properties (crosslinking), which are simultaneous and competing processes, depending on the radiation dose utilized. Crosslinking occurs more readily in the polymer's amorphous content and this process makes the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymers to increase. Successive recycling cycles promote changes in polymers properties, such as breaking of structure, molecular weight reduction, melt index increase and mechanical resistance reduction. The polyamide-6 resin was recycled for three successive recycling cycles and thi polyamide-6 specimens were molded by the process of injection molding. These specimens were irradiated at the Nuclear Energetic Research Institute (IPEN) radiation facility, on a JOB 188 model accelerator, with a 1.5 MeV electron beam, doses of 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 kGy, and dose rate of 22.61 kGy/s. The DMA tests were performed using DMA-983 equipment from TA Instruments and two heatings were adopted in order to eliminate the moisture absorption. The X-ray diffraction analysis wa carried out at the Philips PW 1830 model equipment

  10. Household recycling behaviour and attitudes towards the disposal of small electrical and electronic equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, Lauren; Obara, Louise [ESRC Centre for BRASS, Cardiff University, 54 Park Place, Cardiff, Wales CF10 3AT (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is recognised as the fastest growing waste stream in the European Union (EU), with estimates of up to 20kg per person per annum. A wide variety of WEEE is discarded by consumers, often in different ways depending on size with small items (e.g. toasters) being easier to dispose of than larger ones (e.g. washing machines). Currently, small WEEE is not treated as a priority waste stream in the UK as in order to meet targets under the WEEE Directive (CEC, 2003c) it makes more sense to focus on larger items for which collection, reuse and recycling systems already exist, but small items need to be tackled for a number of reasons, including the long term strategic development of infrastructure. In light of this, the paper will assess consumer attitudes towards the disposal of small WEEE, and identify key problems raised by the implementation of the WEEE Directive in relation to these small product groups. The findings from a large scale postal questionnaire, and semi-structured interviews conducted in Cardiff, Wales will be used, and key literature and research carried out to date on the disposal of WEEE, and household attitudes to waste and recycling will be assessed. It will also look at how the implementation of the WEEE Directive 'fits in' with the current transition in the UK towards more sustainable waste management practices at the household level, and then explore the most effective ways of engaging householders in the recycling of small WEEE. Key recommendations will then be outlined concerning the future strategic development and practical implementation of the WEEE Directive in relation to consumer involvement and small product types.

  11. Green Science: Revisiting Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling…

  12. An assessment and evaluation for recycle/reuse of contaminated process and metallurgical equipment at the DOE Rocky Flats Plant Site -- Building 865

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    An economic analysis of the potential advantages of alternatives for recycling and reusing equipment now stored in Building 865 at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado has been conducted. The inventory considered in this analysis consists primarily of metallurgical and process equipment used before January 1992, during development and production of nuclear weapons components at the site. The economic analysis consists of a thorough building inventory and cost comparisons for four equipment dispositions alternatives. The first is a baseline option of disposal at a Low Level Waste (LLW) landfill. The three alternatives investigated are metal recycling, reuse with the government sector, and release for unrestricted use. This report provides item-by-item estimates of value, disposal cost, and decontamination cost. The economic evaluation methods documented here, the simple cost comparisons presented, and the data provided as a supplement, should provide a foundation for D ampersand D decisions for Building 865, as well as for similar D ampersand D tasks at RFP and at other sites

  13. An assessment and evaluation for recycle/reuse of contaminated process and metallurgical equipment at the DOE Rocky Flats Plant Site -- Building 865. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    An economic analysis of the potential advantages of alternatives for recycling and reusing equipment now stored in Building 865 at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado has been conducted. The inventory considered in this analysis consists primarily of metallurgical and process equipment used before January 1992, during development and production of nuclear weapons components at the site. The economic analysis consists of a thorough building inventory and cost comparisons for four equipment dispositions alternatives. The first is a baseline option of disposal at a Low Level Waste (LLW) landfill. The three alternatives investigated are metal recycling, reuse with the government sector, and release for unrestricted use. This report provides item-by-item estimates of value, disposal cost, and decontamination cost. The economic evaluation methods documented here, the simple cost comparisons presented, and the data provided as a supplement, should provide a foundation for D&D decisions for Building 865, as well as for similar D&D tasks at RFP and at other sites.

  14. Results of the drilling cuttings reuse and recycling program of PetroPiar, S.A. (formerly Petrolera Ameriven, S.A.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrocha, A.; Ellis, G.; Camacho, R.; Crespo, A.; Jimenez, C. [PetroPiar, Caracas (Venezuela); Morales, F. [Simon Bolivar Univ., Caracas (Venezuela)

    2008-07-01

    Venezuela's Orinoco Oil Belt has been divided into 27 blocks depending on their technical characteristics. PetroPiar's area of exploration and production is located in the Ayacucho block. In an effort to support sustainable development, the company has initiated a research program to reuse and recycle the drill cuttings produced in the area. The drill cuttings are produced using a water based drilling mud. This paper presented the results of the program from year 2000. The drillings cuttings were shown to have excellent physical and mechanical properties. To date, approximately 81,860 m{sup 3} of drilling cuttings have been reused as blended or fill material in the construction of sub-bases and bases for well pads. A series of geophysical treatability tests are scheduled for 2007-2008 along with environmental characterizations to develop Cold Mix Asphalt with asphalt emulsions, through the reuse of oily drilling cuttings, to substitute a surface hot mix asphalt carpet. The optimum compaction humidity was shown to be 8 per cent. The equivalent of sand above 34 per cent allows for good compaction of the binder and the aggregate, producing a workable mix. Six per cent residual asphalt was shown to be the optimal binder for these mixes. 18 refs., 8 tabs., 15 figs.

  15. The development of technology for recycling of electronic scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hyo-Shin; Kim, Won-Baek; Sohn, Yong-Uhn [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    Electronic devices, especially computer becomes an essential tools for home and industries entering the information era. The number of computers exceed over 100 million, hence, the amount of end of life(EOL) computer and electronic scrap is increasing. These wastes and scraps include products rejected from manufacturing processes and obstacle computers. Owing to a short life cycle of electronic products and rapid growth of electronic industries, the number of domestic EOL computers goes beyond a million and its disposal causes an environmental problems. Therefore, this recycling is considered to play an important role from the viewpoint of environmental preservation as well as reusable resources. The process development for the recovery of valuable materials and minimization of waste from electronic scrap has been carried out. In the first year of three year project, physical separation such as shredding, crushing, and magnetic separation is established to reclaim valuable materials effectively. Then, hydro- and pyrometallurgical processes are employed to recover valuable metals from electronic scrap. First, metallic and nonmetallic portion are separated from PCBs by a newly designed shredder to prevent hazardous organic materials from further chemical treatment. The optimum conditions for each unit process were found in terms of separation ratio, energy consumption, recovery rate, etc. (author). 92 refs., 24 tabs., 39 figs.

  16. Recycling technologies for sewarage systems. Reuse of water, heat, and sludge in Tokyo; Gesuido wo meguru risaikuru gijutsu. Tokyoto ni okeru mizu/netsu/odei no sairiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mino, T. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1996-03-10

    The recycling technology employed in Tokyo were reported. It will be useful for developing and introducing the recycling technology for water, heat, and sludge in the sewage treatment. Among various kinds of recycling technology, one of the most peculiar technology is the district heating and cooling system using the heat of sewage. The Japan`s first practical plant which uses the untreated sewage as the heat source was installed and is now operating in Korakuen pump station. In the station, the energy contained in the sewage is recovered by a heat exchanger. The heat pump produces warm water of 45{degree}C and cold water of 7{degree}C as well. Both are supplied to the area near by through the heat source supply pipeline. The Nanbu sludge plant has a sludge-resourcing plant, in which the sludge is converted into fuel, metro-bricks, and light-weight granules, as well as a conventional sludge treatment plant carrying out the concentration, dehydration, and incineration of sludge. The Ochiai sewage treatment plant reuses water after cleaning. The clean water is used as for the service water in addition to being discharged into the river stream. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Dismantling techniques and recycling or other end-of-life treatments of other materials not commonly reused in roads

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, F. A.; Antunes, M. L.; Santos, C.

    2009-01-01

    Este registo pertence ao Repositório Científico do LNEC The interest of recycling of waste, industrial by-products and other road materials for pavement construction and rehabilitation has been generally growing in Portugal, for the last 10 years. Among the several types of wastes, there’s been a great interest in using recycled tyres as a raw material to be incorporated in asphalt paving mixtures. The first significant experience with asphalt rubber, manufactured by the wet...

  18. The second life of a stadium seat : Amsterdam Arena: A case study for reuse and recycling of discarded stadium seats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Liselotte; Langenberg, Erno; Malé-Alemany, Marta; Oskam, Inge; Slaats, Yanti

    2017-01-01

    Confronted by more and more global sustainabilityrelated challenges, society is increasingly aiming for a circular economy. Wouldn’t it be ideal if we could contribute to an economic model with closed loops, where products and materials that are at the end of their functional life are reused in new

  19. Electronic waste: chemical characterization glasses of tubes cathode rays with viability for recycling; Lixo eletronico: caracterizacao quimica dos vidros de tubos de raios catodicos com viabilidade para reciclagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Norma Maria O.; Morais, Crislene R. Silva, E-mail: normalimam@ig.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Lima, Lenilde Mergia Ribeiro [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UATEC/UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Tecnologia do Desenvolvimento

    2011-07-01

    Electronic waste, or e-waste, often makes incorrect destinations, which causes serious environmental problems. The aim of this study was to analyze the X-ray fluorescence to study the recycling technology for the glass of Cathode Ray Tubes or, popularly, 'picture tubes', identified by the acronym CRT (Cathode Ray Tubes), which integrate computer monitors. It was observed that the glass screen and funnel analyzed have different chemical compositions. As the silicon oxide (SiO2), the largest component of these glasses percentage 59.89% and 48.63% respectively for the screen and funnel this oxide is responsible for forming the vitreous network. The study of recycling of computer monitors it is important, since about 45% of existing materials on a monitor are made of glass, since it is 100% recyclable and can be reused, thus reducing the amount of waste deposited in the environment. (author)

  20. Informal electronic waste recycling: a sector review with special focus on China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xinwen; Streicher-Porte, Martin; Wang, Mark Y L; Reuter, Markus A

    2011-04-01

    Informal recycling is a new and expanding low cost recycling practice in managing Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE or e-waste). It occurs in many developing countries, including China, where current gaps in environmental management, high demand for second-hand electronic appliances and the norm of selling e-waste to individual collectors encourage the growth of a strong informal recycling sector. This paper gathers information on informal e-waste management, takes a look at its particular manifestations in China and identifies some of the main difficulties of the current Chinese approach. Informal e-waste recycling is not only associated with serious environmental and health impacts, but also the supply deficiency of formal recyclers and the safety problems of remanufactured electronic products. Experiences already show that simply prohibiting or competing with the informal collectors and informal recyclers is not an effective solution. New formal e-waste recycling systems should take existing informal sectors into account, and more policies need to be made to improve recycling rates, working conditions and the efficiency of involved informal players. A key issue for China's e-waste management is how to set up incentives for informal recyclers so as to reduce improper recycling activities and to divert more e-waste flow into the formal recycling sector. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Informal electronic waste recycling: A sector review with special focus on China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi Xinwen; Streicher-Porte, Martin; Wang, Mark Y.L.; Reuter, Markus A.

    2011-01-01

    Informal recycling is a new and expanding low cost recycling practice in managing Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE or e-waste). It occurs in many developing countries, including China, where current gaps in environmental management, high demand for second-hand electronic appliances and the norm of selling e-waste to individual collectors encourage the growth of a strong informal recycling sector. This paper gathers information on informal e-waste management, takes a look at its particular manifestations in China and identifies some of the main difficulties of the current Chinese approach. Informal e-waste recycling is not only associated with serious environmental and health impacts, but also the supply deficiency of formal recyclers and the safety problems of remanufactured electronic products. Experiences already show that simply prohibiting or competing with the informal collectors and informal recyclers is not an effective solution. New formal e-waste recycling systems should take existing informal sectors into account, and more policies need to be made to improve recycling rates, working conditions and the efficiency of involved informal players. A key issue for China's e-waste management is how to set up incentives for informal recyclers so as to reduce improper recycling activities and to divert more e-waste flow into the formal recycling sector.

  2. Recycling-Oriented Product Characterization for Electric and Electronic Equipment as a Tool to Enable Recycling of Critical Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Vera Susanne; Chancerel, Perrine; Ueberschaar, Maximilian

    To establish a knowledge base for new recycling processes of critical elements, recycling-orientated product characterization for Electric and Electronic Equipment (EEE) can be used as a tool. This paper focuses on necessary data and procedures for a successful characterization and provides information about existing scientific work. The usage of this tool is illustrated for two application: Hard Disk Drives (HDD) and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) panels. In the first case it could be shown that Neodymium and other Rare Earth Elements are concentrated in magnets (25% by weight) and contribute largely to the end demand of Neodymium. Nevertheless, recycling is limited by the difficult liberation and competing other target metals contained in HDD. In the second case it could be shown that also for this application the usage of Indium is concentrated in LCDs, but unlike in magnets the concentration is lower (200 ppm). The design of LCDs with two glued glass layers and the Indium-Tin-Oxide layer in between make the Indium inaccessible for hydro-metallurgical recovery, the glass content puts energetic limitations on pyro-metallurgical processes. For the future technical development of recycling infrastructure we need an in depth understanding of product design and recycling relevant parameters for product characterization focusing on new target metals. This product-centered approach allows also re-think traditional "design for recycling" approaches.

  3. Radiological characterisation and its role in the efficient management of low-level radioactive material supporting concurrent reuse, recycling and disposal. WNA Statement - Towards Greater Efficiency in the Management of Low-Level Radioactive Material that Concurrently Supports Reuse, Recycling and Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townes, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    There are currently 435 operating civil nuclear power reactors in the world with an impressive number planned or already under construction as well as a range of associated nuclear fuel cycle and research facilities. Advances in the prior radiological characterisation of the materials which exist within these facilities and which are produced through their operation have enabled these materials to be characterised to a very high degree of precision and sensitivity with associated improvements in the limits of detection for radioactivity. This has enabled an accurate and reliable knowledge of their radiological properties to be gained along with an evaluation of the associated risks from radioactive components even down to very small values. Following their use, either at the end of an operational process or at the end of the facility's life, these materials, if they cannot be re-used, must be recycled or disposed of. The knowledge derived from characterisation has shown that the major volume of such materials (excluding used nuclear fuel) fall into a category which is amenable to re-cycling through the application of established survey and treatment techniques. Such materials contain valuable resources which, in a world committed to greater efficiency and sustainability, must be conserved through recycling in order to optimise the demand for fresh resources which must be found, extracted and processed as well as to conserve valuable space in national disposal facilities. Despite these advances irrationality concerning the reuse, recycling and disposal of materials containing low levels of radioactivity continues to prevail, even in countries with large nuclear power programmes. Should the facts about the true nature of the materials, gained and refined through advances in radiological characterisation, become more widely known then this could depolarise an often negatively charged debate. Combined with a knowledge of the safe and effective treatment techniques that

  4. Reúso de água em indústria de reciclagem de plástico tipo PEAD Water reuse on HDPE plastics recycling pack industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cristina Orsi Bordonalli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A discussão acerca da viabilidade técnica, econômica e ambiental do reúso da água em processos industriais tem sido uma preocupação constante. Neste trabalho propõe-se uma alternativa simplificada para o tratamento de efluentes com vistas ao seu reúso em uma indústria de reciclagem de plásticos. A água, no presente caso, é componente fundamental para o processo, já que participa como elemento de remoção de detritos e impurezas que contaminam a matriz da matéria-prima utilizada, proveniente, principalmente, de aterros sanitários e lixões. As embalagens plásticas recicladas pela indústria em questão são, em sua grande maioria, de uso doméstico e, em menor escala, frascos contaminados com óleos lubrificantes. Os resultados demonstraram a viabilidade do tratamento através de processo físico-químico por coagulação, floculação, decantação e filtração em manta geotêxtil, com o uso do hidroxicloreto de alumínio (PAC como coagulante, soda cáustica (50% como alcalinizante e polieletrólito como auxiliar de floculação e desidratação do lodo, bem como a exequibilidade do reúso dos efluentes em circuito fechado.The discussion about technical, economical and environmental feasibility of water reuse in industrial process has been a constant concern. This paper purposes a simplified choice for waste water treatment seeking reuse in a plastic recycle industry. The water, in this case, is a prime component because it is the main element for the debris and impurities removal that contaminates the matrix of plastic raw material, which comes, mostly, from landfill and waste disposals. The recycled plastic packages, from the company that had been used for this research, come mostly from domestic use and, in a minor scale, the plastic package contaminated by lubricant oil. The final results show feasible for the treatment through physical-chemical process by coagulation, flocculation, decantation and filtration on geotextile

  5. Guidance document for multi-facility recycle/reuse/free release of metals from radiological control area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogol, S.; Starke, T.

    1997-01-01

    Approximately 15% of the Low Level Waste (LLW) produced at Los Alamos consists of scrap metal equipment and materials. The majority of this material is produced by decommissioning and modification of existing facilities. To address this waste stream, Los Alamos has developed a scrap metal recycling program that is operated by the Environmental Stewardship Office to minimize the amount of LLW metal sent for LLW landfill disposal. Past practice has supported treating all waste metals generated within RCA's as contaminated. Through the metal recycling project, ESO is encouraging the use of alternatives to LLW disposal. Diverting RSM from waste landfill, disposal protects the environment, reduces the cost of operation, and reduces the cost of maintenance and operation at landfill sites. Waste minimization efforts also results in a twofold economic reward: The RSM has a market value and decontamination reduces the volume and therefore the amount of the radioactive waste to be buried within landfills

  6. Report on reuse of concrete and masonry in foreign countries; Concrete no recycle ni kansuru kaigai no doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamato, T. [Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-07-01

    Referring to the report by RILEM in 1976, this paper introduces the status and guidelines on recycling concrete in foreign countries. In Flanders, Belgium, a sub-committee was established in 1990 under the auspices of Environment Agency and the Ministry of Construction. Researches and investigations have been carried out to prepare flexible guidelines so that reclaimed aggregates may be used in public constructions. The Belgian Road Research Center, the Belgian Building Research Institute and its subsidiaries are supporting several investigation and research projects. In England, about 10% of aggregates is estimated to have been made of wastes and recycled materials. The seventh revised edition of the expressway construction specifications in the concrete aggregate standard BS882 has approved for use as an aggregate for pavement concrete if quality of crushed concrete meets the quality and grain size standard of BS882. Additionally, this paper shows a list of specifications and standards for reclaimed aggregates made in the U.S.A., France, Germany and other countries. 18 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Perspectives for medical informatics. Reusing the electronic medical record for clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokosch, H U; Ganslandt, T

    2009-01-01

    Even though today most university hospitals have already implemented commercial hospital information systems and started to build up comprehensive electronic medical records, reuse of such data for data warehousing and research purposes is still very rare. Given this situation, the focus of this paper is to present an overview on exemplary projects, which have already tackled this challenge, reflect on current initiatives within the United States of America and the European Union to establish IT infrastructures for clinical and translational research, and draw attention to new challenges in this area. This paper does not intend to provide a fully comprehensive review on all the issues of clinical routine data reuse. It is based, however, on a presentation of a large variety of historical, but also most recent activities in data warehousing, data retrieval and linking medical informatics with translational research. The article presents an overview of the various international approaches to this issue and illustrates concepts and solutions which have been published, thus giving an impression of activities pursued in this field of medical informatics. Further, problems and open questions, which have also been named in the literature, are presented and three challenges (to establish comprehensive clinical data warehouses, to establish professional IT infrastructure applications supporting clinical trial data capture and to integrate medical record systems and clinical trial databases) related to this area of medical informatics are identified and presented. Translational biomedical research with the aim "to integrate bedside and biology" and to bridge the gap between clinical care and medical research today and in the years to come, provides a large and interesting field for medical informatics researchers. Especially the need for integrating clinical research projects with data repositories built up during documentation of routine clinical care, today still leaves

  8. Frequent Questions on Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a list of frequent questions on recycling, broken down into five categories. These are answers to common questions that EPA has received from press and web inquiries. This list is located on the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle website.

  9. Reuse of scrap of Al and steel SAE 1045 in metal composite as alternative of recycling route powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, V.E.S.; Masieiro, F.R.S.; Lourenco, J.M.; Felipe, R.C.T.S.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The process of powder metallurgy in the production of parts through application of pressure on the selected ceramic or metal powders, which are subjected to a temperature of sintering for to occur consolidation of the components. The metal-mechanical industry is responsible for the generation of inputs from their manufacturing processes. This work aims to re-use of chips of Al and SAE 1045 steel by powder metallurgy of this is a viable and effective. This work is in the manufacture of a composite using Al 6060 metal matrix and steel 1045 as reinforcement (30%, 40%, 50%), under different compaction pressures (250MPa, 400MPa and 600MPa), analyzing the influence of compressibility in hardness of the compressed. The samples were sintered at a temperature of 500 ° C in an oven using resistive atmosphere of hydrogen for 45 minutes. After the procedures of the powder metallurgy technique were analyzed of the optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction, MEV and Rockwell hardness, which was found to be evaluated as not diffusibility between the steel and aluminum. (author)

  10. An Integrated Approach to Identification, Assessment and Management of Watershed-Scale Risk for Sustainable Water Use Through Reuse and Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, C. K.; Bolster, D.; Gironas, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Water resources are essential to development, not only economically but also socially, politically and ecologically. With growing demand and potentially shrinking supply, water scarcity is one of the most pressing socio-ecological problems of the 21st century. Considering implications of global change and the complexity of interrelated systems, uncertain future conditions compound problems associated with water stress, requiring hydrologic models to re-examine traditional water resource planning and management. The Copiapó water basin, located in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile exhibits a complex resource management scenario. With annual average precipitation of only 28 mm, water intensive sectors such as export agriculture, extensive mining, and a growing population have depleted the aquifeŕs reserves to near critical levels. Being that global climate change models predict a decrease in already scarce precipitation, and that growing population and economies demand will likely increase, the real future situation might be even worse than that predicted. A viable option for alleviation of water stress, water reuse and recycling has evolved through technological innovation to feasibly meet hydraulic needs with reclaimed water. For the proper application of these methods for resource management, however, stakeholders must possess tools by which to quantify hydrologic risk, understand its factors of causation, and choose between competing management scenarios and technologies so as to optimize productivity. While previous investigations have addressed similar problems, they often overlook aspects of forecasting uncertainty, proposing solutions that while accurate under specific scenarios, lack robustness to withstand future variations. Using the WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning) platform for hydrologic modeling, this study proposes a methodology, applicable to other stressed watersheds, to quantify inherent risk in water management positions, while considering

  11. 3. International conference on oxidation technologies for water and wastewater treatment. Special topic: AOP's for recycling and reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogelpohl, A. (ed.)

    2003-07-01

    With the increasing pressure on a more effective and sustainable use of water resources, those water treatment technologies become more and more important which will allow for a recycling of wastewater for agricultural and/or industrial purposes. The so-called advanced oxidation processes (AOP's) belong to these technologies as they offer the potential of a complete conversion of the water pollutants to carbon dioxide, water and mineral salts. Despite the progress that has been achieved in understanding and applying AOP's, the most significant disadvantages of the oxidation technologies are the high investment and operating costs. As these technologies are the high investment and operating costs. As these technologies are based on radical reactions, more effective means of producing radicals and a deeper insight in the reaction pathways will be the key for generating radicals at lower costs as well as choosing the optimum process conditions and defining the applications where AOP's are most competitive. Two national, three international conferences with the publication of their papers in water science and technology (1997 and 2001) as well as the foundation of the IWA Specialist Group on AOP's in 2001 demonstrate the success and the necessity of this conference series. It is designed to bring forward the most recent advances in the fundamentals as well as the development and the application of AOP's especially in the field of water recycling reuse. It will help to disseminate new achievements in these areas and to identify future research and development needs. The increased number of interesting papers submitted will be the basis for a successful, fruitful and hopefully critical conference in Goslar. (orig.)

  12. Continuation of Research, Commercialization, and Workforce Development in the Polymer/Electronics Recycling Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mel Croucher; Rakesh Gupta; Hota GangaRao; Darran Cairns; Jinzing Wang; Xiaodong Shi; Jason Linnell; Karen Facemyer; Doug Ritchie; Jeff Tucker

    2009-09-30

    The MARCEE Project was established to understand the problems associated with electronics recycling and to develop solutions that would allow an electronics recycling industry to emerge. While not all of the activities have been funded by MARCEE, but through private investment, they would not have occurred had the MARCEE Project not been undertaken. The problems tackled and the results obtained using MARCEE funds are discussed in detail in this report.

  13. Sustainable approach for recycling waste lamb and chicken bones for fluoride removal from water followed by reusing fluoride-bearing waste in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Zainab Z; AbdelKareem, Hala N

    2015-11-01

    Sustainable management of waste materials is an attractive approach for modern societies. In this study, recycling of raw waste lamb and chicken bones for defluoridation of water has been estimated. The effects of several experimental parameters including contact time, pH, bone dose, fluoride initial concentration, bone grains size, agitation rate, and the effect of co-existing anions in actual samples of wastewater were studied for fluoride removal from aqueous solutions. Results indicated excellent fluoride removal efficiency up to 99.4% and 99.8% using lamb and chicken bones, respectively at fluoride initial concentration of 10 mg F/L and 120 min contact time. Maximum fluoride uptake was obtained at neutral pH range 6-7. Fluoride removal kinetic was well described by the pseudo-second order kinetic model. Both, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models could fit the experimental data well with correlation coefficient values >0.99 suggesting favorable conditions of the process. Furthermore, for complete sustainable management of waste bones, the resulted fluoride-bearing sludge was reused in concrete mixes to partially replace sand. Tests of the mechanical properties of fluoride sludge-modified concrete mixes indicated a potential environmentally friendly approach to dispose fluoride sludge in concrete and simultaneously enhance concrete properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of cell-based assays for toxicity characterization of complex wastewater matrices: Possible applications in wastewater recycle and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Preeti; Naoghare, Pravin K; Gandhi, Deepa; Devi, S Saravana; Krishnamurthi, Kannan; Bafana, Amit; Kashyap, Sanjay M; Chakrabarti, Tapan

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to pre-concentrated inlet or outlet STP wastewater extracts at different concentrations (0.001% to 1%) induced dose-dependent toxicity in MCF-7 cells, whereas drinking water extracts did not induce cytotoxicity in cells treated. GC-MS analysis revealed the occurrence of xenobiotic compounds (Benzene, Phthalate, etc.) in inlet/outlet wastewater extracts. Cells exposed to inlet/outlet extract showed elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS: inlet: 186.58%, ploss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm: inlet, 74.91%, pcontrol. These concentrations induced DNA damage (Tail length: inlet: 34.4%, pcontrol (Tail length: 7.5%). Cell cycle analysis displayed drastic reduction in the G1 phase in treated cells (inlet, G1:45.0%; outlet, G1:58.3%) compared to the control (G1:67.3%). Treated cells showed 45.18% and 28.0% apoptosis compared to the control (1.2%). Drinking water extracts did not show any significant alterations with respect to ROS, Δψm, DNA damage, cell cycle and apoptosis compared to the control. Genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis were found to be differentially expressed in cells exposed to inlet/outlet extracts. Herein, we propose cell-based toxicity assays to evaluate the efficacies of wastewater treatment and recycling processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Method of converting uranium fluoride to intermediate product for uranium oxide manufacture with recycling or reusing valuable materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, V.; Moltasova, J.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium fluoride is acted upon by water with nitrate containing a cation capable of binding fluoride ions. The uranium is extracted, for instance, with tributyl phosphate with the generated organic phase containing the prevalent proportion of uranium and representing the required intermediate product and the aqueous phase from which is isolated the fluorine component which may be used within the fuel cycle. The nitrate component of the aqueous phase is recycled following treatment. It is also possible to act on uranium fluoride directly with an aqueous solution. Here the cations of nitrate form with the fluorides soluble nondissociated complexes and reduce the concentration of free fluoride ions. The nitrate +s mostly used in an amount corresponding to its solubility in the system prior to the introduction of UF 6 . The uranium from the solution with the reduced concentration of free fluoride ions is extracted into the reaction system under such conditions as to make the prevalent majority of fluorides and an amount of uranium smaller than 5x10 -2 mol/l remain in the aqueous phase and that such an amount of fluorides should remain in the organic phase which is smaller than corresponds to the fluorine/uranium molar ratio in the organic phase. Uranium contained in the organic phase is processed into uranium oxide, with advantage into UO 2 . From the isolated compounds of fluorine and the cation of the nitrate gaseous HF is released which is used either inside or outside of the fuel cycle. (J.P.)

  16. Hanford recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, I.M.

    1996-09-01

    This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be improved by: 0 Establishing one overall

  17. The recycling and disposal of electrical and electronic waste in China-legislative and market responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, C.; Dietmar, R.; Eugster, M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of new legislation on collection, recycling and disposal of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) as well as the scaling-up and privatisation of the WEEE processing industry, are indications of major changes for WEEE management in China. However, China's attempts to regulate the industry and establish a financially viable, environmentally benign and safe WEEE management system are facing significant challenges. The existence of an extensive informal sector, combined with a lack of environmental awareness among WEEE collectors, recyclers and consumers, are contributing to China's difficulties in developing a financially and environmentally sound recycling and disposal system. This paper discusses the current status of WEEE recycling and disposal in China, and its impacts on the environment, human health, and the economy. It also examines the legislative and market responses to the WEEE issue, and how these will be affected by Chinese attitudes and practices towards WEEE recycling

  18. Generation of X-rays by electrons recycling through thin internal targets of cyclic accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplin, V.; Kuznetsov, S.; Uglov, S.

    2018-05-01

    The use of thin (recycling effect) of electrons through them. The multiplicity of electron passes (M) is determined by the electron energy, accelerator parameters, the thickness, structure and material of a target and leads to an increase in the effective target thickness and the efficiency of radiation generation. The increase of M leads to the increase in the emittance of electron beams which can change the characteristics of radiation processes. The experimental results obtained using the Tomsk synchrotron and betatron showed the possibility of increasing the yield and brightness of coherent X-rays generated by the electrons passing (recycling) through thin crystals and periodic multilayers placed into the chambers of accelerators, when the recycling effect did not influence on the spectral and angular characteristics of generated X-rays.

  19. A Pilot Assessment of Occupational Health Hazards in the US Electronic Scrap Recycling Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Diana M; Gong, Wei; Page, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) surveyed a randomly selected sample of electronic scrap (e-scrap) recycling facilities nationwide to characterize work processes, exposures, and controls. Despite multiple attempts to contact 278 facilities, only 47 responded (17% response rate). Surveyed facilities reported recycling a wide variety of electronics. The most common recycling processes were manual dismantling and sorting. Other processes included shredding, crushing, and automated separation. Many facilities reported that they had health and safety programs in place. However, some facilities reported the use of compressed air for cleaning, a practice that can lead to increased employee dust exposures, and some facilities allowed food and drinks in the production areas, a practice that can lead to ingestion of contaminants. Although our results may not be generalizable to all US e-scrap recycling facilities, they are informative regarding health and safety programs in the industry. We concluded that e-scrap recycling has the potential for a wide variety of occupational exposures particularly because of the frequent use of manual processes. On-site evaluations of e-scrap recyclers are needed to determine if reported work processes, practices, and controls are effective and meet current standards and guidelines. Educating the e-scrap recycling industry about health and safety best practices, specifically related to safe handling of metal dust, would help protect employees.

  20. Possible Sources of Bias in Primary Care Electronic Health Record Data Use and Reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheij, Robert A; Curcin, Vasa; Delaney, Brendan C; McGilchrist, Mark M

    2018-05-29

    Enormous amounts of data are recorded routinely in health care as part of the care process, primarily for managing individual patient care. There are significant opportunities to use these data for other purposes, many of which would contribute to establishing a learning health system. This is particularly true for data recorded in primary care settings, as in many countries, these are the first place patients turn to for most health problems. In this paper, we discuss whether data that are recorded routinely as part of the health care process in primary care are actually fit to use for other purposes such as research and quality of health care indicators, how the original purpose may affect the extent to which the data are fit for another purpose, and the mechanisms behind these effects. In doing so, we want to identify possible sources of bias that are relevant for the use and reuse of these type of data. This paper is based on the authors' experience as users of electronic health records data, as general practitioners, health informatics experts, and health services researchers. It is a product of the discussions they had during the Translational Research and Patient Safety in Europe (TRANSFoRm) project, which was funded by the European Commission and sought to develop, pilot, and evaluate a core information architecture for the learning health system in Europe, based on primary care electronic health records. We first describe the different stages in the processing of electronic health record data, as well as the different purposes for which these data are used. Given the different data processing steps and purposes, we then discuss the possible mechanisms for each individual data processing step that can generate biased outcomes. We identified 13 possible sources of bias. Four of them are related to the organization of a health care system, whereas some are of a more technical nature. There are a substantial number of possible sources of bias; very little is

  1. Beneficial reuse '97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The annual Beneficial Reuse Conference was conducted in Knoxville, Tennessee from August 5-7, 1997. Now in its fifth year, this conference has become the national forum for discussing the beneficial reuse and recycle of contaminated buildings, equipment and resources, and the fabrication of useful products from such resources. As in the past, the primary goal of Beneficial Reuse ''97 was to provide a forum for the practitioners of pollution prevention, decontamination and decommissioning, waste minimization, reindustrialization, asset management, privatization and recycling to share their successes and failures, as well as their innovative strategies and operational experiences with the assembled group of stakeholders. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for contributions to this conference proceedings

  2. Electron beam irradiation process applied to primary and secondary recycled high density polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Jéssica R.; Moura, Eduardo de; Geraldo, Áurea B.C., E-mail: ageraldo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Plastic bags, packaging and furniture items are examples of plastic utilities always present in life. However, the end-of-life of plastics impacts the environment because of this ubiquity and also often their high degradation time. Recycling processes are important in this scenario because they offer many solutions to this problem. Basically, four ways are known for plastic recycling: primary recycling, which consists in re-extrusion of clean plastic scraps from a production plant; secondary recycling, that uses end-of-life products that generally are reduced in size by extrusion to obtain a more desirable shape for reprocessing (pellets and powder); tertiary recover which is related to thermo-chemical methods to produce fuels and petrochemical feedstock; and quaternary route, that is related to energy recovery and it is done in appropriate reactors. In this work, high density polyethylene (HDPE) was recovered to simulate empirically the primary and secondary recycling ways using materials which ranged from pristine to 20-fold re-extrused materials. The final 20-fold recycled thermoplastic was irradiated in an electron beam accelerator under a dose rate of 22.4 kGy/s and absorbed doses of 50 kGy and 100 kGy. The characterization of HDPE in distinct levels of recovering was performed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric degradation. In the HDPE recycling, degradation and crosslinking are consecutive processes; degradation is very noticeable in the 20-fold recycled product. Despite this, the 20-fold recycled product presents crosslinking after irradiation process and the post-irradiation product presents similarities in spectroscopic and thermal degradation characteristics of pristine, irradiated HDPE. These results are discussed. (author)

  3. Electron beam irradiation process applied to primary and secondary recycled high density polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Jéssica R.; Moura, Eduardo de; Geraldo, Áurea B.C.

    2017-01-01

    Plastic bags, packaging and furniture items are examples of plastic utilities always present in life. However, the end-of-life of plastics impacts the environment because of this ubiquity and also often their high degradation time. Recycling processes are important in this scenario because they offer many solutions to this problem. Basically, four ways are known for plastic recycling: primary recycling, which consists in re-extrusion of clean plastic scraps from a production plant; secondary recycling, that uses end-of-life products that generally are reduced in size by extrusion to obtain a more desirable shape for reprocessing (pellets and powder); tertiary recover which is related to thermo-chemical methods to produce fuels and petrochemical feedstock; and quaternary route, that is related to energy recovery and it is done in appropriate reactors. In this work, high density polyethylene (HDPE) was recovered to simulate empirically the primary and secondary recycling ways using materials which ranged from pristine to 20-fold re-extrused materials. The final 20-fold recycled thermoplastic was irradiated in an electron beam accelerator under a dose rate of 22.4 kGy/s and absorbed doses of 50 kGy and 100 kGy. The characterization of HDPE in distinct levels of recovering was performed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric degradation. In the HDPE recycling, degradation and crosslinking are consecutive processes; degradation is very noticeable in the 20-fold recycled product. Despite this, the 20-fold recycled product presents crosslinking after irradiation process and the post-irradiation product presents similarities in spectroscopic and thermal degradation characteristics of pristine, irradiated HDPE. These results are discussed. (author)

  4. Wastewater reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan R. Radosavljević

    2013-12-01

    application and technology applied are ​​significantly dependent on socio-economic circumstances, industry structure, climate and politics. Reuse of water for irrigation of agricultural crops Fourty-one percent of the recycled water in Japan, 60% in California (USA, and 15% in Tunisia is used for irrigation of crops. In China, at least 1.33 million hectares of agricultural land is irrigated with untreated or partially treated wastewater (http://www.eolss.net. Agricultural irrigation is essential to improve the quality and quantity of production. By 2025, agriculture is expected to increase its water requirements by 1.2 times (http://www.unep.or.jp. If wastewater originatines from industrial sources, the presence of toxic chemicals, salts and heavy metals may limit its reuse. Such materials can change soil properties and may affect the growth of crops, so that appropriate treatment and supervision should be practiced. Recycled water that is important for agriculture must contain nitrogen, potassium, zinc, boron and sulfur. However, excess nitrogen can lead to overgrowth, delayed crop maturity and poor quality. Boron is an essential element for plant growth, and the excess boron becomes toxic. Tunisia is one of a few countries that have implemented a national policy for the reuse of wastewater. Since 1960., the wastewater in Tunisia has been used for irrigation of orchards. Since 1989, after a secondary treatment, the wastewater has been used for the cultivation of various crops (olives, fodder, cotton, etc., except for growing vegetables. In countries such as Morocco, Jordan, Egypt, Malta, Cyprus and Spain, wastewater is either used or being considered for irrigation, while in Israel, the percentage of the use of wastewater for irrigation is the highest in the region, with 24.4% and should be increased to 36% in the future (http://www.eolss.net. Depending on the country, socio-economic conditions, may be different,  starting from the shortage of money for capital

  5. Environmental benefits from reusing clothes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrant, Laura; Olsen, Stig Irving; Wangel, Arne

    2010-01-01

    and Estonia, it was assumed that over 100 collected items 60 would be reused, 30 recycled in other ways and 10 go to final disposal Using these inputs, the LCA showed that the collection, processing and transport of second-hand clothing has insignificant impacts on the environment in comparison to the savings...... of establishing the net benefits from introducing clothes reuse. Indeed, it enables to take into consideration all the activities connected to reusing clothes, including, for instance, recycling and disposal of the collected clothes not suitable for reuse. In addition, the routes followed by the collected clothes....... Conclusions The results of the study show that clothes reuse can significantly contribute to reducing the environmental burden of clothing. Recommendations and perspectives It would be beneficial to apply other methods for estimating the avoided production of new clothes in order to check the validity...

  6. Rethink, Rework, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrhen, Linda; DiSpezio, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Information about the recycling and reuse of plastics, aluminum, steel, glass, and newspapers is presented. The phases of recycling are described. An activity that allows students to separate recyclable materials is included. The objectives, a list of needed materials, and procedure are provided. (KR)

  7. Characterization of Airborne Particles in an Electronic Waste Recycling Facility and Their Toxicity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improper disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) can lead to release of toxic chemicals into the environment and also may pose health risks. Thus, recycling e-waste, instead of landfilling, is considered to be an effective way to reduce pollutant release and exposure. However, lit...

