WorldWideScience

Sample records for electronic sow feeding

  1. Transition feeding of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    The transition period from late gestation to early lactation is rather short, but it is nonetheless of major importance for the productivity of high-prolific sows. The transition period, here defined as the last 10 d of gestation and the first 10 d of lactation, encompasses substantial changes...... for the sow. More specifically, fetal growth, mammary growth, colostrum production and sow maintenance require substantial amounts of nutrients during late gestation. After parturition, nutrients are mainly required for milk synthesis and sow maintenance, but the regressing uterus supplies considerable...... amounts of amino acids to the blood. The physiology of the sow ensures that nutrient transfer to the offspring is not being compromised and that nutrients are preferentially being allocated to uterine tissues before parturition and to the udder after parturition. During the transition period, the sow...

  2. Management factors affecting aggression in dynamic group housing systems with electronic sow feeding - a field trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L S; Bertelsen, D; Jensen, K H

    1999-01-01

    days after the last introduction) were collected from each herd and analysed according to activity and aggressive interactions. In two of the four herds recordings were collected in two separate periods with different starting times for the feeding cycle. In all herds peaks of activity in the morning...

  3. The Effects of Gilts Housed Either in Group with the Electronic Sow Feeding System or Conventional Stall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J C; Jung, S W; Jin, S S; Ohh, S J; Kim, J E; Kim, Y Y

    2015-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to assess the welfare and productivity of gestating gilts in groups with the electronic sow feeding (ESF) system compared to conventional stalls. A total of 83 gilts (Yorkshire×Landrace) were housed into individual stalls to be artificially inseminated. Gilts confirmed pregnant were introduced to their treatment, conventional stalls (ST) or groups with the ESF system. All gilts were taken to the farrowing crates one week prior to their expected farrowing date. In the gestation period, there were no significant differences between gilts allocated to ST and ESF on growth performance. However, backfat thickness gain (p = 0.08) and body condition score (BCS) at 110 days of gestation (p = 0.10) tended to be higher in ESF gilts than ST. Likewise, gilts housed in group showed significantly higher estimated body muscle contents at 110 days of gestation (p = 0.02) and body muscle change during gestation (p = 0.01). There was a trend for a shorter parturition time in ESF gilts (p = 0.07). In the lactation period, group housed gilts showed a tendency to increased BCS changes (p = 0.06). Reproductive performance did not differ with the exception of piglet mortality (ST = 0.2 no. of piglets vs ESF = 0.4 no. of piglets; p = 0.01). In blood profiles, ST gilts showed a higher cortisol level at 110 days of gestation (p = 0.01). Weaning to estrus interval was shorter in gilts housed in ESF than ST (p = 0.01). In locomotory behaviors, ESF gilts recorded a tendency to elevate locomotion score at 36, 70, and 110 days of gestation (p = 0.07, p = 0.06, and p = 0.06, respectively). Similarly, ESF gilts showed significantly higher incidence of scratches at 36, 70, and 110 days of gestation (p = 0.01). Moreover, farrowing rates were higher in stall treatment (97.6%) compare to group housing treatment (95.2%). In conclusion, while group housed gilts with ESF system positively affected welfare status in combination with less physiologically stressful

  4. Genetic aspects of feed intake in lactating sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergsma, R.

    2011-01-01

    Productivity of sows has increased worldwide, especially during the last decade. Sows have been changed genetically to produce larger litters. It was hypothesized that including feed intake or feed efficiency during lactation or both in the breeding objective for dam lines is necessary to facilitate

  5. Biscuit bran for feeding lactating sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Corassa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biscuit bran can be alternatively used as a partial or total substitute for conventional ingredients, however, it is necessary to evaluate the impact of its inclusion. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the inclusion of biscuit bran in diets of lactating sows. A total of 16 lactating sows was used in a completely randomized design, with four treatments and each sow being considered an experimental unit. Treatments consisted of inclusions of 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% of biscuit bran composed by 50% of cream and salt and water crackers and 50% of buttered, chocolate and related biscuits. The weight, weight loss and weight variation, at the end of the lactation period, did not differ statistically for the different biscuit bran inclusion levels. Treatments did not affect the ration consumption, milk yield and bacon thickness of sows or the litter performance. The economic analysis showed better values for diets containing 20% and 30% of biscuit bran. It was concluded that the inclusion of biscuit bran was viable up to 30%, in diets for lactating sows, without affecting the sow and litter performance.

  6. Evaluation of dry feeding and liquid feeding to lactating sows under high temperature environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Hong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liquid feeding system has been introduced to domestic swine farms, but negative cognition about liquid feeding system has been remained for feed waste decay related with poor management and microbial contamination. For these reasons, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding method in lactating sows. Methods A total of 30 mixed-parity (average 4.13 lactating sows (Yorkshire × Landrace with an initial BW of 218.8 ± 19.5kg was used in a 3 week trial. Sows were allotted to 1 of 2 treatments in a completely randomized design by their body weight, backfat thickness, parity and alive litter weight. One of treatments was dry feeding and the other was liquid feeding (water to feed ratio, 1:1. Experimental diets contained 3265 kcal ME/kg, 12.6 % CP, 5.76 % EE, 1.09 % total lysine, 0.25 % total methionine, as fed basis. Results Dry feeding treatment had high body weight loss rather than liquid feeding treatment (P = 0.04. Dry feeding treatment had tendency to increase litter weight at 21d of lactation (P = 0.06 and litter weight gain (P = 0.04 during lactation period (0–3 week. Sows fed dry feeding method made milk containing high content of casein and total solid rather than sows fed liquid feeding method (P = 0.04. In addition, dry feeding treatment had tendency to higher content of milk fat, protein and solid not fat on 21d of lactation (P = 0.07. Sows fed dry feeding type also showed higher milk energy content in milk of 21d lactation (P = 0.05. Furthermore, liquid feeding treatment showed high occurrence in feed waste during lactation period (P < 0.01. Conclusion Dry feeding method was more suitable feeding method to lactating sows under high temperature environment like lactating barn.

  7. Effect of sow history features on growth and feed intake in grow-finish pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell-Kubiak, E; Knol, E F; Bijma, P

    2012-01-01

    The sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation and lactation. Certain features in the early life of the sow (sow history features) may affect her ability to deliver and feed a healthy litter. In genetic analyses of grow-finish traits, these effects are estimated as common litter or permanent sow effects. The objective of this research was to identify sow history features that affect the growth rate (GR) and feed intake (FI) of her offspring during the grow-finish stage. Data from 17,743 grow-finish pigs, coming from 604 sires and 681 crossbred sows, were recorded between May 2001 and February 2010 at the experimental farm of the Institute for Pig Genetics (Beilen, the Netherlands). The grow-finish stage was divided into 2 phases (phase 1: 26 to 75 kg; phase 2: 75 to 115 kg). The sow history features were birth litter size, birth year and season, birth farm, weaning age, age of transfer to the experimental farm, and age at first insemination. The sow features were added to the basic model one at a time to study their effect on the grow-finish traits of the pigs. Subsequently, significant sow features (P piglet in the birth litter of the sow, the GR of her offspring decreased by 1 g/d and the FI decreased by 4 g/d. Every extra day to the first insemination increased the GR of grow-finish pigs by 0.1 g/d. The heritability estimates for GR and FI (only in phase 2 of the grow-finish stage) decreased after adding the sow features to the model. No differences were found in estimates of the common litter effects between the basic model and the model with all significant sow features. The estimates of the permanent sow effect changed for FI from 0.03 (basic model) to 0.00 (model with sow features), and for FI in phase 1, the permanent sow effect decreased from 0.03 (basic model) to 0.01 (model with sow features). In conclusion, selected sow features do affect the grow-finish traits of the pigs, but their estimates are small and explain only a

  8. Sows with high milk production had both a high feed intake and high body mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, A. V.; Bruun, T. S.; Hansen, C. F.

    2017-01-01

    Selection for increased litter size have generated hyper-prolific sows that nurses large litters, however limited knowledge is available regarding the connection between milk production, feed intake and body mobilization of these modern sows. The aim of the current study was to determine what...... lactation. The number of total born piglets in the next litter was positively related to the number of piglets born in the previous litter. In conclusion, both a high feed intake and a high mobilization of body reserves was a prerequisite for a high milk production. The sows might be very close...... characterized sows with high milk production and nursing large litters, differences between sows of different parities and effects of lactational performance on next reproductive cycle. In total 565 sows (parity 1 to 4) were studied from 7 days before farrowing until weaning. On day 2 postpartum litters were...

  9. Feeding high fibre diets changes luminal environment and morphology in the intestine of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serena, Anja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2007-01-01

    -products (sugar beet pulp, potato pulp, pectin residue, pea hull, brewer's spent grain, and seed residue). The diets were fed for a four-week period to 12 sows (4 for each diet). Sows were stunned 4 h post-feeding, and digesta and tissue samples were collected from various parts of the small and large intestines...

  10. Lactation efficiency as a result of body composition dynamics and feed intake in sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergsma, R.; Kanis, E.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Knol, E.F.

    2009-01-01

    Through genetic selection and improvement of environment, litter size of sows increases. Increased energy requirement during lactation, increases the risk of excessive mobilization from body stores, with detrimental effects on reproductive performance. Feed intake capacity tends to decrease due to

  11. Effect of gestating sow body condition, feed refusals, and group housing on growth and feed intake in grower-finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sell-Kubiak, E.B.; Waaij, van der E.H.; Bijma, P.

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of this study was to identify sow gestation features that affect growth rate (GR) and feed intake (FI) of their offspring during grower–finishing stage. Because the sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation, certain features (e.g., BW of the sow), feed

  12. Feeding motivation and plasma metabolites in pregnant sows fed diets rich in dietary fiber either once or twice daily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of source and level of dietary fiber (DF) and feeding frequency (once vs. twice daily) on feeding motivation and plasma metabolites at 4 different time points post feeding. Sixty pregnant sows (Sus scrofa, 4 blocks of 15 sows) were allocated to 1 of 5...

  13. Legume seeds and rapeseed press cake as substitutes for soybean meal in sow and piglet feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Hanczakowska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of replacing soybean meal with mixtures of rapeseed press cake (RPC and legume seeds in sow and piglet diets was evaluated in an experiment on 30 sows and their progeny. Group I (control received standard feed mixture containing soybean meal as the main protein source, group II – RPC mixed with fodder pea, group III – field bean, group IV – blue lupine, group V – yellow lupine. Weaned piglets received mixtures containing RPC and legume mixtures. Considerable differences were found in amino acid composition of proteins. Differences in the apparent digestibility of essential nutrients were statistically insignificant. Sows fed with field bean and yellow lupine gave birth to heaviest piglets. After weaning piglets receiving field bean were characterized by the best weight gains. It is concluded that mixing rapeseed cake with legume seeds allows for the complete replacement of soybean meal in sow diets and for partial replacement in piglet diets.

  14. Selection for residual feed intake in growing pigs: effects on sow performance in a tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaudeau, D; Gourdine, J L; Fleury, J; Ferchaud, S; Billon, Y; Noblet, J; Gilbert, H

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the consequences of a divergent selection for residual feed intake (RFI) during growth in a temperate environment (TEMP) on sow performance in a tropical environment (TROP). Sows came from a selection experiment conducted at INRA in which 2 lines were selected for larger (RFI(+)) or smaller (RFI(─)) feed intake than predicted from performance. In the first analysis, a subsample of data obtained in TROP conditions (49 lactations) was compared to those obtained in TEMP on their sibs mated with the same boars (54 lactations). In the second analysis, data obtained in the TROP environment (82 lactations) were analyzed for testing the effect of season (warm vs. hot) and line on sow performance. Except for the lactation length, the interaction between line and climatic environment was not significant for the others traits (P > 0.05). The ADFI expressed per kilogram of litter BW gain tended to be higher in the RFI(+) line bred in the TROP environment (P = 0.080), together with piglet BW at weaning, which tended to be lower (P = 0.080). The ADFI was lower in TROP than in TEMP (4.56 vs. 5.86 kg/d; P = 0.003), with negative consequence on litter BW gain and maternal BW loss. The RFI(-) sows tended to eat less feed than RFI(+) sows during lactation (4.55 vs. 5.86 kg/d; P = 0.099). Litter BW at weaning was higher in the RFI(─) line. The RFI(─) sows ate significantly less feed to produce 1 kg of litter than the RFI(+) sows and tended to lose a larger amount of BW during lactation than the RFI(+) sows (2.40 vs. 3.02 kg/kg and -0.66 vs. -0.39 kg/d, respectively, P sows was mainly related to greater maternal body reserve mobilization (i.e., BW and back fat losses). In conclusion, selection for low RFI during growth in a TEMP environment did not impair sow and litter performance in tropical conditions.

  15. A two-diet feeding regime for lactating sows reduced nutrient deficiency in early lactation and improved milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Sønderby Bruun, Thomas; Feyera, Takele

    2016-01-01

    of DM (dry matter), fat and protein (P=0.99, 0.82 and 0.94). Milk lactose content was, however, higher for sows fed the 1-diet feeding regime (P=0.01). Sows on both dietary regimes were in negative energy balance throughout lactation. Sows fed the 1-diet regime were negative in N and Lys and reached...... a positive or zero balance in late lactation. For the 2-diet feeding regime sows’ N and Lys balance was positive throughout lactation, and N loss was higher for sows fed the 2-diet feeding regime. The concentration of urea in plasma was lower for sows fed the 1-diet feeding regime. In conclusion, feeding...

  16. The effect of substitution of fish meal with high protein plant feed in nutrition of sows and piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Živković B.; Migdal W.; Veselinović V.; Č. Radović; Kosovac O.; Fabjan M.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of use of high protein plant feed - Ekofish meal in nutrition of sows in lactation, sucking piglets and weaned piglets were investigated in this paper. Considering our previous positive experiences in use of similar feed in nutrition of weaned piglets and fatteners, objective of this paper was to evaluate the effects of use of high protein feed based on plant proteins in diets for lactating sows, suckling and weaned piglets. Investigated feed was produced according to specific tec...

  17. Effects of konjac flour inclusion in gestation diets on the nutrient digestibility, lactation feed intake and reproductive performance of sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H Q; Zhou, Y F; Tan, C Q; Zheng, L F; Peng, J; Jiang, S W

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of konjac flour (KF) inclusion in gestation diets of sows on nutrients digestibility, lactation feed intake, reproductive performance of sows and preweaning performance of piglets. Two isoenergetic and isonitrogenous gestation diets were formulated: a control diet and a 2.1% KF-supplemented diet (KF diet). Both diets had the same NDF and insoluble fiber (ISF) levels, but the KF diet had higher soluble fiber (SF) level. The day after breeding, 96 multiparous sows were assigned to the two dietary treatments. Restrict-fed during gestation, in contrast, all sows were offered the same lactation diet ad libitum. Response criteria included sow BW, backfat depth, lactation feed intake, weaning-to-estrus interval, litter size and piglet's weight at parturition and day 21 of lactation. On day 60 of gestation, 20 sows were used to measure nutrient digestibility. Results showed that the digestibility of dry matter, gross energy, crude fiber and ADF were not affected by the dietary treatments. The inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased NDF digestibility (Pdiet group. In addition, dietary treatment during gestation did not affect litter size, BW and backfat gain during gestation, lactation weight, backfat loss or weaning-to-estrus interval of sows. However, sows fed the KF diet consumed more (Pdiet per day than sows in the control group. Accordingly, sows fed the KF diet showed greater average piglet weights on day 21 of lactation (P=0.09), and the litter weight of sows fed the KF diet on day 21 of lactation increased by 3.95 kg compared with sows fed the control diet (not significant). In conclusion, the inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased lactation feed intake of sows and tended to improve litter performance.

  18. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Oregano Essential Oil to Sows on Oxidative Stress Status, Lactation Feed Intake of Sows, and Piglet Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chengquan; Sun, Haiqing; Ao, Jiangtao; Long, Guang; Jiang, Siwen; Peng, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-four multiparous large white sows were used to determine the effects of supplementing oregano essential oil (OEO) to the gestation and lactation diets on oxidative stress status, lactation feed intake, and their piglet performance. Two groups were fed diets with (OEO; n = 28) or without (Control; n = 26) supplemental 15 mg/kg OEO during gestation and lactation. The serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (P < 0.05), 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) (P < 0.05), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (P < 0.05) were higher during gestation (days 90 and 109) and lactation (days 1 and 3) than in early gestation (day 10). Compared with the control group, the OEO diet significantly reduced sows' serum concentrations of 8-OHdG (P < 0.05) and TBARS (P < 0.01) on day 1 of lactation. The OEO diet increased the sows' counts of faecal lactobacillus (P < 0.001) while reducing Escherichia coli (P < 0.001) and Enterococcus (P < 0.001). In the third week of lactation the treatment tended to increase sow's feed intake (P = 0.07), which resulted in higher average daily gain (P < 0.01) of piglets. Our results demonstrated that there is an increased systemic oxidative stress during late gestation and early lactation of sows. The OEO supplementation to sows' diet improved performance of their piglets, which may be attributed to the reduced oxidative stress. PMID:26539506

  19. Genetic relationships between boar feed efficiency and sow piglet production, body condition score, and stayability in Norwegian Landrace pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, K H; Ødegård, J; Aasmundstad, T; Olsen, D; Meuwissen, T H E

    2016-08-01

    Both feed efficiency and sow production are economically important traits in pig breeding. One challenge in a maternal line such as Norwegian Landrace is to breed for highly feed efficient fattening pigs and, at the same time, produce sows with high daily feed intake to maintain their BCS in multiple parities. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations among novel feed efficiency measurements on Norwegian Landrace boars and piglet production, stayability, and body condition in Norwegian Landrace sows. The feed efficiency measurements were lean meat and fat efficiency. These measurements were calculated using an extended residual feed intake model where total feed intake in the test period was the response variable and fat (kg) and lean meat (kg) on the carcass were included as both fixed and random regressions. The random regression coefficients that resulted from this model were breeding values, which represented the amount of feed used to produce an extra kilogram of lean meat and fat. The sow traits were stayability of the sow from first to second parity, BCS at weaning, litter weight at 3 wk, and total number of piglets born. All traits were recorded on first parity purebred Norwegian Landrace and analyzed using multivariate animal models. All genetic correlations between fat efficiency and sow traits were low. Significant genetic correlations were found only between fat efficiency and stayability (0.21 ± 0.11) and between fat efficiency and total litter weight at 3 wk (0.21 ± 0.10). The results indicate that selection for efficient deposition of fat could give poor stayability and lower litter weight at 3 wk in first parity sows. The genetic correlations between lean meat efficiency and sow traits were not significantly different from 0 and signified no genetic relationships between these traits. Selection for efficient deposition of lean meat should not affect the sow traits and is, therefore, beneficial.

  20. Correlated responses in sow appetite, residual feed intake, body composition, and reproduction after divergent selection for residual feed intake in the growing pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, H; Bidanel, J-P; Billon, Y; Lagant, H; Guillouet, P; Sellier, P; Noblet, J; Hermesch, S

    2012-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) has been explored as an alternative selection criterion to feed conversion ratio to capture the fraction of feed intake not explained by expected production and maintenance requirements. Selection experiments have found that low RFI in the growing pig is genetically correlated with reduced fatness and feed intake. Selection for feed conversion ratio also reduces sow appetite and fatness, which, together with increased prolificacy, has been seen as a hindrance for sow lifetime performance. The aims of our study were to derive equations for sow RFI during lactation (SRFI) and to evaluate the effect of selection for RFI during growth on sow traits during lactation. Data were obtained on 2 divergent lines selected for 7 generations for low and high RFI during growth in purebred Large Whites. The RFI was measured on candidates for selection (1,065 pigs), and sow performance data were available for 480 sows having from 1 to 3 parities (1,071 parities). Traits measured were sow daily feed intake (SDFI); sow BW and body composition before farrowing and at weaning (28.4 ± 1.7d); number of piglets born total, born alive, and surviving at weaning; and litter weight, average piglet BW, and within-litter SD of piglet BW at birth, 21 d of age (when creep feeding was available), and weaning. Sow RFI was defined as the difference between observed SDFI and SDFI predicted for sow maintenance and production. Daily production requirements were quantified by litter size and daily litter BW gain as well as daily changes in sow body reserves. The SRFI represented 24% of the phenotypic variability of SDFI. Heritability estimates for RFI and SRFI were both 0.14. The genetic correlation between RFI and SRFI was 0.29 ± 0.23. Genetic correlations of RFI with sow traits were low to moderate, consistent with responses to selection; selection for low RFI during growth reduced SDFI and increased number of piglets and litter growth, but also increased mobilization of

  1. Impact of feed restriction on the performance of highly prolific lactating sows and its effect on the subsequent lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bettio, S; Maiorka, A; Barrilli, L N E; Bergsma, R; Silva, B A N

    2016-03-01

    A total of 50 mixed parity sows of a high-prolificacy genetic line were used to evaluate the impact of feed restriction during lactation on their production and reproductive performance and their performance in the subsequent lactation. From day 7 of lactation, sows were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design into two treatments. In treatment 1, sows were fed 8.0 kg feed/day (control) and in treatment 2, sows were fed 4.0 kg/day. The same suckling pressure was maintained until weaning on day 28 of lactation. Average minimum and maximum temperatures measured during the experimental period were 32.1°C and 16.5°C, respectively. Control sows presented significantly higher feed intake (P0.10) in weaning-to-estrus interval and averaged 4.3 days. No effect of the treatment (P>0.10) was observed on any of the studied performance traits in the subsequent lactation, except for litter size at birth that tended (15.2 v. 14.1; Plactation leads to intense catabolism of the body tissues of sows, negatively affecting their milk production, and the litter weight gain and possibly number of piglets born in the next litter. On the other hand, restricted-fed sows are more efficient, producing more milk per amount of feed intake.

  2. Fungi and Mycotoxins in Feed Intended for Sows at Different Reproductive Stages in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Maricel Pereyra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate fungi and contamination levels of aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1, and zearalenone in raw materials and finished feed intended for sows at different reproductive stages. Total fungi, Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium species occurrence, were examined. Aspergillus flavus, A. niger aggregate spp., and F. verticillioides were the prevalent species. Fungal counts exceeded the levels proposed as feed hygienic quality limits (1×104 colony forming units at all reproductive stages. Aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1, and zearalenone were detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Aflatoxin levels in 80% samples of finished sow feeds were over the permitted levels of 0.02 μg g-1 (mean 228.2±95 μg Kg−1. Fumonisin B1 was detected in all tested raw materials at levels that varied from 50.3 to 1137.64 μg Kg−1 and finished feed samples at levels that ranged from 99.8 to 512.4 μg Kg−1. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone, and ochratoxin A were not detected in raw materials. All finished feeds were negative for zearalenone contamination whereas all nonpregnant gilt samples were contaminated with low OTA levels (mean 0.259±0.123. This fact requires periodic monitoring to prevent the occurrence of mycotoxicosis in animal production, to reduce the economic losses, and to minimize hazards to human health.

  3. Addition of crude glycerin to pig diets: sow and litter performance, and metabolic and feed intake regulating hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, F; Orengo, J; Villodre, C; Martínez, S; López, M J; Madrid, J

    2016-06-01

    The continued growth in biofuel production has led to a search for alternative value-added applications of its main by-product, crude glycerin. The surplus glycerin production and a higher cost of feedstuffs have increased the emphasis on evaluating its nutritive value for animal feeding. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the dietary addition of crude glycerin on sow and litter performance, and to determine the serum concentrations of hormones related to energy metabolism and feed intake in sows during gestation and lactation. A total of 63 sows were assigned randomly to one of three dietary treatments, containing 0, 3 or 6% crude glycerin (G0, G3 and G6, respectively) added to a barley-soybean meal-based diet. During gestation, none of the dietary treatments had an effect on performance, while during lactation, glycerin-fed sows consumed less feed than those fed the control diet (3.8 v. 4.2kg DM/day; P=0.007). Although lactating sows fed the G3 diet had a higher BW loss than those fed the control diet (���20.6 v. ���8.7 kg; P=0.002), this difference was not reflected in litter performance. In gestation, the inclusion of glycerin did not affect blood concentrations of insulin or cortisol. However, pregnant sows fed diets supplemented with glycerin showed lower concentrations of acyl-ghrelin and higher concentrations of leptin (���55 and +68%, respectively; Pglycerin did not affect the performance of sows during the gestation period; however it had a negative effect on the feed intake and weight loss of lactating sows. Moreover, further research is needed to elucidate the potential relationship between glycerin inclusion levels in the diet and the serum concentrations of hormones related to feed intake and energy balance control.

  4. A two-diet feeding regime for lactating sows reduced nutrient deficiency in early lactation and improved milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Sønderby Bruun, Thomas; Feyera, Takele

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether a new feeding concept composed of two dietary components fed daily throughout lactation could minimize sow weight loss and increase milk yield (MY) and piglet weight gain. In total, 14 sows were included in the experiment from parturition...... was recorded weekly. In addition, weekly milk samples and blood samples on d 3 and 17 were collected. Furthermore, sows were enriched with D2O (deuterated water) on d 2 and 28 after parturition to calculate body pools of fat and protein. Sows’ feed intake and weight loss interacted with diet regime across wk...... of DM (dry matter), fat and protein (P=0.99, 0.82 and 0.94). Milk lactose content was, however, higher for sows fed the 1-diet feeding regime (P=0.01). Sows on both dietary regimes were in negative energy balance throughout lactation. Sows fed the 1-diet regime were negative in N and Lys and reached...

  5. Impact of feeding reduced crude protein diets to lactating sows on nitrogen utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, L; de Lange, C F M; Krogh, U; Chamberlin, D; Trottier, N L

    2015-11-01

    Forty lactating multiparous Yorkshire sows were used to test the hypothesis that reducing dietary CP and supplementing with crystalline amino acids (CAA) increases dietary N utilization for milk production during early and peak lactation. Sows were assigned to 1 of 4 diets: 1) 16.0% CP (as-fed; analyzed contents; HCP); 2) 15.7% CP (MHCP); 3) 14.3% CP (MLCP); 4) 13.2% CP (LCP); diet HCP was formulated using soybean meal and corn as the only Lys sources. The reduced CP diets contained CAA to meet requirements of the limiting AA. Sow and piglet BW were measured on d 1, 3, 7, 14, 18, and 21 of lactation. Nitrogen retention was measured on sows between d 3 and 7 (early) and d 14 and 18 (peak) of lactation. Milk true protein output was calculated from estimated milk yield and analyzed true protein concentration. Sow BW change (overall mean: -4.2 ± 3.37 kg over the 21-d lactation period) and average daily DM intake (overall mean: 4.05 ± 0.18 and 6.12 ± 0.20 kg/d, early and peak lactation, respectively) did not differ between diets. Nitrogen intake decreased as dietary CP concentration decreased (114.3, 106.0, 107.4, and 99.0 ± 5.29 g/d and 169.5, 168.3, 161.2, and 145.1 ± 5.29 g/d for HCP, MHCP, MLCP, and LCP in early and peak lactation, respectively; L: < 0.05). Sow loin eye area loss tended to increase as dietary CP concentration decreased (Linear (): = 0.082). Litter growth rate (LGR) over the 21-d lactation period tended to increase with decreasing dietary CP concentration (L: = 0.084). In early lactation, N retention (N intake- fecal and urinary N) and milk true protein and casein output were not affected by dietary treatment. In early lactation, as dietary CP decreased, N retained as percentage of N intake tended to increase (L: = 0.093) and estimated efficiency of using retained N for milk N output was not influenced by dietary CP concentration. In peak lactation, N retention (122.5, 123.8, 121.2, and 109.0 ± 4.88 g/d for HCP, MHCP, MLCP, and LCP

  6. Robotic Sow

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    In swine farming 15 to 25 percent of piglets die before weaning, and that poses a serious economic problem for hog producers. Sometimes a sow will accidentally crush her piglets or she will reject or abuse a piglet. Frequently a litter is oversized and the sow cannot accommodate all her piglets for nursing or is just unable to lactate due to physical disorders. Farmatic Inc.'s mechanical mother pig comes in two models, one with eight artificial nipples and another with 16. Shortly before feeding time the automated sow releases a prescribed amount of formula from a refrigerated compartment into a warming chamber, where milk is heated to the desired temperature. At feeding time a heat lamp simulating a sow's body warmth is automatically turned on and the machine emits rhythmic grunts like a mother pig summoning her piglets. As piglets scamper to their mechanical mother, a panel across the front opens to expose the row of nipples.

  7. Effects of different amounts of konjac flour inclusion in gestation diets on physio-chemical properties of diets, postprandial satiety in pregnant sows, lactation feed intake of sows and piglet performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H Q; Tan, C Q; Wei, H K; Zou, Y; Long, G; Ao, J T; Xue, H X; Jiang, S W; Peng, J

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different amounts of konjac flour (KF) inclusion in the gestation diet on the physio-chemical properties of diets, postprandial satiety in pregnant sows, lactation feed intake of sows and piglet performance during two successive reproductive cycles. Multiparous Landrace sows (n=140) were assigned randomly to one of four experimental diets, and four gestation diets were formulated to contain varying amounts of KF at 0%, 0.6%, 1.2% or 2.2%, respectively. The water binding capacity (WBC) (Plactation feed intake of sows during entire lactation period (Plactation (linearly, Plactation feed intake and improved number of piglets weaned per litter through greater pre-weaning survival. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Oregano Essential Oil to Sows on Oxidative Stress Status, Lactation Feed Intake of Sows, and Piglet Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengquan Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-four multiparous large white sows were used to determine the effects of supplementing oregano essential oil (OEO to the gestation and lactation diets on oxidative stress status, lactation feed intake, and their piglet performance. Two groups were fed diets with (OEO; n=28 or without (Control; n=26 supplemental 15 mg/kg OEO during gestation and lactation. The serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS (P<0.05, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG (P<0.05, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS (P<0.05 were higher during gestation (days 90 and 109 and lactation (days 1 and 3 than in early gestation (day 10. Compared with the control group, the OEO diet significantly reduced sows’ serum concentrations of 8-OHdG (P<0.05 and TBARS (P<0.01 on day 1 of lactation. The OEO diet increased the sows’ counts of faecal lactobacillus (P<0.001 while reducing Escherichia coli (P<0.001 and Enterococcus (P<0.001. In the third week of lactation the treatment tended to increase sow’s feed intake (P=0.07, which resulted in higher average daily gain (P<0.01 of piglets. Our results demonstrated that there is an increased systemic oxidative stress during late gestation and early lactation of sows. The OEO supplementation to sows’ diet improved performance of their piglets, which may be attributed to the reduced oxidative stress.

  9. Relation between reproduction performance and indicators of feed intake, fear and social stress in commercial herds with group-housed non-lactating sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete

    2006-01-01

    Group-housing of non-lactating sows is becomming increasingly widespread in commercial sow herds in European countries as a result of changed legislation. Group-housing may lead to individual variation in feed intake, stress and fear, which may impair the reproduction ferformance. However, whethe...

  10. The effect of feed trough position on choice of defecation area in farrowing pens by loose sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to investigate how the feed trough position affects the sow’s choice of defecation area in a loose house farrowing pen. The eliminative behaviour of 24 1st parity sows was studied in a cross-over design. The feed trough and the water were positioned either...... in the activity area towards the neighbouring pen or in the activity area towards the aisle. On day 15 after farrowing, the feed trough and the water were moved to the opposite position. Videotapes were observed continuously on real time and the time of urination or defecation were recorded along with head...

  11. Effect of different feeding levels during three short periods of gestation on sow and litter performance over two reproductive cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, P; Yang, X J; Kim, J S; Menon, D; Baidoo, S K

    2017-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of different feeding levels during 3 short periods of gestation on sow and litter performance and its impact on subsequent reproductive performance. A total of 160 multiparous sows were allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments using a randomized complete block design with initial body weight (BW) and backfat (BF) as the blocking criteria. All sows were fed one common corn-soybean meal-based diet with the amount of 1.0×maintenance energy intake (100×BW0.75kcalME/d) throughout gestation except 3 periods of 7 d when dietary treatments were imposed on d 27, d 55 and d 83 of gestation. During the 3 short periods, sows were fed 1 of 4 different feeding levels: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0×maintenance energy level (0.5M, 1.0M, 1.5M and 2.0M, respectively). Results showed that both BW gain (16.12, 24.74, 30.62 and 36.71kg, respectively) and BF change (-0.27, 0.99, 1.49 and 2.45mm, respectively) from d 27 to 109 of gestation increased linearly (Ppiglet birth weights increased linearly (Ppiglet weaning weights were similar (P>0.10) among treatments. Subsequent reproductive performance was not affected (P>0.10) by feeding levels during the previous reproductive cycle. In conclusion, increasing feeding levels during 3 short periods of gestation increased BW and BF gains during gestation and caused less BW gain and more BF loss during lactation due to the reduction of lactation feed intake in response to increasing gestation feeding levels. Increasing feeding levels during 3 short periods of gestation increased piglet birth weight, but did not affect piglet weaning weight. The feeding strategies in the current reproductive cycle did not impact subsequent reproductive performance. It was estimated that requirements of 1.20M, 0.66M and 0.65M feeding levels were needed to maintain a constant BW during d 27-34, d 55-62 and d 83-90 of gestation, respectively, indicating current maintenance energy requirement may underestimate the actual

  12. Effects of feeding Bt maize to sows during gestation and lactation on maternal and offspring immunity and fate of transgenic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzoianu, Stefan G; Walsh, Maria C; Rea, Mary C; O'Donovan, Orla; Gelencsér, Eva; Ujhelyi, Gabriella; Szabó, Erika; Nagy, Andras; Ross, R Paul; Gardiner, Gillian E; Lawlor, Peadar G

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to determine the effect of feeding transgenic maize to sows during gestation and lactation on maternal and offspring immunity and to assess the fate of transgenic material. On the day of insemination, sows were assigned to one of two treatments (n = 12/treatment); 1) non-Bt control maize diet or 2) Bt-MON810 maize diet, which were fed for ~143 days throughout gestation and lactation. Immune function was assessed by leukocyte phenotyping, haematology and Cry1Ab-specific antibody presence in blood on days 0, 28 and 110 of gestation and at the end of lactation. Peripheral-blood mononuclear cell cytokine production was investigated on days 28 and 110 of gestation. Haematological analysis was performed on offspring at birth (n = 12/treatment). Presence of the cry1Ab transgene was assessed in sows' blood and faeces on day 110 of gestation and in blood and tissues of offspring at birth. Cry1Ab protein presence was assessed in sows' blood during gestation and lactation and in tissues of offspring at birth. Blood monocyte count and percentage were higher (PBt maize-fed sows on day 110 of gestation. Leukocyte count and granulocyte count and percentage were lower (PBt maize-fed sows. Bt maize-fed sows had a lower percentage of monocytes on day 28 of lactation and of CD4(+)CD8(+) lymphocytes on day 110 of gestation, day 28 of lactation and overall (Pspecific antibodies were not detected in sows or offspring. Treatment differences observed following feeding of Bt maize to sows did not indicate inflammation or allergy and are unlikely to be of major importance. These results provide additional data for Bt maize safety assessment.

  13. Impact of feeding reduced crude protein diets to lactating sows on nitrogen utilizatilon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, L; de Lange, C F M; Larsen, Uffe Krogh

    2015-01-01

    -fed; analyzed contents; HCP); 2) 15.7% CP (MHCP); 3) 14.3% CP (MLCP); 4) 13.2% CP (LCP); diet HCP was formulated using soybean meal and corn as the only Lys sources. The reduced CP diets contained CAA to meet requirements of the limiting AA. Sow and piglet BW were measured on d 1, 3, 7, 14, 18, and 21...

