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Sample records for electronic sow feeding

  1. Management factors affecting aggression in dynamic group housing systems with electronic sow feeding - a field trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L S; Bertelsen, D; Jensen, K H

    1999-01-01

    A series of 24-h video studies on four commercial Danish pig herds investigated the behaviour of pregnant sows kept in dynamic groups (72 to 200 sows) with electronic sow feeding (ESF). The herds mainly differed with respect to provision of a layer of unchopped straw as bedding material, the freq...

  2. Transition feeding of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    for the sow. More specifically, fetal growth, mammary growth, colostrum production and sow maintenance require substantial amounts of nutrients during late gestation. After parturition, nutrients are mainly required for milk synthesis and sow maintenance, but the regressing uterus supplies considerable...

  3. Energy balance of lactating primiparous sows as affected by feeding level and dietary energy source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Soede, N.M.; Schrama, J.W.; Kemp, B.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of feeding level and major dietary energy source used during lactation on sow milk composition, piglet body composition, and energy balance of sows were determined. During a 21-d lactation, 48 primiparous sows were fed either a Fat-rich (134.9 g/kg fat; 196.8 g/kg carbohydrate) or a

  4. Sows with high milk production had both a high feed intake and high body mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, A. V.; Bruun, T. S.; Hansen, C. F.

    2017-01-01

    Selection for increased litter size have generated hyper-prolific sows that nurses large litters, however limited knowledge is available regarding the connection between milk production, feed intake and body mobilization of these modern sows. The aim of the current study was to determine what...... be explained by a relatively higher proportion of their body reserves being mobilized compared with multiparous sows. The ADG of the litter was positively related by ADFI of the sows, litter size and BW loss and increasing the ADFI with 1 kg/day throughout lactation likely increased the ADG of the litter...... characterized sows with high milk production and nursing large litters, differences between sows of different parities and effects of lactational performance on next reproductive cycle. In total 565 sows (parity 1 to 4) were studied from 7 days before farrowing until weaning. On day 2 postpartum litters were...

  5. Evaluation of drop versus trickle-feeding systems for crated or group-penned gestating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, L E; McGlone, J J

    2006-04-01

    A total of 160 gilts were used to evaluate the effects of pen vs. crated housing systems and drop- vs. trickle-fed feeding systems on sow productivity, occurrence of lesions during farrowing and weaning, immune measures, and behavioral responses during 2 consecutive gestation periods. Of the 160 eligible gilts, 117 farrowed in parity 1, and of those, 72 farrowed in parity 2. The gilts were randomly assigned to represent 1 of 4 factorially arranged treatment groups: pen drop-fed, crate drop-fed, pen trickle-fed, or crate trickle-fed. Replicate blocks were used for each parity with 5 sows per block initially in each treatment. At weaning, sows housed in pens had greater (P trickle-feeding system. Lesions scores and all other productivity measures did not differ among treatments. An interaction was observed for percentage of neutrophil phagocytosis (P trickle-fed sows, but in crates, drop-fed sows had a tendency for lower phagocytosis than trickle-fed sows. All other immune measures were not different among treatments. The occurrence of oral-nasal-facial (ONF) behaviors (chewing, rooting, and rubbing) and active behaviors increased, and lying behavior decreased (P trickle-feeding systems. None of the environments evaluated were associated with significant physiological stress responses among the sows. Thus, sows were able to adapt within each environment through behavioral mechanisms without the need to invoke major physiological adjustments.

  6. Effect of gestating sow body condition, feed refusals, and group housing on growth and feed intake in grower-finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sell-Kubiak, E.B.; Waaij, van der E.H.; Bijma, P.

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of this study was to identify sow gestation features that affect growth rate (GR) and feed intake (FI) of their offspring during grower–finishing stage. Because the sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation, certain features (e.g., BW of the sow), feed

  7. Energy balance of lactating primiparous sows as affected by feeding level and dietary energy source

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, van den, H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Soede, N.M.; Schrama, J.W.; Kemp, B.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of feeding level and major dietary energy source used during lactation on sow milk composition, piglet body composition, and energy balance of sows were determined. During a 21-d lactation, 48 primiparous sows were fed either a Fat-rich (134.9 g/kg fat; 196.8 g/kg carbohydrate) or a Starch-rich (33.2 g/kg fat; 380.9 g/kg carbohydrate) diet at either a High (44 MJ NE/d; 1,050 g protein/d) or a Low (33 MJ NE/d; 790 g protein/d) feeding level. Within each feeding level, the two diets...

  8. A two-diet feeding regime for lactating sows reduced nutrient deficiency in early lactation and improved milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Sønderby Bruun, Thomas; Feyera, Takele

    2016-01-01

    was recorded weekly. In addition, weekly milk samples and blood samples on d 3 and 17 were collected. Furthermore, sows were enriched with D2O (deuterated water) on d 2 and 28 after parturition to calculate body pools of fat and protein. Sows’ feed intake and weight loss interacted with diet regime across wk......The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether a new feeding concept composed of two dietary components fed daily throughout lactation could minimize sow weight loss and increase milk yield (MY) and piglet weight gain. In total, 14 sows were included in the experiment from parturition...... until weaning 28 d later. The sows were fed one of two dietary feeding regimes from lactation d 2 and throughout lactation. The 1-diet feeding regime represented the Danish feeding standards and recommendations. The new 2-diet regime supplied sows feed and nutrients (ME and AA) according...

  9. Feeding high fibre diets changes luminal environment and morphology in the intestine of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serena, Anja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2007-01-01

    -products (sugar beet pulp, potato pulp, pectin residue, pea hull, brewer's spent grain, and seed residue). The diets were fed for a four-week period to 12 sows (4 for each diet). Sows were stunned 4 h post-feeding, and digesta and tissue samples were collected from various parts of the small and large intestines......Sows were fed three diets varying in type and level of dietary fibre (DF). The low fibre diet (LF; 17% DF) was based on wheat and barley. In the two high DF diets (HF1, high in soluble DF and HF2, high in insoluble DF;  44% DF), the cereal part of the diet was substituted with different co....... The carbohydrate load to the large intestine was 538-539 g/d when feeding the high DF diets and 190 g/d when feeding diet LF. Feeding sows the high DF diet containing large proportion of soluble DF resulted in a lower dry matter content of digesta (23 contra 28%), a higher tissue weight (2.9 contra 2.0 kg...

  10. Feeding motivation and plasma metabolites in pregnant sows fed diets rich in dietary fiber either once or twice daily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2012-01-01

    in an operant conditioning test, and samples of peripheral blood were taken in a balanced design, at 0900, 1200, 1900, and 0700 h, corresponding to 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after feeding for restricted sows fed once daily. No differences in the feeding motivation were found between the 4 restricted diets at any......, indicating that feeding twice daily reduced feeding motivation during the night compared with feeding once daily. Among restricted-fed sows, plasma concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were greater in sows fed high-fiber diets compared with the control (P = 0.02). Nonesterified fatty acid...... level of fiber in the diet of restrictedly fed sows did not reduce their feeding motivation irrespective of fiber source....

  11. Feeding motivation and plasma metabolites in pregnant sows fed diets rich in dietary fiber either once or twice daily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M B; Pedersen, L J; Theil, P K; Yde, C C; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2012-06-01

    The present study investigated the effects of source and level of dietary fiber (DF) and feeding frequency (once vs. twice daily) on feeding motivation and plasma metabolites at 4 different time points post feeding. Sixty pregnant sows (Sus scrofa, 4 blocks of 15 sows) were allocated to 1 of 5 diets within blocks. Four diets were restricted (approximately 35 MJ ME/d): a barley and wheat control diet (171 g DF/kg DM; 12 g DF/MJ ME), and 3 fiber diets formulated to contain 35% DF by including pectin residue (323 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME), potato pulp (404 g DF/kg DM; 29 g DF/MJ ME), or sugar beet pulp (367 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME). The fifth diet was a mixture including an equal amount of the 3 fiber diets offered semi ad libitum (ad libitum access to feed during 6 periods of 1 h starting at 0300, 0600, 1100, 1500, 1800, and 2300; 354 g DF/kg DM; 25 g DF/MJ ME). The experimental period included 2 periods of 4 wk each. Restricted-fed sows were fed once daily (0800 h) during the first period and twice daily (0800 and 1500 h) during the second period, or vice versa. Semi ad libitum fed sows had access to feed 6 times a day in both periods. In each period, the feeding motivation was assessed in an operant conditioning test, and samples of peripheral blood were taken in a balanced design, at 0900, 1200, 1900, and 0700 h, corresponding to 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after feeding for restricted sows fed once daily. No differences in the feeding motivation were found between the 4 restricted diets at any of the time points post feeding, but semi ad libitum fed sows had a decreased feeding motivation (P motivation at 1900 h (P motivation during the night compared with feeding once daily. Among restricted-fed sows, plasma concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were greater in sows fed high-fiber diets compared with the control (P = 0.02). Nonesterified fatty acid was least in sows on the control diet and greatest in sows on the potato diet, whereas sows on the pectin and

  12. Fungi and Mycotoxins in Feed Intended for Sows at Different Reproductive Stages in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Maricel Pereyra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate fungi and contamination levels of aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1, and zearalenone in raw materials and finished feed intended for sows at different reproductive stages. Total fungi, Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium species occurrence, were examined. Aspergillus flavus, A. niger aggregate spp., and F. verticillioides were the prevalent species. Fungal counts exceeded the levels proposed as feed hygienic quality limits (1×104 colony forming units at all reproductive stages. Aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1, and zearalenone were detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Aflatoxin levels in 80% samples of finished sow feeds were over the permitted levels of 0.02 μg g-1 (mean 228.2±95 μg Kg−1. Fumonisin B1 was detected in all tested raw materials at levels that varied from 50.3 to 1137.64 μg Kg−1 and finished feed samples at levels that ranged from 99.8 to 512.4 μg Kg−1. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone, and ochratoxin A were not detected in raw materials. All finished feeds were negative for zearalenone contamination whereas all nonpregnant gilt samples were contaminated with low OTA levels (mean 0.259±0.123. This fact requires periodic monitoring to prevent the occurrence of mycotoxicosis in animal production, to reduce the economic losses, and to minimize hazards to human health.

  13. Relation between reproduction performance and indicators of feed intake, fear and social stress in commercial herds with group-housed non-lactating sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete

    2006-01-01

    Group-housing of non-lactating sows is becomming increasingly widespread in commercial sow herds in European countries as a result of changed legislation. Group-housing may lead to individual variation in feed intake, stress and fear, which may impair the reproduction ferformance. However, whether...... or the outcome of three fear tests were found. The results indicate that the unintended individual variation in feed intake in sows group-housed in commercial herds may be large enough to affect the reproduction performance. This calls for management initiatives to reduce unequal feed intake in group-housed sows....

  14. Use of modified halloysite nanotubes in the feed reduces the toxic effects of zearalenone on sow reproduction and piglet development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Rui; Liu, Min; Shi, Baoming; Shan, Anshan; Cheng, Baojing

    2015-03-15

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding a blend of corn contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on the physical condition of pregnant and suckling sows and the development of their offspring. Halloysite nanotubes modified using the surfactant, stearyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, were tested for its efficacy in protecting against the detrimental effects of zearalenone (ZEN) exposure. A total of 18 pregnant second parity Yorkshire sows (six per treatment) were fed control diet, contaminated grain diet (ZEN, 2.77 mg/kg), and contaminated grain + 1% modified halloysite nanotube (MHNT) diet (ZEN, 2.76 mg/kg) from 35 to 70 days in pregnancy (DIP), which is the critical period in development of fetuses. The results show that consumption of ZEN led to a reduction in sow's mass gain during 35 to 70 DIP and mass at 110 DIP, backfat at 70 DIP and weaning, placenta weight at 70 DIP and farrowing, the lactation average daily feed intake, and an increase in the weight of ovary at 70 DIP of sows (P halloysite nanotubes could be used as adsorbent in the feed to reduce the toxic effects of ZEN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of N,N-dimethylglycine supplementation in parturition feed for sows on metabolism, nutrient digestibility and reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, A; Maes, D; Buyse, J; Kalmar, I D; Vandermeiren, J-A; Janssens, G P J

    2010-12-01

    The current pilot study assessed the influence of N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG) on insulin sensitivity, glucose and fat metabolism, nutrient digestibility and reproductive performance of sows in the peripartal period. At day 105 of gestation, 25 sows were randomly assigned to the control (n = 13) or the DMG group (n = 12). Sows from the DMG group were supplemented with 1 g DMG/kg feed until day 3 of lactation. After an overnight fast 1 day after farrowing, a blood sample of each sow was drawn. The plasma was analyzed for insulin, glucose, fructosamine, leptin, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and triglycerides (TG) and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. A rectal feces sample was collected and the apparent fecal digestibility (AFD) of crude fat (CFAT), crude protein (CP) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) was calculated after proximate analyses. Finally, a colostrum sample was collected from each sow and analyzed for the presence of DMG. Reproductive performance parameters were recorded. The results showed an improvement in the AFD of CFAT, CP and NFE when DMG was supplemented. This beneficial effect confirms the hypothesis that DMG acts as an emulsifying agent. The improvement in digestibility in the DMG group was accompanied by a numerical increase in plasma TG (P = 0.067). Plasma NEFA concentrations were not different between treatment groups. DMG supplementation neither affected glucose clearance nor influenced plasma insulin, glucose, fructosamine or leptin levels. TBARS and FRAP also remained unaffected, despite previously reported anti-oxidative properties of DMG. Furthermore, no significant impact on reproductive performance could be recorded. In conclusion, DMG supplementation significantly improved nutrient digestibility. Possible beneficial effects on energy metabolism and reproductive performance of sows should be tested when DMG is supplemented for a longer

  16. Relation between reproduction performance and indicators of feed intake, fear and social stress in commercial herds with group-housed non-lactating sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete

    2006-01-01

    Group-housing of non-lactating sows is becomming increasingly widespread in commercial sow herds in European countries as a result of changed legislation. Group-housing may lead to individual variation in feed intake, stress and fear, which may impair the reproduction ferformance. However, whether...... the individual variation in feed intake and the level of stress and fear under commercial conditions is severe enough to impair the reproduction performance is not known. In a detailed farm study including 14 herds with different layouts the relations between various indicators of feed intake, stress and fear...

  17. Overall welfare assessment of pregnant sow housing systems based on interviews with experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.; Spruijt, B.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    In interviews with 11 pig experts the main housing systems for pregnant sows were identified as tethering (T), individual housing in stalls (IS), group housing with stalls (GS), trickle feeding or biofix (B), electronic sow feeding (ESF), and outdoor housing with huts (O). The family pen system

  18. Impact of feeding reduced crude protein diets to lactating sows on nitrogen utilizatilon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, L; de Lange, C F M; Larsen, Uffe Krogh

    2015-01-01

    -fed; analyzed contents; HCP); 2) 15.7% CP (MHCP); 3) 14.3% CP (MLCP); 4) 13.2% CP (LCP); diet HCP was formulated using soybean meal and corn as the only Lys sources. The reduced CP diets contained CAA to meet requirements of the limiting AA. Sow and piglet BW were measured on d 1, 3, 7, 14, 18, and 21...... of lactation. Nitrogen retention was measured on sows between d 3 and 7 (early) and d 14 and 18 (peak) of lactation. Milk true protein output was calculated from estimated milk yield and analyzed true protein concentration. Sow BW change (overall mean: -4.2 ± 3.37 kg over the 21-d lactation period) and average...... daily DM intake (overall mean: 4.05 ± 0.18 and 6.12 ± 0.20 kg/d, early and peak lactation, respectively) did not differ between diets. Nitrogen intake decreased as dietary CP concentration decreased (114.3, 106.0, 107.4, and 99.0 ± 5.29 g/d and 169.5, 168.3, 161.2, and 145.1 ± 5.29 g/d for HCP, MHCP...

  19. Imact of feeding and post prandial time on plasma ketone bodies in sows during transition and lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Olesen, A K; Flummer, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted with the aim of studying how dietary fat source, reproductive stage (Exp. 1), and diurnal variation (Exp. 2) affect plasma ketone bodies in sows. In Exp. 1, 40 second-parity sows were fed 1 of 5 lactation diets from 7 d prepartum until 28 d postpartum, with low or h......, therefore, primary ketosis does not appear to be a major problem in sows. In addition, this study indicates that the intermediary metabolism of sows was challenged when sows were exposed to high fat diets in late gestation....

  20. Effects of feeding Bt maize to sows during gestation and lactation on maternal and offspring immunity and fate of transgenic material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan G Buzoianu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the effect of feeding transgenic maize to sows during gestation and lactation on maternal and offspring immunity and to assess the fate of transgenic material. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: On the day of insemination, sows were assigned to one of two treatments (n = 12/treatment; 1 non-Bt control maize diet or 2 Bt-MON810 maize diet, which were fed for ~143 days throughout gestation and lactation. Immune function was assessed by leukocyte phenotyping, haematology and Cry1Ab-specific antibody presence in blood on days 0, 28 and 110 of gestation and at the end of lactation. Peripheral-blood mononuclear cell cytokine production was investigated on days 28 and 110 of gestation. Haematological analysis was performed on offspring at birth (n = 12/treatment. Presence of the cry1Ab transgene was assessed in sows' blood and faeces on day 110 of gestation and in blood and tissues of offspring at birth. Cry1Ab protein presence was assessed in sows' blood during gestation and lactation and in tissues of offspring at birth. Blood monocyte count and percentage were higher (P<0.05, while granulocyte percentage was lower (P<0.05 in Bt maize-fed sows on day 110 of gestation. Leukocyte count and granulocyte count and percentage were lower (P<0.05, while lymphocyte percentage was higher (P<0.05 in offspring of Bt maize-fed sows. Bt maize-fed sows had a lower percentage of monocytes on day 28 of lactation and of CD4(+CD8(+ lymphocytes on day 110 of gestation, day 28 of lactation and overall (P<0.05. Cytokine production was similar between treatments. Transgenic material or Cry1Ab-specific antibodies were not detected in sows or offspring. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Treatment differences observed following feeding of Bt maize to sows did not indicate inflammation or allergy and are unlikely to be of major importance. These results provide additional data for Bt maize safety assessment.

  1. Dietary energy source at two feeding levels during lactation in primiparous sows. I. Effects on glucose, insulin and LH and on follicle development, weaning-to-estrus interval and ovulation rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Dieleman, S.J.; Soede, N.M.; Kemp, B.

    2000-01-01

    Our objective was to study the effects of dietary-induced insulin enhancement during and after lactation on the reproductive performance of primiparous sows. During a 21-d lactation period, 48 sows were allotted to a 2x2 factorial experiment. Treatments were feeding level (high or low; 44 MJ or 33

  2. The effect of a non-starch polysaccharide-hydrolysing enzyme (Rovabio® Excel) on feed intake and body condition of sows during lactation and on progeny growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, M C; Geraert, P A; Maillard, R; Kluess, J; Lawlor, P G

    2012-10-01

    A total of 200 (Large White × Landrace) sows were used in a 39-day study to evaluate the effects of feeding a non-starch polysaccharide (NSP)-hydrolysing enzyme multicomplex (Rovabio(®) Excel) in conjunction with a high- or reduced nutrient-density diet during lactation on sow body condition, feed intake and progeny performance. Eight sows were selected each week for 25 weeks, blocked by parity and BW into groups of four, and within the block randomly assigned to one of the four treatments (n = 50/treatment). Treatments were: (1) LND: low energy (13.14 MJ of DE/kg), low CP (15%) diet; (2) LND + RE: LND with 50 mg/kg NSP-hydrolysing enzyme; (3) HND: high energy (14.5 MJ of DE/kg), high CP (16.5%) diet; and (4) HND + RE: HND with 50 mg/kg NSP-hydrolysing enzyme. Sows were fed treatment diets from day 109 of gestation until the day of subsequent service. Between weaning and re-service, Rovabio(®) Excel addition to LND diets resulted in an increase in energy intake; however, a reduction was observed when supplemented to the HND diet (P Excel increased feed and energy intake during week 3 (days 15 to 21) of lactation (P Excel had greater back-fat depth at weaning and service (P < 0.05); however, the magnitude of change in back-fat depth during lactation and from farrowing to service was not different between treatments. Feeding the HND diet increased energy intake before farrowing, throughout lactation and during the weaning to service interval (P < 0.01); however, overall, average daily feed intake tended to be reduced (P < 0.10). At service, sows fed the HND diet were heavier than sows fed the LND diet (P < 0.05); however, the magnitude of change in BW between treatments was not different. Feeding the HND diet to sows resulted in a tendency for heavier piglets at birth (P = 0.10) that tended to grow at a faster rate and be heavier at weaning than piglets from sows fed the LND diet (P = 0.06). These results indicate that NSP-degrading enzymes offer minimal benefit

  3. Oriented Onion Sowing by a Forked-Roller Sowing Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr G.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The existing sowing machines do not provide a single feeding of the bulbs with a planting (sowing unit that leads to a violation of the agrotechnical requirements of planting bulbs. It is necessary to search new solutions to preserve the position of the bulbs in the furrow with the bottom down and their regularly spaced distribution. Materials and Methods: The article presents the design for a prototype for a planting machine equipped with a forked-roller sowing unit for orienting the onion-sowing into a furrow. Testing the forked-roller sowing unit were carried out on a flat area where the physical and mechanical properties of the soil were determined on the days of sowing, and the indices of the quality of the onion-sowing were determined. The study of the effect of the sowing machine speed on the quality of the onion-seed bulb landing was determined by the change in the translational speed of the sowing unit in the range of 0.8 m/s to 1.2 m/s with a variation interval of 0.1 m/s. The indicators of the quality of the planting of the bulbs were determined by the opening of the closed furrow. The results of laboratory-field studies of the planting machine prototype are presented. Results: The results of laboratory-field studies of a planting machine equipped with a forked-roller sowing unit for planting onion bulbs are presented. The optimal technological parameters are determined experimentally. It was determined the number of bulbs that are for up is 51 % and the regularity of planting by the forked-roller sowing unit – 79 %. These figures are provided at the forward speed of the planting machine VM = 0.9–1.0 m/s, the height of the fall of the bulb HA = 0.12 m, and the rotation frequency of the landing drum nБ = 0.47 c-1. Discussion and Conclusions: The use of a forked-roller sowing unit makes it possible to increase the proportion of onions planted by bottom down by 200 %, and the uniformity of planting bulbs by 19 %, in

  4. A review of factors influencing litter size in Irish sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawlor Peadar G

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many factors influence litter size. These include genetics, gilt management, lactation length, parity distribution, disease, stress and boar fertility. In the past 20 years, litter size in Irish sows has increased by only one pig. Born alive figures now average at 11.2 pigs per litter. In this regard, Ireland is falling behind our European competitors who have made significant advances over this time. Denmark, for example, has an average figure of 12.7 pigs born alive per litter and France an average of 12.5. The single area that could be improved immediately is sow feeding. It is important that sows are fed correctly throughout pregnancy. If over-fed during pregnancy, sows will have depressed appetite during lactation. If underfed in pregnancy, sows will be too thin at farrowing. The correct way to feed a pregnant sow is to match her feed allocation to her requirement for maintenance, body growth and growth of her developing foetuses. During lactation, sows should be given as much feed as they can eat to prevent excessive loss of body condition. Liquid-feed curves should be such that lactating sows are provided with a minimum mean daily feed supply of 6.2 kg. A small proportion of sows will eat more and this could be given as supplementary dry feed. Where dry feeding is practised in the farrowing house, it is difficult to hand-feed sows to match their appetite. Ideally ad libitum wet/dry feeders should be used. From weaning to service, sows should once again be fed ad libitum. If liquid feeding, this means giving at least 60 MJ DE (digestible energy per day during this period. If dry feeding, at least 4 kg of lactation diet should be fed daily. The effort spent perfecting sow feeding management on units should yield high dividends in the form of increased pigs born alive per litter.

  5. Effect of spineless cactus intake (Opuntia ficus-indica) on blood glucose levels in lactating sows and its impact on feed intake, body weight loss, and weaning-estrus interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordaz-Ochoa, Gerardo; Juárez-Caratachea, Aureliano; Pérez-Sánchez, Rosa Elena; Román-Bravo, Rafael María; Ortiz-Rodríguez, Ruy

    2017-06-01

    The effect of spineless cactus intake (Opuntia ficus-indica) on blood glucose (BG) levels in lactating sows and its impact on daily and total feed intake (dFI -1 and TFI, respectively), body weight loss (BWL), and weaning-estrus interval length (WEI) were evaluated. Thirty-four hybrid (Yorkshire × Landrace × Pietrain) sows in lactation phase were used. Sows were divided into two groups: G1 (n = 17) where they received commercial feed and G2 (n = 17) provided with commercial feed plus an average of 2.0 ± 0.5 kg spineless cactus, based on a sow's body weight. The variables evaluated were BG, dFI -1 , TFI, BWL, and WEI. Statistical analysis was performed by using a fixed and mixed model methodology, under a repeated measurements experiment. Group effects were found on all analyzed variables (P < 0.05). The BG was lower in G2 (55.2 and 64.5 mg/dL pre- and post-prandial, respectively), compared to that in G1 (70.9 and 80.1 mg/dL pre- and post-prandial, respectively) (P < 0.05). G2 showed better performance than G1 for dFI -1 , BWL, and WEI (P < 0.05) whose averages were 5.5 ± 1.8 kg, 7.4 ± 4.5%, and 5.3 ± 1.2 days, respectively. Averages for these variables in G1 were 4.7 ± 1.5 kg, 16.8 ± 4.6%, and 6.1 ± 1.6 days, respectively. Intake of spineless cactus reduced BG levels in lactating sows, generating greater dFI -1 , lower BWL at the end of lactation, and a lower WEI.

  6. Classifying sows' activity types from acceleration patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornou, Cecile; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    An automated method of classifying sow activity using acceleration measurements would allow the individual sow's behavior to be monitored throughout the reproductive cycle; applications for detecting behaviors characteristic of estrus and farrowing or to monitor illness and welfare can be foreseen....... This article suggests a method of classifying five types of activity exhibited by group-housed sows. The method involves the measurement of acceleration in three dimensions. The five activities are: feeding, walking, rooting, lying laterally and lying sternally. Four time series of acceleration (the three...

  7. Effects of Sowing Media and Sowing Depth on Germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the effect of sowing media and sowing depth on the germination and growth of Lecanodiscus cupanoides (Planch.Ex Benth). The germination of L. cupanoides seed was significantly affected by sowing depth and sowing medium at p=0.05. The result of various sowing media and sowing depth showed ...

  8. Assessing long-term behavioural effects of feeding motivation in group-housed pregnant sows; what, when and how to observe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, J.J.; Leeuw, de J.A.; Nolten, C.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Main aim of this study was to elucidate behavioural elements that can be used as a tool to measure satiety in group-housed pregnant sows. In addition, the best time (time of day and time on treatment) and observation method were addressed. In two batches, eight groups of five artificially

  9. Effect of maternal antibiotic intervention in sows on gut development and microbiota in offspring : report of Feed4Foodure, VDI-2: 2013/2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greeff, de A.; Schokker, D.; Roubos, P.; Ramaekers, P.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Bikker, P.; Vastenhouw, S.A.; Bree, de F.M.; Bossers, A.; Harders, F.L.; Smits, M.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    A significant contribution to microbial colonization of piglets comes from the sow: via vertical transmission of vaginal flora during birth and transmission of mucosal immune memory and flora by feaces, colostrum and milk. In this study we determine the effect of an maternal nutritional intervention

  10. Temporal stability of personality traits in group-housed gestating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horback, K M; Parsons, T D

    2016-08-01

    The movement of sows (Sus scrofa domesticus) out of individual gestation stalls and into group housing can introduce new sources of stress due to the enhanced environmental and social complexity. Some sows may have the behavioral capacity to adapt to these changes better than others. However, little is known about individual differences in behavioral responses, or personality traits, in gestating sows and how they impact the animal's ability to cope with group housing. The temporal consistency in the assessment of an animal's behavior is a prerequisite to the establishment of personality traits and was addressed at an interval of approximately five months during two consecutive gestation periods in the present study. Forty-six group-housed sows from a commercially available genetic line were assessed for aggressive and social behaviors at mixing into a group, reaction to human approach, ease of handling, exploration of an open field, and reaction to a novel object. Principal component analysis revealed the presence of three traits accounting for over 60% of the variance in behaviors: aggressive/dominant, avoidant of humans and active/exploratory. Individual component scores were significantly correlated between pregnancies demonstrating temporal stability of trait assessment. Significant relationships were found between aggressive/dominant component scores and individual feed rank at electronic sow feeding stations and skin lesion scores, as well as between avoidant of humans component scores and average number of stillbirths per litter. These findings provide evidence for the temporal stability of distinct behaviors contributing to personality traits within a group of genetically similar sows and demonstrate how these traits may be useful in identifying individuals likely to succeed in group housing.

  11. Effects of Gestational Housing on Reproductive Performance and Behavior of Sows with Different Backfat Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of back-fat thickness at d 107 of gestation and housing types during gestation on reproductive performance and behavior of sows. A total of 64 crossbred sows (Landrace×Yorkshire in their 3 to 4 parities were allotted to one of four treatments (n = 16 over two consecutive parities. During each parity, sows were assigned to two gestational housing types (stall or group housing and two level of back-fat thickness (<20 or ≥20 at d 107 of gestation. Gestating sows were transferred from gestational crates to stalls or pens (group housing 5 weeks before farrowing. All sows were moved to farrowing crates on d 109 of gestation. At weaning, back-fat thickness changes were lesser (p<0.05 in sows having back-fat thickness <20 mm than that of sows with ≥20 mm back-fat thickness at 107 d of gestation. Group housed sows had greater (p<0.05 feed intake and shorter (p<0.05 weaning-to-estrus interval than that of sows in stalls. At weaning, back-fat thickness changes were lesser (p<0.05 in group housed sows than that of sows in stalls. The number of piglets at weaning, growth rate and average daily gain were greater (p<0.05 in group housed sows than that of sows in stalls. During gestation, walking duration was more (p<0.05 in group housed sows. Group housed sows had lesser (p<0.05 farrowing duration and greater (p<0.05 eating time than that of sows in stalls. Result obtained in present study indicated that sows with ≥20 mm back-fat thickness at 107 days had better reproductive performance. Additionally, group housing of sows during last five week of gestation improved the performance and behavior and reproductive efficiency of sows.

  12. Sow-activity classification from acceleration patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escalante, Hugo Jair; Rodriguez, Sara V.; Cordero, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    sow-activity classification can be approached with standard machine learning methods for pattern classification. Individual predictions for elements of times series of arbitrary length are combined to classify it as a whole. An extensive comparison of representative learning algorithms, including......This paper describes a supervised learning approach to sow-activity classification from accelerometer measurements. In the proposed methodology, pairs of accelerometer measurements and activity types are considered as labeled instances of a usual supervised classification task. Under this scenario...... neural networks, support vector machines, and ensemble methods, is presented. Experimental results are reported using a data set for sow-activity classification collected in a real production herd. The data set, which has been widely used in related works, includes measurements from active (Feeding...

  13. Ammonia volatilization from sows on grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, S. G.; Søgaard, H. T.; Møller, H. B.; Morsing, S.

    According to regulations, sows with piglets on organic farms must graze on pastures. Volatilization of ammonia (NH 3) from urine patches may represent a significant source of nitrogen (N) loss from these farms. Inputs of N are low on organic farms and losses may reduce crop production. This study examined spatial variations in NH 3 volatilization using a movable dynamic chamber, and the pH and total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in the topsoil of pastures with grazing sows was measured during five periods between June 1998 and May 1999. Gross NH 3 volatilization from the pastures was also measured with an atmospheric mass balance technique during seven periods from September 1997 until June 1999. The dynamic chamber study showed a high variation in NH 3 volatilization because of the distribution of urine; losses were between 0 and 2.8 g NH 3-N m -2 day -1. Volatilization was highest near the feeding area and the huts, where the sows tended to urinate. Ammonia volatilization rate was linearly related to the product of NH 3 concentration in the boundary layer and wind speed. The NH 3 in the boundary layer was in equilibrium with NH 3 in soil solution. Gross NH 3 volatilization was in the range 0.07-2.1 kg NH 3-N ha -1 day -1 from a pasture with 24 sows ha -1. Ammonia volatilization was related to the amount of feed given to the sows, incident solar radiation and air temperature during measuring periods, and also to temperature, incident solar radiation and rain 1-2 days before measurements. Annual ammonia loss was 4.8 kg NH 3-N sow -1.

  14. Carbon balances for in vitro digestion an fermentation of potential roughages for pregnant sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, P.M.; Gelder, van A.H.; Wikselaar, van P.G.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Cone, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Ad libitum feeding of pregnant sows requires satiating, intake-restricting feed components to prevent sows from getting excessively fat. Because hindgut fermentation starts only after and proceeds much slower than enzymatic digestion in the small intestine, fermentation products might, as nutrients,

  15. Infant feeding practices within a large electronic medical record database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Emily; Park, Alison L; Young, Jacqueline; Ray, Joel G; Tu, Karen

    2018-01-02

    The emerging adoption of the electronic medical record (EMR) in primary care enables clinicians and researchers to efficiently examine epidemiological trends in child health, including infant feeding practices. We completed a population-based retrospective cohort study of 8815 singleton infants born at term in Ontario, Canada, April 2002 to March 2013. Newborn records were linked to the Electronic Medical Record Administrative data Linked Database (EMRALD™), which uses patient-level information from participating family practice EMRs across Ontario. We assessed exclusive breastfeeding patterns using an automated electronic search algorithm, with manual review of EMRs when the latter was not possible. We examined the rate of breastfeeding at visits corresponding to 2, 4 and 6 months of age, as well as sociodemographic factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding. Of the 8815 newborns, 1044 (11.8%) lacked breastfeeding information in their EMR. Rates of exclusive breastfeeding were 39.5% at 2 months, 32.4% at 4 months and 25.1% at 6 months. At age 6 months, exclusive breastfeeding rates were highest among mothers aged ≥40 vs. database.

  16. High-Fibre feeding in gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meunier-Salaün, M.C.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Gestating sows are usually fed low levels of feed, which may not provide sufficient satiety, and does not allow sows to fully fulfil their motivation to express foraging and feeding behaviours. Feed restriction may therefore lead to high occurrences of non-feeding oral activities, including

  17. Delayed or early sowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tippe, Dennis E.; Rodenburg, Jonne; Ast, van Aad; Anten, Niels P.R.; Dieng, Ibnou; Kayeke, Juma; Cissoko, Mamadou; Bastiaans, Lammert

    2017-01-01

    Parasitic weeds are a severe problem in rain-fed rice production ecosystems in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, effects of sowing time of rice on parasitic weed infection and crop yields were investigated. Field experiments were conducted in Striga asiatica-infested upland and Rhamphicarpa

  18. Determination of protein and amino acid requirements of lactating sows using a population-based factorial approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anja Varmløse; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation techniques. BW, back fat thickness of the sow, litter size (LS), average litter gain (LG), dietary energy density and feed intake were inputs to the model. The model was tested using results from the literature, and the values were all within ±1 s.d. of the estimated requirements...... recommendations for lactating sows using a stochastic modeling approach that integrates population variation and uncertainty of key parameters into establishing nutritional recommendations for lactating sows. The requirement for individual sows was calculated using a factorial approach by adding the requirement...... for maintenance and milk. The energy balance of the sows was either negative or zero depending on feed intake being a limiting factor. Some parameters in the model were sow-specific and others were population-specific, depending on state of knowledge. Each simulation was for 1000 sows repeated 100 times using...

  19. Hogthrob: Towards a Sensor Network Infrastructure for Sow Monitoring (wireless sensor network special day)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Leopold, Martin; Madsen, K

    2006-01-01

    We aim at developing a next-generation system for sow monitoring. Today, farmers use RFID based solutions with an ear tag on the sows and a reader located inside the feeding station. This does not allow the farmers to locate a sow in a large pen, or to monitor the life cycle of the sow (detect he...... period, detect injury...). Our goal is to explore the design of a sensor network that supports such functionalities and meets the constraints of this industry in terms of price, energy consumption and availability....

  20. Reproductive performance of sows was improved by administration of a sporing bacillary probiotic (Bacillus subtilis C-3102).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritas, S K; Marubashi, T; Filioussis, G; Petridou, E; Christodoulopoulos, G; Burriel, A R; Tzivara, A; Theodoridis, A; Pískoriková, M

    2015-01-01

    This field study assessed the efficacy of a probiotic based on viable spores of Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (Calsporin; Calpis Co. Ltd., Japan) on the health status and productivity of sows and their litters through 2 full, sequential reproductive cycles from service of the first cycle to weaning of the second cycle. Fifty-six sows were allocated to 2 experimental groups, an untreated control (T1) group and a probiotic-treated (T2) group that received the same basal feed as the T1 group plus the probiotic at an approximate allowance of 30 g/t of feed (3 × 10(5) cfu/g). The offspring of T1 and T2 sows were offered basal and T2 creep feed (3 × 10(5) cfu/g), respectively. Health and zootechnical parameters of sows and piglets were recorded. Feeding the probiotic to sows and piglets resulted in significant benefits, observed in both cycles: 1) improved sow body condition during pregnancy (P T2 sows, while a significant improvement of mean daily gain of piglets from birth to weaning was observed in the first cycle of T2 sows. Microbiological examination of fecal samples showed that probiotic treatment significantly reduced both Escherichia coli and Clostridium spp. in piglet feces, particularly during the second cycle. The data suggested that continuous feed supplementation with the probiotic is beneficial for both sows and piglets, since zootechnical benefits were observed in both cycles.

  1. [Effect of energy intake on production and reproduction characteristics in (breeding) sows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, L A

    1985-04-01

    A total number of 113 first-litter sows and 680 gilts of the Dutch Landrace were used in order to study the effect of energy intake on productive and reproductive characteristics. A high feeding level in normal sows after weaning is essential, not to increase the ovulation rate but rather to improve the condition of the sow and advance oestrus. The experiment with the gilts showed that from the point of view of the cost of the feed consumed and reproductive performance, an energy intake during rearing of more than 2.1 times maintenance will have an adverse effect when adequate protein is given.

  2. 78 FR 27303 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ...-0178] Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron... electron beam and x-ray sources for irradiation of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. This action... CFR part 579) to provide for the safe use of electron beam and x-ray sources for irradiation of...

  3. Sow preferences for farrowing under a cover with and without access to straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Birgitte Iversen; Heiskanen, Teresia; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2010-01-01

    and thus piglet survival we investigated if access to a covered area and ad libitum access to straw would improve maternal behaviour of importance for piglet survival. We used forty-four primiparous sows housed in large individual pens from approximately 2 weeks prior to expected parturition. The sows were...... and the temporal pattern of sow position in relation to position of the cover (left or right side of the pen) was studied. Furthermore, postural and nest-building behaviours were observed, as well as situations where the piglets were either at risk of being crushed or were crushed. The results showed......In semi-natural environments sows often select a protected nest site at farrowing. Investigations of nest site selection under indoor conditions are scarce but suggest that sows prefer to nest and farrow under a covered area. Since feed-back from a functional nest may improve maternal behaviour...

  4. Effects of dietary carbohydrate sources on plasma glucose, insulin and IGF-I levels in multiparous sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, J.G.M.; Soede, N.M.; Aarsse, F.; Laurenssen, B.F.A.; Koopmanschap, R.E.; Brand, van den H.; Kemp, B.

    2012-01-01

    Effects of different carbohydrate sources on plasma glucose, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels were compared to subsequently be able to study effects of insulin-stimulating diets on follicle development in sows. The following feed components were tested in 12 sows during six

  5. Effects of Dextrose Plus Lactose in the Sows Diet on Subsequent Reproductive Performance and within Litter Birth Weigt Variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Enckevort, van L.C.M.; Hoeven, van der E.M.; Kemp, B.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of dextrose plus lactose in sow's feed were tested on subsequent reproductive performance and within litter birth weight variation. During the last week of gestation and lactation, sows were either fed a commercial lactation diet (Control: C), or an isocaloric diet containing 25 g/kg

  6. Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Tamikazu Kume; Tachibana, H.

    2002-01-01

    Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

  7. Electron beam freeforming of stainless steel using solid wire feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanjara, P.; Brochu, M.; Jahazi, M.

    2007-01-01

    The use of electron beam technology for freeforming build-ups on 321 stainless steel substrates was investigated in this work by using 347 stainless steel as a filler metal. The electron beam freeforming studies indicated that line build-ups could be deposited on the substrate material for optimized processing conditions and a slight linear thickening of the re-build occurred as a function of the deposited layer. The evolution in the formation of the Ti (C, N) (Nb, Ti) carbonitrides and Nb (C, N) precipitates was demonstrated to counteract the formation of detrimental Cr-carbides usually observed during welding stainless steels. The mechanical properties of the re-build were similar to the properties of the base metal, showing that homogeneous properties can be expected in the repaired components

  8. Nitrogen and energy metabolism of sows during several reproductive cycles in relation to nitrogen intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, H.

    1994-01-01

    By feeding the same diet during pregnancy and lactation sows are fed above the nitrogen requirement during pregnancy due to the relatively high nitrogen requirement during lactation. For feeding closer to the requirements at least two diets are needed: one diet with a low nitrogen content

  9. The use of multiple imputation for the accurate measurements of individual feed intake by electronic feeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, S; Tiezzi, F; Huang, Y; Gray, K A; Maltecca, C

    2016-02-01

    Obtaining accurate individual feed intake records is the key first step in achieving genetic progress toward more efficient nutrient utilization in pigs. Feed intake records collected by electronic feeding systems contain errors (erroneous and abnormal values exceeding certain cutoff criteria), which are due to feeder malfunction or animal-feeder interaction. In this study, we examined the use of a novel data-editing strategy involving multiple imputation to minimize the impact of errors and missing values on the quality of feed intake data collected by an electronic feeding system. Accuracy of feed intake data adjustment obtained from the conventional linear mixed model (LMM) approach was compared with 2 alternative implementations of multiple imputation by chained equation, denoted as MI (multiple imputation) and MICE (multiple imputation by chained equation). The 3 methods were compared under 3 scenarios, where 5, 10, and 20% feed intake error rates were simulated. Each of the scenarios was replicated 5 times. Accuracy of the alternative error adjustment was measured as the correlation between the true daily feed intake (DFI; daily feed intake in the testing period) or true ADFI (the mean DFI across testing period) and the adjusted DFI or adjusted ADFI. In the editing process, error cutoff criteria are used to define if a feed intake visit contains errors. To investigate the possibility that the error cutoff criteria may affect any of the 3 methods, the simulation was repeated with 2 alternative error cutoff values. Multiple imputation methods outperformed the LMM approach in all scenarios with mean accuracies of 96.7, 93.5, and 90.2% obtained with MI and 96.8, 94.4, and 90.1% obtained with MICE compared with 91.0, 82.6, and 68.7% using LMM for DFI. Similar results were obtained for ADFI. Furthermore, multiple imputation methods consistently performed better than LMM regardless of the cutoff criteria applied to define errors. In conclusion, multiple imputation

  10. Economic weights for maternal traits of sows, including sow longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, P R; Ludemann, C I; Hermesch, S

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a transparent, comprehensive, and flexible model for each trait for the formulation of breeding objectives for sow traits in swine breeding programs. Economic values were derived from submodels considering a typical Australian pig production system. Differences in timing and expressions of traits were accounted for to derive economic weights that were compared on the basis of their relative size after multiplication by their corresponding genetic standard deviation to account for differences in scale and genetic variability present for each trait. The number of piglets born alive had the greatest contribution (27.1%) to a subindex containing only maternal traits, followed by daily gain (maternal; 22.0%) and sow mature weight (15.0%). Other traits considered in the maternal breeding objective were preweaning survival (11.8%), sow longevity (12.5%), gilt age at puberty (8.7%), and piglet survival at birth (3.1%). The economic weights for number of piglets born alive and preweaning piglet survival were found to be highly dependent on the definition of scale of enterprise, with each economic value increasing by approximately 100% when it was assumed that the value of extra output per sow could be captured, rather than assuming a consequent reduction in the number of sows to maintain a constant level of output from a farm enterprise. In the context of a full maternal line index that must account also for the expression of direct genetic traits by the growing piglet progeny of sows, the maternal traits contributed approximately half of the variation in the overall breeding objective. Deployment of more comprehensive maternal line indexes incorporating the new maternal traits described would lead to more balanced selection outcomes and improved survival of pigs. Future work could facilitate evaluation of the economic impacts of desired-gains indexes, which could further improve animal welfare through improved sow and piglet

  11. Bioeconomic evaluation of sow longevity and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Southey, B R; Knox, R V; Connor, J F; Lowe, J F; Roskamp, B J

    2003-12-01

    Sow production indicators, including litter size, litter weight, and the length of time that sows remained in the herd (sow longevity), were used to characterize sow performance and profitability. Sow longevity and production records from 148,568 sows in 32 commercial herds from Central Illinois from January 1995 to May 2001 were analyzed using survival and repeatability models, respectively. The factors studied included sow genetics (32 genetic lines), with eight major lines present in multiple herds, and the combination of herd and year of entry in the herd. The largest difference in longevity between the major genetic lines was approximately one parity. There were differences (P present value per sow (present value of future cash flows and the present value of the sow) was used to evaluate the effect of sow longevity and production traits on economic returns. Assuming a zero discount rate per parity, genetic lines with longer herd life resulted in greater profit than genetic lines with shorter herd life. This difference was reduced with increasing discount rates and was reversed with high discount rates and low net income per litter. These results suggest that the magnitude of the economic improvement attained through the use of sow genetic lines with longer longevity depends on the economic context under which the evaluation is made.

  12. Disease behaviours of sows naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Johansen, Maria Vang; Mkupasi, Ernatus Martin; Ngowi, Helena Aminel; Forkman, Björn

    2017-02-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a disease caused by the zoonotic parasite Taenia solium lodging in the central nervous system. Both humans and pigs can get NCC. The impact of the disease in pigs has so far been little explored. The aim of this study was to describe the effect of NCC on social and feeding behaviours as well as the pattern of activity as indicators of reduced welfare in naturally infected sows. In total 13 T. solium naturally infected and 15 non-infected control sows were videotaped for 2 consecutive weeks using close circuit television cameras at research facilities at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania. Videos were analysed at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the 2 week recording period. For each time point, videos were analysed during feeding, while the enrichment was provided, and by recording every half an hour the sows' behaviours performed over the course of a whole day. Sows with NCC spent significantly less time at the feeding trough, especially during the second half of the feeding period. Infected sows were also more passive e.g. lying and standing still significantly more during a whole day period and showed social isolation compared to non-infected control sows by performing behaviours more distant to their nearest neighbour. Results of this study indicated that NCC changed the behaviour of infected sows. The behavioural changes are indicative of decreased welfare. Efforts to reinforce the animal welfare aspect are needed as this has so far been neglected. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of stereotypic behaviour in sows fed a starch diet or a non-starch polysaccharide diet during gestation and lactation over two parities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Kemp, B.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Hartog, den L.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of feeding sows a starch diet or a diet with a high level of fermentable non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) during gestation, lactation or both gestation and lactation over the first two parities on the development of stereotypic behaviour was studied in sows housed in groups during

  14. SELFADJUSTING AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF SOWING UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Izmaylov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The selfadjusting automatic control of sowing unit and differentiated introduction of mineral fertilizers doses according to agrochemical indicators of the soil (precision agriculture are used wider nowadays. It was defined that the main requirement to the differentiated seeding and fertilizing is an accuracy and duration of transition from one norm to another. Established that at a speed of unit of 10 km/h object moves for 0.5 s about on 1.5 m and more. Thus in this device the radio channel originated differentiated correction is updated in 10 s, and in the RTK mode - 0.5-2 s that breaks the accuracy of introduction of seeds and fertilizers. The block schematic diagram of system of automatic control of technological process of seeding and mineral fertilizing with use of navigation means of machine-tractor aggregates orientation in the field and technical means for realization of technology of precision agriculture at sowing and fertilizers application due to electronic maps of soil fertility and navigation satellite systems was worked out. It was noted that for regulation of a fertilizing dose it is necessary to complete the unit with the electric drive, and for error reduction use navigation GLONASS, GPS, Galileo receivers. To tracking of four leading navigation systems GPS/GLONASS/Galileo/Compass receiver with 32 canals developed by domestic-owned firm «KB NAVIS» was suggested. It was established that the automated device created by All-Russia Research Institute of Mechanization for Agriculture information based on NAVSTAR and GLONASS/GPS system successfully operates seeding and make possible the differentiate fertilizing.

  15. Long-term performance and behavior of sows fed high levels of non-starch polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to investigate the long-term effects of feeding sows high levels of dietary fermentable non-starch polysaccharides CNSP) (i.e., NSP from sugar beet pulp) restrictedly or ad libitum during gestation or ad libitum during lactation on behavior, reproductive

  16. Genetic parameters and predicted selection results for maternal traits related to lactation efficiency in sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergsma, R.; Kanis, E.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2008-01-01

    The increased productivity of sows increases the risk of a more pronounced negative energy balance during lactation. One possibility to prevent this is to increase the lactation efficiency (LE) genetically and thereby increase milk output for a given feed intake and mobilization of body tissue. The

  17. Biosecurity in 121 Danish sow herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Mortensen, Sten; Houe, H.

    2003-01-01

    Herds are under constant risk of introducing new pathogens from different sources. In this article we describe biosecurity practices in Danish sow herds. Between December 1, 1999 and February 29, 2000, 121 sow units were interviewed regarding biosecurity on the site. The questionnaire contained 6...

  18. Designing ETL Tools to Feed a Data Warehouse Based on Electronic Healthcare Record Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, Fabrizio; Luzi, Daniela; Ricci, Fabrizio L

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to design Extract, Transform and Load (ETL) tools in a clinical data warehouse architecture based on the Electronic Healthcare Record (EHR). This approach takes advantages on the use of this infrastructure as one of the main source of information to feed the data warehouse, taking also into account that clinical documents produced by heterogeneous legacy systems are structured using the HL7 CDA standard. This paper describes the main activities to be performed to map the information collected in the different types of document with the dimensional model primitives.

  19. Development of a high power electron beam welding gun with replaceable high voltage feed-through insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, T.K; Mascarenhas, M.; Kandaswamy, E., E-mail: tanmay@barc.gov.in [Power Beam Equipment Design Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-07-01

    Ceramic to metal sealed feed-through insulators are commonly used in electron beam welding gun. The above feed-through insulators are susceptible to failure, as the brazing joints in them are not always very strong. Failure in one of these feed-through could render the complete gun unusable. This problem has already been faced in BARC, which led to the development of the electron gun with replaceable feed through insulators. A 24 kW Electron Beam Welding (EBW) gun with indigenous designed replaceable insulators is fabricated in BARC. Emphasis during the design of the gun had been to reduce the use of imported components to zero. This paper describes the design and fabrication of this gun and reports various simulations and tests performed. Beam trajectory of the gun is numerically computed and presented. Weld passes were carried out on stainless steel plates show satisfactory penetrations. (author)

  20. Evaluation of high nutrient diets on litter performance of heat-stressed lactating sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohan Choi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study investigated the litter performance of multiparous sows fed 3% and 6% densified diets at farrowing to weaning during summer with mean maximum room temperature of 30.5°C. Methods A total of 60 crossbred multiparous sows were allotted to one of three treatments based on body weight according to a completely randomized design. Three different nutrient levels based on NRC were applied as standard diet (ST; metabolizable energy, 3,300 kcal/kg, high nutrient level 1 (HE1; ST+3% higher energy and 16.59% protein and high nutrient level 2 (HE2; ST+6% higher energy and 17.04% protein. Results There was no variation in the body weight change. However, backfat thickness change tended to reduce in HE1 in comparison to ST treatment. Dietary treatments had no effects on feed intake, daily energy intake and weaning-to-estrus interval in lactating sows. Litter size, litter weight at weaning and average daily gain of piglets were significantly greater in sows in HE1 compared with ST, however, no difference was observed between HE2 and ST. Increasing the nutrient levels had no effects on the blood urea nitrogen, glucose, triglyceride, and creatinine at post-farrowing and weaning time. The concentration of follicle stimulating hormone, cortisol and insulin were not affected by dietary treatments either in post-farrowing or weaning time. The concentration of blood luteinizing hormone of sows in ST treatment was numerically less than sows in HE2 treatment at weaning. Milk and colostrum compositions such as protein, fat and lactose were not affected by the treatments. Conclusion An energy level of 3,400 kcal/kg (14.23 MJ/kg with 166 g/kg crude protein is suggested as the optimal level of dietary nutrients for heat stressed lactating sows with significant beneficial effects on litter size.

  1. Nutritional strategies to cope with reduced litter weight gain and total tract digestibility in lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Rodríguez, J; Mir, L; Seradj, A R; Morazán, H; Balcells, J; Babot, D

    2017-10-01

    Twelve lactating sows were used to evaluate the effects of reducing dietary crude protein (CP) (14% vs. 12%) and increasing neutral detergent fibre (NDF) levels (18% vs. 22%) on litter performance, total tract apparent digestibility and manure composition in a 4 × 4 latin square arrangement during a 36-day lactation period. Diets were isoenergetic (2.9 Mcal ME/kg) and had similar total lysine content (0.9%). In addition, a second aim was to compare a reference external marker method (Cr 2 O 3 ) with an internal feed marker [acid-insoluble ash (AIA)] for the calculation of apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients in lactating sows. The reduction of dietary CP level in lactating sows had no effect on either live-weight or backfat thickness or apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients. However, the piglets' average daily gain (ADG) was reduced in low dietary CP diets, which suggests that sows reduced milk production due to an underestimation of certain essential amino acid requirements (e.g. valine). The increase of dietary NDF level did not affect sow and litter performance. Nevertheless, the total tract apparent digestibility of organic matter, CP and carbohydrates was reduced, and ether extract digestion was increased in high NDF compared to normal NDF diets equally balanced for ME and lysine content. The coefficients of total tract apparent digestibility of nutrients in lactating sows were greater when using AIA compared to Cr 2 O 3 marker, regardless of dietary CP or NDF level, but their coefficients of variation were lower in the former than in the latter. In lactating sows, a trade-off between litter performance and nutrient digestion is established when reducing dietary CP or increasing NDF levels while maintaining similar lysine content through synthetic amino acids and balancing metabolizable energy through dietary fat sources. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. The Primary Care Electronic Library: RSS feeds using SNOMED-CT indexing for dynamic content delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Judas; de Lusignan, Simon; Kostkova, Patty; Madge, Bruce; Marsh, A; Biniaris, C

    2006-01-01

    Rich Site Summary (RSS) feeds are a method for disseminating and syndicating the contents of a website using extensible mark-up language (XML). The Primary Care Electronic Library (PCEL) distributes recent additions to the site in the form of an RSS feed. When new resources are added to PCEL, they are manually assigned medical subject headings (MeSH terms), which are then automatically mapped to SNOMED-CT terms using the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus. The library is thus searchable using MeSH or SNOMED-CT. Our syndicate partner wished to have remote access to PCEL coronary heart disease (CHD) information resources based on SNOMED-CT search terms. To pilot the supply of relevant information resources in response to clinically coded requests, using RSS syndication for transmission between web servers. Our syndicate partner provided a list of CHD SNOMED-CT terms to its end-users, a list which was coded according to UMLS specifications. When the end-user requested relevant information resources, this request was relayed from our syndicate partner's web server to the PCEL web server. The relevant resources were retrieved from the PCEL MySQL database. This database is accessed using a server side scripting language (PHP), which enables the production of dynamic RSS feeds on the basis of Source Asserted Identifiers (CODEs) contained in UMLS. Retrieving resources using SNOMED-CT terms using syndication can be used to build a functioning application. The process from request to display of syndicated resources took less than one second. The results of the pilot illustrate that it is possible to exchange data between servers using RSS syndication. This method could be utilised dynamically to supply digital library resources to a clinical system with SNOMED-CT data used as the standard of reference.

  3. Segmentation of sows in farrowing pens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Gang Jun; Karstoft, Henrik; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2014-01-01

    The correct segmentation of a foreground object in video recordings is an important task for many surveillance systems. The development of an effective and practical algorithm to segment sows in grayscale video recordings captured under commercial production conditions is described...