  8. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • NMFs from WEEE were treated by incineration or land filling in the past. • Environmental risks such as heavy metals and BFRs will be the major problems during the NMFs recycling processes. • Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glasses are reviewed. • More environmental impact assessment should be carried out to evaluate the environmental risks of the recycling products. - Abstract: The world’s waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite

  9. Collection and recycling of electronic scrap: A worldwide overview and comparison with the Brazilian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis de Oliveira, Camila; Moura Bernardes, Andréa; Gerbase, Annelise Engel

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Review of the different e-waste collection systems and recycling processes. ► We present the e-waste collection systems used in Europe and in the US. ► We present e-waste collection systems used in Asia and Latin America. ► E-waste management between developed and developing countries is very different. ► We made a comparison of the world situation to the current Brazilian reality. - Abstract: Recycling and the related issue of sustainable development are increasing in importance around the world. In Brazil, the new National Policy on Solid Wastes has prompted discussion on the future of electronic waste (e-waste). Over the last 10 years, different e-waste collection systems and recycling processes have been applied globally. This paper presents the systems used in different countries and compares the world situation to the current Brazilian reality. To establish a recycling process, it is necessary to organize efficient collection management. The main difficulty associated with the implementation of e-waste recycling processes in Brazil is the collection system, as its efficiency depends not only on the education and cooperation of the people but also on cooperation among industrial waste generators, distributors and the government. Over half a million waste pickers have been reported in Brazil and they are responsible for the success of metal scrap collection in the country. The country also has close to 2400 companies and cooperatives involved in recycling and scrap trading. On the other hand, the collection and recycling of e-waste is still incipient because e-wastes are not seen as valuable in the informal sector. The Brazilian challenge is therefore to organize a system of e-waste management including the informal sector without neglecting environmentally sound management principles.

  10. Recycling of non-metallic fractions from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-08-01

    The world's waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, which have drawn much attention from the public. However, the major economic driving force for recycling of WEEE is the value of the metallic fractions (MFs). The non-metallic fractions (NMFs), which take up a large proportion of E-wastes, were treated by incineration or landfill in the past. NMFs from WEEE contain heavy metals, brominated flame retardant (BFRs) and other toxic and hazardous substances. Combustion as well as landfill may cause serious environmental problems. Therefore, research on resource reutilization and safe disposal of the NMFs from WEEE has a great significance from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Among the enormous variety of NMFs from WEEE, some of them are quite easy to recycle while others are difficult, such as plastics, glass and NMFs from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). In this paper, we mainly focus on the intractable NMFs from WEEE. Methods and technologies of recycling the two types of NMFs from WEEE, plastics, glass are reviewed in this paper. For WEEE plastics, the pyrolysis technology has the lowest energy consumption and the pyrolysis oil could be obtained, but the containing of BFRs makes the pyrolysis recycling process problematic. Supercritical fluids (SCF) and gasification technology have a potentially smaller environmental impact than pyrolysis process, but the energy consumption is higher. With regard to WEEE glass, lead removing is requisite before the reutilization of the cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass, and the recycling of liquid crystal display (LCD) glass is economically viable for the containing of precious metals (indium and tin). However, the environmental assessment of the recycling process is essential and important before the industrialized production stage. For example, noise and dust should be evaluated during the glass cutting process. This study could contribute

  11. Green Michael addition of thiols to electron deficient alkenes using KF/alumina and recyclable solvent or solvent-free conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenardao, Eder J.; Trecha, Danusia O.; Ferreira, Patricia da C.; Jacob, Raquel G.; Perin, Gelson [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPEL), Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica e Geociencias. Lab. de Sintese Organica Limpa (LASOL)]. E-mail: lenardao@ufpel.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    A general, clean and easy method for the conjugated addition of thiols to citral promoted by KF/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} under solvent-free or using glycerin as recyclable solvent at room temperature is described. It was found that the solvent-free protocol is applicable to the direct reaction of thiophenol with the essential oil of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) to afford directly 3,7-dimethyl-3-(phenylthio)oct-6-enal, a potential bactericide agent. The method was extended to other electron-poor alkenes with excellent results. For the solvent-free protocol, the use of microwave irradiation facilitated the procedure and accelerates the reaction. The catalytic system and glycerin can be reused up to three times without previous treatment with comparable activity. (author)

  12. Reuse of Electronic Equipment and Software Installed on Them ‒ an Exploratory Analysis in the Context of Circular Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Bogdan Onete

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The transition to a circular economy in which the value of products, materials and resources is maintained as long as possible and the waste is minimized, has led to the creation of new business opportunities and new, innovative and efficient production and consumption models. Over the last few years, the principles of the circular economy have been gradually integrated into several sectors, the consumer electronics industry being such an example. The applicability of the circular economy principles in this sector has been presented in the literature, but these approaches have taken into account, in particular, the physical, tangible components of electronic products, focusing on the existing interrelationships between the circular economy and the production and use of electronic devices and equipment. Given that electronic products often incorporate intangible components, namely the software necessary for their operation, we have chosen to address in this paper the problems of the circular economy from this perspective, the purpose of this paper being to emphasize the relation between the use of software products and the principles of circular economy. Thus, the paper presents the main opportunities and challenges that circular economy involves for all stakeholders, namely manufacturers of electronic goods and developers of the related software and their users. In order to determine the way consumers capitalize the possibilities to reuse the software components of IT products they use (computers, tablets, mobile phones, we have undertaken an exploratory research that took place between October and November 2017 on the basis of a structured questionnaire posted online and applied to Romanian young people, the number of respondents being 257. Research has shown the respondents easily adapt to new versions of software when they change their phone or laptop and there is a frequent transfer of equipment without considering the possibilities of reuse

  13. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  14. Recycling-oriented characterization of small waste electrical and electronic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chancerel, Perrine; Rotter, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the continuous change in the design and function of consumer electrical and electronic products, the mechanical and material properties of the obsolete products, called waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), are highly variable. The variability within WEEE is explained by the number of different appliances, and the heterogeneity in composition of any given appliance. This paper reports on an extended investigation of the properties of WEEE, in particular small appliances. The investigation focuses on the analysis of the composition of about 700 single appliances. Firstly, analytical methods to characterize the waste equipment are described. The results of the experimental analyses show that the mechanical properties, the material composition, the polymer composition and the chemical composition of WEEE vary not only between equipment types with different functions, but also between single appliances within one equipment type. Data on hazardous and valuable substances in selected equipment types are presented. Using detailed data on the composition of individual appliances to calculate rates of recovery for assumed recycling processes demonstrates that the performance of recycling processes depends strongly on the composition of WEEE. Recycling-oriented characterization is, therefore, a systematic approach to support the design and the operation of recycling processes.

  15. Study on the reuse of nodular casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermont, V.M; Gomez, C.A; Lamas, J.F; Castillo, R.N

    2004-01-01

    Nodular cast pieces that have worn out are an attractive alternative to be reused as a cheap raw material for directly making other pieces. This materials recycling process often requires new and successive thermal treatments in order to be machined, to obtain the proper mechanical and microstructural properties. This work includes the results of the microstructural analysis by optic and Scanning Electron Microscopy and of the mechanical tests for traction and hardness of the test pieces submitted to different successive thermal treatments. The results show that by means of successive thermal treatments, followed by austemperizing, the appropriate mechanical and microstructural properties can be recovered permitting the nodular castings that were studied to be reliably reused (CW)

  16. Research, Commercialization, & Workforce Development in the Polymer/Electronics Recycling Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Irwin; Rakesh Gupta; Richard Turton; GangaRao Hota; Cyril Logar; Tom Ponzurick; Buddy Graham; Walter Alcorn; Jeff Tucker

    2006-02-01

    The Mid-Atlantic Recycling Center for End-of-Life Electronics (MARCEE) was set up in 1999 in response to a call from Congressman Alan Mollohan, who had a strong interest in this subject. A consortium was put together which included the Polymer Alliance Zone (PAZ) of West Virginia, West Virginia University (WVU), DN American and Ecolibrium. The consortium developed a set of objectives and task plans, which included both the research issues of setting up facilities to demanufacture End-of-Life Electronics (EoLE), the economics of the demanufacturing process, and the infrastructure development necessary for a sustainable recycling industry to be established in West Virginia. This report discusses the work of the MARCEE Project Consortium from November 1999 through March 2005. While the body of the report is distributed in hard-copy form the Appendices are being distributed on CD's.

  17. Japan, the European Union, and Waste Electronic and Electrical Equipment Recycling: Key Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Fumikazu; Yoshida, Haruyo

    2010-01-01

    This article considers how Japan and the EU manage the recycling of consumer appliances and PCs/cellular phones through a review of their current collection and treatment systems for WEEE (waste electronic and electrical equipment), and on the basis of its findings offers recommendations for the improvement of these systems. We hope thereby to provide information that will be helpful for the better management of WEEE in developed countries as well as in our own. On the basis of our findings, ...

  18. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Katrina N; Sun, Kan; Fobil, Julius N; Neitzel, Richard L

    2016-01-19

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people's livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA) and community (70 dBA) noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman's ρ 0.46, p stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage.

  19. Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via electron beam cold hearth refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKoon, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium-6%-niobium (U-6Nb) alloy ingots has been demonstrated using Virgin feedstock. A vibratory scrap feeder has been installed on the system and the ability to recycle chopped U-6Nb scrap has been established. A preliminary comparison of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) and electron beam (EB) melted product is presented

  20. Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via Electron Cold Hearth Refining (EBCHR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKoon, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium-6% - niobium (U-6Nb) alloy ingots has been demonstrated using virgin feedstock. A vibratory scrap feeder has been installed on the system and the ability to recycle chopped U-6Nb scrap has been established. A preliminary comparison of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) and electron beam (EB) melted product is presented

  1. Environmental fate of hexabromocyclododecane from a new Canadian electronic recycling facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomko, Geoffrey; McDonald, Karen M

    2013-01-15

    An electronics recycling facility began operation at the municipal landfill site for the City of Edmonton, Canada in March 2008 with the goal of processing 30,000 tonnes of electronic wastes per year. Of the many by-products from the process, brominated fire retardants such as hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) can evolve off of e-wastes and be released into the environmental media. HBCD has been identified by many countries and international bodies as a chemical of concern because of its ability to bioaccumulate in the ecosystem. An evaluation of the potential emission of HBCD indicates that up to 500 kg per year may be released from a landfill and recycling facility such as that operating in Edmonton. A multimedia fugacity model was used to evaluate the dispersion and fate of atmospherically emitted HBCD traveling into surrounding agricultural land and forested parkland. The model indicates that the three isomers of HBCD partitioned into environmental media similarly. Much of the HBCD is lost through atmospheric advection, but it is also found in soil and sediment. Modeled air concentrations are similar to those measured at locations with a history of e-waste recycling. Since HBCD has been shown to bioaccumulate, the HBCD released from this source has the long-term potential to affect agricultural food crops and the park ecosystem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Process analysis of recycled thermoplasts from consumer electronics by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Herbert; Panne, Ulrich; Niessner, Reinhard

    2002-09-01

    An experimental setup for direct elemental analysis of recycled thermoplasts from consumer electronics by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS, or laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, LIBS) was realized. The combination of a echelle spectrograph, featuring a high resolution with a broad spectral coverage, with multivariate methods, such as PLS, PCR, and variable subset selection via a genetic algorithm, resulted in considerable improvements in selectivity and sensitivity for this complex matrix. With a normalization to carbon as internal standard, the limits of detection were in the ppm range. A preliminary pattern recognition study points to the possibility of polymer recognition via the line-rich echelle spectra. Several experiments at an extruder within a recycling plant demonstrated successfully the capability of LIPS for different kinds of routine on-line process analysis.

  3. Water brief-WDM & wastewater reuse

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    aalfouns

    Wastewater Reuse for Water Demand Management in the Middle East and ... Among the substantial WDM tools in MENA is the use of wastewater to reduce the pressure on scarce freshwater .... recycled water to irrigate crops with associated ...

  4. Environmental pollution of electronic waste recycling in India: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth of the production of electrical and electronic products has meant an equally rapid growth in the amount of electronic waste (e-waste), much of which is illegally imported to India, for disposal presenting a serious environmental challenge. The environmental impact during e-waste recycling was investigated and metal as well as other pollutants [e.g. polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)] were found in excessive levels in soil, water and other habitats. The most e-waste is dealt with as general or crudely often by open burning, acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As resulted of these process; dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released and harmful to the surrounding environment, engaged workers, and also residents inhabiting near the sites. The informal e-waste sectors are growing rapidly in the developing countries over than in the developed countries because of cheapest labor cost and week legislations systems. It has been confirmed that contaminates are moving through the food chain via root plant translocation system, to the human body thereby threatening human health. We have suggested some possible solution toward in which plants and microbes combine to remediate highly contaminated sites. - Highlights: • It systematically reviewed Environmental deterioration through e-waste recycling in India. • We found heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd and Cr) potentially serious concern at recycling site. • The heavy metals can entered human body through the direct and indirect exposure. • Regular monitoring required to examine the possibility of risk through e-waste mismanagement. • Further phytoremedial approach can be use as one of the possible solution for contaminated soil and improve the land quality. - The e-waste recycling sites are highly contaminated with heavy metals as well as other pollutants (e.g. PBDEs, PCBs) in excessive levels.

  5. Integration of Hospital Information and Clinical Decision Support Systems to Enable the Reuse of Electronic Health Record Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopanitsa, Georgy

    2017-05-18

    The efficiency and acceptance of clinical decision support systems (CDSS) can increase if they reuse medical data captured during health care delivery. High heterogeneity of the existing legacy data formats has become the main barrier for the reuse of data. Thus, we need to apply data modeling mechanisms that provide standardization, transformation, accumulation and querying medical data to allow its reuse. In this paper, we focus on the interoperability issues of the hospital information systems (HIS) and CDSS data integration. Our study is based on the approach proposed by Marcos et al. where archetypes are used as a standardized mechanism for the interaction of a CDSS with an electronic health record (EHR). We build an integration tool to enable CDSSs collect data from various institutions without a need for modifications in the implementation. The approach implies development of a conceptual level as a set of archetypes representing concepts required by a CDSS. Treatment case data from Regional Clinical Hospital in Tomsk, Russia was extracted, transformed and loaded to the archetype database of a clinical decision support system. Test records' normalization has been performed by defining transformation and aggregation rules between the EHR data and the archetypes. These mapping rules were used to automatically generate openEHR compliant data. After the transformation, archetype data instances were loaded into the CDSS archetype based data storage. The performance times showed acceptable performance for the extraction stage with a mean of 17.428 s per year (3436 case records). The transformation times were also acceptable with 136.954 s per year (0.039 s per one instance). The accuracy evaluation showed the correctness and applicability of the method for the wide range of HISes. These operations were performed without interrupting the HIS workflow to prevent the HISes from disturbing the service provision to the users. The project results have proven that

  6. Unscrewed salvage and reuse motors, gears, switches, and more from your old electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Sobey, Ed

    2011-01-01

    Perfect for the do-it-yourselfer, this handy guide to household electronics gives the weekend workbench enthusiast a multitude of ideas on how to salvage valuable parts from old electronics and turn them into useful gadgets once more. This handbook is loaded with information and helpful tips for disassembling old and broken electronics. Each of the more than 50 deconstruction projects includes a ?treasures cache" of the components to be found, a required tools list, and step-by-step instructions with photos on how to safely extract the

  7. Beneficial Reuse of Produced and Flowback Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water reuse and recycling is a significant issue in the development of oil and gas shale plays in the United StatesDrilling operations – 60,000 to 650,000 gallons per wellHydraulic fracturing operations – 3 million to 5 million gallons per wellDefinition of produced water and flowback waterInteractions of water quality constituents as they relate to water reuse and recyclingTesting criteria in the laboratory and field operations

  8. Rehealable, fully recyclable, and malleable electronic skin enabled by dynamic covalent thermoset nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhanan; Zhu, Chengpu; Li, Yan; Lei, Xingfeng; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Jianliang

    2018-02-01

    Electronic skin (e-skin) mimicking functionalities and mechanical properties of natural skin can find broad applications. We report the first dynamic covalent thermoset-based e-skin, which is connected through robust covalent bonds, rendering the resulting devices good chemical and thermal stability at service condition. By doping the dynamic covalent thermoset with conductive silver nanoparticles, we demonstrate a robust yet rehealable, fully recyclable, and malleable e-skin. Tactile, temperature, flow, and humidity sensing capabilities are realized. The e-skin can be rehealed when it is damaged and can be fully recycled at room temperature, which has rarely, if at all, been demonstrated for e-skin. After rehealing or recycling, the e-skin regains mechanical and electrical properties comparable to the original e-skin. In addition, malleability enables the e-skin to permanently conform to complex, curved surfaces without introducing excessive interfacial stresses. These properties of the e-skin yield an economical and eco-friendly technology that can find broad applications in robotics, prosthetics, health care, and human-computer interface.

  9. Pollution distribution of heavy metals in surface soil at an informal electronic-waste recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2014-02-01

    We studied distribution of heavy metals [lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn)] in surface soil at an electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling workshop near Metro Manila in the Philippines to evaluate the pollution size (spot size, small area or the entire workshop), as well as to assess heavy metal transport into the surrounding soil environment. On-site length-of-stride-scale (~70 cm) measurements were performed at each surface soil point using field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF). The surface soil at the e-waste recycling workshop was polluted with Cu, Zn and Pb, which were distributed discretely in surface soil. The site was divided into five areas based on the distance from an entrance gate (y-axis) of the e-waste recycling workshop. The three heavy metals showed similar concentration gradients in the y-axis direction. Zn, Pb and Cu concentrations were estimated to decrease to half of their maximum concentrations at ~3, 7 and 7 m from the pollution spot, respectively, inside the informal e-waste recycling workshop. Distance from an entrance may play an important role in heavy metal transport at the soil surface. Using on-site FP-XRF, we evaluated the metal ratio to characterise pollution features of the solid surface. Variability analysis of heavy metals revealed vanishing surficial autocorrelation over metre ranges. Also, the possibility of concentration prediction at unmeasured points using geostatistical kriging was evaluated, and heavy metals had a relative "small" pollution scales and remained inside the original workshop compared with toxic organohalogen compounds. Thus, exposure to heavy metals may directly influence the health of e-waste workers at the original site rather than the surrounding habitat and environmental media.

  10. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina N. Burns

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste (e-waste is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people’s livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA and community (70 dBA noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman’s ρ 0.46, p < 0.001. A mixed effects linear regression model indicated that a 1 dB increase in noise exposure was associated with a 0.17 increase in heart rate (p-value = 0.01 even after controlling for work activities, age, smoking, perceived stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage.

  11. Recycler Electron Cooling Project: Mechanical vibrations in the Pelletron and their effect on the beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakevich, Grigory M.; Burov, A.; Boffo, C.; Joireman, P.; Saewert, G.; Schmidt, C.W.; Shemyakin, A.; Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    The Fermilab's Recycler ring will employ an electron cooler to cool stored 8.9 GeV antiprotons [1]. The cooler is based on an electrostatic accelerator, Pelletron [2], working in an energy-recovery regime. A full-scale prototype of the cooler has been assembled and commissioned in a separate building [3]. The main goal of the experiments with the prototype was to demonstrate stable operation with a 3.5 MeV, 0.5 A DC electron beam while preserving a high beam quality in the cooling section. The quality is characterized, first of all, by a spread of electron velocities in the cooling section, which may be significantly affected by mechanical vibration of the Pelletron elements. This paper describes the results of vibration measurements in the Pelletron terminal and correlates them with the beam motion in the cooling section

  12. Urban Biomining Meets Printable Electronics: End-To-End at Destination Biological Recycling and Reprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J. (Principal Investigator); Koehne, Jessica; Gandhiraman, Ram; Navarrete, Jesica; Spangle, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    Space missions rely utterly on metallic components, from the spacecraft to electronics. Yet, metals add mass, and electronics have the additional problem of a limited lifespan. Thus, current mission architectures must compensate for replacement. In space, spent electronics are discarded; on earth, there is some recycling but current processes are toxic and environmentally hazardous. Imagine instead an end-to-end recycling of spent electronics at low mass, low cost, room temperature, and in a non-toxic manner. Here, we propose a solution that will not only enhance mission success by decreasing upmass and providing a fresh supply of electronics, but in addition has immediate applications to a serious environmental issue on the Earth. Spent electronics will be used as feedstock to make fresh electronic components, a process we will accomplish with so-called 'urban biomining' using synthetically enhanced microbes to bind metals with elemental specificity. To create new electronics, the microbes will be used as 'bioink' to print a new IC chip, using plasma jet electronics printing. The plasma jet electronics printing technology will have the potential to use martian atmospheric gas to print and to tailor the electronic and chemical properties of the materials. Our preliminary results have suggested that this process also serves as a purification step to enhance the proportion of metals in the 'bioink'. The presence of electric field and plasma can ensure printing in microgravity environment while also providing material morphology and electronic structure tunabiity and thus optimization. Here we propose to increase the TRL level of the concept by engineering microbes to dissolve the siliceous matrix in the IC, extract copper from a mixture of metals, and use the microbes as feedstock to print interconnects using mars gas simulant. To assess the ability of this concept to influence mission architecture, we will do an analysis of the infrastructure required to execute

  13. Quantify the energy and environmental effects of using recycled asphalt and recycled concrete for pavement construction phase I : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the energy and environment impacts from using recycled materials : for highway construction. Specifically, when recycled asphalt pavement is re-used for producing hot mix : asphalt or when recycled concrete ...

  14. Wastewater reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Milan R. Radosavljević; Vanja M. Šušteršič

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution are some of the crucial issues that must be addressed within local and global perspectives. One of the ways to reduce the impact of water scarcity  and to minimizine water pollution is to expand water and wastewater reuse. The local conditions including regulations, institutions, financial mechanisms, availability of local technology and stakeholder participation have a great influence on the decisions for wastewater reuse. The increasing awareness of food s...

  15. The QWERTY/EE concept, Quantifying Recyclability and Eco-Efficiency for End-of-Life Treatment of Consumer Electronic Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.

    2003-01-01

    The QWERTY/EE concept addresses recyclability and eco-efficiency of take-back and recycling of consumer electronic products, a topic currently receiving large international attention. Through the environmental part of the concept an alternative for usual weight based recycling percentages is

  16. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers--plasma levels and thyroid status of workers at an electronic recycling facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julander, A; Karlsson, M; Hagström, K; Ohlson, C G; Engwall, M; Bryngelsson, I-L; Westberg, H; van Bavel, B

    2005-08-01

    Personnel working with electronic dismantling are exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which in animal studies have been shown to alter thyroid homeostasis. The aim of this longitudinal study was to measure plasma level of PBDEs in workers at an electronic recycling facility and to relate these to the workers' thyroid status. PBDEs and three thyroid hormones: triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxin (T(4)) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were repeatedly analysed in plasma from 11 workers during a period of 1.5 years. Plasma levels of PBDEs at start of employment were plasma levels of PBDEs fluctuated during the study period. Due to small changes in thyroid hormone levels it was concluded that no relevant changes were present in relation to PBDE exposure within the workers participating in this study.

  17. Management status of end-of-life vehicles and development strategies of used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjun; Chen, Ming

    2012-11-01

    Recycling companies play a leading role in the system of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in China. Automotive manufacturers in China are rarely involved in recycling ELVs, and they seldom provide dismantling information for recycling companies. In addition, no professional shredding plant is available. The used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China has yet to take shape because of the lack of supporting technology and profitable models. Given the rapid growth of the vehicle population and electronic control units in automotives in China, the used automotive electronic control components recycling industry requires immediate development. This paper analyses the current recycling system of ELVs in China and introduces the automotive product recycling technology roadmap as well as the recycling industry development goals. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges of the current used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China are analysed comprehensively based on the 'strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats' (SWOT) method. The results of the analysis indicate that this recycling industry responds well to all the factors and has good opportunities for development. Based on the analysis, new development strategies for the used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in accordance with the actual conditions of China are presented.

  18. Multi-stakeholder decision analysis and comparative risk assessment for reuse-recycle oriented e-waste management strategies: a game theoretic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Rajendra Kumar; Nema, Arvind K

    2013-09-01

    This article deals with assessment of the potential health risk posed by carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic substances, namely lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper, chromium (CrVI), zinc, nickel and mercury, present in e-waste. A multi-objective, multi-stakeholder approach based on strategic game theory model has been developed considering cost, as well as human health risk. The trade-off due to cost difference between a hazardous substances-free (HSF) and a hazardous substance (HS)-containing desktop computer, and the risk posed by them at the time of disposal, has been analyzed. The cancer risk due to dust inhalation for workers at a recycling site in Bangalore for Pb, Cr(VI) and Cd was found to be 4, 33 and 101 in 1 million respectively. Pb and Cr(VI) result in a very high risk owing to dust ingestion at slums near the recycling site--175 and 81 in 1 million for children, and 24 and 11 in 1 million for adults respectively. The concentration of Pb at a battery workshop in Mayapuri, Delhi (hazard quotient = 3.178) was found to pose adverse health hazards. The government may impose an appropriate penalty on the land disposal of computer waste and/or may give an incentive to manufacturer for producing HSF computers through, for example, relaxing taxes, but there should be no such incentive for manufacturing HS-containing computers.

  19. Recycling of mixed plastic waste from electrical and electronic equipment. Added value by compatibilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Yamila V; Barbosa, Silvia E

    2016-07-01

    Plastic waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) grows up exponentially fast in the last two decades. Either consumption increase of technological products, like cellphones or computers, or the short lifetime of this products contributes to this rise generating an accumulation of specific plastic materials such ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene), HIPS (High impact Polystyrene), PC (Polycarbonate), among others. All of they can be recycled by themselves. However, to separate them by type is neither easy nor economically viable, then an alternative is recycling them together as a blend. Taking into account that could be a deterioration in final properties, to enhance phase adhesion and add value to a new plastic WEEE blend a compatibilization is needed. In this work, a systematical study of different compatibilizers for blends of HIPS and ABS from WEEE was performed. A screening analysis was carried out by adding two different compatibilizer concentration (2wt% and 20wt%) on a HIPS/ABS physical blend 80/20 proportion from plastic e-waste. Three copolymers were selected as possible compatibilizers by their possible affinity with initial plastic WEEE. A complete characterization of each WEEE was performed and compatibilization efficiency was evaluated by comparing either mechanical or morphological blends aspects. Considering blends analyzed in this work, the best performance was achieved by using 2% of styrene-acrylonitrile rubber, obtaining a compatibilized blend with double ultimate strength and modulus respect to the physical blend, and also improve mechanical properties of initial WEEE plastics. The proposed way is a promise route to improve benefit of e-scrap with sustainable, low costs and easy handling process. Consequently, social recycling interest will be encouraged by both ecological and economical points of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ionizing radiation effect study by electron beam on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene virgin and recycled industrial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosario, Salmo Cordeiro do

    2006-01-01

    Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) is an engineering plastic which has several applications, chiefly, in specific areas of the industry and medicine. UHMWPE can be even for other applications such as: port fenders, current guide, bucket coating, silos and gutters, plugs, pulleys and surgical prosthesis. This range of applications is due to the excellent technical characteristics that this material owns, such as; high resistance to wear, high resistance to impact, anti-adherence, non toxic, excellent chemical resistance, low specific weight, easy mill processing, and high resistance to fatigue. The UHMWPE type used in this work were UTEC 3041 and UTEC 6541 of the Braskem. The recycling process of UHMWPE raised much interest, because the utilization of this raw material grew over 600% in the last decade, becoming one of the most used engineering plastics for attainment of mill processed parts after polyamide. As the utilization of this polymer in the manufacturing of parts for machinery has grown, its waste is very big, because the rest of this material is thrown out, usually not being reused. The goal of this work is to recycle the UHMWPE UTEC 3041 and study the properties of this recycled and virgin material and compare the results between both with these materials submitted to different radiation dose. (author)

  1. Usage of Recycled Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebru Tayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bottles are commonly used in beverage industry and can be reused after physical and chemical recycling processes. Usage areas of recycled PET have been developed rapidly. Although recycled PET is used in plastic industry, composite industry also provides usage alternatives of recycled PET. Textile is a suitable sector for recycling of some plastics made of polymers too. In this study, the recycling technologies and applications of waste PET bottles have been investigated and scientific works in this area have been summarized.

  2. A comparison of electronic waste recycling in Switzerland and in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha-Khetriwal, Deepali; Kraeuchi, Philipp; Schwaninger, Markus

    2005-01-01

    Electronic waste, commonly known as e-waste, is comprised of discarded computers, television sets, microwave ovens and other such appliances that are past their useful lives. As managing e-waste becomes a priority, countries are being forced to develop new models for the collection and environmentally sound disposal of this waste. Switzerland is one of the very few countries with over a decade of experience in managing e-waste. India, on the other hand, is only now experiencing the problems that e-waste poses. The paper aims to give the reader insight into the disposal of end-of-life appliances in both countries, including appliance collection and the financing of recycling systems as well as the social and environmental aspects of the current practices

  3. Interpretation of ion flux and electron temperature profiles at the JET divertor target during high recycling and detached discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monk, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    Detailed experiments have been carried out with the JET Mark I pumped divertor to characterise high recycling and detached plasma regimes. This paper presents new measurements of high resolution divertor ion flux profiles that identify the growth of additional peaks during high recycling discharges. These ion flux profiles are used in conjunction with Dα and neutral flux measurements to examine the physics of divertor detachment and compare against simple analytic models. Finally, problems are highlighted with conventional methods of single and triple probe interpretation under high recycling conditions. By assuming that the single probe behaves as an asymmetric double probe the whole characteristic may be fitted and significantly lower electron temperatures may be derived when the electron to ion saturation current ratio is reduced. The results from the asymmetric double probe fit are shown to be consistent with independent diagnostic measurements. (orig.)

  4. Cascaded strand displacement for non-enzymatic target recycling amplification and label-free electronic detection of microRNA from tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Kai; Dou, Baoting; Yang, Jianmei; Yuan, Ruo; Xiang, Yun, E-mail: yunatswu@swu.edu.cn

    2016-04-15

    The monitoring of microRNA (miRNA) expression levels is of great importance in cancer diagnosis. In the present work, based on two cascaded toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions (TSDRs), we have developed a label- and enzyme-free target recycling signal amplification approach for sensitive electronic detection of miRNA-21 from human breast cancer cells. The junction probes containing the locked G-quadruplex forming sequences are self-assembled on the senor surface. The presence of the target miRNA-21 initiates the first TSDR and results in the disassembly of the junction probes and the release of the active G-quadruplex forming sequences. Subsequently, the DNA fuel strand triggers the second TSDR and leads to cyclic reuse of the target miRNA-21. The cascaded TSDRs thus generate many active G-quadruplex forming sequences on the sensor surface, which associate with hemin to produce significantly amplified current response for sensitive detection of miRNA-21 at 1.15 fM. The sensor is also selective and can be employed to monitor miRNA-21 from human breast cancer cells. - Highlights: • Amplified and sensitive detection of microRNA from tumor cells is achieved. • Signal amplification is realized by two cascaded strand displacement reactions. • The developed sensor is selective and label-free without involving any enzymes.

  5. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Wenqing [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Chen, Yaowen [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Gairong [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Luo, Jiayi [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Wu, Kusheng, E-mail: kswu@stu.edu.cn [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. Methods: A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Results: Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18–3.98 μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12–1.63 μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1 μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=−0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=−0.278, P=0.001). Conclusions: This study investigated human mercury exposure

  6. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Gairong; Luo, Jiayi; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. Methods: A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Results: Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18–3.98 μg/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12–1.63 μg/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1 μg/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (β=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (β=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (β=−0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (β=−0.278, P=0.001). Conclusions: This study investigated human mercury exposure

  7. Analysis on 3RWB model (Reduce, reuse, recycle, and waste bank) in comprehensive waste management toward community-based zero waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affandy, Nur Azizah; Isnaini, Enik; Laksono, Arif Budi

    2017-06-01

    Waste management becomes a serious issue in Indonesia. Significantly, waste production in Lamongan Regency is increasing in linear with the growth of population and current people activities, creating a gap between waste production and waste management. It is a critical problem that should be solved immediately. As a reaction to the issue, the Government of Lamongan Regency has enacted a new policy regarding waste management through a program named Lamongan Green and Clean (LGC). From the collected data, it showed that the "wet waste" or "organic waste" was approximately 63% of total domestic waste. With such condition, it can be predicted that the trashes will decompose quite quickly. From the observation, it was discovered that the generated waste was approximately 0.25 kg/person/day. Meanwhile, the number of population in Tumenggungan Village, Lamongan (data obtained from Monograph in Lamongan district, 2012) was 4651 people. Thus, it can be estimated the total waste in Lamongan was approximately 0.25 kg/person/day x 4651 characters = 930 kg/day. Within 3RWB Model, several stages have to be conducted. In the planning stage, the promotion of self-awareness among the communities in selecting and managing waste due to their interest in a potential benefit, is done. It indicated that community's awareness of waste management waste grew significantly. Meanwhile in socialization stage, each village staff, environmental expert, and policymaker should bear significant role in disseminating the awareness among the people. In the implementation phase, waste management with 3RWB model is promoted by applying it among of the community, starting from selection, waste management, until recycled products sale through the waste bank. In evaluation stage, the village managers, environmental expert, and waste managers are expected to regularly supervise and evaluate the whole activity of the waste management.

  8. Phthalate esters contamination in soil and plants on agricultural land near an electronic waste recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting Ting; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yong Ming; Teng, Ying

    2013-08-01

    The accumulation of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in soil and plants in agricultural land near an electronic waste recycling site in east China has become a great threat to the neighboring environmental quality and human health. Soil and plant samples collected from land under different utilization, including fallow plots, vegetable plots, plots with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) as green manure, fallow plots under long-term flooding and fallow plots under alternating wet and dry periods, together with plant samples from relative plots were analyzed for six PAE compounds nominated as prior pollutants by USEPA. In the determined samples, the concentrations of six target PAE pollutants ranged from 0.31-2.39 mg/kg in soil to 1.81-5.77 mg/kg in various plants (dry weight/DW), and their bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranged from 5.8 to 17.9. Health risk assessments were conducted on target PAEs, known as typical environmental estrogen analogs, based on their accumulation in the edible parts of vegetables. Preliminary risk assessment to human health from soil and daily vegetable intake indicated that DEHP may present a high-exposure risk on all ages of the population in the area by soil ingestion or vegetable consumption. The potential damage that the target PAE compounds may pose to human health should be taken into account in further comprehensive risk assessments in e-waste recycling sites areas. Moreover, alfalfa removed substantial amounts of PAEs from the soil, and its use can be considered a good strategy for in situ remediation of PAEs.

  9. Spatial assessment of soil contamination by heavy metals from informal electronic waste recycling in Agbogbloshie, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyere, Vincent Nartey; Greve, Klaus; Atiemo, Sampson M

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the spatial distribution and the extent of soil contamination by heavy metals resulting from primitive, unconventional informal electronic waste recycling in the Agbogbloshie e-waste processing site (AEPS) in Ghana. A total of 132 samples were collected at 100 m intervals, with a handheld global position system used in taking the location data of the soil sample points. Observing all procedural and quality assurance measures, the samples were analyzed for barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn), using X-ray fluorescence. Using environmental risk indices of contamination factor and degree of contamination (C deg ), we analyzed the individual contribution of each heavy metal contamination and the overall C deg . We further used geostatistical techniques of spatial autocorrelation and variability to examine spatial distribution and extent of heavy metal contamination. Results from soil analysis showed that heavy metal concentrations were significantly higher than the Canadian Environmental Protection Agency and Dutch environmental standards. In an increasing order, Pb>Cd>Hg>Cu>Zn>Cr>Co>Ba>Ni contributed significantly to the overall C deg . Contamination was highest in the main working areas of burning and dismantling sites, indicating the influence of recycling activities. Geostatistical analysis also revealed that heavy metal contamination spreads beyond the main working areas to residential, recreational, farming, and commercial areas. Our results show that the studied heavy metals are ubiquitous within AEPS and the significantly high concentration of these metals reflect the contamination factor and C deg , indicating soil contamination in AEPS with the nine heavy metals studied.

  10. Metal Exposures at three U.S. electronic scrap recycling facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Diana; Beaucham, Catherine; Page, Elena

    2017-06-01

    Many metals found in electronic scrap are known to cause serious health effects, including but not limited to cancer and respiratory, neurologic, renal, and reproductive damage. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention performed three health hazard evaluations at electronic scrap recycling facilities in the U.S. to characterize employee exposure to metals and recommend control strategies to reduce these exposures. We performed air, surface, and biological monitoring for metals. We found one overexposure to lead and two overexposures to cadmium. We found metals on non-production surfaces, and the skin and clothing of workers before they left work in all of the facilities. We also found some elevated blood lead levels (above 10 micrograms per deciliter), however no employees at any facility had detectable mercury in their urine or exceeded 34% of the OELs for blood or urine cadmium. This article focuses on sampling results for lead, cadmium, mercury, and indium. We provided recommendations for improving local exhaust ventilation, reducing the recirculation of potentially contaminated air, using respirators until exposures are controlled, and reducing the migration of contaminants from production to non-production areas. We also recommended ways for employees to prevent taking home metal dust by using work uniforms laundered on-site, storing personal and work items in separate lockers, and using washing facilities equipped with lead-removing cleaning products.

  11. Environmental pollution of electronic waste recycling in India: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui

    2016-04-01

    The rapid growth of the production of electrical and electronic products has meant an equally rapid growth in the amount of electronic waste (e-waste), much of which is illegally imported to India, for disposal presenting a serious environmental challenge. The environmental impact during e-waste recycling was investigated and metal as well as other pollutants [e.g. polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)] were found in excessive levels in soil, water and other habitats. The most e-waste is dealt with as general or crudely often by open burning, acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As resulted of these process; dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released and harmful to the surrounding environment, engaged workers, and also residents inhabiting near the sites. The informal e-waste sectors are growing rapidly in the developing countries over than in the developed countries because of cheapest labor cost and week legislations systems. It has been confirmed that contaminates are moving through the food chain via root plant translocation system, to the human body thereby threatening human health. We have suggested some possible solution toward in which plants and microbes combine to remediate highly contaminated sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recycling waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P I.S.

    1976-01-01

    It is being realized that if environmental quality is to be improved the amount of waste generated by man has to be substantially reduced. There are two ways this can be achieved. First, by conserving materials and energy, and sacrificing economic growth, a solution that is completely unacceptable because it would mean some form of rationing, mass unemployment, and collapse of society as it is known. The second way to reduce the volume of waste is by planned recycling, re-use, and recovery. Already the reclamation industry recovers, processes, and turns back for re-use many products used by industry and thereby reduces the UK's import bill for raw materials. In the book, the author sets out the various ways materials may be recovered from industrial and municipal wastes. The broad technology of waste management is covered and attention is focused on man's new resources lying buried in the mountains of industrial wastes, the emissions from stocks, the effluents and sludges that turn rivers into open sewers, and municipal dumps in seventeen chapters. The final chapter lists terms and concepts used in waste technology, organizations concerned with waste management, and sources of information about recycling waste. (MCW)

  13. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  14. The Dynamic Earth: Recycling Naturally!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Allison, Elizabeth; Fowler, Lisa; Glaze, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This article begins with a thought-provoking question: What do you think of when you hear the term "recycle?" Many think about paper, glass, aluminum cans, landfills, and reducing waste by reusing some of these materials. How many of us ever consider the way the systems of Earth dynamically recycle its materials? In the following…

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE WASTE RECYCLING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Truptimala Patanaik*; Niharika Patel; Shilpika Panda; Subhasmita Prusty

    2016-01-01

    Construction solid waste has caused serious environmental problems. Reuse, recycling and reduction of construction materials have been advocated for many years, and various methods have been investigated. There may be six type of building materials: plastic, paper, timber, metal, glass and concrete which can be reused and recycled. This paper examines the rate of reusable & recyclable concrete waste. On the other hand, the reuse of construction waste is highly essential ...