  14. Gestating sows have greater digestibility of energy in full fat rice bran and defatted rice bran than growing gilts regardless of level of feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, G A; Stein, H H

    2017-07-01

    The first objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE and nutrients in full fat rice bran (FFRB) and defatted rice bran (DFRB) determined in gestating sows is greater if feed is provided at 1.5 × the ME required for maintenance than at 3.5 × the ME requirement. The second objective was to test the hypothesis that the ATTD of GE and nutrients and the concentrations of DE and ME in FFRB and DFRB is not different between growing gilts and gestating sows if both groups of animals are fed 3.5 × the maintenance requirement for ME. Forty eight gestating sows (parity 2 to 6) were allotted to 3 diets and 2 levels of feed intake (i.e., 1.5 or 3.5 × the maintenance requirement for ME) in a randomized complete block design, with 4 blocks of 12 sows and 2 replicate sows per block for a total of 8 replicate sows per diet. Twenty four growing gilts (51.53 ± 3.1 kg BW) were randomly allotted to the same 3 diets, but all gilts were fed at 3.5 × the maintenance requirement for ME. A basal diet containing corn and soybean meal and 2 diets that consisted of 60% basal diet and 40% FFRB or DFRB were used. Results of the experiment indicated that there were no effects of level of feed intake of sows on ATTD of GE, DM, OM, or NDF, or on concentrations of DE and ME. However, concentrations of DE and ME were greater ( gilts. Concentrations of DE and ME in the diets were also greater ( gilts. The ATTD of GE and the concentrations of DE and ME of FFRB were greater ( gilts. In conclusion, the level of feed intake by gestating sows did not affect the digestibility of GE and nutrients or the concentrations of DE and ME in diets or in FFRB or DFRB, but the ATTD of GE and the concentration of DE and ME in diets and in FFRB and DFRB were greater in gestating sows than in growing gilts.

  15. Effect of selection for residual feed intake during the grow/finish phase of production on sow reproductive performance and lactation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J M; Bergsma, R; Knol, E F; Patience, J F; Dekkers, J C M

    2016-10-01

    As feed costs continue to rise and efficiency during finishing is emphasized, the impact of selecting for more efficient grow/finish pigs on reproductive performance and feed efficiency of sows must be evaluated. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate correlated responses for sow reproductive performance and lactation feed efficiency to selection for residual feed intake (RFI) during the grow/finish phase of production (RFI) in 2 selection lines of pigs developed at Iowa State University (Ames, IA) and to estimate heritabilities of these traits. One line was selected over 7 generations for decreased RFIG/F (low RFI [LRFI] line) and the other line was randomly selected for 5 generations and then selected for increased RFIG/F (high RFI [HRFI] line). After 7 generations of selection, LRFI sows had 1.0 more piglets farrowed ( = 0.11) compared with HRFI sows, 1.3 more pigs born alive ( energy balance (-19.8 vs. -8.0 MJ ME/d; 0.4, SE energy balance during lactation. These results indicate that pigs selected for increased efficiency during grow-finish are better able to direct resources where needed during other life history phases, that is, reproduction and lactation.

  16. Effects of feeding Bt maize to sows during gestation and lactation on maternal and offspring immunity and fate of transgenic material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan G Buzoianu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the effect of feeding transgenic maize to sows during gestation and lactation on maternal and offspring immunity and to assess the fate of transgenic material. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: On the day of insemination, sows were assigned to one of two treatments (n = 12/treatment; 1 non-Bt control maize diet or 2 Bt-MON810 maize diet, which were fed for ~143 days throughout gestation and lactation. Immune function was assessed by leukocyte phenotyping, haematology and Cry1Ab-specific antibody presence in blood on days 0, 28 and 110 of gestation and at the end of lactation. Peripheral-blood mononuclear cell cytokine production was investigated on days 28 and 110 of gestation. Haematological analysis was performed on offspring at birth (n = 12/treatment. Presence of the cry1Ab transgene was assessed in sows' blood and faeces on day 110 of gestation and in blood and tissues of offspring at birth. Cry1Ab protein presence was assessed in sows' blood during gestation and lactation and in tissues of offspring at birth. Blood monocyte count and percentage were higher (P<0.05, while granulocyte percentage was lower (P<0.05 in Bt maize-fed sows on day 110 of gestation. Leukocyte count and granulocyte count and percentage were lower (P<0.05, while lymphocyte percentage was higher (P<0.05 in offspring of Bt maize-fed sows. Bt maize-fed sows had a lower percentage of monocytes on day 28 of lactation and of CD4(+CD8(+ lymphocytes on day 110 of gestation, day 28 of lactation and overall (P<0.05. Cytokine production was similar between treatments. Transgenic material or Cry1Ab-specific antibodies were not detected in sows or offspring. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Treatment differences observed following feeding of Bt maize to sows did not indicate inflammation or allergy and are unlikely to be of major importance. These results provide additional data for Bt maize safety assessment.

  17. Effects of dietary protein concentration and amino acid supplementation on the feeding behavior of multiparous lactating sows in a tropical humid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, B A N; Noblet, J; Oliveira, R F M; Donzele, J L; Primot, Y; Renaudeau, D

    2009-06-01

    Forty-seven mixed-parity Large White sows were used to determine the effect of diets with reduced CP content or supplemented with essential AA on 28-d lactation feeding behavior under humid tropical climatic conditions. The study was conducted at the INRA experimental facilities in Guadeloupe, French West Indies (latitude 16 degrees N, longitude 61 degrees W) between February 2007 and January 2008. Two seasons were distinguished a posteriori from climatic measurements continuously recorded in the open-front farrowing room. The average ambient temperature and average daily relative humidity for the warm season were 23.6 degrees C and 93.8%, respectively. The corresponding values for the hot season were 26.1 degrees C and 93.7%. The dietary experimental treatments were a normal protein diet (17.3%), a low protein diet (14.1%), and a normal protein diet supplemented with essential AA (17.6%). No interaction between season and diet composition was found for all criteria. Average daily feed intake was less (P 0.10) by season or diet composition. Daily feed intake was greater for the sows fed the low protein diet when compared with normal protein treatments (P 0.05), and averaged 126 +/- 35 min/d. This study confirms that feeding behavior variables of the lactating sow are affected by seasonal pavariations of the tropical climate. Irrespective of season, the reduction of CP content improved feed consumption under tropical conditions.

  18. Effect of feeding peroxidized dried distillers grains with solubles to sows and progeny on growth performance and metabolic oxidative status of nursery pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, A R; Wang, L; Johnston, L J; Baidoo, S K; Torrison, J L; Chen, C; Shurson, G C

    2015-01-01

    This experiment evaluated the effects of including peroxidized corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets for sows and nursery pigs on growth performance, vitamin E (VE), and Se status, and the incidence of mulberry heart disease (MHD) of nursery pigs. Sows (n = 12) were fed corn-soybean meal diets (C-SBM) or C-SBM diets with DDGS (40% and 20% in gestation and lactation, respectively) for 3 parities. In the third parity, 108 weaned pigs (BW = 6.6 ± 0.36 kg) were blocked by BW within litter, assigned to pens (2 pigs/pen; 5 and 4 pens per litter for groups 1 and 2, respectively), and pens were assigned 1 of 3 nursery diets: 1) corn-soybean meal (CON), 2) 30% peroxidized DDGS (Ox-D), and 3) 30% Ox-D with 5 × NRC (1998) level of VE (Ox-D+5VE) for 7 wk, in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of sow and nursery diets (n = 9 pens/treatment). The peroxidized DDGS source in nursery diets contained concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide values that were 25 and 27 times greater than a reference corn sample. Sow colostrum, milk, and serum, as well as pig serum and liver samples, were analyzed for α-tocopherol and Se concentrations. Pig serum was analyzed for glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), TBARS, and sulfur-containing AA (SAA). Pig hearts were evaluated for gross and histopathological lesions indicative of MHD, but none were detected. Pigs from sows fed DDGS tended to have reduced (P = 0.07) VE in serum during lactation and reduced VE at weaning (P pigs from sows fed C-SBM. Inclusion of DDGS in sow diets reduced the VE status of pigs during lactation, but not in the nursery when MHD can be a concern. Pigs fed Ox-D+5VE (P = 0.08) tended to have, and those fed Ox-D (P = 0.04) had greater ADFI than pigs fed CON, but ADG was not affected (P > 0.1) by nursery diet. Feeding Ox-D or Ox-D+5VE increased (P pigs fed Ox-D or Ox-D+5VE compared with those fed C-SBM, which was likely due to greater (P pigs fed Ox-D. The

  19. Effect of feeding sows on rations enriched with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and the growth capacity and survival of their piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Hadaš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the effect of supplements of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA given to pregnant and lactating sows on the phenotypic manifestation of their reproductive performance and on the birth and weaning weight of piglets was performed under conditions of a commercial herd of pigs. The experiment involved altogether 40 hybrid sows divided into two equal groups, i.e. Controls with 20 sows and Experimental Group with also 20 sows. Experimental Group received within the time interval from the 108th day of pregnancy to the 28th day after the parturition a supplement of 2 % of CLA. In individual litters the following performance parameters were recorded: number of all newborn piglets, number of piglets born alive, number of stillbirths, number of weaned piglets and individual weights of newborn piglets and weaned piglets. Obtained results concerning numbers of all newborn piglets in Controls and Experimental Group (i.e. 12.20 ± 2.09 and 11.85 ±2.58, respectively indicate that supplementing of the feeding ration with CLA in the last stage of pregnancy does not influence the size of litter. In Controls, numbers of piglets born alive were higher by 0.4 animals per litter; this difference, however, was statistically insignificant. Also the weights of newborn and weaned piglets were not influenced by the supplement of CLA. Statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.01 were found out between Controls and Experimental Group in numbers of weaned piglets, viz. 9.75 ± 1.68 vs. 8.35 ± 1.39, respectively, and between corresponding losses until weaning, viz. 0.95± 1.39 vs. 2.60 ± 1.93 in Controls and Experimental Group, respectively (P ≤ 0.01.

  20. The effect of a non-starch polysaccharide-hydrolysing enzyme (Rovabio® Excel) on feed intake and body condition of sows during lactation and on progeny growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, M C; Geraert, P A; Maillard, R; Kluess, J; Lawlor, P G

    2012-10-01

    A total of 200 (Large White × Landrace) sows were used in a 39-day study to evaluate the effects of feeding a non-starch polysaccharide (NSP)-hydrolysing enzyme multicomplex (Rovabio(®) Excel) in conjunction with a high- or reduced nutrient-density diet during lactation on sow body condition, feed intake and progeny performance. Eight sows were selected each week for 25 weeks, blocked by parity and BW into groups of four, and within the block randomly assigned to one of the four treatments (n = 50/treatment). Treatments were: (1) LND: low energy (13.14 MJ of DE/kg), low CP (15%) diet; (2) LND + RE: LND with 50 mg/kg NSP-hydrolysing enzyme; (3) HND: high energy (14.5 MJ of DE/kg), high CP (16.5%) diet; and (4) HND + RE: HND with 50 mg/kg NSP-hydrolysing enzyme. Sows were fed treatment diets from day 109 of gestation until the day of subsequent service. Between weaning and re-service, Rovabio(®) Excel addition to LND diets resulted in an increase in energy intake; however, a reduction was observed when supplemented to the HND diet (P Excel increased feed and energy intake during week 3 (days 15 to 21) of lactation (P Excel had greater back-fat depth at weaning and service (P < 0.05); however, the magnitude of change in back-fat depth during lactation and from farrowing to service was not different between treatments. Feeding the HND diet increased energy intake before farrowing, throughout lactation and during the weaning to service interval (P < 0.01); however, overall, average daily feed intake tended to be reduced (P < 0.10). At service, sows fed the HND diet were heavier than sows fed the LND diet (P < 0.05); however, the magnitude of change in BW between treatments was not different. Feeding the HND diet to sows resulted in a tendency for heavier piglets at birth (P = 0.10) that tended to grow at a faster rate and be heavier at weaning than piglets from sows fed the LND diet (P = 0.06). These results indicate that NSP-degrading enzymes offer minimal benefit

  1. Uterine activity and fetal electronic monitoring in parturient sows treated with vetrabutin chlorhydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Lozano, M; Trujillo-Ortega, M E; Becerril-Herrera, M; Alonso-Spilsbury, M; Rosales-Torres, A M; Mota-Rojas, D

    2010-02-01

    The aims of the study were to characterize the uterine activity in sows treated with vetrabutin chlorhydrate (VC), an uterotonic and muscle-tropic drug during farrowing, and to measure the effects of the drug on piglet neonatal viability. The experiment involved 1478 piglets from 130 Yorkshire-Landrace sows, randomly allotted into two groups. Farrowing monitoring began 12 h after PGF2alpha synchronization. Group 1 was given physiological solution (G1, n = 65); Group 2 was treated with VC (1 mL/60 kg LW) at the initiation of fetal expulsion (G2, n = 65). In spite of the total duration of expulsion being significantly longer (P acute fetal suffering, compared with that in G1. VC treated group compared with the control group also had fewer (5.01% vs. 24%) alterations in umbilical cords, as well as a lesser incidence of secondary apnea (2.08% vs. 7.46%) and bradycardia (1.94% vs. 7.61%), which favored a significantly higher vitality score (P < 0.002). With the intent to evaluate uterine activity in sows during the farrowing process, we propose using the equation used in human medical practices to calculate Montevideo Units applied to swine obstetrics for the first time.

  2. Genomewide association analysis of sow lactation performance traits in lines of Yorkshire pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake during grow-finish phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekkoot, D M; Young, J M; Rothschild, M F; Dekkers, J C M

    2016-06-01

    Lactation is an economically and biologically important phase in the life cycle of sows. Short generation intervals in nucleus herds and low heritability of traits associated with lactation along with challenges associated with collecting accurate lactation performance phenotypes emphasize the importance of using genomic tools to examine the underlying genetics of these traits. We report the first genomewide association study (GWAS) on traits associated with lactation and efficiency in 2 lines of Yorkshire pigs that were divergently selected for residual feed intake during grow-finish phase. A total of 862 farrowing records from 2 parities were analyzed using a Bayesian whole genome variable selection model (Bayes B) to locate 1-Mb regions that were most strongly associated with each trait. The GWAS was conducted separately for parity 1 and 2 records. Marker-based heritabilities ranged from 0.03 to 0.39 for parity 1 traits and from 0.06 to 0.40 for parity 2 traits. For all traits studied, around 90% of genetic variance came from a large number of genomic regions with small effects, whereas genomic regions with large effects were found to be different for the same trait measured in parity 1 and 2. The highest percentage of genetic variance explained by a 1-Mb window for each trait ranged from 0.4% for feed intake during lactation to 4.2% for back fat measured at farrowing in parity 1 sows and from 0.2% for lactation feed intake to 5.4% for protein mass loss during lactation in parity 2 sows. A total of thirteen 1-Mb nonoverlapping windows were found to explain more than 1.5% of genetic variance for either a single trait or across multiple traits. These 1-Mb windows were on chromosomes 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 11, 14, 15, 17, and 18. The major positional candidate genes within 1 Mb upstream and downstream of these windows were , (SSC2), (SSC6) (SSC7), (SSC8), (SSC11), (SSC14), (SSC17). Further validation studies on larger populations are required to validate these findings and

  3. Feeding tuna oil to the sow at different times during pregnancy has different effects on piglet long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid composition at birth and subsequent growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooke, J A; Sinclair, A G; Edwards, S A

    2001-07-01

    In an attempt to prevent decreases in piglet 20 : 4n-6 status at birth while increasing 22 : 6n-3 status, multiparous sows (eight per treatment) were allocated to one of three different treatments: a basal diet fed from day 63 of pregnancy to term; basal diet supplemented with tuna oil (17.5 g/kg) from day 63 to day 91 and then basal diet alone from day 92 to term; basal diet alone from day 63 to day 91 and then basal diet supplemented with tuna oil from day 92 to term. Tuna oil supplementation increased mainly 22 : 6n-3 intake. Supplementation with tuna oil between day 92 and term increased 22 : 6n-3 to a greater extent in all piglet tissues (brain, liver, retina and the remaining carcass) at birth than supplementation with tuna oil between days 63 and 91. However, while piglet 20 : 4n-6 decreased to a greater extent in liver and carcass when diets were supplemented with tuna oil between days 92 and term than between days 63 and 91, in the brain and retina, the reverse was true; 20 : 4n-6 was decreased to a greater extent between days 63 and 91 than between 92 and term. The effect of pregnancy nutrition on the growth of piglets until 7 d postweaning (35 d of age) was assessed after removing any residual effects of pregnancy treatment by cross-fostering some piglets at birth. Piglets, the diets of whose dams had been supplemented with tuna oil during pregnancy, grew faster during the first 35 d of life than the progeny of sows fed only the basal diet. Feeding tuna oil to sows at different times during pregnancy therefore did not prevent decreases in piglet 20 : 4n-6 status at birth, but did suggest that changes in piglet brain 20 : 4n-6 status between days 63 and 91 of pregnancy were not reversible by later nutrition. Supplementing the diet of the pregnant sow with tuna oil had beneficial effects on postnatal piglet growth.

  4. Correlated responses in sow appetite, residual feed intake, body composition, and reproduction after divergent selection for residual feed intake in the growing pig

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbert, H; Bidanel, J-P; Billon, Y; Lagant, H; Guillouet, P; Sellier, P; Noblet, J; Hermesch, S

    2012-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) has been explored as an alternative selection criterion to feed conversion ratio to capture the fraction of feed intake not explained by expected production and maintenance requirements...

  5. Imact of feeding and post prandial time on plasma ketone bodies in sows during transition and lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Olesen, A K; Flummer, Christine

    2013-01-01

    M) and this was not affected by days in milk, whereas the content of AcAc+Ac in milk and BHBA in milk and urine were less than the detection limit in 4 of 5 sows. In conclusion, dietary fat source affected plasma concentrations of ketone bodies, but the concentrations were much less than normally observed in dairy cows and.......01), acetate, and butyrate (P urine samples were collected and analyzed...... for BHBA and AcAc+Ac. No diurnal variations in plasma BHBA or AcAc+Ac were observed and plasma AcAc+Ac was unchanged from d 5 to 17 of lactation (3.7 μM), whereas BHBA declined from 58 μM on d 5 of lactation to 52 μM on d 17 of lactation (P urine (8.6 μ...

  6. Individual variation in sow aggressive behavior and its relationship with sow welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, M; Morrison, R S; Rice, M; Hemsworth, P H

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the relationships between individual sow aggressive behavior and sow welfare, based on aggression, skin injuries, and stress, in a total of 275 pregnant domestic sows. Over 4 time replicates, sows were randomly mixed into groups of 10 (floor space of 1.8 m/sow) within 7 d of insemination in both their first and second gestations (200 sows per gestation with 126 sows observed in both gestations). Measurements were taken on aggression (both delivered and received) at feeding, skin injuries, and plasma cortisol concentrations at d 2, 9, and 51 after mixing. Live weight gain, nonreproductive removals, litter size (born alive, total born, and stillborn piglets), and farrowing rate were also recorded. In both the first and the second gestations, sows were classified at d 2 after mixing as "submissive" (delivered little or no aggression at feeding relative to aggression received), "subdominant" (received more aggression at feeding than delivered), and "dominant" (delivered more aggression at feeding than received). In both gestations, sows classified as dominant at d 2 subsequently delivered more (gestation 1, gained the most weight (gestation 1, cortisol concentrations at d 2 of gestation 2, but there were no differences between classifications at d 9 and 51 in either gestation (gestation 1, > 0.05; gestation 2, = 0.02). There were no significant relationships between aggression classification and reproduction and nonreproductive removals ( > 0.05). In conclusion, sows classified as dominant at feeding at d 2 subsequently received less aggression at feeding, sustained fewer skin injuries, and had higher live weight gain. Submissive and subdominant sows in groups are likely to benefit from the provision of increased resources such as space and access to feed.

  7. A review of factors influencing litter size in Irish sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawlor Peadar G

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many factors influence litter size. These include genetics, gilt management, lactation length, parity distribution, disease, stress and boar fertility. In the past 20 years, litter size in Irish sows has increased by only one pig. Born alive figures now average at 11.2 pigs per litter. In this regard, Ireland is falling behind our European competitors who have made significant advances over this time. Denmark, for example, has an average figure of 12.7 pigs born alive per litter and France an average of 12.5. The single area that could be improved immediately is sow feeding. It is important that sows are fed correctly throughout pregnancy. If over-fed during pregnancy, sows will have depressed appetite during lactation. If underfed in pregnancy, sows will be too thin at farrowing. The correct way to feed a pregnant sow is to match her feed allocation to her requirement for maintenance, body growth and growth of her developing foetuses. During lactation, sows should be given as much feed as they can eat to prevent excessive loss of body condition. Liquid-feed curves should be such that lactating sows are provided with a minimum mean daily feed supply of 6.2 kg. A small proportion of sows will eat more and this could be given as supplementary dry feed. Where dry feeding is practised in the farrowing house, it is difficult to hand-feed sows to match their appetite. Ideally ad libitum wet/dry feeders should be used. From weaning to service, sows should once again be fed ad libitum. If liquid feeding, this means giving at least 60 MJ DE (digestible energy per day during this period. If dry feeding, at least 4 kg of lactation diet should be fed daily. The effort spent perfecting sow feeding management on units should yield high dividends in the form of increased pigs born alive per litter.

  8. Mixed feed and its ingredients electron beam decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuglov, V. V.; Bryazgin, A. A.; Vlasov, A. Yu; Voronin, L. A.; Ites, Yu V.; Korobeynikov, M. V.; Leonov, S. V.; Leonova, M. A.; Tkachenko, V. O.; Shtarklev, E. A.; Yuskov, Yu G.

    2017-01-01

    Electron beam treatment is used for food processing for decades to prevent or minimize food losses and prolong storage time. This process is also named cold pasteurization. Mixed feed ingredients supplied in Russia regularly occur to be contaminated. To reduce contamination level the contaminated mixed feed ingredients samples were treated by electron beam with doses from 2 to 12 kGy. The contamination levels were decreased to the level that ensuring storage time up to 1 year.

  9. Effect of spineless cactus intake (Opuntia ficus-indica) on blood glucose levels in lactating sows and its impact on feed intake, body weight loss, and weaning-estrus interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordaz-Ochoa, Gerardo; Juárez-Caratachea, Aureliano; Pérez-Sánchez, Rosa Elena; Román-Bravo, Rafael María; Ortiz-Rodríguez, Ruy

    2017-06-01

    The effect of spineless cactus intake (Opuntia ficus-indica) on blood glucose (BG) levels in lactating sows and its impact on daily and total feed intake (dFI-1 and TFI, respectively), body weight loss (BWL), and weaning-estrus interval length (WEI) were evaluated. Thirty-four hybrid (Yorkshire × Landrace × Pietrain) sows in lactation phase were used. Sows were divided into two groups: G1 (n = 17) where they received commercial feed and G2 (n = 17) provided with commercial feed plus an average of 2.0 ± 0.5 kg spineless cactus, based on a sow's body weight. The variables evaluated were BG, dFI-1, TFI, BWL, and WEI. Statistical analysis was performed by using a fixed and mixed model methodology, under a repeated measurements experiment. Group effects were found on all analyzed variables (P < 0.05). The BG was lower in G2 (55.2 and 64.5 mg/dL pre- and post-prandial, respectively), compared to that in G1 (70.9 and 80.1 mg/dL pre- and post-prandial, respectively) (P < 0.05). G2 showed better performance than G1 for dFI-1, BWL, and WEI (P < 0.05) whose averages were 5.5 ± 1.8 kg, 7.4 ± 4.5%, and 5.3 ± 1.2 days, respectively. Averages for these variables in G1 were 4.7 ± 1.5 kg, 16.8 ± 4.6%, and 6.1 ± 1.6 days, respectively. Intake of spineless cactus reduced BG levels in lactating sows, generating greater dFI-1, lower BWL at the end of lactation, and a lower WEI.

  10. Effects of Sowing Media and Sowing Depth on Germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the effect of sowing media and sowing depth on the germination and growth of Lecanodiscus cupanoides (Planch.Ex Benth). The germination of L. cupanoides seed was significantly affected by sowing depth and sowing medium at p=0.05. The result of various sowing media and sowing depth showed ...

  11. Welfare index and reproductive performance in the sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsterhjelm, C; Valros, A; Heinonen, M; Hälli, O; Peltoniemi, O A T

    2006-12-01

    To study the relationship between on-farm welfare and reproductive performance in the sow, the TGI 35L Animal Needs Index was modified for use in Finnish pig production. The modified index had a maximal total score of 100. It was comprised of six categories: 'locomotion' (maximal score 21 for dry sows and 11 for lactating sows), 'social interaction' (12/8), 'floor quality' (16/9), 'stable climate' (16/21), 'feeding' (16/23) and 'health and stockmanship' (19/29). Index scorings were performed separately in farrowing, breeding and gestation units on 28 representative Finnish sow farms. One-year production parameters were collected. Multiple linear regression was used for statistical analysis. Total ANI-points varied between 36.5-68.0 for lactating and 39.5-86.0 for dry sows. Litter size increased with increasing scores for 'feeding' in the dry sow unit. Controlling for breed, high scores for 'health and stockmanship' and 'floor quality' shortened the reproductive cycle, probably because of good leg health. The number of weaned piglets per sow per year (PSY) increased with increasing scores for dry sow 'health and stockmanship', 'floor quality' and an interaction of 'feeding' in the farrowing and mating units. PSY increased with decreasing scores for farrowing pen 'climate'. High-quality floors and stockmanship appear to correlate positively with reproductive performance in the sow. Effects of a welfare-promoting feeding strategy on reproduction are contradictory.

  12. Effect of maternal antibiotic intervention in sows on gut development and microbiota in offspring : report of Feed4Foodure, VDI-2: 2013/2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greeff, de A.; Schokker, D.; Roubos, P.; Ramaekers, P.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Bikker, P.; Vastenhouw, S.A.; Bree, de F.M.; Bossers, A.; Harders, F.L.; Smits, M.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    A significant contribution to microbial colonization of piglets comes from the sow: via vertical transmission of vaginal flora during birth and transmission of mucosal immune memory and flora by feaces, colostrum and milk. In this study we determine the effect of an maternal nutritional intervention

  13. Impact of fat source and dietary fibers on feed intake, plasma metabolites, litter gain and the yield and composition of milk in sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Bruun, Thomas S; Poulsen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    was divided in three portions and combined with 3% soybean oil (SOYO), palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), or glycerol trioctanoate (C8TG) as the dietary fat source. Equal amounts of metabolizable energy were fed to 36 second parity sows from day 105 of gestation and throughout lactation to study the impact...

  14. MRO SOW Daily Script

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Forest E.; Khanampornpan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy E.

    2008-01-01

    The MRO SOW daily script (wherein "MRO" signifies "Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter" and "SOW" signifies "sequence systems engineer of the week") is a computer program that automates portions of the MRO daily SOW procedure, which includes checking file-system sizes and automated sequence processor (ASP) log files. The MRO SOW daily script effects clear reporting of (1) the status of, and requirements imposed on, the file system and (2) the ASP log files.

  15. Dietary fiber for pregnant sows: influence on sow physiology and performance during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, H; Meunier-Salaün, M-C; Hamard, A; Guillemet, R; Etienne, M; Farmer, C; Dourmad, J-Y; Père, M-C

    2009-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding sows a bulky diet during gestation on their physiological and metabolic adaptations during the peripartum period, and to determine how these effects may relate to sow and piglet performances. From d 26 of gestation until farrowing, gilts were fed diets that contained 2.8 or 11.0% crude fiber (control and high-fiber diets, respectively, n = 9/group). Daily feed allowance provided the same amount of DE daily (33 MJ of DE/d). Throughout lactation, sows were allowed to consume a standard lactating sow diet ad libitum. Litters were standardized to 12 piglets beyond 48 h after birth. On d 105 of gestation, a jugular catheter was surgically implanted. Preprandial blood samples were collected from d 109 of gestation to the day after farrowing and on d 4, 18, and 26 of lactation. Meal tests and glucose tolerance tests were performed on d 109 of gestation and d 4 and 18 of lactation. During gestation, BW and backfat gain did not differ between treatment groups. During lactation, sows fed the high-fiber diet ate an average of 0.94 kg/d more than control sows (P fiber diet grew faster than piglets from control sows (P = 0.03). Body weight and backfat losses did not differ between the 2 treatment groups. Sows fed the high-fiber diet during gestation had lesser concentrations of leptin before farrowing than control sows (P fiber diet than in control sows (P effect. Glucose half-life was shorter in late gestation than during both stages of lactation, but did not differ between sows in the 2 groups. In late gestation, the postprandial increases in glucose and insulin were delayed, and smaller, after a high-fiber meal than after a control meal. During lactation, glucose and insulin profiles after a standard meal did not differ between sows from treatment groups. In conclusion, the greater appetite of lactating sows fed a high-fiber diet during gestation does not seem related to changes in glucose and insulin metabolism

  16. Effects of Gestational Housing on Reproductive Performance and Behavior of Sows with Different Backfat Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of back-fat thickness at d 107 of gestation and housing types during gestation on reproductive performance and behavior of sows. A total of 64 crossbred sows (Landrace×Yorkshire in their 3 to 4 parities were allotted to one of four treatments (n = 16 over two consecutive parities. During each parity, sows were assigned to two gestational housing types (stall or group housing and two level of back-fat thickness (<20 or ≥20 at d 107 of gestation. Gestating sows were transferred from gestational crates to stalls or pens (group housing 5 weeks before farrowing. All sows were moved to farrowing crates on d 109 of gestation. At weaning, back-fat thickness changes were lesser (p<0.05 in sows having back-fat thickness <20 mm than that of sows with ≥20 mm back-fat thickness at 107 d of gestation. Group housed sows had greater (p<0.05 feed intake and shorter (p<0.05 weaning-to-estrus interval than that of sows in stalls. At weaning, back-fat thickness changes were lesser (p<0.05 in group housed sows than that of sows in stalls. The number of piglets at weaning, growth rate and average daily gain were greater (p<0.05 in group housed sows than that of sows in stalls. During gestation, walking duration was more (p<0.05 in group housed sows. Group housed sows had lesser (p<0.05 farrowing duration and greater (p<0.05 eating time than that of sows in stalls. Result obtained in present study indicated that sows with ≥20 mm back-fat thickness at 107 days had better reproductive performance. Additionally, group housing of sows during last five week of gestation improved the performance and behavior and reproductive efficiency of sows.

  17. Carbon balances for in vitro digestion an fermentation of potential roughages for pregnant sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, P.M.; Gelder, van A.H.; Wikselaar, van P.G.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Cone, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Ad libitum feeding of pregnant sows requires satiating, intake-restricting feed components to prevent sows from getting excessively fat. Because hindgut fermentation starts only after and proceeds much slower than enzymatic digestion in the small intestine, fermentation products might, as nutrients,

  18. Influence of farm application of oregano on performances of sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract This study was performed in a large commercial herd in eastern Europe to test the effect of oregano feed supplementation. Sows were studied in a unit where alternate farrowing groups were given diets containing 1000 ppm oregano in the prefarrowing and lactation diet. Oregano-treated groups showed a lower (P = 0.003) annual sow mortality rate, a lower (P = 0.03) sow culling rate during lactation, an increased (P = 0.01) subsequent farrowing rate, and more (P = 0.05) live-born piglets per litter compared with the nontreated sows. The conclusion was that dietary oregano supplementation improved the reproductive performance of sows in this herd. PMID:15368741

  19. Direct Sowing of Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Alföldi, Thomas; Böhler, Daniel; Dierauer, Hansueli; Hegglin, Django; Böhler, Josef; Breiter, Hanspeter

    2015-01-01

    In organic farming, the plough is generally used in maize cultivation because it provides a simple way to control weed. Unfortunately, regarding soil erosion, compaction and runoff, ploughing is especially harmful in maize cultivation. Direct sowing of maize could largely solve these problems. The video presents the technique of direct sowing of maize, for example in a field of rolled field pea. In the last years, FiBL tests have shown that under optimal conditions, the direct s...

  20. High-Fibre feeding in gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meunier-Salaün, M.C.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Gestating sows are usually fed low levels of feed, which may not provide sufficient satiety, and does not allow sows to fully fulfil their motivation to express foraging and feeding behaviours. Feed restriction may therefore lead to high occurrences of non-feeding oral activities, including

  1. 78 FR 27303 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... Feed and Pet Food; Electron Beam and X-Ray Sources for Irradiation of Poultry Feed and Poultry Feed... Administration (FDA) is amending the regulations for irradiation of animal feed and pet food to provide for the...) in part 579 Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food (21...

  2. Disease behaviours of sows naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trevisan, Chiara; Johansen, Maria Vang; Mkupasi, Ernatus M.

    2017-01-01

    over the course of a whole day. Sows with NCC spent significantly less time at the feeding trough, especially during the second half of the feeding period. Infected sows were also more passive e.g. lying and standing still significantly more during a whole day period and showed social isolation...... compared to non-infected control sows by performing behaviours more distant to their nearest neighbour. Results of this study indicated that NCC changed the behaviour of infected sows. The behavioural changes are indicative of decreased welfare. Efforts to reinforce the animal welfare aspect are needed...

  3. Seasonal effects on fertility in gilts and sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, R J; Evans, G; Klupiec, C

    1993-01-01

    The ancestral wild pig is a short day length seasonal breeder. The domestic pig appears to have retained some of this seasonality as evidenced by a reduction in fertility during the summer-autumn period. The most important aspect of this seasonality is a reduction in the number of mated sows that farrow. Many of these sows conceive and embryos develop normally for 20-25 days before pregnancy is terminated and the sow returns to oestrus (25-35 days after mating). In other species, transduction of photoperiodic information is achieved by release of melatonin during the dark period. In the pig, the pattern of melatonin secretion and the subsequent hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal responses appear to be more complex. A relatively high light intensity is required for pigs to generate a distinct diurnal melatonin rhythm and they appear unable to respond appropriately to abrupt changes in photoperiod. Pigs on restricted feeding and maintained under long photoperiods (but not under short photoperiods) have higher concentrations of melatonin than do similarly maintained pigs fed ad libitum. Continuous release melatonin implants have a deleterious effect on farrowing rate, suggesting that the abnormally high melatonin concentrations observed in sows in summer-autumn play a role in the pathogenesis of seasonal infertility. Ad libitum feeding of sows during the first few weeks of pregnancy may prevent the increase in melatonin concentrations and so remove the seasonal influence on fertility. The pituitary response to different photoperiods is also somewhat confusing. Although there is some evidence of increased sensitivity to the negative feedback of ovarian steroids in the prepubertal gilts and weaned sows during summer-autumn, LH concentrations are increased in early pregnant sows. It is proposed that the failure of sows to maintain pregnancy in summer-autumn results from disruption of maternal recognition of pregnancy causing regression of the corpora lutea, loss of pregnancy

  4. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) increases milk yield without losing body weight in lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Joo, Young-Kuk; Lee, Jin-Woo; Ha, Young-Joo; Yeo, Joon-Mo; Kim, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance of lactating sows and piglets as well as the immunity of piglets suckling from sows fed CLA. Eighteen multiparous Duroc sows with an average body weight (BW) of 232.0 ± 6.38 kg were randomly selected and assigned to two dietary treatments (n = 9 for each treatment), control (no CLA addition) and 1% CLA supplementation. For the control diet, CLA was replaced with soybean oil. Experimental diets were fed to sows during a 28-day lactation period. Litter size for each sow was standardized to nine piglets by cross-fostering within 24 hours after birth. Sow milk and blood samples were taken from sows and piglets after 21 and 27 days of lactation, respectively. Loss of BW was significantly (p Piglet weights at weaning and weight gain during suckling were significantly (p piglet serum (p < 0.05) compared with the control group. Sows fed CLA showed an increase of 10% in milk yield compared with sows fed soybean oil (p < 0.05), even though there was no difference in daily feed intake between the treatments. Milk fat content was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. Solid-not-fat yield was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows supplemented with CLA than in sows fed control diet and also protein-to-fat ratio in milk was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed CLA compared with the control group. The results show that CLA supplementation to sows increased milk yield without losing BW during lactation, whereas soybean oil supplementation resulted in severe BW loss.