  4. Herd- and sow-related risk factors for lameness in organic and conventional sow herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knage-Rasmussen, Kristian Møllegaard; Houe, Hans; Rousing, Tine

    2014-01-01

    included in the study were clinical parameters and factors related to the production system. Sows were examined visually by one of four trained observers. The organic sows were assigned scores for lameness, body condition, hoof length, bursitis, abscesses and leg wounds, while the conventional sows were...... assigned scores for lameness, body condition and bursitis. A multivariable analysis was carried out by logistic regression with the herd and observer as random effects. The average herd lameness prevalence in gestation and lactation sows in organic herds was 11% in summer/autumn and 4.6% in winter....../spring. ‘Wounds, bursitis and abscess’ on legs (OR=4.7, P3 (OR=1.79, P=0.008) were associated with increased risk of lameness in Danish organic sow herds. Season (winter/spring v. summer/autumn) lowered the risk of lameness (OR=0.37, P

  5. Alternatives to sowing vegetable type soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edcarlos Mannfredini

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, soybean crops of the Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar are sown in beds prior to transplantation to the field. This planting system has caused crop failure due to damage to the root system. An experiment to test different sowing alternatives to obtain plantlets for cropping of food type big seeded soybean was set up with the following treatments: sowing in beds; sowing in 130 cm³ newspaper cups; sowing in test tubes of volumes of 30 cm³, 60 cm³ and 70 cm³; sowing in 70 cm³ disposable plastic cups; sowing on 90 cm³ styrofoam trays. A randomized complete block design was used, and the following traits were assessed: germination percentage; number of days to flowering; plant height at flowering; number of days to maturity; plant height at maturity; number of seeds per plant; individual plant yield; weight of a hundred seeds. Results should that three methods could be used to set up Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar crops: sowing in disposable plastic cups, sowing in beds with later transplant, or direct sowing in the field.Atualmente, as lavouras com o cultivar Tamba Kurodaisu são semeadas em canteiros, para posterior transplante no campo. Este sistema tem causado falhas na lavoura, por ocorrer danificação no sistema radicular. Com o objetivo de testar diferentes alternativas de semeadura para obtenção de mudas visando a implantação de lavouras de soja tipo alimento, com sementes graúdas, instalou-se um experimento com os seguintes tratamentos: Semeadura em canteiros; Semeadura em copos de jornal, com volume (V igual a 130 cm³; Semeadura em tubetes, com V = 30 cm³; V = 60 cm³; V = 70 cm³; Semeadura em copos plásticos descartáveis, com V = 70 cm³; Semeadura em bandejas de isopor, com V = 90cm³. O delineamento utilizado foi blocos casualizados, tendo sido avaliados os seguintes caracteres: Porcentagem de germinação; Número de plantas por parcela; Número de dias para o florescimento; Altura da planta no florescimento; Número de dias

  6. Triennial Growth Symposium--Effects of dietary 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and cholecalciferol on blood vitamin D and mineral status, bone turnover, milk composition, and reproductive performance of sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, G M; Witschi, A-K M; Wenk, C; Martens, H

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the role of vitamin D3 during gestation and lactation of sows, 2 independent experiments were performed with the aim of investigating sow reproductive performance, milk composition (study 1 only), and changes in blood status of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3), 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)2-D3; study 2 only), minerals, and bone markers of sows during gestation and lactation. Study 1 comprised 39 primi- and multiparous crossbred sows fed 1 of 3 barley meal-based diets fortified with 200 IU/kg vitamin D3 (NRC, 1998; treatment DL), 2,000 IU/kg vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol; treatment DN), or 50 μg 25-OH-D3 (calcidiol; treatment HD)/kg feed. This study was conducted over a 4-parity period under controlled conditions. Study 2, running over 1 parity only, was performed in a commercial farm with 227 primi- and multiparous sows allocated to 2 dietary treatments: control (CON), receiving 2,000 IU vitamin D3/kg (equivalent to 50 μg/kg) feed (114 sows), and test (HYD), supplemented with 50 μg 25-OH-D3/kg feed (113 sows). Blood samples of sows were collected at 84 and 110d postcoitum and 1, 5, and 33 d postpartum (study 1) and at insemination and 28 and 80 d postinsemination as well as d 5 and 28 postpartum (study 2). Colostrum and milk samples in study 1 were obtained at 1, 9, and 33 d of lactation after oxytocin administration. Plasma 25-OH-D3 concentrations were increased (P < 0.05) in sows receiving 25-OH-D3 (HD and HYD) at any time of sampling whereas circulating plasma concentrations of 1,25-(OH)2-D3, Ca, and P were not affected by treatment. Milk concentrations of Ca and P were similar, but 25-OH-D3 content (except in colostrum) was clearly increased (P< 0.05) when 25-OH-D3 was fed. Most characteristics of sow reproductive performance responded similarly to the 2 sources and levels of vitamin D3, but weight gain of piglets between birth and weaning was decreased (P< 0.05) in offspring of DL and HD sows compared with animals of treatment DN

  7. Sowing seasons and quality of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ávila Marizangela Rizzatti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the difficulties of producing high quality soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] seeds during the traditional cropping period in some areas of the State of Paraná, Brazil, a research project was carried out with the objective of evaluating the influence of sowing dates on the physiological and sanitary quality of seeds, during the 1998/99 and 1999/00 cropping seasons, in Maringá, PR, Brazil. The experiment consisted of five cultivar competition assays, arranged in a completely randomized block design, with each assay sown at different dates (10/15, 10/30, 11/15, 11/30 and 12/15 for each cropping season. The evaluated cultivars were BRS 132 (early, BRS 133 (semi-early, BR 16 (semi-early, BRS 134 (intermediate and FT- Estrela (late. Seeds obtained at the sowing dates were evaluated in the laboratory by germination, accelerated aging, and health tests. Sowing in November resulted in seeds with superior physiological and health quality. Cultivar BRS 133 showed the greatest stability in seed production with better quality for the different sowing dates. Cultivars BRS 134 and BRS 133, which were sown during the period from 10/15 to 11/30, produced seeds that had higher percentages of normal seedlings in the germination and accelerated aging tests. Advancing or delaying sowing dates had adverse effects on soybean seed production with regard to their sanitary quality.

  8. Effect of ultraviolet rays upon the productivity and adaptive possibilities of sows raised under industrial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, S.; Benkov, M.; Panev, P.; Zlatev, D.

    1983-01-01

    Two experiments, aimed at establishing the effect of treatment with UV-rays on productivity of sows, the growth rate of pigs up to weaning, their adaptive reactions, and the micro-climate on the premises were carried out with 60 sows, divided into two groups: group i (controls) raised on premises without treatment with UV-rays, and group ii (experimental) raised on premises under treatment with UV-rays. Both nursing sows and piglets until their weaning were raised under industrial conditions. Type PRK-2 mercury lamp of 120 V, 3.75 A, and 375 W was used as a source of UV-rays. Each animal was exposed to irradiation daily for a period of 2 min. The live weight of sows, prolificacy, live weight of pigs at weaning and number of culled pigs during the sucking period, were checked. The adaptive reactions of sows and pigs were examined by ACT-hormon testing. Before treatment and 3 h after treatment with this hormone leucocyte, eosinophile and erythrocyte count and the haemoglobin, Ca, blood sugar, total protein, albumin and globulin in the blood were checked. The temperature, moisture, velocity of movement and gas composition of air were measured prior to blood sampling. Under the conditions existing in industrial pig-breeding complexes ensuring complete feeding of animals UV-treatment did not produce essential effects on the productivity of sows and the growth rate of pigs as well as on the adaptive reactions of animals and the micro-climate on the premises

  9. Effect of ultraviolet rays upon the productivity and adaptive possibilities of sows raised under industrial conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanova, S; Benkov, M; Panev, P; Zlatev, D [Pig-Breeding Research Institute, Shumen (Bulgaria)

    1983-01-01

    Two experiments, aimed at establishing the effect of treatment with UV-rays on productivity of sows, the growth rate of pigs up to weaning, their adaptive reactions, and the micro-climate on the premises were carried out with 60 sows, divided into two groups: group i (controls) raised on premises without treatment with UV-rays, and group ii (experimental) raised on premises under treatment with UV-rays. Both nursing sows and piglets until their weaning were raised under industrial conditions. Type PRK-2 mercury lamp of 120 V, 3.75 A, and 375 W was used as a source of UV-rays. Each animal was exposed to irradiation daily for a period of 2 min. The live weight of sows, prolificacy, live weight of pigs at weaning and number of culled pigs during the sucking period, were checked. The adaptive reactions of sows and pigs were examined by ACTH-hormone testing. Before treatment and 3 h after treatment with this hormone leucocyte, eosinophile and erythrocyte count and the hemoglobin, Ca, blood sugar, total protein, albumin and globulin in the blood were checked. The temperature, moisture, velocity of movement and gas composition of air were measured prior to blood sampling. Under the conditions existing in industrial pig-breeding complexes ensuring complete feeding of animals UV-treatment did not produce essential effects on the productivity of sows and the growth rate of pigs as well as on the adaptive reactions of animals and the micro-climate on the premises.

  10. Heat stress in pregnant sows: Thermal responses and subsequent performance of sows and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy, Matthew C; Safranski, Timothy J

    2017-09-01

    Seasonal infertility is a significant problem in the swine industry, and may be influenced by photoperiod and heat stress. Heat stress during gestation in particular affects pregnancy, resulting in long-term developmental damage to the offspring. This review summarizes what is known about how heat stress on the pregnant sow affects lactation and her offspring. Sows responded to heat stress during gestation with increased rectal temperature, respiration rate, and skin temperature, and tended to reduce their activity-which may have changed their body composition, increasing the adipose-to-muscle ratio. Heat stress during gestation caused temporary insulin resistance during lactation, but this metabolic state did not seem to affect health, lactation, or rebreeding performance of the sow. Heat-stressed sows also presented with a shorter gestation period and reduced litter birth weight, although weaning weights are not affected when these sows are moved to thermoneutral conditions for lactation. The offspring of gestational heat-stressed sows, however, possessed unique phenotypes, including elevated body temperature, greater fat deposition, and impaired gonad development. Thus, gestational heat stress may significantly impact a herd through its effects on sows and their offspring. Further work is necessary to determine the magnitude of the effects across fa cilities and breeds. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Application of NMR-based metabonomics suggests a relationship between betaine absorption and elevated creatine plasma concentrations in catheterised sows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yde, C.C.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Bertram, H.C.; Bach Knudsen, K.E.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present explorative study was to determine the absorption dynamics when feeding diets varying in types and levels of dietary fibre in a catheterised animal model. A total of six sows were fed a diet low in fibre (LF), a diet high in soluble fibre and a diet high in insoluble

  12. Comparable cortisol, heart rate and milk let-down in nurse sows and non-nurse sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amdi, C.; Moustsen, V. A.; Oxholm, L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing litter size in hyperprolific sows has led to the need for management systems for surplus piglets, one of which is the use of nurse sows. The aim of this study was to investigate physiological changes in salivary cortisol, heart rate and number of milk let-downs in nurse sows compared...... to non-nurse sows. Sows were divided into three treatments: 1) control (non-nurse) sows nursed their own piglets until weaning at 26 days of age; 2) nurse1 sows had their own piglets removed and replaced with newborn piglets (between 6−24 h old) at Day 7, these were weaned at Day 33 of the sow......'s lactation period and 3) nurse2 sows weaned their own piglets at Day 21 and received a litter of 7 day old piglets from a nurse1 sow. These new piglets were weaned at Day 40 of the nurse2 sow's lactation period. Saliva samples were collected for cortisol analyses and the sows were fitted with pulse belts...

  13. Electronic module for control of sample feeding device of spectrometers of X-ray fluorescent analysis of CRV type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, V.A.; Fursov, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    The scheme of electronic module for sample feeding device control for the CRV type X-ray fluorescence analysis spectrometers is considered. This module provides realization of next functions: sample change operations and installation in starting position; signaling and defense at emergency cases; indication of any sample amount in the spectrometer chamber; testing function at tuning and testing of modules. All these principal functions are entrusted with microcontroller. Programming of the microcontroller is putting into effect by algorithm of the whole sample feeding device. In the capacity of microcontroller the single crystalline processor PICI16C54 and stepping motor of NV-306-V2202 model have been used

  14. The effect of supplementing sow and piglet diets with different forms of iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliny Kétilim Novais

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chelated iron supplementation on gestating and lactating sows and on their suckling and weaned piglets. Reproductive traits, piglet performance, hematological parameters, and the iron concentrations in colostrum, milk, and stillborn livers were measured. Ninety-six sows were subjected to one of three treatment groups. Group T1 comprised pregnant and lactating sows treated with diets supplemented with inorganic iron (551 mg Fe/kg and suckling piglets administered 200 mg of injectable iron dextran. Group T2 was the same as T1, except that sows after 84 days of gestation, lactating sows, and suckling piglets were fed a diet supplemented with 150 mg Fe/kg of chelated iron, and suckling piglets were administered injectable iron dextran. Group T3 was the same as T2 but without injectable iron dextran for suckling piglets. During the nursery phase, all of the weaned piglets were penned with their original groups or treatments and received isonutritive and isocaloric feeds. Piglets from the T2 and T3 groups also received an additional 150 mg Fe/kg of chelated iron via their feed. There were no differences among the treatments for reproductive traits or the iron concentrations in the colostrum, milk, or liver. The piglets that did not receive the injectable iron dextran showed the poorest performance during the pre-and post-weaning phases and showed the poorest hematological parameters of the suckling piglets. The chelated iron supplementation is insufficient to meet piglet demand. The iron dextran supply is necessary for suckling and weaned piglets.

  15. Effect of pad-fan cooling and dietary organic acid supplementation during late gestation and lactation on reproductive performance and antioxidant status of multiparous sows in hot weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Guo, Ji; Guan, Wu-Tai; Song, Jun-Jie; Deng, Zi-Xiao; Cheng, Lin; Deng, Yue-Lin; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Shi-Hai; Zhang, Yin-Zi; Yang, Fei; Ren, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Chao-Xian

    2018-06-01

    A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (rearing room with or without pad-fan cooling × diet with or without 2.5 kg/t organic acid) was used to evaluate the effect of pad-fan cooling and dietary organic acid supplementation during perinatal period on reproductive performance and antioxidant status of sows in hot weather. This study was conducted in a subtropical city in Guangdong Province in South China between August and October, 2015. At day 85 of gestation, a total of 112 sows were randomly assigned to the four treatments with 28 sows per treatment, and maintained until day 21 of lactation, and the feeding trial lasted for 51 days. During the experimental period, room temperature and humidity were recorded hourly. The lactation feed intake of sows (P = 0.109) and stillbirths (P fan cooling against the room without pad-fan cooling. The number of weak newborns per litter and the malondialdehyde content in days 14 and 21 milk decreased (P fan cooling in rearing room improved the lactation feed intake of sows, and dietary organic acid supplementation improved reproductive performance and milk antioxidant status of sows. Pad-fan cooling is recommended in farrowing room, but not in gestating room.

  16. Sowing pregerminated northern red oak acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman; Gilbert A. Mattson

    1992-01-01

    Northern red oak is extremely difficult to regenerate, although it has produced good acorn crops nearly half of the last 32 years in northern Wisconsin. Field trials have shown that for successful seeding, you must protect acorns from predation by wildlife and sow them when temperatures are most favorable for germination.

  17. Reproductive performance of "nurse sows" in Danish piggeries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, T. S.; Williams, Charlotte Amdi; Vinther, J.

    2016-01-01

    in the subsequent litter. Nurse sows were defined as sows weaning their own litter at least 18 days postpartum and thereafter nursing another litter (nurse litter) before service. Data (2012–2013) from 20 piggeries with more than 14.5 live born piglets per litter and a stable distribution of sows among parities...... piglets, whereas non-nurse weaned 11.7 piglets in their single weaning. There was no difference in re-service rate between nurse and non-nurse sows in the subsequent reproductive cycle. Subsequent litter size in the next reproductive cycle was higher for nurse sows than that for non-nurse sows (18.69 vs...... birth to more piglets compared to non-nurse sows in their subsequent litter....

  18. Impact of sow and litter characteristics on colostrum yield, time for onset of lactation, and milk yield of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadmand, Camilla Nielsen; Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Hansen, Christian Fink

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the concurrent impact of sow and litter characteristics on sow productivity. Sow productivity was defined as colostrum yield (CY), onset of lactation (the time point when milk secretion increased steeply, approximately 31 h postpartum), transition milk...... litter equlization, none of the observed independent variables were related with time for onset of lactation. In conclusion, when maximizing sow productivity in the future, it may be rewarding to pay attention to sow productivity in the colostrum period and around time for onset of lactation, and special...

  19. A sow replacement model using Bayesian updating in a three-level hierarchic Markov process. I. Biological model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard; Søllested, Thomas Algot

    2004-01-01

    that really uses all these methodological improvements. In this paper, the biological model describing the performance and feed intake of sows is presented. In particular, estimation of herd specific parameters is emphasized. The optimization model is described in a subsequent paper......Several replacement models have been presented in literature. In other applicational areas like dairy cow replacement, various methodological improvements like hierarchical Markov processes and Bayesian updating have been implemented, but not in sow models. Furthermore, there are methodological...... improvements like multi-level hierarchical Markov processes with decisions on multiple time scales, efficient methods for parameter estimations at herd level and standard software that has been hardly implemented at all in any replacement model. The aim of this study is to present a sow replacement model...

  20. Do nurse sows and foster litters have impaired animal welfare? Results from a cross-sectional study in sow herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Rousing, Tine; Kudahl, Anne Braad

    2016-01-01

    Increasing litter size has led to introduction of so-called nurse sows in several EU countries. A nurse sow is a sow receiving piglets after having weaned her own piglets and thereby experiencing an extended lactation. In order to analyse whether nurse sows have more welfare problems than non.......5), swollen bursae on legs, dew claw wounds, vulva lesions, poor hygiene, poor skin condition, shoulder lesions and cuts and wounds on the udder. Explanatory variables included in the eight models were: nurse sow (yes=1/no=0), age of piglets (weeks old, 1 to 7), parity (1 to 8+) and all first order...... interactions between these three variables. The effect of using nurse sows on piglet welfare was analysed with five models. The outcomes were: huddling, poor hygiene, lameness, snout cuts and carpal abrasions. The explanatory variables included in the five models were: nurse sow (yes=1/no=0), age of piglets...

  1. Effect of pre-sowing gamma-irradiation (Cs-137) of alfalfa seeds on fodder and seed yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, Z.; Topchieva, A.; Michev, G.; Simeonova, L.; Stoyanov, S.

    1983-01-01

    The study was carried out at the experimental base of the Fodder Institute of Feeds, Pleven, with alfalfa cv. Pleven 6 in three field trials. The effect of pre-sowing gamma-irradiation (Cs-137) of air dry seeds at rates of 1000, 1300 and 1600 R on the yield produced was studied in the first trial (1980-1982). The effect of pre-sowing gamma-irradiation (Cs-137) of the seeds on seed production was studied in the second trial. Gamma-ray doses of 500, 1000 and 1500 R and three sowing rates (3, 5 and 10 kg/ha) were tested. The after effect of gamma-irradiation on the progeny was studied in the first trial (1981-1982). It was found that the treatment tested had a stimulating effect on seed production yields. Highest stimulating effect for the period of investigation, on the average, was observed with the 1500 R dose and the 3 kg/ha sowing rate. The same treatment produced highest net income. The gamma-ray doses tested had no radiation after-effect on the plant progeny. Sowing rates had a considerable effect on seed yield. In this respect the 3 kg/ha rate surpasses the 5 and 10 kg/ha rates by 6.00 and 19.64%, on the average. The 1000, 1300 and 1600 R gamma-ray doses had no stimulating effect on fodder yield

  2. Influence of sowing dates on phenological development and yield of dual purpose wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munsif, F.; Arif, M.; Ali, K.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-purpose wheat is getting recognition among community in diverse farming systems. Success of the system depends on management decisions regarding appropriate sowing dates, choice of cultivars, harvesting time and stage. A comprehensive understanding of how these factors influence the growth and phenology of dual purpose wheat is needed for comparison of grain only wheat to dual purpose system to feed the ever increasing population under this system. The existing higher yielding varieties (Saleem-2000, Bathoor-2007, Fakhre Sarhad-99, Uqab-2000, Siran-2008, and Ghaznavi-98) of wheat were sown on various planting dates from early to normal (15th, 30th October and 14th November) and were given cut after 70 days of sowing. The experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design having split plot arrangement with three replications. Results of the study indicated that booting, heading and physiological maturity were significantly influenced by planting dates, among the cultivars and cutting imposed 70 days after sowing. Mid October sowing prolonged booting, heading, anthesis, maturity and had long stature plants and higher grain yield than sowing in mid November. Uqab-2000 booted, headed and reached to anthesis and maturity earlier followed by Ghaznavi-98, Bathoor-2007 and Saleem-2000. Uqab-2000 and Siran-2008 had higher grain yield than other cultivars. Booting, heading, anthesis and maturity were significantly delayed in cutting as compared to no cut plots. Wheat varieties Bathoor-2007, Uqab-2000 and Fakhre Sarhad-99 produced taller plants compared to Saleem-2000. It is concluded that early sowing on mid October had prolonged phenological traits and higher yield of wheat with long stature plants than later sowing (15th November) and variety Fakhre Sarhad-99 unlike Uqab-2000 was late with respect to phenological development. Cutting prior to stem elongation had not delayed the maturity from three days without substantial yield reduction which revealed that

  3. Survey among Belgian pig producers about the introduction of group housing systems for gestating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyttens, F A M; Van Gansbeke, S; Ampe, B

    2011-03-01

    There is a global move from individual to group housing of gestating sows. In the European Union, individual gestating stalls will be banned by 2013. Just like in other industrialized regions, these stalls have been the standard housing system for intensively kept sows from the 1960s onward in the Flemish region of Belgium. Because the socioeconomic consequences for the pig industry may be far-reaching and because farmer attitude may influence the realization of the hoped-for improvement in animal welfare in practice, we conducted a survey from 2003 until 2009 among representative samples of Flemish pig producers every 2 yr. The share of farms with group housing increased from 10.5% in 2003 to 29.8% in 2007, but then dropped to 24.6% in 2009. It appears that after 2005 users of old group housing systems in particular stopped farming. Because sow herd size increased more on farms with vs. without group housing and because the proportion of the herd that was group-housed also tended to increase between 2003 to 2009, the change to group housing took place faster when expressed at the level of the sow (from 9.1% in 2003 to 34.1% in 2009) instead of farm. The percentage of farmers planning to convert to group housing within 2 yr was 4.1% in 2003, and 6 to 7% thereafter. These were typically young farmers (P = 0.006) with a large sow herd (P manual feed delivery. User satisfaction was generally high but depended on whether or not all gestating sows were kept in group (P importance of economic reasons (P = 0.007) and type of labor (P = 0.043) decreased with the age of the system. In 2003 and 2005 the main reason for not having converted to group housing was that farmers would stop keeping sows by 2013. In 2007 and 2009 the reasons mainly concerned uncertainty about the future and maximally delaying the conversion. Belgium is one of the European Union countries where the pig industry is expected to undergo drastic changes during the few years remaining before the ban on

  4. Effects of dietary resistant starch content on metabolic status, milk composition, and microbial profiling in lactating sows and on offspring performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, H; Lu, H; Almeida, V V; Ward, M G; Adeola, O; Nakatsu, C H; Ajuwon, K M

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, the effects of dietary resistant starch (RS) content on serum metabolite and hormone concentrations, milk composition, and faecal microbial profiling in lactating sows, as well as on offspring performance was investigated. Sixteen sows were randomly allotted at breeding to two treatments containing low- and high-RS contents from normal and high-amylose corn varieties, respectively, and each treatment had eight replicates (sows). Individual piglet body weight (BW) and litter size were recorded at birth and weaning. Milk samples were obtained on day 10 after farrowing for composition analysis. On day 2 before weaning, blood and faecal samples were collected to determine serum metabolite and hormone concentrations and faecal microbial populations, respectively. Litter size at birth and weaning were not influenced (p > 0.05) by the sow dietary treatments. Although feeding the RS-rich diet to sows reduced (p = 0.004) offspring birth BW, there was no difference in piglet BW at weaning (p > 0.05). High-RS diet increased (p content, and tended (p = 0.09) to increase milk fat content in lactating sows. Feeding the RS-rich diet to sows increased (p bacterial population diversity. These results indicate that high-RS diets induce fatty acid mobilization and a greater intestinal bacterial richness in lactating sows, as well as a greater nutrient density in maternal milk, without affecting offspring performance at weaning. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Is a 10-sow unit economically sustainable? A profitability assessment of productivity amongst small-holder pig farmers, Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Munzhelele

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of small-holder pig farmers in Mpumalanga had between 1- and 10-sow herds. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the current government agricultural intervention (supply of 10 sows and a boar in terms of technical and economic feasibilities and ascertain whether the small-scale pig value chain system alleviates poverty. Data were obtained from 220 randomly selected small-holder pig farmers using a semi-structured questionnaire. The results showed that 58% farrowed ≤ 10 piglets/born/sow/litter, 44.2% practiced no weaning method and many fed swill and leftovers alone (41.6%. Pair-wise association revealed that the feeding of commercial feeds had a relationship with pigs in relatively good to very good body condition. Pigs in poor body condition were positively correlated with the feeding of swill alone. The economic models for the 10-sow unit proved that pig farming is unprofitable if the current management and feeding systems that operate in the commercial industry are utilised. However, only through a combination of cooperative systems, benefits of economies of scale, reduction of preweaning mortalities and structured government inputs can pig production be profitable at this scale of production. Keywords: piglets; market; profit; economics; feeds

  6. Effects of different electron donor feeding patterns on TCE reductive dechlorination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotakis, I; Antoniou, K; Mamais, D; Pantazidou, M

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates how the feeding pattern of e(-) donors might affect the efficiency of enhanced in situ bioremediation in TCE-contaminated aquifers. A series of lab-scale batch experiments were conducted using butyrate or hydrogen gas (H2) as e(-) donor and a TCE-dechlorinating microbial consortium dominated by Dehalococcoides spp. The results of these experiments demonstrate that butyrate is similarly efficient for TCE dechlorination whether it is injected once or in doses. Moreover, the present work indicates that the addition of butyrate in great excess cannot be avoided, since it most likely provide, even indirectly, significant part of the H2 required. Furthermore, methanogenesis appears to be the major ultimate e(-) accepting process in all experiments, regardless the e(-) donor used and the feeding pattern. Finally, the timing of injection of H2 seems to significantly affect dechlorination performance, since the injection during the early stages improves VC-to-ETH dechlorination and reduce methanogenic activity.

  7. An improved approach to identify irradiated dog feed by electron paramagnetic resonance study and thermoluminescence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar, E-mail: bhaskar_sanyal@rediffmail.co [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Chawla, S.P.; Sharma, Arun [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India)

    2011-05-15

    In the present study, probably for the first time, a detailed analysis of the radiation induced radical species and thermoluminescence measurements of irradiated dog feed are reported. The EPR spectrum of non-irradiated ready-to-eat dog feed was characterized by singlet g=2.0047{+-}0.0003. Irradiated samples exhibited a complex EPR spectrum. During high power (50.0 mW) EPR spectroscopy, a visible change in the shape of the EPR spectrum was observed and characterized by EPR spectrum simulation technique. An axially symmetric anisotropic signal with g{sub ||}=2.0028 and g{sub perpendicular}=1.9976 was identified. However, a negligible change in the matrix of irradiated edible dog chew was observed using EPR spectroscopy. Therefore, thermoluminescence study of the isolated minerals from dog chew was carried out. The composition of the poly-minerals was studied using SEM and EDX analysis and a complete verdict on identification of irradiation is proposed.

  8. An improved approach to identify irradiated dog feed by electron paramagnetic resonance study and thermoluminescence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar; Chawla, S.P.; Sharma, Arun

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, probably for the first time, a detailed analysis of the radiation induced radical species and thermoluminescence measurements of irradiated dog feed are reported. The EPR spectrum of non-irradiated ready-to-eat dog feed was characterized by singlet g=2.0047±0.0003. Irradiated samples exhibited a complex EPR spectrum. During high power (50.0 mW) EPR spectroscopy, a visible change in the shape of the EPR spectrum was observed and characterized by EPR spectrum simulation technique. An axially symmetric anisotropic signal with g || =2.0028 and g perpendicular =1.9976 was identified. However, a negligible change in the matrix of irradiated edible dog chew was observed using EPR spectroscopy. Therefore, thermoluminescence study of the isolated minerals from dog chew was carried out. The composition of the poly-minerals was studied using SEM and EDX analysis and a complete verdict on identification of irradiation is proposed.

  9. Effects of different n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio on reproductive performance, fecal microbiota and nutrient digestibility of gestation-lactating sows and suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jia; Lee, Kwang Yong; Kim, Jong Keun; Kim, In Ho

    2017-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary ratios of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on reproductive performance, fecal microbiota and nutrient digestibility of gestation-lactating sows and suckling piglets. Fifteen primiparous sows (Landrace × Yorkshire) were randomly allotted into three treatments. Fed diets contained different ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA, including 20:1, 15:1 and 10:1. No differences were detected among the treatments for average daily feed intake (ADFI) of sows and the back fat levels during lactation (P > 0.05). Body weight (BW) loss of sows after farrowing to weanling was greater in the 10:1 treatment compared with 15:1 or 20:1 (P  0.05). A great significant difference for fecal microbiota was in the 10:1 treatment compared with 20:1 and 15:1 treatments (P < 0.01). In conclusion, altering the ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA in gestation-lactating sow diet had no difference on nutrient digestibility in gestation-lactating sows, but it can partially improve reproductive performance. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Calculating Optimum sowing factor: A tool to evaluate sowing strategies and minimize seedling production cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric van Steenis

    2013-01-01

    This paper illustrates how to use an excel spreadsheet as a decision-making tool to determine optimum sowing factor to minimize seedling production cost. Factors incorporated into the spreadsheet calculations include germination percentage, seeder accuracy, cost per seed, cavities per block, costs of handling, thinning, and transplanting labor, and more. In addition to...

  11. A review of sow and piglet behaviour and performance in group housing systems for lactating sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwamerongen, van S.E.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Soede, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Commercial use of group housing systems for lactating sows is limited, but the recent transition to group housing during gestation in the EU may result in a renewed interest in such systems. Therefore, this review aims to identify key factors that may contribute to the success or failure of group

  12. Socializing piglets before weaning: effects on behavior of lactating sows, pre- and postweaning behavior, and performance of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, E F; Reiners, K; Van den Weghe, H F A

    2006-10-01

    This study evaluated how socializing piglets before weaning affects behavior of lactating sows and the pre- and postweaning behavior and performance of piglets. Two farrowing rooms, each with 6 pens, and 1 nursery with 4 pens were used. In total, data were obtained from 24 sows and their litters. In each farrowing room, the solid barriers between 3 farrowing pens were removed on d 12 after farrowing, and the sows remained confined in their crates (experimental group). In the other 3 farrowing pens of each farrowing room, sows and their litters were kept under conventional conditions until weaning (control group). All piglets were weaned 28 d after birth. After weaning, piglets from each group remained together in 1 pen of the nursery. The behavior of sows (lying, standing, sitting, nursing) and piglets (lying, active, suckling) in the farrowing rooms was observed for 24 h before and for 48 h after removal of the barriers between the pens. In addition, behavior (active, lying, feeding, agonistic behavior) of piglets was observed in the nursery during the initial 48-h period after weaning. Each piglet was weighed on d 5, 12, and 28 after birth and thereafter weekly until the fifth week of rearing. In the farrowing room, mixing of litters did not influence behavior of piglets and sows. Preweaning weight gain of the piglets did not differ (P = 0.60) between the treatments. In the initial 48 h after weaning, less agonistic behavior (P group. During 5 wk of rearing, piglets in the experimental group gained more weight compared with the control group (P = 0.05). The advantage shown by the experimental group became especially conspicuous in the first week after weaning (P = 0.05). By socializing unfamiliar piglets before weaning, stress due to mixing could at least be distanced in time from the other burdens of weaning, thereby improving performance.

  13. The application of the principles of nutrition to the feeding of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    biological targets such as feed conversion efficiency, growth rate, carcass quality, and piglets reared per sow per year are proffered by sciencefor the use of ... The alternative approach to the optimization of nutritional strategies is to put aside ...

  14. Pre-sowing irradiation of vegetable seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyanov, S

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported of trials with radiation stimulation of vegetable crops conducted under farm conditions in different regions. They were based on exact tests accomplished at the IGHB. Pre-sowing irradiation of seed increased the greenhouse yield of Extase tomato variety by 15%; it increased the yield of Triumph tomato variety under field conditions as well. The pepper variety Kourtovska Kapiya and eggplant variety Bulgarski 12, both grown from irradiated seed in open field produced 18% and 5.5% higher yields, respectively. Irradiation of vegetable seeds finds a large application in the farm practice.

  15. Pre-sowing irradiation of vegetable seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanov, S.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported of trials with radiation stimulation of vegetable crops conducted under farm conditions in different regions. They were based on exact tests accomplished at the IGHB. Pre-sowing irradiation of seed increased the greenhouse yield of Extase tomato variety by 15%; it increased the yield of Triumph tomato variety under field conditions as well. The pepper variety Kourtovska Kapiya and eggplant variety Bulgarski 12, both grown from irradiated seed in open field produced 18% and 5.5% higher yields, respectively. Irradiation of vegetable seeds finds a large application in the farm practice. (author)

  16. Influence of Crude Protein Intake on the Duration of Delivery and Litter Size in Sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tydlitát

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of different intakes of crude protein during the period from 94 to 100 days of pregnancy to the parturition, lengths of pregnancy and delivery, number and birth weights of piglets and concentrations of progesterone, 17-β estradiol and cortisol on days 100, 110 and 114 of pregnancy in sows. Daily feed intake of the sow represented 2.5 kg of complete mixtures containing 13% (group A, n = 23, 15% (group B, n = 52, 18% (group C, n = 10 and 21% (group D, n = 10 of crude protein. Lengths of pregnancy in experimental groups were not significantly different. The mean durations of delivery synchronously increased with the intake of crude protein; significant difference was found between groups A (4.5 h and D (8.6 h (p p < 0.05. The average birth weights of piglets did not differ between experimental groups. No statistical differences in hormone concentrations were found between experimental groups. High intake of crude protein in sows before parturition prolonged delivery and increased the number of stillborn piglets.

  17. Is a 10-sow unit economically sustainable? A profitability assessment of productivity amongst small-holder pig farmers, Mpumalanga, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzhelele, Priscilla; Oguttu, James W; Fasina, Folorunso O

    2016-05-12

    The majority of small-holder pig farmers in Mpumalanga had between 1- and 10-sow herds. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the current government agricultural intervention (supply of 10 sows and a boar) in terms of technical and economic feasibilities and ascertain whether the small-scale pig value chain system alleviates poverty. Data were obtained from 220 randomly selected small-holder pig farmers using a semi-structured questionnaire. The results showed that 58% farrowed ≤ 10 piglets/born/sow/litter, 44.2% practiced no weaning method and many fed swill and leftovers alone (41.6%). Pair-wise association revealed that the feeding of commercial feeds had a relationship with pigs in relatively good to very good body condition. Pigs in poor body condition were positively correlated with the feeding of swill alone. The economic models for the 10-sow unit proved that pig farming is unprofitable if the current management and feeding systems that operate in the commercial industry are utilised. However, only through a combination of cooperative systems, benefits of economies of scale, reduction of preweaning mortalities and structured government inputs can pig production be profitable at this scale of production.

  18. Long-term impact of zinc supplementation in sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, Van Miriam M.J.; Bos, Emilie Julie; Ampe, Bart; Bikker, Paul; Vanhauteghem, Donna; Bockstaele, Van Filip; Cornillie, Pieter; Broeck, Van Den Wim; Laing, Du Gijs; Maes, Dominiek; Tuyttens, Frank A.M.; Janssens, Geert P.J.; Millet, Sam

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the long-term impact of zinc (Zn) supplementation on performance and Zn status biomarkers in sows and on whether this possible impact depends on housing conditions. Materials and methods: Six groups of sows were allotted to group housing on two different floor types during

  19. The effect of different sowing patterns and deficit irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The responses of sweet corn (Zea mays) to irrigation frequency and sowing patterns were studied in the field from December 2005 to December 2006. This research was laid out in split plot, with water quantity as main plot and sowing ...

  20. Designated rooting areas to reduce pasture damage by pregnant sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mheen, van der H.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    To assess whether rooting damage by pregnant sows can be reduced by offering a designated area for wallowing and foraging, four groups of four sows each were subjected to four treatments, during eight periods in a 4 × 4 Latin square designed experiment. During each period, each group was given

  1. Group housing during gestation affects the behaviour of sows and the physiological indices of offspring piglets at weaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to compare the behaviour of sows in stalls and group housing systems, and the physiological indices of their offspring, 28 sows were randomly distributed into 2 systems with 16 sows in stalls, and the other 12 sows were divided into 3 groups with 4 sows per pen. The area per sow in stalls a...

  2. TREE SPECIES DIRECT SOWING FOR FOREST RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robério Anastácio Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The direct sowing to tropical forest restoration can be viable when the ecological and silvicultural aspects of species areknown. This work evaluated the effect of breaking seed dormancy and a physical protector on the initial growth of riparian treespecies. The experiment was carried out in a randomized blocks design, in a factorial (2x2, with four blocks and four plots for eachtreatment. The treatment to break seed dormancy used were: immersion in sulphuric acid for 20 minutes and washing in water for 1hour plus soaking for 24 hours for Trema micrantha; immersion in boiling water (100oC with following soaking until refreshing for24 hours to Senna multijuga and Senna macranthera and pre-soaking in water for 2 hours for Solanum granuloso-leprosum. Thephysical protector used was a transparent plastic cup (500mL. The breaking seed dormancy used was efficient in laboratory, exceptfor S. macranthera. In field conditions, it was efficient only for S. multijuga and S. macranthera. The physical protector did notpresented any benefit for the studied tree species regarding seedlings emergence and survival, but it provided significant differencesin height and base diameter for S. multijuga and in height for S. macranthera after three months. After 24 months, T. micranthapresented the highest values for height and basal diameter. S. macranthera presented the height relative growth and T. micrantha thehighest basal diameter. The studied species can be recommended for ecological forest restoration, using direct sowing.

  3. INFLUENCE OF SOWING SPEED ON SOYBEAN CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. A. Tiesen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mato Grosso state is the largest producer of soybeans in the country, therefore is the focus of several studies and research in order to improve and increase the production. For an activity that reduces the movements on the field, the no-tillage is a great activity when it done properly. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of speed of sowing on soybean crop, with pneumatic system type for seed metering. The experiment was conducted at São Luiz Farm, in Sinop city, in the northern of Mato Grosso state. The experimental adopted was the randomized blocks design with four treatments and four replications. The seeding speeds studied were 3; 5; 7 and 9 km h-1. The variables evaluated were: initial plant population, longitudinal distribution and yield components. The data were submitted to variance and regression analysis. The speed of 3 km h-1 show the best performance for acceptable spacing, flawed, plant stand on the pre-established area, number of pods per plant, thousand grain mass and yield. The speeds rate used for sowing did not influence the establishment of soybean crop, but affected the beans productivity.

  4. Individual and pen-based oral fluid sampling: A welfare-friendly sampling method for group-housed gestating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Françoise; Dorenlor, Virginie; Eono, Florent; Eudier, Solveig; Eveno, Eric; Liégard-Vanhecke, Dorine; Rose, Nicolas; Fablet, Christelle

    2017-11-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the feasibility of individual and pen-based oral fluid sampling (OFS) in 35 pig herds with group-housed sows, compare these methods to blood sampling, and assess the factors influencing the success of sampling. Individual samples were collected from at least 30 sows per herd. Pen-based OFS was performed using devices placed in at least three pens for 45min. Information related to the farm, the sows, and their living conditions were collected. Factors significantly associated with the duration of sampling and the chewing behaviour of sows were identified by logistic regression. Individual OFS took 2min 42s on average; the type of floor, swab size, and operator were associated with a sampling time >2min. Pen-based OFS was obtained from 112 devices (62.2%). The type of floor, parity, pen-level activity, and type of feeding were associated with chewing behaviour. Pen activity was associated with the latency to interact with the device. The type of floor, gestation stage, parity, group size, and latency to interact with the device were associated with a chewing time >10min. After 15, 30 and 45min of pen-based OFS, 48%, 60% and 65% of the sows were lying down, respectively. The time spent after the beginning of sampling, genetic type, and time elapsed since the last meal were associated with 50% of the sows lying down at one time point. The mean time to blood sample the sows was 1min 16s and 2min 52s if the number of operators required was considered in the sampling time estimation. The genetic type, parity, and type of floor were significantly associated with a sampling time higher than 1min 30s. This study shows that individual OFS is easy to perform in group-housed sows by a single operator, even though straw-bedded animals take longer to sample than animals housed on slatted floors, and suggests some guidelines to optimise pen-based OFS success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Inflammatory markers before and after farrowing in healthy sows and in sows affected with postpartum dysgalactia syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Marianne; Jacobson, Magdalena; Andersen, Pia Haubro

    2018-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PDS) in sows is not fully elucidated and affected sows often present vague clinical signs. Accurate and timely diagnosis is difficult, and PDS is often recognized with a delay once piglets begin to starve. Increased rectal temperatur...

  6. Field evaluation of a bioregulator containing live Bacillus cereus spores on health status and performance of sows and their litters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, C; Karagiannidis, A; Kritas, S K; Boscos, C; Georgoulakis, I E; Kyriakis, S C

    2001-04-01

    The efficacy of Paciflor, a bioregulator containing live Bacillus cereus CIP 5832 spores, was assessed in sows during late pregnancy and lactation, as well as in their piglets up to the growing phase. Two groups each of 30 pregnant gilts and sows received normal feed (T1 group), or feed with 85 g Paciflor per ton feed (T2 group), from 15 days prior to farrowing up to the end of the lactation period. Furthermore, 15 litters of the T1 group and 15 litters of the T2 group, were offered normal feed from the 5th to the 70th days of life (T1.1 and T2.1 groups, respectively), while the remaining 15 litters each of the T1 and T2 groups received the same feed but including Paciflor at a dose of 100 g/ton (from day 5 to day 49) and 50 g/ton (from day 50 to day 70). These pig litters were T1.2 and T2.2, respectively. No differences were seen between the T1 and T2 groups with respect to the clinical observations (loss of appetite, fever, mastitis, metritis and returns to oestrus, treatments applied, deaths, or removals to the slaughterhouse), gestation length, bodyweight of sows at farrowing or litter-size at birth. However, during lactation, the fat content of the dam's milk was increased (0.46% more fat), the body weight loss of sows was reduced and the number of weaned pigs per sow was increased (0.6 more pigs per litter) after administration of Paciflor (P T2.2 groups) showed less incidence of scours and lower mortality compared to the untreated piglets (T1.1 and T2.1 groups), particularly those pigs originating from Paciflor-treated dams (T2.2 group) (P T2.2 and T1.2) was significantly improved compared to that of the untreated piglets (T2.1 and T1.1) (P T2.2) were 0.56 kg heavier than those born to untreated dams (T1.2) (P < 0.05). It is concluded that administration of Paciflor in dams during the end of pregnancy and during lactation, as well as to their offspring during suckling and the flat-deck period is beneficial for the survival and growth of the piglets.

  7. Variation among sows in response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rashidi, H.; Mulder, H.A.; Mathur, P.K.; Knol, E.F.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a viral disease with negative impacts on reproduction of sows. Genetic selection to improve the response of sows to PRRS could be an approach to control the disease. Determining sow response to PRRS requires knowing pathogen burden and sow

  8. Hunger in pregnant sows: Effects of a fibrous diet and free access to straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    of metabolites and hormones in pregnant sows. Ten groups of three pregnant sows were housed in pens with concrete floor where a limited amount of chopped straw (approx. 330 g/sow) was provided daily. In 5 of the 10 groups sows had free access to uncut straw in racks in addition to the chopped straw (Ad libitum...

  9. Reduction of uterine prolapse in a sow by laparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raleigh, P J

    1977-01-29

    In the past, total uterine prolapse in the sow has been regarded as a grave condition because manipulative reposition through the vulva and vagina is extremely difficult, if not impossible, and amputation is merely a salvage procedure with a mortality rate approaching 100 percent. Laparotomy as a means of facilitating reduction of the prolapse in the sow appears to have been overlooked although it is a standard procedure in dogs and cats. This report describes a case of uterine prolapse in a sow successfully treated by laparotomy.

  10. Nutritional value of biofuel residues from beet evaluated in sows and sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, J.V.; Hvelplund, T.; Fernandez, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    sugar (Angus) and fodder (Colosse) beets as feed for pigs and ruminants. The pulp was prepared by a cold mechanical pressing. Two digestibility experiments were carried out according to the difference method. In experiment 1, 30 sows were housed individually in metabolic cages for 12 d, and urine......An alternative substrate in the biogas or bioethanol production may be the sugar containing juice obtained after fractionation of beets into a juice used for fermentation and into a pulp used for feeding. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the fresh pulp of top and root from...... and feces were collected during the last 7 d. The daily ration consisted of either root or top pulp combined with a basal diet. In experiment 2, 25 wethers were housed individually, and feces were collected during the last 7 d of the experiment. The daily ration was either root or top pulp combined with hay...

  11. Effects of cellulase supplementation to corn soybean meal-based diet on the performance of sows and their piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, Santi D; Lee, Sang In; Kim, In Ho

    2016-07-01

    A total of 15 primiparous sows (Landrace × Yorkshire) and their litters were used in the current study to evaluate the efficacy of cellulase supplementation on the production performance of sows and piglets. Pigs were randomly allocated into one of three treatments with five replicates per treatment. The dietary treatments were as follows: (i) CON (corn-soybean meal-based control); (ii) EZ1 (CON + 0.05% cellulase); and (iii) EZ2 (CON + 0.10% cellulase). The supplementation of cellulase had no effect (P > 0.05) on body weight and feed intake of lactating sows. At weaning, back fat thickness loss decreased (P = 0.04) linearly in EZ1 and EZ2 treatments. The average daily gain (ADG) of piglets increased (linear P = 0.06, quadratic P = 0.04)) during days 14 to 21 as well as at days 21 to 25 (linear P = 0.03 and quadratic P = 0.01) with the increase in the level of supplemented enzyme. Dry matter and nitrogen digestibility increased (linear P = 0.01) in lactating sows fed EZ1 and EZ2 diet compared with CON. In conclusion, it is suggested that cellulase supplementation to corn-soybean meal based diet exerts beneficial effects to sows in reducing their back fat thickness loss at weaning and also helps to improve nutrient digestibility. It also helped to improve the ADG of piglets. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Effect of Multi-Microbial Probiotic Formulation Bokashi on Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines Profile in the Serum, Colostrum and Milk of Sows, and in a Culture of Polymorphonuclear Cells Isolated from Colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowska, Ewa; Jarosz, Łukasz; Grądzki, Zbigniew

    2018-01-05

    The use of probiotics in sows during pregnancy and lactation and their impact on the quality of colostrum and milk, as well as the health conditions of their offspring during the rearing period, are currently gaining the attention of researchers. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of Bokashi formulation on the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the serum of sows during pregnancy, in their colostrum and milk, and in a culture of Con-A-stimulated polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) isolated from the colostrum. The study was conducted on 60 sows aged 2-4 years. EM Bokashi were added to the sows' feed. The material for the study consisted of peripheral blood, colostrum, and milk. Blood samples were collected from the sows on days 60 and 114 of gestation. Colostrum and milk samples were collected from all sows at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168 h after parturition. The results indicate that the use of Bokashi as feed additives resulted in increased concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, which increase the protective capacity of the colostrum by stimulating cellular immune mechanisms protecting the sow and neonates against infection. At the same time, the increased concentrations of cytokines IL-4, IL-10, TGF-β, and of immunoglobulins in the colostrum and milk from sows in the experimental group demonstrate the immunoregulatory effect of Bokashi on Th2 cells and may lead to increased expression of regulatory T cells and polarization of the immune response from Th1 to Th2.

  13. Seeder with Different Seeding Apparatus in Maize Sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Turan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Precision sowing trend is development of technology of sowing maize. The advantage of planting corn with precision seeder includes saving seeds, fewer working hours, achieves more uniform spacing in the row and depth of planting, and for these reasons it follows that the crop will be uniform in height and strength, which is a prerequisite for high yields. It was performed a field testing of three seed in sowing maize at three different speeds of sowing. Tests were carried out to determine and compare the quality of three planters with under pressure. Seeders worked in similar conditions but third seeder noted presence of crust on the soil surface. They were tested at a speed of 6, 8 and 10 km/h. At a speed of 6 km/h all three planters worked with a coefficient of variation less than 25% and with values ​​from 19.25 to 22.72%, which meets the criteria of quality planting. The percentage of pairwise from 1.66 to 2.64%. The percentage of empty spaces were from 4.24 to 4.93%. Proportion of seeds sown at a given space were from 92.5 to 94.09%, which is an indicator that sowing was successfully. No records are examined quality differences in sowing seed.

  14. Sow-level risk factors for stillbirth of piglets in organic sow herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Krogh, Mogens Agerbo; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2017-01-01

    In Danish organic pig production, one-third of total born piglets die before weaning, and stillbirth has previously crudely been estimated to account for 27% of the total preweaning mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate season, litter size, parity and body condition of the sow...... as risk factors for stillbirth in nine commercial Danish organic pig herds. The study was conducted over a 1-year period, and the data included registrations on 5170 farrowings with 82 906 total born piglets. The average number of total born piglets per litter was 16.0, and the number of stillborn piglets...

  15. Differential endometrial gene expression in pregnant and nonpregnant sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Bauersachs, Stefan; Blum, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    obtained from the endometrium of pregnant sows and sows inseminated with inactivated semen. Analysis of the microarray data revealed 263 genes to be significantly differentially expressed between the pregnant and nonpregnant sows. Most gene ontology terms significantly enriched at pregnancy had allocated...... more up-regulated genes than down-regulated genes. These terms included developmental process, transporter activity, calcium ion binding, apoptosis, cell motility, enzyme-linked receptor protein signaling pathway, positive regulation of cell proliferation, ion homeostasis, and hormone activity. Only...... in the process of placentation. Pregnancy-specific localization of IL11RA to the surface epithelium of the endometrium suggests a role of interleukin 11 signaling in formation of the porcine epitheliochorial placenta. Furthermore, up-regulation of FGF9 mRNA in pregnant endometrium and localization of FGF9...

  16. Housing of sows during farrowing: a review on pen design, welfare and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene Juul; Malmkvist, Jens; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis

    2013-01-01

    . Pens for loose housed sows are good alternatives for the sake of sow welfare. Reveiew of the existing literature does not suggest that loose housing is associated with higher general piglet mortality than housing in farrowing crates. Knowledge from studies on behavioural needs for sow and piglet during......Housing of sows during farrowing occurs mainly in farrowing crates where the sows are confined between bars without the possibility to turn around. The existing farrowing crates are associated with a number of negative welfare consequences for sows. Furthermore, breeding more piglets in the litter......, combined with the fact that sows have generally become both longer and wider over the past 15 years, means that the size of the current crates is not large enough neither to accommodate the sow nor the piglets until 4 weeks after birth. Therefore, alternatives to the current farrowing crate are necessary...

  17. Abortion associated with Chlamydia abortus in extensively reared Iberian sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, J; Ortega, N; Borge, C; Rangel, M J; Carbonero, A; Perea, A; Caro, M R

    2012-10-01

    Reproductive disease was investigated in Iberian pigs on an extensive farrow-to-finish farm in the southwest of Spain. Chlamydia abortus was isolated in cell culture and C. abortus-specific PCR products were detected in placental and fetal tissues. In one batch of 14 sows, the percentage of sera positive for C. abortus specific antibodies increased from 35.7% to 85.7% in the period of 2 weeks following abortion. C. abortus may play a role in abortion in extensively reared Iberian sows. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes from sows to finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkegård, Anna Camilla; Halasa, Tariq; Folkesson, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in pigs has been under scrutiny for many years. However, many questions remain unanswered, including whether the initial antimicrobial resistance level of a pig will influence the antimicrobial resistance found at slaughter. Faecal samples from finishers pigs from 681 farms...... and from sows from 82 farms were collected, and levels of seven antimicrobial resistance genes, ermB, ermF, sulI, sulII, tet(M), tet(O), and tet(W), were quantified by high-capacity qPCR. There were 40 pairs of observations where the finishers were born in the farms of the sows. The objective of this study...

  19. Supplementing sow diets with palm oil during late gestation and lactation: effects on milk production, sow hormonal profiles and growth and development of her offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, J; Juniper, D T; Lean, I J; Amusquivar, E; Herrera, E; Dodds, P F; Clarke, L

    2018-05-02

    The supplementing of sow diets with lipids during pregnancy and lactation has been shown to reduce sow condition loss and improve piglet performance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of supplemental palm oil (PO) on sow performance, plasma metabolites and hormones, milk profiles and pre-weaning piglet development. A commercial sow ration (C) or an experimental diet supplemented with 10% extra energy in the form of PO, were provided from day 90 of gestation until weaning (24 to 28 days postpartum) in two groups of eight multiparous sows. Gestation length of PO sows increased by 1 day (Pmass per kg (C: 66.4±0.8 arbitrary units/kg; PO: 69.7±0.8 arbitrary unit/kg; P<0.01), but by day 14 of life this situation was reversed (C: 65.8±0.6 arbitrary units/kg; PO: 63.6±0.6 arbitrary units/kg; P<0.05). Following weaning, PO sows exhibited an increased ratio of male to female offspring at their subsequent farrowing (C: 1.0±0.3; PO: 2.2±0.2; P<0.05). We conclude that supplementation of sow diets with PO during late gestation and lactation appears to increase sow milk fat content and hence energy supply to piglets. Furthermore, elevated glucose concentrations in the sow during lactation may be suggestive of impaired glucose homoeostasis.

  20. Psychometric evaluation of the Dutch version of the Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Riezebos, T.G.M.; Staak, C.P.F. van der; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the 16-item Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS). The SOWS measures withdrawal symptoms at the time of assessment. METHODS: The Dutch SOWS was repeatedly administered to a sample of 272 opioid-dependent inpatients of four

  1. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The swine industry is under a great deal of pressure to return sows to group housing. However, aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrate. ...

  2. The effects of group size on aggression when mixing unacquainted sows in indoor pens

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the US swine industry moves towards group housing sows, it is important to increase our understanding of aggression. Sows fight at mixing and this project sought to determine the amount and type of aggression observed when unacquainted York × Landrace sows were mixed in pairs or in two establishe...

  3. Supplementation of NSP Enzyme Increased the Nutritive Value of Diets Fed to Lactating Sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Sønderby Bruun, Thomas; Fisker, B N

    2017-01-01

    parity sows and their litters were included in the experiment from d 28 to 38 of lactation, including an adaptation period of 3 d. On d 28 of lactation sows were allotted, to two dietary treatments, a control diet or a diet with NSP enzyme addition, and fed for 10 d. The sows continued with their own...

  4. Oxytocin injections in the postpartal period affect mammary tight junctions in sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, C.; Lessard, M.; Knight, C. H.

    2017-01-01

    The potential impacts of injecting oxytocin (OXY) to sows in the early postpartum period on the quality of mammary tight junctions, milk composition, and immune status of sows and piglets were studied. Postparturient sows received i.m. injections of either saline (control [CTL]; n = 10) or 75 IU ...

  5. Sow behaviour during parturition in relation to the observed and the genetic merit for weaning survival .

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitdehaag, K.A.; Ekkel, E.D.; Kanis, E.; Knol, E.F.

    2008-01-01

    The sow's breeding value for mothering ability (EBVma) can be estimated as the genetic effect of the foster sow on piglet survival at weaning. Sows with a high EBVma have litters with a short average interval from birth until first colostrum intake. In the present study, it was investigated whether

  6. Sowing rates for reforestation by the seed-spotting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert H. Schubert; Harry A. Fowells

    1964-01-01

    Presents guides to determine the number of seeds to sow per spot and the number of spots required per acre to obtain acceptable stocking. Based on theoretical probabilities, these guides were found to be reasonably close to actual field results When the probability-of-success was at least 55 percent. To compensate for lower actual stocking, increase the number of spots...