  16. Association between lead exposure from electronic waste recycling and child temperament alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junxiao; Xu, Xijin; Wu, Kusheng; Piao, Zhongxian; Huang, Jinrong; Guo, Yongyong; Li, Weiqiu; Zhang, Yuling; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2011-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of lead exposure on temperament alterations in children from a primitive e-waste (obsolete electrical and electronic devices) recycling area in Guiyu of China and a control area (Chendian, China). Blood lead levels (BLL) might be correlated with temperament, health, and relevant factors that were evaluated through Parent Temperament Questionnaire (PTQ), physical examination, and residential questionnaires. We collected venipuncture blood samples from 303 children (aged 3-7 years old) between January and February 2008. Child BLL were higher in Guiyu than in Chendian (median 13.2 μg/dL, range 4.0-48.5 μg/dL vs. 8.2 μg/dL, 0-21.3 μg/dL) (Pchildren (all Pchildren with low BLL (BLLchildren by increasing BLL and altering children temperament, although the exposure to other toxicants needs to be examined in future studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Levels and risk factors of antimony contamination in human hair from an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Ni, Wenqing; Chen, Yaowen; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-05-01

    The primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has brought a series of environmental pollutants in Guiyu, China. Antimony is one of the important metal contaminants and has aroused the global concerns recently. We aimed to investigate concentrations of antimony in human hair from Guiyu and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste recycling exists, and assessed the potential risk factors. A total of 205 human hair samples from Guiyu and 80 samples from Jinping were collected for analysis. All volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors related to hair antimony exposure. The concentrations of hair antimony were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Our results indicated that the level of hair antimony in volunteers from Guiyu (median, 160.78; range, 6.99-4412.59 ng/g) was significantly higher than those from Jinping (median, 61.74; range, 2.98-628.43 ng/g). The residents who engaged in e-waste recycling activities in Guiyu had higher hair antimony concentrations than others (P recycling. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hair antimony concentrations were associated with education level (β = -0.064), the time of residence in Guiyu (β = 0.112), living house also served as e-waste workshop (β = 0.099), the work related to e-waste (β = 0.169), and smoking (β = 0.018). The elevated hair antimony concentrations implied that the residents in Guiyu might be at high risk of antimony contamination, especially the e-waste recycling workers. Work related to e-waste recycling activities and long-time residence in Guiyu contributed to the high hair antimony exposure.

  18. Tire recycling technologies: What is the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; van Hoek, Johannes Wilhelmus; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Blume, Anke; Heideman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Recycling is a heavily discussed topic nowadays, and recycled tire material to be re-used for the same application is one of the spear points of current R&D activities. Regarding the immense amount of used tires, more than just one outlet for the recycled material is needed. Besides the commonly

  19. On the logistics of recycling : an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flapper, S.D.P.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is given of the different logistic aspects of recycling, where recycling denotes "All the activities required for the reuse of materials and (semi-)finished products after they are no longer used by their last user." Special attention is paid to the forced recycling of durable

  20. Direct Reuse of Rare Earth Permanent Magnets—Coating Integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Stig; Holbøll, Joachim; Mijatovic, Nenad

    2017-01-01

    Rare earth permanent magnets can be reused directly as an alternative to traditional recycling methods, in which scrapped magnets are reprocessed into new magnets by undergoing many of the original energy-intensive and expensive production processes. Direct reuse entails using segmented magnet...... assemblies built by several small standard-sized magnets that can be reused directly in a number of different applications. A central part of the direct reuse strategy is to separate and demagnetize magnets by heating them to the Curie temperature. We investigated the validity of direct reuse as a rare earth...

  1. Tecnologias utilizadas para a reutilização, reciclagem e valorização energética de pneus no Brasil Technologies for reusing, recycling and energetic valorization of tires in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto F. Lagarinhos

    2008-06-01

    and importers of tires must collect and give the final destination to the used tires. The distributors, retailers, re-modelers and final consumers are co-responsible for the collection of the used or unserviceable tires. In this study we review the technologies for reusing, recycling and energetic valorization of tires, in addition to presenting a flowchart of the reverse logistic process for new and used tires. Also included are statistical data of distribution channels, recycling goals and final destination for the used tires in the period from 2002 to 2006. In 2006, 240.62 thousand tons of unserviceable tires were recycled, which correspond to 48.12 million of automobile tires. The activities of laminating, grinding and manufacturing of rubber artifacts represented 50.02% of the total; the co-processing in clinker ovens represented 35.73%; the synthetic rubber regeneration represented 13.22% while 1.03% was used in the extraction and treatment of minerals.

  2. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) - Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2016 Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report aims to increase the understanding of the economic implications of material reuse and recycling. The report...

  3. Value-based management of design reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Juan Antonio; Cohn, David L.; Belluomini, Wendy; Montoye, Robert K.

    2003-06-01

    Effective design reuse in electronic products has the potential to provide very large cost savings, substantial time-to-market reduction, and extra sources of revenue. Unfortunately, critical reuse opportunities are often missed because, although they provide clear value to the corporation, they may not benefit the business performance of an internal organization. It is therefore crucial to provide tools to help reuse partners participate in a reuse transaction when the transaction provides value to the corporation as a whole. Value-based Reuse Management (VRM) addresses this challenge by (a) ensuring that all parties can quickly assess the business performance impact of a reuse opportunity, and (b) encouraging high-value reuse opportunities by supplying value-based rewards to potential parties. In this paper we introduce the Value-Based Reuse Management approach and we describe key results on electronic designs that demonstrate its advantages. Our results indicate that Value-Based Reuse Management has the potential to significantly increase the success probability of high-value electronic design reuse.

  4. Use of scalp hair as indicator of human exposure to heavy metals in an electronic waste recycling area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Thanh; Fu Jianjie; Wang Yawei; Liao Chunyang; Tao Yongqing; Jiang Guibin

    2009-01-01

    Scalp hair samples were collected at an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area and analyzed for trace elements and heavy metals. Elevated levels were found for Cu and Pb with geometric means (GMs) at 39.8 and 49.5 μg/g, and the levels of all elements were found in the rank order Pb > Cu >> Mn > Ba > Cr > Ni > Cd > As > V. Besides Cu and Pb, Cd (GM: 0.518 μg/g) was also found to be significantly higher compared to that in hair samples from control areas. Differences with age, gender, residence status and villages could be distinguished for most of the elements. The high levels of Cd, Cu and Pb were likely found to be originated from e-waste related activities, and specific sources were discussed. This study shows that human scalp hair could be a useful biomarker to assess the extent of heavy metal exposure to workers and residents in areas with intensive e-waste recycling activities. - Human scalp hair samples can be used to indicate environmental and occupational exposure of heavy metals due to intensive electronic waste recycling activities.

  5. The New Three Rs: Reduce, Reuse, & Recycle!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    Given the growing interest in the environment and the mounting crisis in solid waste management, many secondary teachers have been seeking curriculum materials which can help them address these issues with their classes. This document is a collection of 12 multidisciplinary activities which are offered to assist in the education of these students.…

  6. Potable Water Reuse: What Are the Microbiological Risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Sharon P; Soller, Jeffrey A; Eftim, Sorina E

    2018-06-01

    With the increasing interest in recycling water for potable reuse purposes, it is important to understand the microbial risks associated with potable reuse. This review focuses on potable reuse systems that use high-level treatment and de facto reuse scenarios that include a quantifiable wastewater effluent component. In this article, we summarize the published human health studies related to potable reuse, including both epidemiology studies and quantitative microbial risk assessments (QMRA). Overall, there have been relatively few health-based studies evaluating the microbial risks associated with potable reuse. Several microbial risk assessments focused on risks associated with unplanned (or de facto) reuse, while others evaluated planned potable reuse, such as indirect potable reuse (IPR) or direct potable reuse (DPR). The reported QMRA-based risks for planned potable reuse varied substantially, indicating there is a need for risk assessors to use consistent input parameters and transparent assumptions, so that risk results are easily translated across studies. However, the current results overall indicate that predicted risks associated with planned potable reuse scenarios may be lower than those for de facto reuse scenarios. Overall, there is a clear need to carefully consider water treatment train choices when wastewater is a component of the drinking water supply (whether de facto, IPR, or DPR). More data from full-scale water treatment facilities would be helpful to quantify levels of viruses in raw sewage and reductions across unit treatment processes for both culturable and molecular detection methods.

  7. The influence of printed electronics on the recyclability of paper: A case study for smart envelopes in courier and postal services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliaga, C., E-mail: caliaga@itene.com [Sustainability Division, Packaging, Transport and Logistics Research Centre, C/Albert Einstein 1, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Zhang, H.; Dobon, A.; Hortal, M. [Sustainability Division, Packaging, Transport and Logistics Research Centre, C/Albert Einstein 1, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Beneventi, D. [Laboratory of Pulp & Paper Science, Grenoble INP Pagora, 461, Rue de la Papeterie, F-38400 Saint-Martin d’Hères Cedex (France)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Study of the influence of components of printed electronics in paper recycling. • Comparison between paper recycled with and without resistors, batteries and layouts. • Mechanical and optical properties are evaluated in paper handsheets obtained. • Tensile strength of recycled paper is slighted reduced by layouts. • Optical properties of recycled paper slightly varies with layouts and batteries. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyse the effects of the presence of printed electronics on the paper waste streams and specifically on paper recyclability. The analysis is based on a case study focussed on envelopes for postal and courier services provided with these intelligent systems. The smart printed envelope of the study includes a combination of both conventional (thin flexible batteries and resistors) and printed electronic components (conductive track layout based on nanosilver ink). For this purpose, a comparison between envelopes with and without these components (batteries, resistors and conductive track layouts) was carried out through pilot scale paper recycling tests. The generation of rejects during the recycling process as well as the final quality of the recycled paper (mechanical and optical properties) were tested and quantitatively evaluated. The results show that resistors are retained during the screening process in the sieves and consequently they cannot end up in the final screened pulp. Therefore, mechanical and optical properties of the recycled paper are not affected. Nevertheless, inks from the conductive track layouts and batteries were partially dissolved in the process water. These substances were not totally retained in the sieving systems resulting in slight changes in the optical properties of the final recycled paper (variations are 7.2–7.5% in brightness, 8.5–10.7% in whiteness, 1.2–2.2% in L{sup ∗} values, 3.3–3.5% in opacity and 16.1–27% in yellowness). These variations are not in ranges

  8. The influence of printed electronics on the recyclability of paper: A case study for smart envelopes in courier and postal services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliaga, C.; Zhang, H.; Dobon, A.; Hortal, M.; Beneventi, D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Study of the influence of components of printed electronics in paper recycling. • Comparison between paper recycled with and without resistors, batteries and layouts. • Mechanical and optical properties are evaluated in paper handsheets obtained. • Tensile strength of recycled paper is slighted reduced by layouts. • Optical properties of recycled paper slightly varies with layouts and batteries. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyse the effects of the presence of printed electronics on the paper waste streams and specifically on paper recyclability. The analysis is based on a case study focussed on envelopes for postal and courier services provided with these intelligent systems. The smart printed envelope of the study includes a combination of both conventional (thin flexible batteries and resistors) and printed electronic components (conductive track layout based on nanosilver ink). For this purpose, a comparison between envelopes with and without these components (batteries, resistors and conductive track layouts) was carried out through pilot scale paper recycling tests. The generation of rejects during the recycling process as well as the final quality of the recycled paper (mechanical and optical properties) were tested and quantitatively evaluated. The results show that resistors are retained during the screening process in the sieves and consequently they cannot end up in the final screened pulp. Therefore, mechanical and optical properties of the recycled paper are not affected. Nevertheless, inks from the conductive track layouts and batteries were partially dissolved in the process water. These substances were not totally retained in the sieving systems resulting in slight changes in the optical properties of the final recycled paper (variations are 7.2–7.5% in brightness, 8.5–10.7% in whiteness, 1.2–2.2% in L ∗ values, 3.3–3.5% in opacity and 16.1–27% in yellowness). These variations are not in ranges able

  9. Mitigation of solid waste and reuse of effluent from paint and varnish automotive and industrial treated by irradiation at electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Fernando C.; Ribeiro, Marcia A.; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Minamidani, Pedro T.; Guzella, Catia C.

    2011-01-01

    One of the most representative industrial segments is the polymeric coatings for house paint, automotive, industrial, marine, maintenance, and repainting markets. The general consumption of paint market in 2010 was 438,364 10 3 gallons of paint, in Brazil. However, when produce paints and varnishes, various kinds of solid wastes and liquid effluent are generated. The present research focus on the effluent from resins, water base paint and paint for electrophoresis, automotive industry, and general industrial coatings. The goal of this study is to use ionizing radiation to destroy the pollutants allowing the use of part of effluent as reuse water, and the rest discarded within the specified requirements. Actual industrial effluent samples were irradiated at Electron beam Accelerator applying absorbed doses of 10 kGy, 30 kGy and 50 kGy. The results, in this preliminary stage, showed a reduction of organic compounds and suspended solids. (author)

  10. Recycling of engineering plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipments: influence of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier on the final performance of blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, V; Biswal, Manoranjan; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K

    2014-05-01

    This study is focused on the recovery and recycling of plastics waste, primarily polycarbonate, poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) and high impact polystyrene, from end-of-life waste electrical and electronic equipments. Recycling of used polycarbonate, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/high impact polystrene material was carried out using material recycling through a melt blending process. An optimized blend composition was formulated to achieve desired properties from different plastics present in the waste electrical and electronic equipments. The toughness of blended plastics was improved with the addition of 10 wt% of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier (ethylene-acrylic ester-glycidyl methacrylate). The mechanical, thermal, dynamic-mechanical and morphological properties of recycled blend were investigated. Improved properties of blended plastics indicate better miscibility in the presence of a compatibilizer suitable for high-end application.

  11. Evaluation of appropriate technologies for grey water treatments and reuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangyue; Wichmann, Knut; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    As water is becoming a rare resource, the onsite reuse and recycling of grey water is practiced in many countries as a sustainable solution to reduce the overall urban water demand. However, the lack of appropriate water quality standards or guidelines has hampered the appropriate grey water reuses. Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water treatment and reuse scheme is proposed and the treatment alternatives for grey water reuse are evaluated according to the grey water characteristics, the proposed standards and economical feasibility.

  12. Electrostatic separation for recycling conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors from electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mianqiang; Yan, Guoqing; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-10-02

    Electrostatic separation has been widely used to separate conductors and nonconductors for recycling e-waste. However, the components of e-waste are complex, which can be classified as conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors according to their conducting properties. In this work, we made a novel attempt to recover the mixtures containing conductors (copper), semiconductors (extrinsic silicon), and nonconductors (woven glass reinforced resin) by electrostatic separation. The results of binary mixtures separation show that the separation of conductor and nonconductor, semiconductor and nonconductor need a higher voltage level while the separation of conductor and semiconductor needs a higher roll speed. Furthermore, the semiconductor separation efficiency is more sensitive to the high voltage level and the roll speed than the conductor separation efficiency. An integrated process was proposed for the multiple mixtures separation. The separation efficiency of conductors and semiconductors can reach 82.5% and 88%, respectively. This study contributes to the efficient recycling of valuable resources from e-waste.

  13. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Electronics Challenge Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    On September 22, 2012, EPA launched the SMM Electronics Challenge. The Challenge encourages electronics manufacturers, brand owners and retailers to strive to send 100 percent of the used electronics they collect from the public, businesses and within their own organizations to third-party certified electronics refurbishers and recyclers. The Challenge??s goals are to: 1). Ensure responsible recycling through the use of third-party certified recyclers, 2). Increase transparency and accountability through public posting of electronics collection and recycling data, and 3). Encourage outstanding performance through awards and recognition. By striving to send 100 percent of used electronics collected to certified recyclers and refurbishers, Challenge participants are ensuring that the used electronics they collect will be responsibly managed by recyclers that maximize reuse and recycling, minimize exposure to human health and the environment, ensure the safe management of materials by downstream handlers, and require destruction of all data on used electronics. Electronics Challenge participants are publicly recognized on EPA's website as a registrant, new participant, or active participant. Awards are offered in two categories - tier and champion. Tier awards are given in recognition of achieving all the requirements under a gold, silver or bronze tier. Champion awards are given in two categories - product and non-product. For champion awards, a product is an it

  14. SRS stainless steel beneficial reuse program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettinger, W.L.

    1997-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) has thousands of tons of stainless steel radioactive scrap metal (RSNI). Much of the metal is volumetrically contaminated. There is no {open_quotes}de minimis{close_quotes} free release level for volumetric material, and therefore no way to recycle the metal into the normal commercial market. If declared waste, the metal would qualify as low level radioactive waste (LLW) and ultimately be dispositioned through shallow land buried at a cost of millions of dollars. The metal however could be recycled in a {open_quotes}controlled release{close_quote} manner, in the form of containers to hold other types of radioactive waste. This form of recycle is generally referred to as {open_quotes}Beneficial Reuse{close_quotes}. Beneficial reuse reduces the amount of disposal space needed and reduces the need for virgin containers which would themselves become contaminated. Stainless steel is particularly suited for long term storage because of its resistance to corrosion. To assess the practicality of stainless steel RSM recycle the SRS Benficial Reuse Program began a demonstration in 1994, funded by the DOE Office of Science and Technology. This paper discusses the experiences gained in this program.

  15. ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongondo, F.O.; Williams, I.D.; Dietrich, J.; Carroll, C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyse ICT equipment reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. • Most common ICT products dealt with are computers and related equipment. • In the UK in 2010, ∼143,750 appliances were reused. • Marketing and legislative difficulties are the common hurdles to reuse activities. • Socio-economic enterprises can significantly contribute to resource efficiency. - Abstract: In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the UK from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the UK in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the UK market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into “reuse parks” would enhance both their profile and their

  16. ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ongondo, F.O., E-mail: f.ongondo@soton.ac.uk [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Williams, I.D. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Dietrich, J. [Technische Universität Berlin, Centre for Scientific Continuing Education and Cooperation, Cooperation and Consulting for Environmental Questions (kubus) FH10-1, Fraunhoferstraße 33-36, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Carroll, C. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We analyse ICT equipment reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. • Most common ICT products dealt with are computers and related equipment. • In the UK in 2010, ∼143,750 appliances were reused. • Marketing and legislative difficulties are the common hurdles to reuse activities. • Socio-economic enterprises can significantly contribute to resource efficiency. - Abstract: In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the UK from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the UK in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the UK market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into “reuse parks” would enhance both their profile and their

  17. Recycling-oriented characterization of plastic frames and printed circuit boards from mobile phones by electronic and chemical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmieri, Roberta; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia, E-mail: silvia.serranti@uniroma1.it

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • A recycling oriented characterization of end-of-life mobile phones was carried out. • Characterization was developed in a zero-waste-perspective, aiming to recover all the mobile phone materials. • Plastic frames and printed circuit boards were analyzed by electronic and chemical imaging. • Suitable milling/classification strategies were set up to define specialized-pre-concentrated-streams. • The proposed approach can improve the recovery of polymers, base/precious metals, rare earths and critical raw materials. - Abstract: This study characterizes the composition of plastic frames and printed circuit boards from end-of-life mobile phones. This knowledge may help define an optimal processing strategy for using these items as potential raw materials. Correct handling of such a waste is essential for its further “sustainable” recovery, especially to maximize the extraction of base, rare and precious metals, minimizing the environmental impact of the entire process chain. A combination of electronic and chemical imaging techniques was thus examined, applied and critically evaluated in order to optimize the processing, through the identification and the topological assessment of the materials of interest and their quantitative distribution. To reach this goal, end-of-life mobile phone derived wastes have been systematically characterized adopting both “traditional” (e.g. scanning electronic microscopy combined with microanalysis and Raman spectroscopy) and innovative (e.g. hyperspectral imaging in short wave infrared field) techniques, with reference to frames and printed circuit boards. Results showed as the combination of both the approaches (i.e. traditional and classical) could dramatically improve recycling strategies set up, as well as final products recovery.

  18. Recycling-oriented characterization of plastic frames and printed circuit boards from mobile phones by electronic and chemical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, Roberta; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A recycling oriented characterization of end-of-life mobile phones was carried out. • Characterization was developed in a zero-waste-perspective, aiming to recover all the mobile phone materials. • Plastic frames and printed circuit boards were analyzed by electronic and chemical imaging. • Suitable milling/classification strategies were set up to define specialized-pre-concentrated-streams. • The proposed approach can improve the recovery of polymers, base/precious metals, rare earths and critical raw materials. - Abstract: This study characterizes the composition of plastic frames and printed circuit boards from end-of-life mobile phones. This knowledge may help define an optimal processing strategy for using these items as potential raw materials. Correct handling of such a waste is essential for its further “sustainable” recovery, especially to maximize the extraction of base, rare and precious metals, minimizing the environmental impact of the entire process chain. A combination of electronic and chemical imaging techniques was thus examined, applied and critically evaluated in order to optimize the processing, through the identification and the topological assessment of the materials of interest and their quantitative distribution. To reach this goal, end-of-life mobile phone derived wastes have been systematically characterized adopting both “traditional” (e.g. scanning electronic microscopy combined with microanalysis and Raman spectroscopy) and innovative (e.g. hyperspectral imaging in short wave infrared field) techniques, with reference to frames and printed circuit boards. Results showed as the combination of both the approaches (i.e. traditional and classical) could dramatically improve recycling strategies set up, as well as final products recovery

  19. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna M. Campbell

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  20. Sustainability and the Recycling of Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Donna L.; Nilsen, Alleen Pace

    2011-01-01

    With the mention of "sustainability" and "recycling," most people think about reusing paper, plastic, metal, and glass, but what the authors discovered when they embarked on a word-study unit is that the sustainability movement has also brought about the recycling of words. The authors were team-teaching a language awareness class taken by…

  1. Electron Transfer Reactivity Patterns at Chemically Modified Electrodes: Fundamentals and Application to the Optimization of Redox Recycling Amplification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergren, Adam Johan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Electroanalytical chemistry is often utilized in chemical analysis and Fundamental studies. Important advances have been made in these areas since the advent of chemically modified electrodes: the coating of an electrode with a chemical film in order to impart desirable, and ideally, predictable properties. These procedures enable the exploitation of unique reactivity patterns. This dissertation presents studies that investigate novel reaction mechanisms at self-assembled monolayers on gold. In particular, a unique electrochemical current amplification scheme is detailed that relies on a selective electrode to enable a reactivity pattern that results in regeneration of the analyte (redox recycling). This regenerating reaction can occur up to 250 times for each analyte molecule, leading to a notable enhancement in the observed current. The requirements of electrode selectivity and the resulting amplification and detection limit improvements are described with respect to the heterogeneous and homogeneous electron transfer rates that characterize the system. These studies revealed that the heterogeneous electrolysis of the analyte should ideally be electrochemically reversible, while that for the regenerating agent should be held to a low level. Moreover, the homogeneous reaction that recycles the analyte should occur at a rapid rate. The physical selectivity mechanism is also detailed with respect to the properties of the electrode and redox probes utilized. It is shown that partitioning of the analyte into/onto the adlayer leads to the extraordinary selectivity of the alkanethiolate monolayer modified electrode. Collectively, these studies enable a thorough understanding of the complex electrode mechanism required for successful redox recycling amplification systems, Finally, in a separate (but related) study, the effect of the akyl chain length on the heterogeneous electron transfer behavior of solution-based redox probes is reported, where an odd-even oscillation

  2. 'Away' is a place: The impact of electronic waste recycling on blood lead levels in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amankwaa, Ebenezer Forkuo; Adovor Tsikudo, Kwame A; Bowman, Jay A

    2017-12-01

    E-waste recycling remains a major source of livelihood for many urban poor in developing countries, but this economic activity is fraught with significant environmental health risk. Yet, human exposure to the toxic elements associated with e-waste activities remains understudied and not evidently understood. This study investigates the impact of informal e-waste processing on the blood lead levels (BLLs) of e-waste workers and non-e-waste workers (mainly females working in activities that serve the Agbogbloshie e-waste site), and relates their lead exposure to socio-demographic and occupational characteristics. A total of 128 blood samples were analysed for lead levels. Surprisingly, the mean BLL (3.54μg/dL) of non-e-waste workers was slightly higher than that of e-waste workers (3.49μg/dL), although higher BLLs ranges were found among e-waste workers (0.50-18.80μg/dL) than non-e-waste workers (0.30-8.20μg/dL). Workers who engaged in e-waste burning tended to have the highest BLLs. In general, the BLLs are within the ABLES/US CDC reference level of 5μg/dL, although 12.3% of the workers have elevated BLLs, i.e. BLL ≥5μg/dL. The study concludes that the impact of e-waste recycling is not limited to workers alone. Traders and residents within the Agbogbloshie enclave are equally at risk through a range of environmental vectors. This calls for increased public awareness about the effects of human exposure to lead and other toxic elements from e-waste recycling. A key contribution is that government and stakeholder projects for safe e-waste infrastructure should disaggregate the e-waste value chain, recognize differential risk and resist one-size-fits-all strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytogenetics data in adult men involved in the recycling of electronic wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Du

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, 146 villagers (exposed group were randomly selected from the workers who involved in the e-wastes recycling directly as a daily job in Tianjin. Control group, including 121 villagers, came from another town without e-waste disposal sites. Chromosomal aberrations (CA and cytokinesis blocking micronucleus (CBMN were performed to detect the cytogenetic effect for each subject. DNA damage was detected using comet assay; the DNA percentage in the comet tail (TDNA%, tail moment (TM, and Olive tail moment (OTM were recorded to describe DNA damage to lymphocytes and spermatozoa. Routine semen analysis, spermatozoa motility and morphology were analyzed. The RT2Profiler PCR array was used to measure levels of expression of 84 genes related to quality of DNA. It showed significant relationships between CA, CBMN, DNA damage and exposure time in exposure subjects. The alteration of sperm motility rate, abnormality rate and total sperm counts had association with exposure time and age.

  4. Recycling nutrients in algae biorefinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Alba, Laura; Vos, M.P.; Torri, C.; Fabbri, D.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Algal fuel cells: Repeated nutrient recycling is demonstrated by reusing the aqueous phase obtained from the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae. This is achieved, for the first time, by performing a complete set of four continuous growth–HTL cycles. Results show similar growth rates in

  5. Energetic reuse: the use of energy from organic material from urban waste for plastics recycling; Reaproveitamento energetico: uso de energia proveniente de material organico dos residuos urbanos para reciclar plasticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Priscila Alves; Rocha, Carlos Roberto [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (EXCEN/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Eficiencia Energetica

    2008-07-01

    The population growth and the elevation of the purchasing status due to economic development impel the gradual increase of residues produced a year. The discarding of these residues represents a great economic and environmental challenge, mainly because of discarded plastic concentration with no energetic and economic use, a also because of the organic material that, after decomposing, produces methane, one of the most responsible for global heating when in contact with atmosphere with no control. The recycling of plastic residues is a solution to minimize its discard and to guarantee an environmental improvement for saving raw matter, however the high consumption of energy endears the process, making it difficult its economic viability. This takes the search of new alternatives for attainment of low cost energy. In the problem of discard of the organic matter it can be the solution for the recycling of these residues. The decomposition of the organic matter produces fuel (biogas) useful as power plant for the generation of necessary electricity to the recycling process. The present study analyses an alternative to recycle plastic residues, after being consumed, in some places for discarding and using energy from biogas produced in landfills or biodigestors. Initially it was carried through a data-collecting and analysis of the physical composition of the residues, indispensable to the development of the study, which allowed to daily find the average percentage of plastics (12,9%) and organic matter (41,9%) made use by the involved population. On the basis of the data of organic matter the determination in such a way of the potential of generation of the biogas as of the electric power 'recycled' was possible to leave of that they would be discarded without any use. Data-collecting on equipment used in the plastic recycling had been essential for attainment of the necessary average energy demand to the process in such a way not only for soft plastic and

  6. Re-use of disposable coil dialysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbud Filho, M.

    1980-01-01

    Re-use of disposable dialysers has been in practice for over 16 years throughout the world but it still is a polemical subject. The main justification for it is the reduction of costs in the hemodialytic treatment. We evaluated the technique of re-use that we adopt by studying 33 patients who should re-utilize coil dialysers for 8 consecutive hemodialysis sessions. We investigated: 1) small and middle molecules clearances trough a radioisotopic method; 2) the integrity of the system regarding bacterial invasion; 3) the frequency of anti-N antibodies; 4) aspects of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of dialysis membrane after re-use. We observed no changes in the dialysers performance during re-use. We conclude that the re-use of dialyzers is feasible, without risks for the patients, allowing marked reduction of costs, thus making possible to offer treatment to a larger number of uremic patients. (author)

  7. Hybrid membrane processes for water reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Pidou, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Water recycling is now widely accepted as a sustainable option to respond to the general increase of the fresh water demand, water shortages and for environment protection. Because greywater represents up to 70% of domestic wastewater volume but contains only 30% of the organic fraction and from 9 to 20% of the nutrients (Kujawa-Roeleveld and Zeeman, 2006), it is seen as one of the most appropriate sources to be treated and reuse. A broad range of technologies has been used for...

  8. Impact of metals in surface matrices from formal and informal electronic-waste recycling around Metro Manila, the Philippines, and intra-Asian comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takigami, Hidetaka; Agusa, Tetsuro; Eguchi, Akifumi; Bekki, Kanae; Yoshida, Aya; Terazono, Atsushi; Ballesteros, Florencio C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We quantified 11 metals in surface matrices from e-waste recycling sites at the Philippines. ► Dust had statistical higher levels of metal contamination and health risk compared to soil. ► Formal and informal sites had different metal contaminations. ► Intra-Asian comparison provided common insight on metal contamination from e-waste recycling. - Abstract: We report concentrations, enrichment factors, and hazard indicators of 11 metals (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, In, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in soil and dust surface matrices from formal and informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling sites around Metro Manila, the Philippines, referring to soil guidelines and previous data from various e-waste recycling sites in Asia. Surface dust from e-waste recycling sites had higher levels of metal contamination than surface soil. Comparison of formal and informal e-waste recycling sites (hereafter, “formal” and “informal”) revealed differences in specific contaminants. Formal dust contained a mixture of serious pollutant metals (Ni, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and Cd (polluted modestly), quite high enrichment metals (Ag and In), and crust-derived metals (As, Co, Fe, and Mn). For informal soil, concentration levels of specific metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were similar among Asian recycling sites. Formal dust had significantly higher hazardous risk than the other matrices (p < 0.005), excluding informal dust (p = 0.059, almost significant difference). Thus, workers exposed to formal dust should protect themselves from hazardous toxic metals (Pb and Cu). There is also a high health risk for children ingesting surface matrices from informal e-waste recycling sites.

  9. Relevance and Benefits of Urban Water Reuse in Tourist Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston Tong Sang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban water reuse is one of the most rapidly growing water reuse applications worldwide and one of the major elements of the sustainable management of urban water cycle. Because of the high probability of direct contact between consumers and recycled water, many technical and regulatory challenges have to be overcome in order to minimize health risks at affordable cost. This paper illustrates the keys to success of one of the first urban water reuse projects in the island Bora Bora, French Polynesia. Special emphasis is given on the reliability of operation of the membrane tertiary treatment, economic viability in terms of pricing of recycled water and operating costs, as well as on the benefits of water reuse for the sustainable development of tourist areas.

  10. REPORT ON THE PANEL SESSION: EMERGING ELECTRONICS ISSUES - HOW CAN WE MINIMIZE THE HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF ELECTRONICS RECYCLING?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The production and use of electronic products is growing and the rapid pace at which the technology advances means that many electronic products become obsolete in a relatively short period of time. These factors are contributing to a growing challenge for waste management becaus...

  11. The influence of printed electronics on the recyclability of paper: a case study for smart envelopes in courier and postal services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaga, C; Zhang, H; Dobon, A; Hortal, M; Beneventi, D

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the effects of the presence of printed electronics on the paper waste streams and specifically on paper recyclability. The analysis is based on a case study focussed on envelopes for postal and courier services provided with these intelligent systems. The smart printed envelope of the study includes a combination of both conventional (thin flexible batteries and resistors) and printed electronic components (conductive track layout based on nanosilver ink). For this purpose, a comparison between envelopes with and without these components (batteries, resistors and conductive track layouts) was carried out through pilot scale paper recycling tests. The generation of rejects during the recycling process as well as the final quality of the recycled paper (mechanical and optical properties) were tested and quantitatively evaluated. The results show that resistors are retained during the screening process in the sieves and consequently they cannot end up in the final screened pulp. Therefore, mechanical and optical properties of the recycled paper are not affected. Nevertheless, inks from the conductive track layouts and batteries were partially dissolved in the process water. These substances were not totally retained in the sieving systems resulting in slight changes in the optical properties of the final recycled paper (variations are 7.2-7.5% in brightness, 8.5-10.7% in whiteness, 1.2-2.2% in L(∗) values, 3.3-3.5% in opacity and 16.1-27% in yellowness). These variations are not in ranges able to cause problems in current paper recycling processes and restrict the use of recycled paper in current applications. Moreover, real impacts on industrial recycling are expected to be even significantly lower since the proportion of paper product with printed circuits in the current paper waste streams are much lower than the ones tested in this work. However, it should be underlined the fact that this situation may change over the next

  12. Recycling supercapacitors based on shredding and mild thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guozhan; Pickering, Stephen J

    2016-02-01

    Supercapacitors are widely used in electric and hybrid vehicles, wind farm and low-power equipment due to their high specific power density and huge number of charge-discharge cycles. Waste supercapacitors should be recycled according to EU directive 2002/96/EC on waste electric and electronic equipment. This paper describes a recycling approach for end-of-life supercapacitors based on shredding and mild thermal treatment. At first, supercapacitors are shredded using a Retsch cutting mill. The shredded mixture is then undergone thermal treatment at 200°C to recycle the organic solvent contained in the activated carbon electrodes. After the thermal treatment, the mixture is roughly separated using a fluidized bed method to remove the aluminium foil particles and paper particles from the activated carbon particles, which is subsequently put into water for a wet shredding into fine particles that can be re-used. The recycled activated carbon has a BET surface area of up to 1200m(2)/g and the recycled acetonitrile has a high purity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Greywater Treatment and Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Ekrem ÜSTÜN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, to examine grey water treatment and reuse. For this aim, previous literature studies been research on and interpreted. Project began with study of physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the gray water. At the second part; grey water treatment and reuse were examined. At the third part; the technologies used for the methods treatment of gray water were explained. Then from costs and previous studies about grey water reuse were mentioned.

  14. Effects of electron beam radiation dose on the compatibilization behaviour in recycled polypropylene/microcrystalline cellulose composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samat, N.; Motsidi, S. N. R.; Lazim, N. H. M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the influence of dose level of electron beam on the compatibilization behavior of recycled polypropylene (rPP) in rPP/microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) composites. Initially, the rPP was irradiated with various dose of electron beam (5 kGy up to 250 kGy) which then mixed with unirradiated rPP (u-rPP) at a ratio of 30:70 respectively. The composites were prepared by incorporating a series wt% of MCC fibers into rPP (u-rPP : i-rPP) using extruder and finally moulded with an injection moulding machine. The compatibility behavior of irradiated rPP (i-rPP) were analysed with mechanical tensile and thermal methods. The results of mechanical analysis showed great improvement in tensile modulus but an increase in radiation dosage gradually decreased this property. Nevertheless, the tensile strength exhibited a minor effect. The thermal stability of composites is lowered with increase in the absorbed dose, more significantly at higher content of MCC. Fracture surface observations reveal adhesion between the cellulose and rPP matrix.

  15. ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D; Dietrich, J; Carroll, C

    2013-12-01

    In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the U.K. from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the U.K. in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the U.K. market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into "reuse parks" would enhance both their profile and their products. Reuse parks would also improve consumer confidence in and subsequently sales of the products. Further, it is advocated that industrial networking opportunities for the exchange of by-products resulting from the organisations' activities should be investigated. The findings make two significant contributions to the current literature. One, they provide a detailed insight into the reuse operations

  16. Reuse of hydroponic waste solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramasamy Rajesh; Cho, Jae Young

    2014-01-01

    Attaining sustainable agriculture is a key goal in many parts of the world. The increased environmental awareness and the ongoing attempts to execute agricultural practices that are economically feasible and environmentally safe promote the use of hydroponic cultivation. Hydroponics is a technology for growing plants in nutrient solutions with or without the use of artificial medium to provide mechanical support. Major problems for hydroponic cultivation are higher operational cost and the causing of pollution due to discharge of waste nutrient solution. The nutrient effluent released into the environment can have negative impacts on the surrounding ecosystems as well as the potential to contaminate the groundwater utilized by humans for drinking purposes. The reuse of non-recycled, nutrient-rich hydroponic waste solution for growing plants in greenhouses is the possible way to control environmental pollution. Many researchers have successfully grown several plant species in hydroponic waste solution with high yield. Hence, this review addresses the problems associated with the release of hydroponic waste solution into the environment and possible reuse of hydroponic waste solution as an alternative resource for agriculture development and to control environmental pollution.

  17. Water Reuse Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The Second National Conference on Complete WateReuse stressed better planning, management, and use of water. The sessions covered: water reuse and its problems; water's interface with air and land, and modification of these interactions by the imposition of energy; and heavy metals in the environment and methods for their removal. (BT)

  18. Water Reclamation and Reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water reclamation and reuse. This review covers: (1) water resources planning; (2) agriculture and irrigation; (3) ground recharge; (4) industrial reuse; (5) health considerations; and (6) technology developments. A list of 217 references is also presented. (HM)

  19. Ionizing radiation and water reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Sampa, Maria Helena de Oliveira; Oikawa, Hiroshi; Silveira, Carlos Gaia da; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Cherbakian, Eloisa Helena

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to point out the possibility of including ionizing radiation for wastewater treatment and reuse. Radiation processing is an efficient technology which can be useful for water reuse once the process can reduce not only the biological contamination but also organic substances, promoting an important acute toxicity removal from aquatic resources. Final secondary effluents from three different wastewater treatment plant were submitted to electron beam radiation and the process efficacy was evaluated. Concerning disinfection, relatively low radiation doses (2,0 - 4,0 kGy) accounted for 4 to 6 cycle log reduction for total coliforms. When radiation was applied for general wastewater improvement related to the chemical contamination, radiation process reduced from 78% up to 100% the total acute toxicity, measured for crustaceans, D. similis, and for V. fiscehri bacteria. (author)

  20. Copper leaching from electronic waste for the improvement of gold recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Robinson; Lapidus, Gretchen T

    2016-11-01

    Gold recovery from electronic waste material with high copper content was investigated at ambient conditions. A chemical preliminary treatment was found necessary to remove the large quantities of copper before the precious metal can be extracted. For this purpose inorganic acids (HCl, HNO 3 and H 2 SO 4 ) and two organic substances EDTA and citrate, were tested. The effect of auxiliary oxidants such as air, ozone and peroxide hydroxide was studied. In pretreatments with peroxide and HCl or citrate, copper extractions greater than 90% were achieved. In the second leaching stage for gold recovery, the solid residue of the copper extraction was contacted with thiourea solutions, resulting in greater than 90% gold removal after only one hour of reaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Separating and recycling metals from mixed metallic particles of crushed electronic wastes by vacuum metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lu; Xu, Zhenming

    2009-09-15

    During the treatment of electronic wastes, a crushing process is usually used to strip metals from various base plates. Several methods have been applied to separate metals from nonmetals. However, mixed metallic particles obtained from these processes are still a mixture of various metals, including some toxic heavy metals such as lead and cadmium. With emphasis on recovering copper and other precious metals, there have hitherto been no satisfactory methods to recover these toxic metals. In this paper, the criterion of separating metals from mixed metallic particles by vacuum metallurgy is built. The results show that the metals with high vapor pressure have been almost recovered completely, leading to a considerable reduction of environmental pollution. In addition, the purity of copper in mixed particles has been improved from about 80 wt % to over 98 wt %.