  5. Short communication: Automatic detection of social competition using an electronic feeding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzzey, J M; Weary, D M; Tiau, B Y F; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if data derived from a system that electronically monitors feeding behavior could be used to identify competitive interactions of dairy cows at the feed bunk. A short interval between successive feeding events of 2 cows at 1 feed bin was predicted to be associated with a competitive replacement: when one cow displaced a feeding cow and then took her position at the bin. To identify the interval between feeding events that best predicted these replacement events, the feeding activity of 5 Holstein dairy cows was monitored using an electronic feeding system and video recordings. The number of times a cow was replaced at the feed bunk over 3 consecutive 24-h periods was determined using video analysis and these events were paired with the corresponding feeding events recorded by an electronic feeding system (Roughage Intake Control system; Insentec B.V., Marknesse, the Netherlands). A pooled analysis of all 5 cows showed that the optimal interval for predicting replacements at the feed bunk was 26s (sensitivity=86% and specificity=82%); this interval was termed the replacement criterion. This criterion was then applied to feeding data from a sample of 24 independent Holstein dairy cows, each observed for 3d during the week following calving. Video had previously been used to measure the number of times each cow was an actor and reactor of a displacement (when one cow displaced a feeding cow but did not necessarily take her position at the bin). Despite the differences in measures, the number of replacements (as estimated by our algorithm) was positively correlated with the number of displacements [as measured using video; correlation coefficient (r)=0.63 as actor, r=0.69 as reactor]. Estimates of an index of success in competitive interactions (number of times actor/number of times actor = number of times reactor) generated using the 2 methods were highly correlated (r=0.94). These results suggest that competitive behavior

  6. Performance and well-being of sows housed in pens retrofitted from gestation stalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, L J; Li, Y Z

    2013-12-01

    Pressures from consumers concerned with sow well-being in gestation stalls have encouraged producers to consider how to transition from individual gestation stalls to pens in existing buildings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance and well-being of sows in pens that were retrofitted from stalls (2.1 by 0.55 m). Large pens (5.5 by 7.3 m) housed 26 sows and small pens (5.5 by 1.7 m) housed 6 sows, with equal floor space allowance (1.5 m(2)/sow) in both pens. Floor space allowance in pens was set to ensure that pens and stalls occupied the same building space per sow. Data were collected from 815 sows (parity 1 to 8) in 13 large pens, 26 small pens, and 326 stalls that served as control. All sows were mated in stalls and moved to pens or stalls after pregnancy confirmation at 5 wk after mating. Daily feed allowance for sows was dropped on a solid floor in pens and was equal in all 3 housing systems. Sows stayed in their assigned gestation housing treatment for 1 pregnancy. Data were analyzed using the Proc FREQ and the Proc Mixed procedures of SAS. Sows in large pens gained less weight during gestation than sows in small pens and stalls (33.4 vs. 39.5 and 41.5 kg, SE = 1.64; P = 0.01). In addition, the proportion of sows assigned to the study that farrowed was the lowest in large pens (92%, χ(2) = 9.52; P period. Causes for sow removal were different among the housing treatments. Poor reproductive performance was the top reason for culling sows in large pens and in stalls. In small pens, mortality was the top reason for sow removal. Housing treatment did not affect live litter size at birth (12.5, 12.2 and 12.3 piglets, SE = 0.21) or weaning (10.2, 10.1 and 10.3 piglets, SE = 0.20) for large pens, small pens, or stalls, respectively. Results suggest that the performance and well-being of sows were compromised in pens, as indicated by decreased farrowing rates and increased sow removal rates. The limited floor space allowance and the competitive

  7. Hogthrob: Towards a Sensor Network Infrastructure for Sow Monitoring (wireless sensor network special day)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Leopold, Martin; Madsen, K

    2006-01-01

    We aim at developing a next-generation system for sow monitoring. Today, farmers use RFID based solutions with an ear tag on the sows and a reader located inside the feeding station. This does not allow the farmers to locate a sow in a large pen, or to monitor the life cycle of the sow (detect heat...... period, detect injury...). Our goal is to explore the design of a sensor network that supports such functionalities and meets the constraints of this industry in terms of price, energy consumption and availability....

  8. Effects of a novel carbohydrate and protein source on sow performance during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, R L; Lirette, R D; Bidner, T D; Southern, L L

    2004-08-01

    Ninety-one primiparous and multiparous sows and their pigs were used to evaluate the effects of a novel carbohydrate- and protein-based feed ingredient (Nutri-Pal, NP) on sow and litter performance during lactation. Nutri-Pal is a feed supplement for sows that consists of a blend of milk chocolate, brewer's yeast, whey products, and glucooligosaccharides. The dietary treatments consisted of a corn-soybean meal control and a corn-soybean meal plus 5% NP fed from d 110 of gestation to weaning. The diets were formulated to be equal in total Lys and ME. Sows were allotted to treatment based on parity, body weight, and the date of d 110 of gestation. There were 46 and 45 sows per treatment over four farrowing groups. Litters were standardized to 10 pigs and weighed within 1 d of farrowing, and all sows weaned at least 8 pigs at an average age of 21 d. Sows were weighed on d 110 of gestation, d 1 postfarrowing, and at weaning. Sows were fed three times daily during lactation. Sows were checked twice daily after weaning for signs of estrus. The weaning weight of sows fed NP was increased (P Sows fed the control diet tended (P = 0.11) to lose more weight per day from d 110 of gestation to weaning than the sows fed NP. Otherwise, sow response variables (sow weight on d 110 of gestation and d 1 postfarrowing, d 110 of gestation to d 1 postfarrowing and lactation weight change per day, d 110 of gestation to d 1 postfarrowing, lactation, and total feed intake, days to estrus, pigs born alive or dead, and litter and average pig birth weight) were not affected (P > 0.10) by diet. There were no effects (P > 0.10) of diet on litter performance response variables (pigs weaned, litter and average pig weaning weight and gain, and survival percent). The NP feed ingredient had minor effects on sow productivity, but it did not affect litter productivity indices.

  9. Automatic recognition of lactating sow behaviors through depth image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manual observation and classification of animal behaviors is laborious, time-consuming, and of limited ability to process large amount of data. A computer vision-based system was developed that automatically recognizes sow behaviors (lying, sitting, standing, kneeling, feeding, drinking, and shiftin...

  10. Space allowance and high fiber diet impact performance and behavior of group-kept gestating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDecker, A E; Hanson, A R; Walker, P M; Salak-Johnson, J L

    2014-04-01

    Identifying and optimizing housing and management systems that improve the well-being of the gestating sow is essential to sustaining animal agriculture. Therefore, the impact of 2 floor-space allowances and a high-fiber gestation diet on dry group-housed sows were evaluated using multiple measures of well-being. Groups of 10 multiparous sows/pen (n = 221) were assigned randomly to treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement to either a corn-soybean meal diet (CTL) or corn-soybean meal diet supplemented with soybean hulls and wheat middlings (FBR), and floor-space allowance of either 1.7 or 2.3 m(2)/sow. Sow BW, backfat (BF), and body condition score (BCS) were all recorded on d 34, 65, 90, and 110 of gestation, whereas skin lesions were scored on d 34, every 2 d for the first 2-wk postmixing, and then biweekly throughout gestation. Blood sample was collected only on d 34 for cortisol (baseline), and samples were collected on d 90 of gestation for other measures including cortisol. Behavior was registered on multiple days throughout gestation. Sows fed FBR and kept at 1.7 m(2) produced heavier litter and weaning weights and greater number of piglets born alive, compared to sows fed FBR but kept at 2.3 m(2) of floor space (diet × floor space, P ≤ 0.04). Sows fed FBR and kept at 1.7 m(2) performed fewer oral-nasal-facial and sham-chew behaviors than sows fed CTL and kept at the same floor space (diet × floor space, P ≤ 0.044). Sows kept at 1.7 m(2) of floor space had a greater (P allowance of 1.7 m(2)/sow and floor feeding these sows a high-fiber diet can improve short-term sow well-being.

  11. Determination of protein and amino acid requirements of lactating sows using a population-based factorial approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anja Varmløse; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Theil, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    Determination of appropriate nutritional requirements is essential to optimize the productivity and longevity of lactating sows. The current recommendations for requirements do not consider the large variation between animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the amino acid...... recommendations for lactating sows using a stochastic modeling approach that integrates population variation and uncertainty of key parameters into establishing nutritional recommendations for lactating sows. The requirement for individual sows was calculated using a factorial approach by adding the requirement...... for maintenance and milk. The energy balance of the sows was either negative or zero depending on feed intake being a limiting factor. Some parameters in the model were sow-specific and others were population-specific, depending on state of knowledge. Each simulation was for 1000 sows repeated 100 times using...

  12. 78 FR 34565 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ..., and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron Beam and X-Ray Sources for Irradiation of Poultry... regulations for irradiation of animal feed and pet food that appeared in the Federal Register of May 10, 2013... document amending the regulations for irradiation of animal feed and pet food that appeared in the Federal...

  13. Effect of electronic education on the awareness of women about post partum breast feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Fahami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Electronic education is there to enhance knowledge of patients especially mothers during postpartum and can provide an efficient way to enhance personnel-patient interaction.  So, this study was conducted to define the effect of electronic education on the awareness of women about post partum breast feeding education. Materials and Methods: This is a quasi- experimental study conducted on  72 primiparous women during  postpartum period referring to Shahid Beheshti Hospital in  2013 .  In order to educate the subjects through electronic and paper based methods, the subjects were selected through random allocation.  A pre- test before and a post- test after education were conducted with a 15 item questionnaire to measure women’s awareness about breast feeding. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistical tests , and t-test and paired t- test through SPSS 11.5.  Significance level was considrred  (P

  14. Dietary fat and reproduction in the post partum sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brand, H; Kemp, B

    2006-01-01

    Lactating sows are not able to ingest sufficient energy to produce the large amount of milk they are presently capable of. Therefore, sows use a considerable amount of body reserves to maintain their milk production. Body weight loss is negatively associated with subsequent reproductive performance. Addition of fat to the diet is often used to increase energy intake during lactation. This review examines the effects of adding fat to the diet on subsequent reproductive performance. Fat may affect reproduction in three different ways; first, by increasing milk fat output. Higher milk fat output limits or even nullifies the effect of a higher energy intake on body weight loss in ad libitum fed sows. It has even been demonstrated that sows fed an isocaloric fat-rich diet lost more body reserves than sows fed a carbohydrate-rich diet. Second, fat-rich diets increase blood metabolite levels (non esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, urea), which might negatively impact reproductive performance. Third, fat-rich diets depress secretion of insulin and IGF-1, which directly or indirectly affects LH, oestradiol and progesterone secretion and follicle development. We concluded that adding fat to the diet of lactating sows disrupts the balance between C2 and C3 compounds, which is necessary to run the Krebs cycle in an efficient way, and may negatively affect the sows' subsequent reproductive performance. Therefore, increasing energy intake during lactation might be accomplished better by adjusting other management procedures to support feed intake, such as housing temperature, water intake, and prevention of overfeeding in early lactation.

  15. Minimizing aggression during mixing of gestating sows with supplementation of a tryptophan-enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Rosangela; Kretzer, Fabiana C; Hötzel, Maria J

    2014-06-10

    Gestation stalls are criticized for its negative physical and psycho-physiological effects on sow welfare. Group housing benefits sow well-being and when planned properly can minimize aggression during mixing. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of short-term feeding of a TRP-enriched diet at a concentration of 220% the control (CTL) diet, on aggressiveness at mixing of sows at 4weeks of gestation. Treatment diets were fed for 7 consecutive days; from days 1 to 5 sows were housed in stalls, early in the morning on day 6 sows were grouped by parity and assessed until day 7. Eighteen pens with 4 sows each (n=72) of similar parity were assigned to CTL and TRP treatments. Sows' behaviors were recorded daily for 12h, from days 1 to 7. Inactive and active behaviors (alert, walking (pen), rooting, feeding, drinking, eliminating), stereotypic behaviors (bar biting and sham-chewing), and postures (standing, sitting, lying) were assessed by 10-minute scan sampling. Occurrence of agonistic interactions, number of actions such as bites, head knocks and pursuits and their sum per interaction were recorded for each pen using 2-h continuous behavioral observation, at days 6 and 7. Skin lesion scores were assessed from each sow at day 5 and at 48h post-mixing, using a sow body map subdivided into anterior, central and posterior body regions. A linear mixed model with day as repeated measure, stall or pen as experimental unit, tested the fixed effects of treatment, day, period within day, their interactions, and block by treatment interaction; stall (trt) or pen (trt) as appropriate was used as random effect. Blood concentration of TRP was higher on the mixing day in TRP-fed sows compared to baseline (76%) and CLT-fed sows at mixing (79%; P0.05). The TRP-enriched diet was effective in reducing sham-chewing in stall housed sows of parity 5-9 (Paggression while increasing behavioral activity, as evidenced by more time rooting and standing while sows had fewer offensive actions

  16. Effects of Dextrose Plus Lactose in the Sows Diet on Subsequent Reproductive Performance and within Litter Birth Weigt Variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Enckevort, van L.C.M.; Hoeven, van der E.M.; Kemp, B.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of dextrose plus lactose in sow's feed were tested on subsequent reproductive performance and within litter birth weight variation. During the last week of gestation and lactation, sows were either fed a commercial lactation diet (Control: C), or an isocaloric diet containing 25 g/kg

  17. Effects of dietary carbohydrate sources on plasma glucose, insulin and IGF-I levels in multiparous sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, J.G.M.; Soede, N.M.; Aarsse, F.; Laurenssen, B.F.A.; Koopmanschap, R.E.; Brand, van den H.; Kemp, B.

    2012-01-01

    Effects of different carbohydrate sources on plasma glucose, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels were compared to subsequently be able to study effects of insulin-stimulating diets on follicle development in sows. The following feed components were tested in 12 sows during six

  18. Effect of lameness on sow longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Sukumarannair S; Anil, Leena; Deen, John

    2009-09-15

    To analyze the association of lameness and performance variables on sow longevity by use of time-to-event analysis. Cohort study. 674 sows from a commercial breeding herd. A lameness assessment was performed on each sow. Data on farrowing performance and longevity were collected for the sows during 3 or fewer parities from the database of the herd during 2005 and 2006. The association of risk factors with sow longevity within 350 days after lameness assessment was analyzed via Cox regression analysis. Pigs per day, total production days, and survival at 350 days after lameness evaluation were compared between lame and nonlame sows. Numbers of preweaning baby pig deaths, stillborn pigs, and mummified pigs were negatively associated with sow longevity within 350 days after lameness assessment. A higher number of pigs born alive and younger parity of sows were protective. Lame sows had a higher risk (1.710 times as high) of removal from the herd within 350 days after lameness assessment. The number of pigs born alive per day, survival of sows at 350 days, and total number of days in the herd were lower in lame sows. Results of this study indicated significant differences in the survivability of lame and nonlame sows in a commercial herd. Parity and farrowing performance variables were factors influencing sow longevity in this herd. Producers need to minimize sow lameness and remove lame sows from a herd early (when treatment is not an option) to minimize economic loss.

  19. Effects of group size and floor space allowance on grouped sows: aggression, stress, skin injuries, and reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, P H; Rice, M; Nash, J; Giri, K; Butler, K L; Tilbrook, A J; Morrison, R S

    2013-10-01

    A total of 3,120 sows, in 4 time replicates, were used to determine the effects of group size and floor space on sow welfare using behavioral, physiological, health, and fitness variables. Within 1 to 7 d postinsemination, sows were assigned randomly to treatments of a 3 by 6 factorial arrangement, with 3 group sizes (10, 30, or 80 sows/pen) and 6 floor space allowances (1.4, 1.8, 2.0, 2.2, 2.4, or 3.0 m(2)/sow). Sows were housed on partially slatted concrete floors, and overhead feeders delivered 4 times/day to provide a total of 2.5 kg of feed/sow. As pen space increased from 1.4 to 3.0 m(2)/sow, aggression at feeding decreased from about 9 to 7 bouts/sow (linear, P = 0.029) and plasma cortisol concentrations decreased from about 28 to 21 ng/mL (linear, P = 0.0089) at 2 d. Although the results are in accord with a linear decline from 1.4 to 3 m(2)/sow, the results are also in accord with a decline in these measurements from 1.4 to 1.8 m(2)/sow and no further decline greater than 1.8 m(2)/sow. Farrowing rate (percentage of inseminated sows that farrowed) also increased from about 60 to 75% as space increased from 1.4 to 3.0 m(2)/sow (linear, P = 0.012). Group size was related to skin injuries on d 9 (P = 0.0017), 23 (P = 0.0046), and 51 (P = 0.0006), with groups of 10 consistently having the lowest number of total injuries over this period. Based on the aggression and cortisol results, it is credible to judge that, within the range of floor space allowances studied, sow welfare improves with increased space. However, from a sow welfare perspective, the experiment had insufficient precision to determine what is an adequate space allowance for sows. Thus, although the results definitely support a space allowance of 1.4 m(2)/sow being too small, it is not possible to give guidance on an actual space allowance at mixing that is adequate.

  20. Effect of increasing lysine supply during last third of gestation on reproductive performance of Iberian sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gómez-Carballar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ninety purebred Iberian (IB sows in second or third parity were used to determine the effects of dietary lysine (Lys concentration during last third of pregnancy on sow and litter performance. The sows were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments: 5.5 (LLys, Control, 7.4 (MLys and 8.7 (HLys g Lys kg-1 diet. Feed allowance was 2.30-2.33 kg d-1. Close to farrowing a conventional lactation diet was used. Dietary Lys did not affect body-weight (BW gain in late gestation of second-parity sows. However, in third-parity sows, a strong tendency was observed for BW gain to increase during late pregnancy with dietary Lys levels higher than 5.5 g kg-1 (p=0.061. Body-weight losses during lactation were never influenced by Lys supply. A strong tendency (p=0.064 for a lower ratio between piglets born alive and total piglets born was observed in second-parity sows fed the Control gestation diet. Litters and piglets from sows on this diet had the lowest weight at birth (p0.05. In conclusion, under moderate energy supply, adequate reserves for subsequent lactation can be achieved in second- and third-parity IB sows with a daily provision of at least 17.2 g lysine over the last third of pregnancy, what implies a substantial increase in protein supply respect to traditional practices.

  1. End-Cycle Sow Carcass Condemnation in a French Slaughterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Decaudin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance at an abattoir allows all animals or carcasses that present a potential public health risk to be withdrawn from the human food chain. Whole-carcass condemnation results in important economic losses, not only for the producer but also for other participants in the meat industry. Access to the personal electronic database of an abattoir in France enabled us to run logistic regression models to investigate the risk factors for whole-carcass condemnation of end-cycle sows in that abattoir. When end-cycle sows that were slaughtered and eviscerated between 22 June 2015 and 8 December 2015 (185 days were considered (n = 19,866, the results highlighted the importance of the total theoretical time off feed, which represents the fasting period from leaving the farm of origin to the time of slaughter (including transportation and waiting time at the abattoir. Each 10-h increase in the theoretical time off feed was associated with a 31% greater likelihood of whole-carcass condemnation [odd ratio (OR = 1.31, CI 95% (1.27; 1.34], and a 10 kg increase in carcass weight before refrigeration was associated with a 23% lower likelihood of carcass condemnation [OR = 0.77, CI 95% (0.75; 0.78]. The results also indicate the importance of the producer group that the farmer belonged to (P < 0.01. A relatively small number of variables was available in the actual database to study the relevant risk factors for whole-carcass condemnation associated with or without diseases at the farm of origin. This derives partly from the fact that traceability at the abattoir in France is done per batch rather than individually for pigs; further, limited information is available at the farm level. An investigation of the reasons for whole-carcass condemnation could have been informative; however, it was not feasible in a reasonable timeframe because these data were not saved in a database in a systematic way. Some of the difficulties encountered in

  2. End-Cycle Sow Carcass Condemnation in a French Slaughterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaudin, Pierre-Yves; Raboisson, Didier; Waret-Szkuta, Agnès

    2017-01-01

    Surveillance at an abattoir allows all animals or carcasses that present a potential public health risk to be withdrawn from the human food chain. Whole-carcass condemnation results in important economic losses, not only for the producer but also for other participants in the meat industry. Access to the personal electronic database of an abattoir in France enabled us to run logistic regression models to investigate the risk factors for whole-carcass condemnation of end-cycle sows in that abattoir. When end-cycle sows that were slaughtered and eviscerated between 22 June 2015 and 8 December 2015 (185 days) were considered (n = 19,866), the results highlighted the importance of the total theoretical time off feed, which represents the fasting period from leaving the farm of origin to the time of slaughter (including transportation and waiting time at the abattoir). Each 10-h increase in the theoretical time off feed was associated with a 31% greater likelihood of whole-carcass condemnation [odd ratio (OR) = 1.31, CI 95% (1.27; 1.34)], and a 10 kg increase in carcass weight before refrigeration was associated with a 23% lower likelihood of carcass condemnation [OR = 0.77, CI 95% (0.75; 0.78)]. The results also indicate the importance of the producer group that the farmer belonged to (P per batch rather than individually for pigs; further, limited information is available at the farm level. An investigation of the reasons for whole-carcass condemnation could have been informative; however, it was not feasible in a reasonable timeframe because these data were not saved in a database in a systematic way. Some of the difficulties encountered in this study should soon be alleviated by using the meat inspection information system software for collecting livestock meat inspection data. Implemented recently by the French ministry of agriculture, this new tool should allow for broader perspectives in swine surveillance.

  3. Nitrogen and energy metabolism of sows during several reproductive cycles in relation to nitrogen intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, H.

    1994-01-01

    By feeding the same diet during pregnancy and lactation sows are fed above the nitrogen requirement during pregnancy due to the relatively high nitrogen requirement during lactation. For feeding closer to the requirements at least two diets are needed: one diet with a low nitrogen content

  4. Evaporative snout cooling system on the performance of lactating sows and their litters in a subtropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Perin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of different temperature control systems on the voluntary feed intake (VFI, percentage of weight loss (PWL and performance of lactating sows as well as on the weight of their piglets. Two systems were used: traditional temperature control system (TTCS with curtain management and an evaporative snout cooling system (ESCS. The study was performed during the summer of 2011. After farrowing and at the weaning, 241 sows were weighed to evaluate the PWL during lactation. TTCS sows lost more weight (5.3±0.9%; P<0.05 than ESCS sows (2.2±0.9%. VFI was measured at intervals of four days in 32 primiparous and 39 multiparous sows. ESCS sows had higher VFI (5.8±0.2kg day-1; P<0.05 than TTCS sows (4.8±0.2kg day-1. Primiparous sows (4.4±0.2kg day-1 had a lower VFI than multiparous sows (6.3±0.2kg day-1, P<0.05 regardless of the temperature control system. Primiparous sows in the TTCS (10.9±1.3 days had a longer weaning-to-oestrus interval than primiparous sows in the ESCS (7.0±1.2 days, P<0.05. Subsequent litter size tended to be higher (P=0.095 in ESCS than in TTCS (12.0±0.5 and 10.9±0.6 piglets born, respectively. Litters housed in ESCS were heavier (65.3±1.4kg; P<0.05 at weaning than litters in TTCS (60.7±1.4kg. The results suggest that in general sows and piglets housed in the ESCS have better performance than sows and piglets housed in TTCS.

  5. Breeding for feed intake capacity in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Eissen, J.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with feed intake capacity of pigs. By selection, breeding organizations try to achieve genetic improvement in production and reproduction efficiency. Future genetic improvement may become constrained by a limited feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows, respectively. The aim of this thesis is to study the actual feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows in relation to their potential for production and reproduction in order to get a bet...

  6. Effects of Palm Kernel Expellers on Productive Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and White Blood Cells of Lactating Sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of palm kernel expellers on productive performance, nutrient digestibility, and changes in white blood cells (WBC of lactating sows. A total of 14 sows (200±12 kg of average body weight [BW]; 2.5 of average parity were used and moved from gestation room to farrowing room on d 109 of gestation. Sows were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. The treatments were a diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON and CON added with 20% of palm kernel expellers (PKE. Sows were fed the treatments for 28 days (weaning after farrowing. Blood was collected from each sow and 4 randomly selected piglets from each sow before farrowing or on d 3, 7, or 14 of lactation. Sows were fed respective treatments containing 0.2% chromic oxide from d 15 to 21 of lactation. Fecal samples were collected daily for the last 3 days after the 4-d adjustment period. Measurements were performances and WBC changes of sows and litter, nutrient digestibility of sows, and daily diarrhea of litter. Sows fed PKE had greater average daily feed intake (7.38 vs 7.10 kg/d; p<0.05 and lost less BW (−6.85 vs −8.54 kg; p<0.05 and backfat depth (−0.42 vs −0.71 mm; p<0.05 than those fed CON. However, there were no differences on digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, and energy and weaning to estrus interval of sows fed either CON or PKE. Piglets from sows fed PKE gained more BW (203 vs 181 g/d; p = 0.08 and had less frequency of diarrhea (6.80 vs 8.56%; p = 0.07 than those from sows fed CON. On the other hand, no difference was found on preweaning mortality of piglets from sows fed either CON or PKE. Sows fed PKE had lower number of WBC (9.57 vs 11.82 ×103/μL; p = 0.09 before farrowing than those fed CON, but no difference on d 3 and 7. Similarly, piglets from sows fed PKE had also lower number of WBC (7.86 vs 9.80 ×103/μL; p<0.05 on d 14 of lactation than those from sows fed CON, but no

  7. The effect of double nursing, an alternative nursing strategy for the hyper-prolific sow herd, on herd performance

    OpenAIRE

    Houben, Manon A. M.; Tobias, Tijs J.; Holstege, Manon M. C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Hyper-prolific sows produce more piglets than they can suckle, as the number of milk producing teats of the sow is lower (twelve to sixteen) than the number of live born piglets per litter. Farmers and farm workers are struggling to feed this surplus of piglets. To minimize suckling piglet mortality, litter size at 24?hours after parturition should not exceed the number of functional teats of the sow. Strategies to adequately nurse or feed the surplus of piglets after 24?hours are ...

  8. Effects of cashew nut testa levels as an alternative to wheat bran in gestating sow diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lin Hu; Hong, Young Gi; Hong, Jin Su; Jeong, Jae Hark; Han, Young Geol; Kwon, In Hyuk; Kim, Y Y

    2017-12-19

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary cashew nut testa (CNT) as an alternative feed ingredient to wheat bran on reproductive performance, litter performance, milk composition, and blood profiles of gestating sows. Forth multiparous sows (Yorkshire × Landrace) were fed experimental diets starting at 35 days of pregnancy and an initial average body weight (BW) of 211.53 ± 8.86 kg. Each sow was assigned to a treatment based on BW, backfat thickness (BF) and parity with 10 sows per treatment. Treatments were as follows: 1) corn-SBM based diet with 6% of wheat bran (C0); 2) basal diet with 2% of CNT and 4% of wheat bran (C2); 3) basal diet with 4% of CNT and 2% of wheat bran (C4); and 4) basal diet with 6% of CNT (C6). There were no statistically significant differences in BW and BF of gestating sows throughout the experimental period. However, changes in BF (P = 0.09) and the daily feed intake of sows (P = 0.09) tended to linearly increase during the lactation period. The weaning to estrus interval (WEI) showed a quadratic response to CNT treatment (P = 0.02), and the C2 diet showed the shortest WEI. Litter birth weight (P = 0.04) and piglet birth weight (P = 0.06) were linearly decreased with increase in CNT. Furthermore, there had no significant differences in piglet weight and litter weight in 21 day. Insulin concentration at day 70 of gestation was linearly reduced with increasing CNT level in diets (P = 0.03). When 6% CNT replaced wheat bran in gestating sow diets, there were no negative effects on sow performance, but litter birth weight and piglet birth weight were decreased when CNT level increased in gestating sow diets.

  9. Responses to n-3 fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation of gestating gilts, and lactating and weaned sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, M N; Patterson, J L; Webel, S K; Spencer, J D; Cameron, A C; Dyck, M K; Dixon, W T; Foxcroft, G R

    2013-05-01

    Feeding n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) to gilts or sows has shown different responses to litter growth, pre-weaning mortality and subsequent reproductive performance of the sow. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) that feeding a marine oil-based supplement rich in protected n-3 LCPUFAs to gilts in established gestation would improve the growth performance of their litters; and (2) that continued feeding of the supplement during lactation and after weaning would offset the negative effects of lactational catabolism induced, using an established experimental model involving feed restriction of lactating primiparous sows. A total of 117 primiparous sows were pair-matched at day 60 of gestation by weight, and when possible, litter of origin, and were allocated to be either control sows (CON) fed standard gestation and lactation diets, or treated sows (LCPUFA) fed the standard diets supplemented with 84 g/day of a n-3 LCPUFA rich supplement, from day 60 of first gestation, through a 21-day lactation, and until euthanasia at day 30 of their second gestation. All sows were feed restricted during the last 7 days of lactation to induce catabolism, providing a background challenge against which to determine beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on subsequent reproduction. In the absence of an effect on litter size or birth weight, n-3 LCPUFA tended to improve piglet BW gain from birth until 34 days after weaning (P = 0.06), while increasing pre-weaning mortality (P = 0.05). It did not affect energy utilization by the sow during lactation, thus not improving the catabolic state of the sows. Supplementation from weaning until day 30 of second gestation did not have an effect on embryonic weight, ovulation rate or early embryonic survival, but did increase corpora lutea (CL) weight (P = 0.001). Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were increased in sow serum and CL (P < 0.001), whereas only DHA levels increased in embryos (P

  10. Estimation of genetic parameters for traits associated with reproduction, lactation, and efficiency in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekkoot, D M; Kemp, R A; Rothschild, M F; Plastow, G S; Dekkers, J C M

    2016-11-01

    Increased milk production due to high litter size, coupled with low feed intake, results in excessive mobilization of sow body reserves during lactation, which can have detrimental effects on future reproductive performance. A possibility to prevent this is to improve sow lactation performance genetically, along with other traits of interest. The aim of this study was to estimate breed-specific genetic parameters (by parity, between parities, and across parities) for traits associated with lactation and reproduction in Yorkshire and Landrace sows. Performance data were available for 2,107 sows with 1 to 3 parities (3,424 farrowings total). Sow back fat, loin depth and BW at farrowing, sow feed intake (SFI), and body weight loss (BWL) during lactation showed moderate heritabilities (0.21 to 0.37) in both breeds, whereas back fat loss (BFL), loin depth loss (LDL), and litter weight gain (LWG) showed low heritabilities (0.12 to 0.18). Among the efficiency traits, sow lactation efficiency showed extremely low heritability (near zero) in Yorkshire sows but a slightly higher (0.05) estimate in Landrace sows, whereas sow residual feed intake (SRFI) and energy balance traits showed moderate heritabilities in both breeds. Genetic correlations indicated that SFI during lactation had strong negative genetic correlations with body resource mobilization traits (BWL, BFL, and LDL; -0.35 to -0.70), and tissue mobilization traits in turn had strong positive genetic correlations with LWG (+0.24 to +0.54; < 0.05). However, SFI did not have a significant genetic correlation with LWG. These genetic correlations suggest that SFI during lactation is predominantly used for reducing sow body tissue losses, rather than for milk production. Estimates of genetic correlations for the same trait measured in parities 1 and 2 ranged from 0.64 to 0.98, which suggests that first and later parities should be treated as genetically different for some traits. Genetic correlations estimated between

  11. Designing ETL Tools to Feed a Data Warehouse Based on Electronic Healthcare Record Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, Fabrizio; Luzi, Daniela; Ricci, Fabrizio L

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to design Extract, Transform and Load (ETL) tools in a clinical data warehouse architecture based on the Electronic Healthcare Record (EHR). This approach takes advantages on the use of this infrastructure as one of the main source of information to feed the data warehouse, taking also into account that clinical documents produced by heterogeneous legacy systems are structured using the HL7 CDA standard. This paper describes the main activities to be performed to map the information collected in the different types of document with the dimensional model primitives.

  12. Reproductive performance of sows was improved by administration of a sporing bacillary probiotic (Bacillus subtilis C-3102).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritas, S K; Marubashi, T; Filioussis, G; Petridou, E; Christodoulopoulos, G; Burriel, A R; Tzivara, A; Theodoridis, A; Pískoriková, M

    2015-01-01

    This field study assessed the efficacy of a probiotic based on viable spores of Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (Calsporin; Calpis Co. Ltd., Japan) on the health status and productivity of sows and their litters through 2 full, sequential reproductive cycles from service of the first cycle to weaning of the second cycle. Fifty-six sows were allocated to 2 experimental groups, an untreated control (T1) group and a probiotic-treated (T2) group that received the same basal feed as the T1 group plus the probiotic at an approximate allowance of 30 g/t of feed (3 × 10(5) cfu/g). The offspring of T1 and T2 sows were offered basal and T2 creep feed (3 × 10(5) cfu/g), respectively. Health and zootechnical parameters of sows and piglets were recorded. Feeding the probiotic to sows and piglets resulted in significant benefits, observed in both cycles: 1) improved sow body condition during pregnancy (P weight loss during lactation (P weight and in the number of piglets weaned was observed in the second cycle of T2 sows, while a significant improvement of mean daily gain of piglets from birth to weaning was observed in the first cycle of T2 sows. Microbiological examination of fecal samples showed that probiotic treatment significantly reduced both Escherichia coli and Clostridium spp. in piglet feces, particularly during the second cycle. The data suggested that continuous feed supplementation with the probiotic is beneficial for both sows and piglets, since zootechnical benefits were observed in both cycles.

  13. Herd- and sow-related risk factors for lameness in organic and conventional sow herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knage-Rasmussen, Kristian Møllegaard; Houe, Hans; Rousing, Tine

    2014-01-01

    factors associated with sow lameness in Danish outdoor organic sow herds by analysing the association between risk factors at both sow and herd level using clinical records of lameness. A total of 1850 sows from nine organic herds were included in the study. Second, the study examined differences...... in the prevalence of sow lameness between outdoor organic and indoor conventional herds. An additional aim here was to identify risk factors associated with clinical records of sow lameness in Danish sow herds by analysing the association between risk factors with lameness at sow and herd level. One thousand...... and fifty four gestation sows from 44 indoor conventional and nine organic sow herds were included in this study. The nine organic herds were visited twice: once in summer/autumn 2011, and once in winter/spring 2012. In winter/spring 2011, a total of 44 indoor conventional herds were visited. Risk factors...