  7. Low prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in cull sows and pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, Irene V; Larsen, Steven; Hurd, H Scott; McKean, James D; Griffith, Ronald; Rivera, Fernando; Nannapaneni, Ramakrishna; Cox, Mandy; Johnson, Michael; Wagner, Dean; de Martino, Mary

    2008-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in sows slaughtered at a single Midwestern plant on two occasions (trial 1, n = 179 sows; trial 2, n = 160 sows). Fecal samples collected antemortem (trial 1) as well as animal tissues, and carcass swabs collected at the abattoir (trials 1 and 2) were analyzed. Eight isolates of L. monocytogenes were recovered from five samples that represented 0.18% of the total samples (n = 2,775). In trial 1, L. monocytogenes was detected in a tonsil sample (0.6%; 1 positive of 181 tonsils), in a carcass (0.6%; 1 positive of 179 carcasses), which was sampled prior to the organic rinse, and in two chopped meat block samples (1.2%; 2 positive of 165 samples). In trial 2, L. monocytogenes was only detected in a single chopped meat block sample (0.15%; 1 positive of 688 total samples). These data indicate the low prevalence of L. monocytogenes in the cull sow.

  8. Predicting milk yield and composition in lactating sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A V; Strathe, A B; Kebreab, E

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a framework describing the milk production curve in sows as affected by parity, method of milk yield (MY) determination, litter size (LS), and litter gain (LG). A database containing data on LS, LG, dietary protein and fat content, MY, and composition...

  9. Effect of sowing depth and mulch application on emergence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-08

    Mar 8, 2010 ... emergence and growth of shea butter tree seedlings. (Vitellaria paradoxa ... the effect of seed source, sowing depth and mulching status on seedling emergence and growth. Factorial ... The superior seedling emergence of no-mulch treated plots ..... Results of the second order interaction are pre- sented in ...

  10. Drinking behaviour in sows kept outdoors during the winter months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2014-01-01

    alive, stillborn and weaned piglets were recorded. The recordingperiod was divided into two temperature categories; control days (CD) with daily averageair temperature at or above 0◦C and frosty days (FD) with daily average air temperaturebelow 0◦C. The FD included data from 22 days representing 11 sows...

  11. Parturition effects on reproductive health in the gilt and sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoniemi, Oat; Björkman, S; Oliviero, C

    2016-10-01

    In this review, we address significant characteristics of parturition in the pig and their connection to post-partum reproductive health and fertility. We discuss the normal physiology and behaviour around parturition and the effect of the second phase (expulsion of foetuses) on the third phase of parturition (expulsion of foetal membranes). In addition, we intend to cover retained placenta, and the connection to post-partum uterine health and fertility in the contemporary prolific sow. We also explore factors that support successful parturition or can cause potential problems. Successful parturition in the pig includes the possibility to express adequate maternal behaviour, rapid expulsion of the piglets, complete expulsion of the placenta, neonatal activity and colostrum intake. Abnormal incidents during any phase of parturition can cause subsequent problems. Duration of the expulsion phase of foetuses can be used as a simple measure of whether parturition is considered successful. Prolonged parturition can impair health of the sow and piglet and fertility after weaning. New insights, such as adding more fibre to sow diets during pregnancy, and especially during the period prior to farrowing, may prevent constipation, increase water intake of the sow around parturition and increase milk intake and performance of piglets. Maternal characteristics, including maternal behaviour, ease of parturition, colostrum production and piglet quality parameters, may be utilized to improve success rate of reproductive management during farrowing and early lactation. Additionally, we share some of the recent developments in methods, including ultrasonography in evaluation of post-partum uterine health. In conclusion, successful farrowing is of the greatest importance for reproductive health of the sow and survival of the piglets. We suggest connections exist among prolonged farrowing and yield of colostrum, retained placenta, development of PDS, and impaired involution of the

  12. Housing of Cull Sows in the Hours before Transport to the Abattoir—An Initial Description of Sow Behaviour While Waiting in a Transfer Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S.; Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Erichsen, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    of the sows, after which they (in groups of 7–13) were mixed and moved to the transfer vehicle (median stocking density: 1.2 sow/m2), and driven a short distance to a public road. The duration of the stays in the transfer vehicles before being loaded onto the commercial trucks ranged from 6–59 min. During......In modern pig production, sows are transported by road to abattoirs. For reasons of biosecurity, commercial trucks may have limited access to farms. According to Danish regulations, sows can be kept in stationary transfer vehicles away from the farm for up to two hours before being loaded onto...

  13. 78 FR 34565 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... style for the strength units describing radiation sources. This correction is being made to improve the...). That document used incorrect style for the strength units describing radiation sources. This correction... HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD 0 1. The authority citation for 21 CFR part 579 continues to read as...

  14. Effect of bovine colostrum feeding in comparison with milk replacer and natural feeding on the immune responses and colonisation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the intestinal tissue of piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Poulsen, Ann-Sofie Riis; Canibe, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of feeding bovine colostrum (BC) to piglets in comparison with feeding a milk replacer (MR) and conventional rearing by the sow on the intestinal immune system and number of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) colonising the intestinal tissue. Piglets......-fed and Sow-Milk groups. The expression level of IL-2 was higher (P≤ 0·051) in piglets from the MR-fed group than in those from the other treatment groups. In conclusion, feeding BC rather than MR to the piglets reduced the colonisation of intestine by ETEC and modulated the intestinal immune system, whereas...

  15. Effect of dietary seaweed extracts and fish oil supplementation in sows on performance, intestinal microflora, intestinal morphology, volatile fatty acid concentrations and immune status of weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, S G; Sweeney, T; Bahar, B; Lynch, B P; O'Doherty, J V

    2011-02-01

    A 2x2 factorial experiment (ten sows per treatment) was conducted to investigate the effect of maternal dietary supplementation with a seaweed extract (SWE; 0 v. 10·0 g/d) and fish oil (FO; 0 v. 100 g/d) inclusion from day 109 of gestation until weaning (day 26) on pig performance post-weaning (PW) and intestinal morphology, selected microflora and immune status of pigs 9 d PW. The SWE contained laminarin (10 %), fucoidan (8 %) and ash (82 %) and the FO contained 40 % EPA and 25 % DHA. Pigs weaned from SWE-supplemented sows had higher daily gain (P=0·063) between days 0 and 21 PW and pigs weaned from FO-supplemented sows had higher daily gain (P<0·05) and gain to feed ratio (P<0·01) between days 7 and 14 PW. There was an interaction between maternal SWE and FO supplementation on caecal Escherichia coli numbers (P<0·05) and the villous height to crypt depth ratio in the ileum (P<0·01) and jejunum (P<0·05) in pigs 9 d PW. Pigs weaned from SWE-supplemented sows had lower caecal E. coli and a higher villous height to crypt depth ratio in the ileum and jejunum compared with non-SWE-supplemented sows (P<0·05). There was no effect of SWE on E. coli numbers and villous height to crypt depth ratio with FO inclusion. Maternal FO supplementation induced an increase in colonic mRNA abundance of IL-1α and IL-6 (P<0·05), while SWE supplementation induced an increase in ileal TNF-α (P<0·01) and colonic TFF3 mRNA expression (P<0·05). In conclusion, these results demonstrate that SWE and FO supplementation to the maternal diet influenced the gastrointestinal environment and performance of the weaned pig.

  16. The Protein Component of Sow Colostrum and Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Hurley, W L

    2016-01-01

    The production of colostrum and milk by the sow are primary limiting factors affecting survival, growth and development of the piglets. The proteins of colostrum and milk provide not only a supply of amino acids to the neonate but also a wide range of bioactive factors. Proteins in sow mammary...... secretions include those associated with the milk fat membranes, caseins, mammary-derived whey proteins, immunoglobulins, hormones and growth factors, enzymes, and a wide range of other proteins. Concentrations of most milk-specific proteins typically are lower in colostrum than in milk, while concentrations...... of immunoglobulins and other bioactive proteins often are enriched in colostrum compared with mature milk. Dietary protein is utilized for milk protein production with approximately 50% efficiency. During both the colostrum period and at peak lactation as much as 700–800 g of protein is secreted daily by today...

  17. Development of Electronic Nose and Near Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis Techniques to Monitor the Critical Time in SSF Process of Feed Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Jiang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to assure the consistency of the final product quality, a fast and effective process monitoring is a growing need in solid state fermentation (SSF industry. This work investigated the potential of non-invasive techniques combined with the chemometrics method, to monitor time-related changes that occur during SSF process of feed protein. Four fermentation trials conducted were monitored by an electronic nose device and a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS spectrometer. Firstly, principal component analysis (PCA and independent component analysis (ICA were respectively applied to the feature extraction and information fusion. Then, the BP_AdaBoost algorithm was used to develop the fused model for monitoring of the critical time in SSF process of feed protein. Experimental results showed that the identified results of the fusion model are much better than those of the single technique model both in the training and validation sets, and the complexity of the fusion model was also less than that of the single technique model. The overall results demonstrate that it has a high potential in online monitoring of the critical moment in SSF process by use of integrating electronic nose and NIRS techniques, and data fusion from multi-technique could significantly improve the monitoring performance of SSF process.

  18. Sowing Depth Effects on Vetch Yield in Maragheh Dry Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Asghari Meidany

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Increases forage production and economic production in rainfed condition requires attention to agricultural issues such as determination of appropriate sowing depth. So in order to determine the effect of different sowing depths of vetch this experiment was conducted in Agricultural Research Station of Maragheh as strip plot based on randomized complete block design with three species of vetch V. sativa , V. dasycarpa-kouhak and V. narbonensis velox67 as main plots and three sowing depth as sub factor. Results showed that the effect of sowing depth on Vicia yield was significant at the 1% level and the maximum yield of wet hay, dry hay, straw and seed depth of belong to 8-10 cm depth and respectively are 5.364, 3.416, 4.389 and 1.081 ton per ha whereas the minimum yield of wet hay, dry hay, straw and seed depth of belong to 2-4 cm depth and respectively are 4.888, 2.318, 3.729 and 0.825. Among the three Vicia species the highest yield of wet hay, dry hay , straw and seed belongs to V. dasykarpa and respectively are 5.632, 3.532, 4.614 and 1.065 ton/ha. Soil moisture study in the field of these vetches at the time of 10 % vetch flowering showed water differences. V.dasycarpa had lower water depletion from soil. The amount of average soil water for species included: V. dasycarpa 26.31, V. sativa 23.76 and V. narbonesis 22.5.

  19. Parturition effects on reproductive health in the gilt and sow

    OpenAIRE

    Peltoniemi, Olli Aarno Tapio; Björkman, Stefan; Oliviero, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we address significant characteristics of parturition in the pig and their connection to post-partum reproductive health and fertility. We discuss the normal physiology and behaviour around parturition and the effect of the second phase (expulsion of foetuses) on the third phase of parturition (expulsion of foetal membranes). In addition, we intend to cover retained placenta, and the connection to post-partum uterine health and fertility in the contemporary prolific sow. We al...

  20. Effects of Inulin Supplementation in Low- or High-Fat Diets on Reproductive Performance of Sows and Antioxidant Defence Capacity in Sows and Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y S; Zhou, P; Liu, H; Li, S; Zhao, Y; Deng, K; Cao, D D; Che, L Q; Fang, Z F; Xu, S Y; Lin, Y; Feng, B; Li, J; Wu, D

    2016-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin supplementation in low- or high-fat diets on both the reproductive performance of sow and the antioxidant defence capacity in sows and offspring. Sixty Landrace × Yorkshire sows were randomly allocated to four treatments with low-fat diet (L), low-fat diet containing 1.5% inulin (LI), high-fat diet (H) and high-fat diet containing 1.5% inulin (HI). Inulin-rich diets lowered the within-litter birth weight coefficient of variation (CV, p = 0.05) of piglets, increased the proportion of piglets weighing 1.0-1.5 kg at farrowing (p Inulin-rich diets fed to sow during gestation had beneficial effects on within-litter uniformity of piglet birthweight and enhanced the antioxidant defence capacity of sows and piglets. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Adaptability and stability of canola hybrids in different sowing dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique da Silva Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Canola is an important crop in the world market, mainly for its oil being used for human consumption and biodiesel production, being a great economical option for the farmer, which are the reasons to the increase in its cultivation in Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the adaptability and stability of canola hybrids, depending on the sowing dates. The canola hybrids (Hyola 61, Hyola 76, Hyola 411 and Hyola 433 were evaluated in three sowing dates (04/10, 04/25 and 05/10 in the agricultural years of 2013 and 2014, under a randomized complete block design with five replications. The response variables analyzed were seed yield and oil content. Adaptability and stability of the hybrids were evaluated by three methods: Wricke's ecovalence (1962; confidence index (ANNICCHIARICO, 1992 and method of maximum ideal deviation (LIN; BINNS, 1988. The methodology proposed by Wricke (1962 highlighted as stable the hybrids Hyola 61 for seed yield and Hyola 411 for oil content. In the methodology proposed by Lin and Binns (1988 and Annicchiarico (1992, the hybrids with higher general adaptability and stability were Hyola 411 and 433. These hybrids presented the highest means for seed yield and oil content with predictable and responsive behavior to changes in sowing dates tested in the region of Maringá-PR.

  2. Factors affecting mechanical nociceptive thresholds in healthy sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalon, Elena; Maes, Dominiek; Piepers, Sofie; Taylor, Polly; van Riet, Miriam M J; Janssens, Geert P J; Millet, Sam; Tuyttens, Frank A M

    2016-05-01

    To describe anatomical and methodological factors influencing mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNTs) and intra-site variability in healthy sows. Prospective, randomized validation. Eight pregnant, healthy, mixed-parity sows (176-269 kg). Repeated MNT measurements were taken: 1) with a hand-held probe and a limb-mounted actuator connected to a digital algometer; 2) at nine landmarks on the limbs and tail; and 3) at 1 and 3 minute intervals. Data were analysed using linear mixed regression models. The MNTs (±SEM) of the limbs were lower with the probe (14.7 ± 1.2 N) than with the actuator (21.3 ± 1.2 N; p testing compared with day 1 (p < 0.001). The mean CV (±SE) was 38.9% (±1.1%). MNTs and intra-site variability in healthy sows were affected by several factors, indicating that this methodology requires considerable attention to detail. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  3. Excretion of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Sodium in Lactating Sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novotný J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the excretion of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, magnesium (Mg and sodium (Na via milk, urine and faeces during the lactation period of sows. Six clinically healthy lactating sows (crossbreed Large White × Landrace were selected for these experiments and were housed in standard conditions and fed with commercially prepared dry mixture for this category of sows. The blood serum, milk, urine and faecal samples were collected on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day of lactation. During four weeks of lactation, we recorded the relatively stable and physiological concentrations of Ca, P, Mg and Na in blood serum. The analysis of the sow’s milk showed the highest concentration of Ca and P at the end of lactation, while the highest concentration of Mg and Na was observed on the 7th lactation day. The following macro-mineral excretion was recorded in urine: 98.83-194.00 mg.l-1 for Ca; 11.88- 53.09 mg.l-1 for P; 171.67-344.05 mg.l-1 for Mg; and 56.50-74.83 mg.l-1 for Na; and in the faeces, 1824.5- 3045.5 mg.kg-1 for Ca; 1566.93-2483.2 mg.kg-1 for P; 1916.2-2505.2 mg.kg-1 for Mg; and 516.8-748.2 mg. kg-1 for Na.

  4. Impact of sowing time, hybrid and environmental conditions on the contamination of maize by emerging mycotoxins and fungal metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Blandino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins and other fungal metabolites represent the most insidious safety risks to cereal food and the feed chain. Optimising agronomic practices is one of the main strategies adopted to minimise the contents of these undesirable substances in grain-based commodities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of sowing times and hybrids on the occurrence of emerging mycotoxins and fungal metabolites in maize. Field experiments were carried out in 2 sowing times (early vs late and 3 maize hybrids were compared in the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. Overall, 37 fungal metabolites produced by Fusarium and Alternaria species were detected. Apart from fumonisins type B (FBs, other metabolites produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum, such as fumonisins type A, fusaric acid, bikaverin and fusaproliferin, were also detected in all of the samples. Fusarin C was found in 61% of the samples. Deoxynivalenol (DON, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, culmorin and zearalenone, all of which are produced prevalently by Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, were found in all the samples. Their contents were clearly affected by the meteorological trend: the highest contamination was detected in the 2014 growing season, which was characterised by abundant rainfall and lower temperatures from flowering to maize ripening. Among the mycotoxins produced by other Fusarium species, aurofusarin was found to clearly be associated with DON, while moniliformin and beauvericin followed the same behaviour as the FBs. A late sowing time significantly increased the FBs and fumonisin- associated mycotoxins in both growing seasons. The increase in contamination with the delay of sowing was more pronounced in the 2015 growing season, as the environmental conditions were less favourable to the infection of other Fusarium species. The effect of sowing time on DON and DON-associated mycotoxins produced conflicting results for the two growing

  5. Group housing during gestation affects the behaviour of sows and the physiological indices of offspring at weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q; Sun, Q; Wang, G; Zhou, B; Lu, M; Marchant-Forde, J N; Yang, X; Zhao, R

    2014-07-01

    To compare the behaviour of sows and the physiological indices of their offspring in stall and group-housing systems, 28 sows were randomly distributed into two systems with 16 sows in stalls, and the other 12 sows were divided into three groups with four sows per pen. The area per sow in stalls and groups was 1.2 and 2.5 m2, respectively. Back fat depth of the sow was measured. Salivary cortisol concentration of the sows, colostrum composition and piglets' serum biochemical indicators were evaluated. The behaviour of the sows, including agonistic behaviour, non-agonistic social behaviour, stereotypical behaviour and other behaviours at weeks 2, 9 and 14 of pregnancy were analysed. The results showed no differences in the back fat depth of sows. Colostrum protein, triglyceride, triiodothyronine, thyroxine and prolactin concentrations in the whey also demonstrated no significant differences between the two housing systems. Salivary cortisol concentration was significantly higher in the sows housed in groups than the sows in stalls. The concentrations of serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly higher in the offspring of sows housed in groups (P=0.006 and 0.005, respectively). The GLM procedure for repeated measures analysis showed the frequency of drinking, and non-agonistic social behaviour was significantly higher in the sows housed in groups than the sows in stalls; yet the frequency of agonistic and sham chewing demonstrated the opposite direction. The duration of standing was significantly longer in the sows housed in groups, but the sitting and stereotypical behaviour duration were significantly shorter compared with the sows in stalls. These results indicated that group housing has no obvious influence on the colostrum composition of sows; however, it was better for sows to express their non-agonistic social behaviour and reduce the frequency of agonistic behaviour and stereotypical behaviour. Meanwhile, group

  6. Litter size of Danish crossbred sows increased without changes in sow body dimensions over a thirteen year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S. E.; Kristensen, A. R.; Moustsen, V. Aa

    2018-01-01

    dimensions and litter size was also investigated. Depth, width, length and height were measured from 405 Danish crossbred sows in 10 different herds, classified in groups of parity 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and ≥ 7. By Linear Mixed-Effects Models with depth, width, length and height in turn as response variable......The purpose of this study was to investigate if body dimensions of Danish crossbred sows (Yorkshire x Landrace) had increased compared to a previous Danish study from 2004. In addition, and as an expected potential benefit of increased body dimensions, a potential correlation between body...... and parity and herd as explanatory variables, estimated means, 5th and 95th percentiles, minimum and maximum observation were recorded. Furthermore, a weighted index for litter size (denoted as the “litter size potential”) was used as response variable with depth, width, length, height and parity...

  7. Temperature, Sowing and Harvest Dates, and Yield of Maize in the Southwestern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafatos, M.; Stack, D.; Myoung, B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, J.

    2014-12-01

    Since sowing date of maize is sensitive to climate variability and changes, it is of a practical importance to examine how sowing dates affect maize yields in various temperature regimes in the southwestern US. A 21-year (1991-2011) simulation of maize yield using Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) with observed meteorological forcing, shows that earlier sowing dates are favorable for higher yields primarily by increasing the length of growing season in cold mountaineous regions. In these regions, warmer conditions in the sowing period tend to advance the sowing date and then enhance yield. Over low-elevation warm regions, yields are less correlated with sowing dates and the length of growing season, perhaps because growing season temperatures are high enough for fast growth. Instead, in the warm regions, maize yields are sensitive to temperature variations during the late growing season due to adverse effects of extreme high temperature events on maize development.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF SOWING TERM ON THE DURUM WHEAT INDUCTION ABILITY IN SOUTH UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zambriborsh I. S.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sowing term of spring durum wheat influence on the induction ability in the South Ukraine was evaluated. Wheat was sowed in two terms: April, 11 and April, 18 of 2013. Two sowing term were different in the growing conditions. The second term is characterized with higher temperature and lower soil humidity during wheat germination and growing. Wheat spikes were cut in appropriate microspore development stage according to standard protocol. Anthers were cultivated on different cultural media. We used standard protocols as well as our own improved protocols of media preparation. The level of sowing term and plant culture media on the induction ability of different wheat genotypes was estimated. Stress growing conditions increased the induction ability of durum wheat. The new formation percentage was higher for the second sowing term wheat on different media. However it was shown that the level of sowing term influence was lower on appropriate cultural media.

  9. Effects of various procedures for synchronisation of parturition in sows. Assessment of sows with a complication-free birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaremba, W; Udluft, T; Bostedt, H

    2015-01-01

    The effects of various parturition controlling measures in sows on the relevant parameters for parturition were investigated. A total of 1975 study animals were divided into five groups: control group: A (n = 710); trial groups: B (n = 719), C (n = 180), D (n = 175), E (n = 191). The control group (A) included sows that spontaneously farrowed until day 114 of gestation. The remaining sows were administered a PGF2α-analogue (175 µg cloprostenol) on day 114. All sows that farrowed within 24 hours after prostaglandin-medication were summarised in trial group B. Dams that did not farrow until day 115 were either administered oxytocin (20 IU i. m., group C) or carbetocin in two different doses (70 µg, group D or 35 µg, group E). The sows were monitored during the peripartal period over 24 hours. 83.8% of the farrowings were without any complications. The percentage of dystocia varied between the individual groups. Given a complication-free farrowing the expulsion stage began 13.0 hours (group B), 2.4 hours (group C), 1.6 hours (group D) and 1.4 hours (group E) after medication. The expulsion interval of the farrowing of two piglets decreased from 21.1 minutes with spontaneous farrowings (group A) to 18.6 minutes (group E) as a result of the administration of 35 µg carbetocin. The rate of stillborn piglets as well as the incidence of puerperal disorders and the losses of the suckling piglets also gradually, partly even significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased from group A to E. The results of this study show that the use of the long-acting oxytocin carbetocin has advantages compared to oxytocin (e.   g. shortened duration of birth, reduction of stillbirths). The tested dosages of carbetocin (35 µg or 70 µg) proved to be equally effective. Administration of the lower dose is recommended, since this reduces use of the active ingredient.

  10. Confinement of sows for different periods during lactation: effects on behaviour and lesions of sows and performance of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertz, C; Petig, M; Elkmann, A; Gauly, M

    2015-08-01

    Alternatives to farrowing crates with continuous confinement of the sow are urgently needed because the animal welfare is negatively impacted. Given the increase of herd sizes, practical experience with loose-housing is needed to force the implementation of these systems in the field. Next to aspects of labour efficiency, detrimental piglet mortality rates that may occur during the first days postpartum (pp) is a major criticism. Therefore, loose-housing after a crating period limited to the first days pp might be a feasible alternative to improve welfare under intensive production conditions. The aim was to investigate the effect of crating sows during lactation for different periods on their behaviour and integument alterations and on piglets' performance. Gilts from a commercial herd were observed from 5 to 26 days pp and housed in farrowing crates (1.85×2.50 m) that could be altered between confinement crates and loose-housing pens. Animals were divided into three groups, that were either crated continuously from birth until weaning (Group A, n=55), until 14 days pp (Group B; n=54) or 7 days pp (Group C, n=59). The behaviour of six randomly selected gilts per group was video recorded from 5 to 26 days pp and analysed by time sampling technique. Lesions on the legs, shoulder and lumbar vertebra were scored on days 7, 14 and 25 pp. Piglets were weighed weekly, causes of losses recorded and weight losses of gilts measured. Not different between groups (P>0.05), animals spent 72 to 76% lying laterally, 14 to 17% lying in abdominal or semi-abdominal position, 9 to 10% standing and 1 to 3% sitting. B-sows were lying longer in week 3 and 4 of lactation compared to A- and C-sows (P0.05), whereas almost 90% of the losses occurred in the first week pp. In conclusion, loose-housing of lactating gilts after a reduced postnatal crating period of 7 days affected neither the activity level of the gilts and lesions on the integument nor pre-weaning mortality. Therefore, it is

  11. Comparison of brain development in sow-reared and artificially-reared piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeba M Jacob

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionProvision of adequate nutrients is critical for proper growth and development of the neonate, yet the impact of breastfeeding versus formula feeding on neural maturation has yet to be fully determined. Using the piglet as a model for the human infant, our objective was to compare neurodevelopment of piglets that were either sow-reared or reared in an artificial setting. MethodsOver a 25-d feeding study, piglets (1.5 ± 0.2 kg initial bodyweight were either sow-reared (SR; n = 10 with ad libitum intake, or artificially-reared (AR; n = 29 receiving an infant formula modified to mimic the nutritional profile and intake pattern of sow’s milk. At study conclusion, piglets were subjected to a standardized set of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI procedures to quantify structure and composition of the brain.ResultsDiffusion tensor imaging, an MRI sequence that characterizes brain microstructure, revealed that SR piglets had greater (P < 0.05 average whole-brain fractional anisotropy, and lower (P < 0.05 mean and radial and axial diffusivity values compared with AR piglets, suggesting differences in white matter organization. Voxel-based morphometric analysis, a measure of white and gray matter volumes concentrations, revealed differences (P < 0.05 in bilateral development of gray matter clusters in the cortical brain regions of the AR piglets compared with SR piglets. Region of interest (ROI analysis revealed larger (P < 0.05 whole brain volumes in SR animals compared with AR, and subcortical regions to be larger (P < 0.05 as a percentage of whole-brain volume in AR piglets compared with SR animals. Quantification of brain metabolites using magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed SR piglets had higher (P < 0.05 concentrations of myo-inositol, glycerophosphocholine + phosphocholine, and creatine + phosphocreatine compared with AR piglets. However, glutamate + glutamine levels were higher (P < 0.05 in AR piglets when compared with SR animals

  12. Interactive baby feeding bottle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    An interactive baby bottle with an electronic unit is disclosed. The electronic unit comprises a sensor unit configured to sense the heart beat of a person bottle feeding a baby and an actuator unit configured to transmit the sensed heart beat to the baby. The disclosed interactive baby bottle can

  13. Effects of dietary energy levels on physiological parameters and reproductive performance of gestating sows over three consecutive parities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S S; Jin, Y H; Jang, J C; Hong, J S; Jung, S W; Kim, Y Y

    2018-03-01

    This experiment was to evaluate the effects of the dietary energy levels on the physiological parameters and reproductive performance during gestation over three parities in sows. A total of 52 F1 gilts (Yorkshire×Landrace) were allotted to one of four dietary treatments using a completely randomized design. The treatments contained 3,100, 3,200, 3,300, or 3,400 kcal of metabolizable energy (ME)/kg diet but feed was provided at 2.0, 2.2, and 2.4 kg/d in the first, second and third parity, respectively. The body weight and body weight gain during gestation increased as the dietary energy level increased (penergy level increased (penergy treatment diet (p = 0.08) and the body weight, body weight gain were increased by dietary energy level during gestation (penergy level increased at the first parity (penergy intake of gestating sows should be 6,400 or 6,600 kcal of ME/d, 7,040 or 7,260 kcal of ME/d, and 7,680 or 7,920 kcal of ME/d for parity 1, 2, and 3, respectively.

  14. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding therapies have been exhausted. Please review product brand and method of placement carefully with your physician ... Total Parenteral Nutrition. Resources: Oley Foundation Feeding Tube Awareness Foundation Children’s Medical Nutrition Alliance APFED’s Educational Webinar ...

  15. The effect of farrowing environment and previous experience on the maternal behaviour of sows in indoor pens and outdoor huts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wülbers-Mindermann, M; Berg, C; Illmann, G; Baulain, U; Algers, B

    2015-04-01

    Outdoor farrowing huts facilitate a less restricted maternal behaviour in sows compared with sows kept indoors in farrowing pens. The aim of our study was to investigate whether there are behavioural differences between primiparous sows kept outdoors in farrowing huts and indoors in pens, and whether the maternal behaviour during the second parity, when all sows were kept outdoors in farrowing huts, would differ between sows that have experienced the indoor or the outdoor environment, respectively, during their first parturition. A total of 26 Yorkshire×Swedish Landrace sows were studied. Of these, 11 sows were housed outdoors in farrowing huts during both parturitions (group=OUTOUT). The other 15 sows were kept indoors in a barn with single farrowing pens during their first parturition. During their second parturition, sows were kept outdoors in farrowing huts (group=INOUT). The behaviour was video recorded from 2 h prepartum to 48 h postpartum. The sows' responsiveness to playbacks of a piglet's screams was tested on days 2 to 3 postpartum. Parity 1: during the last 2 h prepartum, OUTOUT sows had a higher proportion of observations in the sternal lying position (Pbehavioural differences between INOUT and OUTOUT sows. In conclusion, it is not problematic for a second parity sow with initial maternal experience from an indoor farrowing pen to be kept outdoors in farrowing huts during its following farrowing.

  16. Wider stall space affects behavior, lesion scores, and productivity of gestating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salak-Johnson, J L; DeDecker, A E; Levitin, H A; McGarry, B M

    2015-10-01

    Limited space allowance within the standard gestation stall is an important welfare concern because it restricts the ability of the sow to make postural adjustments and hinders her ability to perform natural behaviors. Therefore, we evaluated the impacts of increasing stall space and/or providing sows the freedom to access a small pen area on sow well-being using multiple welfare metrics. A total of 96 primi- and multiparous crossbred sows were randomly assigned in groups of 4 sows/treatment across 8 replicates to 1 of 3 stall treatments (TRT): standard stall (CTL; dimensions: 61 by 216 cm), width-adjustable stall (flex stall [FLX]; dimensions: adjustable width of 56 to 79 cm by 216 cm), or an individual walk-in/lock-in stall with access to a small communal open-pen area at the rear of the stall (free-access stall [FAS]; dimensions: 69 by 226 cm). Lesion scores, behavior, and immune and productivity traits were measured at various gestational days throughout the study. Total lesion scores were greatest for sows in FAS and least for sows in FLX ( pregnancy progressed, lesion scores increased among sows in CTL ( postural behaviors and sham chew behavior were affected by TRT ( changes in postural behaviors, lesion severity scores, and other sow traits. Moreover, compromised welfare measures found among sows in various stall environments may be partly attributed to the specific constraints of each stall system such as restricted stall space in CTL, insufficient floor space in the open-pen area of the FAS system, and gate design of the FLX (e.g., direction of bars and feeder space). These results also indicate that parity and gestational day are additional factors that may exacerbate the effects of restricted stall space or insufficient pen space, further compromising sow well-being.

  17. Suitability of olive oil washing water as an electron donor in a feed batch operating bio-electrochemical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Fermoso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil washing water derived from the two-phase manufacturing process was assessed as an electron donor in a bio-electrochemical system (BES operating at 35 ºC. Start-up was carried out by using acetate as a substrate for the BES, reaching a potential of around +680 mV. After day 54, BES was fed with olive oil washing water. The degradation of olive oil washing water in the BES generated a maximum voltage potential of around +520 mV and a Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD removal efficiency of 41%. However, subsequent loads produced a decrease in the COD removal, while current and power density diminished greatly. The deterioration of these parameters could be a consequence of the accumulation of recalcitrant or inhibitory compounds, such as phenols. These results demonstrated that the use of olive oil washing water as an electron donor in a BES is feasible, although it has to be further investigated in order to make it more suitable for a real application.

  18. Suitability of olive oil washing water as an electron donor in a feed batch operating bio-electrochemical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermoso, F.G.; Fernández-Rodríguez, M.J.; Jiménez-Rodríguez, A.; Serrano, A.; Borja, R.

    2017-01-01

    Olive oil washing water derived from the two-phase manufacturing process was assessed as an electron donor in a bio-electrochemical system (BES) operating at 35 ºC. Start-up was carried out by using acetate as a substrate for the BES, reaching a potential of around +680 mV. After day 54, BES was fed with olive oil washing water. The degradation of olive oil washing water in the BES generated a maximum voltage potential of around +520 mV and a Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency of 41%. However, subsequent loads produced a decrease in the COD removal, while current and power density diminished greatly. The deterioration of these parameters could be a consequence of the accumulation of recalcitrant or inhibitory compounds, such as phenols. These results demonstrated that the use of olive oil washing water as an electron donor in a BES is feasible, although it has to be further investigated in order to make it more suitable for a real application. [es

  19. Energy partitioning and reproduction in primiparous sows : effects of dietary energy source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction

    As a result of extensive changes in pig husbandry in the last 50 years, nutritional requirements of especially lactating sows nowadays differ strongly from those of sows in the past. Although diets are optimized to meet the

  20. The effects of diet ingredients on gastric ulceration and salivary pH in gestating sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet and stress are thought to have a significant influence on the development of ulceration of the pars esophagea (UPE) region of the stomach in swine. the objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of diet ingredients on UPE and salivary pH in breeding sows. Forty-eight sows were ra...

  1. Impact of Sowing Date Induced Temperature and Management Practices on Development Events and Yield of Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSA Khan, MA Aziz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted at the research field of the Agronomy Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI, Joydebpur, Gazipur, during rabi season of 2014-2015 to find out the relationship between different development events of mustard crop and sowing dates induced temperature as well as to minimize the yield reduction of the crop by adopting appropriate management practices. The mustard var. BARI Sarisha-15 was sown on 06, 25 November and 14 December 2014. Crop accumulated lower growing degree days (GDD i.e., 72.15, 521.10 and 1070 to 1154 °C were observed for the events of emergence, 50 % flowering and maturity on 14 December sowing. Late sown plants took minimum time from flowering to maturity (36 days due to increased temperature and high variability in both maximum and minimum temperature. The highest seed yield (1569 kg ha-1 was recorded from 06 November sowing with high management practices while the lowest seed yield (435 kg ha-1 from 14 December sowing with low management practices. At high management practices the crop yielded 1183 kg ha-1 at 14 December sowing. Yield reduction at late sowing condition was reduced to some extent with high management practices. The seed yield reductions at 14 December sowing as compared to high management practices at 06 November sowing were 72, 43 and 25% under low, medium and high management, respectively.

  2. The effects of group size on aggression when mixing unacquainted sows in outdoor paddocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggression is a challenge when pigs are kept in groups. Sows fight at mixing when space is limited but this project sought to determine the amount and type of aggression observed when unacquainted Berkshire sows were mixed in pairs or in two established sub-groups of three in outdoor paddocks. Treat...

  3. Depletion of penicillin G residues in heavy sows after intramuscular injection. Part I: Tissue residue depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavy sows (n=126) were treated with penicillin G procaine at a 5x label dose (33,000 IU/kg) for 3 consecutive days by intramuscular (IM) injection using 3 separate patterns (treatments) of drug administration (42 sows per treatment). Treatments differed by pattern and maximum injection volume per s...

  4. Post weaning altrenogest use in sows: follicle growth, endocrine profiles and subsequent fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van J.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    A severe negative energy balance during first lactation may result in poor reproductive performance in the second litter. Allowing the sow recovery time after weaning by inseminating the sow the second estrus after weaning (skip a heat) improves reproductive performance. Postponing estrus for a

  5. Decubital shoulder ulcers in sows - a review of classification, pain and welfare consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S; Bonde, Marianne; Jørgensen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Decubital shoulder ulcers are lesions on the shoulders of sows kept in production systems, reported to have a relatively high prevalence, and to some extent be comparable with human pressure ulcers. In sows, the ulcers are caused by pressure inflicted by the flooring, leading to oxygen deficiency...

  6. Attitudes of Dutch Citizens toward Sow Husbandry with Regard to Animals, Humans, and the Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, Tamara; Hogeveen, Henk; Kuiper, Erno; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M.; Stassen, Elsbeth N.

    2017-01-01

    The pig industry is struggling with negative attitudes of people toward sow husbandry. To be able to respond to these attitudes, the pig industry first has to understand people’s attitudes. The first objective of this study was to determine the attitudes of Dutch people toward sow husbandry with

  7. In vitro phagocytosis of boar spermatozoa by neutrophils from peripheral blood of sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijs, A.; Harkema, W.; Engel, B.; Woelders, H.

    2000-01-01

    A considerable number of spermatozoa are used in each sow in routine artificial insemination. However, within a few hours after insemination, many spermatozoa are phagocytosed by polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Some aspects of sperm transport in the female genital tract in the sow have been thoroughly

  8. Maternal aptitude of Cinta Senese sows and behaviour of piglets throughout suckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ania

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A large number of ethological studies on swine species were carried out in order to test their productive and reproductive performances. Depending on genetic type, age, breeding and weaning system sows and piglets behaviour were studied. Maternal aptitude of sows was studied to get reasons of piglets mortality during weaning...

  9. IMMUNOGLOBULINS IN COLOSTRUM OF SOWS WITH PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME - PRRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal ROLINEC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of PRRS occurrence on sow colostrum immunological quality. We realised the experiment on 20 sows (breed: Large white. From farm without presences of PRRS were 10 sows and other 10 sows were from farm with presence of PRRS. We took the samples of sows colostrums during sucking. We detected concentration of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM in sows colostrum in time of 0 hours to 12 hours after beginning of farrowing with pig Ig ELISA quantitation kits. We determined statistically significant (P<0.01 higher concentration of IgG at the beginning of farrowing, 3 hours, 6 hours and 12 hours from beginning of farrowing in favour of farm without presence of PRRS. We determined statistically significant (P<0.01 higher concentration of IgA at 6 and 12 hours from beginning of farrowing in favour of farm without presence of PRRS. We determined statistically significant (P<0.01 higher concentration of IgM at 6 and 12 hours from beginning of farrowing in favour of farm without presence of PRRS. Lower concentrations of colostral immunoglobulins in group with PRRS can be caused of presence of PRRS. Virus PRRS can evocate synthesis of cytokine IL-10, which inhibited the function of macrophages and lymphocytes and so PRRS decrease the production of immunoglobulins and their concentration in blood of sows and consequently also concentration of immunoglobulins in sows colostrum.

  10. The effects of sowing time and depth on germination and seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to determine the appropriate sowing time and depth in spring for Taurus Cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich) in Turkey. The effects of sowing time and depth were determined with regard to the germination rate of seedlings' quality. The seeds were collected from Kapidag-Isparta, in Turkey, in 2003 and ...

  11. Effects of sowing date and nutsedge removal time on plant growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Productivity can be increased to a considerate extent through the improvement of management practices alone, particularly sowing time with appropriate weed control. The objective of this study was to identify the growth and yield performance of tef as affected by cultural manipulation of date of sowing and weed removal ...

  12. Technical note: Measurement of mammary plasma flow in sows by downstream dilution of mammary vein infused para-aminohippuric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Storm, Adam Christian; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2016-01-01

    catheter was surgically implanted in the femoral artery, and another 2 were inserted in the right cranial mammary vein of 8 second- and third-parity sows on d 76 ± 2 SEM of gestation. On the 3rd and 17th days in milk, arterial and venous blood samples were drawn in hourly intervals from 0.5 h before until...... 6.5 h after feeding. The MPF in the right cranial mammary vein was measured by downstream dilution of infused pAH (3.0 mmol/h). Total MPF-pAH was calculated assuming that the measured flow constituted the flow from 5 out of 14 suckled glands on the basis of the anatomical structure of the mammary...

  13. Sowing the seeds of change: Plant mutation breeding helps Bangladesh to feed its growing population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawerth, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Villages in the northern region of Bangladesh used to struggle with poverty and hunger during the long months of the ‘monga’ periods, but they are now bustling as farmers and workers harvest new crop varieties developed using nuclear techniques. “‘Monga’ is a Bengali word meaning ‘starvation,’” explained Mirza Mofazzal Islam, Principal Scientific Officer and Head of the Biotechnology Division at the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA). It is used to describe the time between mid-September and mid-November and from March to April, when “there is no work for the farm workers. They suffer; they are foodless,” said Mofazzal Islam.

  14. Exploratory field study on the effect of Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) sow vaccination on serological, virological and reproductive parameters in a PCV2 subclinically infected sow herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver-Ferrando, Salvador; Segalés, Joaquim; López-Soria, Sergio; Callén, Antonio; Merdy, Olivier; Joisel, François; Sibila, Marina

    2018-04-16

    This study sought to evaluate the effect of sow vaccination against Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) on reproductive parameters during two consecutive reproductive cycles. The study was performed in a PCV2 subclinical infected breeding herd (PCV2 circulation but absence of major reproductive problems). Ninety-four pregnant sows were primo-immunized with a commercial PCV2 vaccine and ninety-seven were injected with phosphate-buffered saline at 6 and 3 weeks before the first studied farrowing, and then boosted at 2 weeks before the second one. Blood samples were taken throughout the study to assess PCV2 DNA load and antibodies. At farrowing, main reproductive parameters and piglet vitality index were registered. In addition, in those litters with more than three mummified or stillborn piglets, microscopic examination and PCV2 antigen detection in foetal myocardium was done. Vaccinated sows showed significantly higher antibody levels compared to the non-vaccinated counterparts. PCV2 DNA was only detected at farrowing in 2 (4.2%) non-vaccinated sows. Vaccinated sows had 1.3 more live-born piglets per litter at the second cycle than non-vaccinated counterparts. Piglets from vaccinated sows had significantly higher (+ 12.7%) vitality score than the ones born from non-vaccinated sows. No PCV2 compatible lesions neither PCV2 antigen were detected in the tested foetal hearts. The present study represents a first attempt to demonstrate that PCV2 sow vaccination may have a positive influence on prolificacy and vitality of the offspring in a subclinical infected breeding herd. However, since reproductive outcomes at farm level may be affected by a number of factors, further studies would be needed to confirm this association.

  15. Biodegraded polymers as materials for sowing of grain crops seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Shibryaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase of efficiency of grain production, solution of problems of food security demand search and development of innovative technologies at all stages. One of ways of environmentally friendly production is sowing of seeds on an excipient located in the soil, for example, nonwoven fabric made of eco- decomposable decomposed biodegraded polymer. Biodegraded polymeric materials influence on sowing properties of grain crops seeds and provide realization of their potential productivity. The authors used an electroforming method with chloroform and a dichloroethane application to receive nonwoven fabric from poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB and its compositions together with synthetic nitrile rubber (PHB-SNR. Polymeric material influences on energy of germination and viability of wheat seeds. Germination index is calculated, heat physical parameters are determined for the polymeric excipient. The major factor influencing seeds germination is a structure of nonwoven fabric. Water diffusion, its supply to seeds and their viability depend on morphological features of polymeric material. Polymer excipient structure influence on speed of development of root system on which, in turn, intensity of destruction of polymer depends. The best indicators of energy of germination and viability of seeds correspond to the greatest value of decrease of melting heat of PHB in mix PHB-SNR. In addition, among the studied samples of PHB-SNR the material received from blend of solvents is most effective. The cause is in feature of its structure favorable for a seed germination.

  16. The effect of sowing strategy, row distance and mechanical weed control on weeds and yield in organic winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Ilse A.

    2002-01-01

    A series of field experiments were carried out in winter wheat grown under organic conditions in Denmark on fields with different weed pressure. The treatments were sowing strategy (normal sowing time, late sowing and false seedbed), row distance (12 cm and 24 cm row distance) and weed control method (untreated, mechanical weed control (weed harrowing at 12 cm supplemented with row hoeing at 24 cm), and herbicide weed control). Weed biomass was largest at the normal sowing time and was reduce...

  17. Studies on nitrogen uptake and utilization by rape (Brassica napus L.) under different sowing dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qixin; Nie Guangming

    1992-01-01

    The nitrogen uptake and utilization by low erucic acid variety, Zhong You Di Gai No.2, of rape (Brassica napus L.) under different sowing dates were studied. Total N uptake, the percentage N derived from the fertilizer, the rate of utilization of nitrogenous fertilizer, the production efficiency of N-fertilizer (seed yield g/gN derived by rape plant from the fertilizer), total P uptake and the production efficiency of phosphorus (seed yield g/gP derived by rape plant from fertilizer and soil) were all significantly higher at early sowing than that at later sowing within the range of normal sowing dates. Therefore, the biomass yield, the seed yield and oil content all increased significantly at early sowing treatment, but erucic acid content showed no significant difference

  18. Evaluating measures of exploratory behaviour in sows around farrowing and during lactation—A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valros, Anna; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Pöytäkangas, Merja

    2017-01-01

    There are very few studies on the need to perform exploratory behaviour of sows around farrowing and during lactation, except for during the nest-building period. Exploratory behaviour in pigs may reflect appetitive foraging motivated by hunger, or appetitive behaviour related to other motivations...... in conventional crates from day 8 before expected farrowing until weaning, on day 28 after farrowing. Motivation to perform exploratory behaviour was evaluated by measuring the use of a manipulable and chewable object (a wooden device, MCO) and responses during a novel object test (NO). In addition, we studied...... if exploratory motivation is related to the energy status of the sow, measured as sow weight change during lactation, piglet weight gain, and leptin level in saliva. The exploratory motivation of sows appeared to change during the period of study. Although all sows used the MCO, the use was very low throughout...

  19. Colostrum production in sows fed different sources of fiber and fat during late gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Uffe; Bruun, Thomas S.; Williams, Charlotte Amdi

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to study yield and composition of colostrum and transient milk from 36 second-parity sows fed a standard lactation diet (CON) low in fiber or one of two high-fiber diets based on sugar beet pulp (SBP) or alfalfa meal (ALF), combined with one of three fat sources, palm fatty acid.......05), indicating altered intermediary metabolism. Colostrum yield, predicted from piglet birth weight, suckling duration and weight gain, was unaffected by dietary treatments (P>0.10). Colostral (24 h) and transient milk dry matter contents were greater in SOYO compared with PFAD and C8TG sows (PColostrum...... (12 and 24 h) and transient milk lactose contents were greatest in CON-fed sows compared with sows fed ALF or SBP diets (Pcolostrum composition, but did not affect colostrum yield of sows....

  20. Effect of β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate supplementation of sows in late gestation and lactation on sow production of colostrum and milk and piglet performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flummer, Christine; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2012-01-01

    diet from day 108 of gestation and until 28 d after parturition (weaning). Sows fed HMB (n = 8) were fed the CON diet topdressed with 2.5 g Ca(HMB)2 equally divided at each 2 daily meals throughout the experiment. Litters were standardized to 12 piglets per sow within experimental group on day 1......, and both groups weaned on average 11.3 piglets per sow. Blood samples were taken from the sows by jugular vein puncture on days –3, 1, 10, 17, and 28 relative to parturition. Piglets were weighed at birth, after 24 h, and repeatedly throughout lactation to estimate the colostrum and milk yield of the sows....... Samples of colostrum and milk were collected and analyzed. Sows fed HMB had a higher colostrum yield (512 vs. 434 ± 30 g/piglet; P = 0.05) estimated based on the piglet weight gain during the colostrum period (132 vs. 76 ± 21 g/piglet; P = 0.05) and the mortality rate of HMB piglets were lower during...

  1. Confinement of sows 24 h before expected farrowing affects the performance of nest building behaviours but not progress of parturition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian F.; Hales, Janni; Weber, Pernille M.

    2017-01-01

    sows had free access to a straw rack with long stemmed straw and were housed in a freedom farrowing pen with an option of confinement. Loose sows were loose housed throughout the observational period and confined sows were confined from 2 days before expected farrowing until the completion...

  2. The behaviour and welfare of sows and piglets in farrowing crates or lactation pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, C; Verdon, M; Cronin, G M; Hemsworth, P H

    2017-07-01

    Temporary confinement during parturition and early postpartum may provide an intermediary step preceding loose housing that offers improvement in sow and piglet welfare. Three experiments were conducted to investigate the implications of replacing farrowing crates (FCs) with an alternative housing system from 3 days postpartum until weaning. In each experiment sows farrowed in FCs and were randomly allocated at day 3 of lactation to either a FC or a pen with increased floor space (lactation pen (LP)) until weaning. In experiment 1, piglet growth and sow and piglet skin injuries were recorded for 32 sows and 128 focal piglets in these litters. Behaviour around nursing and piglet behavioural time budgets were also recorded for 24 of these litters (96 focal piglets for time budgets). In experiment 2, measures of skin injury and behavioural time budgets were conducted on 28 sows and 112 focal piglets. The behavioural response of sows to piglet vocalisation (maternal responsiveness test (MRT)) was also assessed. In experiment 3, piglet mortality from day 3 of lactation until weaning was recorded in 672 litters over 12 months. While housing did not affect piglet weight gain in experiment 1, or piglet skin injuries in experiments 1 or 2, sows in both experiments sustained more injuries in LP than FC (experiment 1, 2.9 v. 1.4; experiment 2, 2.5 v. 0.8 lesions/sow; P0.05). Thus, housing sows and litters in LP from day 3 of lactation minimises piglet mortality while improving maternal behaviour in sows and social behaviour in piglets.

  3. Intrauterine growth retarded progeny of pregnant sows fed high protein:low carbohydrate diet is related to metabolic energy deficit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia C Metges

    Full Text Available High and low protein diets fed to pregnant adolescent sows led to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR. To explore underlying mechanisms, sow plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations were analyzed during different pregnancy stages and correlated with litter weight (LW at birth, sow body weight and back fat thickness. Sows were fed diets with low (6.5%, LP, adequate (12.1%, AP, and high (30%, HP protein levels, made isoenergetic by adjusted carbohydrate content. At -5, 24, 66, and 108 days post coitum (dpc fasted blood was collected. At 92 dpc, diurnal metabolic profiles were determined. Fasted serum urea and plasma glucagon were higher due to the HP diet. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC, %HDLC and cortisol were reduced in HP compared with AP sows. Lowest concentrations were observed for serum urea and protein, plasma insulin-like growth factor-I, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and progesterone in LP compared with AP and HP sows. Fasted plasma glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations were unchanged. Diurnal metabolic profiles showed lower glucose in HP sows whereas non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations were higher in HP compared with AP and LP sows. In HP and LP sows, urea concentrations were 300% and 60% of AP sows, respectively. Plasma total cholesterol was higher in LP than in AP and HP sows. In AP sows, LW correlated positively with insulin and insulin/glucose and negatively with glucagon/insulin at 66 dpc, whereas in HP sows LW associated positively with NEFA. In conclusion, IUGR in sows fed high protein:low carbohydrate diet was probably due to glucose and energy deficit whereas in sows with low protein:high carbohydrate diet it was possibly a response to a deficit of indispensable amino acids which impaired lipoprotein metabolism and favored maternal lipid disposal.

  4. Chemical and biological evaluation of the nutritive value of heat-sterilized and radappertized feed mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooij, J.G. van

    1979-01-01

    In an attempt to develop a procedure for wholesomeness testing of irradiated food, which considers the use of irradiation as a physical process, large-scale feeding tests in pigs were carried out. Basic criteria of this procedure are the testing of wholly irradiated diets and the comparison of irradiation with another physical process, viz. heat treatment. The results of the biological evaluation of the protein showed, that protein quality of sow feed was not noticeably affected by either treatment, while protein quality of creep and hog feed was more adversely affected by heat than by irradiation. Heat-sterilized feeds always demonstrated the lowest values for lysine availability. Feed-borne vitamin E appeared very sensitive to irradiation. Losses of vitamins A, B 1 , B 6 and folic acid were in the order of 20% due to irradiation with 5 Mrad. Losses in heat-sterilized feeds were about 40% for vitamins A, B 1 and B 6 . Prior to heating, sow and creep feeds were fortified with vitamins A, B 1 and B 6 , and hog feed with vitamin A. Hogs on heat-sterilized feed showed a 10% increased feed conversion, indicating a less favourable growth than the pigs on untreated or on irradiated feed. The mean body-weight of piglets at 49 days on heat-sterilized feed was approx. 10% lower (significant at p<0.05) than the body-weight of piglets on either untreated or radappertized creep feed. Body-weight gain values of piglets on heat-sterilized creep feed are markedly lower than those of piglets on either untreated or radappertized creep feeds during that part of the lactation period when the young pigs consume considerable quantities of solid feed. Piglets and hogs on heat-sterilized feeds demonstrated an increased sensitivity to stress conditions

  5. Psychometric evaluation of the Dutch version of the Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Boukje A G; Krabbe, Paul F M; Riezebos, Truus G M; van der Staak, Cees P F; De Jong, Cor A J

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the 16-item Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS). The SOWS measures withdrawal symptoms at the time of assessment. The Dutch SOWS was repeatedly administered to a sample of 272 opioid-dependent inpatients of four addiction treatment centers during rapid detoxification with or without general anesthesia. Examination of the psychometric properties of the SOWS included exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and criterion validity. Exploratory factor analysis of the SOWS revealed a general pattern of four factors with three items not always clustered in the same factors at different points of measurement. After excluding these items from factor analysis four factors were identified during detoxification (temperature dysregulation, tractus locomotorius, tractus gastro-intestinalis and facial disinhibition). The 13-item SOWS shows high internal consistency and test-retest reliability and good validity at different stages of withdrawal. The 13-item SOWS is a reliable and valid instrument to assess opioid withdrawal during rapid detoxification. Three items were deleted because their content does not correspond directly with opioid withdrawal symptoms. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Grain yield and baking quality of wheat under different sowing dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Rossi Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Choosing the right sowing dates can maximize the outcomes of the interaction between genotype and environment, thus increasing grain yield and baking quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. The present study aimed at determining the most appropriate sowing dates that maximize grain yield and baking quality of wheat cultivars. Seven wheat cultivars (BRS 179, BRS Guamirim, BRS Guabiju, BRS Umbu, Safira, CD 105 and CD 115 were evaluated at four sowing dates (the 1st and the 15th of June and July in two harvesting seasons (2007 and 2008. The study was setup in a completely randomized block design with four repetitions. The effects of the year and sowing date when combined explained 93% of the grain yield variance. In 2007, the CD 105 and Safira cultivars had the highest grain yield (GY for all sowing dates. Only the BRS Guabiju and Safira cultivars possessed high baking quality for all sowing dates assessed. In 2008, the environmental conditions were favorable for superior GY, but the baking quality was inferior. Considering adapted cultivars and sowing dates, it is possible to maximize grain yield and baking quality of wheat.

  7. Simulating the effect of emex australis densities and sowing dates on agronomic traits of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, R.N.; Tanveer, A.; Ali, A.; Zaheer, Z.A.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction in yield and quality of wheat is major problem caused by the delayed sowing and interference of weeds. The effects of sowing dates (Nov 8, Nov 16, and Nov 24) and Emex australis Steinh. density (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 plants per pot) on growth and yield of wheat were evaluated over two seasons (2005-06, 2006-07). The statistical analysis of data exhibited non-significant effect of weed density on number of days taken to initiate flowering by E. australis. Highest values for E. australis plant height, dry biomass, number of seed per plant and seed weight were recorded by sowing wheat on November 8, at E. australis density of one plant per pot in both years. Maximum number of spike bearing tillers per pot, plant height, number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were observed in November 8, sowing with zero E. australis density and minimum values for these parameters were recorded in late sowing ( November 24) at maximum weed density of 4 plants per pot. Early sowing ( Nov. 8) and weed free pots increased wheat grain yield compared to later sowings (Nov. 16 and Nov. 24) and higher weed density. (author)

  8. Winter sowing of adapted lines as a potential yield increase strategy in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Barrios

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. subsp. culinaris is a traditional crop in Spain although current grain yield in Spain is relatively low and unstable. The effect of an early sowing date (winter sowing on yield in the Spanish Central Plateau (meseta was analyzed comparing it to the traditional spring sowing. Yield from eleven cultivars currently available for sowing in Spain and two F6:7  populations of recombinant inbred lines (RIL, ´Precoz´ × ´WA8649041´ (89 lines and ´BGE016365´ × ´ILL1918´ (118 lines, was evaluated in winter and spring sowing dates for three seasons (2005/06, 2006/07 and 2007/08 and two localities. Yield and stability were assessed by the method of consistency of performance with some modifications. When comparing with the best currently available cultivars sown in the traditional spring sowing date, (with an estimated average yield of 43.9 g/m in our experimental conditions, winter sowing using adapted breeding lines proved to be a suitable strategy for increasing lentil yield and yield stability in the Spanish meseta, with an average yield increase of 111% (reaching an estimated yield of 92.8 g/m. Results point to that lentil production can greatly increase in the Spanish meseta if adequate plant materials, such as some of the lines analyzed, are sown at late fall.