  2. Resource Recovery and Reuse in Organic Solid Waste Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Hoitink, H.; Bidlingmaier, W.

    2004-01-01

    Uncontrolled spreading of waste materials leads to health problems and environmental damage. To prevent these problems a waste management infrastructure has been set to collect and dispose of the waste, based on a hierarchy of three principles: waste prevention, recycling/reuse, and final disposal.

  3. Dietary intake of PBDEs of residents at two major electronic waste recycling sites in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, J.K.Y. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Man, Y.B. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Wu, S.C. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-10-01

    The dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) of local residents from 2 major electronic waste (e-waste) processing sites (Guiyu, Guangdong Province and Taizhou, Zhejiang Province) in China was investigated. Seventy-four food items were collected from these sites, divided into 9 food groups (freshwater fish, marine fish, shellfish, pork, poultry, chicken offal, egg, vegetables and cereals), and examined for residual PBDE concentrations. Out of all food items examined, the freshwater bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) contained extremely high (11,400 ± 254 ng/g wet wt.) concentrations of PBDE, the highest concentrations amongst published data concerning PBDE detected in freshwater fish. Food consumption data obtained through semi-quantitative food intake questionnaires showed that Guiyu residents had a PBDE dietary intake of 931 ± 772 ng/kg bw/day, of which BDE-47 (584 ng/kg bw/day) exceeded the US EPA's reference dose (100 ng/kg/day). Taizhou (44.7 ± 26.3 ng/kg bw/day) and Lin'an (1.94 ± 0.86 ng/kg bw/day) residents exhibited lower readings. The main dietary source of PBDEs in Guiyu and Taizhou residents was seafood (88–98%) and pork (41%) in Lin'an. The present results indicated that health risks arising from PBDE dietary exposure are of significance in terms of public health and food safety to local residents of e-waste processing sites. - Highlights: ► Food basket analysis was conducted in 2 major e-waste processing sites in China. ► Different food items were contaminated by PBDE contained in e-waste sites in China. ► Guiyu residents had an potential unsafe level of PBDE dietary exposure.

  4. Optimisation of industrial wastes reuse as construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collivignarelli, C; Sorlini, S

    2001-12-01

    This study concerns the reuse of two inorganic wastes, foundry residues and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration, as "recycled aggregate" in concrete production. This kind of reuse was optimised by waste treatment with the following steps: waste washing with water; waste stabilisation-solidification treatment with inorganic reagents; final grinding of the stabilised waste after curing for about 10-20 days. Both the treated wastes were reused in concrete production with different mix-designs. Concrete specimens were characterised by means of conventional physical-mechanical tests (compression, elasticity modulus, shrinkage) and different leaching tests. Experimental results showed that a good structural and environmental quality of "recycled concrete" is due both to a correct waste treatment and to a correct mix-design for concrete mixture.

  5. Reuse of waste water: impact on water supply planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangan, G.F. Jr.

    1978-06-01

    As the urban population of the world increases and demands on easily developable water supplies are exceeded, cities have recourse to a range of management alternatives to balance municipal water supply and demand. These alternatives range from doing nothing to modifying either the supply or the demand variable in the supply-demand relationship. The reuse or recycling of urban waste water in many circumstances may be an economically attractive and effective management strategy for extending existing supplies of developed water, for providing additional water where no developable supplies exist and for meeting water quality effluent discharge standards. The relationship among municipal, industrial and agricultural water use and the treatment links which may be required to modify the quality of a municipal waste effluent for either recycling or reuse purposes is described. A procedure is described for analyzing water reuse alternatives within a framework of regional water supply and waste water disposal planning and management.

  6. REUSE OF AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENTS FROM DISMANTLED END OF LIFE VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr NOWAKOWSKI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of recycling end of life automotive vehicles is serious worldwide. It is one of the most important streams of waste in developed countries. It has big importance as recycling potential of raw materials content in automotive vehicles is valuable. Different parts and assemblies after dismantling can also be reused in vehicles where replacement of specific component is necessary. Reuse of the components should be taken into consideration in selecting the vehicles dismantling strategy. It also complies with European Union policy concerning end of life vehicles (ELV. In the paper it is presented systematic approach to dismantling strategies including disassembly oriented on further reuse of components. It is focused on decision making and possible benefits calculation from economic and environmental point of view.

  7. Present status of recycling waste mobile phones in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingying; Ge, Zhongying; Liang, Changjin; An, Ni

    2017-07-01

    A large number of waste mobile phones have already been generated and are being generated. Various countries around the world have all been positively exploring the way of recycling and reuse when facing such a large amount of waste mobile phones. In some countries, processing waste mobile phones has been forming a complete industrial chain, which can not only recycle waste mobile phones to reduce their negative influence on the environment but also turn waste into treasure to acquire economic benefits dramatically. However, the situation of recycling waste mobile phones in China is not going well. Waste mobile phones are not formally covered by existing regulations and policies for the waste electric and electronic equipment in China. In order to explore an appropriate system to recover waste mobile phones, the mobile phone production and the amount of waste mobile phones are introduced in this paper, and status of waste mobile phones recycling is described; then, the disposal technology of electronic waste that would be most likely to be used for processing of electronic waste in industrial applications in the near future is reviewed. Finally, rationalization proposals are put forward based on the current recovery status of waste mobile phones for the purpose of promoting the development of recycling waste mobile phones in developing countries with a special emphasis on China.

  8. Collection of Recyclables from Cubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøhlk, Sanne; Bogh, Morten Bie; Mikkelsen, Hardy

    2014-01-01

    Collection of recyclable materials is a major part of reverse logistics and an important issue in sustainable logistics. In this paper we consider a case study where paper and glass are collected from recycling cubes and transported to a treatment facility where it is processed for reuse. We...... analyze how outsourcing the planning and transportation of the service can result in conflicts of interest and as a consequence cause unsustainable solutions. Finally, we suggest an alternative payment structure which can lead to a common goal, overall economic sustainability, and an improved financial...

  9. Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water For Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Haering, Kathryn; Evanylo, Gregory K.; Benham, Brian Leslie, 1960-; Goatley, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Describes water reuse and reclaimed water, explains how reclaimed water is produced, options for water reuse, water reuse regulations, and agronomic concerns with water reuse, and provides several case studies of water reuse.

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in chicken tissues and eggs from an electronic waste recycling area in southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofei Qin; Yongjian Yang; Zhanfen Qin; Yan Li; Yaxian Zhao; Xijuan Xia; Shishuai Yan; Mi Tian; Xingru Zhao; Xiaobai XU

    2011-01-01

    The levels and distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in chicken tissues from an electronic waste (e-waste)recycling area in southeast China were investigated. Human dietary intake by local residents via chicken muscle and eggs was estimated.The mean PBDEs concentrations in tissues ranged from 15.2 to 3138.1 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and in egg the concentration was 563.5 ng/g lw. The results showed that the level of total PBDEs (∑PBDEs) in the chicken tissue was 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the literature. The large difference of ΣPBDEs concentrations between tissues confirmed that the distribution of PBDEs in tissues depend on tissue-specificity rather than the “lipid-compartment”. BDE-209 was the predominant congener (82.5%-94.7% of ∑PBDEs) in all chicken tissues except in brain (34.7% of ∑PBDEs), which indicated that deca-BDE (the major commercial PBDE formulation comprising 65%-70% of total production) was major pollution source in this area and could be bioaccumulated in terrestrial animals. The dietary PBDEs intake of the local residents from chicken muscle and egg, assuming only local bred chickens and eggs were consumed, ranged from 2.2 to 22.5 ng/(day·kg body weight (bw)) with a mean value of 13.5 ng/(day.kg bw), which was one order of magnitude higher than the value reported in previous studies for consumption of all foodstuffs.

  11. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in chicken tissues and eggs from an electronic waste recycling area in southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaofei; Qin, Zhanfen; Li, Yan; Zhao, Yaxian; Xia, Xijuan; Yan, Shishuai; Tian, Mi; Zhao, Xingru; Xu, Xiaobai; Yang, Yongjian

    2011-01-01

    The levels and distributions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in chicken tissues from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area in southeast China were investigated. Human dietary intake by local residents via chicken muscle and eggs was estimated. The mean PBDEs concentrations in tissues ranged from 15.2 to 3138.1 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and in egg the concentration was 563.5 ng/g lw. The results showed that the level of total PBDEs (sigmaPBDEs) in the chicken tissue was 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the literature. The large difference of sigmaPBDEs concentrations between tissues confirmed that the distribution of PBDEs in tissues depend on tissue-specificity rather than the "lipid-compartment". BDE-209 was the predominant congener (82.5%-94.7% of sigmaPBDEs) in all chicken tissues except in brain (34.7% of sigmaPBDEs), which indicated that deca-BDE (the major commercial PBDE formulation comprising 65%-70% of total production) was major pollution source in this area and could be bioaccumulated in terrestrial animals. The dietary PBDEs intake of the local residents from chicken muscle and egg, assuming only local bred chickens and eggs were consumed, ranged from 2.2 to 22.5 ng/(day x kg body weight (bw)) with a mean value of 13.5 ng/(day x kg bw), which was one order of magnitude higher than the value reported in previous studies for consumption of all foodstuffs.

  12. Nuclear recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses two aspects of the economics of recycling nuclear fuel: the actual costs and savings of the recycling operation in terms of money spent, made, and saved; and the impact of the recycling on the future cost of uranium. The authors review the relevant physical and chemical processes involved in the recycling process. Recovery of uranium and plutonium is discussed. Fuel recycling in LWRs is examined and a table presents the costs of reprocessing and not reprocessing. The subject of plutonium in fast reactors is addressed. Safeguards and weapons proliferation are discussed

  13. Biomaterials recycling: bioglasses obtained from reuse of hydroxyapatite (HA) bovine bone with term exceeded validity; Reciclagem de biomateriais: biovidros obtidos a partir do reaproveitamento de hidroxiapatita (HA) ossea bovina com prazo de validade excedido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.C.; Santos, S.C.; Braga, F.J.C., E-mail: dasilva.ac@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Aparecida, A.H. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    The hydroxyapatite (HA) is a reference bioceramic for bone replacement and regeneration medical practice, becoming one of the most produced and researched bone graft material. Since it is a material for biomedical application, the manufacture and storage of this bioceramic must comply with severe conservation criteria, and its validity date is the lawful major factor for disposal. Materials with the exceeded expiration date are usually discarded and incinerated, resulting in ash, environmental contamination and energy expenditure. This study evaluates the possibility of reuse of bovine HA collected after its validity date as raw material to obtain bioglass, aiming to natural resources saving and environmental emissions mitigation. 45S5 similar compositions were obtained by melting the materials at 1500 ° C, followed by rapid cooling and annealing thermal treatment (500 ° C for 2h), analytical grade chemical reagents were used to set the final composition. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and hydrolysis resistance techniques. The results of comparative chemical resistance (Hydrolytic) tests indicate the potential use of the materials developed for bone replacement applications. (author)

  14. Application of Ultrafiltration in a Paper Mill: Process Water Reuse and Membrane Fouling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available High water consumption is a major environmental problem that the pulp and paper industry is facing. Ultrafiltration (UF can be used to remove the dissolved and colloidal substances (DCS concentrated during the recycling of white water (the process water to facilitate the reuse of white water and reduce fresh water consumption. However, membrane fouling limits the application of UF in this industry. In this study, super-clear filtrate obtained from a fine paper mill was purified with a polyethersulfone (PES ultrafiltration membrane to evaluate the reuse performance of the ultrafiltrate. The membrane foulants were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectrophotometry, attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the retention rate of stock and the strength properties of paper increased when the ultrafiltrate was reused in the papermaking process compared to when super-clear filtrate was used. The reversible membrane foulants during ultrafiltration accounted for 85.52% of the total foulants and primarily originated from retention aids, drainage aids, and wet strength resins, while the irreversible adsorptive foulants accounted for 14.48% and mostly came from sizing agents, coating chemicals, and others. Moreover, the presence of dissolved multivalent metal ions, especially Ca2+, accelerated membrane fouling.

  15. Results on reuse of reclaimed shower water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verostko, Charles E.; Garcia, Rafael; Pierson, Duane L.; Reysa, Richard P.; Irbe, Robert

    1986-01-01

    The Waste Water Recovery System that has been used in conjunction with a microgravity whole body shower to test a closed loop shower water reclamation system applicable to the NASA Space Station employs a Thermoelectric Integrated Hollow Fiber Membrane Evaporation Subsystem. Attention is given to the suitability of a Space Shuttle soap for such crew showers, the effects of shower water on the entire system, and the purification qualities of the recovered water. The chemical pretreatment of the shower water for microorganism control involved activated carbon, mixed ion exchange resin beds, and iodine bactericide dispensing units. The water was recycled five times, demonstrating the feasibility of reuse.

  16. Nanomaterials environmental risks and recycling: Actual issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnologies are being spoken of as the driving force behind a new industrial revolution. Nanoscience has matured significantly during the last decade as it has transitioned from bench top science to applied technology. Presently, nanomaterials are used in a wide variety of commercial products such as electronic components, sports equipment, sun creams and biomedical applications. The size of nanoparticles allows them to interact strongly with biological structures, so they present potential human and environmental health risk. Nanometer size presents also a problem for separation, recovery, and reuse of the particulate matter. Therefore, industrial-scale manufacturing and use of nanomaterials could have strong impact on human health and the environment or the problematic of nanomaterials recycling. The catch-all term ''nanotechnology' is not sufficiently precise for risk governance and risk management purposes. The estimation of possible risks depends on a consideration of the life cycle of the material being produced, which involves understanding the processes and materials used in manufacture, the likely interactions between the product and individuals or the environment during its manufacture and useful life, and the methods used in its eventual disposal. From a risk-control point of view it will be necessary to systematically identify those critical issues, which should be looked at in more detail. Brief review of actual trends in nanomaterials environmental risks and recycling is given in this paper.

  17. Unconventional recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, K.M.

    1996-05-01

    Despite advances made in recycling technology and markets for materials over the past few years, recycling at convention centers, particularly on the show floor itself, can be a vexing problem. Part of the problem lies in the fact that recycling at convention centers has more to do with logistics than it does with these industry trends. However, given the varied nature of convention centers, and the shows they book, a rigid approach to recycling at convention centers is not always feasible. Like the numerous different curbside programs serving communities across the country, what works for one convention center--and one show--many not work for another. These difficulties notwithstanding, more convention centers are offering recycling programs today, and more groups booking conventions these days have begun requesting recycling services.

  18. The Efficiency of Informality: Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Reductions from Informal Recycling in Bogotá, Colombia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergara, Sintana E.; Damgaard, Anders; Gomez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The dual challenges of increasing urbanization and consumption are centered in cities in the Global South, where growing waste production threatens public and environmental health. Reuse and recycling are widely recognized to provide broad environmental benefits. Although most industrialized cities...... replaced their informal recycling sectors with municipally run recycling schemes and have had to build their recycling rates anew, most industrializing cities in the Global South remain centers of recycling and reuse through the work of informal workers. Bogotá, Colombia, is emblematic of many cities...

  19. Ecological effects of soil properties and metal concentrations on the composition and diversity of microbial communities associated with land use patterns in an electronic waste recycling region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wencheng; Dong, Changxun; Wu, Jiahui; Liu, Xiaowen; Wu, Yingxin; Chen, Xianbin; Yu, Shixiao

    2017-12-01

    Soil microbes play vital roles in ecosystem functions, and soil microbial communities may be strongly structured by land use patterns associated with electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities, which can increase the heavy metal concentration in soils. In this study, a suite of soils from five land use types (paddy field, vegetable field, dry field, forest field, and e-waste recycling site) were collected in Longtang Town, Guangdong Province, South China. Soil physicochemical properties and heavy metal concentrations were measured, and the indigenous microbial assemblages were profiled using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and clone library analyses. The results showed that mercury concentration was positively correlated with both Faith's PD and Chao1 estimates, suggesting that the soil microbial alpha diversity was predominantly regulated by mercury. In addition, redundancy analysis indicated that available phosphorus, soil moisture, and mercury were the three major drivers affecting the microbial assemblages. Overall, the microbial composition was determined primarily by land use patterns, and this study provides a novel insight on the composition and diversity of microbial communities in soils associated with e-waste recycling activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  1. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  2. Lead use and recycling at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losinski, S.J.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1995-08-01

    As part of DOE's efforts to develop a Department-wide management strategy for the use, reuse, and recycle of lead, DOE has requested that each site provide site-specific management and use practices for lead, specifically management and use information that responds to four specific questions of interest. This report provides the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's response to those areas of interest

  3. Crumb Rubber in cold recycled bituminous mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondi, Giulio; Tataranni, Piergiorgio; Pettinari, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Today recycling is one of the most innovative and interesting techniques for the rehabilitation of destressed road pavements. In recent years the increased interest in this process, has led to the development of various alternative methods for the recovery and the reuse of road bituminous materials...

  4. Treatment and recycling of textile wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciardelli, G.; Brighetti, G.

    1999-01-01

    The results of an experimental campaign involving the treatment of textile wastewaters for recycle by mean of an absorption resins pilot plant are briefly described. The case study concerned the treatment and reuse of yarns dyeing wastewaters. Results obtained indicate the possibility of an industrial scale implementation of the technique [it

  5. Planning logistics network for recyclables collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratković Branislava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization, intensified industrialization, rise of income, and a more sophisticated form of consumerism are leading to an increase in the amount and toxicity of waste all over the world. Whether reused, recycled, incinerated or put into landfill sites, the management of household and industrial waste yield financial and environmental costs. This paper presents a modeling approach that can be used for designing one part of recycling logistics network through defining optimal locations of collection points, and possible optimal scheduling of vehicles for collecting recyclables. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR36005

  6. Mixture optimization of cement treated demolition waste with recycled masonry and concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xuan, D.X.; Houben, L.J.M.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; Shui, Z.H,

    2011-01-01

    Due to environmental reasons and the shortage of natural resources, it is greatly valuable to recycle construction and demolition waste (CDW) as much as possible. One of effective ways to reuse more CDW is to produce a cemented road base material. The recycled CDW however is a mix of recycled

  7. Discovering Hidden Resources: Assistive Technology Recycling, Refurbishing, and Redistribution. RESNA Technical Assistance Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RESNA: Association for the Advancement of Rehabilitation Technology, Arlington, VA.

    This monograph discusses the benefits of recycling and reusing assistive technology for students with disabilities. It begins by discussing the benefits of recycled assistive technology for suppliers, students, and consumers, and then profiles programmatic models for assistive technology recycling programs. The advantages and disadvantages for…

  8. MOX fuel reprocessing and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillet, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the reprocessing of MOX fuel in UP2-800 plant at La Hague, and to the MOX successive reprocessing and recycling. 1. MOX fuel reprocessing. In a first step, the necessary modifications in UP2-800 to reprocess MOX fuel are set out. Early in the UP2-800 project, actions have been taken to reprocess MOX fuel without penalty. They consist in measures regarding: Dissolution; Radiological shieldings; Nuclear instrumentation; Criticality. 2. Mox successive reprocessing and recycling. The plutonium recycling in the LWR is now a reality and, as said before, the MOX fuel reprocessing is possible in UP2-800 plant at La Hague. The following actions in this field consist in verifying the MOX successive reprocessing and recycling possibilities. After irradiation, the fissile plutonium content of irradiated MOX fuel is decreased and, in this case, the re-use of plutonium in the LWR need an important increase of initial Pu enrichment inconsistent with the Safety reactor constraints. Cogema opted for reprocessing irradiated MOX fuel in dilution with the standard UO2 fuel in appropriate proportions (1 MOX for 4 UO2 fuel for instance) in order to save a fissile plutonium content compatible with MOX successive recycling (at least 3 recyclings) in LWR. (author). 2 figs

  9. Experimental investigation of photocatalytic effects of concrete in air purification adopting entire concrete waste reuse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yidong; Chen, Wei; Jin, Ruoyu; Shen, Jiansheng; Smallbone, Kirsty; Yan, Chunyang; Hu, Lei

    2018-07-05

    This research investigated the capacities of recycled aggregate concrete adopting entire concrete waste reuse model in degrading NO 2. Two major issues within environmental sustainability were addressed: concrete waste reuse rate and mitigation of hazards substances in the polluted air. The study consisted of two stages: identification of proper replacement rates of recycled concrete wastes in new concrete mixture design, and the evaluation of photocatalytic performance of recycled aggregate concrete in degrading NO 2 . It was found that replacement rates up to 3%, 30%, and 50% for recycled power, recycled fine aggregate, and recycled coarse aggregate respectively could be applied in concrete mixture design without deteriorating concrete strength. Recycled aggregates contained both positive attributes ("internal curing") and negative effects (e.g., lower hardness) to concrete properties. It was found that 30%-50% of natural coarse aggregate replaced by recycled coarse aggregates coated with TiO 2 would significantly improve the photocatalytic performance of concrete measured by degradation rate of NO 2 . Micro-structures of recycled aggregates observed under microscope indicated that soaking recycled aggregates in TiO 2 solution resulted in whiskers that filled the porosity within recycled aggregates which enhanced concrete strength. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cross-Linked ZnO Nanowalls Immobilized onto Bamboo Surface and Their Use as Recyclable Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunde Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel recyclable photocatalyst was fabricated by hydrothermal method to immobilize the cross-linked ZnO nanowalls on the bamboo surface. The resultant samples were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR techniques. FTIR spectra demonstrated that the cross-linked wurtzite ZnO nanowalls and bamboo surface were interconnected with each other by hydrogen bonds. Meanwhile, the cross-linked ZnO nanowalls modified bamboo (CZNB presented a superior photocatalytic ability and could be recycled at least 3 times with a photocatalytic efficiency up to 70%. The current research provides a new opportunity for the development of a portable and recycled biomass-based photocatalysts which can be an efficiently degraded pollutant solution and reused several times.

  11. Aligning the economic modeling of software reuse with reuse practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmus, D.; Meijler, 27696

    In contrast to current practices where software reuse is applied recursively and reusable assets are tailored trough parameterization or specialization, existing reuse economic models assume that (i) the cost of reusing a software asset depends on its size and (ii) reusable assets are developed from

  12. Reusing Implicit Cooperation. A Novel Approach to Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Lancieri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The study described in this paper deals with information reuse obtained by implicit co-operation, particularly by recycling the contents of a proxy cache (shared memory. The objective is to automatically feed a Web server with large multimedia objects implicitly centred on community fields of interests. We show that the strategy of reusing previously downloaded information provides interesting advantages at a low cost; in particular, to reduce Web access time, to improve information retrieval, and to reduce Internet bandwidth use. Moreover, we use the conceptual frameworks of forgetting and collective intelligence to develop a model on which the operation of implicit cooperation is based.

  13. Promoter reuse in prokaryotes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijveen, H.; Matus-Garcia, M.; Passel, van M.W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence shows promoters being reused separate from their downstream gene, thus providing a mechanism for the efficient and rapid rewiring of a gene’s transcriptional regulation. We have identified over 4000 groups of highly similar promoters using a conservative sequence similarity search

  14. 2012 Guidelines for Water Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manual is a revision of the "2004 Water Reuse Guidelines." This document is a summary of reuse guidelines, with supporting information, for the benefit of utilities of utilities and regulatory agencies, particularly EPA.

  15. Technological, Economic, and Environmental Optimization of Aluminum Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioana, Adrian; Semenescu, Augustin

    2013-08-01

    The four strategic directions (referring to the entire life cycle of aluminum) are as follows: production, primary use, recycling, and reuse. Thus, in this work, the following are analyzed and optimized: reducing greenhouse gas emissions from aluminum production, increasing energy efficiency in aluminum production, maximizing used-product collection, recycling, and reusing. According to the energetic balance at the gaseous environment level, the conductive transfer model is also analyzed through the finished elements method. Several principles of modeling and optimization are presented and analyzed: the principle of analogy, the principle of concepts, and the principle of hierarchization. Based on these principles, an original diagram model is designed together with the corresponding logic diagram. This article also presents and analyzes the main benefits of aluminum recycling and reuse. Recycling and reuse of aluminum have the main advantage that it requires only about 5% of energy consumed to produce it from bauxite. The aluminum recycling and production process causes the emission of pollutants such as dioxides and furans, hydrogen chloride, and particulate matter. To control these emissions, aluminum recyclers are required to comply with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Secondary Aluminum Production. The results of technological, economic, and ecological optimization of aluminum recycling are based on the criteria function's evaluation in the modeling system.

  16. Scenario of solid waste reuse in Khulna city of Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, Quazi H., E-mail: qhbari@yahoo.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Khulna University of Engineering and Technology, Khulna 9203 (Bangladesh); Mahbub Hassan, K. [Department of Civil Engineering, Khulna University of Engineering and Technology, Khulna 9203 (Bangladesh); Haque, R. [Project Builders Ltd., Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2012-12-15

    The reuse and recycling of waste materials are now sincerely considered to be an integral part of solid waste management in many parts of the world. In this context, a vast number of options ranging from small scale decentralized to larger scale centralized plants have been adopted. This study aimed at investigating the waste reuse schemes in Khulna city located in the southern part of Bangladesh and ranked third largest city in the country. The shops for reusable material (SRM) were mostly situated around railway, waterway, and truck station markets which provided easy transportation to further locations. For the reuses of waste materials and products, a chain system was found to collect reusable wastes under a total number of 310 identified SRM with 859 persons directly or indirectly involved in the scheme. This was a decentralized waste management system with self sufficient (autonomous) management. According to mass balance, about 38.52 tons d{sup -1} solid wastes were reused in Khulna city area, accounting for 7.65% of the total generated wastes. This study revealed that apparently a silent, systematic, smooth, and clean reuse chain has been established in Khulna city area under private initiatives, whose sustainability was confirmed over the years in the country without any official or formal funds. However, proper adjustment between the higher and lower chain in the materials flow path, as well as personal hygiene training for the workers, would further improve the achievements of the established reuse scheme.

  17. Scenario of solid waste reuse in Khulna city of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, Quazi H.; Mahbub Hassan, K.; Haque, R.

    2012-01-01

    The reuse and recycling of waste materials are now sincerely considered to be an integral part of solid waste management in many parts of the world. In this context, a vast number of options ranging from small scale decentralized to larger scale centralized plants have been adopted. This study aimed at investigating the waste reuse schemes in Khulna city located in the southern part of Bangladesh and ranked third largest city in the country. The shops for reusable material (SRM) were mostly situated around railway, waterway, and truck station markets which provided easy transportation to further locations. For the reuses of waste materials and products, a chain system was found to collect reusable wastes under a total number of 310 identified SRM with 859 persons directly or indirectly involved in the scheme. This was a decentralized waste management system with self sufficient (autonomous) management. According to mass balance, about 38.52 tons d −1 solid wastes were reused in Khulna city area, accounting for 7.65% of the total generated wastes. This study revealed that apparently a silent, systematic, smooth, and clean reuse chain has been established in Khulna city area under private initiatives, whose sustainability was confirmed over the years in the country without any official or formal funds. However, proper adjustment between the higher and lower chain in the materials flow path, as well as personal hygiene training for the workers, would further improve the achievements of the established reuse scheme.

  18. Radiolysis products and sensory properties of electron-beam-irradiated high-barrier food-packaging films containing a buried layer of recycled low-density polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chytiri, S D; Badeka, A V; Riganakos, K A; Kontominas, M G

    2010-04-01

    The aim was to study the effect of electron-beam irradiation on the production of radiolysis products and sensory changes in experimental high-barrier packaging films composed of polyamide (PA), ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE). Films contained a middle buried layer of recycled LDPE, while films containing 100% virgin LDPE as the middle buried layer were taken as controls. Irradiation doses ranged between zero and 60 kGy. Generally, a large number of radiolysis products were produced during electron-beam irradiation, even at the lower absorbed doses of 5 and 10 kGy (approved doses for food 'cold pasteurization'). The quantity of radiolysis products increased with irradiation dose. There were no significant differences in radiolysis products identified between samples containing a recycled layer of LDPE and those containing virgin LDPE (all absorbed doses), indicating the 'functional barrier' properties of external virgin polymer layers. Sensory properties (mainly taste) of potable water were affected after contact with irradiated as low as 5 kGy packaging films. This effect increased with increasing irradiation dose.

  19. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis characteristics are conducted for a better understanding of LCDs pyrolysis. • Optimum design is developed which is significant to guide the further industrial process. • Acetic acid and TPP are recycled and separated. - Abstract: Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box–Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min"−"1 and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry.

  20. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis characteristics are conducted for a better understanding of LCDs pyrolysis. • Optimum design is developed which is significant to guide the further industrial process. • Acetic acid and TPP are recycled and separated. - Abstract: Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box–Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min{sup −1} and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry.

  1. Recycling of end-of-life reverse osmosis membranes by oxidative treatment: a technical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho de Paula, Eduardo; Gomes, Júlia Célia Lima; Amaral, Míriam Cristina Santos

    2017-07-01

    The adverse impacts caused by the disposal of thousands of tonnes per annum of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes modules have grown dramatically around the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of recycling by chemical oxidation of end-of-life RO membranes for applications in other separation processes with specifications less rigorous. The recycling technique consisted in to cause a membrane exposition with oxidant solutions in order to remove its aromatic polyamide layer and subsequent conversion to a porous membrane. The recycling technique was evaluated by water permeability and salt rejection tests before and after the oxidative treatments. Initially, membranes' chemical cleaning and pretreatment procedures were assessed. Among factors evaluated, the oxidizing agent, its concentration and pH, associated with the oxidative treatment time, showed important influence on the oxidation of the membranes. Results showed that sodium hypochlorite and potassium permanganate are efficient agents for the membrane recycling. The great increased permeability and decreased salt rejection indicated changes on membranes' selective properties. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and contact angle characterization techniques revealed marked changes on the main membranes' physical-chemical properties, such as morphology, roughness and hydrophobicity. Reuse of produced effluents and fouling tendency of recycled membranes were also evaluated.

  2. Reuse of secondhand TVs exported from Japan to the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Aya; Terazono, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    The trade of secondhand electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) from developed to developing countries has become a growing environmental issue owing to concerns about improper recycling of these goods in developing countries. We followed a 12-m cargo container of cathode-ray-tube color TVs exported from Japan to the Philippines in February 2008. We surveyed the number of TVs damaged in transport, as well as the number of malfunctioning TVs from this shipment. In addition, we present the results of interviews with 113 Filipino consumers who intended to buy secondhand EEE at nine secondhand shops in Metro Manila. Approximately 3% of the imported TVs were damaged upon arrival. The importer sold some of the units directly to local dealers, and kept the rest to repair, refurbish and resell. Approximately 40% of the imported TVs malfunctioned and needed repair in addition to basic reconditioning. Most interviewees indicated that they prefer to buy secondhand EEE because the prices are lower than those of brand-new products. Consumers indicated that they planned on using the product for an average of about 5 years, but the actual period of use may be lower. Most end-of-life EEE in the Philippines is dismantled and recycled by unregulated companies and untrained individuals in markets or near landfill sites, and it is clear that a proper collection system and treatment methods are needed for e-waste. In addition to the material flow of secondhand TVs, we also discuss several economic aspects and appropriate control measures of the international reuse of secondhand TVs.

  3. Recycling microcavity optical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Heather K; Armani, Andrea M

    2011-04-01

    Optical biosensors have tremendous potential for commercial applications in medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and food safety evaluation. In these applications, sensor reuse is desirable to reduce costs. To achieve this, harsh, wet chemistry treatments are required to remove surface chemistry from the sensor, typically resulting in reduced sensor performance and increased noise due to recognition moiety and optical transducer degradation. In the present work, we suggest an alternative, dry-chemistry method, based on O2 plasma treatment. This approach is compatible with typical fabrication of substrate-based optical transducers. This treatment completely removes the recognition moiety, allowing the transducer surface to be refreshed with new recognition elements and thus enabling the sensor to be recycled.

  4. Reuse of organobentonites with a carbon dioxide responsive solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Ling-Yu; Zhang, Li; Wang, Li-Hong

    2018-05-22

    Synthesized organobentonite (SOB), montmorillonite (MMT), and commercial organobentonite (COB) were used as adsorbents for paraffin oil, a model pollutant in land-based oil spills and oil pipeline rupture. The characterization of clays was carried out with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). After adsorption, oil was separated from adsorbents with a carbon dioxide responsive solvent N,N-dimethylcyclohexylamine (DMCHA), and DMCHA was subsequently separated from paraffin oil upon CO 2 bubbling instead of distillation with high energy cost. The adsorption capacity of oil to SOB, MMT, and COB was 0.686, 1.124, and 1.239 g/g, respectively. It was found that the adsorption capacity and rinsed amount of the adsorbents depended on the d-spacing, which is related to surfactant content. Electrical conductivity and pH measurements suggested that the separation process occurred via two steps. Firstly, during the initial 35 min, carbonate ions coexisted with bicarbonate ions. Then, only bicarbonate ions existed after the introduction of CO 2 gas for 120 min. Thus, organobentonites were feasible for hydrocarbon adsorption and could be simply reused by an amine-based responsive solvent. This work provided a cost-effective and sustainable method of recycling of organobentonites and the responsive solvent, which can be used to deal with leaked oil and oil spills.

  5. Emission of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in use of electric/electronic equipment and recycling of e-waste in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Eun; Kang, Young-Yeul; Kim, Woo-Il; Jeon, Tae-Wan; Shin, Sun-Kyoung; Jeong, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2014-02-01

    The emission rates of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from electric/electronic products during their use and disposal were estimated. E-wastes, including televisions and refrigerators, gathered at recycling centers were also analyzed to estimate their emissions. The average concentrations of PBDEs in TV rear covers produced before and after the year 2000 were 145,027 mg/kg and 14,049 mg/kg, respectively. The PBDEs concentration in TV front covers was lower than the concentration in TV rear covers. The concentration in the components of the refrigerator samples ranged from ND to 445 mg/kg. We estimated the atmospheric emissions of PBDEs based on the concentrations. The annual emissions from TV rear covers produced before 2000 were calculated to be approximately 162.1 kg and after 2000, the annual emissions were 18.7 kg. Refrigerators showed the lowest annual emissions of PBDEs (0.7 kg). The atmospheric concentrations were also measured to calculate emissions generated during the recycling process. The highest concentration was 16.86 ng/m(3) emitted from the TV sets during the dismantling process. The concentrations of PBDEs generated in the plastic processing field ranged from 2.05 to 5.43 ng/m(3) depending on the products, and ambient air in open-air yards showed concentrations in the range of 0.32 to 5.55 ng/m(3). Emission factors for the recycling process were calculated using the observed concentrations. The estimated emissions according to the emission factors ranged from 0.3×10(-1) to 90.3 kg/year for open-air yards and from 0.1×10(-1) to 292.7 kg/year for the dismantling and crushing processes of TV set, depending on the production year. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Potential for reuse of effluent from fish-processing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Morena Rodrigues Vitor Dias Ferraciolli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The most common problems in the fish processing industry relate to high water consumption and the generation of effluents with concentrated organic loads. Given that reuse can represent an alternative for sustainable development, this study sought to assess the potential for recycling effluents produced in a fish-processing plant. In order to do so, the final industrial effluent was analyzed using the American Public Health Association (APHA standard effluent-analysis method (2005. In addition, the study assessed treatments which produce effluents meeting the requirements prescribed by different countries' regulations for reuse and recycling. The results found that effluents with smaller organic loads, such as those from health barriers and monoblock washing, can be treated in order to remove nutrients and solids so that they can be subsequently reused. For effluents produced by the washing and gutting cylinders, it is recommended that large fragments of solid waste be removed beforehand. Effluents can in this way attain a quality compatible with industrial reuse. This study further highlights the possibility of treating effluents so as comply with drinking water standards. This would potentially allow them to be used within the actual fish-processing procedure; in such a case, a revision of standards and measures for controlling use should be considered to prevent microbiological damage to products and risks to handlers and final consumers.

  7. Treatment and reuse for irrigation of wastewater in Cagliari

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragadin, G.L.; Franco, D.; Mancini, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    D.M. 12 June 2003 n. 185 gives national rules about wastewater recycling and reuse. Increasing in water consumption for new agricultural practise and uncertainty about availability of water resource in summer due to climatic instability make necessary to search new available fonts. In most part of Italian territory surface water volumes are taken into civil water distribution system for domestic use and, in summer, rivers are often in dry condition before arriving in urban tracts and in quality condition typical of domestic wastewater more or less treated in downstream. This work explains an experience in reclamation and irrigation reuse of a large flowrate of domestic wastewater carried out in Cagliari and discuss results in order to test reliability and efficiency with reference to existent Italian laws about discharge (D.Lgs n. 152/99) and reuse (D.M. n. 185/2003). Simbrizzi artificial basin make possible agricultural recycling and reuse realizing adequate retention basins for storage and final finishing of wastewater, at the same time permits to avoid every discharge in seawater during summer [it

  8. What Germany’s University Beginners Think about Water Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Schmid

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Water reuse is a new technology, not yet implemented, but discussed for use in Germany. Public opinion plays a major role in the success of the introduction of this new technology and was not yet analyzed for Germany. When monitoring 340 university beginners’ conceptions regarding water reuse, a variety of conceptions appeared. While usage of tap water is accepted for drinking purposes, acceptance of recycled water for oral consumption was low. When asked for reasons for (not using recycled water, three groups of respondents were extracted: (a The acceptors (convinced of quality, or naming sustainability as a reason; (b the undecided (doubts about quality, rejection of its use for consumption, and psychological conflicts of logic and disgust; (c the non-acceptors (unconvinced of quality and preference for bottled water. When asked about factors that would lead to accepting the use of recycled water, insights into treatment processes were identified as the most convincing, followed by educational films and guided tours. Participants showed high conviction about currently existing tap-water qualities. Having water that is cleaned before it reaches the consumer was reported to have high priority. To increase acceptance of water reuse, recommendations for appropriate outreach programs are discussed.

  9. Recycling architecture: industrial archeology and concrete parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vigliocco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abandoned industrial buildings are characterized by a fragile image which makes them unworthy;however they maintain quality and potentiality that can be explored by new solutions and strategies of intervention. Inspired by issues related to reuse and recycling, a new paradigm can be formalized: unused and abandoned existing industrial buildings maintain a latent energy that can be reactivated by new strategies of reuse; like a bottle made of plastic, an architecture can be reused before throw it away through demolition. In this case, reuse is preferable than recycle. The question is: how can we reuse an architecture that is compromised by many factors like the pollution of the soil? We need a change of paradigm: if less changes will take place on buildings, than lower will be the energy required to produce them. Different renovative strategies can be classified according to the relation between intensity of the intervention and level of the modification pursued. At the same time, public administration should take an active role in the involvement of private actors: the real possibility of reducing the untenableness of urban development models will be realized on the development of new strategies and tools. Through the description of some european cases, the article will present different solutions constructed on a layering of materials and meanings.