  14. Economic weights for maternal traits of sows, including sow longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, P R; Ludemann, C I; Hermesch, S

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a transparent, comprehensive, and flexible model for each trait for the formulation of breeding objectives for sow traits in swine breeding programs. Economic values were derived from submodels considering a typical Australian pig production system. Differences in timing and expressions of traits were accounted for to derive economic weights that were compared on the basis of their relative size after multiplication by their corresponding genetic standard deviation to account for differences in scale and genetic variability present for each trait. The number of piglets born alive had the greatest contribution (27.1%) to a subindex containing only maternal traits, followed by daily gain (maternal; 22.0%) and sow mature weight (15.0%). Other traits considered in the maternal breeding objective were preweaning survival (11.8%), sow longevity (12.5%), gilt age at puberty (8.7%), and piglet survival at birth (3.1%). The economic weights for number of piglets born alive and preweaning piglet survival were found to be highly dependent on the definition of scale of enterprise, with each economic value increasing by approximately 100% when it was assumed that the value of extra output per sow could be captured, rather than assuming a consequent reduction in the number of sows to maintain a constant level of output from a farm enterprise. In the context of a full maternal line index that must account also for the expression of direct genetic traits by the growing piglet progeny of sows, the maternal traits contributed approximately half of the variation in the overall breeding objective. Deployment of more comprehensive maternal line indexes incorporating the new maternal traits described would lead to more balanced selection outcomes and improved survival of pigs. Future work could facilitate evaluation of the economic impacts of desired-gains indexes, which could further improve animal welfare through improved sow and piglet

  15. Hunger in pregnant sows: Effects of a fibrous diet and free access to straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    Fibrous diets and the provision of straw have been suggested to reduce feeding motivation in pregnant sows. The present experiment investigated the separate and interactive effects of a fibrous diet and ad libitum access to straw on feeding motivation, oral behaviour and plasma levels of metaboli......Fibrous diets and the provision of straw have been suggested to reduce feeding motivation in pregnant sows. The present experiment investigated the separate and interactive effects of a fibrous diet and ad libitum access to straw on feeding motivation, oral behaviour and plasma levels...... straw), while the remaining 5 groups did not (Limited straw). The experimental period (week 2–9 of pregnancy) was divided into two 4-week periods and in a cross-over design sows within groups were fed a standard control diet (18% dietary fibre) during one period and a fibrous diet containing sugar beet...... in the period they were fed the control diet. Sows with limited access to straw manipulated equipment less frequently during the period they were fed the fibre diet, while no effect of diet was seen among sows with ad libitum straw (diet × straw interaction P

  16. Effects of dietary star anise (Illicium verum Hook f) supplementation during gestation and lactation on the performance of lactating multiparous sows and nursing piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gong Ying; Yang, ChongWu; Yang, Zaibin; Yang, Weiren; Jiang, Shuzhen; Zhang, Guiguo; Guo, Yixuan; Wei, Maolian

    2015-04-01

    Thirty-two sows were allocated to four treatments to evaluate the effect of dietary star anise (SA) supplementation during gestation and lactation on the lactational performance of sows. At 85 days of gestation, sows were randomly allotted to one of two diets supplemented with 0.5% SA or basal diet. After farrowing, sows were further allotted to one of two lactation diets supplemented with 0.5% SA or basal diet. On a weekly basis, body weight (BW) of sows and piglets was measured. Blood and milk samples were obtained from the sows and piglets. Number of days from weaning to estrus, milk yield and feed intake were also recorded. Weight gain of piglets from sows fed the SA-supplemented diet during lactation was greater between days 7 and 14, days 14 and 21 and the overall experimental period compared with control groups. Supplementation of SA during lactation improved weaning weight of piglets, milk yield and average daily feed intake (ADFI) of sows. The SA diet increased concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in ordinary milk and prolactin (PRL) in serum of sows. In conclusion, this study has indicated the beneficial effects of dietary SA addition in improving the lactation performance of sows. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Relationships between piglet growth rate and mammary gland size of the sow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.L.; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Sørensen, Martin Tang

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study whether piglet growth rate is related to mammary gland size. It involved three primiparous sows and four multiparous sows that were fed ad libitum during the lactation period. The piglets received no creep feed. The weight and teat order of the piglets were......, intermediate in the middle and lowest in the rear glands. Average daily gain of the piglets was of the same magnitude regardless of gland position in the primiparous sows. In the multiparous sows, the piglets suckling the front teats had the highest gain while those suckling the middle teats had intermediate...... gain and those suckling the rear teats had the lowest gain. Average daily gain of the piglets in the lactation period was positively correlated to the amount of mammary tissue (0.35), mammary DNA (0.41) and mammary RNA (0.31), while correlations to mammary RNA concentration (0.28) and RNA/DNA ratio (0...

  18. Effects of additional starch or fat in late-gestating high nonstarch polysaccharide diets on litter performance and glucose tolerance in sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Kemp, B.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Hartog, den L.A.; Vereijken, P.F.G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of feeding additional starch or fat from d 85 of gestation until parturition on litter performance and on glucose tolerance in sows that were fed a diet with a high level of fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) were studied. The day after breeding, 141 multiparous sows were

  19. A field trial of the effect of improved piglet management on smallholder sow productivity in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveros, A A; More, S J

    2001-05-01

    We conducted a randomised, controlled field trial during 1998/1999 to evaluate the hypothesis that improved piglet management would improve the reproductive performance of smallholder sows. Simple changes were introduced into the treatment herds including the construction of a heated piglet-separation pen, vitamin injections, creep feeding and early weaning. The control herds were unchanged. Data were collected from all sows in each enrolled herd over two farrowings. We enrolled 176 sows, including 170 (96 treatment and 74 control) sows that remained throughout the study period. Significant differences in the reproductive performance of treatment and control sows were recorded for interfarrowing interval (median 176 versus 220 days), average number liveborn over 2 litters (11 versus 12), and average preweaning mortality over 2 litters (0 versus 37%). Based on a discount rate of 17%, the benefit-cost ratio of the treatment was 11.1 and 12.1 over 3 and 5 years, respectively.

  20. The Primary Care Electronic Library: RSS feeds using SNOMED-CT indexing for dynamic content delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Judas; de Lusignan, Simon; Kostkova, Patty; Madge, Bruce; Marsh, A; Biniaris, C

    2006-01-01

    Rich Site Summary (RSS) feeds are a method for disseminating and syndicating the contents of a website using extensible mark-up language (XML). The Primary Care Electronic Library (PCEL) distributes recent additions to the site in the form of an RSS feed. When new resources are added to PCEL, they are manually assigned medical subject headings (MeSH terms), which are then automatically mapped to SNOMED-CT terms using the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus. The library is thus searchable using MeSH or SNOMED-CT. Our syndicate partner wished to have remote access to PCEL coronary heart disease (CHD) information resources based on SNOMED-CT search terms. To pilot the supply of relevant information resources in response to clinically coded requests, using RSS syndication for transmission between web servers. Our syndicate partner provided a list of CHD SNOMED-CT terms to its end-users, a list which was coded according to UMLS specifications. When the end-user requested relevant information resources, this request was relayed from our syndicate partner's web server to the PCEL web server. The relevant resources were retrieved from the PCEL MySQL database. This database is accessed using a server side scripting language (PHP), which enables the production of dynamic RSS feeds on the basis of Source Asserted Identifiers (CODEs) contained in UMLS. Retrieving resources using SNOMED-CT terms using syndication can be used to build a functioning application. The process from request to display of syndicated resources took less than one second. The results of the pilot illustrate that it is possible to exchange data between servers using RSS syndication. This method could be utilised dynamically to supply digital library resources to a clinical system with SNOMED-CT data used as the standard of reference.

  1. Evaluating the impact of maternal vitamin D supplementation: I. Sow performance, serum vitamin metabolites, and neonatal muscle characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, J R; Woodworth, J C; Bergstrom, J R; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M

    2016-11-01

    In Exp. 1, 56 gestating sows (PIC 1050; 35 d postinsemination) were used in a 30-d trial to determine serum 25(OH)D response to increasing concentrations of dietary vitamin D. Sows were randomly allotted to 1 of 7 dietary D treatments (200, 800, 1,600, 3,200, 6,400, 12,800, or 25,600 IU of added D per kilogram of complete diet) with 8 sows per treatment. Increasing D increased (quadratic; sows and their litters were used to determine the effects of dietary vitamin D regimen on sow performance, subsequent preweaning pig performance, neonatal bone and muscle characteristics, and serum vitamin metabolites. Sows were allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments 3 to 5 d following breeding: 800, 2,000, or 9,600 IU of D per kilogram of the diet or 50 µg of 25(OH)D (2,000 IU of D equivalent from Hy-D, DSM Nutritional Products, Parsippany, NJ) per kilogram of diet. There were 25 to 27 sows per treatment. Increasing dietary D increased (linear, = 0.001) serum 25(OH)D of sows on d 100 of gestation, at farrowing, and at weaning. Increasing D in sow diets increased piglet serum 25(OH)D at birth (linear, = 0.001) and weaning (quadratic, = 0.033). Sows fed 50 µg of 25(OH)D/kg had intermediate ( sows fed 2,000 IU of D/kg and sows fed 9,600 IU of D/kg. Pigs from sows fed 50 µg of 25(OH)D/kg had greater serum 25(OH)D compared with pigs from sows fed 2,000 IU of D/kg, but at weaning, serum 25(OH)D concentrations were similar. Also, pigs from sows fed 9,600 IU of D/kg had greater ( = 0.011) serum 25(OH)D at birth and weaning compared with pigs from sows fed 50 µg of 25(OH)D/kg. Maternal performance, litter characteristics, neonatal bone ash content, and neonatal muscle fiber characteristics were largely unaffected by the dietary vitamin D treatments. Overall, D and 25(OH)D are both useful at increasing serum 25(OH)D concentrations, but more D (on an equivalent IU basis) is needed to achieve similar serum 25(OH)D responses compared with feeding 25(OH)D. Concentration of maternal vitamin

  2. A meta-analysis to identify animal and management factors influencing gestating sow efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, S L; Szyszka, O; Stoddart, K; Edwards, S A; Kyriazakis, I

    2014-12-01

    A meta-analysis on the effects of management and animal-based factors on the reproductive efficiency of gestating sows can provide information on single-factor and interaction effects that may not have been detected in individual studies. This study analyzed the effects of such factors on the number of piglets born alive per litter (BA), piglet birth weight (BiW) and weaning weight (WW), and number of piglets born alive per kilogram of sow feed intake during gestation (BA/FI). A total of 51 papers and 7 data sources were identified for the meta-analysis, out of which 23 papers and 5 sets of production data were useable (a total of 121 treatments). The information gathered included the dependent variables as well as information regarding animal, management, and feed characteristics. While a number of factors were individually significant, the multivariate models identified significant effects only of 1) floor type (P=0.003), sow BW at the end of gestation (P=0.002), and housing (stalls vs. loose; P=0.004) on BA; as floor type and housing were confounded, they were included in 2 separate models. The BA was higher on solid (12.1) in comparison to partly slatted (11.4) and fully slatted floors (10.2); 2) sow gestation environment (P=0.017) and gestation feed allowance (P=0.046) on BiW, with BiW of pigs higher for sows kept outdoors rather than indoors (1.75 versus 1.49 kg); 3) parity number (P=0.003) and feed intake during gestation (P=0.017) on WW; in addition there was an interaction between parity number×feed ME and parity number×feed CP content of feed during gestation on WW, with the positive effects of feed ME and CP contents seen during early rather than later parities; and 4) floor type (P=0.019) and feed crude fiber (P=0.003) for BA/FI with a greater number for those kept on solid floors (5.11) versus partially and fully slatted floors (4.07 and 4.05). The meta-analysis confirmed the significant effect of several well-known factors on the efficiency of

  3. Determination of protein and amino acid requirements of lactating sows using a population-based factorial approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathe, A V; Strathe, A B; Theil, P K; Hansen, C F; Kebreab, E

    2015-08-01

    Determination of appropriate nutritional requirements is essential to optimize the productivity and longevity of lactating sows. The current recommendations for requirements do not consider the large variation between animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the amino acid recommendations for lactating sows using a stochastic modeling approach that integrates population variation and uncertainty of key parameters into establishing nutritional recommendations for lactating sows. The requirement for individual sows was calculated using a factorial approach by adding the requirement for maintenance and milk. The energy balance of the sows was either negative or zero depending on feed intake being a limiting factor. Some parameters in the model were sow-specific and others were population-specific, depending on state of knowledge. Each simulation was for 1000 sows repeated 100 times using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. BW, back fat thickness of the sow, litter size (LS), average litter gain (LG), dietary energy density and feed intake were inputs to the model. The model was tested using results from the literature, and the values were all within ±1 s.d. of the estimated requirements. Simulations were made for a group of low- (LS=10 (s.d.=1), LG=2 kg/day (s.d.=0.6)), medium- (LS=12 (s.d.=1), LG=2.5 kg/day (s.d.=0.6)) and high-producing (LS=14 (s.d.=1), LG=3.5 kg/day (s.d.=0.6)) sows, where the average requirement was the result. In another simulation, the requirements were estimated for each week of lactation. The results were given as the median and s.d. The average daily standardized ileal digestible (SID) protein and lysine requirements for low-, medium- and high-producing sows were 623 (CV=2.5%) and 45.1 (CV=4.8%); 765 (CV=4.9%) and 54.7 (CV=7.0%); and 996 (CV=8.5%) and 70.8 g/day (CV=9.6%), respectively. The SID protein and lysine requirements were lowest at week 1, intermediate at week 2 and 4 and the highest at week 3 of lactation. The

  4. The effect of double nursing, an alternative nursing strategy for the hyper-prolific sow herd, on herd performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Manon A M; Tobias, Tijs J; Holstege, Manon M C

    2017-01-01

    Hyper-prolific sows produce more piglets than they can suckle, as the number of milk producing teats of the sow is lower (twelve to sixteen) than the number of live born piglets per litter. Farmers and farm workers are struggling to feed this surplus of piglets. To minimize suckling piglet mortality, litter size at 24 hours after parturition should not exceed the number of functional teats of the sow. Strategies to adequately nurse or feed the surplus of piglets after 24 hours are limited and mostly restricted to either fostering piglets by other sows, supplying milk replacers (formula) or early weaning and rearing on formula. In this case report we describe the design and application of a so called 'double nursing' strategy, for which one sow simultaneously nurses two litters from birth to weaning. Piglet mortality and reproductive parameters of sows that have nursed two litters are compared, over a three year period, with those that nursed one litter. In this herd, the double nursing strategy appeared to be a successful strategy. Double nursing sows experienced a lower piglet mortality, despite the double nursing strategy. The negative effects on reproduction proved to be limited, there was a negative effect on litter size in subsequent litters, but no significant effect on the interval weaning to next conception. It has to be noted though that not all characteristics on which double nursing selection takes place, could be taken into account during statistical analyses.

  5. Influence of dietary -arginine supplementation of sows during late pregnancy on piglet birth weight and sow and litter performance during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, B E; Bradley, C L; Johnson, Z B; Zier-Rush, C E; Boyd, R D; Usry, J L; Maxwell, C V; Frank, J W

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of feeding supplemental -Arg during late pregnancy on piglet birth weight and preweaning performance. In Exp. 1, 97 gilts and sows were allotted (gestation d 93) to receive a control diet (CON; 19.8 g standardized ileal digestible [SID] Arg/d) or the CON + 1.0% -Arg (ARG; 46.6 g SID Arg/d). Gilts and sows were weighed on gestation d 93 and 110, 48 h after farrowing, and at weaning. Data, including number born alive, number weaned, individual birth and weaning weight, and placenta weight, were recorded. Blood samples were collected on d 93 and 110 and analyzed for plasma IGF-1, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen concentration. In a second experiment, 383 sows in a commercial research farm were allotted to receive CON or ARG. An -Arg premix was provided daily by top dress beginning at gestation d 81 (±0.1 d) and fed for an average of 35 d (±0.2 d). Sows received 2.73 kg feed/d with CON sows provided 17 g SID Arg/d and ARG sows receiving a total of 44 g SID Arg/d. Litter birth weight was recorded and average birth weight was computed. In a subset of 82 sows, individual birth weights were recorded. In Exp. 1, there was a tendency for greater late pregnancy maternal BW gain ( = 0.06) in ARG compared with CON. A tendency for a parity × treatment interaction was observed for late pregnancy BW gain, with first litter sows fed ARG gaining the most, gilts fed ARG intermediate, and all other treatments gaining the least ( = 0.10). No differences between treatment groups were observed for maternal plasma IGF-1, insulin, and urea nitrogen and in progeny performance to weaning ( > 0.28). In Exp. 2, piglet birth weight was more effectively tested because of the large number of multiparous sows involved. There was a tendency for individual birth weight to decline in ARG compared with CON ( birth weight distribution between 2.8 kg was similar. No other differences were observed ( > 0.18). In conclusion, late pregnancy

  6. Effects of high fiber intake during late pregnancy on sow physiology, colostrum production, and piglet performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, F; Farmer, C; Ramaekers, P; Quesnel, H

    2013-11-01

    Dietary fiber given during pregnancy may influence sow endocrinology and increase piglet BW gain during early lactation. The aim of the current study was to determine whether dietary fiber given to sows during late pregnancy induces endocrine changes that could modulate sow colostrum production and, thus, piglet performance. From d 106 of pregnancy until parturition, 29 Landrace×Large White nulliparous sows were fed gestation diets containing 23.4 [high fiber (HF); n=15] or 13.3% total dietary fiber [low fiber (LF); n=14]. In the HF diet, wheat and barley were partly replaced by soybean hulls, wheat bran, sunflower meal (undecorticated), and sugar beet pulp. After parturition, sows were fed a standard lactation diet. Colostrum production was estimated during 24 h, starting at the onset of parturition (T0) and ending at 24 h after parturition (T24) based on piglet weight gains. Jugular blood samples were collected from sows on d 101 of pregnancy, daily from d 111 of gestation to d 3 of lactation, and then on d 7 and 21 of lactation (d 0 being the day of parturition). Postprandial kinetics of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were determined on d 112 of pregnancy. The feeding treatment did not influence sow colostrum yield (3.9±0.2 kg) or piglet weight gain during the first day postpartum to d 21 of lactation. Colostrum intake of low birth weight piglets (dietary fiber in late pregnancy affected sow colostrum composition but not colostrum yield, increased colostrum intake of low birth weight piglets, and decreased preweaning mortality, but these effects were not related to changes in peripartum concentrations of the main hormones involved in lactogenesis.

  7. Intermittent suckling: Effects on piglet and sow performance before and after weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuller, W.I.; Soede, N.M.; Beers-Schreurs, van H.M.G.; Langendijk, P.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Verheijden, J.H.M.; Kemp, B.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study effects of intermittent suckling on creep feed intake and weight gain of litters. Loss of weight and backfat during lactation, as well as reproductive performance, were also measured. Batches of multiparous sows (Parity I to 12, 4.1 on average) were either

  8. Long-term performance and behavior of sows fed high levels of non-starch polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to investigate the long-term effects of feeding sows high levels of dietary fermentable non-starch polysaccharides CNSP) (i.e., NSP from sugar beet pulp) restrictedly or ad libitum during gestation or ad libitum during lactation on behavior, reproductive

  9. Genetic parameters and predicted selection results for maternal traits related to lactation efficiency in sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergsma, R.; Kanis, E.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2008-01-01

    The increased productivity of sows increases the risk of a more pronounced negative energy balance during lactation. One possibility to prevent this is to increase the lactation efficiency (LE) genetically and thereby increase milk output for a given feed intake and mobilization of body tissue. The

  10. Performance of sows fed high levels of nonstarch polysaccharides during gestation and lactation over three parities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Kemp, B.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Hartog, den L.A.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of feeding sows a starch diet or a diet with a high level of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) during gestation, lactation, or both gestation and lactation during the first three parities on reproductive performance, body weight, and backfat was studied. Four-hundred and forty-four

  11. The second parity sow : causes and consequences of variation in reproductive performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    Many sows show reduced litter sizes in their second parity compared with their first parity. The aim of the current thesis was to describe causes and consequences of variation on second parity reproductive performance and to evaluate if feeding strategies during early gestation affect reproductive

  12. Influence of thermal environment on sows around farrowing and during the lactation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmkvist, J; Pedersen, L J; Kammersgaard, T S; Jørgensen, E

    2012-09-01

    Our objective was to investigate the effects of floor heating duration (HEAT: 35°c for 12 or 48 h) after birth of first piglet (BFP) under different room temperatures (ROOM: 15°C, 20°C, 25°C) on sows during farrowing and lactation. The study included 8 to 11 repetitions for each combination of ROOM and HEAT. There were no treatment effects on indicators of birth problems (duration of parturition, interbirth intervals, umbilical cord lactate concentration), BW changes of the sow, and litter size and weight until weaning. Sows at 15°C compared with 20°C and 25°C spent more time nest building (P = 0.015). The feed intake was reduced the first 7 d after farrowing in sows at 25°C (P = 0.014); however, both daily feed intake (P = 0.018) and water consumption (P heat = 48 h only (ROOM and HEAT interaction, P = 0.005). Room temperature influenced prefarrowing water consumption (25°C > 20°C and 15°C; P 20°C > 15°C; P heating duration (HEAT = 48 h) increased the respiration rate by 50% d 1 and 2 after bfp (p heat = 48 h treatment 13 to 48 h after BFP (P piglets (82% to 95%) were born on the heated solid floor, regardless of room temperature (P = 0.46). Sows spent approximately twice as much time standing and walking at 15°C during 13 to 48 h after BFP at HEAT = 12 h only (ROOM and HEAT interaction; P = 0.002). In conclusion, long-term indicators of reduced sow performance were unaffected by room temperature, probably because the farrowing and lactating sows in the current pen design were able to perform thermoregulatory behavior and successfully adapt to room temperatures between 15°C and 25°C.

  13. Genetic improvement of sow lifetime productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow lifetime productivity is a complex, yet important trait, that would benefit commercial populations if improved. It has been estimated that a sow must produce 3 litters to cover the cost of replacement; yet, nearly half of the gilts retained for breeding are removed prior to producing 3 litters r...

  14. Reproductive performance of "nurse sows" in Danish piggeries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, T. S.; Williams, Charlotte Amdi; Vinther, J.

    2016-01-01

    The use of nurse sows in Danish piggeries is common practice because of large litter sizes; however, the effect of being selected as a nurse sow on subsequent reproductive performance is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify a nurse sow's reproductive performance...... piglets, whereas non-nurse weaned 11.7 piglets in their single weaning. There was no difference in re-service rate between nurse and non-nurse sows in the subsequent reproductive cycle. Subsequent litter size in the next reproductive cycle was higher for nurse sows than that for non-nurse sows (18.69 vs...... among sows nursing large litters and could therefore suggest that these sows represent the best percentile of sows in a given piggery. In conclusion, this survey indicated no negative effects of being selected as a nurse sow on the subsequent reproductive performance. On the contrary, nurse sows gave...

  15. Behavior and performance of sows fed different levels of fiber and reared in individual cages or collective pens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÁBIO E.L. BUDIÑO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen pregnant sows were used. The experimental design was completely randomized with a 2x2 factorial scheme consisting of two housing systems (individual cages and collective pens and two diets (low [2.67%] and high [13.14%] level of crude fiber. Physiological, behavioral, environmental, and hormonal parameters were studied. In addition, the following productive and reproductive parameters were evaluated: weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion of the sow and piglets, number of piglets born dead and alive, number and weight at weaning, and backfat thickness of sows. Pregnant sows reared in collective pens and fed a high-fiber diet exhibited better physiological responses, indicating greater comfort and better animal welfare. The environmental variables were close to the comfort zone of the animals. In addition to providing a more comfortable environment, housing pigs in collective pens reduced stereotypy, permitting the sows to express a more natural behavior. The high-fiber diet did not interfere with female productive performance. Tifton hay can therefore be indicated as an alternative for the formulation of sow diets to improve animal welfare.

  16. Supplementation of NSP Enzyme Increased the Nutritive Value of Diets Fed to Lactating Sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Friis; Sønderby Bruun, Thomas; Fisker, B N

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing a non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) degrading enzyme in a standard lactation diet, on total tract digestibility of nutrients, milk yield, and weight loss in late lactation, where feed intake is highest. A total of 20 first...... increased by approximately two percent units and amounted to 82.9%, 80.6%, 81.9%, respectively, when sows were supplemented with enzyme. However, sow milk yield (P = 0.27) and sow weight loss (P = 0.49) were not affected by the enzyme supplementation. Energy status, as evaluated by plasma metabolites......, was not affected by enzyme supplementation. In conclusion, the NSP degrading enzyme increased the apparent total tract digestibility of studied nutrients....

  17. Evaluation of high nutrient diets on litter performance of heat-stressed lactating sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohan Choi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study investigated the litter performance of multiparous sows fed 3% and 6% densified diets at farrowing to weaning during summer with mean maximum room temperature of 30.5°C. Methods A total of 60 crossbred multiparous sows were allotted to one of three treatments based on body weight according to a completely randomized design. Three different nutrient levels based on NRC were applied as standard diet (ST; metabolizable energy, 3,300 kcal/kg, high nutrient level 1 (HE1; ST+3% higher energy and 16.59% protein and high nutrient level 2 (HE2; ST+6% higher energy and 17.04% protein. Results There was no variation in the body weight change. However, backfat thickness change tended to reduce in HE1 in comparison to ST treatment. Dietary treatments had no effects on feed intake, daily energy intake and weaning-to-estrus interval in lactating sows. Litter size, litter weight at weaning and average daily gain of piglets were significantly greater in sows in HE1 compared with ST, however, no difference was observed between HE2 and ST. Increasing the nutrient levels had no effects on the blood urea nitrogen, glucose, triglyceride, and creatinine at post-farrowing and weaning time. The concentration of follicle stimulating hormone, cortisol and insulin were not affected by dietary treatments either in post-farrowing or weaning time. The concentration of blood luteinizing hormone of sows in ST treatment was numerically less than sows in HE2 treatment at weaning. Milk and colostrum compositions such as protein, fat and lactose were not affected by the treatments. Conclusion An energy level of 3,400 kcal/kg (14.23 MJ/kg with 166 g/kg crude protein is suggested as the optimal level of dietary nutrients for heat stressed lactating sows with significant beneficial effects on litter size.

  18. Evaluation of high nutrient diets on litter performance of heat-stressed lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yohan; Hosseindoust, Abdolreza; Shim, YoungHo; Kim, Minju; Kumar, Alip; Oh, Seungmin; Kim, YoungHwa; Chae, Byung-Jo

    2017-11-01

    The present study investigated the litter performance of multiparous sows fed 3% and 6% densified diets at farrowing to weaning during summer with mean maximum room temperature of 30.5°C. A total of 60 crossbred multiparous sows were allotted to one of three treatments based on body weight according to a completely randomized design. Three different nutrient levels based on NRC were applied as standard diet (ST; metabolizable energy, 3,300 kcal/kg), high nutrient level 1 (HE1; ST+3% higher energy and 16.59% protein) and high nutrient level 2 (HE2; ST+6% higher energy and 17.04% protein). There was no variation in the body weight change. However, backfat thickness change tended to reduce in HE1 in comparison to ST treatment. Dietary treatments had no effects on feed intake, daily energy intake and weaning-to-estrus interval in lactating sows. Litter size, litter weight at weaning and average daily gain of piglets were significantly greater in sows in HE1 compared with ST, however, no difference was observed between HE2 and ST. Increasing the nutrient levels had no effects on the blood urea nitrogen, glucose, triglyceride, and creatinine at post-farrowing and weaning time. The concentration of follicle stimulating hormone, cortisol and insulin were not affected by dietary treatments either in post-farrowing or weaning time. The concentration of blood luteinizing hormone of sows in ST treatment was numerically less than sows in HE2 treatment at weaning. Milk and colostrum compositions such as protein, fat and lactose were not affected by the treatments. An energy level of 3,400 kcal/kg (14.23 MJ/kg) with 166 g/kg crude protein is suggested as the optimal level of dietary nutrients for heat stressed lactating sows with significant beneficial effects on litter size.

  19. Effects of supplementing Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in sow diets on performance of sows and nursing piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty-two sows were used to determine the effects of adding Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product to gestation and lactation diets on performance of sows and their progeny. On 5 d before breeding, sows were allotted to 2 dietary treatments representing: (1) sows fed a diet with 12.0 g fermen...

  20. Sow-activity classification from acceleration patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escalante, Hugo Jair; Rodriguez, Sara V.; Cordero, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a supervised learning approach to sow-activity classification from accelerometer measurements. In the proposed methodology, pairs of accelerometer measurements and activity types are considered as labeled instances of a usual supervised classification task. Under this scenari...

  1. Breeding for feed intake capacity in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eissen, J.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with feed intake capacity of pigs. By selection, breeding organizations try to achieve genetic improvement in production and reproduction efficiency. Future genetic improvement may become constrained by a limited feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows,

  2. Sequence-Based Analysis of the Intestinal Microbiota of Sows and Their Offspring Fed Genetically Modified Maize Expressing a Truncated Form of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab Protein (Bt Maize)

    OpenAIRE

    Buzoianu, Stefan G.; Walsh, Maria C.; Rea, Mary C.; Quigley, Lisa; O?Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D; Ross, R. Paul; Gardiner, Gillian E.; Lawlor, Peadar G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to investigate transgenerational effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) maize expressing a truncated form of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein (Bt maize) to sows and their offspring on maternal and offspring intestinal microbiota. Sows were assigned to either non-GM or GM maize dietary treatments during gestation and lactation. At weaning, offspring were assigned within sow treatment to non-GM or GM maize diets for 115 days, as follows: (i) non-GM maize-fed sow/non-GM ma...

  3. Reproduction of group-housed sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoniemi, Olli; Björkman, Stefan; Maes, Dominiek

    2016-01-01

    The sow is a social animal in her behavior throughout the reproductive cycle. An exception to her preference for being a part of a social group occurs one to two1-2 d days prior to farrowing, when she separates from her group and seeks for isolation in order to build up a nest. She then spends the first week or two with her piglets, mainly in the nest. After this short period of separation of 1-2 weeks, she brings her litter with her and rejoins the group. In modern intensive pig production, the sow is often restricted to an individual cage for lactation and, in many European countries, she may still spend additional periods in stalls during pregnancy. In the intensive production, isolation of the sow from the rest of the group is therefore a relatively long period of six to ten6-10 weeks, which creates a challenge for the social memory of the sow. While grouping of sows during lactation is an interesting option, until now this is encountered mostly in organic or otherwise extensive farming systems, such as outdoor farming. However, the present society is asking for more animal friendly models of production and there appears to be more need for studies of group housing issues during lactation. Grouping of sows after weaning causes stress, which imposes risks for fertility. Thus, timing of grouping is probably very critical. It is well documented that the embryonic period of the pregnancy, lasting up to Day 35, is more vulnerable for loss of pregnancy than the subsequent fetal period. There are indications that stress of grouping may cause some harm to vitality parameters of blastocysts already while at the site of fertilization in the oviduct. Later on, during the critical periods of maternal recognition of pregnancy, endocrinological models testing maintenance of pregnancy suggest that chronic stress lasting for more than two2 days may cause abortion and loss of the whole litter. However, the sow may be resistant, in terms of her reproductive function, to acute

  4. Effect van suiker plus lactose in biologisch zeugenvoer op de reproductie van zeugen en de variatie in geboortegewicht van biggen = Effects of sugar plus lactose in organic sow diets on reproductive performance and within liter birth weight variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Binnendijk, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of feeding sows lactose plus sugar during lactation and the weaning-to-estrus interval on subsequent reproductive performance and within-litter variation were investigated. The results of the trial are described in this report.

  5. An improved approach to identify irradiated dog feed by electron paramagnetic resonance study and thermoluminescence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar, E-mail: bhaskar_sanyal@rediffmail.co [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Chawla, S.P.; Sharma, Arun [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India)

    2011-05-15

    In the present study, probably for the first time, a detailed analysis of the radiation induced radical species and thermoluminescence measurements of irradiated dog feed are reported. The EPR spectrum of non-irradiated ready-to-eat dog feed was characterized by singlet g=2.0047{+-}0.0003. Irradiated samples exhibited a complex EPR spectrum. During high power (50.0 mW) EPR spectroscopy, a visible change in the shape of the EPR spectrum was observed and characterized by EPR spectrum simulation technique. An axially symmetric anisotropic signal with g{sub ||}=2.0028 and g{sub perpendicular}=1.9976 was identified. However, a negligible change in the matrix of irradiated edible dog chew was observed using EPR spectroscopy. Therefore, thermoluminescence study of the isolated minerals from dog chew was carried out. The composition of the poly-minerals was studied using SEM and EDX analysis and a complete verdict on identification of irradiation is proposed.

  6. Alternatives to sowing vegetable type soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edcarlos Mannfredini

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, soybean crops of the Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar are sown in beds prior to transplantation to the field. This planting system has caused crop failure due to damage to the root system. An experiment to test different sowing alternatives to obtain plantlets for cropping of food type big seeded soybean was set up with the following treatments: sowing in beds; sowing in 130 cm³ newspaper cups; sowing in test tubes of volumes of 30 cm³, 60 cm³ and 70 cm³; sowing in 70 cm³ disposable plastic cups; sowing on 90 cm³ styrofoam trays. A randomized complete block design was used, and the following traits were assessed: germination percentage; number of days to flowering; plant height at flowering; number of days to maturity; plant height at maturity; number of seeds per plant; individual plant yield; weight of a hundred seeds. Results should that three methods could be used to set up Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar crops: sowing in disposable plastic cups, sowing in beds with later transplant, or direct sowing in the field.Atualmente, as lavouras com o cultivar Tamba Kurodaisu são semeadas em canteiros, para posterior transplante no campo. Este sistema tem causado falhas na lavoura, por ocorrer danificação no sistema radicular. Com o objetivo de testar diferentes alternativas de semeadura para obtenção de mudas visando a implantação de lavouras de soja tipo alimento, com sementes graúdas, instalou-se um experimento com os seguintes tratamentos: Semeadura em canteiros; Semeadura em copos de jornal, com volume (V igual a 130 cm³; Semeadura em tubetes, com V = 30 cm³; V = 60 cm³; V = 70 cm³; Semeadura em copos plásticos descartáveis, com V = 70 cm³; Semeadura em bandejas de isopor, com V = 90cm³. O delineamento utilizado foi blocos casualizados, tendo sido avaliados os seguintes caracteres: Porcentagem de germinação; Número de plantas por parcela; Número de dias para o florescimento; Altura da planta no florescimento; Número de dias

  7. The effect of supplementing sow and piglet diets with different forms of iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliny Kétilim Novais

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chelated iron supplementation on gestating and lactating sows and on their suckling and weaned piglets. Reproductive traits, piglet performance, hematological parameters, and the iron concentrations in colostrum, milk, and stillborn livers were measured. Ninety-six sows were subjected to one of three treatment groups. Group T1 comprised pregnant and lactating sows treated with diets supplemented with inorganic iron (551 mg Fe/kg and suckling piglets administered 200 mg of injectable iron dextran. Group T2 was the same as T1, except that sows after 84 days of gestation, lactating sows, and suckling piglets were fed a diet supplemented with 150 mg Fe/kg of chelated iron, and suckling piglets were administered injectable iron dextran. Group T3 was the same as T2 but without injectable iron dextran for suckling piglets. During the nursery phase, all of the weaned piglets were penned with their original groups or treatments and received isonutritive and isocaloric feeds. Piglets from the T2 and T3 groups also received an additional 150 mg Fe/kg of chelated iron via their feed. There were no differences among the treatments for reproductive traits or the iron concentrations in the colostrum, milk, or liver. The piglets that did not receive the injectable iron dextran showed the poorest performance during the pre-and post-weaning phases and showed the poorest hematological parameters of the suckling piglets. The chelated iron supplementation is insufficient to meet piglet demand. The iron dextran supply is necessary for suckling and weaned piglets.

  8. Genetic parameters for thermoregulation and production traits in lactating sows reared in tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdine, J-L; Mandonnet, N; Giorgi, M; Renaudeau, D

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters for thermoregulation traits and the relationships with performance of Large White lactating sows reared in a tropical humid climate. The thermoregulation traits were rectal temperature (RT), cutaneous temperature (CT) and respiratory rate (RR) during lactation measured in the afternoon (1200 h) and in the morning (0700 h). The production traits were sow's average daily feed intake (ADFI), litter BW gain (LBWg) and sow's proportion of BW change between farrowing and weaning (BWc). Complete data included 931 lactating performance on 329 Large White sows from the INRA experimental unit in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). Random regression models using linear spline functions were used for longitudinal data (RT, CT, RR and daily feed intake). Results showed that when ignoring values at the beginning and the end of lactation, the traits studied can be treated as the same trait throughout days of lactation, with fairly constant heritability and variance. However, largest heritabilities and genetic variances were estimated in mid-lactation. Heritability estimates on average performance during lactation were low to moderate for thermoregulation traits (0.35±0.09 for RT, 0.34±0.12 for CT and 0.39±0.13 for RR). Heritability estimates for production traits were 0.26±0.08 for ADFI, 0.20±0.07 for BWc and 0.31±0.09 for LBWg. Significant genetic correlations between thermoregulation traits and production traits were only obtained for ADFI and RR (0.35±0.12). From this study it can be concluded that thermoregulation traits are heritable, indicating that there are genetic differences in heat stress tolerance in lactating Large White sows.

  9. Segmentation of sows in farrowing pens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Gang Jun; Karstoft, Henrik; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2014-01-01

    The correct segmentation of a foreground object in video recordings is an important task for many surveillance systems. The development of an effective and practical algorithm to segment sows in grayscale video recordings captured under commercial production conditions is described...... and illumination changes as well as motionless foreground objects. About 97% of the segmented binary images in the validation data sets can be used to track sow behaviours, such as position, orientation and movement. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is able to provide a basis...

  10. Morphometric changes following pregnancy in large white sows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the different sections of the teat and circumference of the vulva of pregnant and non-pregnant sows. On the other hand the length of vulva in the pregnant and non-pregnant sows were not significantly different. Keywords: Pig; sow; pregnancy; large white. Animal Production Research Advances Vol. 2 (3) 2006: pp 189-193 ...