  9. Effect of sowing date on biometrical features of Hamburg parsley plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gruszecki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between sowing date and the biometrics features of the roots and leaves of parsley. Seeds of parsley cultivars ‘Berlińska PNE’ and ‘Cukrowa’ were sown in 5 times in 2004 year: 5 July, 25 August, 5 and 15 September, 17 November and 12 April 2005. Plants were harvested then the average root diameter was greater than 20 mm. Due to harvest time dependence of the size of the root, was no effect of sowing date on the diameter and the weight of gained parsley roots. Shorter roots and the lower coefficient of shape produced plants that sprouted before winter (5 July, 25 August, 5 and 15 September. The highest number of leaves produced by plants sowing on 5 July and 17 November, and the lowest – by plants sowing on 25 August and 12 April. The lowest length of leaves were found in plants obtained from sowing on 5 July (20.8 cm, it was more than twice shorter than in plants from different dates of sowing. The largest weight of leaves had the plants from sowing on 5 and 15 September or 17 November. Those plants are also characterized by a smaller root/shoot weight ratio. Tested cultivars differ in the length and coefficient of shape of the root and root/shoot weight ratio.

  10. Winter sowing of adapted lines as a potential yield increase strategy in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrios, A.; Aparicio, T.; Rodríguez, M.J.; Pérez de la Vega, M.; Caminero, C.

    2016-11-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. subsp. culinaris) is a traditional crop in Spain although current grain yield in Spain is relatively low and unstable. The effect of an early sowing date (winter sowing) on yield in the Spanish Central Plateau (meseta) was analyzed comparing it to the traditional spring sowing. Yield from eleven cultivars currently available for sowing in Spain and two F6:7 populations of recombinant inbred lines (RIL), ´Precoz´ × ´WA8649041´ (89 lines) and ´BGE016365´ × ´ILL1918´ (118 lines), was evaluated in winter and spring sowing dates for three seasons (2005/06, 2006/07 and 2007/08) and two localities. Yield and stability were assessed by the method of consistency of performance with some modifications. When comparing with the best currently available cultivars sown in the traditional spring sowing date, (with an estimated average yield of 43.9 g/m in our experimental conditions), winter sowing using adapted breeding lines proved to be a suitable strategy for increasing lentil yield and yield stability in the Spanish meseta, with an average yield increase of 111% (reaching an estimated yield of 92.8 g/m). Results point to that lentil production can greatly increase in the Spanish meseta if adequate plant materials, such as some of the lines analyzed, are sown at late fall. (Author)

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF SOWING TERM ON THE DURUM WHEAT INDUCTION ABILITY IN SOUTH UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Zambriborsh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sowing term of spring durum wheat influence on the induction ability in the South Ukraine was evaluated. Wheat was sowed in two terms: April, 11 and April, 18 of 2013. Two sowing term were different in the growing conditions. The second term is characterized with higher temperature and lower soil humidity during wheat germination and growing. Wheat spikes were cut in appropriate microspore development stage according to standard protocol. Anthers were cultivated on different cultural media. We used standard protocols as well as our own improved protocols of media preparation. The level of sowing term and plant culture media on the induction ability of different wheat genotypes was estimated. Stress growing conditions increased the induction ability of durum wheat. The new formation percentage was higher for the second sowing term wheat on different media. However it was shown that the level of sowing term influence was lower on appropriate cultural media. Key words: in vitro anther culture, durum wheat, sowing term, new formation induction.

  12. Grading of shoulder ulcerations in sows by biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik Elvang; Dahl-Pedersen, Kirstin; Barington, Krisitane

    2014-01-01

    legislation, stating that sows with shoulder ulcers grade 3 or 4 must be kept loose and have access to soft bedding. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate if biopsies from the center of a shoulder ulcer can be used to point out animals for which an intervention must be initiated. Postmortem......, a punch biopsy was sampled from the center of the ulceration or from the tissue overlaying the tuber spina scapula. Afterward, the shoulders were cross-sectioned and evaluated grossly and histologically (“gold standard”). In total, 121 shoulders were included in the study, and the diagnostic value...... of a punch biopsy in grading shoulder ulcerations was evaluated. The results showed a sensitivity of 0.78, a specificity of 0.98, a positive likelihood ratio of 38.36, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.22. The agreement between the cross-section evaluation and the punch biopsy was found to be 0...

  13. Metabolomic profiles of colostrum and milk from lactating sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtasu, Mihai Victor; Theil, Peter Kappel; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2016-01-01

    Survival and growth of sucklingpiglets is highly dependent on the nutrients, growthfactors, and protective components provided bysow colostrum and milk. The macrochemical compositionundergoes large alterations during thelactation period, but knowledge of the compositionand variation of low...... molecular weight metabolitesis presently lacking. Samples of colostrum at 0, 12,24, and 36 h and milk samples on Day 3, 10, 17,and 24 relative to farrowing were collected from 4s parity sows fed a standard lactation diet. Sampleswere analyzed using a nontargeted metabolomicsapproach. Sample preparation...... and the variablesresponsible for separation. PCA revealed data clusteringaccording to sample type, with differencesobserved between colostrum and milk for both ionizationmodes. Positive ionization revealed a numberof highly influential metabolites, such as l-carnitine,acyl esters of carnitine (l-acetylcarnitine, 2...

  14. [Effects of sowing depth on seedling traits and root characteristics of summer maize].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui-ying; Wang, Ding-bo; Shi, Jian-guo; Zhu, Kun-lun; Dong, Shu-ting; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Ji-wang

    2015-08-01

    Two summer maize hybrids, Zhengdan 958 (ZD958) and Xianyu 335 (XY335), were used as experimental materials. 4 sowing depths (3, 5, 7 and 9 cm) and uneven sowing depth (CK) were designed under sand culture and field experiments to investigate the effects of sowing depth on seedling traits and root characteristics of summer maize. The results showed that the seedling emergence rate gradually decreased and seedling emergence time gradually lengthened as the sowing depth increased. Compared with the sowing depth of 3 cm, the seedling emergence rates of ZD958 and XY335 sown at the depth of 9 cm were reduced by 9.4% and 11.8%, respectively, and the seedling emergence duration was prolonged 1.5 d. With the increasing sowing depth, the seedling length and uniformity decreased significantly, the mesocotyl length increased significantly, while the coleoptile length had no significant difference; the primary radicle length gradually decreased, the total length of secondary radicle gradually increased, and the total root length had no significant difference; the total dry mass of seedling and mesocotyl increased significantly, and the total root dry mass had no significant difference. With the increasing sowing depth, the soluble sugar content in each part of seedling increased and the amount of nutritional consumption of germinating seeds increased, the seedling root growth rate increased, but the root activity decreased, and the number of total nodal root and nodal layers increased. With the increasing sowing depth, harvested ears per unit area were reduced by decreased seedling emergence rate and seedling vigor, thus influenced the yield. In addition, uniform sowing depth could improve the canopy uniformity and relative characteristics, then increase the yield.

  15. Effect of supplementation diets of slipery fish level fat on performance, milk yield and milk composition of F1 (Landrace X Yorkshire) sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, K.T.; Nghia, D.H.; Duc, N.L.; Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty five F1 (Landrace x Yorkshire) sows parity of 2- 4 were used to determine the effect of catfish fat to late-pregnant and lactating sows on sow and their piglets’ performance. Sows were fed trial diets from 107 d of gestation until 21 d of lactation. Diets were: control without fish fat; 2%

  16. Animal Welfare and Economic Aspects of Using Nurse Sows in Swedish Pig Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Alvåsen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of born piglets per litter has increased in Swedish pig industry, and farmers are struggling to improve piglet survival. A common practice is to make litters more equally sized by moving piglets from large litters to smaller to make sure that all piglets get an own teat to suckle. Litter equalization is not always enough, as many sows have large litters and/or damaged teats, which results in an insufficient number of available teats. One way to solve this problem is to use nurse sows. A nurse sow raises, and weans, her own piglets before receiving a foster litter. The objectives of this study were to address how the use of nurse sows affects the welfare of sows and piglets and to explore how it impacts the contribution margin of pig production in Sweden. A literature search was made to investigate welfare aspects on sows and piglets. As there were few published studies on nurse sows, an expert group meeting was organized. In order to explore the impact on the contribution margin of pig production, a partial budgeting approach with stochastic elements was used for a fictive pig farm. Standard templates for calculating costs and benefits were supplemented with figures from existing literature and the gathered expert opinions. In Sweden, the minimum suckling period is 28 days while published studies involving nurse sows, all from outside of Sweden, weaned the piglets at 21 days. A Swedish nurse sow will thus get longer lactation period which might increase the risk of poor body condition, damaged teats, and shoulder ulcers. This indicates a reduced welfare of the sow and may lead to impaired fertility and increased culling risk. On the other hand, the piglet mortality could be reduced with the use of nurse sows, but the separation and mixing of piglets could be stressful. The partial budgeting suggested that the nurse sow system is slightly more profitable (+6,838 Swedish krona per farrowing group during one dry and one lactation

  17. Weaning strategies to improve the performance of sows and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Restricted suckling resulted in an increased creep feed intake by the piglets. Piglets that were suckled once a day consumed 8.76 kg creep feed during the experimental period compared to 8.49, 8.35 and 8.21 kg for split weaning, twice a day suckling and the control, respectively. All intakes were significantly different.

  18. Effects of altrenogest treatment in sows on the variation of piglet birth weight and pre-weaning piglet performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supatee Kitkha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of altrenogest (ALT feeding combined with induced ovulation by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG in sows was evaluated on piglet birth weight (BW variation and pre-weaning performance. Sows were divided into four groups: the control (no ALT; without hCG induction; artificial inseminated (AI at 12 and 36 h after estrus; n = 40, ALT + hCG72 (ALT 20 mg/d, D-4–D2 (D0: weaning day; hCG 750 IU at 72 h post ALT; AI at 24 and 40 h after hCG; n = 41, ALT + hCG96 (ALT 20 mg/d, D-4–D2; hCG 750 IU at 96 h post ALT; AI at 24 and 40 h after hCG; n = 41 and ALT + no hCG (20 mg/d, D-4–D2; without hCG induction; AI at 12 and 36 h after estrus; n = 41. The results revealed that piglet BW was not different among the groups (p > 0.05. However, the standard deviation of piglet BW (SDBW was lower in ALT + hCG72 (0.32 ± 0.02 kg; p = 0.032, compared to ALT + hCG96 (0.40 ± 0.02 kg and ALT + no hCG (0.40 ± 0.02 kg, except for the control (0.39 ± 0.02 kg. In addition, the pre-weaning mortality rate (%PWM due to underweight elimination at weaning (below 3.50 kg was decreased in ALT + hCG72 (8.33% compared to the control (32.50%; p = 0.007 but similar to ALT + hCG96 (10.71% and ALT + no hCG (24.05%. Therefore, ALT + hCG72 treatment in sows could reduce piglet BW variation and the number of piglets eliminated at weaning.

  19. Effect of sowing date on grain quality of sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IVHAA) while minerals; iron and zinc were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Significant site by variety by sowing date interactions at P < 0.05 level of probability were obtained for protein, iron and zinc content of sorghum ...

  20. Sowing properties of summer rape seeds depending on fertilizers and terms of harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. В. Юник

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the results of research of sowing properties - emergence rate and laboratory germinating capacity seeds summer rape are resulted depending on variants of fertilizers and terms of harvesting.

  1. Effect of interaction between seed size and sowing depth of cashew ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of interaction between seed size and sowing depth of cashew Anacardium occidentale (L) on seedlings emergence and height under treatment with organic and inorganic fertilizer in Gidan-Waya, Southern Guinea Savanna, Nigeria.

  2. Evaluation of the food safety risk associated with de-boning of Danish sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tanja Østergaard; Bækbo, Anne Kristine; Petersen, Jesper Valentin

    2017-01-01

    -boning (approved/rejected), and additional information from abattoir employees were obtained and analysed. Abscesses and muscle samples from 105 sows sent for de-boning and 60 muscle samples from fully approved sows were collected at the abattoir. The isolated bacteria were identified using MALDITOF. Results from...... reason for condemnation after de-boning. Staphylococcus aureus was assessed to be the only potential food safety hazard. There was no association between presence of bacteria in muscle samples and abscesses from the same animals, neither for bacteria in general (P= 1) nor for Staphylococcus aureus......, specifically (P= 1). Furthermore, no association regarding presence of bacteria was found in the meat from de-boned sows and fully approved sows (P= 0.67). It was concluded that the de-boning procedure is not contributing to food safety. The authors suggest replacing de-boning with a more thorough inspection...

  3. Long-Term Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol in Feed and Feed Raw Materials with a Special Focus on South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhee Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Fusarium fungi produce toxic substances called mycotoxins, which can cause disease and harmful effects in grains, livestock, and humans. Deoxynivalenol (DON, also known as vomitoxin, is one of the Fusarium mycotoxins that is known to cause vomiting in livestock. This study shows the occurrence of deoxynivalenol in feedstuffs (compound feed and feed ingredients between 2009 and 2016 in South Korea. A total of 653 domestic samples were collected at five time points, including 494 compound feed samples and 159 feed ingredient samples. DON contamination levels were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with pretreatment using an immunoaffinity column (IAC. The limit of detection (LOD and the limit of quantification (LOQ were estimated at 1–10 µg/kg and 3–35 µg/kg, respectively. Two compound feeds (two gestating sow feed samples out of 160 pig feed samples exceeded the European Commission (EC guidance value, while no feed ingredient samples exceeded the EC or South Korean guidance values. There were statistically significant differences in the mean contamination levels of compound feed and feed ingredients that indicated a decreasing trend over time.

  4. Impact of spring warming on sowing times of cereal, potato and sugar beet in Finland

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    T. KAUKORANTA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical data were used to determine if the warm springs experienced in recent decades have influenced time of sowing of spring cereals (barley, wheat and oats, potato and sugar beet in Finland. The start of the thermal growing season was used to represent all climatic factors affecting sowing time. Regional anomalies in sowing and start of growing season were computed for the years 1965–2007. The start of the growing season was 2–2.8 days earlier per decade, with a steeper increase since 1980. Sugar beet sowing advanced 2.5 (since 1980 5.2 and potato planting 3.4 (since 1980 4.5 days per decade, more than expected solely due to earlier starts to the growing season. Sowing of spring cereals advanced 0.6, 0.7 and 1.7 days per decade in the east, north and west respectively (since 1980 1.0, 1.9 and 3.1, with statistically significant trend (p < 0.01 in the west. Earlier sowings can be largely explained by warmer springs, but the trend was not as steep as that for the growing season. This has however not led to increased temperatures during early vegetative phases and thus faster development and increased drought or pest risk, which would have reduced the positive effects of earlier sowing on yield potential. Earlier sowing detected in the west can be explained by changes in spring temperatures, but may also result from economic and technological development. Farmers seem to have adequately adjusted their field activities to the changes in spring temperatures.;

  5. [Sowing date of corn in semiarid region of Jilin Province, Northeast China in adapting to climate change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ying-Hua; Zhou, Dao-Wei; Qin, Li-Jie

    2012-10-01

    Under the background of global climate change, the climate in semiarid region of west Jilin Province changed greatly, producing a profound impact on the corn production in this region. In this study, the corn seeds were under three treatments (accelerating germination at 10 and 25 degrees C, and dry seeds), and a field experiment with early sowing and traditional sowing was conducted in 2008 to investigate the effects of early sowing these seeds on the seedling emergence, growth, and yield, and compare the effects of early sowing and traditional sowing dates on the corn production and yield. In 1961-2010, the first day of the growth season of corn in semiarid region of west Jilin Province was advanced, the air temperature increased significantly, and the precipitation displayed a decreasing trend. At present, the corn sowing date in this region could be advanced to 11th, April. Accelerating germination at 10 degrees C, directly sowing dry seeds, and bed-irrigation sowing all benefited the seedling emergence and cold resistance of early-sown seeds, and the corn plant height and leaf area under early sowing were significantly higher, with the yield increased by 35% - 48%, compared with those under traditional sowing.

  6. Backfat thickness during gestation and lactation period in respect to reproductive performance of primiparous and multiparous sows

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    MARIA BOCIAN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of backfat thickness measured during gestation and after lactation of primiparous and multiparous sows on the value of reproductive traits. Backfat thickness was determined at mating, at 105 day of gestation and after weaning and were correlated with selected reproductive indicators including placenta weight. The study was carried out 20 primiparous and 20 multiparous sows of Polish Landrace breed. The nutrition and housing conditions were the same for all pigs. Backfat and loin depth (P2, P4 , P4 M were measured using PIGLOG 105 device. The evaluation of reproductive performance included the weight of placenta at parturition, the number of born piglets, litter weight, piglet body weight at birth, at 21 and at weaning (28 days. Multiparous sows were characterized by greater fatness than primiparous sows in all periods of use. In all examined sows the backfat depth during gestation increased and decreased after lactation. Those changes were more pronounced in multiparous sows than in primiparous sows (P ≤ 0.01. Multiparous sows born and reared more piglets to 21 and 28 days of life (P ≤ 0.01. There have not been dead piglets in primiparous litters. Litters weight from multiparous sows were higher than from primiparous sows only at birth (P ≤ 0.01 and similar in rest periods of rearing. Individual body weight of piglets from primiparous was higher than that from multiparous sows at 21 and 28 days of life (P ≤ 0.01. Fatness changes during lactation, particularly in multiparous sows, were positively correlated with litter weight at birth and negatively correlated with piglet’s weight at 21 and 28 days of life and their daily gains (P ≤ 0.05. Correlations between placenta weight and backfat thickness during lactation were positive in both groups of sows (P ≤ 0.01.

  7. Sowing time affects the abundance of pests and weeds in winter rye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. HUUSELA-VEISTOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection of an appropriate sowing time for some winter rye (Secale cereale cultivars could reduce the need for crop protection measures. In this study the occurrence and status of pests and weeds in relation to sowing time and growth habit of winter rye was studied in southern Finland. This was done using three sowing times and four rye varieties in field trials conducted at three locations in 1999–2001. The early sown rye was severely affected by pests (Oscinella frit, Mayetiola destructor and weeds, whereas postponing sowing for two weeks after the recommended sowing time in late August resulted in considerably less damage and the optimal establishment of crop stands. The German hybrid varieties Picasso and Esprit produced more tillers m-2 in autumn than the Finnish varieties Anna and Bor 7068. However, the number of pests and weeds did not differ among rye varieties. Late sowing of rye should be considered to minimize the need for plant protection. If rye is sown at the recommended time it may still require insecticide treatments promptly in the autumn whereas herbicide treatment need not be determined until spring, after recording the winter mortality of weeds.;

  8. THE EFFECT OF THE BACKFAT THICKNESS LOSS ON REPRODUCTION IN LACTATING SOWS

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    Luboš Brzobohatý

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The work discusses the influence of the backfat thickness change, during sow´s lactation, on their subsequent litter characteristics. The reproduction potential of 478 sows of two genotypes was assessed. The genotypes were 50 Large White (LWD sows and 428 crossbreeds Large White x Landrace (LWD x L sows. The backfat thickness decline was examined in accordance to P2, backfat thickness in sows during lactation namely 1 day before planned parturition as well as weaning. From the obtained results it can be stated that the backfat thickness decline level during lactation has a small influence on the number of total born piglets. In contrast, the number of piglets born alive increased when backfat thickness rate increased. With a moderate backfat thickness decline, the average birthweight piglets gradually increased. However, the opposite trend was shown for the average weight at weaning. The backfat thickness decline level during sow´s lactation influences their farrowing interval. Animals with a lower increase of the backfat thickness subsequently showed a shorter farrowing interval (148.99, respectively 151.86 days, as well as a shorter weaning – estrus interval.

  9. Analysis of Reproductive Parameters in Sows with Regard to Their Health Status

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    Pavel Nevrkla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate selected reproductive parameters in sows. Observed parameters were analysed in two herds with different health status. The experiment involved 160 hybrid sows from the 1st to the 5th litter (80 sows with health status A and 80 sows with health status B. Highly statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.001 and significant differences (P ≤ 0.05 were found between the two groups in length of gravidity, total numbers of piglets, numbers of live-born piglets, numbers of stillborn piglets, numbers of reared piglets and losses of piglets per litter in favor of group B with declared health status. Evaluation of phenotypic correlation between the total number of piglets and the live-born piglets in the sows without declared health status revealed high positive correlation (P ≤ 0.01. Strong positive dependence was found also between the live-born and the reared piglets in this group. In the sows with declared health status, high positive correlation (P ≤ 0.01 was found also between the total number of piglets and the number of live-born piglets and between the number of live-born and reared piglets.

  10. Development of a test method for sowing machines concerning the drift of dust abrasion

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    Bahmer, Roland

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available For a long time the seed treatment was regarded as the most effective and in terms of the impact of the natural environment as the safest form of plant protection. Since the serious damage of bees, caused by dust of abraded seed treatment in the Rhine Valley five years ago, the admission of seed treatment products containing insecticide is in the discussion. To evaluate the emission characteristics of sowing machines during sowing based on secure data, the technical basis for a test method for measuring the drift of abraded seed-dust in sowing machines were developed at the Centre for Agricultural Technology Augustenberg. An indoor test bench was created and a standardized test method by which it is possible to evaluate the drift behavior of sowing machines in comparison was developed. A granulate which is stained with a fluorescent Tracer is used as test seed. The „tracer technique“ allows a reproducible, rapid and inexpensive assessment of the drift behavior of the sowing technology, which is commonly used. To classify the obtained drift values in the test bench, measurements in the field were carried out for comparison. The determined drift volumes of those measurements were at a similar level as the measured values in the test stand. Therefore the standardized measurement of drift in the test stand is suitable for the calculation of exposure scenarios for the sowing of treated seeds.

  11. Effect of Sowing Date on Some Agronomic Characteristics and Seed Yield of Winter Wheat Cultivars

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    A. Ganbari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of sowing dates on yield, yield components and some agronomic characteristics of four winter wheat cultivars and also their phenological changes, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out at the Agriculture Research Station of Ardabil (Iran during 2009 growing season. First factor consisted of four wheat cultivars (Azar2, Sabalan, Sardari and Zagros and second factor consisted of four sowing dates (1st, 10th, 20th and 30th of September. The results showed that sowing date had significant effect on the number of spikes, the number of seed per spike, 1000-seed weight, germination percentage, days to spike appearance, days to ripening, growing degree days, biological yield, seed yield and harvest index. The highest and lowest seed yields of wheat were obtained from sowing date of the September the first (4616 kg/ha and sowing date of September 30th (2197 kg/ha respectively. Delaying planting decreased the number of spikes per m2 and 1000-seed weight. Cultivars had significant effect on all of the traits measured, except leaf number, fertile and non-fertilie tillers. The highest and the lowest seed yields were obtained from Sabalan (4750 kg/ha and Zagros (2757 kg/ha cultivars respectively. Interaction of sowing date and cultivar were significant on all of traits measured, except stem height, the leaf number, the number of spikes, 1000-seed weight and seed yield (P

  12. A Preliminary Trial on the Use of Barium Chloride for Pregnancy Diagnosis in Sows

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    Ndu, A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Urine was collected twice daily (once in the morning and once in the afternoon for 5 days from 80 Yorkshire x Landrace crossbred gilts/sows made up of 40 non-pregnant and 40 pregnant pigs in an investigation to determine the possibility of using 1 % barium chloride solution for pregnancy diagnosis in pigs based on a previous report that addition of a few drops of 1 % barium chloride solution to bovine urine caused a white precipitate with non-pregnant but not with pregnant cows. The pregnant pigs were in various stages of gestation. Urine reaction to 1 % barium chloride was highly (P <0.01 dependent on the pregnancy status of the sows, the test being 100 % and 81 % effective in identifying non-pregnant and pregnant sows respectively. The sensitivity of the test in the gravid sows was significantly (P <0.05 influenced by and tended to increa-se with the stage of gestation, with 59 % of the sows in their first stage of gestation (<38 days post-coitum being correctly diagnosed as pregnant, and 95-100 % of those in their latter stages of gestation being so correctly diagnosed. Parity and time of day of performance of the test had no effect on urine reaction. It was concluded that the test was at least 95 % accurate when used as from about 39 days after breeding for pregnancy diagnosis in sows.

  13. Colostrum and milk production of sows is affected by dietary conjugated linoleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Uffe; Flummer, Christine; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2012-01-01

    (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12) from day 108 of gestation until weaning (4 wk after parturition) to evaluate whether dietary CLA affects the yield and composition of colostrum, time for initiation of milk production, and sow milk yield. Sows fed CLA tended to produce more colostral fat (6.3 vs....... 5.2%, respectively; P = 0.10) than CON sows whereas contents of lactose, protein, and dry matter were similar in the two groups. Sows fed CLA tended to produce less colostrum than CON sows (409 vs. 463 g/piglet, respectively; P = 0.07) as predicted by the piglet rate of gain from 0 to 24 h (58 vs.......03). Weight at birth (1.40 kg for both groups; P = 0.98) and at weaning [8.2 kg (CLA) and 8.0 kg (CON); P = 0.52] was not statistically different. In conclusion, colostrum yield was inhibited but milk yield was stimulated by dietary inclusion of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA and indicates that sow...

  14. Influence of housing conditions, number of farrowing and number of pigs in litter on weight loss in sows during lactation

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    Sladojević Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of housing conditions, number of farrowing and number of pigs in litter on weight loss in sows during lactation. The experiment included 60 sows, half breed developed by cross breeding of Big Yorkshire and Swedish Landrace in lactation. Body weight of the sows (kg was determined 2nd, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day after farrowing. On the basis of the obtained values, there was calculated the difference in body weight between two consecutive investigation periods. The sows were divided into two groups and held in different housing conditions: 30 of them were held in extensive, and other 30 sows in intensive way of farming. In regard to number of farrowing, the sows were divided into three groups: sows with one or two farrowing (group P1, n=20, with three or four farrowing (group P2, n=20, and sows that farrowed five or more times (P3,n=20. In regard to number of pigs in litter, the sows were divided into two groups: the first (Group I, n=30 with sows that had up to eight pigs, and the second (Group II, n=30 with sows that had nine or more pigs in litter. The obtained results showed that in all perids of the investigation during lactation, body weight in sows held in extensive farming conditions was statistically significantly higher compared to those from intensive farming conditions. On the other hand, the loss of body weight during lactation was significantly higher in sows from extensive in regard to intensive farming conditions in the first two weeks of lactation. The sows with bigger number of farrowing had greater body weight, compared to those with smaller number of farrowing. There was no statistically significant difference in body weight loss during lactation, between sows with different number of farrowing, but considering that the sows with less farrowings had significantly lower body weight, they consequently lost more weight in percentage. The sows with greater number of pigs

  15. Biological treatment to bean seeds before sowing them.

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    Silvano Edel Castro Mayo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Even in some bibliography about the bean cultivation is recommended the use of Rhizobium which association with the cultivation is very advantageous for the fixation of the atmospheric nitrogen, as well as the employment of the antagonistic mushroom Trichoderma spp., for the control of fungous illnesses of the floor and knowing that the cultivation has its fertilization demands and of the plagues control and illnesses that are in definitive the causes that limit the yields of the cultivation, these practices are not used. We proceeded to the disinfection of bean seeds with the resulting solution of the laundry of 1Kg of Trichoderma harzianum of the stock A-34 with 2 liters of water and the mixture of this fluid with 1 Kg of Rhizobium, more a package (134 grams of Gaucho PS 70 for 45.35 kg (100 pounds of t seed. The disinfection of the seed was made by hand, 12 hour before sowing them and the results were very encouraging, so much in the delay of days in appearing the illnesses and the plagues and its low attack intensity as the increase of the yields with relationship to the not treated seed.

  16. [Multiresistant Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in a Dutch sow herd].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duinhof, T F; Dierikx, C M; Koene, M G J; van Bergen, M A P; Mevius, D J; Veldman, K T; van Beers-Schreurs, H M G; de Winne, R T J A

    This case study describes the isolation ofa multiresistant strain ofBrachyspira hyodysenteriae in April 2007 in a Dutch sow herd with recurrent diarrhoea. Examination of faecal samples taken from 7-month-old breeding gilts with diarrhoea revealed the presence of resistance against tiamulin, lincomycin, tylosin, doxycycline, and tylvalosin (the active substance in Aivlosin) in four of five samples. Tiamulin resistance has not been reported in The Netherlands before. The repeated use of tiamulin on the affected farm was assumed to be the main cause of the development of resistance to the drug. The farmer was advised to adopt a medication strategy and to implement management practices that would prevent an ongoing cycle of infection on the farm. It is important that the Dutch swine industry appreciates that tiamulin-resistant strains of B. hyodysenteriae may be found on other farms as well. The appropriate and prudent use of antibiotics is essential in order to prevent the development of resistance against the last option left to cure B. hyodysenteriae infections: valnemulin.

  17. Fungi transporting by sowing seed material of herbs

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    Zofia Machowicz-Stefaniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sowing seed material of33 species of herbs obtained in 1997-1999 from the Herb Seed-Testing Station, in Bydgoszcz were examined. Fungi were isolated using the method of artificial cultures on the mineral medium. Sixty seeds superficially disinfected and sixty undisinfected seeds were taken from each sample. Obtained single-spore cultures of the fungi grown on malt-agar or on standard medium were identified up to the species level. Fungi species belonging to the genus Fusarium were identified on the PDA and SNA, Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. on the malt-agar and Czapek-Dox and Phoma spp. on the malt-agar, oat-meal-agar and cherry-agar. Mycological analyses showed that the superficial disinfection of seeds reduced by three times the number of isolates obtained. The fungi most frequently isolated from both the inside and the outside seed tissues were Botrytis cinerea, Phoma exigua var. exigua and species of Alternaria, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Penicillium, Phyllosticta, Rhizopus, Trichothecium.

  18. Sowing Seeds for Healthier Diets: Children's Perspectives on School Gardening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nury, Edris; Sarti, Asia; Dijkstra, Coosje; Seidell, Jacob C; Dedding, Christine

    2017-06-25

    School gardening programmes are among the most promising interventions to improve children's vegetable intake. Yet, low vegetable intake among children remains a persistent public health challenge. This study aimed to explore children's perspectives, experiences, and motivations concerning school gardening in order to better understand and increase its potential for health promotion. Using participant observation and semi-structured interviews, we provided 45 primary schoolchildren (9-10 years) from Amsterdam, who participated in a comprehensive year-round school gardening programme, the opportunity to share their experiences and ideas on school gardening. Children particularly expressed enjoyment of the outdoor gardening portion of the programme as it enabled them to be physically active and independently nurture their gardens. Harvesting was the children's favourite activity, followed by planting and sowing. In contrast, insufficient gardening time and long explanations or instructions were especially disliked. Experiencing fun and enjoyment appeared to play a vital role in children's motivation to actively participate. Children's suggestions for programme improvements included more autonomy and opportunities for experimentation, and competition elements to increase fun and variety. Our results indicate that gaining insight into children's perspectives allows matching school gardening programmes more to children's wishes and expectations, thereby potentially enhancing their intrinsic motivation for gardening and vegetable consumption.

  19. WHEAT CULTIVARS: RESPONSE TO IRRIGATION AND SOWING DATES

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    Klar A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in an Alfisol-Oxisol transition sandy-clay texture, using six wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum, L.: two tall and tolerant to soil aluminium toxicity (BH-1146, and IAC-18, and four semi-dwarf cultivars - Anahuac, IAC-162, IAC-24, and IAC-60 - of which only the first two are sensitive to soil aluminium toxicity. Two minimum soil water potentials (ys levels were used: 1. watered, when Ys reached about -0.05 MPa; 2. dry, when the water potential reached around -1.5 MPa. Two sowing dates, 05/22/92 and 06/11/92, were used. The results showed that Anahuac and IAC-60 are the most indicated cultivars for the studied region; when irrigated all cultivars presented similar yield level under no irrigation conditions; the irrigation was not sufficient to avoid yield differences between the two growing seasons; differences in rainfall were important for the crop in the dry treatment for both seasons.

  20. Effect of sowing dates on yield and yield components on mutant-cum-hybrid lines of bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sial, M.A.; Arain, M.A.; Dahot, M.U.; Laghari, K.A.; Naqvi, M.H.; Markhand, G.S.; Mangrio, S.M.; Mirbahar, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-one stable wheat mutant lines along with four check varieties viz., Sarsabz, Kiran-95, T.J.83 and Khirman were evaluated under normal and late sowing dates. The observations were recorded on phenological, morphological and meteorological parameters. Higher yield and improvement in various yield components were recorded at normal sowing as compared to late sowing. Six mutant lines showed superiority in yield than check varieties at normal sowings while three mutants produced more yield than check varieties except Sarsabz at late sowings. At normal sowing eleven mutant lines matured earlier than all check varieties including short duration variety T.J-83 whereas two mutant lines were earlier than Sarsabz and Kiran-95 and thirteen than T.J-83 and Khirman. (author)

  1. A note on the relationship between the behavioural response of lactating sows to humans and the survival of their piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemsworth, P.H.; Pedersen, V.; Cox, M.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationships, based on unit averages, between the behavioural responses of lactating sows to humans and the performance of sows in 25 farrowing units at a large commercial farm. The behavioural responses of 25 sows in each farrowing unit were observed...... at 2-4 and 16-18 days of lactation and a correlation analysis, using unit averages, was used to examine the behaviour-productivity relationships. Moderate and significant between-unit correlations were found between the behavioural response of lactating sows at days 16-18 to an approaching experimenter...... and the percentage of stillborn piglets. Units in which test sows were quicker to withdraw in the presence of the experimenter had a higher stillbirth rate than those units in which a reduced withdrawal response was displayed. The withdrawal response of sows in the close presence of the experimenter accounted...

  2. Lifetime and per year productivity of sows in four pig farms in the tropics of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek-Mex, Jesús Enrique; Segura-Correa, José Candelario; Alzina-López, Alejandro; Batista-Garcia, Laura

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the lifetime and per year productivity of sows and to determine the effect of some factor on those traits in four pig farms in the tropics of Mexico. Data from 7526 sows for lifetime number of piglets born alive per sow (LBA), lifetime kilograms of piglets at farrowing (LKF), number of piglets born alive per year (NPF/Y), and kilograms of piglets at farrowing per year (KPF/Y); and data from 7230 sows for lifetime number of piglets weaned (LPW), lifetime kilograms of piglets weaned (LKW), number of piglets weaned per year (NPW/Y), and kilograms of piglets weaned per year (KPW/Y) per sow were used. The statistical model for all traits included the fixed effects of farm, year of first farrowing, season of first farrowing, litter size at first farrowing, age at first farrowing, removal reason, simple interactions, and the error term. The means for LBA, LKF, NPF/Y, and KPF/Y were 45.1 piglets, 67.1 kg, 22.7 piglets, and 33.7 kg, respectively. The means for LPW, LKW, NPW/Y, and KPW/Y were 43.2 piglets, 251.9 kg, 21.5 piglets, and 125.1 kg, respectively. All factors were significant for all traits, except for age at first farrowing on LPW and LKW. Sows with large litter sizes and those that farrowed the first time, at an early age, had the highest lifetime and per year productivity. Therefore, more care and better management should be provided to those types of sows to improve the farms profit.

  3. Investigations of significance of vaccination against swine parvovirosis in persistently infected sows

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    Lupulović Diana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Parvoviral infection of swine is a disease which is manifested in reproductive disorders in sows and gilts in the form of anestria, premature births, miscarriages, mummified fetuses, the birth of poorly vital piglets and/or a reduced number of piglets in the litter. The infection is present in farms with intensive breeding conditions in the form of an endemic infection, all over the world, and also in our country. Timely diagnostics and adequate prophylaxis prevent the occurrence and spread of this disease. Experimental investigations covered 21 sows, divided into two experimental and a third, the control, group. Animals of the first experimental group were vaccinated once before exposure to the boar using an inactivated vaccine, Porcilis Parvo, and animals of the second experimental group were vaccinated twice at an interval of 3 weeks, also using an inactivated vaccine, Parvovax. Sows of the control group were not vaccinated. Blood samples were taken from all animals four times during the course of the experiment, and specific antibodies against the swine parvovirus were determined using the method of hemagglutination inhibition (HI test. The results of the investigations indicate that there was an increase in the titre of specific antibodies following the vaccination of persistently infected sows with the swine parvivirus, and that the present antibodies did not prevent the creating of an immune response. It was established following a comparison of the geometric mean values of antibody titres of vaccinated sows that there was a significant increase in the antibody level following the two vaccinations using the Parvovax vaccine, against the titre values in sows vaccinated once with the Porcilis Parvo vaccine. In control animals, the average value of the antibody level was many times lower in comparison with the established values in the experimental groups. This provides justification for the implementation of immunoprophylaxis against swine

  4. Genetic associations between maternal traits and aggressive behaviour in Large White sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, A K; Voß, B; Tönepöhl, B; König von Borstel, U; Gauly, M

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined the possibilities and consequences of selecting pigs for reduced aggression and desirable maternal behaviour. Data were recorded from 798 purebred Large White gilts, with an age of 217±17.7 (mean±SD) days, which were observed at mixing with unfamiliar conspecifics. The reaction of the sows towards separation from their litter was assessed for 2022 litters from 848 Large White sows. Sows' performance during their time in the farrowing unit was scored based on the traits farrowing behaviour (i.e. need of birth assistance), rearing performance (i.e. litter quality at day 10 postpartum (pp)), usability (i.e. additional labour input during lactation period e.g. for treatments) and udder quality of the sow (i.e. udder attachment). For agonistic behaviour, traits heritabilities of h 2=0.11±0.04 to h 2=0.28±0.06 were estimated. For the sow's reaction towards separation from her litter low heritabilities were found (h 2=0.03±0.03 for separation test on day 1 pp and h 2=0.02±0.03 for separation test on day 10 pp). Heritabilities for lactating sow's performance (farrowing behaviour, rearing performance, usability of the sow and udder quality) in the farrowing unit ranged from h 2=0.03±0.02 to h 2=0.19±0.03. Due to these results it can be assumed that selection for these traits, for example, for udder quality or reduced aggression, is possible. Antagonistic associations were found between separation test on day 1 pp and different measures of aggressiveness (r g =-0.22±0.26 aggressive attack and r g =-0.41±0.33 reciprocal fighting). Future studies should determine economic as well as welfare-related values of these traits in order to decide whether selection for these traits will be reasonable.

  5. Soil preparation and forage sowing time for crop-livestock integration in corn culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Andrade Fritsch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out during the 2008/2009 crop season, in an Oxisol. It was used a split-plot arrangement design, with each plot corresponding to a different soil preparation system and each split-plot corresponding to a different sowing time of the forage Brachiaria brizantha Stapf. The soil preparation systems were: heavy harrowing (HH, disk plough (DP, chisel plough (CP and no-till (NT, and the forage sowing times were: 0, 8, 16 and 25 days after sowing (DAS of corn, arranged in 16 treatments with 3 replicates. The productive and vegetative characteristics of the corn were evaluated. Soil preparations have influenced plant height and the first ear height, with the highest value found for the heavy harrow treatment. Forage sowing time had no influence on vegetative characteristics of the corn and productive characteristics were not influenced by the soil preparations. The forage sowing time had influence on corn productivity, causing decrease in competition with corn forage from 5 DAS. The productivity was highly correlated with the number of grains per ear.

  6. EFFECT OF SOWING DATE AND WEED CONTROL METHOD ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Akter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sowing date and weed management play a significant role in determining soybean growth, development and seed yield. Results showed that different sowing date and weed control methods had significant effect on relative weed density, weed biomass, weed control efficiency, plant height, dry weight plant-1 and seed yield of soybean. Among the infested weed species in the experimental field the dominant weeds were Lindernia procumbens (44.78%, Echinochloa colonum (26.39% and Cynodon dactylon (16.30%. The results also revealed that early sowing (2 January brought about the highest seed yield (2.17 t ha-1 and sowing delay (1 February resulted in the lowest yield (1.64 t ha-1. Two times hand weeding (20 and 40 DAS controlled the weeds most effectively and led to highest seed yield (2.23 t ha-1 which was statistically similar (2.19 t ha-1 with herbicide application. Combination effect showed that the highest seed yield (2.50 t ha-1 was obtained from 2 January sowing when the crop was weeded by hand at 20 and 40 DAS.

  7. Correlation of electronic monitoring and stylet pathways elucidate the role of sclerenchymatous ring as a barrier to phloem feeding on citrus leaves by Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina. citri) feeding behaviors play a significant role in the transmission of the phloem-limited Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) bacterium that causes the economically devastating citrus greening disease. Recent studies have shown a fibrous ring of thick-wal...

  8. Colostrum and milk production in multiparous sows fed supplementary arginine during gestation and lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Oksbjerg, Niels; Purup, Stig

    2016-01-01

    ) or isonitrogenous amounts of alanine (CON; n = 10) from d 30 of gestation until weaning on d 28 of lactation (in 2 blocks). Piglets were weighed 0, 12, 24, and 36 h after birth of the first piglet and on d 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 in lactation for estimation of colostrum and milk intake. Colostrum samples obtained at 0......, 12, 24, and 36 h after parturition and milk from sows on d 3, 10, 17, and 24 of lactation were analyzed for macrochemical composition. Also, the content of IGF-I was determined in colostrum. Arginine supplementation decreased lactose and increased DM content of colostrum (P ... on colostrum or milk yield, piglet weight, piglet ADG, or fat content of colostrum and milk was observed (P > 0.10). Concentration of protein and IGF-I tended to be increased in ARG-fed sows. In conclusion, arginine supplementation of sows during gestation and lactation affected macrochemical composition...

  9. EFFECT OF THE SELECTED IMMUNOSTIMULATORS ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PRODUCTION PARAMETERS OF SOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna REKIEL

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of immunostimulation of sows during the perinatal period (Biostymine, Lydium-KLP on physiological-production parameters of the sows: haematological and biochemical blood indices, colostrum and milk composition and fatty acid profile, physical (pH and cytological (somatic cells count - SCC parameters as well as results of reproduction and rearing of piglets. None effect of the examined immunostimulators on the most of the studied traits and indices was found. There were the changes in pH, energy level and composition of milk. Additionally, the changes in fatty acid profile in milk fat were recorded; they consisted in significantly lower or higher participation of certain fatty acids in the samples, collected from the sows which received Biostymine, as compared to the group, receiving Lydium-KLP and/or groups which did not receive any additive.

  10. Systematic analysis of feeding behaviors and their effects on feed efficiency in Pekin ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeding behavior study is important for animal husbandry and production. However, few studies were conducted on the feeding behavior and their relationship with feeding efficiency in Pekin ducks. In order to investigate the feeding behavior and their relationship with feed efficiency and other economic traits in Pekin ducks, we selected 358 male Pekin ducks and recorded feeding information between 3 to 6 wk of age using automatic electronic feeders, and compared the feeding behavior under different residual feed intake (RFI levels. Results We observed that total feed time, daily feed intake and feed intake per meal had strong positive correlations with feed efficiency traits; moreover, strong correlation between feed intake per meal and body weight was found (R=0.32, 0.36. Daily feeding rate meal and meal duration had weak correlations with feed efficiency (R=0.14~0.15. The phenotypic correlation of between-meal pauses, with feed efficiency was not observed. When daily changes were analyzed, high RFI ducks had the highest feed consumption over all times, and obvious differences in daily visits were found among different RFI level animals during the middle period; these differences were magnified with age, but there was no difference in daily meal number. Moreover, our data indicate that high RFI birds mainly take their meals at the edge of the population enclosure, where they are more susceptible to environmental interference. Conclusions Overall, this study suggests that the general feeding behaviors can be accurately measured using automatic electronic feeders and certain feeding behaviors in Pekin ducks are associated with improved feed efficiency.

  11. The interrelationships between clinical signs and their effect on involuntary culling among pregnant sows in group-housing systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Birk; Bonde, Marianne Kjær; Kongsted, Anne Grete

    2010-01-01

    Sows suffering from clinical signs of disease (e.g. lameness, wounds and shoulder ulcers) are often involuntarily culled, affecting the farmer's economy and the welfare of the animals. In order to investigate the interrelationships between clinical signs of individual pregnant group-housed sows, we...

  12. Depletion of penicillin G residues in heavy sows after intramuscular injection. Part II: Application of kidney inhibition swab tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sows (n = 126; 228 ± 30.1 kg) were administered daily IM doses of penicillin G procaine (33 000 IU/kg bw; 5× the label dose) for 3 consecutive days using three different administration patterns. Within treatment, six sows each were slaughtered on withdrawal day 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 32, and 39. Tissues...

  13. Quantifying the effects of sow-herd management information systems on farmers' decision making using experimental economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, J.; Sonnemans, J.H.; Huirne, R.; Dijkhuizen, A.; Cox, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    A pilot experiment was conducted to yield insight into whether laboratory experiments can be used as an alternative to surveys for determining the profitability of management information systems (MIS) in sow farming. In total, eighty-six sow farmers, including fifty-one farmers from an earlier

  14. Effects of loose housing and the provision of alternative nesting material on peri-partum sow behaviour and piglet survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, J.E.; Raats-van den Boogaard, A.M.E.; Hoofs, A.I.J.; Soede, N.M.

    2018-01-01

    Sows are strongly motivated to perform nestbuilding behaviour before parturition. This behaviour is often restricted in commercial systems due to confinement of the sow and lack of suitable nesting material to be used on slatted floors. This study aimed to investigate effects of loose vs. crated

  15. Efficacy of OptiphosTM phytase on mineral digestibility in diets for breeding sows: effect during pregnancy an lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, A.W.; Diepen, van J.T.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Bikker, P.; Vereecken, M.; Bierman, K.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus in most diets for breeding sows is digested for 20 to 40%, thus leading to a relatively high amount of P in the manure. To enhance the P digestibility in diets for both lactating and gestating sows, two separate experiments were carried out to study the efficacy of OptiphosTM phytase

  16. Reduction of Salmonella Shedding by Sows during Gestation in Relation to Its Fecal Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Larivière-Gauthier

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pork meat is estimated to be responsible for 10–20% of human salmonellosis cases in Europe. Control strategies at the farm could reduce contamination at the slaughterhouse. One of the targeted sectors of production is maternity, where sows could be Salmonella reservoirs. The aim of this study was to assess the dynamics of shedding of Salmonella in terms of variation in both shedding prevalence and strains excreted during gestation in Quebec’s maternity sector. The evolution of the fecal microbiota of these sows during gestation was also assessed to detect bacterial populations associated with these variations. A total of 73 sows both at the beginning and the end of the gestation were randomly selected and their fecal matter was analyzed. Salmonella detection was conducted using a method that includes two selective enrichment media (MSRV and TBG. Nine isolates per positive samples were collected. Among the 73 sows tested, 27 were shedding Salmonella. Sows in the first third of their gestation shed Salmonella significantly more frequently (21/27 than those in the last third (6/46 (χ2P < 0.05. The shedding status of 19 of the sows that were previously sampled in the first third of their gestation was followed, this time in the last third of their gestation, which confirmed reduction of shedding. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and qPCR, significant differences between the fecal flora of sows at the beginning and the end of the gestation, shedding Salmonella or not and with different parity number were detected. Using MaAsLin, multiple OTUs were found to be associated with the time of gestation, the status of Salmonella excretion and parity number. Some of the identified taxa could be linked to the reduction of the shedding of Salmonella at the end of gestation. In this study, we showed that the level of Salmonella shedding was variable during gestation with significantly higher shedding at the beginning rather than at the end of gestation. We

  17. Reliability of pregnancy diagnosis in sows by direct radioimmunoassay of estrone sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalab, P.; Hajek, J.

    1988-01-01

    Pregnancy diagnosis in sows using direct radioimmunoassay of estrone sulfate in the blood serum without sample extraction is described. It was found that for pregnancy diagnosis the period between days 22 and 30 of pregnancy can be used since in this period the estrone sulfate concentrations in all pregnant sows markedly exceeded those of 64 non-pregnant animals. The estrone sulfate estimation cannot be used for pregnancy diagnosis before day 22 and between days 30 and 40 because the estrone sulfate concentrations in most samples collected in these periods were lower than 4 nmol.l -1 . (author). 1 fig., 6 refs

  18. Reintroduction of rare arable plants by seed transfer. What are the optimal sowing rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Marion; Prestele, Julia; Fischer, Christina; Kollmann, Johannes; Albrecht, Harald

    2016-08-01

    During the past decades, agro-biodiversity has markedly declined and some species are close to extinction in large parts of Europe. Reintroduction of rare arable plant species in suitable habitats could counteract this negative trend. The study investigates optimal sowing rates of three endangered species (Legousia speculum-veneris (L.) Chaix, Consolida regalis Gray, and Lithospermum arvense L.), in terms of establishment success, seed production, and crop yield losses.A field experiment with partial additive design was performed in an organically managed winter rye stand with study species added in ten sowing rates of 5-10,000 seeds m(-2). They were sown as a single species or as a three-species mixture (pure vs. mixed sowing) and with vs. without removal of spontaneous weeds. Winter rye was sown at a fixed rate of 350 grains m(-2). Performance of the study species was assessed as plant establishment and seed production. Crop response was determined as grain yield.Plant numbers and seed production were significantly affected by the sowing rate, but not by sowing type (pure vs. mixed sowing of the three study species), and weed removal. All rare arable plant species established and reproduced at sowing rates >25 seeds m(-2), with best performance of L. speculum-veneris. Negative density effects occurred to some extent for plant establishment and more markedly for seed production.The impact of the three study species on crop yield followed sigmoidal functions. Depending on the species, a yield loss of 10% occurred at >100 seeds m(-2). Synthesis and applications: The study shows that reintroduction of rare arable plants by seed transfer is a suitable method to establish them on extensively managed fields, for example, in organic farms with low nutrient level and without mechanical weed control. Sowing rates of 100 seeds m(-2) for C. regalis and L. arvense, and 50 seeds m(-2) for L. speculum-veneris are recommended, to achieve successful establishment

  19. Enzimas carboidrases na dieta de porcas lactantes e suas leitegadas Carbohydrase enzymes in diets for lactating sows and their litters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Cristina Nichelle Lopes

    2009-12-01

    treatments, in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (lactating diet (LD x pre-starter diet (PD, with two levels per factor (with or without EC. The following variables were measured in the sows: weaning weight; weaning weight variation; backfat; backfat variation; body condition; feed consumption and milk composition. The following variables were measured in the litter: feed consumption; post-natal weight; weaning weight; and average weaning weight. No interaction was found among LD and PD for any of the variables studied. Additionally, no effect was observed for either, female weight, backfat, body condition score or milk composition (fat content, crude protein, lactose and dry matter. Litter weaning weight and average litter weaning weight were higher when LD was supplemented with EC in comparison to the piglets from sows fed with diets without EC (74.6 vs 72.9kg and 6.32 vs 6.47kg, respectively. Litters from female fed with CE were 1.7kg heavier at weaning and showed a 0.15kg increase in the average weaning weight (P=0.06; P=0.07, respectively. This resulted in an estimate 2.27kg increase in the body weight at slaughter. Lactating sows fed with diets containing enzymatic complex with carbohydrases had heavier litters at weaning.

  20. From Remotely Sensed Vegetation Onset to Sowing Dates: Aggregating Pixel-Level Detections into Village-Level Sowing Probabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Marinho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the start of the crop season in Sahel provides decision makers with valuable information for an early assessment of potential production and food security threats. Presently, the most common method for the estimation of sowing dates in West African countries consists of applying given thresholds on rainfall estimations. However, the coarse spatial resolution and the possible inaccuracy of these estimations are limiting factors. In this context, the remote sensing approach, which consists of deriving green-up onset dates from satellite remote sensing data, appears as an interesting alternative. It builds upon a novel statistic model that translates vegetation onset detections derived from MODIS time series into sowing probabilities at the village level. Results for Niger show that this approach outperforms the standard method adopted in the region based on rainfall thresholds.

  1. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  2. Effects of thermal environment on HPA-axis hormones, oxytocin and behavioral activity in peri-parturient sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2009-01-01

    Provision of additional floor heating (33 to 34C) at birth and during the early postnatal hours is favorable for newborn piglets of domestic sows (Sus scrofa). We investigated whether this relatively high temperature influenced sow behavior and physiology around farrowing. Half of 28 second......-parity pregnant sows were randomly chosen to be exposed to floor heating 12 h after onset of nest building and until 48 h after birth of the first piglet (treatment = HEAT), whereas the rest of the sows entered the control group (treatment = CONT) with no floor heating. Hourly blood sampling from 8 h before...... and until 24 h after the birth of the first piglet was used for investigation of temporal changes in plasma concentrations of oxytocin, cortisol, and ACTH. In addition, occurrence and duration of sow postures were recorded -8 h to +48 h relative to the birth of first piglet. There was a clear temporal...

  3. Effect of pre-sowing treatments on seed germination and seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-sowing treatments were evaluated for Tetracarpidium conophorum. Mechanically scarified T. conophorum seeds soaked in indole acetic acid for 24 h yielded 90% seed germination. Smoked- and sun-dried seeds for 14 days yielded 73 and 33.3% seed germination, respectively. Poorest values were obtained from acid ...

  4. Influence of cross-breeding of native breed sows of Zlotnicka spotted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was the estimation of the cross-breeding influence of Zlotnicka spotted sows with boars of polish large white and Duroc breeds on carcass traits of fatteners. 50 pigs were divided into four groups: Zlotnicka spotted (ZS), Zlotnicka spotted x polish large white (ZS x PLW), Zlotnicka spotted x Duroc (ZS x D) ...

  5. Energetics of sows and gilts in gestation crates in the cold.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, M.W.A.; Curtis, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    Seventy pregnant sows and gilts in gestation crates with unbedded concrete-slat floors and partitions in common (which permitted contact by neighbors) in a closed house with air temperature 10 to 12 degrees C during cold weather were studied for 3 wk. The animals' lower critical temperature and

  6. Sow body condition at weaning and reproduction performance in organic piglet production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

    2009-01-01

    that it is possible to avoid poor body condition at weaning even with a lactation length of seven weeks or more. No main effect of backfat at weaning on reproduction performance was found, but the probability of a successful reproduction after weaning tended to decrease with decreasing backfat for first parity sows...

  7. Dietary manipulation of the sow milk does not influence the lipid absorption capacity of the progeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Pierzynowski, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    A control diet without supplemental fat and four diets containing 8% of coconut oil, rapeseed oil, fish oil or sunflower oil were fed to lactating sows in order to investigate the lipid absorption capacity of their progeny in terms of pancreatic enzyme activity, hormonal regulation, and bile salt...

  8. Effects of food motivation on stereotypies and aggression in group housed sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoolder, H.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Changing legislation and consumer attitudes towards the welfare of farm animals means that individual housing of dry sows will soon be illegal in the United Kingdom. Other European countries, and in particular those for whom the UK is an important export market (such as The Netherlands),

  9. The impact of elbow and knee joint lesions on abnormal gait and posture of sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Bente

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Joint lesions occur widespread in the Danish sow population and they are the most frequent cause for euthanasia. Clinically, it is generally impossible to differentiate between various types of non-inflammatory joint lesions. Consequently, it is often necessary to perform a post mortem examination in order to diagnose these lesions. A study was performed in order to examine the relation of abnormal gait and posture in sows with specific joint lesions, and thereby obtaining a clinical diagnostic tool, to be used by farmers and veterinarians for the evaluation of sows with joint problems. Methods The gait, posture and lesions in elbow- and knee joints of 60 randomly selected sows from one herd were scored clinically and pathologically. Associations between the scorings were estimated. Results The variables 'fore- and hind legs turned out' and 'stiff in front and rear' were associated with lesions in the elbow joint, and the variables 'hind legs turned out' and 'stiff in rear' were associated with lesions in the knee joint. Conclusion It was shown that specified gait and posture variables reflected certain joint lesions. However, further studies are needed to strengthen and optimize the diagnostic tool.