  10. Prototype water reuse system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, G.; Gray, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    A small-scale water reuse system (150 L/min) was developed to create an environment for observing fish under a variety of temperature regimes. Key concerns of disease control, water quality, temperature control, and efficiency and case of operation were addressed. Northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were held at loading densities ranging from 0.11 to 0.97 kg/L per minute and at temperatures from 10 to 20°C for 6 months with no disease problems or degradation ofwater quality in the system. The system required little maintenance during 2 years of operation.

  11. Bayesian policy reuse

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Keywords Policy Reuse · Reinforcement Learning · Online Learning · Online Bandits · Transfer Learning · Bayesian Optimisation · Bayesian Decision Theory. 1 Introduction As robots and software agents are becoming more ubiquitous in many applications.... The agent has access to a library of policies (pi1, pi2 and pi3), and has previously experienced a set of task instances (τ1, τ2, τ3, τ4), as well as samples of the utilities of the library policies on these instances (the black dots indicate the means...

  12. Development of Policies, Institutions and Procedures for Water Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demouche, L.; Pfiefer, J.; Hanson, A.; Skaggs, R.

    2009-12-01

    In the arid, water scarce region of New Mexico and West Texas there is growing interest in the potential for water reuse to extend existing supplies and mitigate drought shortage impacts. There are no new sources of water in New Mexico, except reclaimed water. Communities and individuals are uncertain about and have many unanswered questions about polices, institutions involved (agencies), legal and regulatory requirements, and procedures governing water reuse. Issues to be addressed by this project include: the legal ability to reuse water, ownership of water rights, downstream or third party impacts, regulatory and procedural requirements, water quality concerns, state and local agency involvement, and cost effectiveness of water reuse compared to alternative sources. Presently, there is very little implementation or directives in New Mexico policy that addresses reuse, reclamation, or recycled water. The only regulations pertaining to reuse is New Mexico Environmental Department currently allows the use of reclaimed domestic wastewater for irrigation of golf courses and green spaces, which is listed in the Policy for the Above Ground Use of Reclaimed Domestic Wastewater (NMED, 2003). This document identifies the various reclaimed quality classifications that are required for specific applications and the permits required for application. This document does not identify or address policy applications on the distribution, ownership, or trading of reclaimed water. Even though reclaimed water reuse projects are currently being implemented in many cities in the U.S., mainly for commercial and municipal irrigation (golf courses and green space), its potential has not yet been exploited. A policy analysis matrix (PAM) is being designed to identify and examine the policy framework and consequences of non-policy implementation for decision makers and interest groups and assist them in understanding the consequences of policy actions and project outcomes if no laws or

  13. Addressing Criticality in Rare Earth Elements via Permanent Magnets Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nlebedim, I. C.; King, A. H.

    2018-02-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are critical for many advanced technologies and are faced with potential supply disruptions. Recycling of permanent magnets (PMs) can be good sources for REEs which can help minimize global dependence on freshly mined REEs, but PMs are rarely recycled. Recycling of PMs has been discussed with respect to improving REEs resource sustainability. Some challenges to be addressed in order to establish industrially deployable technologies for PMs recycling have also been discussed, including profitability, energy efficiency and environmental impacts. Key considerations for promoting circular economy via PMs recycling is proposed with the focus on deciding the target points in the supply chain at which the recycled products will be inserted. Important technical considerations for recycling different forms of waste PMs, including swarfs, slags, shredded and intact hard disk drives magnets, have been presented. The aspects of circular economy considered include reusing magnets, remanufacturing magnets and recovering of REEs from waste PMs.

  14. Considerations in recycling contaminated scrap metal and rubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluk, A.F.; Hocking, E.K.

    1992-01-01

    Management options for the Department of Energy's increasing amounts of contaminated scrap metal and rubble include reuse as is, disposal, and recycling. Recycling, with its promise of resource recovery, virgin materials conservation, and land disposal minimization, emerges as a preferred management technique. Implementing a cost effective recycling program requires resolution of several issues including: establishing release limits for contaminants, controlling use of recycled materials creating effective public communication programs; developing economical, reliable assay technologies; managing secondary waste streams, expanding availability of unrestricted markets; and solving conflicting legal considerations

  15. Recycled Portland cement concrete pavements : Part II, state-of-the art summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This report constitutes a review of the literature concerning recycling of portland cement concrete pavements by crushing the old pavement and reusing the crushed material as aggregate in a number of applications. A summary of the major projects cond...

  16. Tire Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  17. Compressive strength improvement for recycled concrete aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Dhiyaa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing amount of construction waste and, concrete remnants, in particular pose a serious problem. Concrete waste exist in large amounts, do not decay and need long time for disintegration. Therefore, in this work old demolished concrete is crashed and recycled to produce recycled concrete aggregate which can be reused in new concrete production. The effect of using recycled aggregate on concrete compressive strength has been experimentally investigated; silica fume admixture also is used to improve recycled concrete aggregate compressive strength. The main parameters in this study are recycled aggregate and silica fume admixture. The percent of recycled aggregate ranged from (0-100 %. While the silica fume ranged from (0-10 %. The experimental results show that the average concrete compressive strength decreases from 30.85 MPa to 17.58 MPa when the recycled aggregate percentage increased from 0% to 100%. While, when silica fume is used the concrete compressive strength increase again to 29.2 MPa for samples with 100% of recycled aggregate.

  18. International Conference on water reuse and desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The International conference on water reuse and desalination was held on the 13 November 1984 in Johannesburg, South Africa. Papers delivered on this conference covered the following aspects: desalination technology, industrial effluent control, economics of desalination of wastewaters, consumable supplies in desalination, the world market for seawater desalination equipment, reverse osmosis, evaporation and ultrafiltration, treatment of hazardous wastes, role of reverse osmosis in waste water treatment, as well as the desalination, recovery and recycle of water with high efficiency. A paper was also delivered on the mechanical vapour compression process applied to seawater desalination - as an example the paper presents the largest unit so far constructed by SIDEM using this process: a 1,500 mz/day unit installed in the Nuclear power plant of Flamanville in France

  19. Enzyme recycling in lignocellulosic biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Pinelo, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    platform. Cellulases are the most important enzymes required in this process, but the complex nature of lignocellulose requires several other enzymes (hemicellulases and auxiliary enzymes) for efficient hydrolysis. Enzyme recycling increases the catalytic productivity of the enzymes by reusing them...... for several batches of hydrolysis, and thereby reduces the overall cost associated with the hydrolysis. Research on this subject has been ongoing for many years and several promising technologies and methods have been developed and demonstrated. But only in a very few cases have these technologies been...... upscaled and tested in industrial settings, mainly because of many difficulties with recycling of enzymes from the complex lignocellulose hydrolyzate at industrially relevant conditions, i.e., high solids loadings. The challenges are associated with the large number of different enzymes required...

  20. A new recycling technique for the waste tires reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshan, Zahra; Ghaneian, Mohammad Taghi; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Oliveri Conti, Gea; Faramarzian, Mohammad; Dehghani, Mansooreh; Ferrante, Margherita

    2017-10-01

    In this series of laboratory experiments, the feasibility of using fixed bed biofilm carriers (FBBC) manufactured from existing reclaimed waste tires (RWTs) for wastewater treatment was evaluated. To assess polyamide yarn waste tires as a media, the fixed bed sequence batch reactor (FBSBR) was evaluated under different organic loading rate (OLRs). An experimental model was used to study the kinetics of substrate consumption in biofilm. Removal efficiency of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) ranged by 76-98% for the FBSBR compared to 71-96% in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Removal efficiency of FBBC was significantly increased by inoculating these RWTs carriers. The results revealed that the sludge production yield (Y obs ) was significantly less in the FBSBR compared to the SBR (p 99%) in a FBSBR. Results from this study suggest that RWTs to support biological activity for a variety of wastewater treatment applications as a biofilm carrier have high potential that better performance as COD and TSS removal and sludge settling properties and effluent quality supported these findings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: Planetary Nebulae as Green Galactic Citizens

    OpenAIRE

    Kwitter, K. B.; Henry, R. B. C.

    2011-01-01

    We review gas-phase abundances in PNe and describe their dual utility as archives of original progenitor metallicity via the alpha elements, as well as sources of processed material from nucleosynthesis during the star's evolution, i.e., C, N, and s-process elements. We describe the analysis of PN spectra to derive abundances and discuss the discrepancies that arise from different choices at each step. Abundance results for the Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds from various groups of investigat...

  2. Reduce, reuse, recycle - Developmental signals in spinal cord regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Marcos Julian; Mysiak, Karolina S; Becker, Thomas; Becker, Catherina G

    2017-12-01

    Anamniotes, fishes and amphibians, have the capacity to regenerate spinal cord tissue after injury, generating new neurons that mature and integrate into the spinal circuitry. Elucidating the molecular signals that promote this regeneration is a fundamental question in regeneration research. Model systems, such as salamanders and larval and adult zebrafish are used to analyse successful regeneration. This shows that many developmental signals, such as Notch, Hedgehog (Hh), Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP), Wnt, Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF), Retinoic Acid (RA) and neurotransmitters are redeployed during regeneration and activate resident spinal progenitor cells. Here we compare the roles of these signals in spinal cord development and regeneration of the much larger and fully patterned adult spinal cord. Understanding how developmental signalling systems are reactivated in successfully regenerating species may ultimately lead to ways to reactivate similar systems in mammalian progenitor cells, which do not show neurogenesis after spinal injury. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Fernald scrap metal and recycling and beneficial reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motl, G.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Fernald plant, formerly known as the Feed Materials Production Facility, is located on a 1050-acre site 17 miles northwest of downtown Cincinnati, Ohio. Site construction was initiated in 1951 to fabricate uranium metal to meet defense production requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In October 1990, the DOE transferred management responsibility for the site from its Defense Programs organization to the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. In August 1991, the site was renamed the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) to reflect the site's new cleanup mission. During 40 yr of plant operation, a scrap metal storage area grew to contain 5000 t of scrap metal. Material in the pile, such as structural steel, crushed drums, tanks, and pipes, is contaminated with uranium to levels up to 200,000 disintegrations per minute alpha. In July 1991, cleanup of this pile was designated a CERCLA removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act and a consent agreement executed between the DOE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  4. Stormwater Collection, Treatment, Recycling and Reuse in a Shipyard

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schafran, Gary C; Winfield, Joseph G; Pommerenk, Peter; Akan, A. O; Mizelle, Larry; Fox, Thomas J

    1999-01-01

    .... The impact to receiving waters was thought to be insignificant because the rain water would eventually find its way to the rivers and streams in the watershed in which the rain fell regardless...

  5. Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information

  6. Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

  7. Reuse of waste water from high pressure water jet decontamination for reactor decommissioning scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Junxian; Li Xin; Hou Huijuan

    2011-01-01

    For recycle and reuse of reactor decommissioning scrap metal by high pressure water jet decontamination, large quantity of radioactive waste water will be generated. To save the cost of radioactive waste water treatment and to reduce the cost of the scrap decontamination, this part of radioactive waste water should be reused. Most of the radioactivities in the decontamination waste water come from the solid particle in the water. Thus to reuse the waste water, the solid particle in the waster should be removed. Different possible treatment technologies have been investigated. By cost benefit analysis the centrifugal separation technology is selected. (authors)

  8. Waste management, informal recycling, environmental pollution and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Ma, Mingguo; Thompson, Julian R; Flower, Roger J

    2018-03-01

    With rapid population growth, especially in low-income and middle-income countries, the generation of waste is increasing at an unprecedented rate. For example, annual global waste arising from waste electrical and electronic equipment alone will have increased from 33.8 to 49.8 million tonnes between 2010 and 2018. Despite incineration and other waste treatment techniques, landfill still dominates waste disposal in low-income and middle-income countries. There is usually insufficient funding for adequate waste management in these countries and uptake of more advanced waste treatment technologies is poor. Without proper management, many landfills represent serious hazards as typified by the landslide in Shenzhen, China on 20 December 2015. In addition to formal waste recycling systems, approximately 15million people around the world are involved in informal waste recycling, mainly for plastics, metals, glass and paper. This review examines emerging public health challenges, in particular within low-income and middle-income countries, associated with the informal sector. While informal recyclers contribute to waste recycling and reuse, the relatively primitive techniques they employ, combined with improper management of secondary pollutants, exacerbate environmental pollution of air, soil and water. Even worse, insufficient occupational health measures expose informal waste workers to a range of pollutants, injuries, respiratory and dermatological problems, infections and other serious health issues that contribute to low life expectancy. Integration of the informal sector with its formal counterparts could improve waste management while addressing these serious health and livelihood issues. Progress in this direction has already been made notably in several Latin American countries where integrating the informal and formal sectors has had a positive influence on both waste management and poverty alleviation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless

  9. Cyclic process for re-use of waste water generated during the production of UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, T.J.

    1976-01-01

    The process is described whereby waste water produced during the hydrolysis and ammonium hydroxide treatment of UF 6 to produce ammonium diuranate is recycled for reuse. The solution containing large amounts of ammonia and fluorides and trace amounts of uranium is first treated with lime to precipitate the fluoride. The ammonia is distilled off and recycled to UO 2 F 2 treatment vessel. The CaF 2 precipitate is separated by centrifugation and the aqueous portion is passed through cationic exchange beds

  10. INEL metal recycle annual report, FY-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtold, T.E.

    1994-09-01

    In 1992, the mission of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was changed from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels to development of technologies for conditioning of spent nuclear fuels and other high-level wastes for disposal in a geologic repository. In addition, the Department of Energy (DOE) directed Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a program plan addressing the management of radioactive contaminated scrap metal (RSM) within the DOE complex. Based on discussions with the EM-30 organization, the INEL Metal Recycle program plan was developed to address all issues of RSM management. Major options considered for RSM management were engineered interim storage, land disposal as low-level waste, and beneficial reuse/recycle. From its inception, the Metal Recycle program has emphasized avoidance of storage and disposal costs through beneficial reuse of RSM. The Metal Recycle program plan includes three major activities: Site-by-site inventory of RSM resources; validation of technologies for conversion of RSM to usable products; and identification of parties prepared to participate in development of a RSM recycle business

  11. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - SAE J2788 Standard for Recovery/Recycle and Recovery/Recycle/Recharging Equipment for HFC-134a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Part 82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Servicing of Motor Vehicle Air Conditioners Pt. 82, Subpt. B, App. C... reuse in, mobile air-conditioning systems and recovery/recycling and system recharging of recycled...

  12. Reuse of activated alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobensack, J.E. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Activated alumina is used as a trapping media to remove trace quantities of UF{sub 6} from process vent streams. The current uranium recovery method employs concentrated nitric acid which destroys the alumina pellets and forms a sludge which is a storage and disposal problem. A recently developed technique using a distilled water rinse followed by three dilute acid rinses removes on average 97% of the uranium, and leaves the pellets intact with crush strength and surface area values comparable with new material. Trapping tests confirm the effectiveness of the recycled alumina as UF{sub 6} trapping media.

  13. 75 FR 71003 - America Recycles Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... help create green jobs, support a vibrant American recycling and refurbishing industry, and advance our..., including the recycling of electronic products. The increased use of electronics and technology in our homes... harmful effects of the improper handling and disposal of these products. Currently, most discarded...

  14. Resource recovery and recycling in OECD countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacNeil, J.W.

    It was the importance of the economic issues relevant to resource recovery and re-use that prompted OECD to become involved in this general area, and the author proposes in this talk to describe the principal features of the three main approaches to waste management from an economic perspective. These approaches are reduction of waste generation (i.e. birth control) resource recovery and materials recycling or re-use (reincarnation). Most of OECD's work in this area to date has been on the third of these approaches with particular emphasis on the economics of recycling, so somewhat more attention will be devoted to it. Then some conclusions will be drawn concerning possible policy actions to encourage a rational approach to management of this resource.

  15. Ozone treatment of textile wastewaters for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardelli, G; Capannelli, G; Bottino, A

    2001-01-01

    Treatment of textile wastewaters by means of an ozonation pilot plant are described. Wastewaters used were produced by a dyeing and finishing factory and were first treated in an active sludge plant and filtrated through sand. In the appropriate conditions very high colour removal (95-99%) was achieved and the effluent could be reused in production processes requiring water of high quality as dyeing yarns or light colorations. Even if the chemical oxygen demand of treated waters was still in a range (75-120 mg/l, a decrease of up to 60%) that was usually considered to be too high for recycling purposes, recycling experiments were successful. The economical viability of the techniques implementation was also demonstrated and the industrial plant is currently under realisation under an EU financed project. The paper considers also the possible improvement of ozone diffusion by means of membrane contactors realised in a second pilot plant, in order to further reduce operating costs of the technique. With respect to traditional systems, the gas/liquid contact surface is much higher being that of the membrane. Ozone at the interface is therefore immediately solubilized and potentially consumed with no additional resistance to the mass transfer.

  16. Solvent extraction of organic acids from stillage for its re-use in ethanol production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, G A; Caicedo, L A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Sanchez, O F

    2010-06-01

    Stillage re-use in the fermentation stage in ethanol production is a technique used for the reduction of water and fermentation nutrients consumption. However, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth of the by-products and feed components that remains in stillage increases with re-use and reduces the number of possible recycles. Several methods such as ultrafiltration, electrodialysis and advanced oxidation processes have been used in stillage treatment prior its re-use in the fermentation stage. Nevertheless, few studies evaluating the effect of solvent extraction as a stillage treatment option have been performed. In this work, the inhibitory effect of serial stillage recycling over ethanol and biomass production was determined, using acetic acid as a monitoring compound during the fermentation and solvent extraction process. Raw palm oil methyl ester showed the highest acetic acid extraction from the aqueous phase, presenting a distribution coefficient of 3.10 for a 1:1 aqueous phase mixture:solvent ratio. Re-using stillage without treatment allowed up to three recycles with an ethanol production of 53.7 +/- 2.0 g L(-1), which was reduced 25% in the fifth recycle. Alternatively, treated stillage allowed up to five recycles with an ethanol final concentration of 54.7 +/- 1.3 g L(- 1). These results show that reduction of acetic acid concentration by an extraction process with raw palm oil methyl ester before re-using stillage improves the number of recycles without a major effect on ethanol production. The proposed process generates a palm oil methyl ester that contains organic acids, among other by-products, that could be used for product recovery and as an alternative fuel.

  17. Life-cycle flow of mercury and recycling scenario of fluorescent lamps in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Misuzu; Fukui, Kazuki; Sakai, Shin-Ichi

    2008-04-01

    We summarized the mercury flow of mercury-containing products from their manufacture to their disposal in Japan and discussed the current management of mercury-containing hazardous household waste (HHW). The mercury flow originating from these products was estimated to be about 10-20 tonnes annually, about 5 tonnes of which was attributable to fluorescent lamps, the major mercury-containing product in Japan. The recent rapid increase in digital home electronics with liquid crystal displays (e.g.,televisions, personal computers, mobile phones, and digital cameras) has led to a marked increase in the production of backlights, which are also fluorescent and contain mercury. Most of the annual flow was disposed of as waste, with only 0.6 tonnes Hg recovered. The mercury flow for end-of-life fluorescent lamps (excluding backlights) was analyzed under three scenarios for Kyoto, Japan for 2003: the present condition scenario, the improved recycling scenario, and the complete recycling scenario. Under the present condition scenario, mercury flow was calculated to be 34 kg Hg for incineration, 21 kg Hg for landfill, and only 4 kg Hg for recycling. The complete recycling scenario shows a simple flow, with all mercury recycled. Under this scenario for Kyoto, we calculated that a cyclic system having 47 kg of mercury (3.5 tonnes Hg in Japan) could be established if all fluorescent lamps (excluding those stored in residences) were collected and recycled. Mercury is a HHW priority chemical, and we need to limit its use and establish a closed-loop system. There are currently no regulations to achieve this, and the management of most HHWs is left to local governments. Therefore, products are disposed of in landfills or incinerated, except for some that are voluntarily collected and recycled. In order to recycle all of the waste fluorescent lamps, we must have a complete recycling system that has a high rate of public participation in collection. We also must have a closed

  18. Life-cycle flow of mercury and recycling scenario of fluorescent lamps in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asari, Misuzu; Fukui, Kazuki; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2008-01-01

    We summarized the mercury flow of mercury-containing products from their manufacture to their disposal in Japan and discussed the current management of mercury-containing hazardous household waste (HHW). The mercury flow originating from these products was estimated to be about 10-20 tonnes annually, about 5 tonnes of which was attributable to fluorescent lamps, the major mercury-containing product in Japan. The recent rapid increase in digital home electronics with liquid crystal displays (e.g., televisions, personal computers, mobile phones, and digital cameras) has led to a marked increase in the production of backlights, which are also fluorescent and contain mercury. Most of the annual flow was disposed of as waste, with only 0.6 tonnes Hg recovered. The mercury flow for end-of-life fluorescent lamps (excluding backlights) was analyzed under three scenarios for Kyoto, Japan for 2003: the present condition scenario, the improved recycling scenario, and the complete recycling scenario. Under the present condition scenario, mercury flow was calculated to be 34 kg Hg for incineration, 21 kg Hg for landfill, and only 4 kg Hg for recycling. The complete recycling scenario shows a simple flow, with all mercury recycled. Under this scenario for Kyoto, we calculated that a cyclic system having 47 kg of mercury (3.5 tonnes Hg in Japan) could be established if all fluorescent lamps (excluding those stored in residences) were collected and recycled. Mercury is a HHW priority chemical, and we need to limit its use and establish a closed-loop system. There are currently no regulations to achieve this, and the management of most HHWs is left to local governments. Therefore, products are disposed of in landfills or incinerated, except for some that are voluntarily collected and recycled. In order to recycle all of the waste fluorescent lamps, we must have a complete recycling system that has a high rate of public participation in collection. We also must have a closed

  19. Recycling plastic bottles in a creative way

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlin, Suzana

    2016-01-01

    Beside other plastic products, plastic bottles represent a true environmental disaster in the last few years. We assume that hardly anyone asks what happens after they drink that last drop of water out of it. Just like most municipal waste, a plastic bottle can be reused, recycled, burned or deposited into landfill. When the Environment Protection Act is not respected, plastic bottle ends up in the nature, very often in the sea, where it decomposes very slowly and has negative influence on th...

  20. Economic evaluation of municipal solid waste recycling in Yazd:

    OpenAIRE

    Eslami H; Mokhtari M; Eslami Dost Z; Barzegar Khanghah MR; Ranjbar Ezzatabadi M

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: In every urban waste management plan, recycling and reuse is considered as an economic pattern. This study aimed to economic evaluation of municipal solid waste recycling in Yazd by cost-benefit analysis in 2015. Methods: This research is a descriptive–analytic study which in the data about quality and quantity of municipal solid waste in Yazd city were collected through the sampling and physical analysis and the data about total income and costs from the implementatio...

  1. Decontamination and reuse of ORGDP aluminum scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

    1996-12-01

    The Gaseous Diffusion Plants, or GDPs, have significant amounts of a number of metals, including nickel, aluminum, copper, and steel. Aluminum was used extensively throughout the GDPs because of its excellent strength to weight ratios and good resistance to corrosion by UF 6 . This report is concerned with the recycle of aluminum stator and rotor blades from axial compressors. Most of the stator and rotor blades were made from 214-X aluminum casting alloy. Used compressor blades were contaminated with uranium both as a result of surface contamination and as an accumulation held in surface-connected voids inside of the blades. A variety of GDP studies were performed to evaluate the amounts of uranium retained in the blades; the volume, area, and location of voids in the blades; and connections between surface defects and voids. Based on experimental data on deposition, uranium content of the blades is 0.3%, or roughly 200 times the value expected from blade surface area. However, this value does correlate with estimated internal surface area and with lengthy deposition times. Based on a literature search, it appears that gaseous decontamination or melt refining using fluxes specific for uranium removal have the potential for removing internal contamination from aluminum blades. A melt refining process was used to recycle blades during the 1950s and 1960s. The process removed roughly one-third of the uranium from the blades. Blade cast from recycled aluminum appeared to perform as well as blades from virgin material. New melt refining and gaseous decontamination processes have been shown to provide substantially better decontamination of pure aluminum. If these techniques can be successfully adapted to treat aluminum 214-X alloy, internal and, possibly, external reuse of aluminum alloys may be possible

  2. PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF CEMENT PASTE INCLUDING RECYCLED CONCRETE POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Topič

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The disposal and further recycling of concrete is being investigated worldwide, because the issue of complete recycling has not yet been fully resolved. A fundamental difficulty faced by researchers is the reuse of the recycled concrete fines which are very small (< 1 mm. Currently, full recycling of such waste fine fractions is highly energy intensive and resulting in production of CO2. Because of this, the only recycling methods that can be considered as sustainable and environmentally friendly are those which involve recycled concrete powder (RCP in its raw form. This article investigates the performance of RCP with the grain size < 0.25 mm as a potential binder replacement, and also as a microfiller in cement-based composites. Here, the RCP properties are assessed, including how mechanical properties and the microstructure are influenced by increasing the amount of the RCP in a cement paste (≤ 25 wt%.

  3. Entropy, recycling and macroeconomics of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    We propose a macroeconomic model for water quantity and quality supply multipliers derived by water recycling (Karakatsanis et al. 2013). Macroeconomic models that incorporate natural resource conservation have become increasingly important (European Commission et al. 2012). In addition, as an estimated 80% of globally used freshwater is not reused (United Nations 2012), under increasing population trends, water recycling becomes a solution of high priority. Recycling of water resources creates two major conservation effects: (1) conservation of water in reservoirs and aquifers and (2) conservation of ecosystem carrying capacity due to wastewater flux reduction. Statistical distribution properties of the recycling efficiencies -on both water quantity and quality- for each sector are of vital economic importance. Uncertainty and complexity of water reuse in sectors are statistically quantified by entropy. High entropy of recycling efficiency values signifies greater efficiency dispersion; which -in turn- may indicate the need for additional infrastructure for the statistical distribution's both shifting and concentration towards higher efficiencies that lead to higher supply multipliers. Keywords: Entropy, water recycling, water supply multipliers, conservation, recycling efficiencies, macroeconomics References 1. European Commission (EC), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), United Nations (UN) and World Bank (2012), System of Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA) Central Framework (White cover publication), United Nations Statistics Division 2. Karakatsanis, G., N. Mamassis, D. Koutsoyiannis and A. Efstratiades (2013), Entropy and reliability of water use via a statistical approach of scarcity, 5th EGU Leonardo Conference - Hydrofractals 2013 - STAHY '13, Kos Island, Greece, European Geosciences Union, International Association of Hydrological Sciences

  4. Water reclamation and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrudey, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    A literature review of wastewater treatment for recycle is presented. Wastewater and activated sludge from the processing of petroleum, shale oil, and from coal conversion and lignite liquefaction have been successfully treated for use as boiler feedwater, cooling water makeup, and steam generation. Acid mine drainage has been treated with lime for use in revegetation of spoil areas. Use of tailings decant water for use in a mill concentrator was reported. Ionizing radiation was effective in disinfecting wastewater makeup to power plant cooling systems. The zero discharge concept was demonstrated in several power plants. Reverse osmosis is reported to be the most economical technology for treatment of cooling tower blowdown. It has the capability of 44% recovery of boric acid and 55% recovery of water from nuclear power plant radioactive wastewater. Included are 402 references

  5. Management experiences and trends for water reuse implementation in Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischel, Heather N; Simon, Gregory L; Frisby, Tammy M; Luthy, Richard G

    2012-01-03

    In 2010, California fell nearly 300,000 acre-ft per year (AFY) short of its goal to recycle 1,000,000 AFY of municipal wastewater. Growth of recycled water in the 48 Northern California counties represented only 20% of the statewide increase in reuse between 2001 and 2009. To evaluate these trends and experiences, major drivers and challenges that influenced the implementation of recycled water programs in Northern California are presented based on a survey of 71 program managers conducted in 2010. Regulatory requirements limiting discharge, cited by 65% of respondents as a driver for program implementation, historically played an important role in motivating many water reuse programs in the region. More recently, pressures from limited water supplies and needs for system reliability are prevalent drivers. Almost half of respondents (49%) cited ecological protection or enhancement goals as drivers for implementation. However, water reuse for direct benefit of natural systems and wildlife habitat represents just 6-7% of total recycling in Northern California and few financial incentives exist for such projects. Economic challenges are the greatest barrier to successful project implementation. In particular, high costs of distribution systems (pipelines) are especially challenging, with $1 to 3 million/mile costs experienced. Negative perceptions of water reuse were cited by only 26% of respondents as major hindrances to implementation of surveyed programs.

  6. Physio-chemical reactions in recycle aggregate concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, Vivian W.Y.; Gao, X.F.; Tam, C.M.; Ng, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    Concrete waste constitutes the major proportion of construction waste at about 50% of the total waste generated. An effective way to reduce concrete waste is to reuse it as recycled aggregate (RA) for the production of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC). This paper studies the physio-chemical reactions of cement paste around aggregate for normal aggregate concrete (NAC) and RAC mixed with normal mixing approach (NMA) and two-stage mixing approach (TSMA) by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Four kinds of physio-chemical reactions have been recorded from the concrete samples, including the dehydration of C 3 S 2 H 3 , iron-substituted ettringite, dehydroxylation of CH and development of C 6 S 3 H at about 90 deg. C, 135 deg. C, 441 deg. C and 570 deg. C, respectively. From the DSC results, it is confirmed that the concrete samples with RA substitution have generated less amount of strength enhancement chemical products when compared to those without RA substitution. However, the results from the TSMA are found improving the RAC quality. The pre-mix procedure of the TSMA can effectively develop some strength enhancing chemical products including, C 3 S 2 H 3 , ettringite, CH and C 6 S 3 H, which shows that RAC made from the TSMA can improve the hydration processes

  7. Physio-chemical reactions in recycle aggregate concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vivian W Y; Gao, X F; Tam, C M; Ng, K M

    2009-04-30

    Concrete waste constitutes the major proportion of construction waste at about 50% of the total waste generated. An effective way to reduce concrete waste is to reuse it as recycled aggregate (RA) for the production of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC). This paper studies the physio-chemical reactions of cement paste around aggregate for normal aggregate concrete (NAC) and RAC mixed with normal mixing approach (NMA) and two-stage mixing approach (TSMA) by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Four kinds of physio-chemical reactions have been recorded from the concrete samples, including the dehydration of C(3)S(2)H(3), iron-substituted ettringite, dehydroxylation of CH and development of C(6)S(3)H at about 90 degrees C, 135 degrees C, 441 degrees C and 570 degrees C, respectively. From the DSC results, it is confirmed that the concrete samples with RA substitution have generated less amount of strength enhancement chemical products when compared to those without RA substitution. However, the results from the TSMA are found improving the RAC quality. The pre-mix procedure of the TSMA can effectively develop some strength enhancing chemical products including, C(3)S(2)H(3), ettringite, CH and C(6)S(3)H, which shows that RAC made from the TSMA can improve the hydration processes.

  8. Recycling of wastes from uranium mining and metallurgy and recovery of useful resources in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Yingjie; Xue Jianxin; Chen Zhongqiu

    2012-01-01

    Recycling of wastes from uranium mining and metallurgy in China and recovery of useful resources are summarized from the aspects such as recovery of uranium from mine water, reusing of waste water, decontaminating and recycling of radioactivity contaminated metal, backfill of gangues and tailings, and comprehensive recovery and utilization of associated uranium deposits. (authors)

  9. Output-Orientated Data Envelopment Analysis for Measuring Recycling Efficiency: An Application at Italian Regional Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crociata, Alessandro; Mattoscio, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Pro-environmental behaviours associated with reducing, reusing and recycling have become increasingly matters of public policy concern. However, the existing literature on waste management rarely considers the cultural factors associated with predictors and enablers of recycling behaviours, nor has it deeply explored the relation between cultural…

  10. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) sludge recycling unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Guelph Utility Pole Company treats utility poles by immersion in pentachlorophenol (PCP) or by pressure treatment with chromated copper arsenate (CCA). The PCP treatment process involves a number of steps, each producing a certain amount of sludge and other wastes. In a plant upgrading program to improve processing and treatment of poles and to reduce and recycle waste, a PCP recovery unit was developed, first as an experimental pilot-scale unit and then as a full-scale unit. The PCP recovery unit is modular in design and can be modified to suit different requirements. In a recycling operation, the sludge is pumped through a preheat system (preheated by waste heat) and suspended solids are removed by a strainer. The sludge is then heated in a tank and at a predetermined temperature it begins to separate into its component parts: oil, steam, and solids. The steam condenses to water containing low amounts of light oil, and this water is pumped through an oil/water separator. The recovered oil is reused in the wood treatment process and the water is used in the CCA plant. The oil remaining in the tank is reused in PCP treatment and the solid waste, which includes small stones and wood particles, is removed and stored. By the third quarter of operation, the recovery unit was operating as designed, processing ca 10,000 gal of sludge. This sludge yielded 6,500 gal of water, 3,500 gal of oil, and ca 30 gal of solids. Introduction of the PCP sludge recycling system has eliminated long-term storage of PCP sludge and minimized costs of hazardous waste disposal. 4 figs

  11. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: An ESL Textbook/Workbook [In Four Volumes]: (1) Teaching Guide; (2) Edition A. Key Vocabulary Words Translated into 6 Languages: Hmong, Laotian, Korean, Cambodian, Vietnamese, Chinese; (3) Edition B. Key Vocabulary Words Translated into 6 Languages: Spanish, Somali, Russian, Farsi, Bosnian, Arabic; (4) Edition C. Key Vocabulary Words Translated in 6 Languages: Spanish, Russian, Bosnian, Somali, Vietnamese, Hmong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRue, Charles

    Each of these three separately-published textbook/workbook editions on the topic of recycling presents key vocabulary words relating to this topic for English as a Second Language students in six languages. These books are designed to increase students' understanding of what the most typical local recycling rules are, why complying with them is…

  12. Recycling Lesson Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaz, Abeer Ali

    2013-01-01

    This lesson plan designed for grade 2 students has the goal of teaching students about the environmental practice of recycling. Children will learn language words related to recycling such as: "we can recycle"/"we can't recycle" and how to avoid littering with such words as: "recycle paper" and/or "don't throw…

  13. Agronomic behavior of gladiolus in organic substrates with wastewater reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Dourado Teixeira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the technical feasibility of effluent reuse and recycling of organic substrates in the production of gladiolus. We adopted a completely randomized design in a split-plot, and the plots three qualities water (river water with Hoagland’s solution; treated effluent in stabilization pond; treated effluent in stabilization pond and disinfected and the subplots organic substrates (pine bark, coir, bagasse, repeated five times. Were characterized physico-chemical water and each substrate, the beginning and end of two growing seasons. The variables evaluated were: number of tillers, plant height, total production; flower stem length, number of flowers, time to first harvest, total cycle time, fresh and dry mass of the area. The reuse of effluent resulted in agronomic performance equal or superior to that obtained by the use of nutrient solution and the substrate base bagasse promoted agronomic performance inferior to the other substrates evaluated.

  14. Application of the ecologically clean technology of mining metallurgy and power industry wastes recycling based on the use of electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazhrenova, N.R.; Askarova, G.Sh.

    1997-01-01

    Advantage of electron beam technologies application for industrial wastes recycling is illustrated for following trends: 1).Off gases of mining metallurgy and the thermal power plant can be refined from SO 2 and NO x toxic combination by means of their further chemical and radiation oxidation with following obtaining of acids on the base industrial accelerator ELV-8. In this method a radiation-chemical process in irradiated gas results in excited complexes, radicals and ion formation. Ion cause the activation of reaction chain which convert SO 2 and NO x toxic gases into the combination with high number of oxidation. In presence of water, coming from drip cooler, the combination of sulphuric and nitric acids neutralization results in the obtaining of ammonium solid combination which are mainly sulphates and nitrates; 2). For waste water refinement from organic pollution, for instance butyl xanthate, ions of heavy metals and etc.; 3). For non-ferrous, sparse and and dispersed metal extraction from the cinder and slag wastes. Different technological schemes for mineral extraction are elaborated

  15. Innovative technologies for recycling contaminated concrete and scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, S.J.; Moore, J.

    1993-01-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning of US DOE's surplus facilities will generate enormous quantities of concrete and scrap metal. A solicitation was issued, seeking innovative technologies for recycling and reusing these materials. Eight proposals were selected for award. If successfully developed, these technologies will enable DOE to clean its facilities by 2019

  16. Social awareness programmes in waste management and recycling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available .csir.co.zaSlide 21 • Clean-up campaigns do not succeed in changing human behaviour • Main message must be “do not litter” and “Reduce, re-use and recycle” • Incentives associated with clean-up campaigns often reward bad behaviour • Payment for clean-ups must... to emotion • If people feel guilty if they don’t recycle, they are likely to start recycling • Create simple “Prompts” • Sticky notes on garbage bins to remind people to recycle • Use social pressure • Share peer behaviour • Incentives • Make behaviour public...

  17. Analysis of Possibilities for Using Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Concrete Pavement

    OpenAIRE

    R. Pernicova; D. Dobias

    2016-01-01

    The present article describes the limits of using recycled concrete aggregate (denoted as RCA) in the top layer of concrete roads. The main aim of this work is to investigate the possibility of reuse of recycled aggregates obtained by crushing the old concrete roads as a building material in the new top layers of concrete pavements. The paper is based on gathering the current knowledge about how to use recycled concrete aggregate, suitability, and modification of the properties and its standa...

  18. Electrical and electronic waste: a global environmental problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Babu, Balakrishnan; Parande, Anand Kuber; Ahmed Basha, Chiya

    2007-08-01

    The production of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing global manufacturing activities. This development has resulted in an increase of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE). Rapid economic growth, coupled with urbanization and growing demand for consumer goods, has increased both the consumption of EEE and the production of WEEE, which can be a source of hazardous wastes that pose a risk to the environment and to sustainable economic growth. To address potential environmental problems that could stem from improper management of WEEE, many countries and organizations have drafted national legislation to improve the reuse, recycling and other forms of material recovery from WEEE to reduce the amount and types of materials disposed in landfills. Recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment is important not only to reduce the amount of waste requiring treatment, but also to promote the recovery of valuable materials. EEE is diverse and complex with respect to the materials and components used and waste streams from the manufacturing processes. Characterization of these wastes is of paramount importance for developing a cost-effective and environmentally sound recycling system. This paper offers an overview of electrical and e-waste recycling, including a description of how it is generated and classified, strategies and technologies for recovering materials, and new scientific developments related to these activities. Finally, the e-waste recycling industry in India is also discussed.

  19. The study on the overseas recycling technology of the radioactive metallic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. R.; Jung, Y. S.; Sin, J. I.