  11. Cortisol profiles in sows submitted to an intermittent suckling regime compared with that of abruptly weaned sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluivers-Poodt, M.; Gerritsen, R.; Nes, van A.; Langendijk, P.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor changes in cortisol levels in sows around the time of separation from their piglets, in two different intermittent suckling regimes, compared with that in conventionally weaned sows. Sows were either weaned at 21 days of lactation (CONT) or subjected to an

  12. Effects of high dietary fibre diets formulated from by-products from vegetable and agricultural industries on plasma metabolites in gestating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yde, Christian Clement; Bertram, Hanne Christine; Theil, Peter Kappel; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the biochemical influence of feeding high dietary fibre (DF) diets formulated from by-products from the vegetable and agricultural industries to sows during early to mid-gestation. The effect of feeding frequency (once vs. twice daily) on diurnal plasma metabolites patterns was also examined. The study included a total of 48 gestating sows from four blocks (12 gestating sows in each block). The sows were fed four different diets containing varying levels of starch (304-519 g/kg dry matter (DM)) and DF (171-404 g/kg DM) but with equal amounts of net energy. The low-DF diet (control) was based on barley and wheat, and the three high-DF diets formulated by replacing barley and wheat by pectin residue, sugar beet pulp and potato pulp, respectively. The experimental design comprised two periods of 4 weeks each. Half the sows were fed once daily at 08:00 h in the first period and twice daily at 08:00 and 15:00 h during the second period, and vice versa for the other half of the sows. Plasma samples from vena jugularis were collected by venipuncture at 07:00, 09:00, 12:00 and 19:00 h. Feeding high-DF increased plasma short-chain fatty acids (p = 0.02) and non-esterified fatty acids (p starch by DF affected surprisingly few metabolites in peripheral plasma. No negative effects were found in feeding pectin residue, sugar beet pulp or potato pulp for gestating sows as judged from the minor metabolic changes.

  13. Effects of floor-feeding and the presence of a foraging substrate on the behaviour and stress physiological response of individually housed gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.A.; Ekkel, E.D.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Both restricted feeding and barren housing have a negative influence on sow welfare. The aim of this study was to test whether sows that have to search for their feed in a substrate on the floor show less stereotyped (and other abnormal) behaviour and have a lower physiological stress response. In

  14. Ideal Sowing Depth for Sweetgum Seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. T. Bonner

    1967-01-01

    This paper reports the sowing depths from which sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) seedlings can emerge under near ideal conditions. Little is known about the seedbed conditions required for successful direct seeding of sweetgum, and the information presented here will be useful in planning field trials.

  15. Dietary supplementation of l-arginine and chromium picolinate in sows during gestation affects the muscle fibre characteristics but not the performance of their progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhan; Song, Wentao; Sun, Yuecheng; Wang, Liansheng; Shi, Baoming; Shan, Anshan; Bi, Zhongpeng

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of l-arginine and chromium picolinate (CrP) in sows during gestation on muscle fibre characteristics, performance and carcass characteristics of their progeny. Sixty healthy sows were randomly divided into four groups as a 2 × 2 factorial experiment design: one group received the control diet, another received the control diet + 10 g kg(-1) l-arginine, the third group received the control diet + 400 ppb CrP, and the fourth group received the control diet + 10 g kg(-1) l-arginine and 400 ppb CrP. The results showed that sows fed the diet supplemented with CrP produced progeny with higher muscle fibre numbers at birth, weaning and slaughter compared to sows fed the control diet. For mean fibre areas, the same result was found at weaning. For progeny of sows fed diets supplemented with l-arginine, only higher muscle fibre numbers at slaughter was observed. Almost no differences were observed regarding average daily gains, average daily feed intake, gain-to-feed ratios, carcass and meat traits. The results of the present study indicate that dietary supplementation of l-arginine and particularly CrP in sows during gestation alters muscle fibre numbers in their offspring, although not their performance or carcass characteristics. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Light and electron microscopic observations of feeding behavior, nutrition, and reproduction in laboratory cultures of Thalassicolla nucleata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, O R

    1978-01-01

    T. nucleata is a skeletonless, single-celled radiolarian commonly found in ocean surface water. Specimens were cultured in the laboratory in a seawater--antibiotic medium. Feeding experiments show that T. nucleata is omnivorous with preference for crustacea, colorless flagellates, and occasional diatoms. Pigmented algae bearing organic thecae are occasionally consumed, but Dunaliella sp. is rejected. Rhizopodial activity during algal predation is compared to activity during crustacean predation, and evidence for differentiation of function among rhizopodia is presented. Electron microscopic observations and evidence from cytochalasin B treatment support the hypothesis that microfilaments mediate organized rhizopodial streaming. Reproduction is by isospores which resemble those in other spumellarian Radiolaria. Survival time in laboratory culture indicates that T. nucleata has a life span of at least 3 weeks. These findings are discussed in relation to the unique requirements imposed by a pelagic habitat on survival of a single-celled floating organism.

  17. Effect of dietary alpine butter rich in conjugated linoleic acid on milk fat composition of lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Alexandra; Collomb, Marius; Bee, Giuseppe; Bütikofer, Ulrich; Wechsler, Daniel; Eberhard, Pius; Sieber, Robert

    2008-07-01

    Multiparous sows (n 17) were included in a controlled cross-over-study in order to investigate the influence of a natural source of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (alpine butter) on the milk fatty acid composition of lactating sows (as an animal model for lactating women) and on the growth performance of their progeny. The usual fat source of a standard lactation diet was replaced by either CLA-rich alpine butter or margarine (control diet). Compared with the margarine diet, feeding the alpine butter-supplemented diet increased (P 0.05) affected. Growth performance of the progeny was similar for both dietary treatments. In summary, the findings show that adding alpine butter to the diet does not provoke a milk fat depression and does not alter the composition of total SFA, MUFA and PUFA in sow milk but increases its CLA concentration.

  18. Modelling piglet growth and mortality on commercial hog farms using variables describing individual animals, litters, sows and management factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiot, Lucie; Lachance, Isabelle; Laforest, Jean-Paul; Guay, Frédéric

    2017-11-10

    Increases in sow prolificacy have reduced piglet vitality, growth capacity and weight at weaning and even pig weight at slaughter. The aim of this study was to develop a model that predicts likelihood of mortality and weight at weaning. A database containing 3214 records of birth weight, weight gain at 24h, rectal temperature at 24h, litter size, age at weaning, fostering status, manual assistance of birth and oxytocin use as well as the corresponding 227 records of sow parity and feed intake was analysed using logit functions for mortality and linear functions for weaning weight. The best model of mortality predicted increased likelihood as birth weight, rectal temperature and 0-24h weight gain decreased and sow parity and time between births increased (Ppiglet growth and pre-weaning mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Developmental factors that influence sow longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, M D; Bates, R O

    2011-04-01

    The length of adult sow life is now recognized as both an economic and a welfare concern. However, there are no consistent definitions to measure sow longevity. This study assessed 6 different descriptions of longevity and determined their relationship with developmental performance factors. Longevity definitions included stayability (probability of a sow producing 40 pigs or probability of her reaching 4 parities), lifespan (number of parities a female has accumulated before culling), lifetime prolificacy (number of pigs born alive during the productive lifetime of a female), herd life (time from first farrowing to culling), and pigs produced per day of life. Data consisted of 14,262 records of Yorkshire females from both nucleus and multiplication herds across 21 farms from 4 seedstock systems. Within a subset of the data, information was available on the litter birth record of the female and her growth and composition data. Therefore, data were subdivided into 2 data sets, consisting of 1) data A, data from the farrowing records of a female, and 2) data B, data A and information from the litter birth record of a female and the growth and backfat data from a female. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the relationship of developmental factors and first farrowing record with longevity. Those factors that were significantly (P sows that had more pigs born alive, fewer stillborn pigs, and heavier litters at 21 d of lactation in their first litter had a decreased risk of being culled. Furthermore, sows from nucleus herds experienced a greater risk of being culled. Many factors affected longevity, regardless of definition. Pork producers can implement management protocols that can extend the productive life of breeding females, resulting in improved profitability and animal welfare.

  20. Parity Influences the Demeanor of Sows in Group Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Taya; Pluske, John R; Miller, David W; Collins, Teresa; Fleming, Patricia A

    2018-01-01

    Across the globe, producers are moving from individual housing to group housing for sows during gestation. Producers typically group sows of a range of parities together, although the impacts are largely unknown. This study examined the behavioral expression at mixing for young, midparity, and older sows. Ten mixed-parity groups were filmed at mixing on a commercial piggery. One-minute clips were edited from continuous footage where focal sows of known parity could be identified, and scored for qualitative behavioral expression. Parity 2 and 6 sows were more calm/tired than Parity 4 sows, who were more active/energetic. Parity 2 sows were more curious/inquisitive than Parity 4 and 6 sows, who were more anxious/frustrated. Correlations between qualitative behavioral expression and activity indicated sows scored as more calm/tired spent a greater proportion of time standing, while sows scored as more active/energetic spent more time performing avoidance behavior. Different body language is likely to reflect physical or affective differences in how sows cope with mixing.

  1. ESTABLISHMENT OF Pinus elliottii Engelm STANDS WITH DIRECT FIELD SOWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Guimarães Finger

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was undertaken to test the possibility of use of direct field sowing as a method of  forest formation. The soil preparation consisted of mechanic mowing followed by cleaning of small circles of 40 cm of diameter, where four seeds of Pinus elliottii Engelm were sowed, previously stratified, and protected by a bottomless plastic glass fastened to the sowing point. The treatments tested were direct sowing, sowing of seeds involved by paper envelop and seedling plantation as testify treatment. The results were not satisfactory, however, being observed at the most 38.46% of the sowing places with seedlings after 84 days of sowing. The main factor that contribuited to the failure of the method was seedling mortality caused by water deficit and high temperatures.

  2. Effects of dietary organic and inorganic trace mineral levels on sow reproductive performances and daily mineral intakes over six parities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, J C; Mahan, D C

    2008-09-01

    Dietary trace mineral sources and levels were fed to developing gilts to evaluate their performance responses during the growth phase, but treatments were continued into the reproductive phase in which subsequent reproductive responses were evaluated. In Exp. 1, three groups of gilts (n = 216) were used in a 2 x 2 factorial in a randomized complete block design (6 replicates) with treatment diets initially fed at 30 kg of BW. The first factor was trace mineral source (organic or inorganic), whereas the second factor evaluated dietary levels. The NRC requirement was the first level evaluated, whereas the second level was formulated to average industry standards (IND). Organic trace minerals were mineral proteinates, whereas the inorganic minerals were provided in salt form. The results of Exp. 1 indicated that trace mineral source or level did not affect gilt growth or feed performance responses to 110 kg of BW. Experiment 2 continued with the same females but was a 2 x 3 factorial in a split-plot design using 3 groups of females over a 6-parity period and had a total of 375 farrowings. Factors in Exp. 2 were the same as in Exp. 1, except that 2 additional pens of gilts during their development had been fed the IND level trace mineral levels of both trace mineral sources. At breeding, the gilts from these 2 additional pens were continued on the same trace mineral source and level but fed greater dietary Ca and P levels (IND + Ca:P). Litters were standardized by 3 d postpartum within each farrowing. Sows fed organic trace minerals farrowed more (P pigs (11.3 vs. 10.6) compared with sows fed inorganic trace minerals. Sows fed the IND + Ca:P level tended to have fewer (P pigs born for both trace mineral sources. Litter birth weights were heavier (P sows were fed organic trace minerals, but individual piglet weights were similar. Nursing pig ADG tended to be greater (P sows were fed organic trace minerals. Other sow reproductive traits (BW, feed intake, and rebreeding

  3. Real-time recognition of sows in video: A supervised approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Khoramshahi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a supervised classification approach for the real-time pattern recognition of sows in an animal supervision system (asup. Our approach offers the possibility of the foreground subtraction in an asup’s image processing module where there is lack of statistical information regarding the background. A set of 7 farrowing sessions of sows, during day and night, have been captured (approximately 7 days/sow, which is used for this study. The frames of these recordings have been grabbed with a time shift of 20 s. A collection of 215 frames of 7 different sows with the same lighting condition have been marked and used as the training set. Based on small neighborhoods around a point, a number of image local features are defined, and their separability and performance metrics are compared. For the classification task, a feed-forward neural network (NN is studied and a realistic configuration in terms of an acceptable level of accuracy and computation time is chosen. The results show that the dense neighborhood feature (d.3 × 3 is the smallest local set of features with an acceptable level of separability, while it has no negative effect on the complexity of NN. The results also confirm that a significant amount of the desired pattern is accurately detected, even in situations where a portion of the body of a sow is covered by the crate’s elements. The performance of the proposed feature set coupled with our chosen configuration reached the rate of 8.5 fps. The true positive rate (TPR of the classifier is 84.6%, while the false negative rate (FNR is only about 3%. A comparison between linear logistic regression and NN shows the highly non-linear nature of our proposed set of features.

  4. A review of sow and piglet behaviour and performance in group housing systems for lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwamerongen, S E; Bolhuis, J E; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; Soede, N M

    2014-03-01

    Commercial use of group housing systems for lactating sows is limited, but the recent transition to group housing during gestation in the EU may result in a renewed interest in such systems. Therefore, this review aims to identify key factors that may contribute to the success or failure of group housing of lactating sows in comparison with individual housing by describing the variety in group housing systems and discussing animal behaviour and performance compared with individual housing. Group housing systems can be divided in multi-suckling (MS) systems, in which sows are grouped with their litters, and get-away (GA) systems, which include a separate communal area accessible to sows only. These systems differ in many aspects regarding management and layout but, compared with individual housing, generally provide more environmental complexity, more freedom of movement for the sows and more freedom to express behaviours related to, for example, maternal care and social interactions. Group housing poses several risks, such as disrupted nursing and an increased level of crushing during the MS phase, and in the GA systems there is a risk for early cessation of nursing. On the other hand, pre-weaning mingling of litters clearly benefits piglet social development and may improve adaptation to the post-weaning situation. In addition, group-housed sows may show lactational ovulation, which provides opportunities for insemination during an extended lactation period, which benefits the piglets. Gradual transitions in social and physical environment around gestation, farrowing, grouping and weaning seem to be key success factors for group housing systems during lactation. In addition, selection of suitable sows and quality of stockmanship seem important.

  5. Nurse capacity, fertility, and litter size in crossbred sows and genetic correlation to purebred sow information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, B; Christensen, O F; Velander, I

    2016-05-01

    In pigs litter size has increased during the last decades and number of weaned piglets is an important issue. The aim of this study was to develop a new trait of nurse capacity (NC) of crossbred sows viewed as crossbred performances in the two purebred parent lines, and estimate the genetic correlation to fertility and litter size five days after birth. An experiment recording phenotypes of crossbred sows was conducted in three large production herds with 11,247 first litter Danish Landrace x Yorkshire sows. All terminal sires used were Duroc AI boars. The experiment was running from 2010 to 2013. At farrowing, the total number born (TNB) was recorded. Five days after farrowing the litter size of the biological mother (LS5) was recorded. During the first three days after farrowing the number of piglets at each nurse sow was equalized to 14 piglets and after three weeks the NC was recorded and defined as the number of piglets nursed. Additional records on TNB and LS5 from related sows in nucleus and multiplier herds were added to obtain a data set with both purebred and crossbred information. A reduced animal model including both purebred and crossbred records was used and parameters were estimated. The results show that NC recorded on crossbred first litter sows had heritabilities of 0.05 and 0.07 for crossbred performance in the purebred populations of Landrace and Yorkshire, respectively. Estimated genetic correlations between TNB in purebreds and crossbreds show that nearly 50% of genetic gain in the purebred populations was transferred to crossbreds. Unfavorable genetic correlations between TNB in purebreds and NC in crossbreds were observed. For LS5 the genetic (co)variances show that 61% of the genetic gain in the two purebred lines was transferred to the commercial pig production of crossbred first litter sows, but no statistically significant genetic correlation to NC was obtained.

  6. Effects of sow nutrition during gestation on within-litter birth weight variation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, P H R F; Silva, B A N; Donzele, J L; Oliveira, R F M; Knol, E F

    2012-05-01

    The increasing demand for efficiency in pork production requires great specialization of all sectors involved in this activity. In this context, the development of strategies that could reduce undesirable traits related with negative effects on piglet survival and postnatal growth and development are essential for the pig industry. Currently, special attention is given to variation in birth weight, as some evidences suggest an increased within-litter birth weight variation in modern sows. This variation has been shown to be associated with preweaning mortality, variable weights at weaning and deteriorated growth performance, which results in economic losses and lower efficiency. Therefore, understanding the factors that can influence the events that occur during gestation and that have an impact on the fetal growth and development are important to achieve better efficiency and also to develop strategies that can be used to achieve increased within-litter uniformity of piglet birth weight. This study concludes that even at a given placental size, fetal growth may vary because of differences in placental vascularization and efficiency. Feeding extra feed or energy during late gestation only marginally improves birth weight, and positive effects are not consistent between different studies. The detrimental effects of protein restriction on fetal growth during early gestation may be due to altered placental and endometrial angiogenesis and growth, which leads to a reduction in placental-fetal blood flow, nutrient supply from mother to the fetuses and ultimately to fetal growth retardation. The number of studies that attempted to influence within-litter birth weight variation by means of sow nutrition during gestation is limited. Therefore, more research concerning sow nutrition during gestation associated with the provision of balanced diets to meet requirements of the sows and fetuses are still required. This knowledge may subsequently provide starting points for the

  7. Sowing Quality Indicators for a Seed Drill With Overpressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Turan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of sowing is the distribution of seeds at an optimal depth with adequate seed spacings. The results of the optimal sowing, in both horizontal and vertical directions, are better germination and sprouting, as well as increased yield and reduced influence of plants on each other’s space for growing, regarding the available light, nutrients and moisture. Quality of horizontal and vertical seed distribution is influenced by the distance between rows, sowing depth, pre-sowing preparation, seed drill, seeding mechanism, sowing density, and operator’s skills. The arithmetic mean of spacing (Am, standard deviation for spacings between the plants (SD and coefficient of variation (CV are usually used for representation of sowing evenness. Assuming that the seeds are of good germination quality, the yield is directly dependent on the sowing quality and organization of plants per unit of surface area. A well prepared plot was sown with 20 corn seed hybrids from different FAO maturity groups. The sowing was performed with precision pneumatic seed drill INO Becker Aeromat 2, which ejects individual seeds by using the overpressure.After sprouting, no statistically significant differences were found between the sowing of hybrids from different FAO maturity groups and their characteristics. When the yield is concerned, biological characteristics of hybrids are much more influential than the quality of sowing. This is true only if the tractor implement for wide row planting is properly adjusted.

  8. The course of acute-phase proteins and serum cortisol in mastitis metritis agalactia (MMA) of the sow and sow performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelder, K N; Bilkei, G

    2005-01-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in acute-phase proteins (APPs) during mastitis metritis agalactia (MMA) in sows. Sows with MMA (group one, n=15) and healthy sows (group two, n = 15) were evaluated at days 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 postpartum. Number of total born, liveborn, stillborn, and mummified pigs did not differ significantly between the groups. Preweaning mortality was higher (P MMA sows than among healthy control animals. The offspring of healthy sows had higher (P MMA sows. Mean serum alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations were higher in MMA sows on the days 1 (P MMA sows on days 1, 5 (P MMA sows than in healthy sows. AGP was negatively correlated with litter weight, indicating that activation of the cellular immune response in sows negatively affects the growth rate of suckling piglets. Correlations were found between the overall means for weight, acute-phase proteins, and serum cortisol concentration.

  9. Effect of season on fertility of sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stančić Blagoje L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduced fertility of sows during the warmer period of the year is a well-known occurrence in practical production. Namely, during summer months gilts become sexually mature later, the interval from weaning to estrus is prolonged, there is a greater number of postlactation silent estruses anestrias and ovarian cysts, the value of conception is lower, there are more irregular failed fertilizations, there is a higher degree of embryo mortality, and the litter size is smaller. This is why this occurrence presents an important zootechnological, veterinary-medical and economic problem. Most scientific research shows that this phenomenon is a consequence of the effects of an extended daily photoperiod and a higher ambient temperature. However, the degree of the individual effect of these factors has not been determined clearly, or the physiological and endocrinological mechanisms of their action. It is probably not possible completely to avoid the negative influence of seasonal factors on reduced fertility in sows during the summer period. However, it can be significantly alleviated with a regular maintenance technology, diet, hygiene and medical protection of sows. This paper presents knowledge acquired so far on the manifestation of this phenomenon, its physiological and endocrine bases, as well as possibilities for its practical resolving.

  10. Effects of intermittent suckling and creep feed intake on pig performance from birth to slaughter

    OpenAIRE

    Kuller, W.I.; Soede, N. M.; Beers-Schreurs, van, H.M.G.; Langendijk, P.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Kemp, B.; Verheijden, J.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine if the improved creep feed intake observed during intermittent suckling (IS) is important for postweaning performance. Therefore, creep feed intake of litters was assessed, and within litters, eaters and noneaters were distinguished using chromic oxide as an indigestible marker. Batches of sows were suckled intermittently (IS, 7 batches; n = 31) or continuously (control, 7 batches; n = 31). In the IS group, litters were separated from the sow for a per...

  11. Impact of sow and litter characteristics on colostrum yield for onset of lactation, and milk yield of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadmand, C N; Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Hansen, C F

    2015-01-01

    relations with characteristics of sow nutrition, litter size, farrowing, and composition of mammary secreta (independent variables). Litter size was positively related with both CY and MY in wk 1 to 4 (P protein concentration was negatively correlated with MY in all 4 wk (P ... indicated that high yielding sows were unable to maintain milk protein synthesis during lactation. Additionally, mean intake of ME prepartum (P MY and the BW of the sow on d 3 was included in the regression model for MY in wk 1 (P ... yield (MY; 36–60 h postpartum), and the mean MY in wk 1 to 4 of lactation. Therefore, the study investigated how factors related with sow nutrition, litter characteristics, farrowing characteristics, and composition of mammary secreta affected sow productivity. Data obtained from 5 previous sow...

  12. Comparable cortisol, heart rate and milk let-down in nurse sows and non-nurse sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amdi, C.; Moustsen, V. A.; Oxholm, L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing litter size in hyperprolific sows has led to the need for management systems for surplus piglets, one of which is the use of nurse sows. The aim of this study was to investigate physiological changes in salivary cortisol, heart rate and number of milk let-downs in nurse sows compared...... to monitor heart rate. Cameras were placed above the pens to record milk let-downs. Overall, there was no influence of treatment on salivary cortisol, heart rate or the number of milk let-downs/h. There was an effect of time as cortisol levels fell throughout lactation (Pheart rate increased (P......-term (when the sows received new piglets) or long-term (throughout the lactation period) cortisol and heart rate measurements between different treatments. In addition, the frequency of milk let-down/h was the same for nurse sows as for non-nurse sows....

  13. Effects of prepartum administration of 1,3-butanediol to sows on growth and survival of neonatal pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahly, T S; Cromwell, G L; Monegue, H J

    1985-12-01

    In six trials, 158 late-term gravid sows were fed isocaloric amounts (8,500 kcal metabolizable energy/d) of a corn-soybean meal-based diet in which 20% of their daily metabolizable energy (ME) intake was supplied by either cornstarch or 1,3-butanediol (butanediol) from about d 105 of gestation to parturition. After parturition, all sows were allowed to consume a standard, corn-soybean meal-based lactation diet, ad libitum, during a 28-d lactation. Prepartum administration of butanediol, a stable, nonvolatile liquid that possesses anesthetic, antimicrobial and ketogenic properties, did not alter the voluntary feed intake or body weight changes of sows pre- or post-partum. Number of pigs born per litter, average pig birth weight and incidence of stillbirths were not influenced by the prepartum diet of the sows. However, the addition of butanediol to the prepartum diet increased (P less than .10) the number of pigs weaned per litter at 28 d by .51 pigs (8.17 vs 7.66) and improved (P less than .10) the survival rate of pigs from birth to weaning by 5.7 percentage units (84.1 vs 78.4%) compared with those of sows fed isocaloric additions of starch. Average pig weights at 28 d of age were similar for the two treatment groups (6.18 vs 6.08 kg) even though greater numbers of pigs were nursing sows fed the butanediol diet prepartum. The rate and efficiency of gain and survivability of weanling pigs during a 28-d postweaning period were not influenced by the prepartum diet of their dam.

  14. Is a 10-sow unit economically sustainable? A profitability assessment of productivity amongst small-holder pig farmers, Mpumalanga, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzhelele, Priscilla; Oguttu, James W; Fasina, Folorunso O

    2016-05-12

    The majority of small-holder pig farmers in Mpumalanga had between 1- and 10-sow herds. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the current government agricultural intervention (supply of 10 sows and a boar) in terms of technical and economic feasibilities and ascertain whether the small-scale pig value chain system alleviates poverty. Data were obtained from 220 randomly selected small-holder pig farmers using a semi-structured questionnaire. The results showed that 58% farrowed ≤ 10 piglets/born/sow/litter, 44.2% practiced no weaning method and many fed swill and leftovers alone (41.6%). Pair-wise association revealed that the feeding of commercial feeds had a relationship with pigs in relatively good to very good body condition. Pigs in poor body condition were positively correlated with the feeding of swill alone. The economic models for the 10-sow unit proved that pig farming is unprofitable if the current management and feeding systems that operate in the commercial industry are utilised. However, only through a combination of cooperative systems, benefits of economies of scale, reduction of preweaning mortalities and structured government inputs can pig production be profitable at this scale of production.

  15. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tube feeding; PEG tube care; Feeding - gastrostomy tube - pump; G-tube - pump; Gastrostomy button - pump; Bard Button - pump; MIC-KEY - pump ... Gather supplies: Feeding pump (electronic or battery powered) Feeding ... pump (includes a feeding bag, drip chamber, roller clamp, ...

  16. Impact of sow and litter characteristics on colostrum yield, time for onset of lactation, and milk yield of sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadmand, C N; Krogh, U; Hansen, C F; Theil, P K

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the concurrent impact of sow and litter characteristics on sow productivity. Sow productivity was defined as colostrum yield (CY), onset of lactation (the time point when milk secretion increased steeply, approximately 31 h postpartum), transition milk yield (MY; 36-60 h postpartum), and the mean MY in wk 1 to 4 of lactation. Therefore, the study investigated how factors related with sow nutrition, litter characteristics, farrowing characteristics, and composition of mammary secreta affected sow productivity. Data obtained from 5 previous sow experiments were used. The variables describing sow productivity were all defined as dependent variables and Pearson coefficient of correlation was used to examine relations among dependent variables. The results showed that CY was positively correlated with transition MY and MY in wk 1 and 2 of lactation (P lactation was positively correlated with transition MY (P lactation (P lactation. Additionally, mean intake of ME prepartum ( lactation. In conclusion, when maximizing sow productivity in the future, it may be rewarding to pay attention to sow productivity in the colostrum period and around time for onset of lactation, and special attention should be given to dietary supplies of protein and essential AA.

  17. A regional evaluation of the effect of fiber type in gestation diets on sow reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroch, C S; Dove, C R; Maxwell, C V; Johnson, Z B; Southern, L L

    2008-07-01

    A cooperative regional research study using 194 sows, from which data were collected from 381 litters, was conducted at 3 research stations to determine the effects of added psyllium (a concentrated fiber source) or soybean hulls to gestation diets on reproductive performance of sows and preweaning performance of their pigs. Primiparous and multiparous sows were allotted to the 3 treatments of control (corn and soybean meal-based), 0.30% psyllium, or 20% soybean hulls. Sows fed the control and 0.30% psyllium diets were provided 1.82 kg/d, and sows fed the 20% soybean hulls diet were provided 2.0 kg/d to equalize ME, Lys, Ca, P, and vitamin and trace mineral intake. Treatments 1 to 3 had 130, 130, and 121 litters per treatment from 64, 64, and 63 sows, respectively. Gestating sows fed psyllium had a greater (P sows fed soybean hulls. Sows fed psyllium also had a greater (P sows. Sows fed soybean hulls had a reduced (P sows. Sows fed psyllium weaned lighter (P pigs than sows fed the control diet. Litter size was not affected (P > 0.10) by diet. Sows fed psyllium had a reduced (P sows fed soybean hulls for d 5 to 7 postpartum, and sows fed the control diet were intermediate. Fecal scores (1 to 5 with 1 = dry and 5 = watery) were greater (P sows fed soybean hulls compared with sows fed psyllium or the control diet on d 112 of gestation and d 4 postpartum. Fecal scores were greater (P sows fed psyllium compared with sows fed the control diet only on d 4 postpartum. In summary, sows fed soybean hulls during gestation had reduced BW compared with sows fed the control diets. In contrast, sows fed psyllium had an increased BW.

  18. Intermittent suckling: Effects on piglet and sow performance before and after weaning

    OpenAIRE

    Kuller, W.I.; Soede, N. M.; Beers-Schreurs, van, H.M.G.; Langendijk, P.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Verheijden, J.H.M.; Kemp, B.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study effects of intermittent suckling on creep feed intake and weight gain of litters. Loss of weight and backfat during lactation, as well as reproductive performance, were also measured. Batches of multiparous sows (Parity I to 12, 4.1 on average) were either suckled intermittently (IS, eight batches; n = 50) or continuously (control, eight batches; n = 62). Litters were weaned at 27 +/- 2 d of age, on average. Litter size (11.1 +/- 0.2 piglets, on average) w...

  19. Calculating Optimum sowing factor: A tool to evaluate sowing strategies and minimize seedling production cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric van Steenis

    2013-01-01

    This paper illustrates how to use an excel spreadsheet as a decision-making tool to determine optimum sowing factor to minimize seedling production cost. Factors incorporated into the spreadsheet calculations include germination percentage, seeder accuracy, cost per seed, cavities per block, costs of handling, thinning, and transplanting labor, and more. In addition to...

  20. A review of sow and piglet behaviour and performance in group housing systems for lactating sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwamerongen, van S.E.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Soede, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Commercial use of group housing systems for lactating sows is limited, but the recent transition to group housing during gestation in the EU may result in a renewed interest in such systems. Therefore, this review aims to identify key factors that may contribute to the success or failure of group

  1. Sow-level risk factors for stillbirth of piglets in organic sow herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangstrup-Christensen, L; Krogh, M A; Pedersen, L J; Sørensen, J T

    2017-06-01

    In Danish organic pig production, one-third of total born piglets die before weaning, and stillbirth has previously crudely been estimated to account for 27% of the total preweaning mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate season, litter size, parity and body condition of the sow as risk factors for stillbirth in nine commercial Danish organic pig herds. The study was conducted over a 1-year period, and the data included registrations on 5170 farrowings with 82 906 total born piglets. The average number of total born piglets per litter was 16.0, and the number of stillborn piglets per litter was 1.1. A significant effect of season was seen with an odds ratio for stillbirth of 1.15 during summer (May to August) compared with the remaining part of the year. A non-linear effect of litter size was seen where an increase in litter size from 11 to 16 resulted in an odds ratio of stillbirth of 1.11. An increase in litter size from 16 to 21 resulted in an odds ratio of stillbirth of 1.45. A significant interaction between body condition and parity was present. In first parity sows, an increase in body condition score from 2 (thin) to 3 (moderate) and from 3 to 4 (fat) increased the probability of stillbirth with an odds ratio of 1.23 and 1.36, respectively. In sows with parity above 4, an increase in body condition score from 2 to 3 and from 3 to 4 decreases the probability of stillbirth with an odds ratio of 0.68 and 0.79, respectively. In conclusion, increasing litter size and being born during the summer months of May to August were found to be risk factors for stillbirth. Furthermore, an interaction between body condition and parity showed that thin sows with parity above 4 had a substantially increased risk of stillbirth compared with normal and fat sows with parity above 4. In contrast, for parity 1 sows risk of stillbirth was increased in fat sows.

  2. Reproduction of group-housed sows

    OpenAIRE

    Peltoniemi, Olli; Björkman, Stefan; Maes, Dominiek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The sow is a social animal in her behavior throughout the reproductive cycle. An exception to her preference for being a part of a social group occurs one to two1–2 d days prior to farrowing, when she separates from her group and seeks for isolation in order to build up a nest. She then spends the first week or two with her piglets, mainly in the nest. After this short period of separation of 1–2 weeks, she brings her litter with her and rejoins the group. In modern ...

  3. Estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters for sow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beke

    been identified as a key factor affecting the efficiency and economic viability of the pig ... Estimates of genetic parameters for sow productivity traits reported in .... mean of zero and variance covariance structure as shown below: e ..... Sow productivity traits are generally of low heritability and repeatability in this population.

  4. Sowing date and water stress effects on sole and intercropped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sowing date and water stress effects on sole and intercropped maize/pea cultivars under controlled conditions. ... In the first-year study in 2000, intercropping maize with pea was generally more advantageous than when either crop was sown sole. Delaying the time of intercropping of pea by 14 days after sowing maize ...

  5. Estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters for sow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for sow productivity traits of South African Large White pigs, using data from the Integrated Registration and Genetic Information Systems. The analyses were done on 29 719 records for 7 983 sows from 29 herds, which farrowed between 1990 ...

  6. Reproductive performance of two sow lines under arid climatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive performance of two sow lines under arid climatic conditions. ... Abstract. Data (n = 4836) from a pig company in Namibia recorded over the period 2002 – 2007 were analysed to: (i) compare performance of two sow lines for the age at first ... LTB increased by 10.9 ± .1 piglets per unit increase in parity at culling.

  7. Research in gilt development to improve lifetime productivity of sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper development and selection of gilts is essential to the productivity and longevity of the sow herd. A gilt must remain in the sow herd for 2 to 3 parities before she produces enough piglets to pay for the cost of her development. Average age at culling in U.S. swine herds is approximately 3....

  8. Dietary fat and reproduction in the post partum sow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Kemp, B.

    2006-01-01

    Lactating sows are not able to ingest sufficient energy to produce the large amount of milk they are presently capable of. Therefore, sows use a considerable amount of body reserves to maintain their milk production. The high amount of body weight loss is negatively associated with subsequent

  9. Effects of cracking and sowing time on germination of Styrax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to explore the effects of cracking and sowing time on seed germination of a popular medicinal plant, Styrax officinalis L. in the forest nursery of Eğirdir, Turkey. Seeds were subjected to ten treatments with and without cracking in five sowing intervals 15 days apart. Seed germination started on the ...

  10. The Effect of Different Sowing Patterns and Deficit Irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reza

    . The responses of sweet corn (Zea mays) to irrigation frequency and sowing patterns were studied in the field from. December 2005 to December 2006. This research was laid out in split plot, with water quantity as main plot and sowing ...

  11. Infrared thermography to evaluate lameness in pregnant sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amezcua, Rocio; Walsh, Shannon; Luimes, Paul H; Friendship, Robert M

    2014-03-01

    Early detection of lameness in sows is important to reduce losses and improve animal welfare. Mild-to-moderate lameness is difficult to diagnose in sows. Infrared thermography (IRT) was evaluated as a method of detecting signs of inflammation in the lower limbs as an aid in lameness detection.

  12. Weaning strategies to improve the performance of sows and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The effect of restricted suckling and split weaning on the reproductive performance of dams and subsequent performance of their litters was studied in an experiment involving 48 Landrace x Large White sows of second and third parity. The sows and their litters were allocated to four treatments as follows:.