  10. Seed yield and quality of okra as influenced by sowing dates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-20

    Jun 20, 2011 ... and quality seed of okra over four consecutive years having seven sowing times at fortnight interval ..... Figures in parentheses are angular transformed values. ... Table 6. Step-wise regression model on seed yield of okra with ...

  11. The effect of energy intake on development and reproduction of gilts and sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The rate of reproduction in female pigs is an important trait with regard to pig production. Reproduction may be defined as the number of piglets reared per sow per year. This trait is dependent on age at puberty, conception rate, litter size, the interval from weaning to oestrus and the

  12. Technique and effects of pre-sowing laser biostimulation of cucumber seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gładyszewska, B.; Koper, R.; Kornarzyński, K.

    1998-01-01

    Laser treatment of seeds before sowing at selected irradiation doses was described. Particular attention was paid to determining energy doses for biostimulation. Results obtained at experimental irradiation of short green-house cucumber seeds, Pasandra and Picobello cultivars, were presented. Considerable increase in yields was observed as a result of applied method

  13. Quinoa in Morocco - effect of sowing dates on development and yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa is a highly nutritious food product, being cultivated for several thousand years in South America, and it is recently introduced in Morocco and showed a high potential of adaptation in Morocco. A field study was carried out in the south of Morocco in order to investigate the effects of sow...

  14. The roles of age at puberty and energy restriction in sow reproductive longevity: a genomic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 50% of sows are culled annually with more than one third due to poor fertility. Our research demonstrated that age at puberty is an early pre-breeding indicator of reproductive longevity. Age at puberty can be measured early in life, has a moderate heritability and is negatively correl...

  15. Effect of growing media, sowing depth, and hot water treatment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To optimize seedling production for reforestation of degraded dryland with A. senegal seeds, a study was conducted on the effect of boiled water treatment, growing media, sowing depth on seed germination and seedling growth of A. senegal. Three different growing media (farm soil, forest soil and sand soil), boiled water ...

  16. Rice grain yield as affected by subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneraldo Pinheiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the effects of subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatments with insecticides on the grain yield of upland rice cultivated under no-tillage. Two experiments were carried out, one in an area with and the other in an area without subsoiling, in which five seed treatments combined with five compaction pressures on the sowing furrow were compared in a randomized block design, in a factorial scheme, with three replicates. The seed treatments were: T0 - without treatment, T1 - imidacloprid + thiodicarb, T2 - thiamethoxam, T3 - carbofuran, and T4 - fipronil + pyraclostrobin + thiophanate methyl. The compaction pressures were: 25, 42, 126, 268 and 366 kPa. Subsoiling positively affected rice yield in the presence of higher compaction pressures on the sowing furrow. Seed treatment was effective at increasing rice grain yield only at the lowest compaction pressures. Rice yield showed quadratic response to compaction on the sowing furrow, with maximum values obtained at pressures ranging from 238.5 to 280.3 kPa.

  17. Application of electric corona discharge for grain seeds treatment before sowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsev, E. G.; Malozyomov, B. V.; Rozhkova, M. V.

    2017-10-01

    The paper overviews directions for electrotechnology treatment of grain seeds before sowing. The hypothesis of the germination enhancement of seeds if treated with corona discharge is presented here. Besides, the description of electrotechnology installation and facilities for it including manufacturing process quality obtained as a result of scientific tests are also provided in the paper.

  18. Effects of dietary fermentable carbohydrates on energy metabolism in group-housed sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnen, M M; Verstegen, M W; Heetkamp, M J; Haaksma, J; Schrama, J W

    2001-01-01

    The effect of dietary nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) content on the metabolic rate in group-housed sows was studied. Twelve groups of six nonpregnant sows were each fed one of four experimental diets similar in composition except for the starch and NSP content. Exchanging sugar beet pulp silage (SBPS) for tapioca created the difference in starch and NSP ratio in the diet. On a DM basis, diets contained 0, 10, 20, or 30% SBPS. Sows were group-housed and fed at 1.30 times the assumed maintenance energy requirements. Nitrogen and energy balances were measured per group during a 7-d experimental period, which was preceded by a 33-d adaptation period. Both digestibility and metabolizability of energy decreased with increasing dietary SBPS content (P 0.1). Based on energy retention data and apparent fecal digestibilities of crude protein, crude fat, starch, and NSP, the estimated net energy value of fermented NSP was 13.4 kJ/g. The present study shows that group-housed sows are capable of using energy from fermented NSP (i.e., NSP from SBPS) as efficiently as energy from digested starch (i.e., starch from tapioca).

  19. effect of pre-sowing hardening treatments using various plant growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    941-1 (IPI) and. Kanannado (LPI) were .... development along with untreated seeds for comparing the effect of ..... with the growth of radicle within the seed coat and as the .... sowing seed soaking treatment in regulating early seedling metabolism ...

  20. Effects of sowing date on the growth and yield of maize cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    Full Length Research Paper. Effects of sowing date on the ... days (GDD) and was the highest for seed yield and all yield components. The plant sown on 5th ... volume and weight), while plant development refers to processes related to cell ...

  1. The effects of succinylcholine or low-dose rocuronium to aid endotracheal intubation of adult sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke-Novakovski, Tanya; Ambros, Barbara; Auckland, Crissie D.; Harding, John C.S.

    2012-01-01

    This randomized, prospective, blinded study compared the use of succinylcholine or rocuronium to aid endotracheal intubation of 27 adult sows [mean body weight 261 ± 28 (standard deviation) kg]. Preliminary trials allowed development of the intubation technique and skills. The sows were premedicated with azaperone, atropine, and morphine, and anesthesia was induced with thiopental [6 mg/kg body weight (BW)]. Nine sows each received succinylcholine (1.0 mg/kg BW), rocuronium (0.5 mg/kg BW), or saline (15 mL) after induction. Increments of thiopental (1 mg/kg BW) were used if swallowing impaired intubation. Intubation was performed 45 s after injection of the test drug and was timed and scored. The intubation scores were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA). Time taken for intubation, body weight, and total dose of thiopental were analyzed with ANOVA and Bonferroni’s multiple-comparisons test. No significant differences (at P < 0.05) were found between the groups with regard to intubation score, time taken for intubation, or total thiopental dose. Thus, neuromuscular blocking agents did not aid endotracheal intubation of adult sows anesthetized with thiopental. PMID:22754096

  2. Endogenous opioids are involved in abnormal stereotyped behaviour of tethered sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cronin, G.M.; Wiepkema, P.R.; Ree, van J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Tethered sows continuously performed stereotypies during a substantial part of the day time. A single subcutaneous injection with naloxone significantly decreased the profound stereotypies, while explorative behaviours of pigs were not affected by naloxone. In addition a long-term effect of naloxone

  3. Endogenous opioids are involved in abnormal stereotyped behaviours of tethered sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cronin, G.M.; Wiepkema, P.R.; Ree, J.M. van

    1985-01-01

    Tethered sows continuously performed stereotypies during a substantial part of the day time. A single subcutaneous injection with naloxone significantly decreased the profound stereotypies, while explorative behaviours of pigs were not affected by naloxone. In addition a long-term effect of naloxone

  4. Mechanical nociception thresholds in lame sows: evidence of hyperalgesia as measured by two different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalon, E; Maes, D; Piepers, S; van Riet, M M J; Janssens, G P J; Millet, S; Tuyttens, F A M

    2013-11-01

    Lameness is a frequently occurring, painful condition of breeding sows that may result in hyperalgesia, i.e., an increased sensitivity to pain. In this study a mechanical nociception threshold (MT) test was used (1) to determine if hyperalgesia occurs in sows with naturally-occurring lameness; (2) to compare measurements obtained with a hand-held probe and a limb-mounted actuator connected to a digital algometer; and (3) to investigate the systematic left-to-right and cranial-to-caudal differences in MT. Twenty-eight pregnant sows were investigated, of which 14 were moderately lame and 14 were not lame. Over three testing sessions, repeated measurements were taken at 5 min intervals on the dorsal aspects of the metatarsi and metacarpi of all limbs. The MT was defined as the force in Newtons (N) that elicited an avoidance response, and this parameter was found to be lower in limbs affected by lameness than in normal limbs (Ptesting sessions (P<0.001), as well as between days (P<0.001). The findings provide evidence that lame sows experience hyperalgesia. Systematic differences between forelimb and hindlimb MT must be taken into account when such assessments are performed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of DGAT1 gene mutation in sows of dam-line on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    magdalena.szyndler

    2015-08-05

    Aug 5, 2015 ... Author(s) agree that this article remains permanently open access under the terms of the ... sows in similar condition on the day of mating were used. ..... N, Mni M, Reid S, Simon P, Spelman R, Georges M, Snell R (2002).

  6. Ammonia and Mineral Losses on Dutch Organic Farms with Pregnant Sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova-Peneva, S.G.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to quantify ammonia emissions from organically raised pregnant sows and to compare them with emissions from conventional pig production. A second objective was to quantify the nutrients deposited in the paddock in organic pig grazing systems. Measurements were

  7. ESTIMATION OF EFFICIENCY OF MACHINERY FOR PRE-SOWING TREATMENT OF RADISH SEEDS FOR SEED PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sirota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of pre-sowing treatment of radish seeds aimed at increasing of seed production, yield and its productivity in protected area are presented. The density fractionation of radish seeds by gravity separator is recommended for improvement of planting material quality and increasing of utilization efficiency of frame area.

  8. Sow line differences in heat stress tolerance expressed in reproductive performance traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemhof, S.; Waaij, van der E.H.; Merks, J.W.M.; Knol, E.F.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to investigate if there were differences in the relation between temperature and reproductive performance traits in 2 different sow lines, a Yorkshire line producing mainly in temperate climates and a Large White line producing mainly in warm climates, and 2) to

  9. Effect of daily environmental temperature on farrowing rate and total born in dam line sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemhof, S.; Mathur, P.K.; Knol, E.F.; Waaij, van der E.H.

    2013-01-01

    Heat stress is known to adversely affect reproductive performance of sows. However, it is important to know on which days or periods during the reproduction cycle heat stress has the greatest effects for designing appropriate genetic or management strategies. Therefore, this study was conducted to

  10. Cytoskeletal proteins in the follicular wall of normal andcystic ovaries of sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano J.F. de Sant'Ana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The expression of cytoskeletal proteins was evaluated immunohistochemically in 36 normal ovaries sampled from 18 sows and 44 cystic ovaries sampled from of 22 sows, was evaluated. All sows had history of reproductive problems, such as infertility or subfertility. The immunohistochemically stained area (IHCSA was quantified through image analysis to evaluate the expression of these proteins in the follicular wall of secondary, tertiary, and cystic follicles. Cytokeratins (CK immunoreactivity was strong in the granulosa cell layer (GC and mild in the theca interna (TI and externa (TE of the normal follicles. There was severe reduction of the reaction to CK in the GC in the cystic follicles, mainly in the luteinized cysts. The immunoreactivity for vimentin was higher in the GC from normal and cystic follicles in contrast with the other follicular structures. In the luteinized cysts, the IHCSA for vimentin was significantly higher in TI and in both observed cysts, the labeling was more accentuated in TE. Immunohistochemical detection of desmin and α-SMA was restricted to the TE, without differences between the normal and cystic follicles. The results of the current study show that the development of ovarian cysts in sows is associated to changes in the expression of the cytoskeletal proteins CK and vimentin.

  11. Effect of rubber flooring on group-housed sows' gait and claw and skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, E-J; van Riet, M M J; Maes, D; Millet, S; Ampe, B; Janssens, G P J; Tuyttens, F A M

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the influence of floor type on sow welfare in terms of lameness, claw lesions, and skin lesions. In a 2 × 3 factorial design, we have investigated the effect of rubber coverings on concrete floors and the effect of 3 levels of dietary zinc supplementation on locomotion and claw and skin lesions in group-housed sows. Six groups of 21 ± 4 hybrid sows were monitored during 3 successive reproductive cycles. The sows were group housed from d 28 after insemination (d 0) until 1 wk before expected farrowing date (d 108) in pens with either exposed concrete floors or concrete floors covered with rubber in part of the lying area and the fully slatted area. During each reproductive cycle, locomotion and skin lesions were assessed 4 times (d 28, 50, 108, and 140) and claw lesions were assessed twice (d 50 and 140). Results are given as least squares means ± SE. Locomotion and claw scores were given in millimeters, on analog scales of 150 and 160 mm, respectively. Here, we report on the effect of floor type, which did not interact with dietary zinc concentration ( > 0.10 for all variables). At move to group (d 28) and mid gestation (d 50), no differences between floor treatments were seen in locomotion ( > 0.10). At the end of gestation (d 108), sows housed on rubber flooring scored 9.9 ± 4.1 mm better on gait ( flooring at mid gestation (d 50). However, sows on rubber flooring scored worse for "vertical cracks in the wall horn" (difference of 3.4 ± 1.7 mm; = 0.04). At the end of lactation (d 140), both "white line" (difference of 2.9 ± 1 mm; = 0.02) and "claw length" (difference of 4.7 ± 1.4 mm; flooring. No differences for skin lesions were observed between floor treatments. The improved scores for gait toward the end of gestation and some types of claw disorders at mid gestation suggest that rubber flooring in group housing has a beneficial effect on the overall leg health of sows. The documented increase in vertical cracks in the wall horn at d

  12. Periparturient Behavior and Physiology: Further Insight Into the Farrowing Process for Primiparous and Multiparous Sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah H. Ison

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Giving birth is a critical time for many species and is often the most painful event ever experienced by females. In domestic species, like the pig, pain associated with parturition represents a potential welfare concern, and the consequences of pain can cause economic losses (e.g., by indirectly contributing to piglet mortality as pain could slow post-farrowing recovery, reduce food and water intake, reducing milk let-down. This study investigated pain assessment and its management in primiparous (gilts and multiparous (sows breeding pigs, including the provision of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID post-parturition. Individuals were randomly allocated to receive the NSAID ketoprofen (3 mg/kg bodyweight (n = 11 gilts, 16 sows or the equivalent volume of saline (n = 13 gilts, 16 sows by intramuscular injection 1.5 h after the birth of the last piglet. Data collected included putative behavioral indicators of pain (back leg forward, tremble, back arch, salivary cortisol concentrations pre-farrowing and up to 7 days post-injection. In addition, post-partum biomarkers of inflammation, including the acute phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP and 3 porcine cytokines [interleukin-1 β (IL1 β, interleukin-6 (IL6, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α] were measured in plasma collected 6 h following the injection. Behaviors were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models, and physiological variables with linear mixed models. No difference in putative pain behaviors, salivary cortisol, CRP, or cytokines were found between individuals treated with ketoprofen or those administered the saline control. However, there were some differences between gilts and sows, as sows exhibited more putative pain behavior than gilts, had higher salivary cortisol on the day of farrowing and had higher plasma TNF α. Conversely, gilts had higher salivary cortisol than sows on day 3 post-farrowing and had higher CRP. This indicates that, like human females

  13. Yields of ZP sweet maize hybrids in dependence on sowing densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet maize differs from maize of standard grain quality by many important traits that affect the ear appearance, and especially by traits controlling taste. The ear appearance trait encompasses the kernel row number, configuration, row pattern (direction and arrangement, seed set, kernel width and depth, ear shape and size. The quality of immature kernels is controlled by genes by which sweet maize differs from common maize. In order to obtain high-ranking and high-quality yields, it is necessary to provide the most suitable cropping practices for sweet maize hybrids developed at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje. The adequate sowing density is one of more important elements of correct cropping practices. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of four sowing densities in four ZP sweet maize hybrids of different FAO maturity groups on ear qualitative traits and yields obtained on chernozem type of soil in Zemun Polje. The observed traits of sweet maize (ear length, kernel row number, number of kernels per row, yield and shelling percentage significantly varied over years. The higher sowing density was the higher yield of sweet maize was, hence the highest ear yield of 9.67 t ha-1 , on the average for all four hybrids, was recorded at the highest sowing density of 70,000 plants ha-1. The highest yield was detected in the hybrid ZP 424su. The highest shelling percentage (67.81% was found in the hybrid ZP 521su at the sowing density of 60,000 plants ha-1. Generally, it can be stated that sweet maize hybrids of a shorter growing season (FAO 400 could be cultivated up to 70,000 plants ha-1, while those of a longer growing season (FAO 500 could be grown up to 60,000 plants ha-1. In such a way, the most favorable parameters of yields and the highest yields can be obtained.

  14. In vivo body composition estimation in nongravid and reproducing first-litter sows with deuterium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, R.G. Jr.; Mahan, D.C.; Byers, F.M.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with 64 first-litter sows to evaluate the efficacy of a D 2 O dilution procedure for measuring in vivo body composition during the reproduction cycle. Eight gilts were each infused at breeding, 57 and 105 d postcoitum and at 5 and 25 d postpartum, with equivalent numbers of nongravid controls infused at corresponding periods except at 5 d postpartum. Results from D 2 O dilution were compared with body water estimates obtained from chemical analysis. An early-equilibrating D 2 O pool (before 15 min) was similar quantitatively to empty body (ingesta free) water in nongravid and lactating animals, but not in pregnant sows. Because of inconsistent D 2 O equilibration patterns in gravid sows, the early pool was considered to have equilibrated with part but not all of the water in the conceptus products. Total body D 2 O space measurement obtained from data following equilibration of D 2 O in the entire body (1 to 2 h) overestimated total body water (including gastrointestinal water) by approximately 19%. Coefficients of determination for equations relating total body D 2 O space to empty body and maternal body water were .96 and .88, respectively, in gestating sows and .67 and .74, respectively, for lactating sows, while coefficients of variation were below 6% in all cases. Prediction equations were developed to estimate empty and maternal body components (protein, fat and ash) from body weight and D 2 O space. Accuracy of protein and ash weight prediction is lowest with this procedure because it involves the composite error of estimation of the other body components

  15. GERMINATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF BRACHIARIA SEEDLING IN TEXTURES OF SOIL AND SOWING DEPTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Castaldo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The agriculture expansion at Brazil is turning to lower clay index soils and consequently, less organic matter content and cation exchange capacity. To overcome those deficiencies, an intense organic matter addition in these soils may be a solution, and this solution is positive when using a crop-livestock integration with corn-pasture dual crop planted on winter. However, to establish this dual-crop system, there is a need to study the behavior of seeds and seedlings of Brachiaria ruziziensis sown in greater depths than normally recommended. Thus, this work aimed to determine the best depth of sowing B. ruziziensis in sandy and loamy soils of Umuarama region, studying the germination and early development of seedlings. The work was held in pots of 12 cm diameter x 12 cm deep, filled with 2 types of soil, a sandy and clay ones with 30 B. ruziziensis seeds sown each pot in five sowing depths: 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 cm. After 16 days, the number of emerged seedlings was evaluated to set up the germination rate of each treatment, after that, the plants where leveled to 4 each pot, those were cultivated for another 45 days to evaluate the fresh and dried masses of plants and roots, the height of the plants and average length of roots. The sowing depth with higher percentage of germination estimated was 2.65 cm to sandy and 3.02 cm to clay soil. At seedlings development, there was a standard, with better development seedling at lower sowing depths on clay soil and better developments at higher sowing depths in sandy soil.

  16. Effect of sowing time on productivity of fenugreek varieties (Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Trigonella coerulea (Desr. Ser.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. М. Бобось

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Determination of sowing time effect on productivity of various fenugreek species in the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine. Methods. Field study, laboratory test, analytical approach and statistical evaluation. Results. Effect of sowing time on economic characters of common fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L. and blue fenugreek (Trigonella coerulea (Desr. Ser. was investigated. It was found that sowing time significantly influenced the individual productivity of plants and average yield of their fresh and dry matter. In particular, common and blue fenugreek plants formed not only the most developed vegetation but also higher productivity and fresh and dry matter yield, respectively, due to early-spring sowing. In case of summer sowing, the poorest yield of dry matter per unit was obtained for these species caused by a low fresh yield, though the moisture loss index was lower. Conclusions. Common fenugreek is promising for producing “mushroom grass” spices, and the conveyor supply of production in the Forest-Steep zone of Ukraine can be ensured by the first sowing time (the first or the second decades of April and the se­cond sowing time (the third decade of April as during this period more developed vegetation is formed that favored the higher yield of dry matter (1,3–1,5 t/ha.

  17. Grain yield and competitive ability against weeds in modern and heritage common wheat cultivars are differently influenced by sowing density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariateresa Lazzaro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sowing density can have a strong impact on crop stand development during wheat growing cycle. In organic and low-input agriculture, and therefore with minimum or nil use of chemical herbicides, increased sowing density is expected to affect not only grain yield but also weed suppression. In this study we tested, under Mediterranean conditions, six common wheat cultivars (three modern and three heritage and two three-component mixtures (arranged by combining the three modern or the three heritage cultivars. The different crop stands were tested at sowing densities of 250 (low and 400 (high, similar to standard sowing density used by local farmers viable seeds m–2 for two growing seasons. We did not detect a significant effect of crop stand diversity (single cultivars vs mixtures on grain yield and weed suppression. Differences were ascribed to type of cultivars used (heritage vs modern. Compared to high sowing density, in modern cultivars grain yield did not decrease significantly with low sowing density, whereas in heritage cultivars it increased by 15.6%, possibly also because of 21.5% lower plant lodging. Weed biomass increased with low sowing density both in heritage and modern cultivar crop stand types. However, heritage crop stands had, on average, a lower weed biomass (56% than modern crop stands. Moreover, weed biomass in heritage crop stands at low density (6.82±1.50 g m–2 was lower than that of modern cultivars at the same sowing density (15.54±3.35 g m–2, confirming the higher suppressive potential of the former. We can conclude that lower sowing density can be advisable when using heritage crop stands as it keeps productivity while decreasing plant lodging and maintaining weeds under control.

  18. Plasma concentrations of cortisol and PGF2α metabolite in Danish sows during mating, and intrauterine and conventional insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindahl Hans

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of the present work was to study whether there are any relationships between cortisol and PG-metabolite in mated sows or inseminated with the intrauterine technique and compare these to changes occurring in conventionally inseminated sow. Methods Thirty three crossbred sows (Danish Landrace × Danish Large White were fitted with jugular vein catheters through vena auricularis from one of the ears. The sows were randomly divided into three groups (Boar-, IUI- and AI-group and blood samples were collected before, during and after service. In a final evaluation only 25 sows that became pregnant and farrowed piglets at full term were used. Results Cortisol concentrations increased in all groups but Boar-group (n = 8 had a significantly higher cortisol during 10 to 20 min after service than sows in AI-group (n = 8. In mated sows cortisol concentrations peaked at 15 minutes after service. The Boar-group (n = 8 showed no ascending PG-metabolite levels during the whole experiment, while both IUI- and AI-groups (n = 9 and n = 8, respectively had a 2.5-fold increase in PG-metabolite 15 minutes after service. Conclusion In conclusion, mating of sows by a boar results in a greater increase of cortisol than AI and without an elevation of PG-metabolite levels, which was seen in both the inseminated groups. It was also demonstrated that IUI-group had an earlier significant increase of PG-metabolite levels than sows inseminated conventionally. Further investigation using different semen extenders or even different type of insemination catheters might be helpful in understanding the reason for an immediate increase of PG-metabolite after insemination but not after mating.

  19. Plasma concentrations of cortisol and PGF2α metabolite in Danish sows during mating, and intrauterine and conventional insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrby, Mattias; Madsen, Mads T; Alexandersen, Charlotte Borg; Kindahl, Hans; Madej, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Background The aims of the present work was to study whether there are any relationships between cortisol and PG-metabolite in mated sows or inseminated with the intrauterine technique and compare these to changes occurring in conventionally inseminated sow. Methods Thirty three crossbred sows (Danish Landrace × Danish Large White) were fitted with jugular vein catheters through vena auricularis from one of the ears. The sows were randomly divided into three groups (Boar-, IUI- and AI-group) and blood samples were collected before, during and after service. In a final evaluation only 25 sows that became pregnant and farrowed piglets at full term were used. Results Cortisol concentrations increased in all groups but Boar-group (n = 8) had a significantly higher cortisol during 10 to 20 min after service than sows in AI-group (n = 8). In mated sows cortisol concentrations peaked at 15 minutes after service. The Boar-group (n = 8) showed no ascending PG-metabolite levels during the whole experiment, while both IUI- and AI-groups (n = 9 and n = 8, respectively) had a 2.5-fold increase in PG-metabolite 15 minutes after service. Conclusion In conclusion, mating of sows by a boar results in a greater increase of cortisol than AI and without an elevation of PG-metabolite levels, which was seen in both the inseminated groups. It was also demonstrated that IUI-group had an earlier significant increase of PG-metabolite levels than sows inseminated conventionally. Further investigation using different semen extenders or even different type of insemination catheters might be helpful in understanding the reason for an immediate increase of PG-metabolite after insemination but not after mating. PMID:18053237

  20. Plasma concentrations of cortisol and PGF2alpha metabolite in Danish sows during mating, and intrauterine and conventional insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrby, Mattias; Madsen, Mads T; Alexandersen, Charlotte Borg; Kindahl, Hans; Madej, Andrzej

    2007-12-05

    The aims of the present work was to study whether there are any relationships between cortisol and PG-metabolite in mated sows or inseminated with the intrauterine technique and compare these to changes occurring in conventionally inseminated sow. Thirty three crossbred sows (Danish Landrace x Danish Large White) were fitted with jugular vein catheters through vena auricularis from one of the ears. The sows were randomly divided into three groups (Boar-, IUI- and AI-group) and blood samples were collected before, during and after service. In a final evaluation only 25 sows that became pregnant and farrowed piglets at full term were used. Cortisol concentrations increased in all groups but Boar-group (n = 8) had a significantly higher cortisol during 10 to 20 min after service than sows in AI-group (n = 8). In mated sows cortisol concentrations peaked at 15 minutes after service. The Boar-group (n = 8) showed no ascending PG-metabolite levels during the whole experiment, while both IUI- and AI-groups (n = 9 and n = 8, respectively) had a 2.5-fold increase in PG-metabolite 15 minutes after service. In conclusion, mating of sows by a boar results in a greater increase of cortisol than AI and without an elevation of PG-metabolite levels, which was seen in both the inseminated groups. It was also demonstrated that IUI-group had an earlier significant increase of PG-metabolite levels than sows inseminated conventionally. Further investigation using different semen extenders or even different type of insemination catheters might be helpful in understanding the reason for an immediate increase of PG-metabolite after insemination but not after mating.

  1. Pathogenesis and pathology of shoulder ulcerations in sows with special reference to peripheral nerves and behavioural responses to palpation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Pedersen, Kirstin; Bonde, Marianne Kjær; Herskin, Mette S.

    2013-01-01

    Shoulder ulcerations are common in breeding sows in production systems but the consequences for the animals in terms of pain or discomfort are not well-described. This study presents data from a histopathological examination of shoulders of sows, specially focusing on the peripheral nerves...... the lesions have healed. This is further supported by the behavioural finding that rubbing behaviour in response to palpation was increased on the day of sample collection of the shoulders in sows with traumatic neuromas but without shoulder ulcers (P=0.053). Further studies are needed for final confirmation...

  2. Effect of Organic Selenium from Se-enriched Alga (Chlorella spp. on Selenium Transfer from Sows to Their Progeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Svoboda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the efficacy of organic Se from Se-enriched alga Chlorella spp. in placental transfer to piglets. In group A (n = 8 the sows were fed during the gestation a diet supplemented with inorganic Se (sodium selenite, 0.3 mg/kg. In group B (n = 8 the diet of the sows was supplemented with organic Se from Se-enriched alga (0.3 mg/kg. The Se concentrations in the whole blood (P P Chlorella spp. in sows resulted in greater transfer of Se to their progeny.

  3. A cross sectional study of the prevalence, risk factors and population attributable fractions for limb and body lesions in lactating sows on commercial farms in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillman Claire E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lesions on sows' limbs and bodies are an abnormality that might impact on their welfare. The prevalence of and risks for limb and body lesions on lactating sows on commercial English pig farms were investigated using direct observation of the sows and their housing. Results The prevalence of lesions on the limbs and body were 93% (260/279 and 20% (57/288 respectively. The prevalence of limb and body lesions was significantly lower in outdoor-housed sows compared with indoor-housed sows. Indoor-housed sows had an increased risk of wounds (OR 6.8, calluses (OR 8.8 and capped hock (OR 3.8 on their limbs when housed on fully slatted floors compared with solid concrete floors. In addition, there was an increased risk of bursitis (OR 2.7, capped hock (OR 2.3 and shoulder lesions (OR 4.8 in sows that were unwilling to rise to their feet. There was a decreased risk of shoulder lesions (OR 0.3 and lesions elsewhere on the body (OR 0.2 in sows with more than 20 cm between their tail and the back of the crate compared with sows with less than 10 cm. Conclusion The sample of outdoor housed sows in this study had the lowest prevalence of limb and body lesions. In lactating sows housed indoors there was a general trend for an increased risk of limb and body lesions in sows housed on slatted floors compared with those housed on solid concrete floors with bedding. Sows that were less responsive to human presence and sows that had the least space to move within their crates had an additional increased risk of lesions.

  4. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  5. Mapping Smallholder Wheat Yields and Sowing Dates Using Micro-Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meha Jain

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing offers a low-cost method for developing spatially continuous crop production statistics across large areas and through time. Nevertheless, it has been difficult to characterize the production of individual smallholder farms, given that the land-holding size in most areas of South Asia (<2 ha is smaller than the spatial resolution of most freely available satellite imagery, like Landsat and MODIS. In addition, existing methods to map yield require field-level data to develop and parameterize predictive algorithms that translate satellite vegetation indices to yield, yet these data are costly or difficult to obtain in many smallholder systems. To overcome these challenges, this study explores two issues. First, we employ new high spatial (2 m and temporal (bi-weekly resolution micro-satellite SkySat data to map sowing dates and yields of smallholder wheat fields in Bihar, India in the 2014–2015 and 2015–2016 growing seasons. Second, we compare how well we predict sowing date and yield when using ground data, like crop cuts and self-reports, versus using crop models, which require no on-the-ground data, to develop and parameterize prediction models. Overall, sow dates were predicted well (R2 = 0.41 in 2014–2015 and R2 = 0.62 in 2015–2016, particularly when using models that were parameterized using self-report sow dates collected close to the time of planting and when using imagery that spanned the entire growing season. We were also able to map yields fairly well (R2 = 0.27 in 2014–2015 and R2 = 0.33 in 2015–2016, with crop cut parameterized models resulting in the highest accuracies. While less accurate, we were able to capture the large range in sow dates and yields across farms when using models parameterized with crop model data and these estimates were able to detect known relationships between management factors (e.g., sow date, fertilizer, and irrigation and yield. While these results are specific to our study

  6. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family ... community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  7. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please ... been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. ...

  8. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding What's ... work with a lactation specialist. All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...

  9. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  10. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States ...

  11. Influence of Agricultural Management on Phytochemicals of Colored Corn Genotypes ( Zea mays L.). Part 2: Sowing Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Debora; Beta, Trust; Gagliardi, Federica; Blandino, Massimo

    2018-05-02

    Among the agronomic practices carried out in corn cultivation, the early sowing time is increasingly used by farmers of temperate regions to improve yield and reduce mycotoxin contamination of corn grains. The present study determined the influence of sowing time on the phytochemical content of grains of 10 colored genotypes of corn. There was a significant improvement of both grain yield (+26%), thousand kernel weight (+3%), and test weight (+2%) in plots sown early. The early sowing also significantly influenced the chemical composition of corn grains, with an increase in the concentration of cell-wall-bound phenolic acids (+5%) and β-cryptoxanthin (+23%) and a decrease in the concentration of lutein (-18%) and total anthocyanins (-21%). Environmental conditions that occurred during grain development significantly influenced the phytochemical content of corn grain, and early spring sowing could impart advantages in terms of both productivity and content of some antioxidants of whole-meal corn flour.

  12. Cull sow knife-separable lean content evaluation at harvest and lean mass content prediction equation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Caitlyn E; Stalder, Kenneth J; Hendricks, Haven B; Fitzgerald, Robert F

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a prediction equation for carcass knife-separable lean within and across USDA cull sow market weight classes (MWC) and to determine carcass and individual primal cut knife separable lean content from cull sows. There were significant percent lean and fat differences in the primal cuts across USDA MWC. The two lighter USDA MWC had a greater percent carcass lean and lower percent fat compared to the two heavier MWC. In general, hot carcass weight explained the majority of carcass lean variation. Additionally, backfat was a significant variation source when predicting cull sow carcass lean. The findings support using a single lean prediction equation across MWC to assist processors when making cull sow purchasing decisions and determine the mix of animals from various USDA MWC that will meet their needs when making pork products with defined lean:fat content. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimating inter-annual variability in winter wheat sowing dates from satellite time series in Camargue, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfron, Giacinto; Delmotte, Sylvestre; Busetto, Lorenzo; Hossard, Laure; Ranghetti, Luigi; Brivio, Pietro Alessandro; Boschetti, Mirco

    2017-05-01

    Crop simulation models are commonly used to forecast the performance of cropping systems under different hypotheses of change. Their use on a regional scale is generally constrained, however, by a lack of information on the spatial and temporal variability of environment-related input variables (e.g., soil) and agricultural practices (e.g., sowing dates) that influence crop yields. Satellite remote sensing data can shed light on such variability by providing timely information on crop dynamics and conditions over large areas. This paper proposes a method for analyzing time series of MODIS satellite data in order to estimate the inter-annual variability of winter wheat sowing dates. A rule-based method was developed to automatically identify a reliable sample of winter wheat field time series, and to infer the corresponding sowing dates. The method was designed for a case study in the Camargue region (France), where winter wheat is characterized by vernalization, as in other temperate regions. The detection criteria were chosen on the grounds of agronomic expertise and by analyzing high-confidence time-series vegetation index profiles for winter wheat. This automatic method identified the target crop on more than 56% (four-year average) of the cultivated areas, with low commission errors (11%). It also captured the seasonal variability in sowing dates with errors of ±8 and ±16 days in 46% and 66% of cases, respectively. Extending the analysis to the years 2002-2012 showed that sowing in the Camargue was usually done on or around November 1st (±4 days). Comparing inter-annual sowing date variability with the main local agro-climatic drivers showed that the type of preceding crop and the weather conditions during the summer season before the wheat sowing had a prominent role in influencing winter wheat sowing dates.

  14. Effects of sowing date and plant density on morphological triats, yield and yield components of sweet corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rahmani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of sowing date and plant density on the morphological triats, yield and yield components of sweet corn (Zea mays L. var SC. 403 an experiment was conducted at the Khorasan Razavi Agricultural Research and Natural Resources Center, Mashhad, Iran during 2008. This experiment was carried out as split plot based on RCBD with four replications. The sowing date (14th June, 3th July and 24th July and plant densities (66600, 83300 and 111000 plants.ha-1 were arranged in main and sub plots, respectively. The results showed significant differences between different sowing dates for plant height, ear height, and no. of leaves/plant, no. of leaves above ear, stem diameter, dehusked ear yield, can grains yield, no. of grain rows/ear, ear length, ear diameter, kernel depth, no. of ear.plant-1, 1000 kernel weight, ear harvest index and plant harvest index. The highest and the lowest can grains yield with 18.27 and 0.930 ton ha-1 was belonged to 14th June and 24th July sowing date, respectively. Although, delay in sowing date, led to decrease of growth period and also decrease of temperature can lead to improper transfer of photosynthetic materials and cause to grains yield decrease. The plant density had significant effects on husked ear yield, dehusked ear yield and forage yield. The highest can grains yield was harvested from the highest plant density (8.862 t.ha-1 and the lowest can grains yield derived from the lowest plant density (66600 plants.ha-1 with 7.692 t.ha-1. Finally, the interaction of sowing date and plant density was significant only for harvest index. Therefore, the sowing date 14th June and the highest plant density (111000 plants.ha-1, is recommended for summer sowing date of sweet corn in Mashhad with maximum and better can grains production.

  15. Sowing terms of winter bread wheat variety-innovations (Triticum aestivum L. in the conditions of change of climate

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    О. Л. Дергачов

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of studying of influence of sowing terms on productivity and indices of quality of grain of winter bread wheat variety-innovations of V.M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat of NAAS of Ukraine in the conditions of Right-bank Forest-steppe are shown. Negative correlation of productivity of varieties on average temperature of air during the sowing period is shown.

  16. Effects of sowing dates and different fertilizers on yield, yield components, and oil percentage of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.

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    parviz rezvani moghadam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of sowing dates and different fertilizers on yield, yield components, and oil percentage of castor bean, an experiment was conducted at Experimental station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in years 2004-2005. The experimental treatments comprised all combinations of four sowing dates (11 April, 25 April, 8 May and 22 May and three different fertilizers (cow manure (30 tons/ha, compost (30 tons/ha, chemical fertilizers (100 kg/ha N and 250 kg/ha of super phosphate and no fertilizer as control. Different characteristics such as plant height, main inflorescence height, number of inflorescence per plant, number of secondary stems per plant, number of capsules per plant, number of grain per plant, grain weight per plant, 100 seed weight, grain yield, oil percentage and oil yield were recorded. A factorial arrangement based on a randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The results showed by delaying sowing date grain yield, seed oil percentage and oil yield were decreased, but there was no significant differences between 25 April, 8 May and 22 May sowing dates. Harvest index and 100 seed weight did not affect by neither sowing dates nor fertilizer treatments. The highest number of branches per plant, number of fertile inflorescences per plant, number of fertile capsules per plant, number of grain per plant, grain weight per plant and biological yield were obtained at 8 May sowing date on chemical fertilizer. Percentage of seed oil, grain yield and oil yield was higher at the first sowing date (11 April in compost and chemical fertilizer treatments. Keywords: Castor bean, sowing date, fertilizer, grain yield, oil percentage.

  17. Effect of pre-sowing soil tillage for wheat on the crop structure and the yield components in Dobrudzha region

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    P. Yankov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The investigation was carried out in the trial field of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute on slightly leached chernozem soil. In order to clarify the effect of some types of pre-sowing soil tillage for wheat on the crop structure and certain yield components, the following variants of a stationary field experiment were analyzed: double disking at depth 10-12 cm (check variant; ploughing at 14-16 cm + disking; no-tillage (direct sowing – pre-sowing treatment of the area with total herbicides. Wheat was sown after previous crop grain maize and was fertilized with N P K . Wheat cultivar Enola was planted at norm 550 germinating 140 120 80 2 seeds/m . The number of emerging wheat plants was read using square sampling frames sized 50 cm x 50 cm. Using the same sampling frames, the tillering in autumn prior to the wintering of the crops was followed, and in spring – prior to booting stage. The number of productive tillers was also read using these sampling frames. To determine the length of spike, the number of grains in it, and their weight, 30 spikes from 8 replications of each variant were analyzed. The emerging of the wheat plants, under the conditions of slightly leached chernozem soil in Dobrudzha region, was more uniform after sowing following disking, and after direct sowing. The minimal pre-sowing tillage and no-tillage for wheat ensured better autumn development of the crop and the plants. In these variants, higher number of overwintering plants and productive tillers per unit area were registered. Spike length was the highest after ploughing as pre-sowing tillage. Significant variations in the number of grains per spike of the investigated variants were not found. Grain weight per spike was the lowest under direct sowing.

  18. Effects of confinement on physiological and psychological responses and expression of interleukin 6 and brain derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in primiparous and multiparous weaning sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study aimed to investigate whether the long-lasting, recurrent restricting of sows leads to the physiological and psychological reaction of discomfort. Methods Sows (Large White that had experienced restricting for about 0.5 or 3 years and age-matched sows kept in a group housing system (loose sows were compared. Pupillary light reflex parameters were measured at the weaning stage. Immediately after slaughter, blood samples were taken to measure serum cortisol levels, and the brain was dissected, gene expression in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and hypothalamus was analyzed. Results The serum cortisol levels were higher in the confined sows than in the loose sows. The full maturity, but not the young adolescent, confined sows had longer latency time in the onset of pupil constriction than their loose counterparts. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed an increased expression of interleukin 6 mRNA in the hippocampus and decreased expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in hippocampus and hypothalamus and to a lesser extent in the frontal cortex of the full maturity confined sows, compared with the full maturity loose sows. Conclusion Taken together, these data indicated that recurrent restricting stress in full maturity sows leads to the physiological and psychological reaction of discomfort.

  19. Pre-sowing laser biostymulation of seeds of cultivated plants and its results in agrotechnics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koper, R.

    1994-01-01

    Studies carried out in University of Agriculture in Lublin made it possible to elaborate our own technology of making laser biostimulation of seeds of selected cultivated plants. The machine for laser biostimulation has been constructed. Pre-sowing laser biostimulation of seeds of some studied plants resulted in the following increase of crops: maize from 10 to 20%, spring wheat 20-30%, spring barley 20-25%, sugar beets 10-35%. Better plant seedlings, higher resistance to cold and earlier plant maturation are the additional effects of pre-sowing laser biostimulation of plants. In the case of corn the vegetation period is shortened by about 10 days. The quality of plants grown from the seeds which underwent the laser biostimulation is also higher. Initial studies proved that it is possible to diminish nitrogen fertilization when applying laser biostimulation of seeds without essential decrease in crops. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  20. Influence of thermal environment on sows around farrowing and during the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Sund Kammersgaard, Trine

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the effects of floor heating duration (HEAT: 35°C for 12 or 48 h) after birth of first piglet (BFP) under different room temperatures (ROOM: 15, 20, 25°C) on sows during farrowing and lactation. The study included 8 to 11 repetitions for each combination of ROOM...... for the HEAT =48 h treatment 13 to 48 h after BFP (P piglets (82 to 95%) were born on the heated solid floor, regardless of room temperature (P = 0.46). Sows spent approximately twice as much time standing/walking at 15°C during 13 to 48 h after BFP, at HEAT = 12 h only (ROOM and HEAT...

  1. Evaluation of Kabuli chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cultivars response to sowing date

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    seyd karim moosavi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of terminal drought stress on some quantitative traits and tolerance of three kabuli chickpea genotypes, an experiment was carried out at Kohdasht, Iran, on a loam soil using, a split plot experimental design with three replications. Three sowing dates (autumn, winter and spring were assigned to main plots and three Kabuli chickpea genotypes (ILC482, Greet and Hashem to sub plots. Results indicated that delay in sowing date decreased dry matter (66%, and grain yield (89%. Grain yield reduction was mainly due to reduced number of pod/plant (60%, 100 seed weight (32%. Considering the stress tolerance index (STI Greet had the highest grain yield under the optimum condition (1464 kg/ha as well as under terminal drought stress condition (302 kg/ha. It also performed to be resistant to terminal drought stress and height temperature conditions, according to stress susceptibility index (SSI .

  2. Investigation of candidate regions influencing litter size in Danish Landrace sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Ditte; Mark, Thomas; Sørensen, P.

    2010-01-01

    allele effect of microsatellite alleles in the region. In spite of the apparent increased historical selection pressure on chromosome 13, fairly large variation in allele effects was observed, indicating that the markers within the region may be used for marker-assisted selection. However, substantial...... and low EBV for litter size were genotyped. An assignment test showed that 91 and 90% of the sows could be assigned correctly to the group of sows representing high and low EBV, respectively, based on genotype information. Allele effects were estimated separately for each marker by using deregressed EBV...... and a linear model that include both a polygenic and an allele effect. The investigated region on chromosome 13 was found to have a greater average identity by state relationship compared with the other regions, indicating that selection has taken place in this region. This is supported by an increased average...

  3. Toxicity of zearalenone on the intestines of pregnant sows and their offspring and alleviation with modified halloysite nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Zhu, Dandan; Guo, Tao; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Shi, Baoming; Shan, Anshan; Chen, Zhihui

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of maternal exposure to zearalenone (ZEN) on the intestines of pregnant sows and offspring on postnatal days (PD) 1, 21 and 188. Eighteen pregnant sows (six per treatment) were fed a control diet (ZEN, 0.03 mg kg -1 ), ZEN diet (ZEN, 2.77 mg kg -1 ) and ZEN + 1% modified halloysite nanotube (MHNT) diet (ZEN, 2.76 mg kg -1 ) respectively from gestation days (GD) 35 to 70. At the end of the experiment, three sows of each group on GD70 and the offspring on PD1, PD21 and PD188 were killed to analyze the changes of intestines. The results showed that ZEN caused oxidative stress, an inflammatory response, changes in the structure of jejunum and alterations of the bacterial numbers in cecal digesta in pregnant sows and PD1 and PD21 piglets. On PD188, bacterial numbers were also altered. MHNTs supplementation reduced the amount of ZEN in the intestine and reversed to a large extent the effects induced by ZEN on the intestines of pregnant sows and offspring. The results obtained from this study indicated that MHNTs treatment was beneficial for the adsorption of ZEN in the intestine of sows. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. The effect of varying duration of water restriction on drinking behaviour, welfare and production of lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M B; Schild, S-L A; Theil, P K; Andersen, H M-L; Pedersen, L J

    2016-06-01

    Access to drinking water is essential for animal welfare, but it is unclear if temporary water restriction during the night represents a welfare problem. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of various durations of nightly restriction of water on thirst in loose housed lactating sows from day 10 to 28 of lactation. A total of 48 sows were deprived of water for either 0 h (n=12; control), 3 h (n=12; 0500 to 0800 h), 6 h (n=12; 0200 to 0800 h) or 12 h (n=12; 2000 to 0800 h). Control sows consumed 22% of their water intake during the night (2000 to 0800 h), whereas water consumption during this time was reduced to 13%, 7% and 0% in sows restricted for 3, 6 and 12 h. With increased duration of nightly water restriction a reduced latency to drink (26.8, 18.0, 5.3 and 6.7 min for 0, 3, 6 and 12 h sows; Pbehaviour or performance. In conclusion, behavioural indicators of thirst increased with increasing duration of nightly water restriction in lactating sows.

  5. Effect of sowing date and plant density on grain and flower yield of Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.

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    mohamad javad seghatol eslami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. is a medicinal herb whose dried flower heads are used to heal wounds. In order to study the effects of sowing dates and plant density on grain and flower yield of pot marigold, an experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Center of Islamic Azad University, Birjand Branch in 2005. Three sowing dates (30 March, 14 April and 30 April and three plant densities (plant distances on row were 10, 20 and 30 centimeters were compared in a split- plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Seed and flower yields were significantly different at planting dates and plant densities. Sowing date had significant effects on flower and seed harvest index. The latest sowing dates had the highest flower and seed harvest index. Plant density had not significant effect on flower harvest index, but the effect on seed harvest index, was significant. In total our result showed that the first sowing date with 25 plants/m2 had the highest grain and flower yield. Keywords: Marigold, sowing date, plant density, medicinal plant.

  6. Evalution of the healthiness of winter wheat cultivated in conventional tillage, direct sowing and direct sowing with underplant crop of white clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Moszczyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of the healthiness of winter wheat depending on the soil tillage system and rate of nitrogen fertilization were carried out in 1998-2001. The largest threat to the healthiness of plants was tan spot, which was caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, especially in cropping season 1999/2000. The soil tillage system diversified the intensification of occurence of this pathogen, only in two last years of research. The most infected by P. tritici-i was wheat, which was cultivated in the direct sowing. Application of underplant crop of white clover in the direct sowing contributed to the improvement of the plants healthiness. The highest rate of nitrogen fertilization (120 kg N.ha-1 in the highest degree favoured the damage of wheat by P. tritici-repentis, but only in two first years of research. The second pathogen Blumeria graminis, which caused powdery mildew of cereals, occured in small amount and didn't have any influence on the healthiness of winter wheat.

  7. Effect of Farm on Productive and Reproductive Performance in Sows of Prestice Black-pied Pig

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    Pavel Nevrkla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate productive and reproductive performance of Prestice Black‑Pied sows including losses of piglets from birth to weaning in conditions of two farms. The experiment involved one hundred sows of Prestice Black‑Pied pig from the 1st to the 7th parity (50 from farm A and 50 from farm B. The evaluation of productive parameters revealed a highly statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.001 between gilts of the observed farms in percentage of lean meat. Backfat thickness was 0.19 cm lower in gilts from the farm A, which is a very highly statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.001. The evaluation of reproductive performance showed, that age at the time of the first insemination and farrowing was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05 in gilts from the farm A compared to gilts from the farm B by 38 days on average. The analysis also indicates that there was no significant difference in length of gestation, total number of piglets and numbers of live-born and reared piglets between the sows of the evaluated farms. A highly statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.01 was found in number of stillborn piglets. Interval length was significantly longer (P ≤ 0.05 in sows from the farm A, by 14.29 days. The evaluation of losses of piglets revealed a significant difference (P ≤ 0.05 between the farms in favor of piglets from the farm A.

  8. Pathology and genetic findings in a rare case of Mycobacterium caprae infection in a sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Benedetta; Capucchio, Teresa Maria; Biasibetti, Elena; Mangano, Elena; Boniotti, Beatrice Maria; Pacciarini, Lodovica Maria; Migliore, Sergio; Vitale, Maria; Fiasconaro, Michele; Di Marco Lo Presti, Vincenzo

    2017-06-01

    Bovine tuberculosis, a reemerging zoonosis in diverse ecological scenarios, has been reported in the autochthonous Nebrodi black pig breed population used for meat production in Italy. During a routine abattoir inspection in 2013, 24 of 299 carcasses (8%) of Nebrodi black pigs presented tuberculosis-like lesions at pathologic examination. Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from 23 animals and M. caprae from a 3-year-old sow. The sow showed severe diffuse lesions involving the visceral organs, right coxofemoral joint, and mammary glands. Isolation of M. caprae from mammary glands is uncommon, with only one other case involving a sow reported so far; however, Mycobacteria infection of the mammary glands may be transmitted from lactating sows to piglets, contributing to the spread and maintenance of bovine tuberculosis in swine. Genotyping analysis showed M. caprae spoligotype SB0866 and profile 4,1,5,4,4,11,4,2,4,3,8,7 MIRU-VNTR (mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats). The worldwide prevalence of this spoligotype is very low. The finding of severe, diffuse tuberculous lesions strongly suggests that Nebrodi black pigs are susceptible for Mycobacterium spp. and that they might act as a distributor for these microorganisms. Since natural ecosystems with multiple contacts among different livestock species and wild animals are very common in Mediterranean regions, current surveillance and eradication plans for bovine tuberculosis will need to be extended to other potential reservoir species in regions where extensive and traditional breeding systems are operated. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Vitality structure of the populations of some weed species in crop sowings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Tikhonova

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Features of development of populations of weed species (Cirsium arvense (L. Scop., Sonchus arvensis L., Melandium album (Mill. Garke, Setaria glauca (L. Beauv., Fallopia convolvulus (L. А. Lоve in most typical crops in the forest-steppe zone of the Sumy region. It was studied the crop sowings (winter wheat, rye, barley, buckwheat, pea which was not subjected to the herbicide treatment.

  10. Process Control of Pre-Sowing Seed Treatment by Pulsed Electric Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starodubtseva Galina Petrovna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper investigates the application of a line voltage changer to an installation for pre-sowing seed treatment by pulsed electric field (PEF in order to increase the sowing quality of seeds and to suppress pathogenic microflora. The installation comprises an AC voltage regulator, a high voltage source, a voltage inverter, a working chamber for seed treatment, a control unit, and current and voltage sensors. The proposed installation differs from the existing apparatuses as it automatically provides the transformation of the pulsed electric field parameters by constant monitoring of power processes in a layer of treated seeds and feedback sending to the control unit. Seed treatment efficiency depends on the dose being determined by the parameters of electric field, namely, intensity in the seed layer, pulse duration, pulse repetition frequency, and seed treatment time. The parameters of rational treatment were determined, and the minimum treatment dose was calculated on the basis of results from the laboratory tests on the effect of pulsed electric field on sowing qualities of winter wheat seeds. It was experimentally confirmed that the proposed installation provides automatic transformation of electric field parameters depending on the changes taking place in the seed layer on the example of seeds with different moisture content maintaining the necessary treatment dose, ensuring the stability and repeatability of results.

  11. Performance of irrigated green corn cultivars in different plant populations at sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Soares Neto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the yield of green corn hybrids grown under irrigation in different plant populations at sowing. The assay was carried out in the experimental area located in the city of Arapiraca, Alagoas State, Brazil, from November 2015 to January 2016. A randomized complete block design (RCBD was used, in a 2 x 5 factorial scheme with four replicates. A double- and a single-cross hybrid (AG 1051 and BM 3061, which are suitable for green corn production, were cultivated in five spacings between plants at sowing (15.0, 17.5, 20.0, 22.5 and 25.0 cm. The characteristics photosynthetic rate (PR, ear length with rusk (HEL and without husk (UEL, husked ear weight (HEW, unhusked ear weight (UEW, percentage of marketable ears (%ME and weight of husk (HW were evaluated. The double- and single-cross hybrids AG 1051 and BM 3061 showed green ears with commercial standard. The cultivar BM 3061 showed the best results for most of the characteristics related to the performance of green corn (PR, HEL, UEL, UEW, HEW, %ME. The spacing of 17.5 cm between plants at sowing was the most indicated for irrigated green corn cultivation.

  12. Impact of Early Sowing on Winter Wheat Receiving Manure or Mineral Fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Tolstrup; Jensen, Johannes Lund; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2017-01-01

    (late September) wheat were tested over two cropping seasons (2011–2012 and 2013–2014) using two contemporary cultivars (Hereford and Mariboss) and increasing rates of N (0–300 kg total N ha–1) with animal manure (AM; cattle slurry) or mineral fertilizers (NPK), surface applied in late March. We....... Early sowing increased grain yields by 0.5 and 1.0 Mg ha–1 for NPK and AM, respectively, regardless of N rate. Grain and straw N concentrations were higher with NPK than with AM, and NPK showed higher N use efficiency (0.48–0.53) than AM (0.15–0.22). Moving sowing of winter wheat from late September...... to late August provided higher grain and straw yields; the increased over-winter N uptake suggests that the beneficial effect of earlier sowing may surpass that of a catch crop. Cattle slurry surface applied in late March gave poor N use efficiency and low grain protein content....

  13. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE MAIN REPRODUCTION INDICATORS DETERMINATED IN SOWS, STAND GESTATION PEN TIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMONA UNTARU

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Current researches were carried out with the goal to quantisize the lost from the weaning to early gestation at the sows housed in open pen gestation. In this trail we tested two pen types, different not only by size, but also by feeders’ emplacement. The main reproduction indicators that we calculated until the 28 gestation day were the proportion of sows in heat after weaning, the weaning to estrus interval and the gestation rates. The weaning to estrus interval was about 4 to 7 days, most sows were in heat in the day 5 and 6 days after weaning. The percent of heat detection after weaning was 71.42% for the small pens and 70.71% for the big pens (differences statistically non significant, chi test value was 0.983. The gestation rate at 28 days after insemination was 91.62% for the small pens and 94.72% for the large pens (chi test value 0,959, statistically non significant differences. The overpopulation for heat induction and after that chipping animals together in those pens, show that the lost are up to 40.47%, between weaning – day 28 of gestation.

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF BUSH FORMATION IN RED BEET ON SEED PRODUCTIVITY AND SOWING QUALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Yusupova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary not only to possess the technology to grow seeds but also to have knowledge of plant biology in particular crop, and sowing qualities of its seeds. The particular place where seeds are forming on the mother plant has much influence on qualities of sowing seed material. The influence of the development of red beet plant bush on seed productivity, monogermity and sowing qualities of seeds was estimated in Rostov oblast. The main stalk pruning and application of plant growth retardants had an effect on the structure of red beet bush. In variants given in seed plants, the third type of branching prevailed due to lack or oppression of main stalk. Consequently, the seed yield and proportion of single fruit formation rose. It was also shown that due to treatment of plants with growth retardant ‘Floron’ at the stage of waxen maturity significantly improved the seed germination as compared with control variant. As a result of the study it was shown that the mechanical pruning of main stalk and application of growth retardants had affected on the structure of seed red beet bush increasing the yield mono-seed compounds as well as had improved the yield and seed quality of monogerm red beet. 