    2002-01-01

    It was understood that regulation criteria for material release varied with countries and that international standards were not setup. But, most advanced countries are continuously studying on the recycling of metallic wastes for the purpose of the reuse of resources and disposal cost reduction. Practically, the advanced countries make a lot of cost profits compared with disposal as their metallic wastes are recycled and reused through technology like melting. In our case, the recycle criteria for radioactive waste containing radioactive nuclide with long half-life such as Cs-137(half-life: 30y) and Co-60(half-life: 5.26y) including others, which are generated from the nuclear fission or dismantling of nuclear facilities, are not yet established. Therefore, it is required that the recommendation and legalization of the regulatory criteria be carried out for the recycle and reuse of metallic wastes to be generated from the dismantling of domestic nuclear facilities in the future

  20. HOUSEHOLD PARTICIPATION IN RECYCLING PROGRAMS: A CASE STUDY FROM MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azilah M Akil

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase in per capita income and rapid urbanization, have contributed significantly to changes in consumption behaviour leading to increased waste generation.  Waste disposed to landfill sites is fast becoming unfeasible thus requiring a more effective management of waste material involving waste reduction, reuse and recycling. The success of recycling program, however, is largely dependent on household participation activities which are essentially behaviour driven. The recycling performance of Malaysian households is still low as it stands at 5.5% compared to Singapore and Vietnam which are 56% and 22% respectively. This study examines recycling behaviour among households and the influence of socioeconomic, demographic and behavioural characteristics on households’ participation in recycling program in Malaysia.  A sample of 300 randomly selected household were surveyed.  The findings revealed that most of the households (70% claim that they are practicing recycling particularly types of paper and old clothes. The factors of participation in recycling show equal results both for environmental concerns and economic benefits. Those who did not participate in recycling, listed household issues or behaviour, namely lack of time and materials to recycle, inconvenient, lack of space, lack of facilities and information as well as laziness, as barriers. The paper finally highlights the factors which can encourage household to be involved in recycling and give recommendations to the authorities in terms of facilities and infrastructures to facilitate the program.

  1. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wäger, Patrick A.; Hischier, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6–10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. - Highlights: • LCA of plastics production from plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues • Multiple stakeholder perspectives addressed via different research questions • Plastics production from WEEE treatment residues clearly superior to alternatives • Robust results as demonstrated by extensive sensitivity analyses

  2. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wäger, Patrick A., E-mail: patrick.waeger@empa.ch; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6–10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. - Highlights: • LCA of plastics production from plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues • Multiple stakeholder perspectives addressed via different research questions • Plastics production from WEEE treatment residues clearly superior to alternatives • Robust results as demonstrated by extensive sensitivity analyses.

  3. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, Patrick A; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6-10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Recycling Facilities - Land Recycling Cleanup Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Land Recycling Cleanup Location Land Recycling Cleanup Locations (LRCL) are divided into one or more sub-facilities categorized as media: Air, Contained Release or...

  5. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Rodriguez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed.

  6. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Blair, Palenque; Devine, Brian; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed. PMID:19440440

  7. Beneficial reuse of empty DUF{sub 6} cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Arnish, J.; Nabelssi, B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses options for the disposal of depleted UF{sub 6} storage cylinders as they are freed over the next 20 years. Presently there are 46,000 mild steel cylinders in use, and projections show 600,000 tons of steel being freed over 20 years. The paper discusses the results of studies which have looked at various aspects of this issue: health risks; environmental impacts; costs and hassles; impact of DOE metal recycle policy. The general conclusions were that chemical and trauma risks dominate the risk evaluations, that risk levels are broadly speaking level for the studied disposition options, that environmental risks are highest for burial, and lowest for free release, while costs are higher for burial and recycling, than for reuse or free release.

  8. Potential GTCC LLW sealed radiation source recycle initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.

    1992-04-01

    This report suggests 11 actions that have the potential to facilitate the recycling (reuse or radionuclide) of surplus commercial sealed radiation sources that would otherwise be disposed of as greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste. The suggestions serve as a basis for further investigation and discussion between the Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Agreement States, and the commercial sector. Information is also given that describes sealed sources, how they are used, and problems associated with recycling, including legal concerns. To illustrate the nationwide recycling potential, Appendix A gives the estimated quantity and application information for sealed sources that would qualify for disposal in commercial facilities if not recycle. The report recommends that the Department of Energy initiate the organization of a forum to explore the suggested actions and other recycling possibilities

  9. Major issues associated with DOE commercial recycling initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motl, G.P.; Burns, D.D.; Rast, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Major initiatives are underway within DOE to recycle large volumes of scrap material generated during cleanup of the DOE Weapons Complex. These recycling initiatives are driven not only by the desire to conserve natural resources, but also by the recognition that shallow level burial is not a politically acceptable option. The Fernald facility is in the vanguard of a number of major DOE recycling efforts. These early efforts have brought issues to light that can have a major impact on the ability of Fernald and other major DOE sites to expand recycling efforts in the future. Some of these issues are; secondary waste deposition, title to material and radioactive contaminants, mixed waste generated during recycling, special nuclear material possession limits, cost benefit, transportation of waste to processing facilities, release criteria, and uses for beneficially reused products

  10. Strength of masonry blocks made with recycled concrete aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Pierre; Dalati, Rouba El

    The idea of recycling concrete of demolished buildings aims at preserving the environment. Indeed, the reuse of concrete as aggregate in new concrete mixes helped to reduce the expenses related to construction and demolition (C&D) waste management and, especially, to protect the environment by reducing the development rate of new quarries. This paper presents the results of an experimental study conducted on masonry blocks containing aggregates resulting from concrete recycling. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of recycled aggregates on compressive strength of concrete blocks. Tests were performed on series of concrete blocks: five series each made of different proportions of recycled aggregates, and one series of reference blocks exclusively composed of natural aggregates. Tests showed that using recycled aggregates with addition of cement allows the production of concrete blocks with compressive strengths comparable to those obtained on concrete blocks made exclusively of natural aggregates.

  11. Recycled materials in geotechnical applications. Geotechnical special publication No. 79

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vipulanandan, C.; Elton, D.J. [eds.

    1998-07-01

    Recycled materials have the potential for use in a variety of geotechnical and geoenvironmental applications. This proceedings contains 15 papers on field applications and laboratory testing related to recycled materials. Papers cover: geotechnics of industrial by-products; paper mill sludge for landfill cover; mitigation of void development under bridge approach slabs using rubber tire chips; tire shreds as lightweight fill for embankments and retaining walls; performance of a highway embankment and hydraulic barriers constructed using waste foundry sand, and recycled materials; lagoon-stored lime for embankment; construction and demolition debris for base and subbase applications; fly ash for fill, pavement, earth structures and aggregate; compaction of contaminated soils-reuse as a road base material; and database on beneficial reuse of foundry by-products; and more.

  12. Wastewater reuse. What can be learned from the Israel experience; Reutilizacion de aguas residuales. Que se puede aprender de la experiencia israeli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juanico, M.

    2007-07-01

    In Israel, wastewater is defined as an integral part of the water resources of the country and massive water reuse has been performed for almost four decades. Today, reuse achieves 75% of the produced wastewater. The present paper analyzes the historical development of wastewater reuse in Israel, addressing main events, regulations, coexistence of projects of different sizes and characteristics, institutional organization, the contractual relationship between the urban and rural sectors, nutrients recycling, quality of the treated wastewater and the problem of salination of soils and aquifers. The paper gives an holistic and impartial description of the controversial issues that are presently discussed in the country regarding wastewater reuse. (Author) 42 refs.

  13. Disposal Options of Bamboo Fabric-Reinforced Poly(Lactic Acid Composites for Sustainable Packaging: Biodegradability and Recyclability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Nurul Fazita

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the recyclability and biodegradability of bamboo fabric-reinforced poly(lactic acid (BF-PLA composites for sustainable packaging. BF-PLA composite was recycled through the granulation, extrusion, pelletization and injection processes. Subsequently, mechanical properties (tensile, flexural and impact strength, thermal stability and the morphological appearance of recycled BF-PLA composites were determined and compared to BF-PLA composite (initial materials and virgin PLA. It was observed that the BF-PLA composites had the adequate mechanical rigidity and thermal stability to be recycled and reused. Moreover, the biodegradability of BF-PLA composite was evaluated in controlled and real composting conditions, and the rate of biodegradability of BF-PLA composites was compared to the virgin PLA. Morphological and thermal characteristics of the biodegradable BF-PLA and virgin PLA were obtained by using environment scanning electron microscopy (ESEM and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, respectively. The first order decay rate was found to be 0.0278 and 0.0151 day−1 in a controlled composting condition and 0.0008 and 0.0009 day−1 in real composting conditions for virgin PLA and BF-PLA composite, respectively. Results indicate that the reinforcement of bamboo fabric in PLA matrix minimizes the degradation rate of BF-PLA composite. Thus, BF-PLA composite has the potential to be used in product packaging for providing sustainable packaging.

  14. Theoretical information reuse and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Information Reuse and Integration addresses the efficient extension and creation of knowledge through the exploitation of Kolmogorov complexity in the extraction and application of domain symmetry. Knowledge, which seems to be novel, can more often than not be recast as the image of a sequence of transformations, which yield symmetric knowledge. When the size of those transformations and/or the length of that sequence of transforms exceeds the size of the image, then that image is said to be novel or random. It may also be that the new knowledge is random in that no such sequence of transforms, which produces it exists, or is at least known. The nine chapters comprising this volume incorporate symmetry, reuse, and integration as overt operational procedures or as operations built into the formal representations of data and operators employed. Either way, the aforementioned theoretical underpinnings of information reuse and integration are supported.

  15. Stainless Steel RSM Beneficial Reuse technical feasibility to business reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettinger, W.L.; Mishra, G.

    1997-08-01

    The Stainless Steel Beneficial Reuse Program began in 1994 as a demonstration funded by the DOE Office of Science and Technology. The purpose was to assess the practicality of stainless steel radioactive scrap metal (RSM) recycle. Technical feasibility has been demonstrated through the production of a number of products made from recycled RSM. A solid business foundation is yet to be achieved. However, a business environment is beginning to develop as multiple markets and applications for RSM are surfacing around the Complex. The criteria for a successful business reality includes: - affordable programs, - a continuing production base from which to expand, - real products needs, -adequate RSM supply, and - a multi-year program This program currently sponsored by SRS and DOE-ORO to fabricate Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters from RSM provides an activity that satisfies these criteria. The program status is discussed. A comparison of the cost of DWPF canisters fabricated from recycled RSM and virgin metal is presented. The comparison is a function of several factors: disposal costs, the fabrication cost of virgin metal canisters, the fabrication cost of recycled RSM canisters, free release decontamination costs, and the cost to accumulate the RSM. These variables are analyzed and the relationship established to show the break-even point for various values of each parameter

  16. Sex-dependent accumulation and maternal transfer of Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in fish from an electronic waste recycling site in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiang-Ping; She, Ya-Zhe; Zhang, Ying; Peng, Ying; Mo, Ling; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is limited on sex-related accumulation and maternal transfer of Dechlorane Plus (DP) flame retardant in wildlife. In the present study, DP isomers were examined in liver and eggs of two fish species, northern snakehead and crucian carp, from an electronic waste recycling site in China. Hepatic ∑DP (sum of syn- and anti-DP) concentrations ranged 260–1920 ng/g lipid in northern snakehead and 340–1670 ng/g in crucian carp, with significantly higher levels in males relative to females. ∑DP concentrations ranged 4.6–310 ng/g lipid in the eggs, demonstrating their maternal transfer in the female fish. The mean eggs to liver concentration ratios (E/L ratios) were 0.03 and 0.03 in northern snakehead, and 0.26 and 0.25 in crucian carp, for syn- and anti-DP, respectively. A significantly negative correlation between the E/L ratios and the hepatic DP concentrations was observed, indicating a dose-dependent maternal transfer of DP isomers in the fish. -- Highlights: ► Male fish contained significantly higher DP residues than females. ► DP isomers can be maternally transferred to eggs in female fish. ► A dose-dependent maternal transfer of DP isomers was observed. ► First report on sex-related bioaccumulation of DP isomers in wildlife. -- Sex-dependent accumulation and species-specific maternal transfer of Dechlorane Plus flame retardant was observed in two highly contaminated fish species

  17. Biological monitoring of environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in subjects living in the area of recycling electronic garbage, in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Zhang, Wenbing; Fan, Ruifang; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2014-01-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in subjects living in the area of recycling electronic garbage in Southern China and research the influence of environment smoke tobacco (EST) to people through active and passive smoking. Urinary concentrations of 2-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydoxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene were determined in 141 randomly selected voluntary residents aged 13 to 81 years in two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-exposed groups, two control groups, and an EST research group. The concentrations of 2-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydoxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene in PAH-exposed groups are significantly higher (pelectronic garbage (1.1 μmol/mol creatinine) is a little higher than those of iron foundry workers, automobile repair workers, and firefighters. Mean value of 2-hydroxynaphthalene (11.3 μmol/mol creatinine) is much higher than that of shipyard and aircraft maintenance and much lower than some occupational exposure, such as coking batteries, sorting department, and distillation department in coking plant. Some metabolites of PAHs (PAHm) are significantly elevated through active and passive smoking, while the influence of EST to other PAHm is not statistically significant. 2-Hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydoxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine of smokers are, respectively, 3.9, 1.9, 1.4, and 1.9 times to those of nonsmokers. In nonsmokers, passive smokers excreted 1.1, 1.5, 1.9, and 1.5 times of 2-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydoxyfluorene, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene compared to nonpassive smokers.

  18. Technology and human issues in reusing learning objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; Strijker, A.

    2004-01-01

    Reusing learning objects is as old as retelling a story or making use of libraries and textbooks, and in electronic form has received an enormous new impetus because of the World Wide Web and Web technologies. Are we at the brink of changing the "shape and form of learning, ... of being able to

  19. Recycling of acetone by distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, D.L.; Campbell, B.A.; Phelan, J.E.; Harper, M.

    1992-09-01

    The Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) identifies spent acetone solvent as a listed hazardous waste. At Fernald, acetone has been spent that has been contaminated with radionuclides and therefore is identified as a mixed hazardous waste. At the time of this publication there is no available approved method of recycling or disposal of radioactively contaminated spent acetone solvent. The Consent Decree with the Ohio EPA and the Consent Agreement with the United States EPA was agreed upon for the long-term compliant storage of hazardous waste materials. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility for safely decontaminating spent acetone to background levels of radioactivity for reuse. It was postulated that through heat distillation, radionuclides could be isolated from the spent acetone

  20. Actinide recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C; Chang, Y [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1990-07-01

    A multitude of studies and assessments of actinide partitioning and transmutation were carried out in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Probably the most comprehensive of these was a study coordinated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The conclusions of this study were that only rather weak economic and safety incentives existed for partitioning and transmuting the actinides for waste management purposes, due to the facts that (1) partitioning processes were complicated and expensive, and (2) the geologic repository was assumed to contain actinides for hundreds of thousands of years. Much has changed in the few years since then. A variety of developments now combine to warrant a renewed assessment of the actinide recycle. First of all, it has become increasingly difficult to provide to all parties the necessary assurance that the repository will contain essentially all radioactive materials until they have decayed. Assurance can almost certainly be provided to regulatory agencies by sound technical arguments, but it is difficult to convince the general public that the behavior of wastes stored in the ground can be modeled and predicted for even a few thousand years. From this point of view alone there would seem to be a clear benefit in reducing the long-term toxicity of the high-level wastes placed in the repository.

  1. Actinide recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.; Chang, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A multitude of studies and assessments of actinide partitioning and transmutation were carried out in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Probably the most comprehensive of these was a study coordinated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The conclusions of this study were that only rather weak economic and safety incentives existed for partitioning and transmuting the actinides for waste management purposes, due to the facts that (1) partitioning processes were complicated and expensive, and (2) the geologic repository was assumed to contain actinides for hundreds of thousands of years. Much has changed in the few years since then. A variety of developments now combine to warrant a renewed assessment of the actinide recycle. First of all, it has become increasingly difficult to provide to all parties the necessary assurance that the repository will contain essentially all radioactive materials until they have decayed. Assurance can almost certainly be provided to regulatory agencies by sound technical arguments, but it is difficult to convince the general public that the behavior of wastes stored in the ground can be modeled and predicted for even a few thousand years. From this point of view alone there would seem to be a clear benefit in reducing the long-term toxicity of the high-level wastes placed in the repository

  2. Expanded recycling at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betschart, J.F.; Malinauskas, L.; Burns, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Pollution Prevention Program Office has increased recycling activities, reuse, and options to reduce the solid waste streams through streamlining efforts that applied best management practices. The program has prioritized efforts based on volume and economic considerations and has greatly increased Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) recycle volumes. The Pollution Prevention Program established and chairs a Solid Waste Management Solutions Group to specifically address and solve problems in nonradioactive, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), state-regulated, and sanitary and industrial waste streams (henceforth referred to as sanitary waste in this paper). By identifying materials with recycling potential, identifying best management practices and pathways to return materials for reuse, and introducing the concept and practice of open-quotes asset management,open-quotes the Group will divert much of the current waste stream from disposal. This Group is developing procedures, agreements, and contracts to stage, collect, sort, segregate, transport and process materials, and is also garnering support for the program through the involvement of upper management, facility managers, and generators

  3. Municipal solid waste management for total resource recycling: a case study on Haulien County in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Min; Liu, Chien-Chung; Dai, Wen-Chien; Hu, Allen; Tseng, Chao-Heng; Chou, Chieh-Mei

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the enforcement performance of recent Haulien County, Taiwan municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling management programs. These programs include: Mandatory Refuse Sorting and Recycling, Diverse Bulk Waste Reuse, Pay-as-you-Discharge, Total Food Waste Recycling, Restricted Use on Plastic Shopping Bags & Plastic Tableware, Recycling Fund Management, and Ash Reuse. These programs provide incentives to reduce the MSW quantity growth rate. It was found that the recycled material fraction of MSW generated in 2001 was from 6.8%, but was 32.4% in 2010 and will increase stably by 2-5% yearly in the near future. Survey data for the last few years show that only 2.68% (based on total MSW generated) of food waste was collected in 2001. However, food waste was up to 9.7% in 2010 after the Total Food Waste Recycling program was implemented. The reutilization rate of bottom ash was 20% in 2005 and up to 65% in 2010 owing to Ash Reuse Program enforcement. A quantified index, the Total Recycle Index, was proposed to evaluate MSW management program performance. The demonstrated county will move toward a zero waste society in 2015 if the Total Recycle Index approaches 1.00. Exact management with available programs can lead to slow-growing waste volume and recovery of all MSW.

  4. Water Reuse and Pathogen Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building product water. By designing our buildings to collect and treat water generated on-site, can be and reused for flushing our toilets and irrigating our landscaping. Several water sources are generated with-in a building including: rainwater, stormwater, graywater, blackwa...

  5. Elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in hair from workers at an electronic waste recycling facility in Eastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jing [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, P.O. Box 144, Shanghai 200444 (China); Cheng Jinping; Wang Wenhua [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Kunisue, Tatsuya [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Wu Minghong [Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, P.O. Box 144, Shanghai 200444 (China); Kannan, Kurunthachalam, E-mail: kkannan@wadsworth.org [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2011-02-28

    Hair samples collected from e-waste recycling workers (n = 23 males, n = 4 females) were analyzed to assess occupational exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) at a large e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, eastern China. Hair samples from a reference population composed of residents of Shanghai (n = 11) were analyzed for comparison. The mean concentration of {Sigma}PBDEs (range, 22.8-1020 ng/g dw; mean, 157 ng/g dw) found in hair samples from e-waste recycling workers was approximately 3 times higher than the mean determined for the reference samples. The congener profiles of PBDEs in hair from e-waste recycling workers were dominated by BDE 209, whereas the profiles in the reference-population samples showed comparable levels of BDE 47 and BDE 209. Total PCDD/F concentrations in hair from e-waste workers (range, 126-5820 pg/g dw; mean, 1670 pg/g dw) were approximately 18-fold greater than the concentrations measured in hair from the reference population. Concentrations of PCDFs were greater than concentrations of PCDDs, in all of the hair samples analyzed (samples from e-waste and non-e-waste sites). Tetrachlorodibenzofurans (TCDFs) were the major homologues in hair samples. Overall, e-waste recycling workers had elevated concentrations of both PBDEs and PCDD/Fs, indicating that they are exposed to high levels of multiple persistent organic pollutants.

  6. Elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in hair from workers at an electronic waste recycling facility in Eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jing; Cheng Jinping; Wang Wenhua; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Wu Minghong; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2011-01-01

    Hair samples collected from e-waste recycling workers (n = 23 males, n = 4 females) were analyzed to assess occupational exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) at a large e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, eastern China. Hair samples from a reference population composed of residents of Shanghai (n = 11) were analyzed for comparison. The mean concentration of ΣPBDEs (range, 22.8-1020 ng/g dw; mean, 157 ng/g dw) found in hair samples from e-waste recycling workers was approximately 3 times higher than the mean determined for the reference samples. The congener profiles of PBDEs in hair from e-waste recycling workers were dominated by BDE 209, whereas the profiles in the reference-population samples showed comparable levels of BDE 47 and BDE 209. Total PCDD/F concentrations in hair from e-waste workers (range, 126-5820 pg/g dw; mean, 1670 pg/g dw) were approximately 18-fold greater than the concentrations measured in hair from the reference population. Concentrations of PCDFs were greater than concentrations of PCDDs, in all of the hair samples analyzed (samples from e-waste and non-e-waste sites). Tetrachlorodibenzofurans (TCDFs) were the major homologues in hair samples. Overall, e-waste recycling workers had elevated concentrations of both PBDEs and PCDD/Fs, indicating that they are exposed to high levels of multiple persistent organic pollutants.

  7. Optimization of greenhouse gas emissions in second-hand consumer product recovery through reuse platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Lorena M; Diyamandoglu, Vasil

    2017-08-01

    Product reuse in the solid waste management sector is promoted as one of the key strategies for waste prevention. This practice is considered to have favorable impact on the environment, but its benefits have yet to be established. Existing research describes the perspective of "avoided production" only, but has failed to examine the interdependent nature of reuse practices within an entire solid waste management system. This study proposes a new framework that uses optimization to minimize the greenhouse gas emissions of an integrated solid waste management system that includes reuse strategies and practices such as reuse enterprises, online platforms, and materials exchanges along with traditional solid waste management practices such as recycling, landfilling, and incineration. The proposed framework uses material flow analysis in combination with an optimization model to provide the best outcome in terms of GHG emissions by redistributing product flows in the integrated solid waste management system to the least impacting routes and processes. The optimization results provide a basis for understanding the contributions of reuse to the environmental benefits of the integrated solid waste management system and the exploration of the effects of reuse activities on waste prevention. A case study involving second-hand clothing is presented to illustrate the implementation of the proposed framework as applied to the material flow. Results of the case study showed the considerable impact of reuse on GHG emissions even for small replacement rates, and helped illustrate the interdependency of the reuse sector with other waste management practices. One major contribution of this study is the development of a framework centered on product reuse that can be applied to identify the best management strategies to reduce the environmental impact of product disposal and to increase recovery of reusable products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Attributes to facilitate e-waste recycling behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senawi Nur Hidayah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the set of attributes to facilitate electronic waste (e-waste behaviour among the community. E-waste disposal is increasing from year to year in parallel with increasing of global population. The short lifespan of electronics and poor e-waste recycling behaviour is among the main contributors to the steadily increasing of e-waste generated. Current recycling rate among the nation is lacking behind, which is only 10.5%. A questionnaire survey has been conducted among the students in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia to evaluate the current e-waste recycling practice. The results showed that majority of the respondents did not recycle their e-waste on campus. Aggressive efforts is needed to realize the country’s target of 20% recycling rate in year 2020, one of the effective paths is to minimize e-waste generation via active e-waste recycling behaviour among the community. Extensive literatures have been reviewed to classify the attributes to facilitate effective e-waste recycling among the community. Total of five attributes that identified in this study which are Convenience of E- waste Recycling Infrastruture and Services, E-waste Recycling Information, Incentives For E-waste Recycling, Reminder to Recycle E-waste And E-waste Recycling Infrastructure and Services. The set of attributes identified in this study may serve as guideline for the management in designing program to foster e-waste recycling behaviour among the community.

  9. Energy implications of recycling packaging materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-03-01

    In 1992, Congress sought to rewrite the United States comprehensive solid waste legislation -- the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Commodity-specific recycling rates were proposed for consumer-goods packaging materials and newsprint We compare the impacts on energy, materials use, and landfill volume of recycling at those rates to the impacts for alternative methods of material disposition to determine the optimum for each material. After products have served their intended uses, there are several alternative paths for material disposition. These include reuse, recycling to the same product, recycling to a lower-valued product, combustion for energy recovery, incineration without energy recovery, and landfill. Only options considered to be environmentally sound are Included. Both houses of Congress specifically excluded combustion for energy recovery from counting towards the recovery goats, probably because combustion is viewed as a form of disposal and is therefore assumed to waste resources and have n environmental effects. However, co-combustion in coal-fired plants or combustion in appropriately pollution-controlled waste-to-energy plants Is safe, avoids landfill costs, and can displace fossil fuels. In some cases, more fossil fuels can be displaced by combustion than by recycling. We compare the alternative life-cycle energies to the energies for producing the products from virgin materials. Results depend on the material and on the objective to be achieved. There are trade-offs among possible goals. For instance, paper packaging recycling conserves trees but may require greater fossil-fuel input than virgin production. Therefore, the objectives for proposed legislation must be examined to see whether they can most effectively be achieved by mandated recycling rates or by other methods of disposition. The optimal choices for the United States may not necessarily be the same as those for Europe and other parts of the world.

  10. Attitudes and norms affecting scientists' data reuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gonçalves Curty

    Full Text Available The value of sharing scientific research data is widely appreciated, but factors that hinder or prompt the reuse of data remain poorly understood. Using the Theory of Reasoned Action, we test the relationship between the beliefs and attitudes of scientists towards data reuse, and their self-reported data reuse behaviour. To do so, we used existing responses to selected questions from a worldwide survey of scientists developed and administered by the DataONE Usability and Assessment Working Group (thus practicing data reuse ourselves. Results show that the perceived efficacy and efficiency of data reuse are strong predictors of reuse behaviour, and that the perceived importance of data reuse corresponds to greater reuse. Expressed lack of trust in existing data and perceived norms against data reuse were not found to be major impediments for reuse contrary to our expectations. We found that reported use of models and remotely-sensed data was associated with greater reuse. The results suggest that data reuse would be encouraged and normalized by demonstration of its value. We offer some theoretical and practical suggestions that could help to legitimize investment and policies in favor of data sharing.

  11. Exploration on the Recycling Mechanism of Waste Household Appliances and Electronic Products in China%我国废旧家电电子产品回收处理机制探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐少艺

    2012-01-01

    我国因人口众多,电子电器产品的实际拥有量非常大,当这些产品被淘汰或换代时,产品废弃的数量同样巨大。如何有效地进行废旧电器电子的资源化回收处理,已经成为当前关系到我国经济、社会和环境可持续发展及我国再生资源回收利用面临的一个新课题。分析了我国废旧家电电子产品回收处理现状及存在问题,提出建立相关的法律、法规、市场机制及出台积极的经济政策,同时利用经济政策和利益驱动刺激回收市场发展,并加大绿色技术投入,使得废旧家电回收利用规模化发展。%Our country has a large population, electronic appliances products with the actual ownership is very big, when these products are eliminated or generation, the number of waste products also great. How to effectively carry out of waste electrical and electronic resources recycling processing, already became current relates our country economy, society and the environment sustainable development and our country renewable resource recycling faces a new topic. This article has analyzed our country waste household appliances and electronic products recycling status and problems, proposed the establishment of relevant laws, regulations, the market mechanism and the introduction of active economic policy, while the use of economic policy and interest drive stimulus recycling market development, and increase the green technology investment, the scale development of waste house-hold appliances recycling.

  12. Comparing urban solid waste recycling from the viewpoint of urban metabolism based on physical input–output model: A case of Suzhou in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Sai; Zhang Tianzhu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Impacts of solid waste recycling on Suzhou’s urban metabolism in 2015 are analyzed. ► Sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. ► Technical levels of reusing scrap tires and food wastes should be improved. ► Other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. ► Secondary wastes from reusing food wastes and sludge should be concerned. - Abstract: Investigating impacts of urban solid waste recycling on urban metabolism contributes to sustainable urban solid waste management and urban sustainability. Using a physical input–output model and scenario analysis, urban metabolism of Suzhou in 2015 is predicted and impacts of four categories of solid waste recycling on urban metabolism are illustrated: scrap tire recycling, food waste recycling, fly ash recycling and sludge recycling. Sludge recycling has positive effects on reducing all material flows. Thus, sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Moreover, technical levels of scrap tire recycling and food waste recycling should be improved to produce positive effects on reducing more material flows. Fly ash recycling for cement production has negative effects on reducing all material flows except solid wastes. Thus, other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. In addition, the utilization and treatment of secondary wastes from food waste recycling and sludge recycling should be concerned.

  13. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...... the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...

  14. The prospect for recycle of radioactive scrap metals to products for restricted and unrestricted use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liby, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Large quantities of radioactive scrap metals will arise from decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear power plants and DOE facilities. Much of this metal can be easily decontaminated and released to the existing secondary metals industry for recycling. For metal that can not be readily released, recycle into restricted-use end products is an economically attractive alternative to burial as low level radioactive waste. This paper will examine sources and types of scrap metal, technical approaches, potential products, and economics of metals recycle. Construction, licensing, environmental compliance, and possible reuse of existing nuclear facilities for metals recycling will be discussed. (author)

  15. Institutional disposition and management of end-of-life electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Callie W; Williams, Eric; Kahhat, Ramzy

    2011-06-15

    Institutions both public and private face a challenge to develop policies to manage purchase, use, and disposal of electronics. Environmental considerations play an increasing role in addition to traditional factors of cost, performance and security. Characterizing current disposition practices for end-of-life electronics is a key step in developing policies that prevent negative environmental and health impacts while maximizing potential for positive social and economic benefits though reuse. To provide a baseline, we develop the first characterization of quantity, value, disposition, and flows of end-of-life electronics at a major U.S. educational institution. Results of the empirical study indicate that most end-of-first-life electronics were resold through public auction to individuals and small companies who refurbish working equipment for resale or sell unusable products for reclamation of scrap metal. Desktop and laptop computers sold for refurbishing and resale averaged U.S. $20-100 per unit, with computers sold directly to individuals for reuse reaching $250-350 per unit. This detailed assessment was coupled with a benchmarking survey of end-of-life electronics management practices at other U.S. universities. Survey results indicate that while auctions are still commonplace, an increasing number of institutions are responding to environmental concerns by creating partnerships with local recycling and resale entities and mandating domestic recycling. We use the analyses of current disposition practices as input to discuss institutional strategies for managing electronics. One key issue is the tension between benefits of used equipment sales, in terms of income for the institution and increased reuse for society, and the environmental risks because of unknown downstream practices.

  16. Reuse of assembly systems: a great ecological and economical potential for facility suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weule, Hartmut; Buchholz, Carsten

    2001-02-01

    In addition to the consumer goods, capital goods offer a great potential for ecological and economic optimization. In view of this fact the project WiMonDi (Re-Use of Assembly Systems as new Business Fields), started in September 1998, focuses a marketable Remanufacturing and Re-Use of modules and components of assembly systems by using technically and organizationally continuous concepts. The objective of the closed Facility-Management-System is to prolong the serviceable lifespan of assembly facilities through the organized dismantling, refurbishment and reconditioning of the assembly facilities as well as their components. Therefore, it is necessary to develop easible and methodical strategies to realize a workable Re-Use concept. Within the project the focus is based on the optimization of Re-Use-strategies - the direct Re-Use, the Re-Use including Refurbishment as well as Material Recycling. The decision for an optimal strategy depends on economical (e.g. residual value, cost/benefit of relevant processes, etc.), ecological (e.g. pollutant components /substances), etc.) and technical parameters (e.g. reliability, etc.). For the purpose to integrate the total cost-of-ownership of products or components, WiMonDi integrates the costs of the use of products as well as the Re-Use costs/benefits. To initiate the conception of new distribution and user models between the supplier and the user of assembly facilities the described approach is conducted in close cooperation between Industry and University.

  17. Electron beam treatment of toxic volatile organic compounds and dioxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Takuji

    2006-01-01

    Considerations of wastes based on the reduction, reuse and recycle in daily life are primary measures to conserve our environment, but the control technology is necessary to support these measures. The electron beam (EB) process is promising as an advanced purification process having advantages such as a quick treatment of big volume gas, applicability even for very low concentration pollutants as the further purification at the downstream of existing process, and decomposition of pollutants into non-toxic substances by one process. The EB technology has been developed for treatment of toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ventilation gas and dioxins in solid waste incineration flue gas. (author)

  18. Re-use of Low Bandwidth Equipment for High Bit Rate Transmission Using Signal Slicing Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christoph; Spolitis, S.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    : Massive fiber-to-the-home network deployment requires never ending equipment upgrades operating at higher bandwidth. We show effective signal slicing method, which can reuse low bandwidth opto-electronical components for optical communications at higher bit rates.......: Massive fiber-to-the-home network deployment requires never ending equipment upgrades operating at higher bandwidth. We show effective signal slicing method, which can reuse low bandwidth opto-electronical components for optical communications at higher bit rates....

  19. Energetic reuse: use of biogas from the organic matter as an alternative source to recycle plastics and supply cycle diesel engines; Reaproveitamento energetico: uso do biogas proveniente da materia organica como fonte alternativa para reciclar plasticos e alimentar motores do ciclo Diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Priscila Alves; Santos, Rodolfo Esmarady Rocha dos [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (EXCEN/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Eficiencia Energetica

    2008-07-01

    Population growth and rising purchasing power due to the economic development driving the increased production of waste generated each year. Disposal these wastes is a major economic and environmental challenge, mainly by the concentration of plastics discarded without being used, and organic matter that decompose to produce methane, a major cause of global warming. Recycling waste plastics is a solution to minimize their disposal, but high energy consumption in this process becomes expensive, losing its economically. This leads to search for new alternatives for low cost energy. In the problem of disposal of organic matter may be the solution for recycling these wastes. The decomposition of organic matter produces a fuel (biogas) as a useful source energy to generate electricity required for the recycling process, as well as its use in flex-fuel engines. This system, double-cycle diesel fuel, has advantages not require technical changes in engine design and even the compression ratio. In the condition of dual-fuel, replacement of diesel can be up to 70% due to the use of biogas, but nothing prevents the engine to fire 100% diesel. The implementation of the recycling through the use of energy of urban wastes in Itajuba and the use of biogas on fleets, will bring socio-environmental benefits to the city and consequently the region around. Among these benefits may be pointed generating direct and indirect jobs primarily in the recycling process, reduction of odors at the landfill, mitigation of greenhouse gases, reducing diesel consumption among others. Among these benefits they can be mainly pointed the generation of direct and indirect employments in the recycling process, reduction of scents in the embankment, mitigation of effect gases stews, reduction of the diesel consumption among others. The study contributes to the solution of problems related to the final destination of the residues, for the use of the electric power generated starting from the biogas

  20. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Wong, Ming H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1–4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60–99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12–30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed. - Highlights: ► PCDD/F levels at e-waste recycling sites in China were reviewed. ► Data on environment and body burden and health risk assessment results were reviewed

  1. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan, E-mail: chanjky@hku.hk [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Ming H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1–4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60–99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12–30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed. - Highlights: ► PCDD/F levels at e-waste recycling sites in China were reviewed. ► Data on environment and body burden and health risk assessment results were reviewed

  2. Recycled Coarse Aggregate Produced by Pulsed Discharge in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namihira, Takao; Shigeishi, Mitsuhiro; Nakashima, Kazuyuki; Murakami, Akira; Kuroki, Kaori; Kiyan, Tsuyoshi; Tomoda, Yuichi; Sakugawa, Takashi; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; Ohtsu, Masayasu

    In Japan, the recycling ratio of concrete scraps has been kept over 98 % after the Law for the Recycling of Construction Materials was enforced in 2000. In the present, most of concrete scraps were recycled as the Lower Subbase Course Material. On the other hand, it is predicted to be difficult to keep this higher recycling ratio in the near future because concrete scraps increase rapidly and would reach to over 3 times of present situation in 2010. In addition, the demand of concrete scraps as the Lower Subbase Course Material has been decreased. Therefore, new way to reuse concrete scraps must be developed. Concrete scraps normally consist of 70 % of coarse aggregate, 19 % of water and 11 % of cement. To obtain the higher recycling ratio, the higher recycling ratio of coarse aggregate is desired. In this paper, a new method for recycling coarse aggregate from concrete scraps has been developed and demonstrated. The system includes a Marx generator and a point to hemisphere mesh electrode immersed in water. In the demonstration, the test piece of concrete scrap was located between the electrodes and was treated by the pulsed discharge. After discharge treatment of test piece, the recycling coarse aggregates were evaluated under JIS and TS and had enough quality for utilization as the coarse aggregate.

  3. Attitudes toward text recycling in academic writing across disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Susanne; Moskovitz, Cary; Pemberton, Michael A

    2018-01-01

    Text recycling, the reuse of material from one's own previously published writing in a new text without attribution, is a common academic writing practice that is not yet well understood. While some studies of text recycling in academic writing have been published, no previous study has focused on scholars' attitudes toward text recycling. This article presents results from a survey of over 300 journal editors and editorial board members from 86 top English-language journals in 16 different academic fields regarding text recycling in scholarly articles. Responses indicate that a large majority of academic gatekeepers believe text recycling is allowable in some circumstances; however, there is a lack of clear consensus about when text recycling is or is not appropriate. Opinions varied according to the source of the recycled material, its structural location and rhetorical purpose, and conditions of authorship conditions-as well as by the level of experience as a journal editor. Our study suggests the need for further research on text recycling utilizing focus groups and interviews.

  4. Recycling of solid wastes at kindergartens centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed R.M.S.R.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to conduct an activity on environmental awareness campaign at a kindergarten center, with the children age 4-6 years old. The activity included identify the various types of waste generated at the kindergarten and to realize the conservation practice by participating in simple waste management strategies and an explanation about recycling, reusing and reducing waste (3R. The activity provided the children more awareness about the importance of minimizing the plastic wastes. The activity had created an interesting experience to the young generation through practice activity and has given a light on the nature conservation along their growing years. It can be concluded that the awareness of environmental issues among children have risen up as noted by looking at students physical expression. Children have understood the potential to conserve nature from a simple action which is recycling. After the activity, children’s were able to identify and divide the rubbish.

  5. Waste reduction by re-use of low activated material - 16035

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlicher, Ulrich; Pauli, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    A multidisciplinary institute, equipped with research reactors and accelerator-driven research installations produces and, in the case of PSI, collects radioactive waste on one hand and requires material, especially for shielding purpose, on the other hand. The legislative framework for radiation protection, financial reasons and limited storage capacity strongly force Paul Scherrer Institute and comparable facilities to minimize radioactive waste. Besides free release of inactive components, recycling and re-use of low-level radioactive material in controlled areas are the best means for waste minimization. The re-use of slightly activated steel plates as a shielding material and the recycling of irradiated reactor graphite as a filling material embedded in mortar may give examples and encouragement for similar activities. Besides the advantages for radiation protection, the financial benefit can be measured in millions of dollars. (authors)

  6. Formalisms for reuse and systems integration

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Reuse and integration are defined as synergistic concepts, where reuse addresses how to minimize redundancy in the creation of components; while, integration focuses on component composition. Integration supports reuse and vice versa. These related concepts support the design of software and systems for maximizing performance while minimizing cost. Knowledge, like data, is subject to reuse; and, each can be interpreted as the other. This means that inherent complexity, a measure of the potential utility of a system, is directly proportional to the extent to which it maximizes reuse and integration. Formal methods can provide an appropriate context for the rigorous handling of these synergistic concepts. Furthermore, formal languages allow for non ambiguous model specification; and, formal verification techniques provide support for insuring the validity of reuse and integration mechanisms.   This edited book includes 12 high quality research papers written by experts in formal aspects of reuse and integratio...