  13. Individual and pen-based oral fluid sampling: A welfare-friendly sampling method for group-housed gestating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Françoise; Dorenlor, Virginie; Eono, Florent; Eudier, Solveig; Eveno, Eric; Liégard-Vanhecke, Dorine; Rose, Nicolas; Fablet, Christelle

    2017-11-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the feasibility of individual and pen-based oral fluid sampling (OFS) in 35 pig herds with group-housed sows, compare these methods to blood sampling, and assess the factors influencing the success of sampling. Individual samples were collected from at least 30 sows per herd. Pen-based OFS was performed using devices placed in at least three pens for 45min. Information related to the farm, the sows, and their living conditions were collected. Factors significantly associated with the duration of sampling and the chewing behaviour of sows were identified by logistic regression. Individual OFS took 2min 42s on average; the type of floor, swab size, and operator were associated with a sampling time >2min. Pen-based OFS was obtained from 112 devices (62.2%). The type of floor, parity, pen-level activity, and type of feeding were associated with chewing behaviour. Pen activity was associated with the latency to interact with the device. The type of floor, gestation stage, parity, group size, and latency to interact with the device were associated with a chewing time >10min. After 15, 30 and 45min of pen-based OFS, 48%, 60% and 65% of the sows were lying down, respectively. The time spent after the beginning of sampling, genetic type, and time elapsed since the last meal were associated with 50% of the sows lying down at one time point. The mean time to blood sample the sows was 1min 16s and 2min 52s if the number of operators required was considered in the sampling time estimation. The genetic type, parity, and type of floor were significantly associated with a sampling time higher than 1min 30s. This study shows that individual OFS is easy to perform in group-housed sows by a single operator, even though straw-bedded animals take longer to sample than animals housed on slatted floors, and suggests some guidelines to optimise pen-based OFS success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of dietary vitamin E concentration and source on sow, milk, and pig concentrations of α-tocopherol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, N W; Dritz, S S; Nelssen, J L; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M; Yang, H; Hill, D A; Holzgraefe, D; Hall, D H; Mahan, D C

    2014-10-01

    A total of 126 gilts and sows (PIC 1050) and their litters were used to determine the effects of dietary vitamin E concentration and source on sow plasma, milk, and pig concentrations of α-tocopherol. Additionally, we estimated the bioavailability of D-α-tocopheryl acetate (D-α-TAc) relative to DL-α-tocopheryl acetate (DL-α-TAc) when fed in diets containing dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The 6 dietary treatments included DL-α-TAc at 44 and 66 mg/kg and D-α-TAc at 11, 22, 33, and 44 mg/kg. From breeding to d 69 of gestation, sows were fed 2.0 kg/d of a diet containing 40% DDGS, 0.30 mg/kg added Se, and no added vitamin E. Vitamin E treatments were fed from d 70 of gestation through weaning. Plasma was collected from sows on d 69 and 100 of gestation, at farrowing, and at weaning. Colostrum and milk samples were also collected. Plasma from 3 pigs per litter and heart and liver samples from 1 pig per litter were collected at weaning. Plasma, milk, and tissues from 6 litters per treatment were analyzed for α-tocopherol. Although tissue, plasma, and milk concentrations of α-tocopherol were the primary response criteria of interest, sow and litter performance were measured. As expected, treatment effects were not observed for lactation feed intake, sow BW, or backfat measurements. A trend (P = 0.085) for a treatment effect on average pig BW at weaning was detected, with pigs nursing sows fed 44 mg/kg DL-α-TAc weighing less because of a younger weaning age. No other differences in litter performance were observed. As D-α-TAc increased in the diet, sow plasma, colostrum, and milk, pig plasma, and pig heart concentrations of α-tocopherol increased (linear, P pig plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol compared with sows fed 44 mg/kg of DL-α-TAc. Sows fed 66 mg/kg DL-α-TAc also had greater (P = 0.022) plasma α-tocopherol at weaning than sows fed 44 mg/kg DL-α-TAc. Bioavailability coefficients for D-α-TAc relative to DL-α-TAc ranged from 1.9 to

  15. INFLUENCE OF SOWING SPEED ON SOYBEAN CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. A. Tiesen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mato Grosso state is the largest producer of soybeans in the country, therefore is the focus of several studies and research in order to improve and increase the production. For an activity that reduces the movements on the field, the no-tillage is a great activity when it done properly. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of speed of sowing on soybean crop, with pneumatic system type for seed metering. The experiment was conducted at São Luiz Farm, in Sinop city, in the northern of Mato Grosso state. The experimental adopted was the randomized blocks design with four treatments and four replications. The seeding speeds studied were 3; 5; 7 and 9 km h-1. The variables evaluated were: initial plant population, longitudinal distribution and yield components. The data were submitted to variance and regression analysis. The speed of 3 km h-1 show the best performance for acceptable spacing, flawed, plant stand on the pre-established area, number of pods per plant, thousand grain mass and yield. The speeds rate used for sowing did not influence the establishment of soybean crop, but affected the beans productivity.

  16. Satiating properties of diets rich in dietary fibre fed to sows asevaluated by physico-chemical properties, gastric emptying rate and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Theil, Peter Kappel; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2010-01-01

    time was measured using 13C-acetate as marker for the liquid phase and 13C-octanoic acid as marker for the solid phase. The sows were placed inside a respiration chamber and 13C-carbondioxide was measured in the expired air. Feeding diets rich in soluble DF reduce the physical activity of sows...... and these satiating properties could be attributed to increased swelling and WBC in the stomach, which in turn delayed the gastric emptying rate of the liquid phase of gastric content. Measurements of gastric emptying turned out to be a practical tool for ranking of the ability of DF sources to reduce activity...

  17. Anethol, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol inclusion in feed affects postweaning performance and feeding behavior of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blavi, L; Solà-Oriol, D; Mallo, J J; Pérez, J F

    2016-12-01

    The early exposure of the fetus to certain volatiles may result in a further preference for these compounds later in life and could positively affect the acceptance of feed containing a similar flavor and the zootechnical responses. The study consisted of 2 trials to determine if including Fluidarom 1003 (a commercially flavored feed additive containing >25% anethol and cinnamaldehyde and >10% eugenol; Norel S.A., Madrid, Spain, Spain) in sow and postweaning piglet diets 1) provokes the presence or absence of 3 major volatile compounds (anethol, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol) in amniotic fluid and milk, affecting piglet performance (BW, ADG, ADFI, and feed conversion ratio) after weaning, and 2) modifies creep feed consumption and feed preference in a 2-choice test. The major compounds, anethol, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol, were detected in amniotic fluid; however, only traces were observed in milk. The inclusion of flavor in the sow diets improved piglet consumption and growth after weaning ( = 0.001). Furthermore, the positive reward associated with the flavor included in the sow diet was stronger when piglets were offered a nonflavored creep feed ( early exposure of pigs' fetuses to maternal dietary clues at the end of gestation might allow for conditioning pigs after weaning.

  18. PRELIMINARYANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT COOLING SYSTEMS OF SOWS IN FARROWING ROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Barbari

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary evaluation of different cooling systems for farrowing - lactating sows was conducted in a pig farm in the North of Italy. In an experimental farrowing room 16 crates were used to study different cooling solutions during three cycles of observations. The evaluated systems were: drip cooling (five crates, drip and snout cooling (six crates, drip cooling and a full steel sheet placed under the body of the sow (five crates. Rectal and skin temperatures were measured during hot hours of the day. Fat thickness was measured and body condition score of the sows was estimated at the beginning and at the end of the lactating period. A closed-circuit television system was also installed to collect information about the behaviour of the sows cooled with the drip system or with both drip and snout cooling system. While differences concerning body and skin temperatures as well as BCS and fat thickness were not significant, the behavioural patterns showed how the sows appreciated the contemporaneous use of the drip and snout cooling methods. The sows preferred to lie with the snout towards the air outlet especially during the hottest hours of the day. In order to obtain the best thermal conditions inside the farrowing crate, the drip system had to be coupled with the snout cooling system and the full metal floor placed under the head of the sows. Further studies are necessary to confirm the preliminary obtained results.

  19. Legs and Claws Condition and Lameness in Sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Relic

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lameness is a multi-factorial condition that depends on managerial as well as genetic variables, but often is related to legs and feet condition of the animals. The aim of the study was to give an overview of legs and claws condition and the presence of lameness in sows at one industrial farm. Total 130 animals (90 dry i.e. pregnant and 40 lactating sows were observed. The occurrence of leg joints swellings, than claws condition (toes length, dew claw condition, cracked wall and lameness (in animals in group boxes were visually recorded and then classified according to the appropriate protocols. Findings proved the occurrence of one or more of examined conditions in 40% of pregnant sows and in 45% sows in lactation. In more than 20% of pregnant sows lameness was presented. There was statistically significant positive correlation between the occurrence of lameness and leg swellings and between lameness and claw condition in pregnant sows (in both cases p<0.0001. The results show that lameness is a significant problem in the studied farm. In general, more attention should be given to monitoring of sows' physical condition and behaviour, to minimize the occurrence of welfare problems and to reduce production losses.

  20. Effect of floor cooling on farrowing sow and litter performance: Field experiment under Dutch conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van A.V.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Claessen, P.J.P.W.

    2006-01-01

    Lactating sows generally have problems dissipating their body heat to the environment. Cooling the floor under the sow¿s shoulder, called the cool-sow system, is a method to increase body heat removal by conduction, thereby contributing to the thermal comfort of the sow. In this study, the effect of

  1. Effects of cellulase supplementation to corn soybean meal-based diet on the performance of sows and their piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, Santi D; Lee, Sang In; Kim, In Ho

    2016-07-01

    A total of 15 primiparous sows (Landrace × Yorkshire) and their litters were used in the current study to evaluate the efficacy of cellulase supplementation on the production performance of sows and piglets. Pigs were randomly allocated into one of three treatments with five replicates per treatment. The dietary treatments were as follows: (i) CON (corn-soybean meal-based control); (ii) EZ1 (CON + 0.05% cellulase); and (iii) EZ2 (CON + 0.10% cellulase). The supplementation of cellulase had no effect (P > 0.05) on body weight and feed intake of lactating sows. At weaning, back fat thickness loss decreased (P = 0.04) linearly in EZ1 and EZ2 treatments. The average daily gain (ADG) of piglets increased (linear P = 0.06, quadratic P = 0.04)) during days 14 to 21 as well as at days 21 to 25 (linear P = 0.03 and quadratic P = 0.01) with the increase in the level of supplemented enzyme. Dry matter and nitrogen digestibility increased (linear P = 0.01) in lactating sows fed EZ1 and EZ2 diet compared with CON. In conclusion, it is suggested that cellulase supplementation to corn-soybean meal based diet exerts beneficial effects to sows in reducing their back fat thickness loss at weaning and also helps to improve nutrient digestibility. It also helped to improve the ADG of piglets. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Effects of feeding antibiotic-free creep feed supplemented with oligofructose, probiotics or synbiotics to suckling piglets increases the preweaning weight gain and composition of intestinal microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shim, S.B.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Kim, I.H.; Kwon, O.S.; Verdonk, J.M.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether feeding an antibiotic-free creep feed supplemented with either oligofructose, probiotics or synbiotics to suckling piglets influences growth performance, the gut microflora, gut morphology and hematological traits at weaning. Twenty sows with 10

  3. Colostral transmission of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2): reproduction of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs fed milk from PCV-2-infected sows with post-natal porcine parvovirus infection or immunostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yooncheol; Shin, Jeoung Hwa; Chae, Chanhee

    2010-06-01

    Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) was reproduced in pigs fed colostrum and milk from porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2)-infected sows and infected post-natally with porcine parvovirus (PPV) or immunostimulated. Pregnant sows were inoculated intranasally with either PCV-2 (n=5) or PCV-2-free PK-15 cell lysates (control, n=10) 3 weeks before the expected farrowing date. Newborn piglets from five of the control sows were introduced to PCV-2-infected sows (n=6 for each sow) and allowed to feed on the colostrum for 12 h and then given 15 ml milk five times a day for 7 days. Newborn piglets from the other five control sows were fed colostrum and milk from their own sows. After 7 days, two piglets from each group were randomly selected to confirm PCV-2 infection. Twenty-one pigs fed by PCV-2-infected sows were randomly divided into three groups and subjected to post-natal PPV infection (group 1), immunostimulation (group 2) or no post-natal treatment (group 3). Twenty-one pigs fed by uninfected sows were also randomly divided and subjected to post-natal PCV-2 and PPV infection (group 4), post-natal PCV-2 infection (group 5) or no treatment (group 6, negative control). Body weight was significantly greater in group 6 than in groups 1, 2 and 4 at 49, 52, 56, 59 and 63 days of age. The typical granulomatous inflammatory reaction and lymphoid depletion of PMWS was observed in the lymph nodes of groups 1, 2 and 4 at 63 days of age. Group 3 had significantly fewer PCV-2-positive cells than groups 1, 2 and 4. In conclusion, PCV-2 shed from colostrum and milk is infectious and reproduces PMWS with post-natal PPV infection or immune stimulation.

  4. Phenotypic and genetic variation in longevity of Polish Landrace sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczyńska, M; Blicharski, T

    2015-08-01

    The influence of some production traits on the longevity of Polish Landrace sows was evaluated using survival analysis. Estimates of genetic parameters were obtained from the sire and animal components in linear and survival methodologies. Comparison between survival and linear models was based on heritabilities and ranking of estimated breeding values of sires. The same data set, 13,031 sows, was used for both methodologies, even in the presence of censored observations. The effects of herd*year and year*season of the first farrowing had the largest influence on the risk of culling of sows. Sows born in spring season (March-May) had a 24% (p methodology. A stronger correlations within methodologies (0.83-0.99) than within models with different methodologies (0.51-0.63) were obtained. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Haematological and biochemical parameters during pregnancy and lactation in sows

    OpenAIRE

    Žvorc, Zdravko; Mrljak, Vladimir; Sušić, Velimir; Pompe Gotal, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to describe changes in serum concentrations of some micronutrients, and haematological parameters during pregnancy and lactation of sows. Data presented here were obtained by using blood samples from healthy, conventionally managed sows from a breeding herd. The samples were taken at three different points in the physiological production process: I. from the 30th to 35th day following artificial insemination; II. from the 81st to the 87th day of pregnancy; III. fr...

  6. Sow-level risk factors for stillbirth of piglets in organic sow herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Krogh, Mogens Agerbo; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2017-01-01

    In Danish organic pig production, one-third of total born piglets die before weaning, and stillbirth has previously crudely been estimated to account for 27% of the total preweaning mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate season, litter size, parity and body condition of the sow...... as risk factors for stillbirth in nine commercial Danish organic pig herds. The study was conducted over a 1-year period, and the data included registrations on 5170 farrowings with 82 906 total born piglets. The average number of total born piglets per litter was 16.0, and the number of stillborn piglets...

  7. Using simulation models to investigate the cumulative effects of sowing rate, sowing date and cultivar choice on weed competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Izzadora K S; Storkey, Jonathan

    2017-05-01

    With the increasing pressure on crop production from the evolution of herbicide resistance, farmers are increasingly adopting Integrated Weed Management (IWM) strategies to augment their weed control. These include measures to increase the competitiveness of the crop canopy such as increased sowing rate and the use of more competitive cultivars. While there are data on the relative impact of these non-chemical weed control methods assessed in isolation, there is uncertainty about their combined contribution, which may be hindering their adoption. In this article, the INTERCOM simulation model of crop/weed competition was used to examine the combined impact of crop density, sowing date and cultivar choice on the outcomes of competition between wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) and Alopecurus myosuroides . Alopecurus myosuroides is a problematic weed of cereal crops in North-Western Europe and the primary target for IWM in the UK because it has evolved resistance to a range of herbicides. The model was parameterised for two cultivars with contrasting competitive ability, and simulations run across 10 years at different crop densities and two sowing dates. The results suggest that sowing date, sowing density and cultivar choice largely work in a complementary fashion, allowing enhanced competitive ability against weeds when used in combination. However, the relative benefit of choosing a more competitive cultivar decreases at later sowing dates and higher crop densities. Modeling approaches could be further employed to examine the effectiveness of IWM, reducing the need for more expensive and cumbersome long-term in situ experimentation.

  8. The addition of ground wheat straw as a fiber source in the gestation diet of sows and the effect on sow and litter performance for three successive parities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veum, T L; Crenshaw, J D; Crenshaw, T D; Cromwell, G L; Easter, R A; Ewan, R C; Nelssen, J L; Miller, E R; Pettigrew, J E; Ellersieck, M R

    2009-03-01

    A regional experiment was conducted at 8 experiment stations, with a total of 320 sows initially, to evaluate the efficacy of adding 13.35% ground wheat straw to a corn-soybean meal gestation diet for 3 successive gestation-lactation (reproductive) cycles compared with sows fed a control diet without straw. A total of 708 litters were farrowed over 3 reproductive cycles. The basal gestation diet intake averaged 1.95 kg daily for both treatments, plus 0.30 kg of straw daily for sows fed the diet containing ground wheat straw (total intake of 2.25 kg/d). During lactation, all sows on both gestation treatments were fed ad libitum the standard lactation diet used at each station. Response criteria were sow farrowing and rebreeding percentages, culling factors and culling rate, weaning-to-estrus interval, sow BW and backfat measurements at several time points, and litter size and total litter weight at birth and weaning. Averaged over 3 reproductive cycles, sows fed the diet containing wheat straw farrowed and weaned 0.51 more pigs per litter (P sows fed the control gestation diet. Sows fed the gestation diet containing wheat straw consumed more (P = 0.01) lactation diet per day than control sows. There were no gestation diet treatment differences for any sow fate criterion (farrowing and rebreeding percentages, and culling rate), any sow BW and backfat measurement, or the weaning-to-estrus interval. Lactation diet intake and all sow BW and backfat measurements increased with increasing parity. In conclusion, when the daily intake of the basal gestation diet was equalized for both treatments, the addition of 13.35% ground wheat straw to the gestation diet improved sow and litter performance, with increases in litter size and total litter weight at birth and weaning compared with control sows and litters.

  9. Effects of a controlled heat stress during late gestation, lactation, and after weaning on thermoregulation, metabolism, and reproduction of primiparous sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A M; Safranski, T J; Spiers, D E; Eichen, P A; Coate, E A; Lucy, M C

    2013-06-01

    Heat stress (HS) causes seasonal infertility in sows and decreases reproductive efficiency. The objective was to examine thermoregulation, metabolic responses, and reproduction in sows exposed to HS or thermoneutral (TN) conditions during different phases of a production cycle (gestation, lactation, and breeding). Fifty-eight first-parity Landrace (n = 26) or Landrace × Large White F1 (n = 32) sows were rotated through environmental chambers for 57 d beginning in late gestation. The ambient temperature sequences included either TN (18°C to 20°C) or HS (24°C to 30°C) for each production phase with the following treatment groups: TN-TN-TN (n = 15), TN-HS-TN (n = 14), HS-TN-HS (n = 14), and HS-HS-HS (n = 15) for gestation-farrowing-breeding (20, 24, and 13 d, respectively). Regardless of the temperature treatment, rectal temperatures were greater (P early lactation; P piglets at weaning was approximately 0.5 kg lighter for the sows in the HS farrowing room (P Weaning-to-estrus interval, percentage sows inseminated after weaning, subsequent farrowing rate, and subsequent total born were not affected by treatment. In summary, regardless of ambient temperature, sows undergo pronounced and sustained changes in rectal temperature when they transition through gestation, lactation, weaning, and rebreeding. The effects of HS on rectal temperature, respiration rate, feed intake, and metabolic hormones were greatest during lactation. The controlled HS that we imposed affected piglet weaning weight, but rebreeding and subsequent farrowing performance were not affected.

  10. Elevating glucose and insulin secretion by carbohydrate formulation diets in late lactation to improve post-weaning fertility in primiparous sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T Y; Lines, D; Dickson, C; Go, C; Kirkwood, R N; Langendijk, P

    2016-10-01

    Primiparous (P1) sows commonly lose excessive body reserves to meet energy requirements for maintenance and milk production during lactation, and consequently, post-weaning reproductive performance may be compromised. The present studies determined whether ad libitum feeding a glucogenic carbohydrate diet (CHO) during late lactation could stimulate insulin and glucose secretion (experiment 1) and improve subsequent litter size (experiment 2). For experiment 1, 15 P1 sows, and for experiment 2, 99 P1 sows (198.5 ± 2.7 kg) were allocated randomly according to suckled litter size (≥10 piglets), either to a CHO diet (14.3 MJ DE/kg, 19.8% crude protein) or a standard lactation diet (control; 14.2 DE MJ/kg, 19.5% crude protein) at 8 days before weaning. The CHO diet aimed to provide glucogenic content (extruded wheat, dextrose and sugar) as energy sources instead of fat sources without changing total dietary energy. Pre-prandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were not influenced by treatments. However, post-prandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and their peaks were both higher (p  .05). Second litter size was not influenced by diet (p > .05), but the weaning-to-mating interval was shorter in CHO sows (p < .05). This study demonstrates that providing an enriched CHO diet in late lactation did influence post-weaning follicle growth but did not improve subsequent litter size. This may be due to the primiparous sows in this study not experiencing severe negative energy balance and there was no second litter syndrome in this farm which limited the ability of diet to improve sow fertility. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. [Occurrence of zearalenone, alpha- and beta-zearalenol in bile of breeding sows in relation to reproductive performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K; Usleber, E; Märtlbauer, E; Bauer, J

    2000-10-01

    Although zearalenone-induced reproductive disorders and the clinical appearance of hyperestrogenism were reproduced and documented quite often the role of zearalenone-contaminated fodder as a cause for fertility problems in sow breeding is still discussed controversial. Therefore the correlation of zearalenone and zearalenone-derivatives in bile (n = 794) and feed (n = 158) with fertility problems of unknown origin was investigated in this study. For the analysis of zearalenone and its derivatives in bile a HPLC/EIA combination was used. On the one hand, this procedure guaranteed the quantitatively reproducible detection, on the other hand, the investigation expenditure could be kept small with regard to a later effort in the routine diagnostics. The detection limits for zearalenone, alpha- and beta-zearalenol in bile were at 1.0 ng/ml, 1.0 ng/ml, and 3.0 ng/ml, respectively. Results were confirmed by GC-MS. Zearalenone and zearalenone-derivatives were detected in almost every bile analysed. The contamination rate was 96.2%. In opposition to recent investigations beta-zearalenol was perceived as a relevant metabolite in swine. The contamination rate of feeding stuffs was 25.9%. Incubation of samples with beta-glucosidase did not elevate the detected amounts of zearalenone. As the measurable concentrations in bile and fodder were only slightly correlated the analysis of bile represents a reasonable alternative for fodder investigation. However, a correlation between the occurrence of zearalenone, alpha- and beta-zearalenol in bile of sows and non-infectious reproductive disorders could not be established at the loading level found. These results are in line with those statements obtained in feeding experiments regarding the risk evaluation of zearalenone in sow reproduction.

  12. Implication of Utilizing Phytoestrogens Infested Fodder on Fertility and Histological Structure of Ovaries and Oviduct in Sow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Marian BOGDAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive efficiency is an essential requirement for the profitability of swine farms and the quality of fodder can have a negative impact on this aspect. We carried out investigations regarding the influence of fodder quality on reproductive efficiency and the histological structure of the ovary and oviduct in 45 sows from a farm in Bihor county. We observed that corn utilized in feeding the sows was stored in inadequate conditions which allowed the development of moulds. The combined fodder, resulted after grinding the cereals, was stored directly on the concrete floor in inappropriate areas, concerning the hygiene. The animals were given green fodder directly on the stall’s floor, which favours mould expansion. Upon histological examination, the ovary presented an exaggerated activity and there was a marked congestion in the oviduct, with a tendency of the epithelium toward pseudostratification. The precarious conditions of cereal and combined fodder storing and administration of green fodder, brought optimum conditions for mould development. Under the action of the latter factors, the reproductive performance drastically decreased along with compromising the sows used for reproduction.

  13. Sterility in breeding sows as a consequence of reproductive tract diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Došen Radoslav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examined the effects of certain pathological conditions on the sterility of breeding sows. Pathomorphological investigations were performed on 185 reproductive organs. We analyzed the reasons for elimination from local records. The biggest number of sows with pathological changes on reproductive organs were in the group of barren sows, 48.68% followed by anestric sows, 30.26%, and the smallest number in sows with failed fertilizations, 21.05%. Cysts in ovaries, ovarian tubes, oviducts and  the mesosalpinx were found in 23.77% of the examined sows. Lutein cysts were found in a significantly higher percentage in sows which fail to be fertilized than in barren or anestric animals. Small granular degeneration of the ovaries was determined in barren sows and those which cannot be fertilized, while it was not determined in anestric sows. Cysts on uterus ligaments and ovaries and on ovarian tubes and oviducts were found in significantly higher numbers in sows which fail be fertilized than in barren or anestric sows. Their presence can be connected to obstructions in the transport process of spermatozoa, eggs, and the fertilization process in sows which fail to be fertilized, especially in cases of cysts located on the very serosa of ovarian tubes which we found in these sows. We determined small granular degeneration of the ovaries in barren sows and those which fail to fertilized, but not in anestric sows. Ovarian insufficiency was mostly connected to anestric sows. Vaginitis, endometritis, periometritis and oocytis present an important factor in the occurrence of sterility primarily in sows which are barren or which fail to be fertilized.

  14. Estimation of the effects of selection on French Large White sow and piglet performance during the suckling period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silalahi, P; Tribout, T; Billon, Y; Gogué, J; Bidanel, J P

    2017-10-01

    The effects of 21 yr of selection were estimated for sow and piglet performance during the suckling period in a French Large White (LW) pig population using frozen semen. Two experimental groups (EXP = L77 and L98) were produced by inseminating LW sows with either stored frozen semen from 17 LW boars born in 1977 (EXP = L77) or with fresh semen from 23 LW boars born in 1998 (EXP = L98). Seventy-four L77 and 89 L98 randomly chosen females were mated to 15 L77 and 15 L98, respectively, randomly chosen boars for 6 successive parities. They produced 2,796 L77 progeny (G77) and 3,529 L98 progeny (G98) piglets including stillbirths. To disentangle direct and maternal effects on piglet growth, a 2 × 2 factorial design was set by cross-fostering half-litters across genetic groups the day after farrowing, resulting in mixed G77/G98 litters nursed by either L77 or L98 sows. Piglet traits investigated included individual weight at birth (IWB), at 21 d of age (IW21d), and at weaning at 4 wk of age (IWW) and ADG from birth to 21 d of age (ADG21d) and from birth to weaning (ADGBW) as well as probability of stillbirth, probability of mortality on the first day after farrowing and from d 2 to weaning. Sow traits analyzed included weight before farrowing and at weaning, feed intake, milk production, colostrum, and milk composition. The variability of performance across genetic groups and litters was also investigated. The data were analyzed using generalized (piglet mortality) or linear mixed models (other traits). Results showed an increase in IWB (+240 ± 72 g in 21 yr for IWB adjusted for total number born), and a negative maternal genetic trend was observed on piglet growth during the suckling period (e.g., +33 ± 13 g/d in 21 yr for ADG21d, that is, 14% of the mean), whereas direct genetic effects remained unchanged. Piglets from L98 litters also had a 40% larger probability of being stillborn and a 28% larger probability of dying on d 1 and had a more heterogeneous IWB (358

  15. Comparison of Brain Development in Sow-Reared and Artificially Reared Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Reeba M; Mudd, Austin T; Alexander, Lindsey S; Lai, Chron-Si; Dilger, Ryan N

    2016-01-01

    Provision of adequate nutrients is critical for proper growth and development of the neonate, yet the impact of breastfeeding versus formula feeding on neural maturation has to be fully determined. Using the piglet as a model for the human infant, our objective was to compare neurodevelopment of piglets that were either sow-reared (SR) or artificially reared (AR) in an artificial setting. Over a 25-day feeding study, piglets (1.5 ± 0.2 kg initial bodyweight) were either SR (n = 10) with ad libitum intake or AR (n = 29) receiving an infant formula modified to mimic the nutritional profile and intake pattern of sow's milk. At study conclusion, piglets were subjected to a standardized set of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures to quantify structure and composition of the brain. Diffusion tensor imaging, an MRI sequence that characterizes brain microstructure, revealed that SR piglets had greater (P brain atlas) fractional anisotropy (FA), and lower (P compared with AR piglets, suggesting differences in WM organization. Voxel-based morphometric analysis, a measure of white and gray matter (GM) volumes concentrations, revealed differences (P brain regions of the AR piglets compared with SR piglets. Region of interest analysis revealed larger (P brain volumes in SR animals compared with AR, and certain subcortical regions to be larger (P brain volume in AR piglets compared with SR animals. Quantification of brain metabolites using magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed SR piglets had higher (P compared with AR piglets. However, glutamate + glutamine levels were higher (P compared with SR animals. Overall, increases in brain metabolite concentrations, coupled with greater FA values in WM tracts and volume differences in GM of specific brain regions, suggest differences in myelin development and cell proliferation in SR versus AR piglets.

  16. Impact of improving dietary amino acid balance for lactating sows on efficiency of dietary amino acid utilization and transcript abundance of genes encoding lysine transporters in mammary tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, L; de Lange, C F M; Ernst, C W; Krogh, U; Trottier, N L

    2016-11-01

    mobilization. Transcript abundance of several genes involved in Lys transport in mammary tissue did not differ between sows fed the LCP and HCP diets. Feeding lactating sows low-CP diets supplemented with CAA increases the efficiency of utilizing dietary Lys, Thr, Trp, and Val for milk protein production but is unrelated to abundance in mRNA of genes encoding Lys transport proteins in the mammary gland. Dietary Lys utilization for milk protein production in lactating sows appears to be optimized when crystalline Lys is included at a minimum of 0.10% in a diet containing 15.70% CP.

  17. Effect of bovine colostrum feeding in comparison with milk replacer and natural feeding on the immune responses and colonisation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the intestinal tissue of piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Poulsen, Ann-Sofie Riis; Canibe, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of feeding bovine colostrum (BC) to piglets in comparison with feeding a milk replacer (MR) and conventional rearing by the sow on the intestinal immune system and number of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) colonising the intestinal tissue. Piglets......-fed and Sow-Milk groups. The expression level of IL-2 was higher (P≤ 0·051) in piglets from the MR-fed group than in those from the other treatment groups. In conclusion, feeding BC rather than MR to the piglets reduced the colonisation of intestine by ETEC and modulated the intestinal immune system, whereas...

  18. The effect of different concentrations of linseed oil or fish oil in the maternal diet on the fatty acid composition and oxidative status of sows and piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanghe, S; Missotten, J; Raes, K; De Smet, S

    2015-10-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential for foetal development. Hence, including n-3 PUFA in the sow diet can be beneficial for reproduction. Both the amount and form (precursor fatty acids vs. long chain PUFA) of supplementation are important in this respect. Furthermore, including n-3 PUFA in the diet can have negative effects, such as decreased arachidonic acid (ARA) concentration and increased oxidative stress. This study aimed to compare the efficacy to increase eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentrations in the piglet, when different concentrations of linseed oil (LO, source of precursor α-linolenic acid) or fish oil (FO, source of EPA and DHA) were included in the maternal diet. Sows were fed a palm oil diet or a diet including 0.5% or 2% LO or FO from day 45 of gestation until weaning. Linoleic acid (LA) was kept constant in the diets to prevent a decrease in ARA, and all diets were supplemented with α-tocopherol acetate (150 mg/kg) and organic selenium (0.4 mg/kg) to prevent oxidative stress. Feeding 0.5% LO or 0.5% FO to the sows resulted in comparable EPA concentrations in the 5-day old piglet liver, but both diets resulted in lower EPA concentrations than when 2% LO was fed. The highest EPA concentration was obtained when 2% FO was fed. The DHA level in the piglet liver could only be increased when FO, but not LO, was fed to the sows. The 2% FO diet had no advantage over the 0.5% FO diet to increase DHA in the piglet. Despite the constant LA concentration in the sow diet, a decrease in ARA could not be avoided when LO or FO were included in the diet. Feeding 2% FO to the sows increased the malondialdehyde concentration (marker for lipid peroxidation) in sow plasma, but not in piglets. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Legs and Claws Condition and Lameness in Sows

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Relic; Dragan Rogozarski; Radomir Savic; Mila Savic; Jovan Bojkovski; Zsolt Becskei

    2016-01-01

    Lameness is a multi-factorial condition that depends on managerial as well as genetic variables, but often is related to legs and feet condition of the animals. The aim of the study was to give an overview of legs and claws condition and the presence of lameness in sows at one industrial farm. Total 130 animals (90 dry i.e. pregnant and 40 lactating sows) were observed. The occurrence of leg joints swellings, than claws condition (toes length, dew claw condition, cracked wall) and lameness (i...

  20. Increased fat and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in sow gestation diet has no effect on gene expression in progeny during the first 7 days of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greeff, A; Bikker, P; Smit-Heinsbroek, A; Bruininx, E; Zwolschen, H; Fijten, H; Zetteler, P; Vastenhouw, S; Smits, M; Rebel, J

    2016-02-01

    The 'developmental origins of health and disease' hypothesis proposes not only that we are what we eat, but also that we could be what our parents ate. Here, we aimed to improve health and performance of young piglets via maternal diets based on the hypothesis that maternal nutritional interventions change metabolic programming in piglets, reflected by differential gene expression early in life. Therefore, sows were fed either a regular diet, based on barley, wheat and wheat by-products, sugar beet pulp, palm oil and oilseed meal, or a high-fat (HF) diet consisting of the regular diet supplemented with an additional amount of 3.5% soybean oil and 1% fish oil at the expense of palm oil and wheat. Performance results, physiological parameters and gene expression in liver of piglets and blood of piglets and sows at day 7 after farrowing from both diet groups were compared. The HF diet tended to enhance growth rate of the offspring in the first week of life. No significant differences in gene expression in liver tissue and blood could be detected between the two groups, neither with whole-genome microarray analysis, nor with gene specific qPCR analysis. In this study, the feeding of a high-fat diet with increased amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to gestating sows under practical farm settings did not induce significant changes in gene expression in sows and offspring. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Oxytocin injections in the postpartal period affect mammary tight junctions in sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, C.; Lessard, M.; Knight, C. H.

    2017-01-01

    The potential impacts of injecting oxytocin (OXY) to sows in the early postpartum period on the quality of mammary tight junctions, milk composition, and immune status of sows and piglets were studied. Postparturient sows received i.m. injections of either saline (control [CTL]; n = 10) or 75 IU...

  2. Fecal estrone sulfate profile of a sow showing abnormal pregnancy with fetal mummification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtaki, T; Moriyoshi, M; Nakada, K; Nakao, T

    2000-03-01

    Fecal and plasma E1S of a sow with mummified fetuses, was compared with normal delivery cases. Fecal and plasma fluctuation patterns in E1S were similar. In the sow with fetal mummification both fecal and plasma E1S concentration rapidly decreased after day 80-90 compared to normal farrowing sows. This coincided with the estimated time of fetal death.

  3. Evaluation of oral administration of cortisol as a model for prenatal stress in pregnant sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, G.; Hopster, H.; Eerdenburg, van F.; Reenen, van C.G.; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M.; Groot, de J.; Korte, S.M.; Taverne, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective - To design a treatment that increases plasma corticosteroid concentrations to mimic prenatal stress in pregnant sows. Animals - 24 pregnant sows. Procedure - Sows were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups; treatment consisted of twice-daily oral administration of a placebo or 20, 60, or

  4. Psychometric evaluation of the Dutch version of the Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Riezebos, T.G.M.; Staak, C.P.F. van der; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the 16-item Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS). The SOWS measures withdrawal symptoms at the time of assessment. METHODS: The Dutch SOWS was repeatedly administered to a sample of 272 opioid-dependent inpatients of four

  5. The development and significance of abnormal stereotyped behaviours in tethered sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cronin, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    The development and performance of abnormal stereotyped behaviours (stereotypies) by tethered sows were studied in order to investigate the consequences of the behaviours for animal welfare and sow productivity.

    In Chapter 2, the behaviour of 36 tethered sows in a commercial herd

  6. Quinoa in Morocco - effect of sowing dates on development and yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    of sowing date on quinoa performance in a series of experiments conducted for adaptation of quinoa. The experiment took place in Agadir, with a test of 10 sowing dates, each 15 days from 1st November to 15th March. Sowing dates affected the growth and productivity due to differences in temperature...

  7. Housing of sows during farrowing: a review on pen design, welfare and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene Juul; Malmkvist, Jens; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis

    2013-01-01

    . Pens for loose housed sows are good alternatives for the sake of sow welfare. Reveiew of the existing literature does not suggest that loose housing is associated with higher general piglet mortality than housing in farrowing crates. Knowledge from studies on behavioural needs for sow and piglet during...

  8. The influence of the different content of protein fractions in sows' milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of the different content of protein fractions in sows' milk in piglet rearing. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the percentage content of protein fractions in total protein of sow`s colostrums and milk and their influence on the traits related with piglet rearing ...

  9. Snow shoes and sandals? : genetic aspects of heat stress sensitivity and sow reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemhof, S.