  15. Effect of environmental factor on some litter traits of sows in the tropics Mexican

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    Jesús Ek M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the effect of environmental factors on litter traits at birth and weaning, and their repeatabilities in four farms in the sub-humid tropics of Mexico. Materials and methods. Data from 46.249 to 50.316 litters for litter size at birth (LSB, number of piglets born alive (NBA, litter weight at birth (LWB, number of piglets weaned (NPW and litter weight at weaning (LWW were used. The statistical model for LSB, NBA and LWB included the effects of farm, farrowing year, farrowing season, parity number, simple interactions, random effects of sow and the error term. NPW and LWW were analyzed using the previous model plus the linear and quadratic effects of lactation length (LL. Results. The means for LSB, NBA, LWB, NPW and LWW were 11.7 piglets, 11.0 piglets, 16.1 kg, 10.3 piglets and 61.3 kg, respectively. All effects in the model affected the litter traits. Farrowing year x season interaction was significant for NPW, LWB and LWW. The dry season had the highest LSB, NBA y NPW. First parity sows had higher LSB and NBA means than for second parity sows. Parity increase until parity 4 to decrease thereafter. LL had a quadratic effect on NPW and LWW. Repeatability estimates for LSB, NBA, and LWB were 0.12, 0.12 and 0.14, respectively. Conclusions. All traits studied were influenced by the environmental factors studied. Repeatabilities for LSB, NBA and LWB were low.

  16. Theoretical and practical aspects of pre-sowing laser biostimulation of the seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gładyszewska, B.; Kornas-Czuczwar, B.; Koper, R.; Lipski, S.

    1998-01-01

    Against the background of recent literature review basic aspects of the mechanism responsible for pre-sowing laser bio-stimulation of the seeds were discussed. Developed by professor W. Sedlak theory of bioplasma was the main point of reference. Presented results of own research works proved the positive influence of pre-sowing laser treatment of seeds on their yielding and nutritive value. The yield rises caused by pre-sowing laser seed bio-stimulation for some examined plant crops were as follows: maize (from 10 to 15%), spring wheat (from 20 to 30%), spring barley (from 20 to 25%), sugar beets (from 10 to 30%), rape seeds (from 10 to 15%). The quality of crops frawn from the laser treated seeds was also better than the control ones. For example, the protein content in grain of spring wheat grown from the seeds bio-stimulated with a the He-Ne laser increased from about 12 up to 14%. Similarly, in roots of the sugar beets grown from laser treated seeds, the sugar content rose from about 15 up to about 17% [pl

  17. Soil physical attributes in forms of sowing the annual winter pasture and intervals between grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton da Veiga

    Full Text Available The sowing of winter pastures in areas used for summer grain production and their management under direct cattle grazing can cause changes in soil physical attributes, whose intensity depends on the degree of soil mobilization, grazing interval, stocking rate and weather. To study these aspects it was conducted over four years an experiment in a randomized block with split plots design and four replications. In the main plots were applied two forms of sowing the annual winter pasture (direct seeding and seeding + harrowing and, in the subplots, four intervals between grazing (7, 14 and 28 days and ungrazed. Undisturbed soil cores were sampled at the end of each grazing cycle, in the 0-0.05 m layer to determine the saturated hydraulic conductivity and aggregate stability and in the layers of 0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.15 and 0.15-0.20 m depth to determine bulk density and classes of soil pores. The direct seeding of annual winter pasture increases hydraulic conductivity and reduces soil bulk density in relation to seeding + harrowing while dairy cows trampling increases soil density and reduces macroporosity in the most superficial soil layer. The variation in climatic conditions among grazing cycles affects the soil physical attributes more markedly than forms of sowing and intervals between grazing of the annual winter pasture.

  18. Effect of Minimal Disease in a Herd on Reproductive Parameters of Sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Nevrkla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluation of reproductive performance in sows from herds with minimal disease. Total number of 40 sows were included in the observation and evaluated from the 1st to the 4th parity. The highest reproductive performance was recorded at the 3rd parity. Statistically significant difference (P < 0.05 was found between the 1st and the 3rd parity and highly statistically significant difference (P < 0.01 was recorded between the 2nd and the 3rd parity in number of live‑born piglets. Comparison of numbers of stillborn piglets showed statistically significant difference (P < 0.05 between the mean values of the 1st and the 4th parity. The results also showed highly statistically significant difference (P < 0.01 in number of reared piglets between the 3rd and the 4th parity. The conclusions of this study indicate that creation and maintenance of herds of sows with high health status lead to excellent results in the area of pig reproduction.

  19. Estimating challenge load due to disease outbreaks and other challenges using reproduction records of sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, P K; Herrero-Medrano, J M; Alexandri, P; Knol, E F; ten Napel, J; Rashidi, H; Mulder, H A

    2014-12-01

    A method was developed and tested to estimate challenge load due to disease outbreaks and other challenges in sows using reproduction records. The method was based on reproduction records from a farm with known disease outbreaks. It was assumed that the reduction in weekly reproductive output within a farm is proportional to the magnitude of the challenge. As the challenge increases beyond certain threshold, it is manifested as an outbreak. The reproduction records were divided into 3 datasets. The first dataset called the Training dataset consisted of 57,135 reproduction records from 10,901 sows from 1 farm in Canada with several outbreaks of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). The known disease status of sows was regressed on the traits number born alive, number of losses as a combination of still birth and mummified piglets, and number of weaned piglets. The regression coefficients from this analysis were then used as weighting factors for derivation of an index measure called challenge load indicator. These weighting factors were derived with i) a two-step approach using residuals or year-week solutions estimated from a previous step, and ii) a single-step approach using the trait values directly. Two types of models were used for each approach: a logistic regression model and a general additive model. The estimates of challenge load indicator were then compared based on their ability to detect PRRS outbreaks in a Test dataset consisting of records from 65,826 sows from 15 farms in the Netherlands. These farms differed from the Canadian farm with respect to PRRS virus strains, severity and frequency of outbreaks. The single-step approach using a general additive model was best and detected 14 out of the 15 outbreaks. This approach was then further validated using the third dataset consisting of reproduction records of 831,855 sows in 431 farms located in different countries in Europe and America. A total of 41 out of 48 outbreaks detected

  20. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae: the sensitivities of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detecting vaccinated sows of unknown disease status using serum and colostrum, and the correlation of the results for sow serum, colostrum, and piglet serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenvey, Caitlin J; Reichel, Michael P; Cockcroft, Peter D

    2015-03-01

    Due to relatively high concentrations of immunoglobulins, colostrum has the potential to improve the sensitivity of diagnostic tests for diseases in pigs when compared with serum. It is possible that colostrum could improve the sensitivity of the antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) compared with serum. Colostrum is also essential for piglets, providing protection against infections in the first few weeks and months of life. The sensitivity of 2 commercially available ELISAs, one for the detection of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and the second for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antibodies, when used with sow colostrum in comparison with serum was investigated. The correlation of maternal E. rhusiopathiae- and M. hyopneumoniae-specific antibody levels with specific-antibody serum levels in the piglet was also determined. The sensitivity was defined as the proportion of vaccinated sows that were correctly identified as vaccinated at a given cutoff point. The true disease status of the sows with regard to the 2 infections was unknown. Blood and colostrum samples were collected from 20 sows, 10 primiparous and 10 multiparous, and blood samples were also collected from the piglets of each sow, 48-72 hr post-farrowing. The sensitivities of both ELISAs were significantly improved when using colostrum compared with serum. Sow serum and colostrum optical density (OD) values were significantly correlated. The mean sow OD values for serum for E. rhusiopathiae and M. hyopneumoniae and colostrum for E. rhusiopathiae were significantly correlated with piglet serum OD levels. If the improved sensitivity of colostrum can be demonstrated in infected animals, this will increase the ability of the test to identify infected animals using both individual and pooled colostrum. Testing serum and/or colostrum using ELISA can be useful predictors of piglet disease-specific OD values. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. Comparison of changes in fatness of sows in high pregnancy and at weaning and determination of their association with reproduction results and rearing of piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna REKIEL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixty crossbred sows were investigated for the effect of the level of fat reserves in high pregnancy and pre-weaning changes in lipid reserves on reproductive performance of sows and rearing of piglets. At 104 days of pregnancy and at weaning, sows were analysed for body weight, P2 and P4 backfat thickness and M. Longissimus dorsi (MLD thickness at P4M (Piglog 105. Sows were grouped according to mean backfat thickness (P2 + P4/2 at 104 days of pregnancy into primiparous (P2 + P4/2>18 mm (group I, primiparous (P2 + P4/2.18 mm (group II, multiparous (P2 + P4/2>20 mm (group I and multiparous (P2 + P4/2.20 mm (group II. The body weight of sows from group I was higher than sows from group II at 104 days of pregnancy (P.0.05 and at weaning (P.0.01. As assumed in the experiment, fatness in high pregnant sows (points P2 and P4 was significantly higher in group I than in group II (P.0.01, and the differences between the groups persisted when piglets were weaned (P.0.01. At weaning, sows from group II had a significantly greater P4M thickness compared to sows from group I. The differences in backfat thickness in late-pregnant sows in groups I and II and in the loss of fat reserves during a 21-day lactation had no effect on reproduction results and rearing of piglets. Sows lost body weight to a small extent and fat reserves to a moderate degree; the changes were greater in primiparous than multiparous sows, regardless of the group (I or II.

  2. Assessment of adaptability and stability of grain yield in bread wheat genotypes under different sowing times in Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Hussain, M.; Ali, M.A.; Subhani, G.M.; Munir, M.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty advanced lines/genotypes of wheat including two check varieties were sown under two different sowing times through out the Punjab province at 18 different locations with diverse environments to study their stability and adaptability. Normal sowing was done in second week of November 2007 while the delayed sowing was completed during second week of December 2007 during crop season 2007-08. The pooled analysis of variance showed significant differences among environments and genotypes for grain yield demonstrating the presence of considerable variations (p<0.01) among genotypes as well as diversity of growing environments at various locations for both normal and late sown wheat crops. The highest average grain yield was obtained at Jalandar Seed Farm, Arifwala and Pak. German Farm, Multan for normal and delayed sown crops, respectively. Most of the locations emerged as high yielding in normal sowing compared to late sown crop. Dendrograms of 18 locations based on the average yield of 20 wheat genotypes grown under normal and late sown crop revealed two main clusters. Under both normal and late sowing, none of the varieties exceeded the check Seher-2006, however, the check was followed by the advanced lines V-04022 and V-05066 for normal sown crop and Shafaq-2006, V-05066 and V-04022 under delayed sowing. All the genotypes revealed decline in grain yield for late sown wheat crop. The analysis of stability based on mean grain yield, regression coefficient and deviation from regression advocated that the cultivars V-05066 and V-03BT007 were most stable and adapted to diverse environmental conditions of Punjab. These cultivars revealed unit regression and non-significant deviations from regression. The check variety Seher-2006 produced maximum yield for both sowing times that suggested its consistent and stable performance across the environments. (author)

  3. Simulated Optimum Sowing Date for Forage Pearl Millet Cultivars in Multilocation Trials in Brazilian Semi-Arid Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rafael D; Boote, Kenneth J; Sollenberger, Lynn E; Neves, Andre L A; Pereira, Luiz G R; Scherer, Carolina B; Gonçalves, Lucio C

    2017-01-01

    Forage production is primarily limited by weather conditions under dryland production systems in Brazilian semi-arid regions, therefore sowing at the appropriate time is critical. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the CSM-CERES-Pearl Millet model from the DSSAT software suite for its ability to simulate growth, development, and forage accumulation of pearl millet [ Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.] at three Brazilian semi-arid locations, and to use the model to study the impact of different sowing dates on pearl millet performance for forage. Four pearl millet cultivars were grown during the 2011 rainy season in field experiments conducted at three Brazilian semi-arid locations, under rainfed conditions. The genetic coefficients of the four pearl millet cultivars were calibrated for the model, and the model performance was evaluated with experimental data. The model was run for 14 sowing dates using long-term historical weather data from three locations, to determine the optimum sowing window. Results showed that performance of the model was satisfactory as indicated by accurate simulation of crop phenology and forage accumulation against measured data. The optimum sowing window varied among locations depending on rainfall patterns, although showing the same trend for cultivars within the site. The best sowing windows were from 15 April to 15 May for the Bom Conselho location; 12 April to 02 May for Nossa Senhora da Gloria; and 17 April to 25 May for Sao Bento do Una. The model can be used as a tool to evaluate the effect of sowing date on forage pearl millet performance in Brazilian semi-arid conditions.

  4. Psychometric evaluation of the 10-item Short Opiate Withdrawal Scale-Gossop (SOWS-Gossop) in patients undergoing opioid detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Margaret K; Reinders, Stefan; Mannix, Sally; Gullo, Kristen; Gorodetzky, Charles W; Clinch, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The Short Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS)-Gossop is a 10-item questionnaire developed to evaluate opioid withdrawal symptom severity. The scale was derived from the original 32-item Opiate Withdrawal Scale in order to reduce redundancy while providing an equally sensitive measure of opioid withdrawal symptom severity appropriate for research and clinical practice. The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and provide score interpretation guidelines for the SOWS-Gossop 10-item version. Blinded, pooled data from two trials assessing the efficacy of lofexidine hydrochloride in reducing withdrawal symptoms in patients undergoing opioid detoxification were used to evaluate the quantitative psychometric properties and score interpretation of the SOWS-Gossop. Five hundred fifty-five (N=555) observations were available at baseline with numbers decreasing to n=213 at day 7. Mean (standard deviation) SOWS-Gossop scores were 10.4 (6.86) at baseline, 8.7 (6.49) on day 1, 10.5 (7.21) on day 2, and 3.1 (3.95) on day 7. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the SOWS-Gossop items loaded on a single factor consistent with a single total score. Intra-class correlations (95% confidence interval) were 0.78 (0.70-0.85) between baseline and day 1, 0.84 (0.79-0.89) between days 4 and 5, and 0.88 (0.83-0.91) between days 6 and 7, demonstrating good test-retest reliability. Mean SOWS-Gossop scores varied significantly (popioid withdrawal and has excellent psychometric properties. The SOWS-Gossop is an appropriate, precise, and sensitive measure to evaluate the symptoms of acute opioid withdrawal in research or clinical settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of different sowing depths on fresh ear yield and some ear characteristics of sweet corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Atar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted with aim to investigate effect on fresh ear yield and some ear characteristics of sweet corn of sowing at different depths during 2015 and 2016 years in Isparta. The experiments were set up according to randomized complete block design with three replicates using BATEM TATLI sweet corn cultivar. Furrows were opened at depths of 10 and 20 cm after the soil preparation, and seeds were sown in the 4-5 cm depth in to these furrows. According to means of years, while furrow sowing increased ear diameter, ear weigh, number of kernels per ear and fresh ear yield compared to control, it was not effect on ear length. In the research, between 10 cm and 20 cm furrow sowing wasn’t significant statistically. Fresh ear yield in control, 10 cm and 20 cm furrow sowing were measured as 1110.9 kg ha-1 , 1228.4 kg ha-1 and 1289.4 kg ha-1 , respectively. According to results of research, 5 cm deep sowing in 10 cm furrows should be advised in sweet corn cultivation.

  6. Effects of sowing time on pink snow mould, leaf rust and winter damage in winter rye varieties in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SERENIUS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Disease infection in relation to sowing time of winter rye (Secale cereale was studied in southern Finland in order to compare overwintering capacity of modern rye varieties and to give recommendations for rye cultivation. This was done by using three sowing times and four rye varieties in field trials conducted at three locations in 1999–2001. The early sown rye (beginning of August was severely affected by diseases caused by Puccinia recondita and Microdochium nivale, whereas postponing sowing for two weeks after the recommended sowing time resulted in considerably less infection. The infection levels of diseases differed among rye varieties. Finnish rye varieties Anna and Bor 7068 were more resistant to snow mould and more winter hardy than the Polish variety Amilo, or the German hybrid varieties Picasso and Esprit. However, Amilo was the most resistant to leaf rust. In the first year snow mould appeared to be the primary cause of winter damage, but in the second year the winter damage was positively correlated with leaf rust. No significant correlation between frit fly infestation and winter damage or disease incidence of snow mould or leaf rust was established. The late sowing of rye (in the beginning of September is recommended in Finland, particularly with hybrid varieties, to minimize the need for chemical plant protection in autumn.;

  7. The influence of sowing period and seeding norm on autumn vegetation, winter hardiness and yield of winter cereal crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapova G. N.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available the winter wheat and triticale in the middle part of the Ural Mountains haven’t been seeded before. The technology of winter crop cultivation should be improved due to the production of new varieties of winter rye. Winter hardiness and yield of winter rye are higher in comparison with winter triticale and especially with winter wheat. The sowing period and the seeding rate influence the amount of yield and winter hardiness. The winter hardiness of winter cereals and the yield of the rye variety Iset sowed on August 25 and the yield of the triticale variety Bashkir short-stalked and wheat Kazanskaya 560 sowed on August 15 were higher. It is important to sow winter grain in local conditions in the second half of August. The sowing this period allows to provide plants with the necessary amount of positive temperatures (450–500 °C. This helps the plants to form 3–4 shoots of tillering and a mass of 10 dry plants reaching 3–5 grams. The winter grain crops in the middle part of the Ural Mountains should be sown with seeding rates of 6 and 7 million of sprouting grains per 1 ha, and the seeds must be cultivated with fungicidal preparation before seeding.

  8. Grain yield of soybean cultivars using different densities and sowing dates in a high-altitude region of south Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Spader

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the performance of soybean cultivars at different sowing dates and plant densities. Two experiments were carried out at FAPA (Fundação Agrária de Pesquisa Agropecuária [Agrarian Foundation for Agricultural and Cattle Research], located at 25?33’ S latitude, 51?29’ W longitude and with 1.100 meters of altitude in Guarapuava, PR [Paraná], Brazil, in two agricultural harvests (2010/2011 and 2011/2012. The experimental design was in randomized blocks and split plots, in which the sowing dates (10/20, 11/18 and 12/10 were allocated by plot, the densities (250, 350 and 450 thousand plants ha-1 by subplot and the cultivars (BMX Energia, BMX Apolo, BMX Ativa, FPS Júpiter, V_Top, NS 6631, TMG 7161 and BRS Tordilha by sub-subplot. The agronomic characteristics, grain yield and yield components were evaluated. Sowing dates and plant densities affected the agronomic characteristics, grain yield and yield components of soybean. The best sowing dates for lodging-tolerant cultivars are 10/20 and 11/18, and the best densities are 350 and 450 thousand plants ha-1, while lodging-susceptible cultivars respond best for sowing dates of 11/18 and 12/10 and densities from 250 to 350 thousand plants ha-1.

  9. The Impact of Sowing Technology on Ponderal Features of Winter Wheat Seeds in Timişoara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Dragoş

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is a grass, originally from the Fertile Crescent region of the Near East, but now cultivated worldwide. The paper presents the results obtained in the last two years of experience, about the influence of sowing technology on the ponderal features of the winter wheat seeds. The experimental parcels were laid down in a randomized complete block design with three replications in the pedo-climatic conditions of Timişoara. The purpose of the research is to determine the influence of some sowing links on the thousand grain mass and hectoliter mass. The average data obtained after two years of study indicate an increase of about 2 % of the thousand grain mass and hectoliter mass on the second sowing period (16-31 Octoberand a distinctive decrease of 2-3% on the fourth sowing period(16-30 November. During the two years of experience the row distance and the sowing density had a negative impact on both thousand grain mass and hectoliter mass in both variants compared with the control variant, the difference being statistical significant.

  10. The effects of supplementation of a novel bacterial 6-phytase on mineral digestibility and plasma minerals in lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Z; Broz, J; Zijlstra, R T

    2012-12-01

    Pigs digest P in plant feedstuffs poorly because pigs do not produce sufficient endogenous phytase to hydrolyze P from phytate (inositol hexaphosphate). Supplementation of phytase to diets of piglets and grower-finisher pigs increased digestibility of minerals including P and Ca; however, data on phytase efficacy in lactating sows are scarce. Therefore, effects of adding a bacterial 6-phytase expressed in a strain of Aspergillus oryzae (Ronozyme HiPhos; DSM Nutritional Products, Basel, Switzerland) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P and Ca was assessed in 45 lactating sows. Three diets were prepared: (i) positive control (PC; 0.52% available P), a regular sow diet containing inorganic P, (ii) negative control (NC; 0.20% available P) without inorganic P, and (iii) NC + 500 units of phytase/kg diet. Each diet was fed randomly to 15 sows for 21 d (from 5 d prior to farrowing to 15 d after farrowing). At day 15 after farrowing, ATTD of P did not differ between PC and NC. Phytase supplementation to NC increased (P 0.05) ATTD of CP and Ca. On day 1 after farrowing, plasma P was 0.66 mmol/L lower (P Phytase supplementation to NC increased (P phytase supplementation increased P bioavailability in lactating sows.

  11. The supplementation of low-P diets with microbial 6-phytase expressed in Aspergillus oryzae improves P digestibility in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrallardona, D; Llauradó, L; Broz, J

    2012-12-01

    Two trials were conducted to evaluate a novel microbial 6-phytase expressed in Aspergillus oryzae (Ronozyme HiPhos; DSM Nutritional Products, Basel, Switzerland) in gestating and lactating sows. In the first trial, 24 sows (Duroc × Landrace; 223 kg BW) were offered, at 16 d of gestation, a low-P control diet (formulated to provide 4.0 g total P/kg; 1.5 g digestible P/kg) supplemented with 0, 500, or 1000 phytase activity (FYT)/kg of phytase. Two weeks later, fresh feces were sampled from all sows and the apparent total tract digestibility of P was measured using TiO(2) as indigestible marker. Phytase supplementation did not (P > 0.10) affect the total tract digestibility of P but reduced (P phytase. After 2 wk, fresh feces were sampled from all sows and the apparent total tract digestibility of P was measured using TiO(2) as indigestible marker. Phytase supplementation improved (P phytase tested increased the apparent total tract digestibility of P in sows and reduced P excretion in feces.

  12. Effects of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer and sowing dates on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    korosh ehteramian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the optimal level of nitrogen fertilizer and planting date for cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. planting in Kooshkak region located in Doroodzan Dam Areas which represents a typical semiarid region. This research was carried out in the fall and winter 2000 and using a factorial experiment with two factors based on completely randomized block design with nitrogen fertilizer at three rates (0, 30, and 60 kg N ha-1 and sowing date (Nov. 6th, Dec. 21th, Feb. 6th, and March 6th in four replications. The effects of different nitrogen rates were significant on plant height, number of umbrella per plant and number of seed per umbrella, but it was not significant on number of seeds per plant, 1000-seed weight, biological yield, seed yield and harvest index. The effects of sowing dates were significant on number of seeds per umbrella, number of seeds per plant; 1000-seed weight, biological yield and seed yield; but it was not significant on plant height and harvest index. The interaction of nitrogen rates and sowing dates were significant on plant height, number of umbrella per plant and seed yield, but it was not significant on number of seeds per umbrella, number of seeds per plant, 1000-seed weight, biological yield and harvest index. It was concluded that for obtaining the high cumin yield, application of 30 kg N ha-1 and the late planting date (February 6th and March 6th due to probable winter cold, are recommended for this region.

  13. Uterine blood flow in sows: effects of pregnancy stage and litter size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Père, M C; Etienne, M

    2000-01-01

    Female pigs were assigned to three groups at 94 days of age: a control group (CTR), a group undergoing the ligation and severing of the left oviduct (LIG), and a group undergoing right hysteroovariectomy (HHO). They were inseminated at 307 days of age. At 35 days of pregnancy, an ultrasonic transit time flow probe was implanted around the middle artery of one uterine horn in 33 sows and uterine blood flow was measured during thirteen 24-h periods between 44 and 111 days. Despite large differences in ovulation rate per uterine horn (4.8, 8.3 and 16.9 in the LIG, CTR and HHO groups, respectively), variation of litter size was considerably reduced with advancement of pregnancy (3.0, 6.6 and 10.8 foetuses per uterine horn at 35 days, and 3.0, 5.8 and 4.9 at 112 days (slaughter), respectively). Uterine blood flow increased linearly during pregnancy. It was lower in the LIG sows (0.82 to 1.74 L x min(-1) x horn(-1) from 44 to 111 days) than in the CTR and HHO sows (1.22 to 2.84 and 1.09 to 2.63 L x min(-1) x horn(1), respectively). It was more closely related to litter weight than to litter size and amounted to 0.42 L x min(-1) x kg foetus(-1) at 111 days. Uterine blood flow per foetus decreased when litter size increased. It increased from 0.31 to 0.72, 0.26 to 0.60 and 0.20 to 0.43 L x min(-1) x foetus(-1) from 44 to 111 days when there were 2 to 3, 4 to 5, and 6 to 8 foetuses in the uterine horn, respectively. This explains why piglets from large litters are lighter at birth.

  14. Effects of hay management and native species sowing on grassland community structure, biomass, and restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Bryan L; Kindscher, Kelly; Houseman, Greg R; Murphy, Cheryl A

    2009-10-01

    Prairie hay meadows are important reservoirs of grassland biodiversity in the tallgrass prairie regions of the central United States and are the object of increasing attention for conservation and restoration. In addition, there is growing interest in the potential use of such low-input, high-diversity (LIHD) native grasslands for biofuel production. The uplands of eastern Kansas, USA, which prior to European settlement were dominated by tallgrass prairie, are currently utilized for intensive agriculture or exist in a state of abandonment from agriculture. The dominant grasslands in the region are currently high-input, low-diversity (HILD) hay fields seeded to introduced C3 hay grasses. We present results from a long-term experiment conducted in a recently abandoned HILD hay field in eastern Kansas to evaluate effects of fertilization, haying, and native species sowing on community dynamics, biomass, and potential for restoration to native LIHD hay meadow. Fertilized plots maintained dominance by introduced grasses, maintained low diversity, and were largely resistant to colonization throughout the study. Non-fertilized plots exhibited rapid successional turnover, increased diversity, and increased abundance of C4 grasses over time. Haying led to modest changes in species composition and lessened the negative impact of fertilization on diversity. In non-fertilized plots, sowing increased representation by native species and increased diversity, successional turnover, and biomass production. Our results support the shifting limitations hypothesis of community organization and highlight the importance of species pools and seed limitations in constraining successional turnover, community structure, and ecosystem productivity under conditions of low fertility. Our findings also indicate that several biological and functional aspects of LIHD hay meadows can be restored from abandoned HILD hay fields by ceasing fertilization and reintroducing native species through

  15. Evaluation of the relationship of sowing qualities and yielding properties of millet seed (Panicum meliaceum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. П. Полторецький

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Determination and analysis of relationship of sowing qualities and yield properties of millet seed (Panicum meliaceum L. to be formed by the action of predecessors and conditions of mineral nutrition in the context of unstable moistening in the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine. Methods. Mathematico-statistical ones (correlation, regression. Results. The use of correlation pleiades method allowed to analyze multifactor relations of sowing qualities and yield properties of millet seed and establish that there was a direct correlation relationship of medium strength (r = 0.52 ± 0.01 between yielding of maternal and millet plants of the first seed progeny. It was found that maternal plants yielding is strongly correlated with laboratory and technological indicators of seed quality that interrelated through integrated quality parameter of seed material (r = 0.56 ± 0.01 and millet output (r = 0.98 ± 0.00. Integrated quality parameter as well as each of the studied laboratory parameters of seed material quality taken separately have a high-level (r = 0.87…0.96 ± 0.00 effect on the formation of grain yield of the first seed progeny plants. Such physical and technological parameters of the quality of maternal plants yield as a content of protein and fat in seed, seed weight, its uniformity can directly, and millet output, thousand-grain weight and hull content – indirectly indicate peculiarities of forming future grain yield of plants of the first seed progeny. Conclusions. The use of the correlation pleiades method allows to analyze objectively the sowing qualities of millet seed and predict the yield properties in the next generation.

  16. Assessing animal welfare in sow herds using data on meat inspection, medication and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knage-Rasmussen, K M; Rousing, T; Sørensen, J T; Houe, H

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the development of a cost-effective alternative to expensive on-farm animal-based welfare assessment systems. The objective of the study was to design an animal welfare index based on central database information (DBWI), and to validate it against an animal welfare index based on-farm animal-based measurements (AWI). Data on 63 Danish sow herds with herd-sizes of 80 to 2500 sows and an average herd size of 501 were collected from three central databases containing: Meat inspection data collected at animal level in the abattoir, mortality data at herd level from the rendering plants of DAKA, and medicine records at both herd and animal group level (sow with piglets, weaners or finishers) from the central database Vetstat. Selected measurements taken from these central databases were used to construct the DBWI. The relative welfare impacts of both individual database measurements and the databases overall were assigned in consultation with a panel consisting of 12 experts. The experts were drawn from production advisory activities, animal science and in one case an animal welfare organization. The expert panel weighted each measurement on a scale from 1 (not-important) to 5 (very important). The experts also gave opinions on the relative weightings of measurements for each of the three databases by stating a relative weight of each database in the DBWI. On the basis of this, the aggregated DBWI was normalized. The aggregation of AWI was based on weighted summary of herd prevalence's of 20 clinical and behavioural measurements originating from a 1 day data collection. AWI did not show linear dependency of DBWI. This suggests that DBWI is not suited to replace an animal welfare index using on-farm animal-based measurements.

  17. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ...

  18. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E- ... We're working to radically improve the health care they receive. We're pioneering research to find ...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your ... fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your ...

  20. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  1. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  2. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - bolus; G-tube - bolus; Gastrostomy button - bolus; Bard Button - bolus; MIC-KEY - bolus ... KEY, 3 to 8 weeks after surgery. These feedings will help your child grow strong and healthy. ...

  3. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ...

  4. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community March for Babies Nacersano Share Your Story ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your ...

  5. Immunoassay of sexual steroids for fertility control in cows, sows and mares. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Sun Choi

    1987-01-01

    The immunological determination of oestrogens in faeces as a method of pregnancy diagnosis in cows, sows and mares, and the stability of oestrogens in faeces was tested. During 8 days storage at -20 0 to +37 0 C the concentration of oestrogen in faeces was not significantly influenced. During 2 oestrous cycles blood was taken daily of 8 cows and the concentration of progesterone (P4), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA), androstenedione (AD), epitestosterone (Epi) and testosterone (T) in plasma was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The average concentration of DHA in the blood of cows was 650±71 pg/ml, that of AD 77±8 pg/ml to 122±29 pg/ml (x-bar ± SD). The concentration of Epi and T was from 160 to 243 pg/ml and from 46 to 96 pg/ml plasma. For the pregnancy diagnosis in sows blood and faeces were collected of 6 non-pregnant and 30 pregnant animals day 16 to 30 after mating. In faeces the concentration of oestrogens was determined by means of RIA, in blood that of oestrone sulphate and P4 by EIA on micro titre plates. During the whole period of examination the concentration of P4 remained fairly constant. From day 17 to 23 after mating the concentration in non-pregnant was significantly lower than in pregnant sows. In the blood of non-pregnant sows the oestrone sulphate concentration was 1,3±1,2 ng/ml (x-bar ± SD). Day 24 to 30: >x-bar ± 2SD in pregnant animals. Day 25 and 29 of pregnancy the concentration of oestrogens in faeces was: >x-bar ± 2SD = 20,6 ng/g faeces. Pregnancy diagnosis: 21 non-pregnant cows and heifers, 6 bulls and 83 pregnant cows were examined (10th to 35th week of pregnancy). Faeces samples from 21 non-pregnant mares, 6 stallions and 57 pregnant mares (10th to 35th week) and 18 samples from 3 mares at parturition. 18th week of pregnancy the concentration of oestrogens in faeces of cows and mares was: (>x-bar ± 3SD) in non-pregnant animals; (cows: 21,6 ng/g, mares: 14,3 ng/g ) after parturition. 17 refs. (Author)

  6. Immunoassay of sexual steroids for fertility control in cows, sows and mares. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Sun Choi

    1987-01-01

    The immunological determination of oestrogens in faeces as a method of pregnancy diagnosis in cows, sows and mares, and the stability of oestrogens in faeces was tested. During 8 days storage at -20 0 to +37 0 C the concentration of oestrogen in faeces was not significantly influenced. During 2 oestrous cycles blood was taken daily of 8 cows and the concentration of progesterone (P4), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA), androstenedione (AD), epitestosterone (Epi) and testosterone (T) in plasma was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The average concentration of DHA in the blood of cows was 650±71 pg/ml, that of AD 77±8 pg/ml to 122±29 pg/ml (x-bar ± SD). The concentration of Epi and T was from 160 to 243 pg/ml and from 46 to 96 pg/ml plasma. For the pregnancy diagnosis in sows blood and faeces were collected of 6 non-pregnant and 30 pregnant animals day 16 to 30 after mating. In faeces the concentration of oestrogens was determined by means of RIA, in blood that of oestrone sulphate and P4 by EIA on micro titre plates. During the whole period of examination the concentration of P4 remained fairly constant. From day 17 to 23 after mating the concentration in non-pregnant was significantly lower than in pregnant sows. In the blood of non-pregnant sows the oestrone sulphate concentration was 1,3±1,2 ng/ml (x-bar ± SD). Day 24 to 30: >x-bar ± 2SD in pregnant animals. Day 25 and 29 of pregnancy the concentration of oestrogens in faeces was: >x-bar ± 2SD = 20,6 ng/g faeces. Pregnancy diagnosis: 21 non-pregnant cows and heifers, 6 bulls and 83 pregnant cows were examined (10th to 35th week of pregnancy). Faeces samples from 21 non-pregnant mares, 6 stallions and 57 pregnant mares (10th to 35th week) and 18 samples from 3 mares at parturition. 18th week of pregnancy the concentration of oestrogens in faeces of cows and mares was: (>x-bar ± 3SD) in non-pregnant animals; (cows: 21,6 ng/g, mares: 14,3 ng/g ) after parturition. 17 refs. (Author)

  7. The Design and Development of the Precision Planter Sowing Depth Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping WEN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In view the accuracy requirements of sowing depth control for precision planter, we carried out the design and development of control system. This paper main includes the working principle of the control system, the hardware and software design of electro-hydraulic proportional control system. It also respectively explains the software programming of PLC, the software programming of touch screen. Practical application shows that this system has advantages of stable operation, high reliability, convenient operation and maintenance, with high promotion and use value.

  8. Meat production in sheep hybrids in agro-ecological feeding and growing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sauer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research points out the effect of feeding young hybrid sheep (Black-faced German x Ţurcană in the conditions of permanent hill grasslands with two technological systems of improving grasslands: the conventional chemical (NPK fertilisation system and the agro-ecological organic fertilisation (sheep folding and over-sowing system. Studies show that the changes in the floristic structure of the grasslands have influenced both fodder yield and quality and meat production and quality. Meat production depending on experimental factors ranged between 189 and 393 kg/ha in the grasslands improved conventionally and between 191 and 461 kg/ha in the grasslands fertilised organically.

  9. Supplementation of the sow diet with chitosan oligosaccharide during late gestation and lactation affects hepatic gluconeogenesis of suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chunyan; Guo, Xiaoyun; Long, Cimin; Fan, Zhiyong; Xiao, Dingfu; Ruan, Zheng; Deng, Ze-yuan; Wu, Xin; Yin, Yulong

    2015-08-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) has a blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic rats and is widely used as a dietary supplement. However, the effect of COS on the offspring of supplemented mothers is unknown. This experiment investigates the effect of supplementing sows during gestation and lactation on the levels of plasma glucose on suckling piglets. From day 85 of gestation to day 14 of lactation, 40 pregnant sows were divided into two treatment groups and fed either a control diet or a control diet containing 30mgCOS/kg. One 14 day old piglet per pen was selected to collect plasma and tissue (8pens/diet). Performance, hepatic gluconeogenesis genes and proteins expression, amino acids contents in sow milk, hepatic glycogen and free fatty acid were determined. Results showed that supplementation of the maternal diet with COS improved daily gain and weaning weight (Pgluconeogenesis and improved the growth rate of suckling piglets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A sow replacement model using Bayesian updating in a three-level hierarchic Markov process. II. Optimization model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard; Søllested, Thomas Algot

    2004-01-01

    improvements. The biological model of the replacement model is described in a previous paper and in this paper the optimization model is described. The model is developed as a prototype for use under practical conditions. The application of the model is demonstrated using data from two commercial Danish sow......Recent methodological improvements in replacement models comprising multi-level hierarchical Markov processes and Bayesian updating have hardly been implemented in any replacement model and the aim of this study is to present a sow replacement model that really uses these methodological...... herds. It is concluded that the Bayesian updating technique and the hierarchical structure decrease the size of the state space dramatically. Since parameter estimates vary considerably among herds it is concluded that decision support concerning sow replacement only makes sense with parameters...

  11. Modulating the phenology and yield of camelina sativa L. by varying sowing dates under water deficit stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejaz Ahmad Waraich

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Camelina (Camelina sativa L. an oilseed crop has emerged as a potential source for biofuels and bio-products. Camelina is an economic crop due to its less requirements of agronomic inputs as compared to other oilseed crops. However, it is direly required to evaluate the adaptability of camelina and characterize its production potential. Therefore, a pot experiment was carried out in rain out shelter at the Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan to optimize appropriate sowing date with respect to growth and yield potential of different genotypes of camelina under drought stress. Completely randomized design with factorial arrangements was adopted. Three sowing dates with the difference of 10 days (November 13 th, 23rd and December 03rd, two water regimes (100% FC and 60% FC and two camlena genotypes (611 and 618 were used in this experiment. Results indicated that camelina growth and yield related traits were significantly influenced by difference in sowing dates and water regimes. Maximum leaf area index (LAI, crop growth rate (CGR, leaf area duration (LAD, net assimilation rate (NAR and yield related traits were recorded with early sowing (13th November which was followed by sowing on 23rd November and least values of these variables were recorded in late sowing (December 03rd. Plants grown under water deficit conditions (60% FC showed the decreased values of LAI, CGR, LAD, NAR and yield related attributes as compared to normally irrigated plants (100% FC. However, the response of genotypes of camelina 611 and 618 remained statistically similar to each other.

  12. Characterization of plasma metabolites at late gestation and lactation in early parity sows on production and post-weaning reproductive performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lactation is a very energy demanding period for sows. The current study provides a better understanding of the biochemical response of first- (n = 246) or second-parity (n = 127) sows during late gestation through lactation and assesses relationships with piglet production and dam reproductive perfo...

  13. Comparison of lateral flow assay, kidney inhibition swab, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of penicillin G residues in sow urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sows (n=126) were administered penicillin G procaine at 5x the label dose for 3 consecutive days. Eighteen sows were slaughtered on each withdrawal days, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 32, or 39 d after treatment. Urine samples were collected at slaughter and were frozen at -80 °C until screening as positive ...

  14. Application of kidney inhibition swab tests to evaluate penicillin-G residues in sow tissues and body fluids following intramuscular injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney inhibition swab (KIS) tests, recently adapted by the US FSIS for antibiotics on-site screening, were employed to evaluate the depletion of penicillin-G residues from kidney, liver, muscle, serum, and urine of sows after intramuscular (IM) penicillin-G procaine administration. Sows (n=130; 22...

  15. The absorption of lactic acid is more synchronized with the absorption of glucose than with the absorption of short-chain fatty acids - A study with sows fed diets varying in dietary fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serena, Anja; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Jørgensen, Henry

    2007-01-01

    Sows were fed one of three diets varying in level and type of dietary fibre (DF). A low DF diet (LF; 17% DF) based on wheat and barley and two generic high DF diets (HF1, high in soluble DF and HF2, high in insoluble DF; approx. 41% DF) where the cereals were substituted with co-products (sugar....../d of the three experimental diets in a repeated 3 × 3 crossover design. Blood samples were collected the last day in each period at - 120, - 60, 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 and then at 60-min intervals up to 600 min after feeding. Although lactic acid (LA) is formed by microbial fermentation, the absorption...

  16. The Impact of Sowing Technology on Ponderal Features of Winter Wheat Seeds in Timişoara

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Dragoş; Paul Pîrşan

    2011-01-01

    Wheat is a grass, originally from the Fertile Crescent region of the Near East, but now cultivated worldwide. The paper presents the results obtained in the last two years of experience, about the influence of sowing technology on the ponderal features of the winter wheat seeds. The experimental parcels were laid down in a randomized complete block design with three replications in the pedo-climatic conditions of Timişoara. The purpose of the research is to determine the influence of some sow...

  17. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health. http://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/breastfeeding-guide. Accessed March 11, 2015. Shelov SP, et al. Feeding your ...

  18. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  19. [Temporal and spatial variation of the optimal sowing dates of summer maize based on both statistical and processes models in Henan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mei-xiu; Wang, Jing; Yu, Wei-dong; He, Di; Wang, Na; Dai, Tong; Sun, Yan; Tang, Jian-zhao; Chang, Qing

    2015-12-01

    Sowing date is one of the vital factors for determining crop yield. In this study, temporal and spatial variation of optimal sowing date of summer maize was analyzed by statistical model and the APSIM-Maize model in Henan Province, China. The results showed that average summer maize optimal sowing dates ranged from May 30 to June 13 across Henan Province with earlier sowing before June 8 in the southern part and later sowing from June 4 to June 13 in the northern part. The optimal sowing date in mountain area of western Henan Province should be around May 30. Late-maturing variety Nongda 108 should be planted at least two days earlier than middle-maturing variety Danyu 13. Under climate warming background, maize sowing should be postponed for at least 3 days if maize harvesting date could be delayed for a week. It was proposed that sowing should be delayed for about a week for a yearly less precipitation pattern while advanced for about a week for a yearly more precipitation pattern compared to the normal one. Across Henan Province, the optimal sowing dates of summer maize showed no significant change trend in 1971-2010, while the potential sowing period had been extended for some regions, such as south from Zhumadian, Yichuan, Nei-xiang and Nanyang in the middle part of Henan, Linzhou in the northern Henan and Sanmenxia in the western Henan, as a result from advanced maturity of winter wheat due to increasing temperature and winter wheat cultivar change. Optimal sowing dates at 76.7% of the study stations showed no significant difference between the two methods. It was recommended that the northern Henan should sow maize immediately after any rainfall and replant afterward, while the southern Henan should not sow maize until that there were valid precipitation (3.9 mm and 8.3 mm for upper south and south parts, respectively) during sowing period, both required enough precipitation during key water requirement period and optimal temperature during grain

  20. Temperature and sowing date affect the linear increase of sunflower harvest index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bange, M.P.; Hammer, G.L.; Rickert, K.G.

    1998-01-01

    The linearity of daily linear harvest index (HI) increase can provide a simple means to predict grain growth and yield in field crops. However, the stability of the rate of increase across genotypes and environments is uncertain. Data from three field experiments were collated to investigate the phase of linear HI increase of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) across environments by changing genotypes, sowing time, N level, and solar irradiation level. Linear increase in HI was similar among different genotypes, N levels, and radiation treatments (mean 0.0125 d-1), but significant differences occurred between sowings. The linear increase in HI was not stable at very low temperatures (down to 9 degrees C) during grain filling, due to possible limitations to biomass accumulation and translocation (mean 0.0091 d-1). Using the linear increase in HI to predict grain yield requires predictions of the duration from an thesis to the onset of linear HI increase (lag phase) and the cessation of linear HI increase. These studies showed that the lag phase differed, and the linear HI increase ceased when 91% of the anthesis to physiological maturity period had been completed

  1. Seletividade de herbicidas para cebola em semeadura direta Selectivity of herbicides for onions in direct sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino R. Ferreira

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available As plantas de cebola provenientes da semeadura direta, têm-se mostrado muito sensíveis aos herbicidas recomendados para a cultura transplantada, principalmente aqueles com ação sobre plantas daninhas dicotiledôneas. Os efeitos do fracionamento da dose dos herbicidas oxyfluorfen, ioxynil-octanoato, fluazifop-p-butil e sethoxydim foram avaliados em dois cultivares (Granex Ouro e Granex 33, no sistema de semeadura direta. A tolerância dos dois cultivares ao oxyfluorfen e ao ioxynil-octanoato aumentou com a idade das plantas e com o parcelamento das doses, aplicando-se doses menores no estádio de duas folhas. Sethoxydim e fluazifop-p-butil foram seletivos para a cultura, independente da dose inicial aplicada e do cultivar avaliado.The plants of onions, from direct sowing, have shown to be quite sensitive toward herbicides recommended for transplanted culture, especially those acting on dycotiledoneous weeds. The effects of dose fractionating of herbicides oxyfluorfen, ioxynil-octanoato, fluazifop-p-butil and sethoxydim were evaluated in two cultivars (Granex Ouro and Granex 33, in the direct sowing system. The tolerance of the two cultivars toward oxyfluorfen and ioxynyl-octanoato increased with the plants age and with the parceling of the doses, applying smaller doses in the two leaves stage. Sethoxydim and fluazifop-p-butyl were selective for the culture, regardless of the applied initial doses and the evaluated cultivar.

  2. Genetic Parameters for Reproduction Traits of Prolificacy and Conventional Purebred Sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitomir Vidović

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Research was performed on four farms were included in 1567 a highly fertile females Landrace and Yorkshire, and 24 boars of Danish origin, or 5294 consecutive parities, and in period 2009 - 2011 year. Studies of evaluations genetic parameters conventional breeds Landrace and Yorkshire were included in 2987 female mating with 46 male or 11 674 litters in the same period. Evaluated genetic parameters for litter size traits show the same tendency as the legality of the pure breed sows that produce 11-14 piglets weaned less per sow per year. Environmental factors, HYS, food technology and management showed no significant effect on the traits. Heritability and repeatability of live and still born piglets, litter size and the fifth days after birth and the number of piglets weaned in category of low hereditary traits whose values vary within the limits of 0.08 to 0.11 for the heritability and from 0.14 to 0.18 for the repeatability. There was tendency to lower values of genetic parameters in the conventional compared to highly fertile cows, which is considered the effect of selection on gene frequency for the observed properties.

  3. Potassium fertilization and sowing seasons on protein yield in soybean cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. de Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study was conducted in order to determine the effects of potassium (K fertilizer doses on the protein yield of different soybean cultivars, sown in two seasons, in the agricultural year 2013/14 (12/05/13 and 01/23/14, in Palmas-TO, Brazil. The experimental design, in each sowing season, was randomized blocks with 60 treatments and three replicates. The treatments were arranged in a 10 × 6 factorial scheme, represented by ten cultivars (BRS 325RR, M 9144RR, BRS 33871RR, TMG 1288RR, BRS 333RR, P 98Y70RR, TMG 1180RR, BRS 9090RR, M 8766RR and BRS 8990RR and six doses of K fertilizer (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 kg ha-1 K2O. The late sowing decreased the protein yield. K fertilization increased the protein yield in soybean cultivars. The BRS 9090RR, BRS 33871RR and BRS 333RR cultivars, at high and low K doses, were the most promising for the protein yield, and their cultivation is strategic from the economic and environmental point of view.

  4. Molecular and antimicrobial susceptibility characterization of Globicatella sulfidifaciens isolated from sow's urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matajira, Carlos E C; Moreno, Luisa Z; Gomes, Vasco T M; Silva, Ana Paula S; Mesquita, Renan E; Amigo, Cristina R; Christ, Ana Paula G; Sato, Maria Inês Z; Moreno, Andrea M

    2017-12-01

    The Globicatella genus comprises Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic, α-hemolytic and catalase negative cocci morphologically and phenotypically very similar to Streptococcus and Aerococcus genus which can lead to misidentification and underestimation of this pathogen. Globicatella species have already been isolated from human and animals with heart and brain disorders. Their clinical relevance in animals, and its zoonotic potential, remains unknown due to the difficulty in their identification. To present the isolation, phenotypic and molecular characterization of G. sulfidifaciens from urinary tract infection in sows. Urine samples from 140 sows of two swine herds located in São Paulo State (Brazil) yielded the isolation of three presumptive G. sulfidifaciens strains. Identification and species confirmation were done by MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA sequencing. Strains were further characterized by single enzyme amplified fragments length polymorphism (SE-AFLP) and broth microdilution techniques. All three isolates were confirmed as G. sulfidifaciens. The SE-AFLP genotyping resulted in distinct fingerprint patterns for each strain. All isolates presented high MIC values to tetracycline, sulphonamides, aminoglycosides and tylosin tartrate, which present high usage in human and animal medicine. Globicatella sulfidifaciens could be related to sporadic urinary tract infections in swine and appear to present alarming antimicrobial susceptibility profile. It is necessary to differentiate Streptococcus-like microorganisms in routine laboratory diagnostics for the correct identification of underestimated species potentially pathogenic to animals.

  5. Effects of the sowing density on he yield and the number of seeds in seed maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovin Predrag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher sowing densities (57,100, 71,400 and 85,500 plants ha-1 of the female component did not significantly affect the yield increase in the hybrid ZP 196 (4.56,4.61 and 4.701 ha-1 under natural conditions of cultivation, but they significantly affected the increase of the number of germinated seeds (21,272,000, 23,893,000 and 24,226,000 ha-1. In the seed production under irrigation conditions of the hybrid ZP 677, greater densities (71,400, 85,500 and 99,900 plants ha-1 did not significantly affect the increase of neither the yield (3.39,3.44 and 3.60 tha-1 nor the number of geminated seeds (11,238,000,11,651,000 and 12,427,000 ha-1. On the other hand, higher sowing densities (71,400,85,500 and 99,900 plants ha-1 of the female component significantly increased both, the yield (4.01, 4.38 and 4.40 t ha-1 and the number of germinated seeds (13,122,000,15,022,000 and 15,560,000 ha-1 in the hybrid ZP 680 under irrigation conditions.

  6. Relationships between residual feed intake, average daily gain, and feeding behavior in growing dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, T C; Jago, J G; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C

    2013-05-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of an individual's efficiency in utilizing feed for maintenance and production during growth or lactation, and is defined as the difference between the actual and predicted feed intake of that individual. The objective of this study was to relate RFI to feeding behavior and to identify behavioral differences between animals with divergent RFI. The intakes and body weight (BW) of 1,049 growing dairy heifers (aged 5-9 mo; 195 ± 25.8 kg of BW) in 5 cohorts were measured for 42 to 49 d to ascertain individual RFI. Animals were housed in an outdoor feeding facility comprising 28 pens, each with 8 animals and 1 feeder per pen, and were fed a dried, cubed alfalfa diet. This forage diet was chosen because most dairy cows in New Zealand are grazed on ryegrass-dominant pastures, without grain or concentrates. An electronic feed monitoring system measured the intake and feeding behavior of individuals. Feeding behavior was summarized as daily intake, daily feeding duration, meal frequency, feeding rate, meal size, meal duration, and temporal feeding patterns. The RFI was moderately to strongly correlated with intake in all cohorts (r=0.54-0.74), indicating that efficient animals ate less than inefficient animals, but relationships with feeding behavior traits (meal frequency, feeding duration, and feeding rate) were weak (r=0.14-0.26), indicating that feeding behavior cannot reliably predict RFI in growing dairy heifers. Comparison of the extremes of RFI (10% most and 10% least efficient) demonstrated similar BW and average daily gain for both groups, but efficient animals ate less; had fewer, longer meals; shorter daily feeding duration; and ate more slowly than the least-efficient animals. These groups also differed in their feeding patterns over 24h, with the most efficient animals eating less and having fewer meals during daylight (0600 to 2100 h), especially during the afternoon (1200 to 1800 h), but ate for a longer time during

  7. Effects of sowing methods and potassium application on the performance of two Alfalfa cultivars (Medicago sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhag, B.B.M.

    2007-03-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the Demonstration Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic University of Omdurman during the period from december 2004 to may 2006 to evaluate the effects of three sowing methods (sowing on flat, ridges and mustaba) and the tow levels of potassium fertilizer, (0 k 0 and 50 kg/ha k 1 ) on the performance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). This was carried out using tow cultivars, Hegazi (local) and Alfanafa (introduced). A randomized complete block design with four applications in factorial experiment was used to layout the work field. Sowing was done in the last week of december 2004 at a seed rate of 20 kg/ha by broadcasting the seeds on flat, ridge and mustaba. The first irrigation was applied immediately and the second was done five days after sowing. Subsequent irrigations were performed at an interval of seven days between irrigations during summer and ten days during winter, depending on the weather conditions. A seedling emergence was observed 3 to 5 days after sowing. Weeding was done manually when necessary. The first cut was done 70 days after sowing, when 50% of the plants were in the bloom stage, and the subsequent ones were done monthly, using a sickle, just a above the soil surface. A After the last cut (in Feb 2006), when environmental conditions were favorable, the plants were left were for seed yield which was harvested in April, 2006. Data were collected on plant height, plant population, leaf area index, leaf to stem ratio, fresh weight, dry weight, potassium content in plant, seed-yield and its components. The results revealed that there were significant differences between cultivars, sowing methods, potassium application and all possible interactions between the different treatments for all parameters except number of pods/raceme and total seed-weight in all treatments, leaf to stem ratio, leaf area index, number of racemes/plant, number of seeds/pod and 1000-seed weight in sowing methods and potassium

  8. The effect of sowing date and plant density on yield and yield components of safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L. in Rokh plateau .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyd fazel fazeli kakhaki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of sowing date and plant density on yield and yield components of safflower ( Carthamus tinctorious as well as evaluating the possibility of the second sowing of the plant in Torbat Heidariyeh , a field experiment was conducted in Rokh, Cold Season Cereal Research Station 2005 . The experiment was conducted in split plot arrangement in complete randomized block design with four replications . Main plots were sowing date in five levels including 9 April, 10 May, 31 May, 20 June, 11 July and sub plots were plant density in three levels including 300000, 400000, 500000 plants per hectar. Some charactristics such as the number of capitulum per square meter, seed number in capitulum, seed weight, harvest index and seed yeild was evaluated.The highest seed yield was obtained in first sowing date in 3347 kg/ha and a delay in sowing date resulted a decrease in yield. The cold weather in (05/11/2005 caused flower fertility not accured, consequently, sowing was not successful . Results showed that the effect of sowing date on yield depends on the number of capitulum per unit area and the number of grains per capitulum. These two characteristics in th first sowing date in respect of the other dates were higher. The effect of density on yield was significant resulted on yield increase due to capitulum increase in unit area. As a result, the first sowing date with the highest density is recommended. However, The third and fourth sowing date can be considered as the second planting in a sequeational cropping system .

  9. Projected Crop Production under Regional Climate Change Using Scenario Data and Modeling: Sensitivity to Chosen Sowing Date and Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulin Tao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A sensitivity analysis of the responses of crops to the chosen production adaptation options under regional climate change was conducted in this study. Projections of winter wheat production for different sowing dates and cultivars were estimated for a major economic and agricultural province of China from 2021 to 2080 using the World Food Study model (WOFOST under representative concentration pathways (RCPs scenarios. A modeling chain was established and a correction method was proposed to reduce the bias of the resulting model-simulated climate data. The results indicated that adjusting the sowing dates and cultivars could mitigate the influences of climate change on winter wheat production in Jinagsu. The yield gains were projected from the chosen sowing date and cultivar. The following actions are recommended to ensure high and stable yields under future climate changes: (i advance the latest sowing date in some areas of northern Jiangsu; and (ii use heat-tolerant or heat-tolerant and drought-resistant varieties in most areas of Jiangsu rather than the currently used cultivar. Fewer of the common negative effects of using a single climate model occurred when using the sensitivity analysis because our bias correction method was effective for scenario data and because the WOFOST performed well for Jiangsu after calibration.

  10. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT MULCH MATERIALS AND SHELTER, IN THE ESTABLISHMENT OF PLANTS OF Pinus taeda L., BY DIRECT SOWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Ricardo Serpa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has had as its objectives to evaluate different covering materials and physical protector's use in the forest population of Pinus taeda L. in direct sowing in the field. Three materials were used: vermiculit, dried and pricked pine needles, peel of rice and reference without covering, with and without physical protector (plastic cup of 300 ml, without botton, with five replications. The sowing was accomplished in the first half of May of 1997, being used three seeds per point. The evaluations done were: emergency at the 60 and 90 days, survival at the 120, 180 and 210 days and population density at the 210 days after sowing. The variance and averages analysis (Duncan 5%, has allowed to conclude that: the vermiculit and pine needles affected beneficially the number of plants emerged in the first 60 days, that is the most critical phase for the future of the forest population of Pinus taeda; the physical protector, provides the formation of a microenvironment, that guarantees larger percentage in the emergence, survival and initial density of plants of Pinus taeda; the direct sowing demonstrated to be a viable technique.