  7. The WaterHub at Emory University: Campus Resiliency through Decentralized Reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Daniel; Lohan, Eric; Baldwin, Tim

    2018-02-01

      In the spring of 2015, Emory University in Atlanta, GA, commissioned an innovative campuswide water reclamation and reuse system known as the WaterHub®. Treating up to 400,000 gallons each day, the system can recycle the equivalent of two-thirds of the University's wastewater production and reduce the campus water footprint by up to 40 percent.One of the first district-scale water reuse systems in North America, the WaterHub mines wastewater from the campus sewer system and repurposes it for beneficial reuse on campus. In its first year of operation, the facility has treated more than 80 million gallons of campus wastewater and is expected to save millions of dollars in utility costs for the University over the next 20 years. The system represents a new age in commercial-scale water management in which onsite, urban water reclamation facilities may be a new norm.

  8. Processing of combined domestic bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flushing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation of processes and system configurations for reclaiming combined bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flush water was conducted. A 90-min recycle flow was effective in removing particulates and in improving other physical characteristics to the extent that the filtered water was subjectively acceptable for reuse. The addition of a charcoal filter resulted in noticeable improvements in color, turbidity, and suds elimination. Heating and chlorination of the waste waters were investigated for reducing total organism counts and eliminating coliform organisms. A temperature of 335.9 K (145 F) for 30 min and chlorine concentrations of 20 mg/l in the collection tank followed by 10 mg/l in the storage tank were determined to be adequate for this purpose. Water volume relationships and energy-use rates for the waste water reuse systems are also discussed.

  9. Review of the technological approaches for grey water treatment and reuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangyue; Wichmann, Knut; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2009-05-15

    Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water reuse standard is proposed and the treatment alternatives and reuse scheme for grey water reuses are evaluated according to grey water characteristics and the proposed standard. The literature review shows that all types of grey water have good biodegradability. The bathroom and the laundry grey water are deficient in both nitrogen and phosphors. The kitchen grey water has a balanced COD: N: P ratio. The review also reveals that physical processes alone are not sufficient to guarantee an adequate reduction of the organics, nutrients and surfactants. The chemical processes can efficiently remove the suspended solids, organic materials and surfactants in the low strength grey water. The combination of aerobic biological process with physical filtration and disinfection is considered to be the most economical and feasible solution for grey water recycling. The MBR appears to be a very attractive solution in collective urban residential buildings.

  10. Aluminium beverage can recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinski, A von

    1985-08-01

    Canned beverages have become a controversial issue in this era of ecological sensitivity. METALL has already discussed the problem of can recycling. The present article discusses the technical aspects of aluminium can recycling. Two further articles will follow on aluminium can recycling in North America and on the results of European pilot projects.

  11. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    hill, amanda; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits Møller

    2014-01-01

    % for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...

  12. The recycling is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The recycling site currently situated near building 133 has been transferred to the car park of building 156. The site is identified by the sign “RECYCLING” and the above logo. In this new, more accessible site, you will find recycling bins for the following waste: PET (recyclable plastic bottles); Aluminium cans; Nespresso coffee capsules.  

  13. Optimal facility and equipment specification to support cost-effective recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redus, K.S.; Yuracko, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    The authors demonstrate a project management approach for D and D projects to select those facility areas or equipment systems on which to concentrate resources so that project materials disposition costs are minimized, safety requirements are always met, recycle and reuse goals are achieved, and programmatic or stakeholder concerns are met. The authors examine a facility that contains realistic areas and equipment, and they apply the approach to illustrate the different results that can be obtained depending on the strength or weakness of safety risk requirements, goals for recycle and reuse of materials, and programmatic or stakeholder concerns

  14. Tyre Recycling with Thermal Solvolysis Method Using Microwave Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Korjakins, Aleksandrs; Holimenkovs, Aleksandrs

    2017-01-01

    Used tyres are one of the most widespread types of waste and one of the polymer materials which are most difficult to recycle. There are many different applications for used tyres today. Part of the tyres can be retreated and re-used, but most of the used tyres are recycled. By dissolving the tyres, it is possible to filter out various chemical substances. These substances coming from the used tyres can be used for creating a new material or improving an existing one. One of the technologies ...

  15. Innovative Design of Plastic Bottle Recycling Box Based on ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuedong Xiong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problems of on-site plastic bottles recycling and the reuse of waste, the automatic recycling system was developed on the basis of ARM. As the main controller, ARM not only controls the mechanical system of the collector to recover and break plastic bottles, but also communicates with and rewards the user by the automatic reward system through the wireless network. The experimental prototype test results show: post treated fragments of plastic bottles are small, which are convenient to transport and take advantage of; the operation of recovery is easy, and the interface of man-machine interaction is friendly which is easy to expand functions.

  16. Development of an Integrated Wastewater Treatment System/water reuse/agriculture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, C. H.; Schuler, A.

    2017-12-01

    Factors like increasing population, urbanization, and climate change have made the management of water resources a challenge for municipalities. By understanding wastewater recycling for agriculture in arid regions, we can expand the supply of water to agriculture and reduce energy use at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This can improve management decisions between WWTPs and water managers. The objective of this research is to develop a prototype integrated model of the wastewater treatment system and nearby agricultural areas linked by water and nutrients, using the Albuquerque Southeast Eastern Reclamation Facility (SWRF) and downstream agricultural system as a case study. Little work has been done to understand how such treatment technology decisions affect the potential for water ruse, nutrient recovery in agriculture, overall energy consumption and agriculture production and water quality. A holistic approach to understanding synergies and tradeoffs between treatment, reuse, and agriculture is needed. For example, critical wastewater treatment process decisions include options to nitrify (oxidize ammonia), which requires large amounts of energy, to operate at low dissolved oxygen concentrations, which requires much less energy, whether to recover nitrogen and phosphorus, chemically in biosolids, or in reuse water for agriculture, whether to generate energy from anaerobic digestion, and whether to develop infrastructure for agricultural reuse. The research first includes quantifying existing and feasible agricultural sites suitable for irrigation by reuse wastewater as well as existing infrastructure such as irrigation canals and piping by using GIS databases. Second, a nutrient and water requirement for common New Mexico crop is being determined. Third, a wastewater treatment model will be utilized to quantify energy usage and nutrient removal under various scenarios. Different agricultural reuse sensors and treatment technologies will be explored. The

  17. Resource conservation approached with an appropriate collection and upgrade-remanufacturing for used electronic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-02-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both Pnickel (β=0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Key drivers of the e-waste recycling system: Assessing and modelling e-waste processing in the informal sector in Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streicher-Porte, Martin; Widmer, Rolf; Jain, Amit; Bader, Hans-Peter; Scheidegger, Ruth; Kytzia, Susanne

    2005-01-01

    The management and recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment WEEE was assessed in the city of Delhi, India. In order to do this, the personal computer was defined as the tracer for which a model was designed. The model depicts the entire life cycle of the tracer, from production through sale and consumption-including reuse and refurbishment-to the material recovery in the mainly informal recycling industry. The field work included interviews with the relevant stakeholders, transect walks and literature study, which was followed by a software-supported material flow analysis (MFA) of the whole life cycle chain of the tracer item. In addition to the MFA, several economic aspects of the recycling system were investigated. The study revealed that the life span of a personal computer has considerable influence upon the system, most notably in the following two aspects: (i) a prolonged life span creates value by means of refurbishing and upgrading activities, and (ii) it slows down the flow rate of the whole system. This is one of the simplest ways of preventing an uncontrolled increase in environmentally hazardous emissions by the recycling sector. The material recovery of the system is mainly driven by the precious metal content of personal computers. A first estimate showed that precious metal recovery contributes to over 80% of the personal computer materials' market value, despite the small quantity of them found in computers

  20. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng, E-mail: kswu@stu.edu.cn

    2014-02-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Methods: Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both P < 0.001). Parents' residence in Guiyu, and parents' work related to e-waste recycling were the risk factors associated with neonate's UCB lead and cadmium levels. No significant difference of UCB plasma 8-OHdG levels was found between Guiyu and the control area. After adjusting for potential confounders, cord plasma 8-OHdG concentrations (ng/mL) were positively associated with blood cadmium (β = 0.126 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.055 to 0.198 ng/mL), chromium (β = 0.086 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.014 to 0.158 ng/mL) and nickel (β = 0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. Conclusions: The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. - Highlights: • DNA oxidative damage levels (8-OHdG) in neonates from Guiyu were assessed.

  1. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Methods: Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both P < 0.001). Parents' residence in Guiyu, and parents' work related to e-waste recycling were the risk factors associated with neonate's UCB lead and cadmium levels. No significant difference of UCB plasma 8-OHdG levels was found between Guiyu and the control area. After adjusting for potential confounders, cord plasma 8-OHdG concentrations (ng/mL) were positively associated with blood cadmium (β = 0.126 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.055 to 0.198 ng/mL), chromium (β = 0.086 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.014 to 0.158 ng/mL) and nickel (β = 0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. Conclusions: The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. - Highlights: • DNA oxidative damage levels (8-OHdG) in neonates from Guiyu were assessed. • Neonatal lead

  2. Factors affecting reuse of wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraszti, L

    1981-01-01

    Changing the quality of circulating water, raising the effectiveness of sedimentation, examples of biological treatment of wastewater are presented. The necessity of continuing the studies on biological treatment of wastewater is demonstrated. It is considered useful to define the importance of KhPK and BP5 in each case. During biological treatment in ponds, to define the relation BPK5:N:P, research on conditions for nutrient removal must be done. To do this, as well as decrease the significance of KhPK, a mathematical model for defining the effectiveness of biological treatment of wastewater and consequently their reuse must be developed.

  3. Evaluation of optimal reuse system for hydrofluoric acid wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Chan-Hee [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Bakje-daero, Deokjin-Gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-Do, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeongyun [R and D Center, Samsung Engineering Co. Ltd., 415-10 Woncheon-Dong, Youngtong-Gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do, 443-823 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jinwook, E-mail: jin-wook.chung@samsung.com [R and D Center, Samsung Engineering Co. Ltd., 415-10 Woncheon-Dong, Youngtong-Gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do, 443-823 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coagulation and ion exchange technologies were ineffective in removing fluoride. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyamide RO was more efficacious than cellulose RO due to its high flux and rejection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spiral wound RO system was more preferential to disc tube RO system for reusing raw hydrofluoric acid wastewater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined coagulation and RO technology can be applied to reuse raw hydrofluoric acid wastewater. - Abstract: The treatment of hydrofluoric acid (HF) wastewater has been an important environmental issue in recent years due to the extensive use of hydrofluoric acid in the chemical and electronics industries, such as semiconductor manufacturers. Coagulation/precipitation and ion exchange technologies have been used to treat HF wastewater, but these conventional methods are ineffective in removing organics, salts, and fluorides, limiting its reuse for water quality and economic feasibility. One promising alternative is reverse osmosis (RO) after lime treatment. Based on pilot-scale experiment using real HF wastewater discharged from semiconductor facility, the spiral wound module equipped with polyamide membranes has shown excellent flux and chemical cleaning cycles. Our results suggest that coagulation/precipitation and spiral wound RO constitute the optimal combination to reuse HF wastewater.

  4. Increasing productivity through Total Reuse Management (TRM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, M. P.

    1991-01-01

    Total Reuse Management (TRM) is a new concept currently being promoted by the NASA Langley Software Engineering and Ada Lab (SEAL). It uses concepts similar to those promoted in Total Quality Management (TQM). Both technical and management personnel are continually encouraged to think in terms of reuse. Reuse is not something that is aimed for after a product is completed, but rather it is built into the product from inception through development. Lowering software development costs, reducing risk, and increasing code reliability are the more prominent goals of TRM. Procedures and methods used to adopt and apply TRM are described. Reuse is frequently thought of as only being applicable to code. However, reuse can apply to all products and all phases of the software life cycle. These products include management and quality assurance plans, designs, and testing procedures. Specific examples of successfully reused products are given and future goals are discussed.

  5. A collaborative recommendation framework for ontology evaluation and reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Cantador, Iván; Fernández Sánchez, Miriam; Castells, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    This is an electronic version of the paper presented at the International Workshop on Recommender Systems, held in Riva del Garda on 2006 Ontology evaluation can be defined as assessing the quality and the adequacy of an ontology for being used in a spe-cific context, for a specific goal. Although ontology reuse is being extensively addressed by the Semantic Web community, the lack of appropriate support tools and automatic techniques for the evaluation of certain ontology features are oft...

  6. Software reuse example and challenges at NSIDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, B. W.; Brodzik, M.; Collins, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    NSIDC has created a new data discovery and access system, Searchlight, to provide users with the data they want in the format they want. NSIDC Searchlight supports discovery and access to disparate data types with on-the-fly reprojection, regridding and reformatting. Architected to both reuse open source systems and be reused itself, Searchlight reuses GDAL and Proj4 for manipulating data and format conversions, the netCDF Java library for creating netCDF output, MapServer and OpenLayers for defining spatial criteria and the JTS Topology Suite (JTS) in conjunction with Hibernate Spatial for database interaction and rich OGC-compliant spatial objects. The application reuses popular Java and Java Script libraries including Struts 2, Spring, JPA (Hibernate), Sitemesh, JFreeChart, JQuery, DOJO and a PostGIS PostgreSQL database. Future reuse of Searchlight components is supported at varying architecture levels, ranging from the database and model components to web services. We present the tools, libraries and programs that Searchlight has reused. We describe the architecture of Searchlight and explain the strategies deployed for reusing existing software and how Searchlight is built for reuse. We will discuss NSIDC reuse of the Searchlight components to support rapid development of new data delivery systems.

  7. Beneficially reusing LLRW the Savannah River Site Stainless Steel Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettinger, W.L.

    1993-01-01

    With 68 radioactively contaminated excess Process Water Heat Exchangers the Savannah River Site launched its program to turn potential LLRW metal liabilities into assets. Each Heat Exchanger contains approximately 100 tons of 304 Stainless Steel and could be disposed as LLRW by land burial. Instead the 7000 tons of metal will be recycled into LLRW, HLW, and TRU waste containers thereby eliminating the need for near term land disposal and also eliminating the need to add more clean metal to the waste stream. Aspects of the partnership between DOE and Private Industry necessary to accomplish this new mission are described. A life cycle cost analysis associated with past practices of using carbon steel containers to indefinitely store material (contributing to the creation of today's legacy waste problems) is presented. The avoided cost calculations needed to support the economics of the ''Indifference'' decision process in assessing the Beneficial Reuse option relative to the Burial option are described

  8. Does the Circular Economy Grow the Pie? The Case of Rebound Effects From Smartphone Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Makov

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The environmental benefits of the circular economy (CE are often taken for granted. There are, however, reasons to believe that rebound effects may counteract such benefits by increasing overall consumption or “growing the pie.” In this study, we focus on two main rebound mechanisms: (1 imperfect substitution between “re-circulated” (recycled, reused, etc. and new products and (2 re-spending due to economic savings. We use the case study of smartphone reuse in the US to quantify, for the first time, rebound effects from reuse. Using a combination of life cycle assessment, sales statistics, consumer surveying, consumer demand modeling, and environmentally-extended input-output analysis, we quantify the magnitude of this rebound effect for life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. We find a rebound effect of 29% on average, with a range of 27–46% for specific smartphone models. Moreover, when exploring how rebound might play out in other regions and under different consumer behavior patterns, we find that rebound effects could be higher than 100% (backfire effect. In other words, we estimate that about one third, and potentially the entirety, of emission savings resulting from smartphone reuse could be lost due to the rebound effect. Our results thus suggest that there are grounds to challenge the premise that CE strategies, and reuse in particular, always reduce environmental burdens.

  9. Sustainable Management of Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information on EPAs strategy for electronics stewardship, certified electronics recyclers and the Challenge; as well as where to donate unwanted electronics, how to calculate benefits, and what's going on with electronics mgmt in their states.

  10. The implications of household greywater treatment and reuse for municipal wastewater flows and micropollutant loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revitt, Michael; Eriksson, Eva; Donner, Erica

    2011-01-01

    An increasing worldwide interest in water recycling technologies such as greywater treatment and reuse suggests that additional research to elucidate the fate of xenobiotics during such practices would be beneficial. In this paper, scenario analyses supported by empirical data are used...... for highlighting the potential fate of a election of xenobiotic micropollutants in decentralised greywater treatment systems, and for investigation of the possible implications of greywater recycling for the wider urban water cycle. Potential potable water savings of up to 43% are predicted for greywater recycling...... based on Danish water use statistics and priority substance monitoring at a greywater treatment plant in Denmark. Adsorption represents an important mechanism for the removal of cadmium, nickel, lead and nonylphenol from influent greywater and therefore the disposal route adopted for the generated...

  11. Ontario tire recycling and economic development (OnTRED) plan : a market approach to eliminating tire stockpiles and promoting recycled rubber product manufacturing in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-15

    Details of the Ontario Tire Recycling and Economic Development (OnTRED) plan were presented. The plan was developed to address deficiencies in the Ontario Tire Stewardship's (OTS) Scrap Tire Diversion Program plan. The OTS promotes the burning of scrap tires contrary to the Waste Diversion Act, and transfers the financial responsibility for scrap tire management from manufacturers to retailers. The OnTRED plan will attempt to improve the current 87 per cent recovery rate for passenger scrap tires in Ontario, and prevent the formation of any new tire stockpiles. The aim of the OnTRED plan is to ensure reuse and recycling consistent with provisions in the Waste Diversion Act and enhance the existing workings of the tire and scrap tire market through the promotion of reuse and recycling. In addition, the plan aims to minimize administration and compliance costs. A program summary of the OnTRED plan was presented, as well as details of market development plans and buy-recycled rebates. Issues concerning collector registration and transaction tracking were presented, as well as details of brand-owner and first importer pay-in models. Stakeholder roles and responsibilities were reviewed. A budget scenario was presented, as well as a rebate and diversion scenario. It was concluded that Ontario's 87 per cent scrap tire diversion rate can be improved through a focus on patterns of reuse and recycling. 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  12. Water Reuse: From Ancient to Modern Times and the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas N. Angelakis

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of the Bronze Age (ca. 3200–1100 BC, domestic wastewater (sewage has been used for irrigation and aquaculture by a number of civilizations including those that developed in China and the Orient, Egypt, the Indus Valley, Mesopotamia, and Crete. In historic times (ca. 1000 BC−330 AD, wastewater was disposed of or used for irrigation and fertilization purposes by the Greek and later Roman civilizations, especially in areas surrounding important cities (e.g., Athens and Rome. In more recent times, the practice of land application of wastewater for disposal and agricultural use was utilized first in European cities and later in USA. Today, water reclamation and reuse projects are being planned and implemented throughout the world. Recycled water is now used for almost any purpose including potable use. This paper provides a brief overview of the evolution of water reuse over the last 5,000 years, along with current practice and recommendations for the future. Understanding the practices and solutions of the past, provides a lens with which to view the present and future.

  13. The importance of recycling - Responsible recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Joens Petter

    2014-01-01

    7 times the total emissions from Sweden are saved each year by the recycling industry. It reduces CO 2 emissions and saves the environment. In fact it annually reduces global CO 2 emissions by 500 million tons, which is more than what is being emitted by the world wide aviation industry. Recycling of iron and steel saves 74% energy and reduces water and air pollution by respectively 76% and 86%, compared to primary production. It provides new raw materials and contributes to save energy. There's no sense in producing goods in a permanent material like plastics, that's supposed to be used only once. It's a huge waste of resources. Today the recycling industry provides half of the world's raw materials and this figure is set to increase. It's about environmentally sound management of resources. It's about plain common sense. There has to be a political willingness to facilitate recycling in every way. And from a corporate perspective social responsibility is becoming an increasingly important competitive edge. This is also a communication issue, it has to be a fact that is well known to the market when a company is doing valuable environmental work. We also need a well functioning global market with easy to understand regulations to facilitate global trade. The global demand for recycled materials should influence their collection and use. Fraud and theft has also to be kept at bay which calls for a close collaboration between organizations such as The International Chamber of Commerce, The International Trade Council and the International Maritime Bureau of the commercial crime services. Increasing recycling is the only way to go if we want to minimize our effect on the environment. We have to remember that recycling is essential for the environment. An increase would be a tremendous help to reduce the green house effect. Increasing recycling is not rocket science. We know how to do it, we just have to decide to go through with it

  14. Recovery of zirconium from pickling solution, regeneration and its reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, D. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad 500062 (India); Mandal, D., E-mail: dmandal10@gmail.com [Alkali Material & Metal Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Visweswara Rao, R.V.R.L.; Sairam, S.; Thakur, S. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad 500062 (India)

    2017-05-15

    Graphical abstract: The following compares the performance of fresh pickling solution (PS) and regenerated and used pickling solution (UPS). - Highlights: • Pickling of zircaloy tubes and appendages is carried out to remove oxide layer. • The pickling solution become saturated with zirconium due to reuse. • As NaNO{sub 3} concentration increases, conc. of Zr in pickling solution decreases. • Experimental results shows that, used pickling solution can be regenerated. • Regenerated solution may be reused by adding makeup quantities of HF-HNO{sub 3}. - Abstract: The pressurized heavy water reactors use natural uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) as fuel and uses cladding material made up of zircaloy, an alloy of zirconium. Pickling of zircaloy tubes and appendages viz., spacer and bearing pads is carried out to remove the oxide layer and surface contaminants, if present. Pickling solution, after use for many cycles i.e., used pickling solution (UPS) is sold out to vendors, basically for its zirconium value. UPS, containing a relatively small concentration of hydrofluoric acid. After repeated use, pickling solution become saturated with zirconium fluoride complex and is treated by adding sodium nitrate to precipitate sodium hexafluro-zirconate. The remaining solution can be recycled after suitable makeup for further pickling use. The revenue lost by selling UPS is very high compared to its zirconium value, which causes monetary loss to the processing unit. Experiments were conducted to regenerate and reuse UPS which will save a good amount of revenue and also protect the environment. Experimental details and results are discussed in this paper.

  15. Supplemental Release Limits for the Directed Reuse of Lead in Shielding Products by the Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    The DOE National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle (NMR) proposes to define and implement a complex-wide directed reuse strategy for surplus radiologically impacted lead (Pb) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's commitment to the safe and cost-effective recycle or reuse of excess materials and equipment across the DOE complex. NMR will, under this proposal, act on behalf of the DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Technical Program Integration (specifically EM-22), as the Department's clearinghouse for DOE surplus lead and lead products by developing and maintaining a cost-effective commercially-based contaminated lead recycle program. It is NMR's intention, through this directed reuse strategy, to mitigate the adverse environmental and economic consequences of managing surplus lead as a waste within the complex. This approach would promote the safe and cost-effective reuse of DOE's scrap and surplus lead in support of the Department's goals of resource utilization, energy conservation, pollution prevention and waste minimization. This report discusses recommendations for supplemental radiological limits for the directed reuse of contaminated lead and lead products by the DOE within the nuclear industry. The limits were selected--with slight modification--from the recently published American National Standards Institute and Health Physics Society standard N13.12 titled Surface and Volume Radioactivity Standards for Clearance (ANSI/HPS 1999) and are being submitted for formal approval by the DOE. Health and measurement implications from the adoption and use of the limits for directed reuse scenarios are discussed within this report

  16. Supplemental Release Limits for the Directed Reuse of Lead in Shielding Products by the Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, R.L.

    2001-08-22

    The DOE National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle (NMR) proposes to define and implement a complex-wide directed reuse strategy for surplus radiologically impacted lead (Pb) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's commitment to the safe and cost-effective recycle or reuse of excess materials and equipment across the DOE complex. NMR will, under this proposal, act on behalf of the DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Technical Program Integration (specifically EM-22), as the Department's clearinghouse for DOE surplus lead and lead products by developing and maintaining a cost-effective commercially-based contaminated lead recycle program. It is NMR's intention, through this directed reuse strategy, to mitigate the adverse environmental and economic consequences of managing surplus lead as a waste within the complex. This approach would promote the safe and cost-effective reuse of DOE's scrap and surplus lead in support of the Department's goals of resource utilization, energy conservation, pollution prevention and waste minimization. This report discusses recommendations for supplemental radiological limits for the directed reuse of contaminated lead and lead products by the DOE within the nuclear industry. The limits were selected--with slight modification--from the recently published American National Standards Institute and Health Physics Society standard N13.12 titled Surface and Volume Radioactivity Standards for Clearance (ANSI/HPS 1999) and are being submitted for formal approval by the DOE. Health and measurement implications from the adoption and use of the limits for directed reuse scenarios are discussed within this report.

  17. Lamps recycling aiming at the environment preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamachita, Roberto Akira; Gama, Paulo Henrique R. Pereira; Haddad, Jamil; Santos, Afonso H. Moreira; Guardia, Eduardo C.

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the following issues of lamps recycling in Brazil: mercury lamps recycling, recycling potential, energy conservation and environmental impacts, enterprises lamps recycling, and incentives policy

  18. Recycling of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halaszovich, S.

    1988-01-01

    The paper reviews potentials and problems of disposal or recycling of concrete removed from nuclear installations. Due to the difficulties in determining radioactivity limits that are compatible with utilization of recycled material in practice, a method is proposed that takes into account inhalation of dusts, as occurring during the reprocessing or recycling of the concrete, for instance in road building. This method is based on the maximum permissible radioactivity uptake by inhalation of a nuclide mixture of unknown composition. (RB) [de

  19. Benchmarking survey for recycling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

    2005-06-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

  20. ASTM STANDARD GUIDE FOR EVALUATING DISPOSAL OPTIONS FOR REUSE OF CONCRETE FROM NUCLEAR FACILITY DECOMMISSIONING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Ann Marie; Meservey, Richard H.

    2003-01-01

    Within the nuclear industry, many contaminated facilities that require decommissioning contain huge volumes of concrete. This concrete is generally disposed of as low-level waste at a high cost. Much of the concrete is lightly contaminated and could be reused as roadbed, fill material, or aggregate for new concrete, thus saving millions of dollars. However, because of the possibility of volumetric contamination and the lack of a method to evaluate the risks and costs of reusing concrete, reuse is rarely considered. To address this problem, Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory teamed to write a ''concrete protocol'' to help evaluate the ramifications of reusing concrete within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document, titled the Protocol for Development of Authorized Release Limits for Concrete at U.S. Department of Energy Site (1) is based on ANL-E's previously developed scrap metal recycle protocols; on the 10-step method outlined in DOE's draft handbook, Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle of Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material (2); and on DOE Order 4500.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (3). The DOE concrete protocol was the basis for the ASTM Standard Guide for Evaluating Disposal Options for Concrete from Nuclear Facility Decommissioning, which was written to make the information available to a wider audience outside DOE. The resulting ASTM Standard Guide is a more concise version that can be used by the nuclear industry worldwide to evaluate the risks and costs of reusing concrete from nuclear facility decommissioning. The bulk of the ASTM Standard Guide focuses on evaluating the dose and cost for each disposal option. The user calculates these from the detailed formulas and tabulated data provided, then compares the dose and cost for each disposal option to select the best option that meets regulatory requirements. With this information

  1. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  2. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  3. SEL Ada reuse analysis and representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, Rush

    1990-01-01

    Overall, it was revealed that the pattern of Ada reuse has evolved from initial reuse of utility components into reuse of generalized application architectures. Utility components were both domain-independent utilities, such as queues and stacks, and domain-specific utilities, such as those that implement spacecraft orbit and attitude mathematical functions and physics or astronomical models. The level of reuse was significantly increased with the development of a generalized telemetry simulator architecture. The use of Ada generics significantly increased the level of verbatum reuse, which is due to the ability, using Ada generics, to parameterize the aspects of design that are configurable during reuse. A key factor in implementing generalized architectures was the ability to use generic subprogram parameters to tailor parts of the algorithm embedded within the architecture. The use of object oriented design (in which objects model real world entities) significantly improved the modularity for reuse. Encapsulating into packages the data and operations associated with common real world entities creates natural building blocks for reuse.

  4. Radioactive Scrap Metal (RSM) recycling: A doe white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, S.; Moore, H.H.; Ghoshal, A.

    1992-01-01

    An effective White Paper on recycling radioactive scrap metals has been drafted at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently. The paper has received the praise and commendation of the DOE's Director of Environmental Management. However, obstructionist posturing by the petty bureaucrats in DOE continues to plague the meaningful implementation of RSM recycling. The key findings of the White Paper study and its major recommendations have discussed in this paper. The study indicates that several technologies, such as melt refining and electro refining, are currently available for surface and volume decontamination of metals. The unit cost of decontamination was found to vary from $700 to $400/ton; recycling of most low-contaminated metals can therefore be cost-effective vis-a vis the average cost of low-level radioactive wastes disposal of %400 to $2800/ton. Major recycling demonstration projects with emphasis on restricted RSM reuse options have been recommended. Volume contamination standard for unrestricted release should be established only after adequate studies of health effects and scientific/industrial effects of RSM reuse has been conducted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Some of the significant technical data developed during this study have also been briefly discussed in this paper. (author)

  5. Mechanical and chemical recycling of solid plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragaert, Kim; Delva, Laurens; Van Geem, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    This review presents a comprehensive description of the current pathways for recycling of polymers, via both mechanical and chemical recycling. The principles of these recycling pathways are framed against current-day industrial reality, by discussing predominant industrial technologies, design strategies and recycling examples of specific waste streams. Starting with an overview on types of solid plastic waste (SPW) and their origins, the manuscript continues with a discussion on the different valorisation options for SPW. The section on mechanical recycling contains an overview of current sorting technologies, specific challenges for mechanical recycling such as thermo-mechanical or lifetime degradation and the immiscibility of polymer blends. It also includes some industrial examples such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) recycling, and SPW from post-consumer packaging, end-of-life vehicles or electr(on)ic devices. A separate section is dedicated to the relationship between design and recycling, emphasizing the role of concepts such as Design from Recycling. The section on chemical recycling collects a state-of-the-art on techniques such as chemolysis, pyrolysis, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrogen techniques and gasification. Additionally, this review discusses the main challenges (and some potential remedies) to these recycling strategies and ground them in the relevant polymer science, thus providing an academic angle as well as an applied one. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of the treatment of plastic from electrical and electronic waste in the Republic of Serbia and the testing of the recycling potential of non-metallic fractions of printed circuit boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Aleksandra S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the quantity of plastic and waste printed circuit boards obtained after the mechanical treatment of electrical and electronic waste (E-waste in the Republic of Serbia, as well as the recycling of non-metallic fractions of waste printed circuit boards. The aim is to analyze the obtained recycled material and recommendation for possible application of recyclables. The data on the quantities and treatment of plastics and printed circuit boards obtained after the mechanical treatment of WEEE, were gained through questionnaires sent to the operators who treat this type of waste. The results of the questionnaire analysis showed that in 2014 the dismantling of E-waste isolated 1,870.95 t of plastic and 499.85 t of printed circuit boards. In the Republic of Serbia, E-waste recycling is performed exclusively by using mechanical methods. Mechanical methods consist of primary crushing and separation of the materials which have a utility value as secondary raw materials, from the components and materials that have hazardous properties. Respect to that, the recycling of printed circuit boards using some of the metallurgical processes with the aim of extracting copper, precious metals and non-metallic fraction is completely absent, and the circuit boards are exported as a whole. Given the number of printed circuit boards obtained by E-waste dismantling, and the fact that from an economic point of view, hydrometallurgical methods are very suitable technological solutions in the case of a smaller capacity, there is a possibility for establishing the facilities in the Republic of Serbia for the hydrometallurgical treatment that could be used for metals extraction, and non-metallic fractions, which also have their own value. Printed circuit boards granulate obtained after the mechanical pretreatment and the selective removal of metals by hydrometallurgical processes was used for the testing of the recycling potential

  7. Quantifying Domestic Used Electronics Flows using a Combination of Material Flow Methodologies: A US Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T Reed; Duan, Huabo; Gregory, Jeremy; Kahhat, Ramzy; Kirchain, Randolph

    2016-06-07

    This paper describes the scope, methods, data, and results of a comprehensive quantitative analysis of generation, stock, and collection of used computers and monitors in the United States , specifically desktops, laptops, CRT monitors, and flat panel monitors in the decade leading up to 2010. Generation refers to used electronics coming directly out of use or postuse storage destined for disposal or collection, which encompasses a variety of organizations gathering used electronics for recycling or reuse. Given the lack of actual statistics on flows of used electronics, two separate approaches, the sales obsolescence method (SOM) and the survey scale-up method (SSUM), were used in order to compare the results attained and provide a range for estimated quantities. This study intentionally sought to capture the uncertainty in the estimates. To do so, uncertainty in each data set was incorporated at each stage using Monte Carlo simulations for SOM and establishing scenarios for SSUM. Considering the average results across both methods, we estimate that in 2010 the U.S. generated 130-164 thousand metric tons of used computers and 128-153 thousand tons of used monitors, of which 110-116 thousand tons of used computers and 105-106 thousand tons of used monitors were collected for further reuse, recycling, or export. While each approach has its strengths and weaknesses, both the SOM and the SSUM appear to be capable of producing reasonable ranges of estimates for the generation and collection of used electronics.

  8. Copper on Chitosan: A Recyclable Heterogeneous Catalyst for Azide-alkyne Cycloaddition Reactions in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate is immobilized over chitosan by simply stirring an aqueous suspension of chitosan in water with copper sulfate; the ensuing catalyst has been utilized for the azide-alkyne cycloaddition in aqueous media and it can be recycled and reused many time without loosing it...

  9. HEAVY METALS IN RECOVERED FINES FOR CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION DEBRIS RECYCLING FACILITIES IN FLORIDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major product recovered from the processing and recycling of construction and demolition (C&D) debris is screened soil, also referred to as fines. A proposed reuse option for C&D debris fines is fill material, typically in construction projects as a substitute for natural soil....

  10. Optimized collection of EoL electronic products for Circular economy: A techno-economic assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angouria-Tsorochidou, Elisavet; Cimpan, Ciprian; Parajuly, Keshav

    2018-01-01

    The relevance of a circular model is widely accepted for the lifecycle management of electrical and electronic products (e-products), given the low recovery rates of valuable resources in current end-of-life (EoL) practices focused on recycling. However, missing insight into the technical...... and business potential for alternative EoL options (reuse, repair and remanufacturing) holds stakeholders from implementing circular strategies. In this context, our study first mapped by means of material flow analysis (MFA) the life cycle stages of e-products in Denmark and then performed a preliminary...

  11. Spatial optimization for decentralized non-potable water reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvada, Olga; Nelson, Kara L.; Horvath, Arpad

    2018-06-01

    Decentralization has the potential to reduce the scale of the piped distribution network needed to enable non-potable water reuse (NPR) in urban areas by producing recycled water closer to its point of use. However, tradeoffs exist between the economies of scale of treatment facilities and the size of the conveyance infrastructure, including energy for upgradient distribution of recycled water. To adequately capture the impacts from distribution pipes and pumping requirements, site-specific conditions must be accounted for. In this study, a generalized framework (a heuristic modeling approach using geospatial algorithms) is developed that estimates the financial cost, the energy use, and the greenhouse gas emissions associated with NPR (for toilet flushing) as a function of scale of treatment and conveyance networks with the goal of determining the optimal degree of decentralization. A decision-support platform is developed to assess and visualize NPR system designs considering topography, economies of scale, and building size. The platform can be used for scenario development to explore the optimal system size based on the layout of current or new buildings. The model also promotes technology innovation by facilitating the systems-level comparison of options to lower costs, improve energy efficiency, and lower greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. In-Depth Case Studies of Superfund Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRI’s in-depth case studies explore Superfund reuse stories from start to finish. Their purpose is to see what redevelopment strategies worked, acknowledge reuse barriers and understand how communities overcame the barriers to create new reuse outcomes.

  13. Acoustic emission monitoring of recycled aggregate concrete under bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoumani, A. A.; Barkoula, N.-M.; Matikas, T. E.

    2015-03-01

    The amount of construction and demolition waste has increased considerably over the last few years, making desirable the reuse of this waste in the concrete industry. In the present study concrete specimens are subjected at the age of 28 days to four-point bending with concurrent monitoring of their acoustic emission (AE) activity. Several concrete mixtures prepared using recycled aggregates at various percentages of the total coarse aggregate and also a reference mix using natural aggregates, were included to investigate their influence of the recycled aggregates on the load bearing capacity, as well as on the fracture mechanisms. The results reveal that for low levels of substitution the influence of using recycled aggregates on the flexural strength is negligible while higher levels of substitution lead into its deterioration. The total AE activity, as well as the AE signals emitted during failure, was related to flexural strength. The results obtained during test processing were found to be in agreement with visual observation.

  14. Influence of recycled polystyrene beads on cement paste properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaroufi Maroua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep up with the requirements of sustainable development, there is a growing interest towards reducing the energy consumption in the construction and rehabilitation of buildings and the promotion of recycling waste in building materials. The use of recycled polystyrene beads in cement-based materials composition constitutes a solution to improve the insulation in buildings. This allows also limiting landfill by reusing the polystyrene waste. The aim of this study is to compare some properties and performances of a cement paste containing polystyrene beads to a reference paste designed with only the same cement. An experimental campaign was conducted and the obtained results showed that adding recycled polystyrene beads to a cement paste improves its hygro-thermal properties. Further studies are however necessary to better understand the real role of the polystyrene beads in the heat and mass transfers.

  15. Influence of recycling programmes on waste separation behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeva, Katya; Alriksson, Stina

    2017-10-01

    To achieve high rates of waste reuse and recycling, waste separation in households is essential. This study aimed to reveal how recycling programmes in Sweden and Bulgaria influenced inhabitants' participation in separation of household waste. The waste separation behaviour of 111 university students from Kalmar, Sweden and 112 students from Plovdiv, Bulgaria was studied using the Theory of Planned Behaviour framework. The results showed that a lack of proper conditions for waste separation can prevent individuals from participating in this process, regardless of their positive attitudes. When respondents were satisfied with the local conditions for waste separation their behaviour instead depended on their personal attitudes towards waste separation and recycling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Wastewater and Sludge Reuse Management in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis K. Kalavrouziotis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Huge quantities of treated wastewater (TMWW and biosolids (sludge are produced every day all over the world, which exert a strong pressure on the environment. An important question that is raised is “what to do with them?”.An effort is put by the scientific community to eliminate the concept of “waste” and to replace it with the concept of “recycling of resources”, by means of effective management, which does not concern only the users, but all the other groups involved in the problem, such as facility administrators, operations, politicians, scientific community and the general population. Sludge concentration data showed that there exist 516 chemicals in biosolids which create a serious health risk. It is pointed out that this risk will be greatly exacerbated by chemical toxins present in the sludge which can predispose skin to infection by pathogens. Consequently, the need for science-based policies are necessary to effectively protect public health. The risk assessment due to sludge, is difficult to evaluate of due to the large number of unknown interactions involved. People living near the sludge application sites may suffer from such abnormalities as: eye, nose, and throat irritation, gastrointestinal abnormalities, as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, including cough, difficulty in breathing, sinus congestion, skin infection and sores. Many problems seem to be related to biosolid and wastewater application in agriculture, which should be solved. A universal one, acknowledged as an “international health crisis” is the resistance of pathogens to antibiotics and to the evolution of multidrug resistance of bacteria”. Certain anthropogenically created environments have been identified as major sources of multidrug resistance bacteria such as in water treatment plants, concentrated animal feeding operations etc. All these, and many other health problems, render the safety of sludge and biosolid and wastewater agricultural reuse, for

  17. Study on Concrete Containing Recycled Aggregates Immersed in Epoxy Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Suraya Hani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, engineers have sought a more sustainable method to dispose of concrete construction and demolition waste. One solution is to crush this waste concrete into a usable gradation for new concrete mixes. This not only reduces the amount of waste entering landfills but also alleviates the burden on existing sources of quality natural concrete aggregates. There are too many kinds of waste but here constructions waste will be the priority target that should be solved. It could be managed by several ways such as recycling and reusing the concrete components, and the best choice of these components is the aggregate, because of the ease process of recycle it. In addition, recycled aggregates and normal aggregates were immersed in epoxy resin and put in concrete mixtures with 0%, 5%, 10% and 20% which affected the concrete mixtures properties. The strength of the concrete for both normal and recycled aggregates has increased after immersed the aggregates in epoxy resin. The percentage of water absorption and the coefficient of water permeability decreased with the increasing of the normal and the recycled aggregates immersed in epoxy resin. Generally the tests which have been conducted to the concrete mixtures have a significant results after using the epoxy resin with both normal and recycled aggregates.