    2013-01-01

    Globally the average size of pig herds are increasing and amount of labour spent per sow / finisher pig is decreasing. These changes require sows which need less management interventions. In addition to easier manageable sows modern genotypes will also need to be more adaptable considering that

  10. Swine herds achieve high performance by culling low lifetime efficiency sows in early parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanashi, Ariko; McTaggart, Iain; Koketsu, Yuzo

    2011-11-01

    Sow lifetime performance and by-parity performance were analyzed using a 3 by 3 factorial design, comprising 3 herd productivity groups and 3 sow efficiency groups. Data was obtained from 101 Japanese herds, totaling 173,526 parity records of 34,929 sows, for the years 2001 to 2006. Sows were categorized into 3 groups based on the lower and upper 25th percentiles of the annualized lifetime pigs born alive: low lifetime efficiency sows (LE sows), intermediate lifetime efficiency sows or high lifetime efficiency sows. Herds were grouped on the basis of the upper and lower 25th percentiles of pigs weaned per mated female per year, averaged over 6 years: high-, intermediate- or low-performing herds. Mixed-effects models were used for comparisons. LE sows in high-performing herds had 57.8 fewer lifetime nonproductive days and 0.5 earlier parity at removal than those in low-performing herds (Ppigs born alive of LE sows continuously decreased from parity 1 to 5, whereas those of high lifetime efficiency sows gradually increased from parity 1 to 4 before decreasing up to parity ≥ 6 (Psows have a performance pattern of decreasing number of pigs born alive across parity. The present study also indicates that high-performing herds culled potential LE sows earlier than the other herds.

  11. Effect of sowing dates and seed treatments on yield, some yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 63.1 - 180.3 kg/da and 20.1 - 27.3%, respectively. 100 seed weight, harvest index and seed yield were significantly affected from sowing dates and seed treatments. On the other hand, protein content was highly affected from late sowing and gibberellic acid (GA3) treatments. It was concluded that early sowing along with ...

  12. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The swine industry is under a great deal of pressure to return sows to group housing. However, aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrate. ...

  13. Effect of floor cooling on late lactation sows under acute heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of floor cooling on late lactation sows under severe summer heat stress. Ten multiparous sows were provided with a cooling pad built with an aluminum plate surface, high-density polyethylene base and copper pipes. Treatments were randomly allotted to sows to...

  14. Effects of floor cooling on late lactation sows under severe acute heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of floor cooling on late lactation sows under severe summer heat stress. Ten multiparous sows were provided with a cooling pad built with an aluminum plate surface, high-density polyethylene base and copper pipes. Treatments were randomly allotted to sows to...

  15. Do nurse sows and foster litters have impaired animal welfare? Results from a cross-sectional study in sow herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Rousing, Tine; Kudahl, Anne Braad

    2016-01-01

    .5), swollen bursae on legs, dew claw wounds, vulva lesions, poor hygiene, poor skin condition, shoulder lesions and cuts and wounds on the udder. Explanatory variables included in the eight models were: nurse sow (yes=1/no=0), age of piglets (weeks old, 1 to 7), parity (1 to 8+) and all first order...... (weeks old, 1 to 7), parity (1 to 8+) and all first order interactions between these three variables. Herd identity was included as a random factor in all models. The nurse sows had a significantly higher risk of swollen bursae on legs (P=0.038) and udder wounds (P=0.001). No differences in risk of being...

  16. Effects of oral micellized natural vitamin E (D-α-tocopherol) v. syntheric vitamin E (DL-α-tocopherol) in feed on α-tocopherol levels, stereoisomer distribution, oxidative stress and the immune response in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amazan, D; Cordero, G; López-Bote, C J

    2014-01-01

    to sows or piglets did not increase the oxidative stress of piglets when compared with the use of the synthetic form in feed. Immunoglobulin levels in piglet serum at day 39 were not affected by natural vitamin E supplementation at low doses in drinking water of piglets or sows when compared...... of the synthetic form in feed. At day 39 of age, neither piglet supplementation source nor dose significantly affected α-tocopherol accumulation in the serum, muscle, subcutaneous fat or liver. Those piglets from sows supplemented with the micellized alcohol form had higher RRR-α-tocopherol stereoisomers (P....001) and lower (Page than those from sows supplemented with the synthetic form. A predominant importance of sow over piglet vitamin E supplementation was observed on stereoisomer distribution in piglets. Low doses of oral natural vitamin E supplementation...

  17. Top-dressing 1% arginine supplementation in the lactation diet of sows does not affect the litter performance and milk composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djane Dallanora

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The study aimed to evaluate the effects of arginine supplementation in the lactation diet of sows on their milk composition, litter performance and piglet survival. Sixty-four lactating Landrace x Large White sows, parity 1 to 7, were randomly assigned to two treatments: 1 Control - a corn/soybean meal based diet with 1.10% standardized ileal digestible (SID lysine and 3,475kcal of metabolizable energy (ME kg-1, and 2 arginine - the control diet top-dressed daily with arginine at 1% of feed allowance. The daily feed allowance per sow was 5.0 and 7.5kg from day (D0 to D7 and D8 to D21, respectively. The average litter size was 12.8 piglets after cross-fostering. Litters were weighed on D1, D10, and D21 of lactation and pre-weaning mortality was recorded. Samples of milk (60mL were collected from all functional teats at D10 and D20 of lactation. There were no effects (P>0.05 of arginine supplementation on piglet weight, litter weight, and average daily gain of piglets at D10 and D21 of lactation. The interaction between weight day and treatment was not significant (P>0.05 for any of these response variables. The percentages of piglets that survived until D10 and D21 were 90.3% and 88.3%, respectively, with no difference (P>0.05 between treatments. There were no effects (P>0.05 of the lactation day (D10 or D20, treatment or the interaction between them on crude protein and amino acid content in milk. Top-dressing arginine at 1% of feed allowance of the lactation diet of sows does not affect litter performance and survival and does not influence the amino acid content or arginine: lysine ratio of milk.

  18. Housing of Cull Sows in the Hours before Transport to the Abattoir—An Initial Description of Sow Behaviour While Waiting in a Transfer Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S.; Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Erichsen, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    In modern pig production, sows are transported by road to abattoirs. For reasons of biosecurity, commercial trucks may have limited access to farms. According to Danish regulations, sows can be kept in stationary transfer vehicles away from the farm for up to two hours before being loaded onto...... the commercial truck. We aimed to describe the behaviour of sows in transfer vehicles. This preliminary, exploratory study included data from 11 loads from a total of six Danish sow herds. Selection of animals to be slaughtered was done by the farmers. Clinical registrations were made before collection...... of the sows, after which they (in groups of 7–13) were mixed and moved to the transfer vehicle (median stocking density: 1.2 sow/m2), and driven a short distance to a public road. The duration of the stays in the transfer vehicles before being loaded onto the commercial trucks ranged from 6–59 min. During...

  19. Suitability of olive oil washing water as an electron donor in a feed batch operating bio-electrochemical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Fermoso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil washing water derived from the two-phase manufacturing process was assessed as an electron donor in a bio-electrochemical system (BES operating at 35 ºC. Start-up was carried out by using acetate as a substrate for the BES, reaching a potential of around +680 mV. After day 54, BES was fed with olive oil washing water. The degradation of olive oil washing water in the BES generated a maximum voltage potential of around +520 mV and a Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD removal efficiency of 41%. However, subsequent loads produced a decrease in the COD removal, while current and power density diminished greatly. The deterioration of these parameters could be a consequence of the accumulation of recalcitrant or inhibitory compounds, such as phenols. These results demonstrated that the use of olive oil washing water as an electron donor in a BES is feasible, although it has to be further investigated in order to make it more suitable for a real application.

  20. Responses of pearl millet ( Pennisetum flaucum ) to varying sowing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trial was conducted during the 2009 wet season at Bagauda, Kano University of Science and Technology Temporary Research farm (110390N, 080200E) to determine the optimum sowing date and the most successful variety of Pearl millet for the area. The treatments were factorially combined and arranged in a ...

  1. Sowing the seeds for improved Pharmacy education in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sowing the seeds for improved Pharmacy education in Nigeria: development of ICT at university of Benin Faculty of Pharmacy. ... For today\\'s pharmacy graduates to function effectively in an ever increasing technological world, pharmacy students must be trained to use computer facilities as they will always encounter the ...

  2. Estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters for sow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beke

    To improve the profits obtained from an enterprise, the number of live piglets ... Improvement of sow productivity substantially reduces production costs per pig marketed (Irgang et al., 1994). ..... hormones and nutrients involved in milk production to their respective teats (Algers et al., 1991). Thus, if a litter has more heavy ...

  3. Estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters for sow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beke

    Keywords: Reproductive traits, pigs, genetic progress, phenotypic performance, correlations ... used in the analysis were obtained from the Integrated Registration and Genetic Information System. (INTERGIS) of South Africa. .... Litter size has been recognized as the most important economic component of sow productivity.

  4. Effect of sowing depth and mulch application on emergence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shea butter tree seeds from three sources (Makurdi, Akwanga and Kano), were sown at five depths (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 cm) under mulch and no-mulch conditions at Makurdi in 2006. The aim was to determine the effect of seed source, sowing depth and mulching status on seedling emergence and growth. Factorial ...

  5. Effect of sowing depths on Cylas spp infestation on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sowing depths on Cylas spp infestation of four sweetpotato varieties 'Sauti', 'Okumkom','Santompona' and 'Faara' was determined in a field trial at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology. Data on number of leaves and branches on upper plant canopy (top 30cm), vine thickness, internode ...

  6. Moral Values and Attitudes Toward Dutch Sow Husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, T.J.; Gremmen, H.G.J.; Stassen, E.N.

    2015-01-01

    Attitudes toward sow husbandry differ between citizens and conventional pig farmers. Research showed that moral values could only predict the judgment of people in case of culling healthy animals in the course of a disease epidemic to a certain extent. Therefore, we hypothesized that attitudes of

  7. Biochemical changes in the plasma of pregnant crossbred sows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plasma concentrations of Na, K, Cl, HCO3, inorganic PO4, Ca, urea creatinine, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin/globulin ratio (A:G), cholesterol and triglycerides of Large White x Landrace x Hampshire sows were determined during oestrus, first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy and lactation.

  8. Effect of sowing depth and mulch application on emergence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-08

    Mar 8, 2010 ... industry is well recognized (Hall et al., 1996). It is also an important commodity in the cosmetic ... cosmetic properties (Boffa et al., 1996). Shea butter is popular locally as a cooking fat, ...... Danida Forest Seed Centre, Krogerupvej 21, Denmark. p. 511. Tripathi JP, Bajpai SP (1985). Effect of depth of sowing ...

  9. EFFECTS OF SEASON OF SOWING ON WATER USE AND YIELD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2000-05-09

    May 9, 2000 ... ... season sowing, the relative water use (ETa/Eo) values (the ratio of actual evapotranspiration, ETa to open water evaporation, Eo) varied from 1.14 at the beginning of the growing season to 0.04 at crop maturity. The values of ETa/Eo and evapotranspiration deficit (ETd) indicated that during the crop cycle, ...

  10. Pre-sowing treatment, agronomic performance and nutritive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-sowing treatment, agronomic performance and nutritive potential of Tephrosia bracteolate ( Guill. et Perr. ) at four different stages of growth. ... The results indicated that there was a slight increase in organic matter, N, Ca, Na, K and Zn in the soil after the trial. Sand-treated seeds had the highest percentage germination ...

  11. effect of sowing media and gibberellic acid on the seedling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    sowing media (Top soil TS, mixtures of Top soil plus Poultry manure TS+PM and Top soil plus. Sawdust TS+SD) in the ratio of 2:1, three GA3 concentrations (0, 100 and 200ppm) and three plant species (Bougainvillea, Ixora and Rose); factorially combined and laid out in a completely randomized design with four repetitions ...

  12. Effect of Sowing Media and Gibberellic Acid on the Seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Sowing Media and Gibberellic Acid on the Seedling Establishment and Growth of Bougainvillea glabra, Ixora coccinea and Rosa chinensis . ... 100 and 200ppm) and three plant species (Bougainvillea, Ixora and Rose); factorially combined and laid out in a completely randomized design with four repetitions.

  13. Effect of β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate supplementation of sows in late gestation and lactation on sow production of colostrum and milk and piglet performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flummer, Christine; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2012-01-01

    This trial was conducted to investigate whether β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate (HMB) supplementation during late gestation and throughout lactation would influence colostrum and milk production of sows and neonatal piglet survival (0 to 24 h). Control sows (CON; n = 8) were fed a standard lactation.......05) and reduced the sow backfat at weaning (11.4 vs. 14.5 ± 1.0 mm; P acetate was higher in HMB sows [202 (175; 233) vs. 158 (141; 179) μM; P

  14. Validação das relações dos aminoácidos metionina, treonina, triptofano e valina com a lisina digestível na proteína ideal em rações para porcas em lactação Validation of the relationships of methionine, threonine, tryptophan and valine amino acids with the digestible lysine in the ideal protein in feedings for lactating sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Haese

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de validar as relações de aminoácidos digestíveis com a lisina digestível propostas com base no conceito da proteína ideal, foi realizado um experimento com 120 matrizes suínas em lactação, distribuídas em delineamento em blocos, composto de seis dietas, 20 blocos e uma matriz por unidade experimental. As dietas foram formuladas a partir de uma dieta-referência - contendo 19,5% de proteína bruta (PB e 0,95% de lisina digestível - suplementada com metionina, treonina, triptofano e/ou valina digestíveis para atingir as relações com a lisina digestível determinadas com base na proteína ideal. As dietas não influenciaram a perda e a variação de peso, a espessura e a variação da espessura de toucinho, a proteína e a variação de proteína corporal, a gordura e a variação de gordura corporal nem alteraram o intervalo desmame-estro ou a produção de leite das porcas. As relações dos aminoácidos metionina + cistina, treonina, triptofano e valina digestíveis com a lisina digestível propostas com base na proteína ideal atendem às exigências de porcas em lactação para melhores desempenhos produtivo e reprodutivo.This experiment aimed at validating the relationship between digestible amino acids with the digestible lysine proposed on the basis of the ideal protein concept. This experiment used 120 lactating sows distributed in a complete randomized block design with six treatments and 20 repetitions and one sow per experimental unity. The diets were formulated based on a reference diet - which contained 19.5% of crude protein (CP and 0.95% of digestible lysine supplemented with digestible methionine, threonine, tryptophan and/or valine to meet the ideal protein based determined relationships with digestible lysine. The diets did not change weight loss and variation, thickness and thickness variation of backfat, protein and body protein variation, fat and body fat variation, neither they changed the

  15. Parturition effects on reproductive health in the gilt and sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoniemi, Oat; Björkman, S; Oliviero, C

    2016-10-01

    In this review, we address significant characteristics of parturition in the pig and their connection to post-partum reproductive health and fertility. We discuss the normal physiology and behaviour around parturition and the effect of the second phase (expulsion of foetuses) on the third phase of parturition (expulsion of foetal membranes). In addition, we intend to cover retained placenta, and the connection to post-partum uterine health and fertility in the contemporary prolific sow. We also explore factors that support successful parturition or can cause potential problems. Successful parturition in the pig includes the possibility to express adequate maternal behaviour, rapid expulsion of the piglets, complete expulsion of the placenta, neonatal activity and colostrum intake. Abnormal incidents during any phase of parturition can cause subsequent problems. Duration of the expulsion phase of foetuses can be used as a simple measure of whether parturition is considered successful. Prolonged parturition can impair health of the sow and piglet and fertility after weaning. New insights, such as adding more fibre to sow diets during pregnancy, and especially during the period prior to farrowing, may prevent constipation, increase water intake of the sow around parturition and increase milk intake and performance of piglets. Maternal characteristics, including maternal behaviour, ease of parturition, colostrum production and piglet quality parameters, may be utilized to improve success rate of reproductive management during farrowing and early lactation. Additionally, we share some of the recent developments in methods, including ultrasonography in evaluation of post-partum uterine health. In conclusion, successful farrowing is of the greatest importance for reproductive health of the sow and survival of the piglets. We suggest connections exist among prolonged farrowing and yield of colostrum, retained placenta, development of PDS, and impaired involution of the

  16. Prediction of cereal feed value using spectroscopy and chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Gislum, René

    2009-01-01

    Feed value in form of FEsv (Feed unit / kg dry matter, for piglets) and FEso (Feed unit / kg dry matter, for sows), EDOM (Enzyme Degradable Organic Matter) and EDOMi (Enzyme Degradable Organic Matter, Ileum) is used in the feed evaluation system for pigs. Analysis of feed value have highlighted...... in-situ. Near infra-red reflection spectroscopy (NIRS) is appropriate as a standard analysis of dry matter, total N and starch in grains, since it is rapid (approximately 1 minute per measurement of a ground test) and cheap. NIRS is therefore appropriate as a quick method for the determination...... for cereal breeders. A collection of 1213 grain samples of wheat, triticale, barley and rye, and related chemical reference analyses to describe the feed value have been established. The samples originate from available field trials over a three-year period. The chemical reference analyses are dry matter...

  17. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding therapies have been exhausted. Please review product brand and method of placement carefully with your physician ... Total Parenteral Nutrition. Resources: Oley Foundation Feeding Tube Awareness Foundation Children’s Medical Nutrition Alliance APFED’s Educational Webinar ...

  18. Morphological adaptation of the buccal cavity in relation to feeding habits of the omnivorous fish Clarias gariepinus: A scanning electron microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Gamal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The surface architecture of the buccal cavity of the omnivorous fish Clarias gariepinus was studied in relation to its food and feeding habits. The buccal cavity of the present fish was investigated by means of a scanning electron microscope. This cavity may be distinguished into the roof and the floor. Papilliform and molariform teeth which are located in the buccal cavity are associated with seizing, grasping, holding of the prey, crushing and grinding of various food items. Three types of taste buds (Types I, II & III were found at different levels in the buccal cavity. Type I taste buds were found in relatively high epidermal papillae. Type II taste buds were mostly found in low epidermal papillae. Type III taste buds never raise above the normal level of the epithelium. These types may be useful for ensuring full utilization of the gustatory ability of the fish. A firm consistency or rigidity of the free surface of the epithelial cells may be attributed to compactly arranged microridges. These structures protect against physical abrasions potentially caused during food maneuvering and swallowing. Furthermore, protection of the epithelium from abrasion is enhanced with mucous cell secretions which lubricate ingested food items.

  19. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, A; Marchant-Forde, J N; Richert, B T; Lay, D C

    2016-05-01

    Aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrates. Sows were housed in individual stalls 7 to 14 d after breeding (moving day was considered d 0 of treatment) and were fed (at 0700 h) with a CONTROL (corn-soybean meal based with no additional fiber sources), RSTARCH (10.8% resistant starch), BEETPULP (27.2% sugar beet pulp), SOYHULLS (19.1% soybean hulls), or INCSOY (14.05% soybean hulls) for 21 d (5 sows/diet × 5 diets × 8 replications = 200 sows). The CONTROL diet was targeted to contain 185 g(d∙sow) NDF and the other diets were targeted to contain 350 g(d∙sow) NDF. The INCSOY diet was fed at 2.2 kg/(d∙sow) and the other diets were fed at 2 kg(d∙sow). On d 22, sows were mixed in groups of 5 (at 1200 h). Behaviors in stalls (on d 1, 7, 14, and 21) and after mixing (d 22 and 23), heart rate (on d 1, 7, 14, and 21), blood metabolites (on d 2, 8, 15, 22, and 25), and the effects of diets on production were collected and analyzed. Sows stood more ( 0.05). Average birth weight was lowest in the INCSOY diet ( = 0.02). This study demonstrates that RSTARCH and SOYHULLS can improve the welfare of sows by reducing aggression and increasing satiety in limit-fed pregnant sows without affecting production.

  20. Impact of sowing time, hybrid and environmental conditions on the contamination of maize by emerging mycotoxins and fungal metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Blandino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins and other fungal metabolites represent the most insidious safety risks to cereal food and the feed chain. Optimising agronomic practices is one of the main strategies adopted to minimise the contents of these undesirable substances in grain-based commodities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of sowing times and hybrids on the occurrence of emerging mycotoxins and fungal metabolites in maize. Field experiments were carried out in 2 sowing times (early vs late and 3 maize hybrids were compared in the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. Overall, 37 fungal metabolites produced by Fusarium and Alternaria species were detected. Apart from fumonisins type B (FBs, other metabolites produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum, such as fumonisins type A, fusaric acid, bikaverin and fusaproliferin, were also detected in all of the samples. Fusarin C was found in 61% of the samples. Deoxynivalenol (DON, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, culmorin and zearalenone, all of which are produced prevalently by Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, were found in all the samples. Their contents were clearly affected by the meteorological trend: the highest contamination was detected in the 2014 growing season, which was characterised by abundant rainfall and lower temperatures from flowering to maize ripening. Among the mycotoxins produced by other Fusarium species, aurofusarin was found to clearly be associated with DON, while moniliformin and beauvericin followed the same behaviour as the FBs. A late sowing time significantly increased the FBs and fumonisin- associated mycotoxins in both growing seasons. The increase in contamination with the delay of sowing was more pronounced in the 2015 growing season, as the environmental conditions were less favourable to the infection of other Fusarium species. The effect of sowing time on DON and DON-associated mycotoxins produced conflicting results for the two growing

  1. The Protein Component of Sow Colostrum and Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Hurley, W L

    2016-01-01

    The production of colostrum and milk by the sow are primary limiting factors affecting survival, growth and development of the piglets. The proteins of colostrum and milk provide not only a supply of amino acids to the neonate but also a wide range of bioactive factors. Proteins in sow mammary...... secretions include those associated with the milk fat membranes, caseins, mammary-derived whey proteins, immunoglobulins, hormones and growth factors, enzymes, and a wide range of other proteins. Concentrations of most milk-specific proteins typically are lower in colostrum than in milk, while concentrations...... of immunoglobulins and other bioactive proteins often are enriched in colostrum compared with mature milk. Dietary protein is utilized for milk protein production with approximately 50% efficiency. During both the colostrum period and at peak lactation as much as 700–800 g of protein is secreted daily by today...

  2. Effects of Inulin Supplementation in Low- or High-Fat Diets on Reproductive Performance of Sows and Antioxidant Defence Capacity in Sows and Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y S; Zhou, P; Liu, H; Li, S; Zhao, Y; Deng, K; Cao, D D; Che, L Q; Fang, Z F; Xu, S Y; Lin, Y; Feng, B; Li, J; Wu, D

    2016-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin supplementation in low- or high-fat diets on both the reproductive performance of sow and the antioxidant defence capacity in sows and offspring. Sixty Landrace × Yorkshire sows were randomly allocated to four treatments with low-fat diet (L), low-fat diet containing 1.5% inulin (LI), high-fat diet (H) and high-fat diet containing 1.5% inulin (HI). Inulin-rich diets lowered the within-litter birth weight coefficient of variation (CV, p = 0.05) of piglets, increased the proportion of piglets weighing 1.0-1.5 kg at farrowing (p Inulin-rich diets fed to sow during gestation had beneficial effects on within-litter uniformity of piglet birthweight and enhanced the antioxidant defence capacity of sows and piglets. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. EFFECT OF AUDITORY ENRICHMENT (MUSIC) IN PREGNANT SOWS WELFARE

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Flávia R. S.; Miranda,Késia O. da S.; Piedade, Sônia M. S.; Salgado, Douglas D'Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Studies have shown that the benefits from music can improve the welfare conditions of laboratory, pet and production animals. The study aimed to evaluate the influence of music (Antonio Lucio Vivaldi compositions) on behavior aspects (position, activity, stereotypes, social and agonistic behavior) and physiological responses (respiratory rate and rectal temperature) in gestating sows in individual cages (stage 1), and collective stalls (stage 2). 28 animals were studied, 14 belonged ...

  4. Adaptability and stability of canola hybrids in different sowing dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique da Silva Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Canola is an important crop in the world market, mainly for its oil being used for human consumption and biodiesel production, being a great economical option for the farmer, which are the reasons to the increase in its cultivation in Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the adaptability and stability of canola hybrids, depending on the sowing dates. The canola hybrids (Hyola 61, Hyola 76, Hyola 411 and Hyola 433 were evaluated in three sowing dates (04/10, 04/25 and 05/10 in the agricultural years of 2013 and 2014, under a randomized complete block design with five replications. The response variables analyzed were seed yield and oil content. Adaptability and stability of the hybrids were evaluated by three methods: Wricke's ecovalence (1962; confidence index (ANNICCHIARICO, 1992 and method of maximum ideal deviation (LIN; BINNS, 1988. The methodology proposed by Wricke (1962 highlighted as stable the hybrids Hyola 61 for seed yield and Hyola 411 for oil content. In the methodology proposed by Lin and Binns (1988 and Annicchiarico (1992, the hybrids with higher general adaptability and stability were Hyola 411 and 433. These hybrids presented the highest means for seed yield and oil content with predictable and responsive behavior to changes in sowing dates tested in the region of Maringá-PR.

  5. Wider stall space affects behavior, lesion scores, and productivity of gestating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salak-Johnson, J L; DeDecker, A E; Levitin, H A; McGarry, B M

    2015-10-01

    Limited space allowance within the standard gestation stall is an important welfare concern because it restricts the ability of the sow to make postural adjustments and hinders her ability to perform natural behaviors. Therefore, we evaluated the impacts of increasing stall space and/or providing sows the freedom to access a small pen area on sow well-being using multiple welfare metrics. A total of 96 primi- and multiparous crossbred sows were randomly assigned in groups of 4 sows/treatment across 8 replicates to 1 of 3 stall treatments (TRT): standard stall (CTL; dimensions: 61 by 216 cm), width-adjustable stall (flex stall [FLX]; dimensions: adjustable width of 56 to 79 cm by 216 cm), or an individual walk-in/lock-in stall with access to a small communal open-pen area at the rear of the stall (free-access stall [FAS]; dimensions: 69 by 226 cm). Lesion scores, behavior, and immune and productivity traits were measured at various gestational days throughout the study. Total lesion scores were greatest for sows in FAS and least for sows in FLX ( Regardless of parity, sows in FLX had the least severe scores ( < 0.0001). As pregnancy progressed, lesion scores increased among sows in CTL ( < 0.05). Sow BW and backfat (BF) were greater for sows in FLX and FAS ( < 0.05), and BCS and BF were greater for parity 1 and 2 sows in FAS than the same parity sows in CTL (TRT × parity, < 0.05). Duration and frequency of some postural behaviors and sham chew behavior were affected by TRT ( < 0.05) and time of day (TRT × day, < 0.05). These data indicate that adequate stall space, especially late in gestation, may improve the well-being of higher-parity and heavier-bodied gestating sows as assessed by changes in postural behaviors, lesion severity scores, and other sow traits. Moreover, compromised welfare measures found among sows in various stall environments may be partly attributed to the specific constraints of each stall system such as restricted stall space in CTL

  6. Biochemical composition of the fluid of ovarian cysts and pre-ovulatory follicles compared to the serum in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankiewicz, T

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the biochemical composition of follicular cysts, pre-ovulatory follicles and serum in sows. The research involved multiparous sows (cysts-bearing sows, n = 21; non-cysts-bearing sows, n = 22). Concentration of glucose, protein, cholesterol (CHOL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triacylglycerol (TAG) in the samples was determined. Glucose concentration in serum was higher than in cysts and follicles (p cysts was higher than in follicles (p cysts-bearing and non-cysts-bearing sows (p cysts and follicles was lower than in serum (p cysts-bearing sows and non-cysts-bearing sows was higher than the one in cysts and follicles (p cysts-bearing sows was higher than the one in non-cysts-bearing sows (p cysts-bearing and non-cysts-bearing sows was also higher than the one in cysts and follicles (p Cysts-bearing sows had a higher concentration of HDL in the serum than non-cysts-bearing sows. Differences were also observed between the concentration of HDL in cysts and the one in follicles (p cysts or pre-ovulatory follicles. TAG concentration in the serum of cysts-bearing sows was higher than the one in the serum of non-cysts-bearing sows (p cysts and in follicles (p follicular cysts and pre-ovulatory follicles point to the variable intensification of the course of metabolic processes in pathological and physiological ovarian structures.

  7. Cytoskeletal proteins in the follicular wall of normal andcystic ovaries of sows

    OpenAIRE

    Sant'Ana, Fabiano J.F. de; Reis Junior, Janildo L.; Araújo, Rosélia L.S.; J.Gimeno, Eduardo; Ortega, Hugo H.

    2015-01-01

    The expression of cytoskeletal proteins was evaluated immunohistochemically in 36 normal ovaries sampled from 18 sows and 44 cystic ovaries sampled from of 22 sows, was evaluated. All sows had history of reproductive problems, such as infertility or subfertility. The immunohistochemically stained area (IHCSA) was quantified through image analysis to evaluate the expression of these proteins in the follicular wall of secondary, tertiary, and cystic follicles. Cytokeratins (CK) immunoreactivity...

  8. Sow productivity on commercial pig farms in the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Branko Angjelovski; Aleksandar Cvetkovikj; Slavcho Mrenoshki; Ivica Gjurovski; Toni Dejanoski; Toni Dovenski

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the production performances of sows on commercial pig farms in the Republic of Macedonia, to compare the differences in sow productivity data between small and large farms and to examine interrelationships of key production parameters among farms with different sizes. The study was retrospectively based and included the annual (2012) analyzes of the sow productivity data in small (

  9. Sow productivity on commercial pig farms in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Angjelovski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to determine the production performances of sows on commercial pig farms in the Republic of Macedonia, to compare the differences in sow productivity data between small and large farms and to examine interrelationships of key production parameters among farms with different sizes. The study was retrospectively based and included the annual (2012 analyzes of the sow productivity data in small (<200 sows, n=4 and large (200-1000 sows, n=5 commercial pig farms. The data were statistically evaluated and compared with the known literature. Sows productivity was greater on the small farms compared to the large ones. The small farms had larger litter per sow (PBL, more pigs born alive (PBA, higher weaning weight (WW and more pigs weaned per sow per litter (PWSL than the large ones (p<0.001. Small farms also had greater farrowing rate (FR (p<0.01. Higher replacement rate (RR, lower average parity (AP, greater number of litters per sow per year (LSY and higher sow death rate (SDR were observed in large farms (p<0.001. The large farms also had less non-productive days (NPD than the small farms (p<0.001. Different intensity of correlations also were observed for several productive parameters among the farm groups. The data obtained in this study show that sow productivity on Macedonian pig farms is lower than in EU countries. Small herds are more efficient than the large herds. Despite all limitations, our study provides information for the veterinarians regarding reproductive parameters of sows and their interrelationships on Macedonian pig farms. Further investigation should be made in order to identify whether the specific management factors have effect on productivity of breeding herd.

  10. Snow shoes and sandals? : genetic aspects of heat stress sensitivity and sow reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Bloemhof, S.

    2013-01-01

    Globally the average size of pig herds are increasing and amount of labour spent per sow / finisher pig is decreasing. These changes require sows which need less management interventions. In addition to easier manageable sows modern genotypes will also need to be more adaptable considering that global temperatures are expected to increase and pork production is partially moving to warmer climates. The end result is that commercial pigs nowadays will potentially face more heat stress challenge...

  11. Field experiences with early pregnancy diagnosis by progesterone-based ELISA in sows

    OpenAIRE

    M.H. Boma; G. Bilkei

    2008-01-01

    In four Kenyan pig breeding units the pregnancy diagnosis of sows has been carried out in two groups: Group 1 (n = 1911): the sows were transrectaly pregnancy tested between Days 1722 post-mating by ultrasound. Sows testing non-pregnant immediately received one dose of 400 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) (equine chorion gonadotropin, eCG) and 200 IU human chorion gonadotropin (hCG). On showing signs of oestrous, the animals were subsequently artificially inseminated (AI). Gro...

  12. Comparison of brain development in sow-reared and artificially-reared piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeba M Jacob

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionProvision of adequate nutrients is critical for proper growth and development of the neonate, yet the impact of breastfeeding versus formula feeding on neural maturation has yet to be fully determined. Using the piglet as a model for the human infant, our objective was to compare neurodevelopment of piglets that were either sow-reared or reared in an artificial setting. MethodsOver a 25-d feeding study, piglets (1.5 ± 0.2 kg initial bodyweight were either sow-reared (SR; n = 10 with ad libitum intake, or artificially-reared (AR; n = 29 receiving an infant formula modified to mimic the nutritional profile and intake pattern of sow’s milk. At study conclusion, piglets were subjected to a standardized set of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI procedures to quantify structure and composition of the brain.ResultsDiffusion tensor imaging, an MRI sequence that characterizes brain microstructure, revealed that SR piglets had greater (P < 0.05 average whole-brain fractional anisotropy, and lower (P < 0.05 mean and radial and axial diffusivity values compared with AR piglets, suggesting differences in white matter organization. Voxel-based morphometric analysis, a measure of white and gray matter volumes concentrations, revealed differences (P < 0.05 in bilateral development of gray matter clusters in the cortical brain regions of the AR piglets compared with SR piglets. Region of interest (ROI analysis revealed larger (P < 0.05 whole brain volumes in SR animals compared with AR, and subcortical regions to be larger (P < 0.05 as a percentage of whole-brain volume in AR piglets compared with SR animals. Quantification of brain metabolites using magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed SR piglets had higher (P < 0.05 concentrations of myo-inositol, glycerophosphocholine + phosphocholine, and creatine + phosphocreatine compared with AR piglets. However, glutamate + glutamine levels were higher (P < 0.05 in AR piglets when compared with SR animals

  13. Use of analgesic treatments records for wellfare assesment in sow herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knage-Rasmussen, Kristian Møllegaard; Houe, Hans; Rousing, Tine

    To quantify the use of medicine recorded in a central database as well as information on housing system To explore how well this information reflects the ‘true welfare state’ of the sows. The study has focus on the use of analgesic medication in sow herds and will compare these measures with a me......To quantify the use of medicine recorded in a central database as well as information on housing system To explore how well this information reflects the ‘true welfare state’ of the sows. The study has focus on the use of analgesic medication in sow herds and will compare these measures...

  14. Quantification of pre-parturition restlessness in crated sows using ultrasonic measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y S; Huang, Y P; Wang, J S; Wu, M C; Young, M S

    2004-01-01

    This study presents the non-video, noninvasive, automatic, and on-site monitoring system employing ultrasonic transducers to detect the behavior in sows before, during and after parturition. An ultrasonic transmitting/receiving (T/R) circuit of 40kHz is mounted above a conventional parturition bed. The T/R units use ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOP) ranging technology to measure the height of the confined sows at 8 predetermined locations. It is suggested that the system could be applied to automatic prediction of sow parturition, with automatic notification of remote management personnel so human attendance at the birth could reduce rates of sow and piglet mortality.