  11. Climate change impacts on crop yields, land use and environment in response to crop sowing dates and thermal time requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, Andrea; Webber, Heidi; Zhao, Gang; Ewert, Frank; Kros, Hans; Wolf, Joost; Britz, Wolfgang; Vries, de Wim

    2017-01-01

    Impacts of climate change on European agricultural production, land use and the environment depend on its impact on crop yields. However, many impact studies assume that crop management remains unchanged in future scenarios, while farmers may adapt their sowing dates and cultivar thermal time

  12. Effect of pre-sowing laser biostimulation of seeds on physico-chemical properties of glasshouse tomato fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koper, R.; Rybak, P.

    2000-01-01

    Paper presented results of study on the effect of pre-sowing laser biostimulation of glasshouse tomato seeds, Recento cultivar, on physico-chemical properties of yielded fruits. Tomato fruit resistance to elastic strains was tested in laboratory as well as the extract content and total acidity of fruits were analysed. Positive influence of laser treatment on tested tomato fruit properties was noted

  13. Analysis of self-fertilization and meiotic behavior of eleven Brazilian triticale cultivars at two sowing dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divanilde Guerra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven Brazilian hexaploid triticale cultivars (2n = 6x = 42, from three breeding programs, were evaluated for theirability of self-fertilization in 2006 and for meiotic behavior, meiotic index and pollen viability at two sowing dates in 2007. Highpotential of self-fertilization was observed, with values up to 89.52 %. Many irregularities were found in the meiotic analysis, suchas the presence of univalents, laggard chromosomes and micronuclei in tetrads, which compromised both meiotic behavior andmeiotic index. At the first sowing date, more suitable for normal plant development, overall mean values of 52.68 % for normal cellsand 64.95 % for meiotic index were observed. At the second sowing date, less appropriate for the crop, overall means of 52.23 %for normal cells and 58.24 % for meiotic index were obtained. Despite all the irregularities, considerable pollen viability wasobserved, reaching overall means of 92.08 % and 91.07 % for the first and second sowing dates, respectively.

  14. GENOMICS SYMPOSIUM: Using genomic approaches to uncover sources of variation in age at puberty and reproductive longevity in sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variants associated with traits such as age at puberty and litter size could provide insight into the underlying genetic sources of variation impacting sow reproductive longevity and productivity. Genomewide characterization and gene expression profiling were used using gilts from the Univer...

  15. Determination of penicillin-G procaine in kidney, muscle, serum, and urine of heavy sows after intramuscular administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) recently adapted the use of the Charm Kidney Inhibition Swab (KIS) test for screening antibiotics on-site, along with a LC-MS/MS method for confirmation of KIS-positive samples. A study with 126 heavy sows (227.0 ...

  16. Effects of nutrient supply, plasma metabolites, and nutritional status of sows during transition on performance in the next lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A V; Lauridsen, C; Sørensen, M T

    2012-01-01

    gestation diets containing a different quantity of dietary fiber (171 to 404 g/kg of DM) from mating until d 108 of gestation. From d 108 of gestation until weaning (d 28 of lactation), sows were fed 1 of 5 lactation diets with a different quantity of dietary fat [3 or 8% with different proportions...

  17. Immune Response of Multiparous Hyper-Immunized Sows against Peptides from Non-Structural and Structural Proteins of PRRSV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Rascón-Castelo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the humoral and cellular responses of commercial multiparous and hyper-immunized sows against peptides from non-structural (nsp and structural proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. We selected sows with different numbers of parities from a commercial farm. Management practices on this farm include the use of the MLV commercial vaccine four times per year, plus two vaccinations during the acclimation period. The humoral response was evaluated via the antibody recognition of peptides from nsp and structural proteins, and the cellular response was assessed by measuring the frequency of peptide and PRRSV-specific IFN-gamma-secreting cells (IFNγ-SC. Our results show that sows with six parities have more antibodies against peptides from structural proteins than against peptides from nsp. The analysis of the cellular response revealed that the number of immunizations did not affect the frequency of IFNγ-SC and that the response was stronger against peptides from structural proteins (M protein than against nsp (nsp2. In summary, these results demonstrate that multiparous, hyper-immunized sows have a stronger immune humoral response to PRRSV structural peptides than nsp, but no differences in IFNγ-SC against the same peptides were observed.

  18. The effect of oral immunization on the population of lymphocytes migrating to the mammary gland of the sow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, J.E. van; Kortbeek-Jacobs, J.M.C.; Kooten, P.J.S. van; Donk, J.A. van der; Rutten, V.P.M.G.

    1984-01-01

    Sows were immunized orally with live Escherichia coli according to various immunization schedules. Six pregnant gilts were used; 4 immunized at various intervals during the last month of gestation, 1 control immunized after parturition following suppression of lactation by weaning and 1

  19. First molecular identification and phylogeny of a Babesia sp. from a symptomatic sow (Sus scrofa Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobba, Rosanna; Parpaglia, Maria Luisa Pinna; Spezzigu, Antonio; Pittau, Marco; Alberti, Alberto

    2011-06-01

    Porcine babesiosis is a widespread yet overlooked disease causing economic losses in many regions of the world. To date, the etiological agent of porcine babesiosis has not been molecularly characterized. Here, we provide the first molecular characterization of a piroplasm detected in a symptomatic sow, phylogenetically closely related to the Ungulibabesids. Results pave the way for future molecular epidemiology studies.

  20. The microbial community of the gut differs between piglets fed sow milk, milk replacer or bovine colostrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Ann-Sofie Riis; de Jonge, Nadieh; Sugiharto, Sugiharto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the gut microbiota composition of piglets fed bovine colostrum (BC), milk replacer (MR) or sow milk (SM) in the post-weaning period. Piglets (n 36), 23-d old, were randomly allocated to the three diets. Faecal samples were collected at 23, 25, 27 and 30 d...

  1. Biogas feed analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Biogas production is regarded as the best energy recovery process from wet organic solid wastes (WOSW). Feed composition, storage conditions and time will influence the compositions of feed to biogas processes. In this study, apple juice from Meierienes Juice factory was used as the model substrates to mimic the liquid phase that can be extracted from fruit or juice industry WOSW. A series of batch experiments were carried out with different initial feed concentrations (0, 1, 2, 5, 10 %) of a...

  2. Breastfeeding is best feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, W

    1995-02-01

    The traditional practice of breast feeding is the best means to make sure infants grow up healthy. It costs nothing. Breast milk contains antibodies and other substances which defend against disease, especially those linked to poor food hygiene and inadequate water and sanitation. In developing countries, breast fed infants are at least 14 times less likely to die from diarrhea than those who are not breast fed. Urbanization and promotion of infant formula undermine breast feeding. Even though infants up to age 4-6 months should receive only breast milk to remain as healthy as possible, infants aged less than 4-6 months often receive other milks or gruels. Attendance of health workers at delivery and their contact with mother-infant pairs after delivery are ideal opportunities to encourage mothers to breast feed. In fact, if health workers provide mothers skilled support with breast feeding, mothers are more likely to breast feed well and for a longer time. Health workers need counseling skills and firm knowledge of techniques on breast feeding and of how to master common difficulties to help mothers with breast feeding. Listening skills and confidence building skills are also needed. Good family and work place support allows women in paid employment outside the home to continue breast feeding. Breast feeding is very important in emergency situations where access to water, sanitation, food, and health care is limited (e.g., refugee camps). In these situations, health workers should especially be aware of women's ability to breast feed and to support their breast feeding. HIV can be transmitted to nursing infants from HIV infected mothers. Yet one must balance this small risk against the possibility of contracting other serious infections (e.g., diarrhea) through alternative infant feeding, particularly if there is no access to potable water and sanitation.

  3. NUCLEOTIDES IN INFANT FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Mamonova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the application of nucleotides-metabolites, playing a key role in many biological processes, for the infant feeding. The researcher provides the date on the nucleotides in the women's milk according to the lactation stages. She also analyzes the foreign experience in feeding newborns with nucleotides-containing milk formulas. The article gives a comparison of nucleotides in the adapted formulas represented in the domestic market of the given products.Key words: children, feeding, nucleotides.

  4. Investigating water productivity and economic efficiency of wheat-crop under different sowing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirani, A.A.; Dahri, Z.H.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted at PARC's research station Kala Shah Kaku, Lahore, in order to calculate the water productivity and economic efficiency of wheat-crop under different sowing methods in a combined harvested paddy filed. The sowing methods were direct drilling with FMI Seeder, Zero tillage and conventional method. Data were collected during 2008-09. Wheat-yield was 2750 kg/ha, 2665 kg/ha and 2610 kg/ha for direct drilling with F MI Seeder, Zero tillage and conventional method, respectively. The direct drilling in heavy residue gave 5.4 % more yield than the conventional method and 3.2 % more yield than zero tillage. The zero tillage ensured 2.1% more yield than the conventional method. The net water applied as 323, 354, and 380 mm for direct drilling with FMI seeder, zero tillage and conventional methods respectively against the potential crop evapotranspiration of 383 mm. This indicates that the direct drilling of wheat-crop in heave rice stubbles saves 15% irrigation water as compared to conventional method and 8.8% over zero tillage. The zero tillage method saves 6.8 % of irrigation water over the conventional method. The water productivity was found to be 0.851 kg/m3. 0.753 kg/m/sup 3/ and 0.687 kg/m/sup 3/ for direct drilling with FMI Seeder, Zero tillage and conventional method respectively. This indicates that the direct drilling ensures 23.9% increase in water productivity over conventional method and 13.01% over zero tillage. The zero tillage gave 9.6% more water productivity than the conventional method. The costs of production for the three sowing methods were Rs. 39123/ha, Rs.43737/ha and Rs. 53047/ha for direct drilling, zero tillage and conventional method respectively. This indicates an overall saving of Rs. 13924/ha (26.2 %) by the direct drilling method as compared to the conventional method and Rs. 4613/ha (10.5%) over zero tillage method. The zero tillage saves Rs. 9319/ha (17.6 %) over the conventional method. Thus, the resource

  5. Infectious waste feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  6. [Flag leaf photosynthetic characteristics, change in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and their relationships with yield of winter wheat sowed in spring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lan; Gao, Zhi-qang; An, Wei; Li, Yan-liang; Jiao, Xiong-fei; Wang, Chuang-yun

    2016-01-01

    With five good winter wheat cultivars selected from the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River and Southwest China as test materials, a field experiment in Xinding basin area of Shanxi Province was conducted to study the photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of flag leaf at different sowing dates, as well as the correlations between these indices and yield for two years (2013-2014). The results showed that the difference in most fluorescence parameters except chlorophyll content among cultivars was significant. The correlations between these fluorescence parameters and yield were significant. The variation coefficient of chlorophyll (Chl) content was low (0.12-0.17), and that of performance index based on absorption (PIabs) was high (0.32-0.39), with the partial correlation coefficients of them with grain yield from 2013 to 2014 ranged in 0.70-0.81. Under the early sowing condition, the grain yield positively correlated with PIabs at flowering and filling stages and chlorophyll content at grain filling stage, but negatively correlated with the relative variable fluorescence at I point (Vi) at grain filling stage. About 81.1%-82.8% of grain yield were determined by the variations of PIabs, Chl, and Vi. Wheat cultivars had various performances in the treatments with different sowing dates and a consistent trend was observed in the two experimental years. Among these 5 cultivars, Yangmai 13 was suitable for early sowing, with the flag leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn), Chl, most fluorescence parame-ters, and grain yield showed obviously high levels. In conclusion, under early sowing condition chlorophyll content at grain filling stages, PIabs at flowering and filling stages, and Pn were important indices for selecting wheat cultivars with high photosynthetic efficiency.

  7. The effect of cultivar, sowing date and transplant location in field on bolting of Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yinxin; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Liu, Hanqiang; Wu, Cuinan; Khan, Abdul Rehman

    2013-10-07

    Bolting reduces the quality and commercial yield of Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) in production. However, seed production is directly dependent on flower induction and bolting. The Welsh onion belongs to the green plant vernalisation type, specific seedling characteristics and sufficient accumulated time at low temperature are indispensible for the completion of its vernalisation process. Only if these conditions for vernalisation are fulfilled, the plants will bolt in the following year. The present investigation evaluated the effects of cultivar, sowing date and transplant location in field on the bolting of Welsh onion at the Horticultural Farm of the College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shannxi Province, China in two succeeding production years: 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. A strip split plot layout within a randomised complete block design with three replications was used. The results revealed that all three factors (cultivar, sowing date and transplant location) and their interaction had significant effects on the initiation and final rate of bolting observed by 30 April. The earliest bolting date (14 February, 2011 and 15 February, 2012) and the highest bolting rate (100% in 2011 and 62% in 2012) occurred when the JinGuan cultivar was sown on 20 August and transplanted in a plastic tunnel, whereas the latest date and lowest rate (no bolting observed until 30 April) of bolting occurred when the XiaHei cultivar was sown on 29 September and transplanted in an open field. These results suggest that we can control bolting in Welsh onion production by choosing an appropriate cultivar, sowing date and transplant location. Choosing a late bolting cultivar, such as cultivar XiaHei, sowing around October, and transplanting in the open field can significantly delay bolting, while a sowing date in late August should be selected for seed production, and the seedlings should be transplanted in a plastic tunnel to accelerate development of the

  8. Effect of daily fluctuations in ambient temperature on reproductive failure traits of Landrace and Yorkshire sows under Thai tropical environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaichansukkit, Teerapong; Suwanasopee, Thanathip; Koonawootrittriron, Skorn; Tummaruk, Padet; Elzo, Mauricio A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of daily ranges and maximum ambient temperatures, and other risk factors on reproductive failure of Landrace (L) and Yorkshire (Y) sows under an open-house system in Thailand. Daily ambient temperatures were added to information on 35,579 litters from 5929 L sows and 1057 Y sows from three commercial herds. The average daily temperature ranges (ADT) and the average daily maximum temperatures (PEAK) in three gestation periods from the 35th day of gestation to parturition were classified. The considered reproductive failure traits were the occurrences of mummified fetuses (MM), stillborn piglets (STB), and piglet death losses (PDL) and an indicator trait for number of piglets born alive below the population mean (LBA). A multiple logistic regression model included farrowing herd-year-season (HYS), breed group of sow (BG), parity group (PAR), number of total piglets born (NTB), ADT1, ADT2, ADT3, PEAK1, PEAK2, and PEAK3 as fixed effects, while random effects were animal, repeated observations, and residual. Yorkshire sows had a higher occurrence of LBA than L sows (P = 0.01). The second to fifth parities sows had lower reproductive failures than other parities. The NTB regression coefficients of log-odds were positive (P reproductive failures, particularly late in gestation, producers would need to closely monitor their temperature management strategies.

  9. Sowing on the emergence and early development of seedlings o baru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Mario Zuffo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work to evaluate the influence of the position of baru seeds, the emergence and early seedling development. The test was conducted in a greenhouse experiment in randomized blocks, with five treatments (seeding position, with four replications, positions were: A - Hilo up, B - hilo down C - hilum and raphe aside, D - horizontal raphe up, E - horizontal raphe down. It was observed that the seeds deposited at the position B (heel down provided better emergence and seedling development. We evaluated the emergence, speed of emergence index, plant height, stem diameter, root length, dry mass of air, root dry weight, relative AP/DC, FSPA/FSR and Dickson quality index. The emergence and early seedling development baru were influenced by sowing position. The seeds deposited with the hilum down provided better results.

  10. Genetic association between leg conformation in young pigs and sow reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Thu Hong; Nilsson, Katja; Norberg, Elise

    2015-01-01

    Lameness is an issue of concern in pig production due both to animal welfare and to economical aspects. Lame sows are believed to suffer from pain and stress which is reported to have a negative influence on reproduction. Leg conformation and locomotion traits in young animals are associated...... with the risk of lameness at higher age. The purpose of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters of leg conformation traits recorded at performance testing (around 5 months of age) and their genetic correlations with reproduction traits. Information on leg conformation traits from 123,307 pigs scored...... and on reproduction traits from 22,204 litters in the first and second parity from Swedish Yorkshire nucleus herds were available for genetic analysis. Eight conformation and locomotion traits, coming from the old or the new scoring system in Sweden, included old movement, old overall leg score, new movement, new...

  11. Effects of irradiated sow colostrum on some biochemical and haematological measurements in newborn piglets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vellenga, L; Wensing, T; Breukink, H J; Hagens, F H

    1986-11-01

    Some biochemical and haematological variables were measured in piglets during the first 48 hours after birth. The piglets were reared either by the sow, or bottle-fed with colostrum (either natural or sterilised by irradiation), or a commercial milk replacer. Mean haemoglobin concentrations, packed cell volumes and erythrocyte counts decreased by approximately 45 per cent in all the groups between birth and 48 hours, but leucocyte counts increased more markedly in the colostrum-fed groups. All the colostrum-fed groups showed rapid increases in serum total protein concentrations which were almost entirely due to increases in gamma globulin concentrations. There was no difference in this respect between natural colostrum and colostrum sterilised by irradiation with 500 Krad of gamma rays. Colostrum sterilised by irradiation can protect piglets against infectious agents and simplify the rearing of piglets under specific pathogen free conditions.

  12. Study of Ecotype and Sowing Date Interaction in Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. using Different Univariate Stability Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ghanbari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cumin is one of the most important medicinal plants in Iran and today, it is in the second level of popularity between spices in the world after black pepper. Cumin is an aromatic plant used as flavoring and seasoning agent in foods. Cumin seeds have been found to possess significant biological and have been used for treatment of toothache, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, epilepsy and jaundice. Knowledge of GEI is advantageous to have a cultivar that gives consistently high yield in a broad range of environments and to increase efficiency of breeding program and selection of best genotypes. A genotype that has stable trait expression across environments contributes little to GEI and its performance should be more predictable from the main several statistical methods have been proposed for stability analysis, with the aim of explaining the information contained in the GEI. Regression technique was proposed by Finlay and Wilkinson (1963 and was improved by Eberhart and Russell (1966. Generally, genotype stability was estimated by the slope of and deviation from the regression line for each of the genotypes. This is a popular method in stability analysis and has been applied in many crops. Non-parametric methods (rank mean (R, standard deviation rank (SDR and yield index ratio (YIR, environmental variance (S2i and genotypic variation coefficient (CVi Wricke's ecovalence and Shukla's stability variance (Shukla, 1972 have been used to determine genotype-by-environment interaction in many studies. This study was aimed to evaluate the ecotype × sowing date interaction in cumin and to evaluation of genotypic response of cumin to different sowing dates using univariate stability parameters. Materials and Methods In order to study of ecotype × sowing date interaction, different cumin ecotypes: Semnan, Fars, Yazd, Golestan, Khorasan-Razavi, Khorasan-Shomali, Khorasan-Jonoubi, Isfahan and Kerman in 5 different sowing dates (26th December, 10th January

  13. Effects of environmental factors and sowing depth on seed germination in cleome gynandra L. (Capparaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowunmi, L. I.; Afolayan, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Cleome gynandra is a wild vegetable that is rich in nutrients especially vitamins, mineral elements and protein. It is consumed in most parts of South Africa as a vegetable. The leaves and seeds of this plant are used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of head and stomach aches. Despite its high dietary-medicinal value, the plant is still regarded as a weed in many Provinces of South Africa while the conditions necessary for its optimum growth in the wild are still obscure. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effect of various environmental factors and sowing depth on the germination of two types of seeds of C. gynandra in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The result shows that the average seed weight was 1.2 ± 0.003 mg and the viability of Lot A and B were 22.6 ± 2.3 percentage and 67.3 ± 5.0 percentage respectively. The optimum germination was achieved at 30 degree C for both Lots A and B when watered bi-weekly at a sowing depth of 0.5 cm. The result also showed that germination was best in the dark (28.7 percentage) for both Lot A and B. In overall, the germination rate under all the conditions was highest in Lot B. This study indicates that Cleome gynandra has the potential of thriving successfully under varied environmental conditions despite the great fluctuations of temperatures in South Africa during summer and winter respectively. (author)

  14. Integrated effect of crop sowing date and herbicide stress on fitness of Bromus diandrus Roth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, A.L.; Royo-Esnal, A.; Torra, J.; Recasens, J.

    2015-07-01

    Bromus diandrus Roth is a common weed species that has increased in no-tillage dry-land cereal fields in NE Spain because of the limited control options. The fitness response of plants with different emergence times (ETs) and its influence on demography has huge implications in weed management. With this subject, three ETs (F1, F2 and F3) of B. diandrus were established through three crop-sowing dates (D1, Oct.; D2, Nov.; D3, Dec.) for each of the three years in a barley-wheat-wheat rotation. In barley, the herbicides applied were not specific for B. diandrus, whereas in wheat the specific herbicide mesosulfuron-methyl plus iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium was applied. Plant density after treatments and fitness characteristics were estimated for each weed ET. Weed density decreased for later ETs and fitness was density-dependent, showing significantly higher values when a non-specific herbicide was applied, except in number of caryopses per spikelet. The increasing fitness shown by plants with later ETs and the linear relationships of vegetative biomass vs reproductive biomass and fecundity were disrupted by the herbicide mesosulfuron-methyl plus iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium. Plants that had survived this herbicide when wheat was growing had lower values for all the characteristics analysed. After three seasons, as a consequence of decreasing seed recruitment, a practical depletion of the B. diandrus population was achieved in F2 and F3 (<2.8 and <1 plants/m2, respectively) but not in F1 (60.5 plants/m2). This study shows the importance of delayed crop sowing to optimize the control of B. diandrus in cereal fields with no tillage. (Author)

  15. Influence of Sowing Times, Densities, and Soils to Biomass and Ethanol Yield of Sweet Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Dang Xuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of biofuels helps to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels and therefore decreases CO2 emission. Ethanol mixed with gasoline in mandatory percentages has been used in many countries. However, production of ethanol mainly depends on food crops, commonly associated with problems such as governmental policies and social controversies. Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench is one of the most potential and appropriate alternative crops for biofuel production because of its high biomass and sugar content, strong tolerance to environmental stress conditions and diseases, and wide adaptability to various soils and climates. The aim of this study was to select prospective varieties of sweet sorghum, optimum sowing times and densities to achieve high yields of ethanol production and to establish stable operational conditions in cultivating this crop. The summer-autumn cropping season combined with the sowing densities of 8.3–10.9 plant m−2 obtained the highest ethanol yield. Among cultivated locations, the soil with pH of 5.5 and contents of Al and Zn of 39.4 and 0.6 g kg−1, respectively, was the best condition to have an ethanol yield >5000 L ha−1. The pH ≥ 6.0 may be responsible for the significant reduction of zinc content in soils, which decreases both biomass of sweet sorghum and ethanol yield, while contents of N, P, K, organic carbon (OC and cation exchange capacity (CEC, and Fe likely play no role. The cultivar 4A was the preferred candidate for ethanol production and resistant to pests and diseases, especially cut worm (Agrotis spp..

  16. Efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer applied at corn sowing in contrasting growing seasons in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo Jorge Carneiro Amado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to select soil management practices that increase the nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE in agro-ecosystems, the different indices of agronomic fertilizer efficiency must be evaluated under varied weather conditions. This study assessed the NUE indices in no-till corn in southern Paraguay. Nitrogen fertilizer rates from 0 to 180 kg ha-1 were applied in a single application at corn sowing and the crop response investigated in two growing seasons (2010 and 2011. The experimental design was a randomized block with three replications. Based on the data of grain yield, dry matter, and N uptake, the following fertilizer indices were assessed: agronomic N-use efficiency (ANE, apparent N recovery efficiency (NRE, N physiological efficiency (NPE, partial factor productivity (PFP, and partial nutrient balance (PNB. The weather conditions varied largely during the experimental period; the rainfall distribution was favorable for crop growth in the first season and unfavorable in the second. The PFP and ANE indices, as expected, decreased with increasing N fertilizer rates. A general analysis of the N fertilizer indices in the first season showed that the maximum rate (180 kg ha-1 obtained the highest corn yield and also optimized the efficiency of NPE, NRE and ANE. In the second season, under water stress, the most efficient N fertilizer rate (60 kg ha-1 was three times lower than in the first season, indicating a strong influence of weather conditions on NUE. Considering that weather instability is typical for southern Paraguay, anticipated full N fertilization at corn sowing is not recommended due the temporal variability of the optimum N fertilizer rate needed to achieve high ANE.

  17. Epidemiological study of air filtration systems for preventing PRRSV infection in large sow herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carmen; Murtaugh, Michael P; Dee, Scott A; Davies, Peter R

    2013-10-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the most economically significant pathogen in the US swine industry. Aerosol transmission among herds is a major concern in pig dense regions and filtration of incoming air, in combination with standard biosecurity procedures, has been demonstrated to prevent transmission of PRRSV into susceptible herds. To quantify the impact of air filtration on reducing risk of PRRSV outbreaks, we compared the incidence rate of new PRRSV introductions in 20 filtered and 17 non-filtered control sow herds in a swine dense region of North America during a 7 year study period. Events of novel virus introduction were ascertained by phylogenetic analysis of PRRSV ORF5 gene sequences. Putative new viruses were defined as exogenous (introduced) based on ORF5 nucleotide sequence differences compared to previous farm isolates. The influence of sequence difference cut-off values ranging from 2 to 10% on case definition and relative risk were evaluated. Non-filtered farms incurred about 0.5 outbreaks per year, with a seasonal increase in risk in cooler periods. Baseline risk, prior to filtration, in treatment farms was approximately 0.75 per year, approximately 50% higher than in control farms. Air filtration significantly reduced risk of PRRSV introduction events to 0.06-0.22 outbreaks per year, depending on the cut-off values used to classify a virus isolate as new to the herd. Overall, air filtration led to an approximately 80% reduction in risk of introduction of novel PRRSV, indicating that on large sow farms with good biosecurity in swine-dense regions, approximately four-fifths of PRRSV outbreaks may be attributable to aerosol transmission. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Microenvironments in swine farrowing rooms: the thermal, lighting, and acoustic environments of sows and piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Munhoz Morello

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present research hypothesized that the thermal, lighting and acoustic environments in commercial swine farrowing rooms vary over time and from crate to crate. This study was conducted on 27 replicates in two commercial farrowing rooms in North Central Indiana, each equipped with 60 farrowing crates. Temperature, relative humidity, light intensity, sound intensity, and air velocity were continuously monitored and estimated for each crate at the sow level, for 48 h post-farrowing, which is usually a critical period for piglet survivability. Average daily temperature for all the crates in Room 1 was 24.1 ± 2.0 °C, 1.0 °C lower (p < 0.05 than in Room 2. Although the overall mean temperature was similar between rooms and seasons, frequency distribution diagrams revealed that the proportion of time spent within distinct limits of mean daily temperature ranged from 15.0 °C to 28.0 °C and varied substantially between rooms and seasons. Similar results were found for all variables measured in this study. Differences in temperature, relative humidity, light intensity, air velocity, and sound intensity in crates were as high as 9.6 °C, 57 %, 3,847.3 Lx, 0.87 m s–1, and 38.7 dBC, respectively, in the same farrowing room when measured at the same instant. The results of the present research indicate that aspects that go beyond the physical environment of the sows, such as thermal, lighting, and acoustic environment can vary substantially over time and between crates of automatically climate controlled farrowing rooms. These differences should be taken into consideration in production setting and research.

  19. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    . In February 2013, the co-authors discussed how information on DMI should be incorporated in the breeding decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the overall discussion and main positions taken by the group on four topics related to feed efficiency: i) breeding goal definition; ii) biological variation...

  20. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for your baby and how to make bottle-feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to ...

  1. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  2. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping a breastfeeding log Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  3. Conception Rate and Litter Size in Multiparous Sows after Intrauterine Insemination Using Frozen-Thawed Boar Semen in a Commercial Swine Herd in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    CHANAPIWAT, Panida; OLANRATMANEE, Em-On; KAEOKET, Kampon; TUMMARUK, Padet

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to determine the conception rate and litter size in sows after fixed time intra-uterine insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen in a commercial swine herd in Thailand. Sixty-nine Landrace multiparous sows were randomly allocated into two groups, including control (n=36) and treatment (n=33). The control sows were inseminated with extended fresh semen (3 × 109 motile sperm/dose, 100 ml) at 24, 36 and 48 hr after the onset of estrus. The treatment s...

  4. Organic Poultry Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Yıldırım

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many people have led to the consumption of organic animal products in the event that the increase in sensitivity to a healthy diet in developed countries, and maintaining the safety of food of animal origin. Feeding and breeding in conventional production are emerged some of the negative effects and also it is more in organic production with new restrictions. Organic production is based on animal welfare. On the basis of behaviors such as feather-pecking and cannibalism known to be low in protein level of rations and unbalanced in terms of amino acids or minerals. As of 2015, organic poultry feed provided the appropriate conditions that will be 95% organic certified in Turkey and therefore, to create a balanced ration and feed hygiene in protecting brings serious challenges. Fodder supply of organic poultry feed raw materials that make up the quality, quantity and issue forms a significant effect on the health of the poultry additives permitted. The quality of the feed raw materials that constituent diets, quantity, feed supplying form and permitted feed additives significantly affects the health of poultry. Different physiological stages of the animal's nutritional requirements in order to ensure production of quality poultry products must be met from organically produced and very well-known with the contents of feedstuff digestibility. In this study, the problems encountered in feeding can be eliminated while performing economic production with considering animal welfare, following that balanced and adequate organic ration formulations and issues such as improving the production of feed raw materials are discussed.

  5. Post-weaning social and cognitive performance of piglets raised pre-weaning either in a complex multi-suckling group housing system or in a conventional system with a crated sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwamerongen, S E; Mendl, M; Held, S; Soede, N M; Bolhuis, J E

    2017-09-01

    We studied the social and cognitive performance of piglets raised pre-weaning either in a conventional system with a sow in a farrowing crate (FC) or in a multi-suckling (MS) system in which 5 sows and their piglets could interact in a more physically enriched and spacious environment. After weaning at 4 weeks of age, 8 groups of 4 litter-mates per pre-weaning housing treatment were studied under equal and enriched post-weaning housing conditions. From each pen, one pair consisting of a dominant and a submissive pig was selected, based on a feed competition test (FCT) 2 weeks post-weaning. This pair was used in an informed forager test (IFT) which measured aspects of spatial learning and foraging strategies in a competitive context. During individual training, submissive (informed) pigs learned to remember a bait location in a testing arena with 8 buckets (the same bucket was baited in a search visit and a subsequent relocation visit), whereas dominant (non-informed) pigs always found the bait in a random bucket (search visits only). After learning their task, the informed pigs' individual search visit was followed by a pairwise relocation visit in which they were accompanied by the non-informed pig. Effects of pre-weaning housing treatment were not distinctly present regarding the occurrence of aggression in the FCT and the learning performance during individual training in the IFT. During paired visits, informed and non-informed pigs changed their behaviour in response to being tested pairwise instead of individually, but MS and FC pigs showed few distinct behavioural differences.

  6. Evaluation of the effects of mulch on optimum sowing date and irrigation management of zero till wheat in central Punjab, India using APSIM

    OpenAIRE

    Balwinder-Singh,; Humphreys, E.; Gaydon, D.S.; Eberbach, P.L.

    2016-01-01

    Machinery for sowing wheat directly into rice residues has become more common in the rice-wheat systems of the north-west Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia, with increasing numbers of farmers now potentially able to access the benefits of residue retention. However, surface residue retention affects soil water and temperature dynamics, thus the optimum sowing date and irrigation management for a mulched crop may vary from those of a traditional non-mulched crop. Furthermore, the effects of s...

  7. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... button, close the clamp on the feeding set, disconnect the extension set from the button, and close ... Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of ...

  8. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & ... Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature ...

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    Full Text Available ... discomforts . If you’re feeding your baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for ... care they receive. We're pioneering research to find solutions. We're empowering families with the knowledge ...

  14. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. It’s also a great time for you and your partner to bond with ...

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  16. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ... feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best ...

  17. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and ... breast pump Baby Feeding your baby Other Baby topics ') document.write(' Caring for your baby ') document.write('') } ') ...

  18. Comparison of the antimicrobial consumption in weaning pigs in Danish sow herds with different vaccine purchase patterns during 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Temtem, Carolina; Kruse, Amanda Brinch; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is growing concern about development of antimicrobial resistance due to use of antimicrobials (AMs) in livestock production. Identifying efficient alternatives, including vaccination, is a priority. The objective of this study was to compare the herd-level amount of AMs prescribed...... for weaner pigs, between Danish sow herds using varying combinations of vaccines against Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MYC) and Lawsonia intracellularis (LAW). It was hypothesised that herds purchasing vaccines, use these to prevent disease, and hence reduce their AM consumption......, compared to herds purchasing fewer or no vaccines against these pathogens. Data summarised over year 2013 were obtained from the Danish Central Husbandry Register and the Danish VetStat database, in which prescriptions of medication are recorded. All one-site indoor pig herds with >50 sows and >200 weaners...

  19. Depletion of penicillin G residues in heavy sows after intramuscular injection. Part II: application of kidney inhibition swab tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelver, Weilin L; Lupton, Sara J; Newman, David J; Larsen, Steven; Smith, David J

    2014-07-30

    Sows (n = 126; 228 ± 30.1 kg) were administered daily IM doses of penicillin G procaine (33 000 IU/kg bw; 5× the label dose) for 3 consecutive days using three different administration patterns. Within treatment, six sows each were slaughtered on withdrawal day 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 32, and 39. Tissues (injection site, kidney, liver, skeletal muscle) or body fluids (serum and urine) were screened for penicillin G using the KIS test, recently adopted by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service. The IM administration patterns had no discernible effect on penicillin G depletion. Residues were depleted more rapidly from liver and skeletal muscle and more slowly from kidney and urine. Kidney was the most sensitive and suitable tissue for detecting penicillin G residues on-site, with two positive results after a 39-day withdrawal period. Urine was the most suitable ante-mortem surrogate to predict the results of kidney tests.

  20. Cardiovascular performance of adult breeding sows fails to obey allometric scaling laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Essen, G J; Vernooij, J C M; Heesterbeek, J A P; Anjema, D; Merkus, D; Duncker, D J

    2011-02-01

    In view of the remarkable decrease of the relative heart weight (HW) and the relative blood volume in growing pigs, we investigated whether HW, cardiac output (CO), and stroke volume (SV) of modern growing pigs are proportional to BW, as predicted by allometric scaling laws: HW (or CO or SV) = a·BW(b), in which a and b are constants, and constant b is a multiple of 0.25 (quarter-power scaling law). Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that both HW and CO scale with BW to the power of 0.75 (HW or CO = a·BW(0.75)) and SV scales with BW to the power of 1.00 (SV = a·BW(1.0)). For this purpose, 2 groups of pigs (group 1, consisting of 157 pigs of 50 ± 1 kg; group 2, consisting of 45 pigs of 268 ± 18 kg) were surgically instrumented with a flow probe or a thermodilution dilution catheter, under open-chest anesthetized conditions to measure CO and SV, after which HW was determined. The 95% confidence intervals of power-coefficient b for HW were 0.74 to 0.80, encompassing the predicted value of 0.75, suggesting that HW increased proportionally with BW, as predicted by the allometric scaling laws. In contrast, the 95% confidence intervals of power-coefficient b for CO and SV as measured with flow probes were 0.40 to 0.56 and 0.39 to 0.61, respectively, and values obtained with the thermodilution technique were 0.34 to 0.53 and 0.40 to 0.62, respectively. Thus, the 95% confidence limits failed to encompass the predicted values of b for CO and SV of 0.75 and 1.0, respectively. In conclusion, although adult breeding sows display normal heart growth, cardiac performance appears to be disproportionately low for BW. This raises concern regarding the health status of adult breeding sows.

  1. Applying CSM-CERES-Maize to define a sowing window for irrigated maize crop - The Riacho´s Farm case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Freitas Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation use constitutes an alternative to improve maize production in Central Minas Gerais State, Brazil. However, even under adequate water supply conditions, other environmental factors may influence maize crop growth and development and may, ultimately, affect grain yield. This study aimed to establish a sowing window for irrigated maize crop, based on simulation results obtained with the decision support model CSM-CERES-Maize. Simulations were made for crop management conditions of Riacho´s Farm, located in Matozinhos, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. It was employed the model´s seasonal tool, along with a data set containing 46 years of weather data records, to simulate maize yield for weekly sowing scenarios, starting on August 1st and ending on July 24th of each year. One defined an irrigated maize sowing window, taking into account the yield break risk that a farmer would be willing to take. The model proved to be an interesting tool to assist in decision making, regarding crop and irrigation management, for an irrigated maize production system. Assuming a 10% yield break in the expected average maximum maize yield, it was defined as sowing window, the period from January 23rd to March 6th, with February 20th as the best sowing date. Other sowing windows may be established according to the risk that the farmer would be willing to take.

  2. Phenological Variation and its Relation with Yield in several Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cultivars under Normal and Late Sowing Mediated Heat Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrun NAHAR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenological performance in relation to yield of five modern varieties of wheat Sourav, Pradip, Sufi, Shatabdi and Bijoy were evaluated under two growing environments; one is normal growing environment (sowing at November 30 and the other is post anthesis heat stressed environment (sowing at December 30. In case of late seeding, the varieties phased a significant level of high temperature stress that also significantly affected the required days to germination, booting, anthesis, maturity of all varieties including the yield as compared to normal sowing treatment. The temperature during the grain filling or grain maturing period was near 23C in case of normal seeding and it was near about 28C to 30C and sometimes reached above this range in the later period of late seeded treatment. In the normal sowing treatment the germination period was lower than the late sowing treatment as during that time the temperature was higher as compared to late sowing condition where temperature was lower. Days to anthesis and booting decreased due to late sown heat stress condition regardless the cultivars. These phenological characteristics under heat stressed condition led the wheat cultivars to significantly lower the grain yield as compared to normal condition. Due to heat stress, the yield reduction was 69.53% in Sourav, 58.41% in Pradip, 73.01% in Sufi, 55.46% in Shatabdi and 53.42% in Bijoy.

  3. Study of the Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of Four Soybean (Glycine max L. Cultivars under Different Sowing Dates in Shahrekord Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gharakhani Beni

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of sowing date on quantitave and qualitative traits of soybean in Shahrekord region, an experiment was performed as split plot based on randomized complete blocks design with four replications at Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Centre of Chaharmahal-va-Bakhtiari, Shahrekord, in 2008. Four sowing dates (May 5, May 20, June 4 and June 19 and four varieties (M9, M7, L17 and Williams were selected as main and sub plots, respectively. Results showed that maximum number of pods per plant, seeds per plant and biological yield were observed for M9 cultivar at 20 May sowing date. This sowing date had also the highest seed weight, oil percent and biological yield comared to other dates. The maximum protein percent was observed in June 4 (37.6% and June 19 (38.4% sowing dates. There was no significant difference between cultivars for oil and protein percent. There was no significant difference between three planting dates of May 5, May 20 and June 4 for seed yield. But minimum seed yield belonged to June 19 sowing date. In general, the M9 cultivar, with 2896.1 kg/ha seed yield, and then M7 cultivar with 2597.7 kg/ha seed yield, are recommendable as suitable soybean cultivars for cultivation in Shahrekord region.

  4. Effects of pre-sowing gamma irradiation of tomato seeds on production and yield of open field tomato crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhamyansurehn, D [Institut Fiziki i Matematiki Akademii Nauk Mongol' skoj Narodnoj Respubliki, Ulan Bator; Voloozh, D

    1976-01-01

    The following conclusions may be drawn from results obtained in experiments with pre-sowing irradiation of tomato seeds and its effect on tomato crops. The dose of 2500 R proved to be optimum for increase of tomato crops yield. The yield increase resulted from increase in average weight, quantity and the dry matter of the fruit. The irradiation did not significantly affect the concentration of sugar, phosphorus, nitrogen and ascorbic acid in the fruit.

  5. Effects of pre-sowing gamma irradiation of tomato seeds on production and yield of open field tomato crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhamyansurehn, D.; Voloozh, D.

    1976-01-01

    The following conclusions may be drawn from results obtained in experiments with pre-sowing irradiation of tomato seeds and its effect on tomato crops. The dose of 2500 R proved to be optimum for increase of tomato crops yield. The yield increase resulted from increase in average weight, quantity and the dry matter of the fruit. The irradiation did not significantly affect the concentration of sugar, phosphorus, nitrogen and ascorbic acid in the fruit. (author)

  6. Genotype-by-sowing date interaction effects on cotton yield and quality in irrigated condition of dera ismail khan, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, K.; Khan, S.; Ayatullah, A.

    2016-01-01

    Cotton is a major export commodity of Pakistan. It is affected by variable environmental conditions throughout the country which limits its production. A 2-year field study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at Cotton Research Station, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan to evaluate the effects of six sowing dates on yield and quality attributes of four cotton genotypes. The experiments were laid out in split-plot within a randomized complete block design with three replications. Main plots treatments were six sowing dates, namely March 20, April 4, April 19, May 4, May 19, and June 3 while subplots treatments were four approved transgenic varieties of cotton (CIM-598, CIM-599, CIM-602, and Ali Akber-703). Results revealed that earlier planting produced more vegetative growth rather than lint yield while late planting induced flowering and boll formation when temperature was much cold that adversely affected cotton yield and quality. The results further indicate that the genotype CIM-599 scored first rank in number of bolls plant-1, boll weight, seed cotton yield, ginning out turn, fiber length, fiber strength, fiber fineness, and fiber uniformity when sown on April 19. CIM-598 was the next suitable genotype after CIM-599 which produced higher yield and quality traits in April 19 sowing. Earlier and later sowing than April 19 resulted in lower cotton yield and quality characters due to unfavorable environmental conditions and shorter growth period, respectively. Thus it is concluded that the genotype, CIM-599 sown on April 19 suits well to the study area and had the potential to optimize cotton yield and quality in irrigated condition of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. (author)

  7. Combined impact of climate change, cultivar shift, and sowing date on spring wheat phenology in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dengpan; Tao, Fulu; Shen, Yanjun; Qi, Yongqing

    2016-08-01

    Distinct climate changes since the end of the 1980s have led to clear responses in crop phenology in many parts of the world. This study investigated the trends in the dates of spring wheat phenology in relation to mean temperature for different growth stages. It also analyzed the impacts of climate change, cultivar shift, and sowing date adjustments on phenological events/phases of spring wheat in northern China (NC). The results showed that significant changes have occurred in spring wheat phenology in NC due to climate warming in the past 30 years. Specifically, the dates of anthesis and maturity of spring wheat advanced on average by 1.8 and 1.7 day (10 yr)-1. Moreover, while the vegetative growth period (VGP) shortened at most stations, the reproductive growth period (RGP) prolonged slightly at half of the investigated stations. As a result, the whole growth period (WGP) of spring wheat shortened at most stations. The findings from the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM)-Wheat model simulated results for six representative stations further suggested that temperature rise generally shortened the spring wheat growth period in NC. Although the warming trend shortened the lengths of VGP, RGP, and WGP, the shift of new cultivars with high accumulated temperature requirements, to some extent, mitigated and adapted to the ongoing climate change. Furthermore, shifts in sowing date exerted significant impacts on the phenology of spring wheat. Generally, an advanced sowing date was able to lower the rise in mean temperature during the different growth stages (i.e., VGP, RGP, and WGP) of spring wheat. As a result, the lengths of the growth stages should be prolonged. Both measures (cultivar shift and sowing date adjustments) could be vital adaptation strategies of spring wheat to a warming climate, with potentially beneficial effects in terms of productivity.

  8. The effect of oral immunization on the population of lymphocytes migrating to the mammary gland of the sow

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, J.E. van; Kortbeek-Jacobs, J.M.C.; Kooten, P.J.S. van; Donk, J.A. van der; Rutten, V.P.M.G.

    1984-01-01

    Sows were immunized orally with live Escherichia coli according to various immunization schedules. Six pregnant gilts were used; 4 immunized at various intervals during the last month of gestation, 1 control immunized after parturition following suppression of lactation by weaning and 1 non-immunized control. The effect of oral vaccination on cell populations from lymphoid organs was studied. The in vitro proliferative responses of the cell populations to K88 antigen, anti-Ig sera and mitogen...

  9. Co-colonization and clonal diversity of methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetsch, Alexandra; Roesler, Uwe; Kraushaar, Britta; Friese, Anika

    2016-03-15

    Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are colonizers of skin and mucosa. In humans, MSSA and MRSA compete for colonization space in the anterior nares of pig farmers; however, it was also shown that MSSA/MRSA co-colonization is common and one clone can be found rather than differing types of MSSA and MRSA. We investigated the colonization and clonality of both, MSSA and MRSA in pigs over a longer time. Eighteen sows were nasally sampled three times every ten weeks. Additionally, environmental samples were taken. Samples were investigated for MSSA and MRSA, respectively. The spa type was defined from up to five MRSA and MSSA isolates found per sample and sampling time; selected isolates were further investigated by microarray. Three sows (16.7%) were completely negative for MSSA and MRSA. Twelve pigs (66.7%) were irregularly positive for both, MSSA and MRSA over the time, whereas seven out of them (38.9%) were simultaneously colonized. CC398 (t034, t011) MRSA and CC9 (t337, t1430, and t13816) MSSA associated spa types were exclusively found. In 44.4% (n=8) of sows up to two different types of MSSA were present at the same time and sample. Strains of the same clonal lineage showed a high genetic identity despite their origin. Highly identic clones were present in sows and their environment. As conclusion, MSSA/MRSA may not exclude each other in the anterior nares of pigs. Pigs may also carry different clones at the same time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Production Losses From an Endemic Animal Disease: Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS in Selected Midwest US Sow Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Valdes-Donoso

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is an endemic disease causing important economic losses to the US swine industry. The complex epidemiology of the disease, along with the diverse clinical outputs observed in different types of infected farms, have hampered efforts to quantify PRRS’ impact on production over time. We measured the impact of PRRS on the production of weaned pigs using a log-linear fixed effects model to evaluate longitudinal data collected from 16 sow farms belonging to a specific firm. We measured seven additional indicators of farm performance to gain insight into disease dynamics. We used pre-outbreak longitudinal data to establish a baseline that was then used to estimate the decrease in production. A significant rise of abortions in the week before the outbreak was reported was the strongest signal of PRRSV activity. In addition, production declined slightly one week before the outbreak and then fell markedly until weeks 5 and 6 post-outbreak. Recovery was not monotonic, cycling gently around a rising trend. At the end of the study period (35 weeks post-outbreak, neither the production of weaned pigs nor any of the performance indicators had fully recovered to baseline levels. This result suggests PRSS outbreaks may last longer than has been found in most other studies. We assessed PRRS’ effect on farm efficiency as measured by changes in sow production of weaned pigs per year. We translated production losses into revenue losses assuming an average market price of $45.2/weaned pig. We estimate that the average PRSS outbreak reduced production by approximately 7.4%, relative to annual output in the absence of an outbreak. PRRS reduced production by 1.92 weaned pigs per sow when adjusted to an annual basis. This decrease is substantially larger than the 1.44 decrease of weaned pigs per sow/year reported elsewhere.

  11. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The...

  12. Effects of Different Sowing Depths and Soil Compactions on Emergence and Initial Growth of Pepper Varieties (Capsicum annum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Shahriari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems in the mass production of pepper transplant is the stickiness of seed coat to the cotyledony leaves that can lead to no emergence or having poor emergence of pepper seedlings. Therefore, in order to evaluate the effects of different sowing depths and soil compactions on emergence and early seedlings growth of pepper, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in the Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2010, using a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement and four replications. The experimental factors included different levels of soil compactions (0 (no compaction, 150.5, 681.340 and 1201.7 Pa, different sowing depths (0 (surface, 1 and 2 cm and different pepper varieties (Olter, California Wonder, EM Bell, Anahiem and Iranian Falei. The results indicated that except the seed coat adherence to cotyledon leaves and the emergence percentage traits, the compaction treatments had a significant effect on (dry matter of seedlings, height, leaf area, number of abnormal seedling and mean emergence time were significant. In addition, sowing depth treatments had positive and significant effects on increasing the number of seedling with releasing seed coats from the cotyledony leaves.

  13. Germination success under different treatments and pod sowing depths in six legume species present in olive groves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siles, S.; García-Zafra, A.; Torres, J.A.; García-Fuentes, A.; Ruiz-Valenzuela, L.

    2017-07-01

    This study analysed the germination success of pods of six annual native legumes species: Astragalus hamosus, Medicago minima, Medicago orbicularis, Medicago polymorpha, Medicago rigidula and Scorpiurus muricatus. The use of these species has been proposed as a means of generating and improving herbaceous cover in olive groves. Germination success was studied in terms of the variability in the number of seeds germinated per pod after 18 months at two different sowing depths, on the surface (S) and buried 10 mm (B). Pods were subject to five different pre-germination treatments: chemical scarification, consisting of immersion in sulphuric acid for 15 min (S{sub 1}5) and 20 min (S{sub 2}0), immersion in water for 48 h (W{sub 4}8), pod precooled to -18ºC for one month (P{sub 1}8º) and untreated pods (Con). The results showed that the effectiveness of the different treatments and sowing depths depended on the species, and that there were no problems of ‘sibling-competition’ in any of the treatments or at any of the sowing depths. Species with larger, non-spiralled pods, such as A. hamosus or S. muricatus, or with very loosely spiralled pods such as M. orbicularis, had greater germination rates when buried, mainly in the case of untreated pods and pods that were immersed in sulphuric acid for 20 minutes.

  14. Fusarium head blight incidence and mycotoxin accumulation in three durum wheat cultivars in relation to sowing date and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyca, Anna; Oleksy, Andrzej; Gala-Czekaj, Dorota; Urbaniak, Monika; Laskowska, Magdalena; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Stępień, Łukasz

    2018-02-01

    Durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum var. durum) is an important crop in Europe, particularly in the Mediterranean countries. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is considered as one of the most damaging diseases, resulting in yield and quality reduction as well as contamination of grain with mycotoxins. Three winter durum wheat cultivars originating from Austria, Slovakia, and Poland were analyzed during 2012-2014 seasons for FHB incidence and Fusarium mycotoxin accumulation in harvested grain. Moreover, the effects of sowing density and delayed sowing date were evaluated in the climatic conditions of Southern Poland. Low disease severity was observed in 2011/2012 in all durum wheat cultivars analyzed, and high FHB occurrence was recorded in 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 seasons. Fusarium graminearum was the most abundant pathogen, followed by Fusarium avenaceum. Through all three seasons, cultivar Komnata was the most susceptible to FHB and to mycotoxin accumulation, while cultivars Auradur and IS Pentadur showed less symptoms. High susceptibility of cv. Komnata was reflected by the number of Fusarium isolates and elevated mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and moniliformin) content in the grain of this cultivar across all three seasons. Nivalenol was identified in the samples of cv. Komnata only. Genotype-dependent differences in FHB susceptibility were observed for the plants sown at optimal date but not at delayed sowing date. It can be hypothesized that cultivars bred in Austria and Slovakia show less susceptibility towards FHB than the cultivar from Poland because of the environmental conditions allowing for more efficient selection of breeding materials.

  15. Effect of Nitrogen Foliar Application on Canola Yield (Brassica napus L. and Nitrogen Efficiency across Different Sowing Dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Doori

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Between oil seeds, from the quality, quantity and nutrition index point of view, canola has the top level . Because of the solubility of N fertilizers, the time of urea application, is very important and one of the main reasons of the reduction in N application efficiency is utilization of urea in an inappropriate time. By precisely foliar application of nitrogen, the efficiency of nitrogen transformation to the grain will be very high because in this method the leaf is considered the main organ of nitrogen uptake and a low amount of absorbed nitrogen was transferred to the root and entered the soil. The more division of N application in growth stages and in accordance with plant need and foliar application result in increasing nitrogen use efficiency. The delay in sowing will result in the reduction of yield and this is due to low LAI, and thus low radiation absorb in vegetable phase and shorter reproductive phase with high temperature in flowering and subsequent stages that result in low prolific silique and make disorder in transferring stored material to grain. In this experiment using N foliar application to decrease the adverse effect of delay in sowing is objective. Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted in 2013-2014 in Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resource University of Khuzestan. Experiment was conducted as split plots in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications. In this experiment sowing date]optimum sowing (27 November, 17 December and late sowing (30 December [were assigned to main plots and several time of N-foliar application with 5 percent density from urea (20 liter per ha, ]TO (control, T1 (foliar N application in rosette stage, T2 (foliar N application in budding stage, T3 (foliar N application in flowering stage[ were placed in sub-plots in randomized way. Fertilizing was based on the results of soil examination. Therefore, 162 kg ha-1 of pure nitrogen (from resource urea in the way

  16. Early sowing increases nitrogen uptake and yields of winter wheat grown with cattle slurry or mineral fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suarez, Alfonso; Rasmussen, Jim; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2018-01-01

    of the two cultivars did not differ consistently with respect to the effect of early sowing on crop yield, N concentration and offtake, or ANR. Within the north-west European climatic region, moving the sowing time of winter wheat from mid-September to mid-August provides a significant yield and N offtake......The current study evaluated the effect of sowing date (early, mid-August or timely, mid-September) on two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Hereford, Mariboss) with different rates of nitrogen (N) (0–225 kg total N/ha) applied as animal manure (AM; cattle slurry) or mineral fertilizers...... (N: phosphorus: potassium; NPK). Overwinter plant N uptake and soil mineral N content were determined during 2014/15, while harvest yields (grain, straw, N content) were determined during 2014/15 and 2015/16. Overwinter uptake of N was 14 kg N/ha higher in early than in timely-sown wheat. Despite...

  17. Germination success under different treatments and pod sowing depths in six legume species present in olive groves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siles, S.; García-Zafra, A.; Torres, J.A.; García-Fuentes, A.; Ruiz-Valenzuela, L.

    2017-01-01

    This study analysed the germination success of pods of six annual native legumes species: Astragalus hamosus, Medicago minima, Medicago orbicularis, Medicago polymorpha, Medicago rigidula and Scorpiurus muricatus. The use of these species has been proposed as a means of generating and improving herbaceous cover in olive groves. Germination success was studied in terms of the variability in the number of seeds germinated per pod after 18 months at two different sowing depths, on the surface (S) and buried 10 mm (B). Pods were subject to five different pre-germination treatments: chemical scarification, consisting of immersion in sulphuric acid for 15 min (S 1 5) and 20 min (S 2 0), immersion in water for 48 h (W 4 8), pod precooled to -18ºC for one month (P 1 8º) and untreated pods (Con). The results showed that the effectiveness of the different treatments and sowing depths depended on the species, and that there were no problems of ‘sibling-competition’ in any of the treatments or at any of the sowing depths. Species with larger, non-spiralled pods, such as A. hamosus or S. muricatus, or with very loosely spiralled pods such as M. orbicularis, had greater germination rates when buried, mainly in the case of untreated pods and pods that were immersed in sulphuric acid for 20 minutes.

  18. Endometrial gene expression profile of pregnant sows with extreme phenotypes for reproductive efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, S; Balcells, I; Castelló, A; Ovilo, C; Noguera, J L; Timoneda, O; Sánchez, A

    2015-10-05

    Prolificacy can directly impact porcine profitability, but large genetic variation and low heritability have been found regarding litter size among porcine breeds. To identify key differences in gene expression associated to swine reproductive efficiency, we performed a transcriptome analysis of sows' endometrium from an Iberian x Meishan F2 population at day 30-32 of gestation, classified according to their estimated breeding value (EBV) as high (H, EBV > 0) and low (L, EBV ratio = 3.50), PTHLH (p = 0.03; H/L ratio = 3.69), MMP8 (p = 0.01; H/L ratio =4.41) and SCNN1G (p = 0.04; H/L ratio = 3.42). Although selected miRNAs showed similar expression levels between H and L groups, significant correlation was found between the expression level of ssc-miR-133a (p < 0.01) and ssc-miR-92a (p < 0.01) and validated genes. These results provide a better understanding of the genetic architecture of prolificacy-related traits and embryo implantation failure in pigs.