  18. Plastic recycling in the Nordics: A value chain market analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milios, Leonidas; Holm Christensen, Lena; McKinnon, David; Christensen, Camilla; Rasch, Marie Katrine; Hallstrøm Eriksen, Mikael

    2018-06-01

    There is low utilisation of plastic waste in the Nordic region and only a fraction of plastic materials go back into production processes through reuse and recycling practices. This paper aims to increase knowledge concerning factors that inhibit demand for recycled plastics, and to identify critical barriers for plastic recycling across the regional plastics value chain. A literature review and targeted interviews with key actors across the plastics value chain enabled the mapping of interactions between the major actors and identified hotspots that act as barriers to the flow of plastic materials. Barriers identified include the lack of both supply and demand of recycled plastic and are mainly attributed to the fragmented market of secondary materials. The main hotspots identified are the low demand due to price considerations, insufficient traceability and transparency in value chain transactions, and general design deficiencies in the recyclability of products. Value chain coordination is considered as the most important intervention by the interviewees, followed by the need for increased investment in innovation and technology development. Complementary measures that could counteract the identified barriers include public procurement for resource efficiency, ban on the incineration of recyclable materials, and specifications on the design of plastic products for reducing the number of different polymers, and the number and usage of additives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evolution of water recycling in Australian cities since 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, J C

    2010-01-01

    The prolonged Australian drought which commenced in 2002, and the agreement between Australia's Commonwealth and States/Territories governments to progress water reform through the National Water Initiative, has resulted in many new recycling projects in Australia's capital cities. Dual reticulation systems are being advanced in new subdivision developments in Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide. Brisbane has installed three large Advanced Water Treatment Plants that are designed to send indirect potable recycled water to the Wivenhoe Dam which is Brisbane's principal water reservoir. Numerous water recycling projects are serving industry and agriculture. Experimental managed aquifer recharge is being undertaken with wetland-treated stormwater in Adelaide and reverse osmosis treated wastewater in Perth. New National Water Quality Management Strategy recycled water guidelines have been developed for managing environmental risks, for augmentation of drinking water supplies, for managed aquifer recharge and for stormwater harvesting and reuse. Many recent investments are part-supported through Commonwealth government grants. Desalination plants are being established in Melbourne and Adelaide and a second one in Perth in addition to the newly-operational plants in Perth, South-East Queensland and Sydney. Despite there being numerous examples of unplanned indirect potable recycling, most governments remain reluctant about moving towards planned potable recycling. There is evidence of some policy bans still being maintained by governments but the National Water Commission continues to reinforce the necessity of an even-handed objective consideration of all water supply options.

  20. Nutrient and media recycling in heterotrophic microalgae cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Joshua; Armenta, Roberto E; Brooks, Marianne S

    2016-02-01

    In order for microalgae-based processes to reach commercial production for biofuels and high-value products such as omega-3 fatty acids, it is necessary that economic feasibility be demonstrated at the industrial scale. Therefore, process optimization is critical to ensure that the maximum yield can be achieved from the most efficient use of resources. This is particularly true for processes involving heterotrophic microalgae, which have not been studied as extensively as phototrophic microalgae. An area that has received significant conceptual praise, but little experimental validation, is that of nutrient recycling, where the waste materials from prior cultures and post-lipid extraction are reused for secondary fermentations. While the concept is very simple and could result in significant economic and environmental benefits, there are some underlying challenges that must be overcome before adoption of nutrient recycling is viable at commercial scale. Even more, adapting nutrient recycling for optimized heterotrophic cultures presents some added challenges that must be identified and addressed that have been largely unexplored to date. These challenges center on carbon and nitrogen recycling and the implications of using waste materials in conjunction with virgin nutrients for secondary cultures. The aim of this review is to provide a foundation for further understanding of nutrient recycling for microalgae cultivation. As such, we outline the current state of technology and practical challenges associated with nutrient recycling for heterotrophic microalgae on an industrial scale and give recommendations for future work.

  1. Criterion 6, indicator 33 : recovery or recycling of forest products as a percentage of total forest products consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken Skog; James Howard; Rebecca. Westby

    2011-01-01

    This indicator shows the trend in recovering wood and paper for reuse in products in the United States. This reuse can hold down the need to harvest wood to meet U.S. consumption needs. The paper recycling rate (utilization rate in producing new paper) increased from 22% to 38% between 1970 and 1996, but then stabilized at 37% to 38% between 1996 and 2006. This rate...

  2. Beneficial Re-Use of Metal from Decommissioning of Power Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshleman, Troy; Raw, Graham; Moloney, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Utilities and contractors decommissioning nuclear power reactors can recycle a high proportion of the scrap metal generated during dismantling either by free release for general re-use directly from the point of generation, or by recycling off-site at facilities specifically licensed for radioactive material. The worldwide commercial vendors operate different commercial models of volumetric decontamination of ferrous metals by thermal treatment. Some aim to achieve free release of output metals for general use, while others accept higher activity metals as feedstock for the manufacture of steel products which contain residual radioactivity, which we term 'Beneficial Re-use'. It is estimated that 10-30% of metals from light water reactor decommissioning have been exposed to neutron radiation (activated) and/or are contaminated to such an extent that free release is not achievable. This paper outlines a cost-effective alternative to managed storage or disposal for lightly activated or contaminated metal, utilising a 'Beneficial Re-Use' programme which has been in routine operation in the United States for over 20 years. 'Beneficial Re-Use' describes the manufacture of products such as radiation shielding from radioactive scrap metal. Unlike recycling practised in Europe, such products remain under control in licensed facilities and the metal does not find its way into general circulation or consumer products. Since 1992, EnergySolutions and its predecessor Duratek has been melting scrap at their Bear Creek, Tennessee facility to produce shield blocks for use in high energy research facilities. Over 62,300 t of scrap steel have been re-used, and the demand for shielding products continues long into the future. 3,000 t of this feedstock originated outside the US. This paper proposes the potential for activated steel that will not be acceptable at European recycling facilities to enter the Beneficial Re-use programme. Acceptance criteria

  3. The impact of radioactive steel recycling on the public and professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrncir, Tomas; Panik, Michal; Ondra, Frantisek; Necas, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Methodology for recycling of decommissioning steel was developed. • Four scenarios of recycling within nuclear and public sector were suggested. • Radiation impact assessment of suggested scenarios was performed. • Conditional clearance levels for analyzed radionuclides were derived. • Results imply that recycling of decommissioning steel can be feasible. -- Abstract: The decommissioning of nuclear power plants represents a complex process resulting in the generation of large amounts of waste materials, e.g. steel scrap containing various concentrations of radionuclides. Recycling some of these materials is highly desirable due to numerous reasons. Herein presented scenarios of recycling of radioactive steel within the nuclear as well as civil engineering industry are analyzed from the radiation protection point of view. An approach based on the dose constraints principle is chosen. The aim of the study is to derive conditional clearance levels (maximal specific mass activity of material allowing its recycling/clearance) for analyzed radionuclides ensuring that the detrimental impact on human health is kept on a negligible level. Determined conditional clearance levels, as the result of performed software calculations, are valid for the reuse of radioactive steel in four selected scenarios. Calculation results indicate that the increase of the amount of recyclable radioactive steel due to its reuse in specific applications may be feasible considering the radiation impact on the public and professionals. However, issues connected with public acceptance, technical difficulties and financing of potential realization are still open and they have to be examined in more detail

  4. Expansive development of a decommissioning program 'recycle simulator' in nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiuchi, T.; Ozaki, S.; Hironaga, M.

    2004-01-01

    A decommissioning program 'Recycle Simulator' should be put into practice in careful consideration of both recycle of non-radioactive wastes and reduce of radioactive wastes in the coming circulatory social system. Nevertheless current support systems for decommissioning planning mainly deal with decontamination, safety storage and dismantlement, so-called the prior part of the total decommissioning process. Authors emphasize the necessity of total planning of decommissioning including recycle or reuse of a large amount of demolition materials and are propelling the development of the multi expert system named 'Recycle Simulator'. This paper presents an algorithm of the recycling and reusing scenario of demolition materials and a summarized configuration. 'Recycle Simulator' for the demolished concrete was developed in 2000 and presented at a previous International Conference on Nuclear Engineering. Construction of a supporting multi expert system for the totally planning of decommissioning projects is objected by expansive development of the previous version. 3 main conclusions obtained from this paper are the following. (1) The previously developed expert system was advanced in its estimation function toward the satisfaction of decommissioning planners. (2) The applicability of the system was enlarged to all the radioactive and non-radioactive wastes, demolished metal and concrete products, in a corresponding site of decommissioning. (3) Finally decommissioning recycle simulator was completed in a harmonized unification. (authors)

  5. Industrial wastewater reuse in petroleum refinery using the WSD for regeneration systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídia Yokoyama

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater reuse practices in the industry require an adequate understanding of the characteristics of the manufacture processes, to minimize the water consumption and the generation of effluent. The objective of this work was to apply the WSD method, used to defining the target of minimum process water consumption in a case study of oil refinery, by means of the reuse and recycling operations, including regeneration processes. The importance and influence of the wastewater treatment plant in the regeneration quality, including intermediate process streams, for the reuse and the recycling operations, were evaluated. Furthermore, centralized and distributed treatment flowsheet configurations were tested. Thus, this work presented the solution of a case study with three contaminants in water streams processes, different interconnections approaches, used to illustrate the application of this procedure showing the reduction of water flow rate and total costs compared to the original flowsheet. The scenarios revealed to be greatly promising, and flowsheet configurations were reached with higher than 4 % and 20 % of reduction in the water flow rate consumption and the total costs, respectively. Regarding the ecoefficiency processes, the results demonstrate that the applied technique is successful when the minimum water consumption is the main goal in the industry.

  6. Used Battery Collection and Recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistoia, G.; Wiaux, J.P.; Wolsky, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of spent battery collection and recycling. First of all, the legislative and regulatory updates are addressed and the main institutions and programs worldwide are mentioned. An overview of the existing battery systems, of the chemicals used in them and their hazardous properties is made, followed by a survey of the major industrial recycling processes. The safety and efficiency of such processes are stressed. Particular consideration is given to the released emissions, i.e. to the impact on human health and the environment. Methods for the evaluation of this impact are described. Several chapters deal with specific battery chemistries: lead-acid, nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride, zinc (carbon and alkaline), lithium and lithium-ion. For each type of battery, details are provided on the collection/recycling process from the technical, economic and environmental viewpoint. The chemicals recoverable from each process and remarketable are mentioned. A chapter deals with recovering of the large batteries powering electric vehicles, e.g. lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion. The final chapter is devoted to the important topic of collecting batteries from used electrical and electronic equipment. The uncontrolled disposal of these devices still containing their batteries contributes to environmental pollution

  7. The study on recycle scheme of the metallic radioactive wastes (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J. I.; Park, J. H.; Jung, K. J.

    2003-01-01

    It was understood that regulation criteria for material release varied with countries and that international standards were not setup. But, most advanced countries are continuously studying on the recycling of metallic wastes for the purpose of the reuse of resources and disposal cost reduction. Practically, the advanced countries make a lot of cost profits compared with disposal as their metallic wastes are recycled and reused through technology like melting. The reasonable international standards are also expected to be set in the near future because of the aggressive cooperation between international agencies such as IAEA and NEA toward recycling these wastes. In our case, the recycle criteria for radioactive waste containing radioactive nuclide with long half-life such as Cs-137(half-life: 30y) and Co-60(half-life: 5.26y) including others, which are generated from the nuclear fission or dismantling of nuclear facilities, are not yet established. Therefore, it is required that the recommendation and legalization of the regulatory criteria be carried out for the recycle and reuse of metallic wastes to be generated from the dismantling of domestic nuclear facilities in the future

  8. The analysis on the current status of the overseas recycle technology of the metallic radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jae In; Kim, Hee Reyoung; Jung, Kee Jung

    2002-05-01

    It was understood that regulation criteria for material release varied with countries and that international standards were not setup. But, most advanced countries are continuously studying on the recycling of metallic wastes for the purpose of the reuse of resources and disposal cost reduction. Practically, the advanced countries make a lot of cost profits compared with disposal as their metallic wastes are recycled and reused through technology like melting. The reasonable international standards are also expected to be set in the near future because of the aggressive cooperation between international agencies such as IAEA and NEA toward recycling these wastes. In our case, the recycle criteria for radioactive waste containing radioactive nuclide with long half-life such as Cs-137(half-life: 30y) and Co-60(half-life: 5.26y) including others, which are generated from the nuclear fission or dismantling of nuclear facilities, are not yet established. Therefore, it is required that the recommendation and legalization of the regulatory criteria be carried out for the recycle and reuse of metallic wastes to be generated from the dismantling of domestic nuclear facilities in the future

  9. The development and prospects of the end-of-life vehicle recycling system in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-chung; Huang, Shih-han; Lian, I-wei

    2010-01-01

    Automobiles usually contain toxic substances, such as lubricants, acid solutions and coolants. Therefore, inappropriate handling of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) will result in environmental pollution. ELV parts, which include metallic and non-metallic substances, are increasingly gaining recycling value due to the recent global shortage of raw materials. Hence, the establishment of a proper recycling system for ELVs will not only reduce the impact on the environment during the recycling process, but it will also facilitate the effective reuse of recycled resources. Prior to 1994, the recycling of ELVs in Taiwan was performed by related operators in the industry. Since the publishing of the "End-of-life vehicle recycling guidelines" under the authority of the Waste Disposal Act by the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) in 1994, the recycling of ELVs in Taiwan has gradually become systematic. Subsequently, the Recycling Fund Management Board (RFMB) of the EPA was established in 1998 to collect a Collection-Disposal-Treatment Fee (recycling fee) from responsible enterprises for recycling and related tasks. Since then, the recycling channels, processing equipment, and techniques for ELVs in Taiwan have gradually become established. This paper reviews the establishment of the ELV recycling system, analyzes the current system and its performance, and provides some recommendations for future development. The reduction of auto shredder residue (ASR) is a key factor in maximizing the resource recovery rate and recycling efficiency. The RFMB needs to provide strong economic incentives to further increase the recycling rate and to encourage the automobile industry to design and market greener cars. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Water Reuse in Brazilian Manufacturing Firms

    OpenAIRE

    José Féres; Arnaud Reynaud; Alban Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the factors influencing water reuse in manufacturing firms and analyzes whether the structure of intake water demand differs between firms that adopt water reuse practices and those which do not. To this purpose, we estimate a two-stage econometric model based on a sample of 447 industrial facilities located in the Paraíba do Sul river basin. The first stage applies a probit model for the water reuse decision and the second stage employs an endogenous switching regression ...

  11. Optical absorption in recycled waste plastic polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, M. P.; Rahmawati, I.; Priyanto, A.; Karunawan, J.; Wati, A. L.; Aryani, N. P.; Susanto; Wibowo, E.; Sulhadi

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the optical properties of UV spectrum absorption in recycled waste plastic from polyethylene polymer type. Waste plastic polyethylene showed an optical spectrum absorption after it’s recycling process. Spectrum absorption is determined using spectrophotometer UV-Nir Ocean Optics type USB 4000. Recycling method has been processed using heating treatment around the melting point temperature of the polyethylene polymer that are 200°C, 220°C, 240°C, 260°C, and 280°C. In addition, the recycling process was carried out with time variations as well, which are 1h, 1.5h, 2h, and 2.5h. The result of this experiment shows that recycled waste plastic polyethylene has a spectrum absorption in the ∼ 340-550 nm wavelength range. The absorbance spectrum obtained from UV light which is absorbed in the orbital n → π* and the orbital π → π*. This process indicates the existence of electron transition phenomena. This mechanism is affected by the temperature and the heating time where the intensity of absorption increases and widens with the increase of temperature and heating time. Furthermore this study resulted that the higher temperature affected the enhancement of the band gap energy of waste plastic polyethylene. These results show that recycled waste plastic polyethylene has a huge potential to be absorber materials for solar cell.

  12. An empirical analysis of ontology reuse in BioPortal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Christopher; Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James; Arabandi, Sivaram; Tudorache, Tania; Musen, Mark A

    2017-07-01

    Biomedical ontologies often reuse content (i.e., classes and properties) from other ontologies. Content reuse enables a consistent representation of a domain and reusing content can save an ontology author significant time and effort. Prior studies have investigated the existence of reused terms among the ontologies in the NCBO BioPortal, but as of yet there has not been a study investigating how the ontologies in BioPortal utilize reused content in the modeling of their own content. In this study we investigate how 355 ontologies hosted in the NCBO BioPortal reuse content from other ontologies for the purposes of creating new ontology content. We identified 197 ontologies that reuse content. Among these ontologies, 108 utilize reused classes in the modeling of their own classes and 116 utilize reused properties in class restrictions. Current utilization of reuse and quality issues related to reuse are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Material recycling: Presence of chemicals and their influence on the circular economy concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    of the concept is the pursuit of sustainability through re-use and recycling of products and materials once they have served their purpose. Once such materials (e.g. paper, plastics) are recycled, chemicals that they contain are reintroduced,spread or even accumulate in the newly manufactured products (Figure 1...... the recyclability of waste materials with respect to the presence of substances. The outcomes of the work will provide crucial basis for future waste characterization activities, environmental and risk assessments of material recycling, as well as provide authorities, scientific community and society...... with a necessary basis for evaluating potential future limitations to recycling and address means of mitigating accumulation and spreading of chemicals in various materials....

  14. Selective dissolution of halide perovskites as a step towards recycling solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong Jo; Kim, Dong Hoe; Kwon, Seung Lee; Park, So Yeon; Li, Zhen; Zhu, Kai; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2016-05-23

    Most research on perovskite solar cells has focused on improving power-conversion efficiency and stability. However, if one could refurbish perovskite solar cells, their stability might not be a critical issue. From the perspective of cost effectiveness, if failed, perovskite solar cells could be collected and recycled; reuse of their gold electrodes and transparent conducting glasses could reduce the price per watt of perovskite photovoltaic modules. Herein, we present a simple and effective method for removing the perovskite layer and reusing the mesoporous TiO2-coated transparent conducting glass substrate via selective dissolution. We find that the perovskite layer can be easily decomposed in polar aprotic solvents because of the reaction between polar aprotic solvents and Pb(2+) cations. After 10 cycles of recycling, a mesoporous TiO2-coated transparent conducting glass substrate-based perovskite solar cell still shows a constant power-conversion efficiency, thereby demonstrating the possibility of recycling perovskite solar cells.

  15. Selective dissolution of halide perovskites as a step towards recycling solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong Jo; Kim, Dong Hoe; Kwon, Seung Lee; Park, So Yeon; Li, Zhen; Zhu, Kai; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2016-05-01

    Most research on perovskite solar cells has focused on improving power-conversion efficiency and stability. However, if one could refurbish perovskite solar cells, their stability might not be a critical issue. From the perspective of cost effectiveness, if failed, perovskite solar cells could be collected and recycled; reuse of their gold electrodes and transparent conducting glasses could reduce the price per watt of perovskite photovoltaic modules. Herein, we present a simple and effective method for removing the perovskite layer and reusing the mesoporous TiO2-coated transparent conducting glass substrate via selective dissolution. We find that the perovskite layer can be easily decomposed in polar aprotic solvents because of the reaction between polar aprotic solvents and Pb2+ cations. After 10 cycles of recycling, a mesoporous TiO2-coated transparent conducting glass substrate-based perovskite solar cell still shows a constant power-conversion efficiency, thereby demonstrating the possibility of recycling perovskite solar cells.

  16. Assessment of opportunities to increase the recovery and recycling rates of waste oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, D.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1995-08-01

    Waste oil represents an important energy resource that, if properly managed and reused, would reduce US dependence on imported fuels. Literature and current practice regarding waste oil generation, regulations, collection, and reuse were reviewed to identify research needs and approaches to increase the recovery and recycling of this resource. The review revealed the need for research to address the following three waste oil challenges: (1) recover and recycle waste oil that is currently disposed of or misused; (2) identify and implement lubricating oil source and loss reduction opportunities; and (3) develop and foster an effective waste oil recycling infrastructure that is based on energy savings, reduced environment at impacts, and competitive economics. The United States could save an estimated 140 {times} 1012 Btu/yr in energy by meeting these challenges.

  17. Reuse of Hydrotreating Spent Catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, A.M.; Menoufy, M.F.; Amhed, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    All hydro treating catalysts used in petroleum refining processes gradually lose activity through coking, poisoning by metal, sulfur or halides or lose surface area from sintering at high process temperatures. Waste hydrotreating catalyst, which have been used in re-refining of waste lube oil at Alexandria Petroleum Company (after 5 years lifetime) compared with the same fresh catalyst were used in the present work. Studies are conducted on partial extraction of the active metals of spent catalyst (Mo and Ni) using three leaching solvents,4% oxidized oxalic acid, 10% aqueous sodium hydroxide and 10% citric acid. The leaching experiments are conducting on the de coked extrude [un crushed] spent catalyst samples. These steps are carried out in order to rejuvenate the spent catalyst to be reused in other reactions. The results indicated that 4% oxidized oxalic acid leaching solution gave total metal removal 45.6 for de coked catalyst samples while NaOH gave 35% and citric acid gave 31.9 % The oxidized leaching agent was the most efficient leaching solvent to facilitate the metal removal, and the rejuvenated catalyst was characterized by the unchanged crystalline phase The rejuvenated catalyst was applied for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of vacuum gas oil as a feedstock, under different hydrogen pressure 20-80 bar in order to compare its HDS activity

  18. DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FACILITY REUSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, Steven J.; Blair, Danielle M.

    2003-01-01

    As nuclear research and production facilities across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex are slated for deactivation and decommissioning (D and D), there is a need to decontaminate some facilities for reuse for another mission or continued use for the same mission. Improved technologies available in the commercial sector and tested by the DOE can help solve the DOE's decontamination problems. Decontamination technologies include mechanical methods, such as shaving, scabbling, and blasting; application of chemicals; biological methods; and electrochemical techniques. Materials to be decontaminated are primarily concrete or metal. Concrete materials include walls, floors, ceilings, bio-shields, and fuel pools. Metallic materials include structural steel, valves, pipes, gloveboxes, reactors, and other equipment. Porous materials such as concrete can be contaminated throughout their structure, although contamination in concrete normally resides in the top quarter-inch below the surface. Metals are normally only contaminated on the surface. Contamination includes a variety of alpha, beta, and gamma-emitting radionuclides and can sometimes include heavy metals and organic contamination regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This paper describes several advanced mechanical, chemical, and other methods to decontaminate structures, equipment, and materials

  19. Morphology, mechanical and thermal oxidative aging properties of HDPE composites reinforced by nonmetals recycled from waste printed circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuangqiao; Bai, Shibing; Wang, Qi

    2016-11-01

    In this study nonmetals recycled from waste printed circuit boards (NPCB) is used as reinforce fillers in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites. The morphology, mechanical and thermal oxidative aging properties of NPCB reinforced HDPE composites are assessed and it compared with two other commercial functional filler for the first time. Mechanical test results showed that NPCB could be used as reinforcing fillers in the HDPE composites and mechanical properties especially for stiffness is better than other two commercial fillers. The improved mechanical property was confirmed by the higher aspect ratio and strong interfacial adhesion in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies. The heat deflection temperature (HDT) test showed the presence of fiberglass in NPCB can improve the heat resistance of composite for their potential applications. Meanwhile, the oxidation induction time (OIT) and the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results showed that NPCB has a near resistance to oxidation as two other commercial fillers used in this paper. The above results show the reuse of NPCB in the HDPE composites represents a promising way for resolving both the environmental pollution and the high-value reuse of resources. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Towards a comprehensive framework for reuse: A reuse-enabling software evolution environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, V. R.; Rombach, H. D.

    1988-01-01

    Reuse of products, processes and knowledge will be the key to enable the software industry to achieve the dramatic improvement in productivity and quality required to satisfy the anticipated growing demand. Although experience shows that certain kinds of reuse can be successful, general success has been elusive. A software life-cycle technology which allows broad and extensive reuse could provide the means to achieving the desired order-of-magnitude improvements. The scope of a comprehensive framework for understanding, planning, evaluating and motivating reuse practices and the necessary research activities is outlined. As a first step towards such a framework, a reuse-enabling software evolution environment model is introduced which provides a basis for the effective recording of experience, the generalization and tailoring of experience, the formalization of experience, and the (re-)use of experience.

  1. Photo-catalytic reactors for in-building grey water reuse. Comparison with biological processes and market potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, B.; Murray, C.; Diaper, C.; Parsons, S.A.; Jeffrey, P. [School of Water Sciences, Cranfield Univ., Cranfield, Bedfordshire (United Kingdom); Bedel, C. [Dept. of Industrial Process, National Inst. of Applied Sciences (France); Centeno, C. [Dept. of the Faculty of Engineering, Univ. of Santo Tomas, Manila (Philippines)

    2003-07-01

    Photo catalytic reactors potentially have a market in the reuse of grey water as they do not suffer from problems associated with toxic shocks and can be compact. The process is dependant upon the ratio of TOC to TiO{sub 2} concentration such that a greater proportion of the feed is degraded when either are increased. Economic assessment of grey water recycling showed both scale of operation and regional location to be the two most important factors in deciding the financial acceptability of any reuse technology. Overall the assessment suggested that photo catalytic oxidation (PCO) technology was suitable for grey water recycling and that the technology should be marketed at large buildings such as residential accommodation and offices. (orig.)

  2. Investigation about the ecotown-enterprise for establishing recycling system of non-radioactive waste arising from power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hironaga, Michihiko; Nishiuchi, Tatsuo; Ozaki, Yukio; Yamamoto, Kimio

    2004-01-01

    About 95% of demolition wastes generated by decommissioning nuclear power plants are below the clearance level, i.e., the wastes can be dealt with as industrial wastes. On that case, rational processing, disposal, and reuse are expectable. However, even if the demolition waste is below a clearance level, it seems to be difficult to be immediately accepted in general society with the demolition wastes. Therefore, it is important to establish the technology for an effective recycle system of demolition wastes, and to reuse demolition wastes as much as possible, resulting in recognition of the value by the society. On the other hand, as for recycling of industrial waste, the recycling enterprise is promoted in the domestic self-governing body in response to the 'eco-town enterprise' which is recommended by the government. This report investigates the system and subjects of a 'eco-town enterprise' for recycling demolition wastes. (author)

  3. Performance of ceramic ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membranes in treating car wash wastewater for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzem, Shamima; Wills, Jamie; Fan, Linhua; Roddick, Felicity; Jegatheesan, Veeriah

    2018-03-01

    Reusing treated effluents in industries is a great option to conserve freshwater resources. For example, car wash centres all over Australia are estimated to use 17.5 billion litres of water and discharge it as wastewater and spend $75 million a year for both purchasing fresh water and for treating and/or discharging the wastewater. Therefore, it is important to develop simple but reliable systems that can help to treat and reuse car wash wastewater. Significant savings could also be associated with the implementation of such systems. This study evaluates the performance of granular and membrane filtration systems with coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation in treating car wash wastewater for the purpose of reuse. Overall, 99.9% of turbidity, 100% of suspended solids and 96% of COD were removed from the car wash wastewater after treating by coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, sand filtration, ceramic ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis and the treated water meets the standards required for class A recycled water in Australia and standards imposed in Belgium and China. The treated water can be reused. However, optimisation is required to reduce the sludge produced by this system.

  4. Software Reuse in the Naval Open Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greathouse, Carlus A

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes a web-based continuous learning module (CLM) for use in introducing members of the Department of the Navy s acquisition community to software reuse in the context of Naval Open Architecture...

  5. the greywater reuse case of Jordan

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Fox Run Craftsmen

    2003-03-06

    Mar 6, 2003 ... new and creative methods and systems of dealing with wastewater reuse. .... and attended by 35 individuals representing 8 different agencies. .... Water and Irrigation calls for covering the operation and maintenance costs for.

  6. Treated Wastewater Reuse on Potato (Solanum Tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in Northern Italy (Po Valley), within the frame of the EU project SAFIR, to asses the impact of treated wastewater reuse on potato yield, quality and hygiene. The potato crop was drip irrigated and fertigated. Wastewater produced by small communities (≤2000 EI......) was treated by Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) technology and gravel filter (FTS) during three cropping seasons. Treated wastewater, soil and tubers were analysed for the faecal indicator bacterium E. coli and heavy metals contents. Potato total yield was similar for tap and reused water, while the marketable...... production has been found higher with the latter. The tuber dry matter content as well as reducing sugars were not affected by reused water. Total sugars content was higher with MBR and FTS water. Water use efficiency (WUE) was significantly higher with reused water. Compared to tap water, crop gross margin...

  7. Public opinion on water reuse options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruvold, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    Public policy on waste water reuse options must be informed by public opinion because it is the public who must pay the cost of developing the option and who will be served by the option in the future. For public policy on reuse, guidance for innovative reuse is not as simple as first believed. It seems that public opinion regarding actual community reuse options is affected by the linkage of several factors, including water conservation, health protection, treatment and distribution costs, and environmental enhancement. Probability sampling was used in 7 studies to select respondents who were queried regarding their opinions on various reclaimed water uses such as ranging from cooling tower water to full domestic use. These 7 are briefly reviewed

  8. The Compressor Recycle System

    OpenAIRE

    Barstad, Bjørn Ove

    2010-01-01

    The compressor recycle system is the main focus of this thesis. When the mass flow through a compressor becomes too low, the compressor can plunge into surge. Surge is a term that is used for axisymmetric oscillation through a compressor and is highly unwanted. The recycle system feeds compressed gas back to the intake when the mass flow becomes too low, and thereby act as a safety system.A mathematical model of the recycle system is extended and simulated in SIMULINK. The mathematical model ...

  9. Investigating the feasibility of using recycled processed water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, J. [Urban Systems, Kelowna, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    By the year 2025, 52 countries, with two-thirds of the world's population, are expected to have water shortages. Approximately 3,800 cubic kilometres of fresh water is withdrawn annually from the world's lakes, river and aquifers, which is twice the volume extracted 50 years ago. Water use considerations, alternative water sources, and considerations when using recycled water were discussed in this presentation. A case study of the city of Dawson Creek was provided as it pertained to water reuse in the oil and gas industry. Considerations for recycled water use include health concerns; perception of sewage versus effluent; industrial workers' concerns; and the end product concept. Quality issues were also discussed along with access to water sources, regulations and risks. The case study included a discussion of guiding principles; Dawson Creek's water system; industrial water uses; wastewater system; effluent characteristics; and effluent reuse opportunities. It was concluded that concerns regarding water reuse are not insurmountable providing the driving factors are strong. figs.

  10. Assessment of Relevant Exposure Pathways in Scenario of Reuse of Very Low Level Radioactive Steel in Tunnel Constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrncir, T.; Necas, V.

    2012-01-01

    Decommissioning process and related management of generated radioactive materials during this process became important topics during last several years because of continuously increasing number of nuclear power plant approaching the end of their lifetime. The very low level radioactive waste category includes considerable amount of materials arising from decommissioning. In line with international incentives of optimization of the waste management process, alternative concepts of recycling and reuse of materials are considered. One of these concepts of such optimization is the conditional release of materials with their subsequent recycling and reuse in industrial or nuclear sector. This paper is devoted to an option of recycling and reuse of conditionally released steel in industrial sector, specifically in motorway tunnel constructions. It is assumed that very low level radioactive steel would be released and reused in form of steel reinforcing components, such as steel nets and bars, assembled in primary and secondary lining of motorway tunnel. Assessment of exposure pathways relevant for construction, operation and post-operation period was performed. The computational tool VISIPLAN 3D ALARA was used for calculation of external individual effective dose for personnel constructing the tunnel and for members of the public driving through already built motorway tunnel. The simulation software GOLDSIM was used for the assessment of internal exposure pathways. GOLDSIM environment enables modelling of degradation processes and transport of radionuclides through unsaturated and saturated zone of subsoil. There are international recommendations available for the concept of release of radioactive materials into the environment derived from the principles that the individual effective dose received by critical individual must not exceed some tens of microSv/yr. Dose limits 10 microSv/yr or 50 microSv/yr considering specific conditions are stated in Slovak legislation

  11. Recovery of the secondary raw materials, recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter the recovery and recycling of secondary raw materials is explained. This chapter consists of the following parts: Paper and tetrapaks; Car wrecks; Scrap metal; Plastics; Used tires; Electrical and electronic equipment; Glass; Accumulators and batteries; Spent oil; Low-and non-waste technology.

  12. Proposal of a new model to improve the collection of small WEEE: a pilot project for the recovery and recycling of toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Miquel; Watson, Jenna; Puig, Rita; Fullana-i-Palmer, Pere

    2012-11-01

    A new collection model was designed and tested in Catalonia (Spain) to foster the separate collection and recycling of electrical and electronic toys, with the participation of selected primary and secondary schools, as well as waste collection points and municipalities. This project approach is very original and important because small household WEEE has low rates of collection (16-21% WEEE within the EU or 5-7% WEEE in Spain) and no research on new approaches to enhance the collection of small WEEE is found in the literature. The project was successful in achieving enhanced toys collection and recycling rates, which went up from the national Spanish average of 0.5% toys before the project to 1.9 and 6% toys during the two project years, respectively. The environmental benefits of the campaign were calculated through a life-cycle approach, accounting for the avoided impact afforded by the reuse of the toys and the recycling of the valuable materials contained therein (such as metals, batteries and circuit boards) and subtracting the additional environmental burdens associated with the establishment of the collection campaign.

  13. Current and future priorities for mass and material in silicon PV module recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, C.L.; Geerligs, L.J.; Goris, M.J.A.A.; Bennett, I.J. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Clyncke, J. [PV CYCLE, Rue Montoyer 23, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-10-15

    A full description of the state-of-the-art PV recycling methods and their rationale is presented, which discusses the quality of the recycled materials and the fate of the substances which end up in the landfill. The aim is to flag the PV module components currently not recycled, which may have a priority in terms of their embedded energy, chemical nature or scarcity, for the next evolution of recycling. The sustainability of different recycling options, emerging in the literature on electronic waste recycling, and the possible improvement of the environmental footprint of silicon PV modules, will be discussed.

  14. Revisiting Reuse in Main Memory Database Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dursun, Kayhan; Binnig, Carsten; Cetintemel, Ugur; Kraska, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Reusing intermediates in databases to speed-up analytical query processing has been studied in the past. Existing solutions typically require intermediate results of individual operators to be materialized into temporary tables to be considered for reuse in subsequent queries. However, these approaches are fundamentally ill-suited for use in modern main memory databases. The reason is that modern main memory DBMSs are typically limited by the bandwidth of the memory bus, thus query execution ...

  15. Regional hydrocarbon contaminated soil recycling facility standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.

    1992-01-01

    In an effort to protect the environment from uncontrolled releases of petroleum products, the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute member companies have initiated environmental upgrading programs for their underground fuel storage systems in British Columbia. These programs have been restricted in recent years as a result of environmental regulations targeting contaminated soil, which is generated when underground storage tanks are upgraded to current standards. The soil requiring treatment is typically sand backfill containing a nominal value of petroleum product. These soils can be treated in an engineered basin using bioremediation technology to reduce the level of contamination. Depending on the degree of treatment, the soil can be recycled as backfill or reused as landfill cover. An overview is presented of the basin treatment process and design. Natural bioremediation is enhanced with nutrients, water and oxygen addition. 4 figs

  16. Drivers and economic aspects for the implementation of advanced wastewater treatment and water reuse in a PVC plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Prieto

    2016-06-01

    The proposed solution is profitable for sites where fresh demineralized water production costs are currently higher than 1.5 €/m3 and the required flow of the recycled water exceeds 50 m3/h. The water reuse concept allows decoupling the production from fresh water use. In this case, anticipating that a drought would lead to a 3% reduction of the production, the amortization period would be lowered to one year.

  17. A degradation-based sorting method for lithium-ion battery reuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chen

    Full Text Available In a world where millions of people are dependent on batteries to provide them with convenient and portable energy, battery recycling is of the utmost importance. In this paper, we developed a new method to sort 18650 Lithium-ion batteries in large quantities and in real time for harvesting used cells with enough capacity for battery reuse. Internal resistance and capacity tests were conducted as a basis for comparison with a novel degradation-based method based on X-ray radiographic scanning and digital image contrast computation. The test results indicate that the sorting accuracy of the test cells is about 79% and the execution time of our algorithm is at a level of 200 milliseconds, making our method a potential real-time solution for reusing the remaining capacity in good used cells.

  18. Recent practices on wastewater reuse in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanik, A; Ekdal, A; Germirli Babuna, F; Orhon, D

    2005-01-01

    Reuse of wastewater for irrigational purposes in agriculture has been a widely applied practice all around the world compared to such applications in industries. In most of the developing countries, high costs of wastewater treatment stimulate the direct reuse of raw or partly treated effluent in irrigation despite the socio-cultural objections in some countries regarding religious rituals towards consuming wastewater. In Turkey, reuse applications in agriculture have been in use by indirect application by means of withdrawing water from the downstream end of treatment plants. Such practices affected the deterioration of surface water resources due to the lack of water quality monitoring and control. However, more conscious and planned reuse activities in agriculture have recently started by the operation of urban wastewater treatment plants. Turkey does not face any severe water scarcity problems for the time being, but as the water resources show the signs of water quality deterioration it seems to be one of the priority issues in the near future. The industrial reuse activities are only at the research stage especially in industries consuming high amounts of water. In-plant control implementation is the preferred effort of minimizing water consumption in such industries. The current reuse activities are outlined in the article forming an example from a developing country.

  19. Recycling of used oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vipulanandan, C.; Ghurye, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on used oil which is a valuable resource that should be recycled. Recycling used oil saves energy and natural resources. Used oil can be reprocessed and used as fuel in industrial burners and boilers. Unfortunately, more than 400 million gallons/year of used oil is lost through widespread dumping, partly due to lack of effective recycling procedures. Although used oil is not currently a federally listed hazardous waste, the U.S. EPA has proposed to list it as a hazardous waste, which will make recycling of used oil even more attractive. Laboratory samples, representing used oil, were used for detailed parametric studies and to determine the limitation of extending some of the current physical separation techniques such as sedimentation and centrifuging developed for oil-water and solid-liquid separation

  20. Recycling of Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Metals like iron and aluminium are produced from mineral ore and used for a range of products, some of which have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of municipal waste. Packaging in terms of cans, foils and containers are products with a short lifetime. Other products like...... appliances, vehicles and buildings, containing iron and aluminium metals, have long lifetimes before they end up in the waste stream. The recycling of production waste and postconsumer metals has a long history in the metal industry. Some metal smelters are today entirely based on scarp metals. This chapter...... describes briefly how iron and aluminium are produced and how scrap metal is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of metal recycling. Copper and other metals are also found in waste but in much smaller...