  19. Effect of fertilization at sowing on nutrition and yield of crambe in second season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Peres Soratto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The interest in crambe (Crambe abyssinica cultivation in Brazil is on the rise, whereas information on the nutrient requirements for this crop is scarce. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (N-P2O5-K2O formula 8:28:16 fertilization (0, 150, and 300 kg ha-1 on crambe shoot biomass production, grain and oil yields, and nutrient extraction and exportation in the second growing season after soybean. The experiment with a Haplorthox (Dystroferric Red Latosol was carried out for two years in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. A randomized complete block design with eight replications was used. Fertilization with NPK at sowing increased the shoot biomass production, grain yield, grain oil content, as well as nutrient extraction and exportation at harvest. In the fertilized treatments, the average amounts of nutrients extracted per hectare were 91 kg K, 71 kg N, 52 kg Ca, 9.4 kg P, 9.4 kg Mg, 7.9 kg S, 2,348 g Fe, 289 g Zn, 135 g Mn, and 18.2 g Cu; while the average values of nutrient exportation per hectare were 54 kg N, 20 kg K, 12.3 kg Ca, 10 kg P, 6.6 kg S, 3.2 kg Mg, 365 g Zn, 60 g Fe, 50 g Mn, and 7.3 g Cu, with NPK fertilizer application.

  20. Potential external contamination of pneumatic seed drills during sowing of dressed maize seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzone, Marco; Balsari, Paolo; Marucco, Paolo; Tamagnone, Mario

    2016-07-01

    The use of pneumatic drills in maize cultivation causes dispersion in the atmosphere of some harmful substances normally used for dressing maize seeds. Some of the dust particles may be deposited on the machine's body, becoming dangerous for the environment and for operators. The aim of the present study was to analyse the amount of dust deposited on the frame of drills during maize sowing operations. Tests were performed with different drills and in different operating conditions. Data analysis showed that a significant amount (up to 30%) of the tracer can be deposited on the drill body. When wind was not present, higher quantities of tracer were collected and the forward speed did not influence significantly the tracer deposit on the seed drills. The use of different devices designed to prevent dust dispersion was able to limit up to 95% but was not able to eliminate the external contamination of the drill. The particles present on drills could become a problem for the operator during the filling of the drill. Additionally, the environment can be contaminated if pesticide remains on the drill, generating point-source pollution when the drill is parked outside. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Agronomic evaluation of four improved rice varieties in different sowing periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genry Hernández Carrillo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the agronomic performance of four rice varieties in different seasons, on flooded soil, using direct plantation, was developed at the Local Station for Grain Research, in the municipality of Vertientes, province of Camaguey, Cuba. A block random design was used in the study, with five replicas, through a bifactorial experiment with four treatments (Prosequisa 4, IA Cuba 31, IACuba 40, and Jucarito 104, as control, the sowing period included January, February, March, April, May, June, July, and August. The parameters evaluated were, cycle (days from germination to harvest, final plant height, fertile panicles per m2, filled grain per panicle, 1000-grain mass (14% humidity, crop yields and industrial quality. The highest yields were accomplished in February and June (pattern variety and Prosequisa 4, with 8.2 t/ha-1, in each month. Concerning industrial yields, the best results were achieved in IACuba 31 (66.4; 66.1; and 63.3% full white grain in February, June and July. The most profitable varieties were Prosequisa 4, Jucarito 104, and IACuba 31, in the different seasons evaluated.

  2. Fruiting phenology of some weed species in sowing of chosen cultivar plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Wesołowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the percentage shares of the phases of fruiting and diaspore shedding of some weed species during fodder beet, spring wheat and faba bean harvest are presented. The results of the study were gathered in the years 2000-2003 on river alluvial soil made from light loam. The experimental scheme included mechanical and chemical control of the cultivated plants. On weed-free objects treated with herbicides, the following herbicides were used: fodder beet - Buracyl 80 WP (lenacyl 80% in dose 1 kg.ha-1; spring wheat - Chwastox Turbo 340 SL (MCPA + dicamba in dose 2l.ha-1; faba-bean - Afalon (linuron 50% in dose 1,5 kg.ha-1. Phenological observations were carried out at 10-day intervals beginning from the day of sowing the cultivated plant. It was proven that weeds had the most favourable conditions of fruiting and seed shedding in fodder beet and faba bean. Fruiting and shedding of most weed species were limited by herbicides, as well as cold years. The following weed species: fodder beet without herbicides - Lamium amplexicaule, Chenopodium polyspermum, Anagallis arvensis i Echinochloa crus-galli; fodder beet with herbicides - Convolvulus arvensis, Lamium purpureum i Echinochloa crus-galli; spring wheat without herbicides - Capsella bursa-pastoris i Fallopia convolvulus; spring wheat with herbicides - Avena fatua; faba been without herbicides - Galium aparine, Anagallis arvensis i Convolvulus arvensis; faba been with herbicides - Galium aparine, shed diaspores in the greatest degree.

  3. Double labelling immunohistochemical characterization of autonomic sympathetic neurons innervating the sow retractor clitoridis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Ragionieri

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Retrograde neuronal tracing and immunohistochemical methods were used to define the neurochemical content of sympathetic neurons projecting to the sow retractor clitoridis muscle (RCM. Differently from the other smooth muscles of genital organs, the RCM is an isolated muscle that is tonically contracted in the rest phase and relaxed in the active phase. This peculiarity makes it an interesting experimental model. The fluorescent tracer fast blue was injected into the RCM of three 50 kg subjects. After a one-week survival period, the ipsilateral paravertebral ganglion S1, that in a preliminary study showed the greatest number of cells projecting to the muscle, was collected from each animal. The co-existence of tyrosine hydroxylase with choline acetyltransferase, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, calcitonin gene-related peptide, leuenkephalin, neuropeptide Y, substance P and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide was studied under a fluorescent microscope on cryostat sections. Tyrosine hydroxylase was present in about 58% of the neurons projecting to the muscle and was found to be co-localized with each of the other tested substances.Within fast blue-labelled cells negative to the adrenergic marker, small populations of neurons singularly containing each of the other enzymatic markers or peptides were also observed. The present study documents the complexity of the neurochemical interactions that regulate the activity of the smooth myocytes of the RCM and their vascular components.

  4. Determination of chlormequat in pig serum and sow milk by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, M E; Christensen, H B; Sørensen, M T; Leffers, H; Andersen, J H

    2007-11-01

    Chlormequat is a plant growth regulator widely used on cereals, and there is general concern that it may impair human fertility. A LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of chlormequat in milk and serum was developed and validated in connection with an investigation on the effect of chlormequat on pig reproduction. Validation of the method was based on recovery tests at three spiking levels, determined as double determinations and repeated at least four times. Samples were extracted with methanol-water-acetic acid, centrifuged, filtrated and determined by LC-MS/MS. The mean recoveries were in the range 80-110%, and the LOD was 0.2 ng/g for serum and 0.3 ng/g for milk. The values for repeatability and reproducibility were within 2/3 of the limits given by the Horwitz equation. Samples of pig serum (59) and sow milk (27) were analyzed using the method. Chlormequat was determined in four milk samples in the range of 0.4 ng/g to 1.2 ng/g and in all serum samples in the range of 0.2 ng/g-4.0 ng/g.

  5. Sowing Seeds for Healthier Diets: Children’s Perspectives on School Gardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nury, Edris; Sarti, Asia; Dijkstra, Coosje; Seidell, Jacob C.; Dedding, Christine

    2017-01-01

    School gardening programmes are among the most promising interventions to improve children’s vegetable intake. Yet, low vegetable intake among children remains a persistent public health challenge. This study aimed to explore children’s perspectives, experiences, and motivations concerning school gardening in order to better understand and increase its potential for health promotion. Using participant observation and semi-structured interviews, we provided 45 primary schoolchildren (9–10 years) from Amsterdam, who participated in a comprehensive year-round school gardening programme, the opportunity to share their experiences and ideas on school gardening. Children particularly expressed enjoyment of the outdoor gardening portion of the programme as it enabled them to be physically active and independently nurture their gardens. Harvesting was the children’s favourite activity, followed by planting and sowing. In contrast, insufficient gardening time and long explanations or instructions were especially disliked. Experiencing fun and enjoyment appeared to play a vital role in children’s motivation to actively participate. Children’s suggestions for programme improvements included more autonomy and opportunities for experimentation, and competition elements to increase fun and variety. Our results indicate that gaining insight into children’s perspectives allows matching school gardening programmes more to children’s wishes and expectations, thereby potentially enhancing their intrinsic motivation for gardening and vegetable consumption. PMID:28672836

  6. Evaluation of Various Morpho-Physiological and Growth Traits of Dual Purpose Wheat under Early Sowing Dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munsif, F.; Arif, M.; Rasul, F.

    2016-01-01

    The use of wheat as dual purpose crop (for fodder and grain) is considered as promising agronomic management practice fulfilling human and animal need at same time. These expectations are largely found on positive experiences by growing wheat as dual purpose crop throughout the world. However, the validity of these results in Pakistan needs confirmation from field experiments under various sowing date and potential cultivars. The impact of cutting and sowing date on morphological and physiological traits of already existing wheat cultivars was evaluated at Agricultural Research Farm of The University of Agriculture, Peshawar Pakistan in winter 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. Three sowing dates i.e. 15th October, 30th October and 14th November and six wheat cultivars (Ghaznavi-98, Fakhre-Sarhad (FS)-99, Ghaznavi-98, Saleem-2000, Uqab-2000 and Siran-2008) were compared for dual purpose wheat production during the course of experiment. Findings showed that significant reduction were recorded in nodes tiller/sup -1/, plant height, spike weight and grains weight spike/sup -1/ when sowing of wheat delayed from 15th and 30th October to 15th November. Considerable variations were also noted in nodes tiller/sup -1/, internodes length and leaf area index, plant height and lodging score among wheat cultivars but it was mainly due to their genetic characteristic not because of cutting treatment. It was observed that cutting caused 5.5, 12.1, 6.2, 4.1, 25.9, 7.1,6.6% reduction in wheat leaf area, leaf area index, internode length, plant height, lodging score, spike weight and grains weight spike/sup -1/, respectively over non cut plots in both year of the experiment. Interestingly, no-significant change was noted in spike length and number of nodes tiller/sup -1/ under cut and no cut plots. The conclusive findings suggested that optimum sowing date (15th and 30th October) for all wheat cultivars could be utilized as potential source of dual purpose wheat for substantial reduction of

  7. Establishing breast feeding in hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, J

    1988-01-01

    The experience and practice of the author is described in her appointment as a breast feeding advisor to the paediatric and obstetric units at University College Hospital with special responsibility for supervising infant feeding, especially breast feeding in the maternity unit. During 1980-5 there were 13,185 mothers whose babies fed. The feeding method of 12,842 mothers was recorded on discharge from the postnatal wards and 77% were breast feeding; only 3% of these mothers gave complement f...

  8. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garry, A [Department dIngenierie Biologique, Ecole Polytechnique de Universite de Nice - Sophia Antipolis, 1645 Route des Lucioles, 06410 Biot (France); Virginie Rigourd, V; Aubry, S [Lactarium d' Ile de France, Institut de Puericulture et de Perinatalogie, 26 Boulevard Brune, 75014 Paris (France); Amirouche, A; Fauroux, V [Centre de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre, 89 rue d' Assas, 75006 Paris (France); Serreau, R [Centre de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre EA 3620, 89 rue d' Assas 75006 Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  9. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garry, A.; Virginie Rigourd, V.; Aubry, S.; Amirouche, A.; Fauroux, V.; Serreau, R.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  10. Feed and organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2011-01-01

    impact on the receiving water body by reducing dissolved oxygen concentrations and increasing sedimentation. Within aquaculture systems, a high organic load may affect fish health and performance directly (e.g., gill disease) as well as indirectly (proliferation of pathogenic bacteria and parasites......, reduction of dissolved oxygen concentrations, etc.). In recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), a high organic load caused by limited water exchange may affect biofilter performance by favouring heterotrophic bacteria at the expense of autotrophic, nitrifying bacteria. Organic waste in RAS primarily...... originates from undigested feed, but also metabolic losses, mucus, dead tissue, feed waste and intake water may contribute. The nutrient composition of the feed affects the quantity and composition of the organic (undigested) waste, and including for example plant protein ingredients may affect...

  11. Probiotics and antibiotics as additives for sows and piglets during nursery phase Probióticos e antibióticos como aditivos para matrizes e leitões na fase de creche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Leonardo Figueiredo Silva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the use of probiotics in diets for sows and piglets on performance and morphophysiologic parameters and the incidence of diarrhea in piglets during 28 days after weaning. A total of 120 pigs weaned at 21 days of age from 24 litters whose sows (primiparous received probiotics or antibiotics from the 94th day of gestation until weaning. It was used a complete randomized design in a 2 × 3 factorial (probiotics or antibiotics for sows and three diets for piglets - antibiotics, probiotics or probiotic-antibiotic combination with four replicates of five animals to evaluate the performance and incidence of diarrhea. At 28 days of experiment, two animals from each plot were sacrificed for histological parameter measurement of the pH of the stomach, jejunum and cecum. The association antibiotics+ probiotics in the diet of pigs resulted in greater weight gain and feed intake in animals born from of sows which received probiotics during the gestation and lactation phases. When females received antibiotics, the piglets receiving only probiotics showed higher consumption, but there were no differences for feed conversion. The use of antibiotics + probiotics in diets for piglets reduced the pH of the cecum and, when associated with the use of probiotics for sows, villous:crypt ratio in the jejunum increased. The use of growth promoters did not affect stomach pH neither the incidence of diarrhea. Supply of probiotics in the diet of sows during the gestation and lactation phases associated to the use in the diet of piglets after weaning is effective in maintaining animal performance, to histophysiological conditions in the gastrointestinal tract and control of diarrhea during the nursery phase.O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do uso de probióticos em dietas para matrizes e leitões, sobre o desempenho, os parâmetros morfofisiológicos e a indicência de diarréia nos leitões durante 28

  12. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  13. Identification of differentially expressed genes in sexed pig embryos during post-hatching development in primiparous sows exposed to differing intermittent suckling and breeding strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Tsoi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of commercial pig breeding programs is to maximize the number of pigs produced per sow per year. Given that sows exhibit an estrus during lactation is a potential means of increasing productivity of a pig breeding herd without reducing in lactation length, conventionally, weaning of piglets at a relatively young age is often related to post-weaning piglet performance which compromises piglet welfare. Therefore, intermittent suckling (IS is a management technique in which lactating sows are separated from their piglets for a fixed period of the days and allowing sows to continue nursing piglets while exhibiting estrus and being breed during lactation, thereby promoting both piglet well-being and sow reproductive performance [1]. For this study, primiparous sows (PP were exposed to 28 day (D28 lactation with intermittent suckling (IS during the final week prior to weaning. The sows detected to be in estrus during lactation were either bred at this first estrus (FE during lactation (IS21FE, or were “skipped” and bred at their second estrus which occurred after final weaning at D28 (IS21SE. Despite the benefits of IS, the effects of the maternal physiology related to breeding during lactation on embryonic transcriptome are largely unknown. Recent advances in the ability to assess embryonic gene expression in both sexes have made these analyses possible. Here, we describe the experimental procedures of two color microarray analyses and annotation of differentially expressed (DE genes in detail corresponding to data deposited at NCBI in the Gene Expression Omnibus under accession number GSE53576 and GSE73020 for day 9 embryos (D9E and day 30 embryos (D30E respectively. Although only a few DE genes were discovered between IS21FE and IS21SE in both sexes from D9E or D30E, the raw data are still valuable for future use to understand the gene expression profiling from two different developmental stages.

  14. Assessment of GHG Emission Reduction Potential from Source-separated Organic Waste (SOW) Management: Case Study in a Higher Educational Institution in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.G.; Sumiani Yusoff

    2015-01-01

    In Malaysia, the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions reduction via composting of source-separated organic waste (SOW) in municipal solid waste (MSW) has not been assessed. Assessment of GHG emissions reduction via composting of SOW is important as environmental impacts from waste management are waste-specific and local-specific. The study presents the case study for potential carbon reduction via composting of SOW in University of Malaya (UM). In this study, a series of calculations were used to evaluate the GHG emission of different SOW management scenarios. The calculations based on IPCC calculation methods (AM0025) include GHGs emissions from land filling, fuel consumption in transportation and SOW composting activity. The methods were applied to assess the GHG emissions from five alternative SOW management scenarios in UM. From the baseline scenario (S0), a total of 1,636.18 tCO2e was generated. In conjunction with target of 22 % recycling rate, as shown in S1, 14 % reduction in potential GHG emission can be achieved. The carbon reduction can be further enhanced by increasing the SOW composting capacity. The net GHG emission for S1, S2, S3 and S4 were 1,399.52, 1,161.29, 857.70 and 1,060.48 tCO2e, respectively. In general, waste diversion for composting proved a significant net GHG emission reduction as shown in S3 (47 %), S4 (35 %) and S2 (29 %). Despite the emission due to direct on-site activity, the significant reduction in methane generation at landfill has reduced the net GHG emission. The emission source of each scenario was studied and analysed. (author)

  15. Longitudinal study of Senecavirus a shedding in sows and piglets on a single United States farm during an outbreak of vesicular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousignant, Steven J P; Bruner, Laura; Schwartz, Jake; Vannucci, Fabio; Rossow, Stephanie; Marthaler, Douglas G

    2017-08-31

    The study highlights the shedding pattern of Senecavirus A (SVA) during an outbreak of vesicular disease in a sow farm from the South-central Minnesota, USA. In this study, 34 individual, mixed parity sows with clinical signs of vesicular lesions and 30 individual piglets from 15 individual litters from sows with vesicular lesions were conveniently selected for individual, longitudinal sampling. Serum, tonsil, rectal, and vesicular swabs were collected on day1 post outbreak, and then again at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9 weeks post outbreak. Samples were tested at the University of Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for SVA via Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) RESULTS: In sows, vesicular lesions had the highest concentration of SVA, but had the shortest duration of detection lasting only 2 weeks. Viremia was detected for 1 week post outbreak, and quickly declined thereafter. SVA was detected at approximately the same frequency for both tonsil and rectal swabs with the highest percentage of SVA positive samples detected in the first 6 weeks post outbreak. In suckling piglets, viremia quickly declined 1 week post outbreak and was prevalent in low levels during the first week after weaning (4 weeks post outbreak) and was also detected in piglets that were co-mingled from a SVA negative sow farm. Similar to sows, SVA detection on rectal and tonsil swabs in piglets lasted approximately 6 weeks post outbreak. The study illustrates the variation of SVA shedding patterns in different sample types over a 9 week period in sows and piglets, and suggests the potential for viral spread between piglets at weaning.

  16. Creep feeding nursing beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardy, Gregory P; Maddock, Travis D

    2007-03-01

    Creep feeding can be used to increase calf weaning weights. However, the gain efficiency of free-choice, energy-based creep feeds is relatively poor. Generally, limit-feeding, high-protein creep feeds are more efficient, and gains may be similar to those produced by creep feeds offered free choice. Creep feeding can increase total organic matter intake and improve the overall energy status of the animal. Creep-fed calves tend to acclimate to the feedlot more smoothly than unsupplemented calves. Furthermore, provision of a high-starch creep feed may have a positive influence on subsequent carcass quality traits. Creep feeding can be applied to numerous environmental situations to maximize calf performance; however, beef cattle producers should consider their individual situations carefully before making the decision to creep feed.

  17. Feeding of Diarmis Proboscis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…

  18. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mail was sent. Save to my dashboard Sign in or Sign up to save this page. Saving Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow ...

  19. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way.

  20. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? ... Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive ...

  1. Low Emission Feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into manipulating methane (CH4) production as a result of enteric fermentation in ruminants currently receives global interest. Using feed additives may be a feasible strategy to mitigate CH4 as they are supplied in such amounts that the basal diet composition will not be largely

  2. New feed ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Jong, de J.

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the

  3. Investigation of Possibility of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgar L. Autumnal Sowing in Mashhad Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Azizi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the possibility of Fennel autumnal sowing in Mashhad condition, 2 sets of experiments were conducted in Agricultural College, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2003-2005. This experiment was performed in the manner of Split Blocks based on completely randomized Blocks with three replications. Treatments were two fennel ecotypes (Khorasan and Kerman and three planting dates (October, December and March. Fennel seeds only were planted in 2003 and in next year, plants were grown of remains parts of stem in surface of soil. Results showed in end of first years, number of remain plant in March planting dates, three times of October planting dates. In second years, number of remain plant in March planting dates 6.5 and 2.7 times October and December planting dates, respectively. Number of remain plant between Khorasan and Kerman ecotypes were not significantly different in two years. However, effects of planting date and ecotype on dry matter and number of primary and secondary branches were not significant but plant of October planting dates superior to the plant of December and March planting dates. Number of umbel without seed in October planting dates was 3.4 and 8.8 times of December and March planting dates. In spite of weight of seed in October planting dates highest than December and March planting dates, effect of planting dates on weight of seed in plant was not significant. In first year highest and lowest yield were obtained in October (68.7 gr/m2 and March (20.5 g/m2 planting dates. But in second year maximum and minimum of yield were obtained in March and October planting dates with 45.3 and 14.2 g/m2, respectively.

  4. Effects of Furrow Irrigation on the Growth, Production, and Water Use Efficiency of Direct Sowing Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlin He

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice farming is the major crop production in Asia and is predicted to increase significantly in the near future in order to meet the demands for the increasing human population. Traditional irrigation methods used in rice farming often result in great water loss. New water-saving methods are urgently needed to reduce water consumption. Three field and pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the furrow irrigation (FI system to improve water use efficiency (WUE and production of direct sowing rice in southern China. Compared to the conventional irrigation (CI system (continuous flooding irrigation, for every square hectometer of rice field, the FI system reduced water use by 3130 m3, or 48.1%, and increased grain production by 13.9% for an early cultivar. For a late cultivar, the FI system reduced water use by 2655 m3, or 40.6%, and an increase of grain production by 12.1%. The improved WUE in the FI system is attributed to (1 a significant reduction of irrigation rate, seepage, evaporation, and evapotranspiration; (2 a significant reduction in the reduced materials, such as ferrous ion (Fe2+, and therefore an increase in the vitality of the root system, evident by the increases in the number of white roots by 32.62%, and decreases in the number of black roots by 20.04% and yellow roots by 12.58%; the use of the FI system may also reduce humidity of the rice field and enhance gas transport in the soil and light penetration, which led to reduced rice diseases and increased leaf vitality; and (3 increases in tiller and effective spikes by 11.53% and the weight per thousand grains by 1.0 g. These findings suggest that the shallow FI system is a promising means for rice farming in areas with increasing water shortages.

  5. Effects of furrow irrigation on the growth, production, and water use efficiency of direct sowing rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunlin

    2010-08-03

    Rice farming is the major crop production in Asia and is predicted to increase significantly in the near future in order to meet the demands for the increasing human population. Traditional irrigation methods used in rice farming often result in great water loss. New water-saving methods are urgently needed to reduce water consumption. Three field and pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the furrow irrigation (FI) system to improve water use efficiency (WUE) and production of direct sowing rice in southern China. Compared to the conventional irrigation (CI) system (continuous flooding irrigation), for every square hectometer of rice field, the FI system reduced water use by 3130 m3, or 48.1%, and increased grain production by 13.9% for an early cultivar. For a late cultivar, the FI system reduced water use by 2655 m3, or 40.6%, and an increase of grain production by 12.1%. The improved WUE in the FI system is attributed to (1) a significant reduction of irrigation rate, seepage, evaporation, and evapotranspiration; (2) a significant reduction in the reduced materials, such as ferrous ion (Fe2+), and therefore an increase in the vitality of the root system, evident by the increases in the number of white roots by 32.62%, and decreases in the number of black roots by 20.04% and yellow roots by 12.58%; the use of the FI system may also reduce humidity of the rice field and enhance gas transport in the soil and light penetration, which led to reduced rice diseases and increased leaf vitality; and (3) increases in tiller and effective spikes by 11.53% and the weight per thousand grains by 1.0 g. These findings suggest that the shallow FI system is a promising means for rice farming in areas with increasing water shortages.

  6. Application of Genetic Algorithm to Predict Optimal Sowing Region and Timing for Kentucky Bluegrass in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erxu Pi

    Full Text Available Temperature is a predominant environmental factor affecting grass germination and distribution. Various thermal-germination models for prediction of grass seed germination have been reported, in which the relationship between temperature and germination were defined with kernel functions, such as quadratic or quintic function. However, their prediction accuracies warrant further improvements. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relative prediction accuracies of genetic algorithm (GA models, which are automatically parameterized with observed germination data. The seeds of five P. pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass, KB cultivars were germinated under 36 day/night temperature regimes ranging from 5/5 to 40/40 °C with 5 °C increments. Results showed that optimal germination percentages of all five tested KB cultivars were observed under a fluctuating temperature regime of 20/25 °C. Meanwhile, the constant temperature regimes (e.g., 5/5, 10/10, 15/15 °C, etc. suppressed the germination of all five cultivars. Furthermore, the back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN algorithm was integrated to optimize temperature-germination response models from these observed germination data. It was found that integrations of GA-BP-ANN (back propagation aided genetic algorithm artificial neural network significantly reduced the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE values from 0.21~0.23 to 0.02~0.09. In an effort to provide a more reliable prediction of optimum sowing time for the tested KB cultivars in various regions in the country, the optimized GA-BP-ANN models were applied to map spatial and temporal germination percentages of blue grass cultivars in China. Our results demonstrate that the GA-BP-ANN model is a convenient and reliable option for constructing thermal-germination response models since it automates model parameterization and has excellent prediction accuracy.

  7. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (Feed was provided ad libitum. Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2 kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the MIX diet and remained on trial for an additional 3 wk. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 4d during wk 6, 8, 9, and 11. In wk 6, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly

  8. Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth of Oreochromis mossambicus (Teleostei: Cichlidae) fry. ... Weight gain, specific growth rate and gross food conversion ratio were significantly affected by ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. Effects of β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate supplementation to sows in late gestation on absorption and hepatic metabolism of glucose and amino acids during transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flummer, Christine; Lyby, H; Storli, K S

    2012-01-01

    A multicatheter sow model was established to study the effects of dietary β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate (HMB) supplementation on net portal flux (NPF) and net hepatic flux (NHF) of HMB, glucose, and the AA Ala, Gly, Ile, Leu, Phe, Tyr, and Val. Eight second parity sows were fitted with permanent...... the experiment, and 4 HMB sows were fed the control diet supplemented with 15 mg Ca(HMB)2/kg BW mixed in one third of the morning meal from day –10 until parturition. Net portal flux of HMB was affected by treatment (Trt; P HMB sows at 6.9 mmol/h 30 min after the morning meal...... and then decreased towards preprandial level (0.0 mmol/h) 3.5 h after the meal, revealing that dietary HMB was rapidly absorbed from the intestine. The NHF of HMB tended to be affected by Trt (P = 0.06) showing a small hepatic uptake of HMB (1.1 mmol/h) in HMB sows. Net portal flux of glucose and all measured AA...

  10. Antimicrobial Resistance Profile and Genotypic Characteristics of Streptococcus suis Capsular Type 2 Isolated from Clinical Carrier Sows and Diseased Pigs in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an important zoonotic pathogen. Antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and genotypic characterizations of S. suis 2 from carrier sows and diseased pigs remain largely unknown. In this study, 96 swine S. suis type 2, 62 from healthy sows and 34 from diseased pigs, were analyzed. High frequency of tetracycline resistance was observed, followed by sulfonamides. The lowest resistance of S. suis 2 for β-lactams supports their use as the primary antibiotics to treat the infection of serotype 2. In contrast, 35 of 37 S. suis 2 with MLSB phenotypes were isolated from healthy sows, mostly encoded by the ermB and/or the mefA genes. Significantly lower frequency of mrp+/epf+/sly+ was observed among serotype 2 from healthy sows compared to those from diseased pigs. Furthermore, isolates from diseased pigs showed more homogeneously genetic patterns, with most of them clustered in pulsotypes A and E. The data indicate the genetic complexity of S. suis 2 between herds and a close linkage among isolates from healthy sows and diseased pigs. Moreover, many factors, such as extensive use of tetracycline or diffusion of Tn916 with tetM, might have favored for the pathogenicity and widespread dissemination of S. suis serotype 2.

  11. Genetic variance components for residual feed intake and feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding costs of animals is a major determinant of profitability in livestock production enterprises. Genetic selection to improve feed efficiency aims to reduce feeding cost in beef cattle and thereby improve profitability. This study estimated genetic (co)variances between weaning weight and other production, reproduction ...

  12. Age, lighting treatment, feed allocation and feed form influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a broiler breeder trial with 3200 Cobb 500 hens, the effects of lighting treatment after 20 weeks' feed allocation and of feed form on the length of time taken to consume the daily allocation of feed were measured. Pullets were reared on 8-hour photoperiods to 20 weeks, then transferred to one of four lighting ...

  13. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Afzal Beigh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial byproducts, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.

  14. ACTH-induced stress in weaned sows impairs LH receptor expression and steroidogenesis capacity in the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Zhu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress has been proved to impair the porcine reproduction soundly. Endocrine disruption, which is closely related to the persistent follicles, is possibly one of the results of stress, although the mechanism is unclear. Since the expression of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR in ovarian follicular wall and concentrations of steroid hormone in follicular fluid are related to the development of persistent follicles, this study is designed to evaluate the effect of administered adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH to weaned pigs on their ovarian steroidogenesis capacity and LHR expression. Methods Ten multiparous sows were weaned and randomly divided into two groups (n = 5 each. Sows received 1 IU/kg ACTH (ACTH group or saline (control group every 8 h from days 3–9 after jugular vein intubation. Blood samples were collected throughout the experiment, and ovaries were collected after slaughter on day 10. Follicular fluid (FF was used to determine the steroid hormone concentrations. The ovarian follicle wall was obtained and stored in liquid nitrogen to detect mRNA levels. Results The plasma cortisol concentration was significantly (P  0.05. Immunostaining results revealed 3β-HSD,P450c17, and LHR expression in theca cells, and P450arom expression in granulosa cells. Immunohistochemical staining showed significant differences in the distribution of 3β-HSD, P450c17, LHR, and P450arom between the two groups. Conclusions These findings indicated that ACTH significantly diminished the LHR expression and steroidogenesis capacity of the ovaries of weaned sows.

  15. Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by adopting anaerobic digestion technology on dairy, sow and pig farms in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J. [Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2011-01-15

    The impact of anaerobic digestion (AD) technology on mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manure management on typical dairy, sow and pig farms in Finland was compared. Firstly, the total annual GHG emissions from the farms were calculated using IPCC guidelines for a similar slurry type manure management system. Secondly, laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to estimate methane (CH{sub 4}) potentials and process parameters for semi-continuous digestion of manures. Finally, the obtained experimental data were used to evaluate the potential renewable energy production and subsequently, the possible GHG emissions that could be avoided through adoption of AD technology on the studied farms. Results showed that enteric fermentation (CH{sub 4}) and manure management (CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O) accounted for 231.3, 32.3 and 18.3 Mg of CO{sub 2} eq. yr{sup -1} on dairy, sow and pig farms, respectively. With the existing farm data and experimental methane yields, an estimated renewable energy of 115.2, 36.3 and 79.5 MWh of heat yr{sup -1} and 62.8, 21.8 and 47.7 MWh of electricity yr{sup -1} could be generated in a CHP plant on these farms respectively. The total GHG emissions that could be offset on the studied dairy cow, sow and pig farms were 177, 87.7 and 125.6 Mg of CO{sub 2} eq. yr{sup -1}, respectively. The impact of AD technology on mitigating GHG emissions was mainly through replaced fossil fuel consumption followed by reduced emissions due to reduced fertilizer use and production, and from manure management. (author)

  16. Effect of pre-sowing laser biostimulation on seeds on white lupine growth under differentiated temperature conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podleśny, J.

    1999-01-01

    The experiment went on over 6 weeks. Plants emergence depended on the temperature and pre-sowing laser irradiation of seeds. White lupine seeds germinated better under normal thermal conditions than in chilling stress. Triple irradiation of seeds showed the best advantageous effect improving the quality of plant emergence, irrespective of thermal conditions. The plants sprouted about 3-4 days earlier in comparison to plants from not irradiated seeds. Laser light positively affected also the height of plants, root length and dry matter yield of roots and aboveground parts

  17. REPELLENCE OF NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC SUBSTANCES TO THE CONSUMING WILD MAMMALS OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze SEEDS AT FIELD SOWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme O. S. Ferraz de Arruda

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at testing some natural and synthetic substances, not phytotoxics and not lethal for the fauna, to verify the repellence action for the consuming wild animals of Parana-Pine seeds, in two direct sowing experiments in the field. In experiment I, there was the direct application of the treatments in the Parana-Pine seeds and, in the experiment II, there was the application of the treatments only in the surface of the plantation hollows, after the sowing of Parana-Pine seeds. The Parana-Pine seeds and the treatments were prepared at Laboratory of Center of Agroveterinary Sciences, University of Santa Catarina State, at Lages city, Brazil. The experiments were carried to a native-antropic field area at Lages city. It was adopted the experimental design of randomized blocks for both experiments. Experiment I was composed of 15 treatments, 10 seeds per treatment, with 4 replications, and experiment II was composed of 11 treatments, 10 seeds per treatment, with 4 replications. The tested substances, isolated or in mixtures, were: fruit of red pepper, root of parsley, stem and leaf of wormwood herb, lemon scented gum essential oil, linseed oil, castor bean oil, rosin, copper oxychloride, copper sulphate, sulphur, látex ink and calcium lignosulfonate. Through the periodic inspections, during 167 and 165 days respectively for the experiments I and II, data were collected and organized through the attacked and not attacked Paraná-Pine seeds, being submitted to statistical analysis later. The predation rates were considered high for both experiments: 86,7% in experiment I and 84,3% in experiment II. In the experiment with treated Parana-Pine seeds, the longer time for the beginning of the predation was 104 days after the sowing, while, in the experiment with treatment in the environment (hollows, it was 64 days after the sowing. Solution of rosin and alcohol + lemon scented gum oil, applied in the seeds, presented potential for reduction

  18. CONTRIBUTIONS TO KNOWLEDGE OF SOME MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES IN YOUNG SOWS BRED IN FARMSTEADS ON CLUJ COUNTY INCIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. CORNOIU

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study tries to offer some information concerning the morphological stateof Bazna Breed female suina biological material bred and kept in farmsteads onCluj County incidence, near to enter to reproduce for the first time.Practically, after a biometric synthetic check, 37 young sows were phenotypicallyanalyzed, considered as acceptable to reproduction by the breeders.The obtained results were statistically processed and the formulated conclusionswant to be modest recommendations for suina breeders in general, and for Baznabreed in special.

  19. Feed the dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark; Bajde, Domen

    2016-01-01

    MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian communicat......MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian...

  20. Radiation technology and feed production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    The use of radiation technology to prepare feeds and feed additions for cattle of non-feed vegetable blends is considered.Physicochemical foundations of radiation-chemical processes, possibilities of the use of various radiation devices are given. Data on practical realization of the technology are presented and prospects of its introduction to solve the tasks put forward by the USSR program on feed production are analyzed

  1. Feed sources for livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Zanten, van, H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Current levels of production of especially animal-source food (ASF), pose severe pressure on the environment via their emissions to air, water, and soil; and their use of scarce resources, such as la...

  2. Growth and development of sugar sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum L. Pers. plants at different terms of sowing and seeding depth in the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. А. Герасименко

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article features the results of research on phenological observations, biometric parameters of growth and development of the plants of sugar sorghum Silosnoe 42 variety during the vegetation at different terms of sowing and seeding depth in the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. In particular, we show data on ground germination capacity of the seeds, the duration of the interphase periods, tillering, plant height and the diameter of the stem. It was established that the planting of sugar sorghum in mid-May (the third sowing date to the seeding depth of 4...6 cm enabled better plant development, as well as in these conditions the maximum values of plant growth and development were registered compared to the other test editions. Therefore, were would suggest the third term of sowing and seed depth 4...6 cm for growing the crop in this area.

  3. Emerging issues in complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F.; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence; Bégin, France

    2017-01-01

    the complementary feeding period is summarized. The increased availability of sugar-containing beverages and unhealthy snack foods and its negative effect on young child's diet is described. Negative effects of nonresponsive feeding and force feeding are also discussed, although few scientific studies have...

  4. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...

  5. Overview of FEED, the feeding experiments end-user database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Christine E; Vinyard, Christopher J; Williams, Susan H; Gapeyev, Vladimir; Liu, Xianhua; Lapp, Hilmar; German, Rebecca Z

    2011-08-01

    The Feeding Experiments End-user Database (FEED) is a research tool developed by the Mammalian Feeding Working Group at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center that permits synthetic, evolutionary analyses of the physiology of mammalian feeding. The tasks of the Working Group are to compile physiologic data sets into a uniform digital format stored at a central source, develop a standardized terminology for describing and organizing the data, and carry out a set of novel analyses using FEED. FEED contains raw physiologic data linked to extensive metadata. It serves as an archive for a large number of existing data sets and a repository for future data sets. The metadata are stored as text and images that describe experimental protocols, research subjects, and anatomical information. The metadata incorporate controlled vocabularies to allow consistent use of the terms used to describe and organize the physiologic data. The planned analyses address long-standing questions concerning the phylogenetic distribution of phenotypes involving muscle anatomy and feeding physiology among mammals, the presence and nature of motor pattern conservation in the mammalian feeding muscles, and the extent to which suckling constrains the evolution of feeding behavior in adult mammals. We expect FEED to be a growing digital archive that will facilitate new research into understanding the evolution of feeding anatomy.

  6. Conception rate and litter size in multiparous sows after intrauterine insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen in a commercial swine herd in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanapiwat, Panida; Olanratmanee, Em-On; Kaeoket, Kampon; Tummaruk, Padet

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the conception rate and litter size in sows after fixed time intra-uterine insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen in a commercial swine herd in Thailand. Sixty-nine Landrace multiparous sows were randomly allocated into two groups, including control (n=36) and treatment (n=33). The control sows were inseminated with extended fresh semen (3 × 10(9) motile sperm/dose, 100 ml) at 24, 36 and 48 hr after the onset of estrus. The treatment sows were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen (2 × 10(9) motile sperm/dose, 20 ml) at 24 and 36 hr after induction of ovulation by human chorionic gonadotropin. All inseminations were carried out by using an intra-uterine insemination technique. The time of ovulation was determined by using transrectal real-time B-mode ultrasonography. The conception rate, farrowing rate, total number of piglets born/litter (TB) and number of piglets born alive/litter (BA) were evaluated. The sows inseminated with extended fresh semen yield a higher TB (10.8 versus 9.0 piglets/l, P=0.015) and tended to have a higher conception rate (88.9% versus 75.8%, P=0.150) than sows inseminated with frozen-thawed semen. In conclusion, insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen can be practiced with convinced fertility under field conditions by fixed-time intrauterine insemination with 2 × 10(9) sperm/ dose of 20 ml at 24 and 36 hr after the onset of estrus.

  7. Study of Sowing Date and Seed Priming Effect on Seed Yield, Its Components and Some of Agronomic and Qualitative Properties of Two Spring Canola Cultivars in Hamedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohagheghi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of planting date, cultivar and seed priming on yield, yield components, oil and protein content of seeds of two spring canola cultivars a field experiment was conducted in Bu-Ali Sina University in 2012. The experiment was factorial in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Factors consisted of sowing dates (14 and 24th March and 3rd April, seed priming treatments (no-primed, primed with water and zinc sulfate solution and two canola cultivars (Hayola401 and RGS003. The evaluated traits were number of pod per plant, number of seed per pod, 1000 seeds weight, plant height, oil and protein percentage, yields of seed, oil and biologic and harvest index. The results showed that delay in sowing, except of seed protein percentage, decreased all traits. Seed priming could increase traits of plant height, 1000 seed weight, number of seed per pod, oil percentage and yield and protein percentage in all sowing dates. Seed priming with zinc sulfate solution and water increased the number of pod per plant 16.1 and 10.5 percent, respectively compared to no-primed treatment. The highest seed number per pod was achieved through the priming with water and zinc sulfate solution with an average of 14.3, in the first sowing date for Hayola401 cultivar. Priming with water, especially in the third sowing date increased oil yield by 56 percent in RGS003 cultivar in comparison with its no-primed treatment. Also priming with zinc sulfate and water, increased the harvest index 5.04 and 3.7% respectively compared to no-primed treatment. In general in the case of delay in sowing date in spring rapeseed cultivars especially for RGS003, primed seed preferably with zinc sulfate improves the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the production.

  8. Ridge sowing of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in a minimum till system improves the productivity, oil quality, and profitability on a sandy loam soil under an arid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Ahmad; Suleman, Muhammad; Qayyum, Abdul; Sattar, Abdul; Wasaya, Allah; Ijaz, Muhammad; Nawaz, Ahmad

    2018-04-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is a major oilseed crop grown for its edible oil across the globe including Pakistan. In Pakistan, the production of edible oil is less than the required quantity; the situation is being worsened with the increasing population. Thus, there is dire need to grow those sunflower genotypes which perform better under a given set of agronomic practices. In this 2-year study, we compared four sunflower genotypes, viz., Armoni, Kundi, Sinji, and S-278 for their yield potential, oil contents, fatty acid composition, and profitability under three sowing methods, viz., bed sowing, line sowing, and ridge sowing and two tillage system, viz., plow till and minimum till. Among the sunflower genotypes, the genotype Armoni produced the highest plant height, number of leaves, head diameter, 1000-achene weight, and achene yield; the oil contents and oleic acid were the highest in genotype Sinji. Among the sowing methods, the highest number of leaves per plant, head diameter, number of achenes per head, achene yield, and oil contents were recorded in ridge sowing. Among the tillage systems, the highest head diameter 16. 2 cm, 1000-achene weight (57.2 g), achene yield (1.8 t ha -1 ), oil contents (35.2%), and oleic acid (15.2%) were recorded in minimum till sunflower. The highest net benefits and benefit to cost ratio were recorded in minimum till ridge sown Armoni genotype. In conclusion, the genotype Armoni should be grown on ridges to achieve the highest achene yield, oil contents, and net profitability.

  9. Phenological Variation and its Relation with Yield in several Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cultivars under Normal and Late Sowing Mediated Heat Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrun NAHAR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenological performance in relation to yield of five modern varieties of wheat �Sourav�, �Pradip�, �Sufi�, �Shatabdi� and �Bijoy� were evaluated under two growing environments; one is normal growing environment (sowing at November 30 and the other is post anthesis heat stressed environment (sowing at December 30. In case of late seeding, the varieties phased a significant level of high temperature stress that also significantly affected the required days to germination, booting, anthesis, maturity of all varieties including the yield as compared to normal sowing treatment. The temperature during the grain filling or grain maturing period was near 23�C in case of normal seeding and it was near about 28�C to 30�C and sometimes reached above this range in the later period of late seeded treatment. In the normal sowing treatment the germination period was lower than the late sowing treatment as during that time the temperature was higher as compared to late sowing condition where temperature was lower. Days to anthesis and booting decreased due to late sown heat stress condition regardless the cultivars. These phenological characteristics under heat stressed condition led the wheat cultivars to significantly lower the grain yield as compared to normal condition. Due to heat stress, the yield reduction was 69.53% in �Sourav�, 58.41% in �Pradip�, 73.01% in �Sufi�, 55.46% in �Shatabdi� and 53.42% in �Bijoy�.

  10. Evaluation of Sowing Date, Plant Density and Harvest Method on Growth, Yield and Yield Components of Baby Corn (Zea mays L. var. SC403su

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rahmani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering importance of baby corn, the study was consisted of sowing date (14th June, 3th July and 24th July as main Plots and plant densities (6.5, 8.5 and 10.5. plant m-2 as sub Plots and two harvest methods (baby corn, as first harvest sweet corn and next ear as baby corn on Growth parameter and yield of baby corn (Zea mays L. Var SC403su in agricultural Research Center and Natural Resources of Khorasan Razavi Province, Mashhad on 2009. The experiment was carried out in a factorial split plot design based on randomized completely block design with 4 replications. The results showed the highest plant height on sowing date 3thJuly with average 168.6 cm. Also the highest standard ear percentage that one of the important factors for food manufactory had on sowing date 24th July with plant density 10.5 plants plant m-2, by harvesting method baby corn with 63.9 percentages. Also The results showed the highest substandard ear percentage of baby corn was belonged to sowing date 24th July with 8.5 plant m-2, by harvesting method (baby corn sweet corn with 74.6%. The highest harvest ear index was belonged to sowing date14thJune, by harvesting method (baby corn sweet corn with 35.29 percentages. Therefore, sowing date 3thJuly for forage production with average 4 kg m-2 by harvesting method baby corn are recommended for lateral produce production. Considering to Mashhad weather conditions, producing the highest and best standard ear percentage, density, 10.5 plants per square meter and 24th July planting is recommended.

  11. Negative effects of climate warming on maize yield are reversed by the changing of sowing date and cultivar selection in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijuan; Hubbard, Kenneth G; Lin, Xiaomao; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2013-11-01

    Northeast China (NEC) accounts for about 30% of the nation's maize production in China. In the past three decades, maize yields in NEC have increased under changes in climate, cultivar selection and crop management. It is important to investigate the contribution of these changing factors to the historical yield increases to improve our understanding of how we can ensure increased yields in the future. In this study, we use phenology observations at six sites from 1981 to 2007 to detect trends in sowing dates and length of maize growing period, and then combine these observations with in situ temperature data to determine the trends of thermal time in the maize growing period, as a measure of changes in maize cultivars. The area in the vicinity of these six sites accounts for 30% of NEC's total maize production. The agricultural production systems simulator, APSIM-Maize model, was used to separate the impacts of changes in climate, sowing dates and thermal time requirements on maize phenology and yields. In NEC, sowing dates trended earlier in four of six sites and maturity dates trended later by 4-21 days. Therefore, the period from sowing to maturity ranged from 2 to 38 days longer in 2007 than it was in 1981. Our results indicate that climate trends alone would have led to a negative impact on maize. However, results from the adaptation assessments indicate that earlier sowing dates increased yields by up to 4%, and adoption of longer season cultivars caused a substantial increase in yield ranging from 13% to 38% over the past 27 years. Therefore, earlier sowing dates and introduction of cultivars with higher thermal time requirements in NEC have overcome the negative effects of climate change and turned what would have otherwise been a loss into a significant increase in maize yield. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The effect of organic fertilizers and different sowing dates on yield and yield components of flower and grain of Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rezvani moghaddam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to find out suitable organic fertilizers for elimination of chemical fertilizers usage and the optimum sowing date in Pot Marigold cultivation, an experiment was conducted in the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2007 growing season. For this purpose a split plot experiment based on completely randomized block design with three replications was used. The main factor consist of four different fertilizers (50 kg.ha-1 N, 40 t.ha-1 Cow manure, 20 t.ha-1 Compost fertilizer and 10 t.ha-1 Hen manure beside control (without fertilizer and three sowing dates (10th April, 1th May and 21th May were allocated as sub factor. The results showed that the length time of emergence to budding, budding to flowering and flowering to ripening decreased by delay in sowing date, significantly. By delay in sowing date, plant height and dry matter also decreased because of reduction of vegetative growing duration. The various fertilizers had not significant effect on developmental stages and morphological characteristics of Pot Marigold. Nitrogen fertilizer and Hen manure in compare of other treatments had significantly (p≤0.05 higher level in number of inflorescences, yield of inflorescences, yield of petal and seed yield. Thus, Hen manure can be a suitable replacement of chemical fertilizers in Pot Marigold cultivation. The various sowing dates showed significant effect on the most measured characteristics of seed and inflorescences yield components of Pot Marigold. The highest of all studied characteristics were obtained in 10th April and 1th May than 21th May sowing dates.

  13. Conception Rate and Litter Size in Multiparous Sows after Intrauterine Insemination Using Frozen-Thawed Boar Semen in a Commercial Swine Herd in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHANAPIWAT, Panida; OLANRATMANEE, Em-On; KAEOKET, Kampon; TUMMARUK, Padet

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to determine the conception rate and litter size in sows after fixed time intra-uterine insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen in a commercial swine herd in Thailand. Sixty-nine Landrace multiparous sows were randomly allocated into two groups, including control (n=36) and treatment (n=33). The control sows were inseminated with extended fresh semen (3 × 109 motile sperm/dose, 100 ml) at 24, 36 and 48 hr after the onset of estrus. The treatment sows were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen (2 × 109 motile sperm/dose, 20 ml) at 24 and 36 hr after induction of ovulation by human chorionic gonadotropin. All inseminations were carried out by using an intra-uterine insemination technique. The time of ovulation was determined by using transrectal real-time B-mode ultrasonography. The conception rate, farrowing rate, total number of piglets born/litter (TB) and number of piglets born alive/litter (BA) were evaluated. The sows inseminated with extended fresh semen yield a higher TB (10.8 versus 9.0 piglets/l, P=0.015) and tended to have a higher conception rate (88.9% versus 75.8%, P=0.150) than sows inseminated with frozen-thawed semen. In conclusion, insemination using frozen-thawed boar semen can be practiced with convinced fertility under field conditions by fixed-time intrauterine insemination with 2 × 109 sperm/ dose of 20 ml at 24 and 36 hr after the onset of estrus. PMID:24954517

  14. Pre-sowing laser light effect on some biochemical and physiological processes in seeds and plants of maize (Zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podleśny, J.; Stochmal, A.

    2005-01-01

    The work is a contribution towards to widen the knowledge concerning the influence of laser irradiation on maize seeds and plants. The treating of seeds by laser light increased the activity of amylolytic enzymes in studied seeds. The largest differentiation of amylolytic activity for irridiated vs. non irridiated seeds was found after 96 hours from sowing. The dynamics of activity of these enzymes was similar in the seeds of both maize hybrids. Pre-sowing laser stimulation of seeds also positively influenced the growth and development of seedlings grew from the seeds

  15. Mechanistic model to predict colostrum intake based on deuterium oxide dilution technique data and impact of gestation and prefarrowing diets on piglet intake and sow yield of colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, P K; Flummer, C; Hurley, W L; Kristensen, N B; Labouriau, R L; Sørensen, M T

    2014-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to quantify colostrum intake (CI) of piglets using the D2O dilution technique, to develop a mechanistic model to predict CI, to compare these data with CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model developed for bottle-fed piglets, and to study how composition of diets fed to gestating sows affected piglet CI, sow colostrum yield (CY), and colostrum composition. In total, 240 piglets from 40 litters were enriched with D2O. The CI measured by D2O from birth until 24 h after the birth of first-born piglet was on average 443 g (SD 151). Based on measured CI, a mechanistic model to predict CI was developed using piglet characteristics (24-h weight gain [WG; g], BW at birth [BWB; kg], and duration of CI [D; min]: CI, g=-106+2.26 WG+200 BWB+0.111 D-1,414 WG/D+0.0182 WG/BWB (R2=0.944). This model was used to predict the CI for all colostrum suckling piglets within the 40 litters (n=500, mean=437 g, SD=153 g) and was compared with the CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model (mean=305 g, SD=140 g). The previous empirical model underestimated the CI by 30% compared with that obtained by the new mechanistic model. The sows were fed 1 of 4 gestation diets (n=10 per diet) based on different fiber sources (low fiber [17%] or potato pulp, pectin residue, or sugarbeet pulp [32 to 40%]) from mating until d 108 of gestation. From d 108 of gestation until parturition, sows were fed 1 of 5 prefarrowing diets (n=8 per diet) varying in supplemented fat (3% animal fat, 8% coconut oil, 8% sunflower oil, 8% fish oil, or 4% fish oil+4% octanoic acid). Sows fed diets with pectin residue or sugarbeet pulp during gestation produced colostrum with lower protein, fat, DM, and energy concentrations and higher lactose concentrations, and their piglets had greater CI as compared with sows fed potato pulp or the low-fiber diet (Pcoconut oil decreased lactose and increased DM concentrations of colostrum compared with other prefarrowing diets (P

  16. The effects of floor heating on body temperature, water consumption, stress response and immune competence around parturition in loose-housed sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, B M; Malmkvist, J; Pedersen, L J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to study whether floor heating from 12 h after onset of nest building until 48 h after birth of the first piglet had any effect on measures related to body temperature, water consumption, stress response and immune competence in loose-housed sows (n = 23......). In conclusion, the present results indicate that floor heating for a limited period around parturition did not compromise physiological and immunological parameters, water intake and body temperature in loose-housed sows. The water intake peaked the day before parturition and the body temperature peaked...

  17. Efficiency of pre-sowing gamma-irradiation of tomato seeds under conditions of protected ground and under the effect of mineral fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogosyan, G.S.; Avakyan, A.G.; Semerdzhyan, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Efficiency of pre-sowing gamma-irradiation of seeds on yield capacity and other practical and biological criteria of hothouse fertilized tomatoes has been studied. It is shown that pre-sowing gamma-irradiation of seeds increases the output of early production and total crop. It is suggested to use in production the irradiation of seeds in the dose of 12 Gr cultivating tomatoes on the background of N 240 P 240 K 240 and in the dose of 5 Gr on the ground of N 120 P 120 K 120 fertilizers

  18. Effect of sowing dates and different irrigation regimes on morphological characteristics and grain yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. (cultivar 3279 ILC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parviz rezvani moghadam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of different sowing dates and different irrigation regimes on morphological characteristics and grain yield of chickpea (cultivar 3279 ILC (Cicer arietinum L., an experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research-Education Station of Shahid Rejaee, Neyshaboor during 2001-2002. Four irrigation regimes (without irrigation, one time irrigation (at early flowering, two times irrigation (at early flowering and 50% flowering and control (irrigation every 10 days and Four sowing dates early planting (autumn, Entezari, and late planting (spring and delayed were compared in a spilt plot layout based on randomized complete block design with four replications per treatment. The results showed that all chickpea plants with delayed sowing date on combination of without irrigation, one time irrigation (at early flowering and two times irrigation (at early flowering and 50% flowering were dead. By delaying sowing date, duration between the time of starting flowering and maturity became shorter. Plant height, distance of the first pod from earth surface, distance between nods, number of nods per plant, number of stems per plant, number of pods per plant, number of pods with one, two and with no seed per plant, number of seeds per plant, seed weight per plant, 100 seed weight and grain yield were increased when the number of irrigation increased. By increasing the growing season, plant height, distance of the first pod from earth surface, number of nods per plant, number of stems per plant, number of pods per plant, number of pods with two and without seeds per plant, number of seeds per plant and seed weight per plant were increased. The autumn sowing date had the highest and the spring date had the lowest grain yield. The highest plant height, number of nods per plant, number of stems per plant, number of pods per plant, number of pods with one and with no seed per plant, number of seeds per plant and grain yield were obtained at

  19. Impact of fat source and dietary fibers on feed intake, plasma metabolites, litter gain and the yield and composition of milk in sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Bruun, Thomas S; Poulsen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    replace cereals in lactation diets. Thus, a standard lactation diet low in dietary fiber, and two high-fiber diets based on sugar beet pulp (SBP) or alfalfa meal (ALF) were formulated. The SBP diet was high in soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), whereas ALF being high in insoluble NSP. Each diet...

  20. Effectiveness of time of sowing and cultivar choice for managing climate change: wheat crop phenology and water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qunying; O'Leary, Garry; Cleverly, James; Eamus, Derek

    2018-02-08

    Climate change (CC) presents a challenge for the sustainable development of wheat production systems in Australia. This study aimed to (1) quantify the impact of future CC on wheat grain yield for the period centred on 2030 from the perspectives of wheat phenology, water use and water use efficiency (WUE) and (2) evaluate the effectiveness of changing sowing times and cultivars in response to the expected impacts of future CC on wheat grain yield. The daily outputs of CSIRO Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model for baseline and future periods were used by a stochastic weather generator to derive changes in mean climate and in climate variability and to construct local climate scenarios, which were then coupled with a wheat crop model to achieve the two research aims. We considered three locations in New South Wales, Australia, six times of sowing (TOS) and three bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars in this study. Simulation results show that in 2030 (1) for impact analysis, wheat phenological events are expected to occur earlier and crop water use is expected to decrease across all cases (the combination of three locations, six TOS and three cultivars), wheat grain yield would increase or decrease depending on locations and TOS; and WUE would increase in most of the cases; (2) for adaptation considerations, the combination of TOS and cultivars with the highest yield varied across locations. Wheat growers at different locations will require different strategies in managing the negative impacts or taking the opportunities of future CC.