  15. Effects of dietary spray-dried plasma protein on sow productivity during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frugé, E D; Roux, M L; Lirette, R D; Bidner, T D; Southern, L L; Crenshaw, J D

    2009-03-01

    Seventy-two primiparous and multiparous sows (36 per dietary treatment) farrowed in 4 groups were used to evaluate the effects of spray-dried plasma protein (SDP) on sow and litter performance during lactation. Dietary lactation treatments consisted of a corn-soybean meal control and a corn-soybean meal diet containing 0.5% SDP. Both diets were formulated to contain 1.0% total Lys and 3.46 Mcal/kg of ME and were fed from d 107 +/- 1.2 of gestation to weaning. Sows were allotted to dietary treatment based on breed, parity, and the date of d 107 of gestation. Litters were standardized within diet, and pigs were weaned at an average age of 19 +/- 2.1 d. Sows were fed 3 times daily during lactation. After weaning, sows were fed a common gestation diet and checked twice daily for estrus. Sows were grouped by parity (young sows, sows, >3) for statistical analysis. The data were analyzed as a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments; the factors were parity (3) and SDP (0 or 0.5%). Treatment differences were considered significant at P sows had a greater BW on d 107 of gestation, on d 1 postfarrowing, and at weaning; greater lactation ADFI; and greater litter BW after cross-fostering, but pig survival to weaning was decreased. Sows fed SDP had a greater gestation interval, litter BW at weaning, and litter ADG, with 1 less lactation day. The effect of SDP addition was dependent on sow parity, as noted by numerous SDP x parity interactions. The addition of SDP increased lactation ADFI in mature sows but decreased ADFI in young sows. Mature sows fed SDP had a greater number of pigs weaned per litter, litter and pig weaning weights, pig survival to weaning, and number of pigs weaned per litter weighing more than 3.6 kg, but the SDP diet had little to no effect on these responses in young sows. Subsequent farrowing data were collected, but no dietary treatment effects (P > 0.10) were observed. The results of this research indicate that SDP increased productivity of sows in

  16. RESPONSE OF PEA (PISUM SATIVUM SSP. ARVENSE L. AT SOWING TERM, STAND AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION AT VINKOVCI AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Rapčan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pea is an exquisite protein crop (it contains 20-37% of protein used for human diet, animal feeding and as sideration. The hypothesis has been set up that the spring field pea for the grain production (cultivar Sobel will respond differently to the sowing term, stand (840,000 and 1,250,000 plants ha-1 and nitrogen fertilization (0 and 60 kg ha-1 The Vinkovci site was known for the grain yield (t ha . In 1997 and 1998 the investigations were conducted via field experiments on semigley soil at Vinkovci sites. Observations and measuring of, for example, phenological phase and more important climatic factors were accomplished during the growing season (temperature and precipitations. The harvest was followed by determination of number of pods, number of grains and grain yield. Obtained results were statistically processed by an adequate method (by a variance analysis of the split-split-plot experiment in four replicates whereas averages of the reached values were used for the results interpretation. -1 being 0.07-1.72 t ha-1 in the first investigation year and 0.14-2.12 t ha-1 in the second one. In 1997 thousand grain weight at Vinkovci site varied between 224.75 and 232.63 g whereas in 1998 it was 203.90-249.73 g. Results of the research justified the hypothesis of the optimal sowing date and stand as well as their interaction.

  17. Insulin-stimulating diets during the weaning-to-estrus interval do not improve fetal and placental development and uniformity in high-prolific multiparous sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wientjes, J G M; Soede, N M; Laurenssen, B F A; Koopmanschap, R E; van den Brand, H; Kemp, B

    2013-08-01

    Piglet birth weight and litter uniformity are important for piglet survival. Insulin-stimulating sow diets before mating may improve subsequent piglet birth weights and litter uniformity, but the physiological mechanisms involved are not clear. This study evaluated effects of different levels of insulin-stimulating feed components (dextrose plus starch; fed twice daily) during the weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI) on plasma insulin and IGF-1 concentrations, and on follicle development and subsequent luteal, fetal and placental development and uniformity at days 42 to 43 of pregnancy. During WEI, multiparous sows were isocalorically fed diets supplemented with 375 g/day dextrose plus 375 g/day corn starch (INS-H), with 172 g/day dextrose plus 172 g/day corn starch and 144 g/day animal fat (INS-L), or with 263 g/day animal fat (CON). Jugular vein catheters were inserted through the ear vein at 1.5 days before weaning to asses plasma insulin and IGF-1 concentrations. After estrus, all sows received a standard gestation diet until slaughter at days 42 to 43 of pregnancy. The dextrose plus starch-diets enhanced the postprandial insulin response in a dose-dependent manner (e.g. at day 2 insulin area under the curve was 4516 μU/444 min for CON, 8197 μU/444 min for INS-L and 10 894 μU/444 min for INS-H; s.e.m. = 694; P uniformity were not affected by the dietary treatments, nor related to plasma insulin and IGF-1 concentrations during WEI. Pre-weaning plasma insulin and IGF-1 concentrations were negatively related to sow body condition loss during lactation, but were not related to subsequent reproduction characteristics. This study shows that dietary dextrose plus starch are effective in stimulating insulin secretion (both postprandial peak and long-term concentration), but not IGF-1 secretion during the first 3 days after weaning in multiparous sows. The extreme insulin-stimulating diets during WEI did, however, not improve follicle development, or subsequent

  18. Modeling the Costs of Postpartum Dysgalactia Syndrome and Locomotory Disorders on Sow Productivity and Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarkko K. Niemi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PPDS and locomotory disorders are common health problems in sows. Previous research suggests that they can cause substantial losses, reduce sow welfare, and result in premature removal of the sow from the herd. However, economic consequences of PPDS and locomotory disorders have not been investigated thoroughly. The goal of this study was to examine economic losses caused by PPDS and locomotory disorders and their impacts on sow longevity. A stochastic dynamic programming model, which maximizes return on sow space unit and assesses sow replacement under several scenarios, was developed. The state variables were litter size, parity number, and sow’s health status. The model describes changes in the production parameters such as the number of piglets born and piglet mortality. Herd data originating from commercial sow herds and from a research farm were used to parameterize the model. Sow longevity, health, and economic results are related to each other. Eliminating the risk of PPDS from the model increased the value of sow space unit by €279 when compared to the baseline scenario. Eliminating the risk of locomotory disorders increased value by €110. Results suggest that these estimates correspond to about €29.1 and €11.5 in economic costs per housed sow during her lifetime. The estimated magnitude of losses was €300–€470 per affected sow for PPDS and €290–€330 per affected sow for locomotory disorders. However, realistically speaking, not all of these costs are avoidable. Due to premature replacement associated with these two disorders, the average number of litters that the sow would deliver during her lifetime is decreased by about 0.1–0.4 litters depending on the scenario. We also observed that the optimal lifetime of a sow is not a fixed number, but it depends on her productivity level as well as health status. In general, a healthy sow could stay in the herd until she has produced 6

  19. Efficiency Test and Economic Analysis of Seeder for Papaya-sowing Tray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyapong Sriwongras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project was to develop the seeder for sowing tray to reduce the labor cost and the operation time for preparing sowing tray. Papaya seeds were selected for test on this machine. The sowing tray used for test has 60 cells per one tray. The dimensions of seeder developed have a width of 1,044 mm, a length of 679 mm. and a height of 1,348 mm. The important components of machine consisted of seed hopper, seed metering device, seed releasing units, soil compressing units and depth controlling units. The seed metering device was established by plastic sheet. The plastic rods cut into keyway along its axis for keeping seeds were inserted into the seed metering device in order to convey the seeds from the seed hopper to the flexible tube. The flexible tubes brought the seeds into seed releasing units located under the part of seed metering device in order to drop the seeds 1–2 seeds per cell of sowing tray. The seed metering devices were set 3 units, 1 unit for releasing seeds on 20 cells of sowing tray, on the seeder frame. Chain drive mechanism was set to drive the system for releasing seeds on sowing tray. The efficiency test of releasing seed on sowing tray of this seeder was equal to 79%. For operation time of releasing seeds on sowing tray, Comparing between this seeder and human hand found that the sowing by the seeder was 7.88 times quicker than the sowing by human hand. In parts of economic analysis of seeder, breakeven point, payback period and benefit cost ration were considered for economic analysis. Their results found that were 152,050 trays, 0.03 year and 3.05 respectively. Therefore, the seeder of papaya sowing tray developed is suitable for using in local farmers in Thailand.

  20. Arginine for gestating sows and foetal development: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencia, J Y P; Lemes, M A G; Garbossa, C A P; Abreu, M L T; Pereira, L J; Zangeronimo, M G

    2018-02-01

    The use of functional amino acids during pregnancy has been linked to improved reproduction in mammals. In this context, arginine is a precursor in the synthesis of numerous molecules, such as nitric oxide and polyamines, which play an important role during reproduction. However, contradictory studies are found in the literature, particularly regarding the amount of supplementation and the period of pregnancy in which it is used. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary arginine supplementation for pregnant sows on foetal development via a systematic review. The search for papers was performed during the month of December 2015, in the databases ISI Web of Science, Science Direct, Scopus, and SciELO. From a total of 5675 returned studies, only 13 papers were selected after applying selection criteria. Most (47%) of the studies that evaluated the effects of dietary arginine supplementation on foetal development in pigs used 1% arginine. Supplementation was initiated in the first third of pregnancy in 47% of tests, including in both primiparous and multiparous sows. These studies showed positive results for embryo survival and foetal development, evidenced by the increase in placental weight and the number and weight of piglets born alive. Of all evaluated studies, 53% showed benefits on foetal development. It is concluded that supplementing dietary arginine in gestating sows can benefit embryo survival and foetal development. However, to establish a supplementation plan with this amino acid, aspects related to the period of pregnancy, supplementation levels, and source of arginine must be well defined. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Technical note: Measurement of mammary plasma flow in sows by downstream dilution of mammary vein infused para-aminohippuric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Storm, Adam Christian; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2016-01-01

    catheter was surgically implanted in the femoral artery, and another 2 were inserted in the right cranial mammary vein of 8 second- and third-parity sows on d 76 ± 2 SEM of gestation. On the 3rd and 17th days in milk, arterial and venous blood samples were drawn in hourly intervals from 0.5 h before until...... 6.5 h after feeding. The MPF in the right cranial mammary vein was measured by downstream dilution of infused pAH (3.0 mmol/h). Total MPF-pAH was calculated assuming that the measured flow constituted the flow from 5 out of 14 suckled glands on the basis of the anatomical structure of the mammary...

  2. Genetic parameters for residual feed intake in growing pigs, with emphasis on genetic relationships with carcass and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, H; Bidanel, J-P; Gruand, J; Caritez, J-C; Billon, Y; Guillouet, P; Lagant, H; Noblet, J; Sellier, P

    2007-12-01

    Data were collected over the first 4 generations of a divergent selection experiment for residual feed intake of Large White pigs having ad libitum access to feed. This data set was used to obtain estimates of heritability for residual feed intake and genetic correlations (r(a)) between this trait and growth, carcass, and meat quality traits. Individual feed intake of group-housed animals was measured by single-space electronic feeders. Upward and downward selection lines were maintained contemporarily, with 6 boars and 35 to 40 sows per line and generation. Numbers of records were 793 for residual feed intake (RFI1) of boar candidates for selection issued from first-parity (P1) litters and tested over a fixed BW range (35 to 95 kg) and 657 for residual feed intake (RFI2) and growth, carcass, and meat quality traits of castrated males and females issued from second-parity (P2) litters and tested from 28 to 107 kg of BW. Variance and covariance components were estimated using REML methodology applied to a series of multitrait animal models, which always included the criterion for selection as 1 of the traits. Estimates of heritability for RFI1 and RFI2 were 0.14 +/- 0.03 and 0.24 +/- 0.03, respectively, whereas the estimate of r(a) between the 2 traits was 0.91 +/- 0.08. Estimates of r(a) indicated that selection for low residual feed intake has the potential to improve feed conversion ratio and reduce daily feed intake, with minimal correlated effect for ADG of P2 animals. Estimates of r(a) between RFI2 and body composition traits of P2 animals were positive for traits related to the amount of fat depots (r(a) = 0.44 +/- 0.16 for carcass backfat thickness) and negative for carcass lean meat content (r(a) = -0.55 +/- 0.14). There was a tendency for a negative genetic correlation between RFI2 and carcass dressing percent (r(a) = -0.36 +/- 0.21). Moreover, selection for low residual feed intake is expected, through lower ultimate pH and lighter color, to decrease pork

  3. Effects of sowing dates on grain yield and yield attributes of sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lack of a suitable sowing date has often been identified as the main constraint to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench) cv. ICSV111 (Kapaala) production in Ghana. Field experiments were, therefore, used on-station at the Manga Agricultural Research Station to evaluate the effects of five sowing dates on yield and yield ...

  4. Depletion of penicillin G residues in heavy sows after intramuscular injection. Part I: Tissue residue depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavy sows (n=126) were treated with penicillin G procaine at a 5x label dose (33,000 IU/kg) for 3 consecutive days by intramuscular (IM) injection using 3 separate patterns (treatments) of drug administration (42 sows per treatment). Treatments differed by pattern and maximum injection volume per s...

  5. Decision support system for overall welfare assessment in pregnant sows. B. Validation by expert opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Spruijt, B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.; Schouten, W.G.P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the validity of a model that is embedded in a computer-based decision support system to assess the welfare status of pregnant sows in housing and management systems. The so-called SOWEL (SOw WELfare) model was constructed using a formalized procedure to identify and weight

  6. Seed yield and quality of okra as influenced by sowing dates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials were conducted at the Gangetic Alluvium of eastern India to find out the most suitable sowing time to achieve higher yield, comparatively less incidence of yellow vein mosaic virus (YVMV) and quality seed of okra over four consecutive years having seven sowing times at fortnight interval (1st February, 16th ...

  7. Effects of sowing date and nutsedge removal time on plant growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Productivity can be increased to a considerate extent through the improvement of management practices alone, particularly sowing time with appropriate weed control. The objective of this study was to identify the growth and yield performance of tef as affected by cultural manipulation of date of sowing and weed removal ...

  8. Energy partitioning and reproduction in primiparous sows : effects of dietary energy source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction

    As a result of extensive changes in pig husbandry in the last 50 years, nutritional requirements of especially lactating sows nowadays differ strongly from those of sows in the past. Although diets are optimized to meet the

  9. Follicle size and reproductive hormone profiles during a post-weaning altrenogest treatment in primiparous sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van J.J.J.; Martens, M.R.T.M.; Jourquin, J.; Draincourt, M.A.; Wagner, A.; Kemp, B.; Soede, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the endocrine background of follicle size changes during post-weaning altrenogest treatment. altrenogest-treated sows received a 20-mg dosage daily at 8.00 a.m. from Day –1 to Day 14 after weaning. On Day –1, only 3/13 altrenogest-treated sows showed LH pulses compared with

  10. In vitro phagocytosis of boar spermatozoa by neutrophils from peripheral blood of sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijs, A.; Harkema, W.; Engel, B.; Woelders, H.

    2000-01-01

    A considerable number of spermatozoa are used in each sow in routine artificial insemination. However, within a few hours after insemination, many spermatozoa are phagocytosed by polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Some aspects of sperm transport in the female genital tract in the sow have been thoroughly

  11. Using Acceleration Data to Automatically Detect the Onset of Farrowing in Sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imke Traulsen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to automatically predict the onset of farrowing in crate-confined sows. (1 Background: Automatic tools are appropriate to support animal surveillance under practical farming conditions. (2 Methods: In three batches, sows in one farrowing compartment of the Futterkamp research farm were equipped with an ear sensor to sample acceleration. As a reference video, recordings of the sows were used. A classical CUSUM chart using different acceleration indices of various distribution characteristics with several scenarios were compared. (3 Results: The increase of activity mainly due to nest building behavior before the onset of farrowing could be detected with the sow individual CUSUM chart. The best performance required a statistical distribution characteristic that represented fluctuations in the signal (for example, 1st variation combined with a transformation of this parameter by cumulating differences in the signal within certain time periods from one day to another. With this transformed signal, farrowing sows could reliably be detected. For 100% or 85% of the sows, an alarm was given within 48 or 12 h before the onset of farrowing. (4 Conclusions: Acceleration measurements in the ear of a sow are suitable for detecting the onset of farrowing in individually housed sows in commercial farrowing crates.

  12. The influence of a share of protein fractions in sows' milk on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jacek Żywiczka

    2012-08-09

    Aug 9, 2012 ... 2010. All experimental sows were housed in identical conditions meeting all welfare requirements. The sows were housed in single farrowing crates from about the 10th day before parturition to the 4th week of lactation. They were fed individually with standard total mixed rations according to polish Nutrient ...

  13. Sow body condition at weaning and reproduction performance in organic piglet production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the variation in backfat at weaning and its relations to reproduction results in organic sow herds in Denmark. The study included eight herds and 573 sows. The average backfat at weaning (mean = 13 mm; SD = 4.2 mm) ranging from 10.5 to 17.3 mm among herds shows th...

  14. Effect of sow age on the apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of sow age on the apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients in the diet. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... Sows in the fourth pregnancy had greater digestibility coefficients of dry matter (4.1 percentage units), organic matter (3.4 percentage units), crude protein (5.5 percentage units) and crude fibre (6.2 ...

  15. Sowing time affecting the development of common bean cultivars in Lichinga, Province of Niassa, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Santana Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The demonstration of yield potential of crops depends on genetic factors, favorable conditions of envi ronment, and management. The sowing time can significantly affect the common bean grain yield. The aim of this research was to study the behavior of Brazilian cultivars and sowing times on the yield components and grain yield of common bean grown in the environmental conditions of Lichinga, Province of Niassa, Mozambique. The field trial was performed for two growing seasons, using the experimental as a randomized block in factorial 5 × 3 × 2, with four replications. The treatments consisted of the combination of five common bean cultivars (BRS Pontal, BRS Agreste, Perola, and BRS Requinte, developed by Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa, and a local variety, Encarnada with three sowing dates (beginning of the rainy season, and 15 and 30 days after, during two growing seasons. The Brazilian cultivar of common beans BRS Pontal was the most productive in all sowing times, followed by BRS Agreste, which was not the most productive only in the second sowing time of 2013/2014 growing season. The cultivar Encarnada, from Mozambique, was the less productive cultivar in all sowing times and in all growing seasons. The best sowing time for common bean cultivars is in the beginning of the rainy season. The use of technologies such as use of seeds of new cultivars, proper sowing time, fertilization, and control of weeds allow significant increase of common bean grain yield in Lichinga, Mozambique.

  16. The effects of group size on aggression when mixing unacquainted sows in outdoor paddocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggression is a challenge when pigs are kept in groups. Sows fight at mixing when space is limited but this project sought to determine the amount and type of aggression observed when unacquainted Berkshire sows were mixed in pairs or in two established sub-groups of three in outdoor paddocks. Treat...

  17. Response to LPS in female offspring from sows treated with cortisol during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de J.; Kranendonk, G.; Fillerup, M.; Hopster, H.; Boersma, W.; Hodgson, D.; Reenen, van K.; Taverne, M.

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal stress has been shown to program responsiveness of the hypothalamus¿pituitary¿adrenal axis (HPA-axis) and behavior in offspring. In pig husbandry, sows are exposed to stressful conditions during gestation. Previously, cortisol treatment of pregnant sows has been shown to alter stress

  18. The effects of sowing time and depth on germination and seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to determine the appropriate sowing time and depth in spring for Taurus Cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich) in Turkey. The effects of sowing time and depth were determined with regard to the germination rate of seedlings' quality. The seeds were collected from Kapidag-Isparta, in Turkey, in 2003 and ...

  19. Effects of (artificial) boar stimuli on uterine activity in estrous sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, R.; Langendijk, P.; Soede, N.M.; Kemp, B.

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to examine influences of specific boar stimuli on uterine activity in estrous sows, by comparing uterine activity in presence of a mature teaser boar and a robot boar with variable stimuli. Nineteen multiparous, cyclic, commercial crossbred sows were used. Intra-luminal uterine

  20. [Effects of coat and sowing depth on seed germination and early seedling growth of Quercus wutaishanica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xing-Fui; Qiu, Zhi-Hu; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Kao-Wen; Zhou, Yun-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Under shade environment in glasshouse, the effects of seed coat and sowing depth (0, 2, 5, 10 or 15 cm) on seed germination and early seedling growth of Quercus wutaishanica were studied. Seed coat had obvious inhibiting effects on the germination of Q. wutaishanica seeds. The germination percentage of uncoated seeds increased significantly, averagely by 19.4% at different sowing depths. The germination index and vigor index were increased significantly and the germination was speeded in the peeling treatment. The germination percentages of uncoated and coated seeds were the highest at the sowing depth of 2 cm with 78.9% and 62.2%, respectively. The germination index and vigor index were the highest at the sowing depth of 2 cm, while the coefficient of rate of germination were the highest at the sowing depth of 5 cm. Leaf area per seedling and dry mass of seedlings increased significantly in the peeling treatment compared with those in the unpeeling treatment, but specific root length decreased significantly. The shoot height in the peeling and unpeeling treatments were the highest at the sowing depth of 5 cm with 13.8 and 14.2 cm, respectively. With the increasing of sowing depth, the basal stem diameter of seedlings increased, but tap-root length, number of lateral root and maximum of lateral root all decreased. Sowing depth had little influence on dry mass of seedlings.

  1. The effect of sowing strategy, row distance and mechanical weed control on weeds and yield in organic winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Ilse A.

    2002-01-01

    A series of field experiments were carried out in winter wheat grown under organic conditions in Denmark on fields with different weed pressure. The treatments were sowing strategy (normal sowing time, late sowing and false seedbed), row distance (12 cm and 24 cm row distance) and weed control method (untreated, mechanical weed control (weed harrowing at 12 cm supplemented with row hoeing at 24 cm), and herbicide weed control). Weed biomass was largest at the normal sowing time and was reduce...

  2. Social rank of pregnant sows affects their body weight gain and behavior and performance of the offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, G.; Mheen, van der H.; Fillerup, M.; Hopster, H.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies on group housing of pregnant sows have mainly focused on reproduction, but we hypothesized that the social rank of pregnant sows housed in groups could also affect birth weight, growth, and behavior of their offspring. Therefore, in the present study, pregnant gilts and sows were

  3. Should Weaning be the Start of the Reproductive Cycle in Hyper-prolific Sows? A Physiological View

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemp, B.; Soede, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    Normally, sows are in anoestrus during lactation and start their new cycle at the day of weaning. Modern hybrid primiparous sows that suckle large numbers of piglets may lose substantial amounts of body reserves during lactation. This compromises follicle development during lactation. As modern sows

  4. Effects of thermal environment on HPA-axis hormones, oxytocin and behavioral activity in peri-parturient sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2009-01-01

    any treatment effect on mean oxytocin concentrations, the course of parturition, or the behavior of sows. Behavioral thermoregulation may, however, have lost some function for the sows, because the floor was fully heated in our study. In addition, exposure to heat decreased the between-sow variation...

  5. Field experiences with early pregnancy diagnosis by progesterone-based ELISA in sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Boma

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In four Kenyan pig breeding units the pregnancy diagnosis of sows has been carried out in two groups: Group 1 (n = 1911: the sows were transrectaly pregnancy tested between Days 17–22 post-mating by ultrasound. Sows testing non-pregnant immediately received one dose of 400 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG (equine chorion gonadotropin, eCG and 200 IU human chorion gonadotropin (hCG. On showing signs of oestrous, the animals were subsequently artificially inseminated (AI. Group 2 (n = 1923: sows were pregnancy tested by serum progesterone (P4-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA on Day 17 post-breeding. P4 concentrations were categorized as positive (> 5 ng/ml or negative (< 5 ng/ml. Sows testing non-pregnant immediately received one dose of 400 IU PMSG and 200 IU hCG by injection, and were subsequently artificially inseminated. The following parameters were evaluated: sows diagnosed non-pregnant, days from first post-weaning insemination until the sows were inseminated at their first return to oestrus; farrowing rate and total piglets born and number of live-born piglets in litters.The percentage of sows diagnosed non-pregnant in the two groups, as well as the totals of born piglets and of live-born piglets in litters did not differ significantly between the two groups. The number of days from the first post-weaning mating until the sows were artificially inseminated at their first return to oestrus and the administration of eCG and hCG was shorter (P < 0.01 and farrowing rate was higher (P < 0.01 in the ELISA-tested sows.

  6. The behaviour and welfare of sows and piglets in farrowing crates or lactation pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, C; Verdon, M; Cronin, G M; Hemsworth, P H

    2017-07-01

    Temporary confinement during parturition and early postpartum may provide an intermediary step preceding loose housing that offers improvement in sow and piglet welfare. Three experiments were conducted to investigate the implications of replacing farrowing crates (FCs) with an alternative housing system from 3 days postpartum until weaning. In each experiment sows farrowed in FCs and were randomly allocated at day 3 of lactation to either a FC or a pen with increased floor space (lactation pen (LP)) until weaning. In experiment 1, piglet growth and sow and piglet skin injuries were recorded for 32 sows and 128 focal piglets in these litters. Behaviour around nursing and piglet behavioural time budgets were also recorded for 24 of these litters (96 focal piglets for time budgets). In experiment 2, measures of skin injury and behavioural time budgets were conducted on 28 sows and 112 focal piglets. The behavioural response of sows to piglet vocalisation (maternal responsiveness test (MRT)) was also assessed. In experiment 3, piglet mortality from day 3 of lactation until weaning was recorded in 672 litters over 12 months. While housing did not affect piglet weight gain in experiment 1, or piglet skin injuries in experiments 1 or 2, sows in both experiments sustained more injuries in LP than FC (experiment 1, 2.9 v. 1.4; experiment 2, 2.5 v. 0.8 lesions/sow; P0.05). Thus, housing sows and litters in LP from day 3 of lactation minimises piglet mortality while improving maternal behaviour in sows and social behaviour in piglets.

  7. Improving adaptation to weaning: Effect of intermittent suckling regimens on piglet feed intake, growth, and gut characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkeveld, M.; Langendijk, P.; Soede, N.M.; Kemp, B.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Verheijden, J.H.M.; Kuijken, N.; Koets, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Daily separation of sows and piglets during lactation, intermittent suckling (IS), improves feed intake and postweaning adaptation in piglets. The aim of the current study was to determine how, in piglets that have been subjected to IS, age at weaning and the duration of the preceding IS period

  8. Prediction of cereal feed value by near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn

    . The samples originate from available field trials over a three-year period. The chemical reference analyses are dry matter, crude protein, crude ash, crude oils and fats, EDOM, EDOMi, FEso and FEsv. All samples were ground on a laboratory mill and scans were obtained using a QFA-Flex 400 FT-NIR instrument...... and the harvest year. The feed value is described primarily by: Feed value in form of FEsv (Feed unit / kg dry matter, for piglets) and FEso (Feed unit / kg dry matter, for sows), EDOM (Enzyme Degradable Organic Matter) and EDOMi (Enzyme Degradable Organic Matter, Ileum). The chemical analysis is, however, time......-consuming and costly, and it is therefore desirable to have a rapid and less expensive method, which makes it possible to carry out more analyses in-situ. Near infra-red reflection spectroscopy (NIRS) is appropriate as a standard analysis of dry matter, total N, starch and is today used routinely by grain traders...

  9. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast-feed more than one baby? Here's help breast-feeding twins or other multiples, from getting positioned and ensuring an adequate milk supply to combining breast-feeding and formula-feeding. By Mayo Clinic Staff If ...

  10. Intrauterine growth retarded progeny of pregnant sows fed high protein:low carbohydrate diet is related to metabolic energy deficit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia C Metges

    Full Text Available High and low protein diets fed to pregnant adolescent sows led to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR. To explore underlying mechanisms, sow plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations were analyzed during different pregnancy stages and correlated with litter weight (LW at birth, sow body weight and back fat thickness. Sows were fed diets with low (6.5%, LP, adequate (12.1%, AP, and high (30%, HP protein levels, made isoenergetic by adjusted carbohydrate content. At -5, 24, 66, and 108 days post coitum (dpc fasted blood was collected. At 92 dpc, diurnal metabolic profiles were determined. Fasted serum urea and plasma glucagon were higher due to the HP diet. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC, %HDLC and cortisol were reduced in HP compared with AP sows. Lowest concentrations were observed for serum urea and protein, plasma insulin-like growth factor-I, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and progesterone in LP compared with AP and HP sows. Fasted plasma glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations were unchanged. Diurnal metabolic profiles showed lower glucose in HP sows whereas non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations were higher in HP compared with AP and LP sows. In HP and LP sows, urea concentrations were 300% and 60% of AP sows, respectively. Plasma total cholesterol was higher in LP than in AP and HP sows. In AP sows, LW correlated positively with insulin and insulin/glucose and negatively with glucagon/insulin at 66 dpc, whereas in HP sows LW associated positively with NEFA. In conclusion, IUGR in sows fed high protein:low carbohydrate diet was probably due to glucose and energy deficit whereas in sows with low protein:high carbohydrate diet it was possibly a response to a deficit of indispensable amino acids which impaired lipoprotein metabolism and favored maternal lipid disposal.

  11. Correlation of electronic monitoring and stylet pathways elucidate the role of sclerenchymatous ring as a barrier to phloem feeding on citrus leaves by Asian citrus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina. citri) feeding behaviors play a significant role in the transmission of the phloem-limited Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) bacterium that causes the economically devastating citrus greening disease. Recent studies have shown a fibrous ring of thick-wal...

  12. Housing Systems Influence Gut Microbiota Composition of Sows but Not of Their Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubasova, Tereza; Davidova-Gerzova, Lenka; Merlot, Elodie; Medvecky, Matej; Polansky, Ondrej; Gardan-Salmon, Delphine; Quesnel, Helene; Rychlik, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Different housing systems can be used in pig production and little is known about their effect on gut microbiota composition. In this study we characterized fecal microbiota by sequencing the rRNA genes in sows kept during gestation in conventional pens with a slatted floor and in enriched pens with a floor covered with deep straw. After farrowing, microbiota of 1- and 4-day-old piglets were also monitored. Microbiota of sows from the enriched system contained significantly more Prevotella, Parabacteroides, CF231, Phascolarctobacterium, Fibrobacter, Anaerovibrio and YRC22 and significantly less Lactobacillus, Bulleidia, Lachnospira, Dorea, Ruminococcus and Oscillospira than microbiota of sows from the conventional system. The Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio was 0.96 in the microbiota of sows kept in the enriched pens and this increased to 1.66 in the microbiota of sows kept in the conventional system. The production system therefore influenced microbiota composition, most likely due the ingestion of the straw. The microbiota of 1- and 4-day-old piglets differed from the microbiota of sows and sows therefore did not represent the most important source for their colonization in early days of life.

  13. Effects of catechins on litter size, reproductive performance and antioxidative status in gestating sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Fan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of catechins on reproductive performance, antioxidative capacity and immune function of gestating sows. A total of 60 cross-bred (Landrace × Large White multiparious sows were blocked by body weight, parity and backfact and randomly allocated to 1 of 5 treatments: 0, 100, 200, 300, or 400 mg/kg catechins. Dietary treatments were imposed from mating to d 40 of gestation of sows. At farrowing, litter total born, born alive, dead, and normal-(healthy piglets, ≥0.85 kg and low-birth weight piglets ( 0.05. Sows received 200 mg catechin per kg diets showed a reduction (P < 0.05 of the serum MDA level at farrowing compared with all other treatments. Sows received all the levels of catechin showed a reduction (P < 0.05 of serum H2O2 level compared with sows received the control diet on both d 40 of gestation and farrowing. Our results demonstrated that the catechins may be a potential antioxidant to increase the reproductive performance and antioxidative capacity of sows when it was added into diets during the early gestation.

  14. Yield and quality of sugar snap pea in the Ebro Valley: sowing date and seed density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Azpilicueta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum L. var. macrocarpon Ser. is an edible-podded sweet pea that is being considered as a new totally mechanized crop to supply raw material to the agri-food industry of the Ebro Valley (Northern Spain. It is of great interest from an agronomic and commercial standpoint but neither its agronomic behaviour nor its adaptation to the area are known. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sowing date and seed density on the growth and yield of the sugar snap pea at industrial scale. Six randomized blocks experiments with four replicates were conducted on irrigated land in Villafranca (Navarra, Spain in 1998, 1999, and 2000. Three experiments for testing sowing dates (Mar., Apr., and May and another three for seed densities (from 75 to 150 plants m-2 were performed. Phenological development, thermal integral and qualitative and quantitative yield controls were performed. Sugar snap pea required 960 ºC d-1 (Tb = 3 ºC from sowing to harvest. The early sowings gave more biomass, but yield was similar. However, Harvest Index and crop morphology varied. The sowing densities had similar yields sowing that sugar snap pea has a bigger adaptation availability. Sugar snap peas can be satisfactorily cultivated at industrial scale in the zone with sowings between Mar. and May and with seeding densities between 75 and 150 plants m-2.

  15. Winter sowing of adapted lines as a potential yield increase strategy in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Barrios

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. subsp. culinaris is a traditional crop in Spain although current grain yield in Spain is relatively low and unstable. The effect of an early sowing date (winter sowing on yield in the Spanish Central Plateau (meseta was analyzed comparing it to the traditional spring sowing. Yield from eleven cultivars currently available for sowing in Spain and two F6:7  populations of recombinant inbred lines (RIL, ´Precoz´ × ´WA8649041´ (89 lines and ´BGE016365´ × ´ILL1918´ (118 lines, was evaluated in winter and spring sowing dates for three seasons (2005/06, 2006/07 and 2007/08 and two localities. Yield and stability were assessed by the method of consistency of performance with some modifications. When comparing with the best currently available cultivars sown in the traditional spring sowing date, (with an estimated average yield of 43.9 g/m in our experimental conditions, winter sowing using adapted breeding lines proved to be a suitable strategy for increasing lentil yield and yield stability in the Spanish meseta, with an average yield increase of 111% (reaching an estimated yield of 92.8 g/m. Results point to that lentil production can greatly increase in the Spanish meseta if adequate plant materials, such as some of the lines analyzed, are sown at late fall.

  16. Economic analysis of outbreaks of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in nine sow herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, N; Duinhof, T F; van Nes, A

    2012-03-03

    The economic losses due to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) outbreaks are reported in the literature to be substantially high, but recent figures are not available. The aim of this study was to quantify the economic effects of epidemic PRRSv outbreaks in Dutch sow herds. Nine sow herds were selected based on a confirmed PRRSv outbreak within those populations. The economic impact during the first 18 weeks after the outbreak was estimated by comparing the overall costs between pre- and postoutbreak periods, using different factors (production data, medication, diagnostics, labour, etc.). An outbreak of PRRSv resulted in a reduced number of sold pigs per sow of 1.7. The economic loss varied between €59 and €379 for one sow per 18-week period outbreak. The mean loss per sow per outbreak was €126. The costs after the outbreak varied significantly from €3 to 160 per sow, due to the different methods used by farmers to tackle PRRSv outbreaks. The calculated costs in this study correlate with the costs of the initial outbreak in The Netherlands of 98 per sow.

  17. Winter sowing of adapted lines as a potential yield increase strategy in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrios, A.; Aparicio, T.; Rodríguez, M.J.; Pérez de la Vega, M.; Caminero, C.

    2016-11-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. subsp. culinaris) is a traditional crop in Spain although current grain yield in Spain is relatively low and unstable. The effect of an early sowing date (winter sowing) on yield in the Spanish Central Plateau (meseta) was analyzed comparing it to the traditional spring sowing. Yield from eleven cultivars currently available for sowing in Spain and two F6:7 populations of recombinant inbred lines (RIL), ´Precoz´ × ´WA8649041´ (89 lines) and ´BGE016365´ × ´ILL1918´ (118 lines), was evaluated in winter and spring sowing dates for three seasons (2005/06, 2006/07 and 2007/08) and two localities. Yield and stability were assessed by the method of consistency of performance with some modifications. When comparing with the best currently available cultivars sown in the traditional spring sowing date, (with an estimated average yield of 43.9 g/m in our experimental conditions), winter sowing using adapted breeding lines proved to be a suitable strategy for increasing lentil yield and yield stability in the Spanish meseta, with an average yield increase of 111% (reaching an estimated yield of 92.8 g/m). Results point to that lentil production can greatly increase in the Spanish meseta if adequate plant materials, such as some of the lines analyzed, are sown at late fall. (Author)

  18. Effect of supplementation diets of slipery fish level fat on performance, milk yield and milk composition of F1 (Landrace X Yorkshire) sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, K.T.; Nghia, D.H.; Duc, N.L.; Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty five F1 (Landrace x Yorkshire) sows parity of 2- 4 were used to determine the effect of catfish fat to late-pregnant and lactating sows on sow and their piglets’ performance. Sows were fed trial diets from 107 d of gestation until 21 d of lactation. Diets were: control without fish fat; 2%

  19. Causes and consequences of variation in weaning to oestrus interval in the sow = Oorzaken en gevolgen van verschillen in interval spenen - bronst van zeugen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vesseur, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    First parity sows often have a prolonged weaning to oestrus interval (WOI), are treated with oestrus inducing hormones or are not showing oestrus at all. Many young sows are culled because of fertility problems. Of the annual culling of sows, 25 to 30% is because the sow is not showing

  20. The intermittent suckling regimen in pigs: consequences for reproductive performance of sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, R; Soede, N M; Langendijk, P; Hazeleger, W; Kemp, B

    2008-11-01

    Intermittent suckling (IS), a system in which the sow and the piglets are separated for a number of hours per day during lactation, is put forward as a system that can increase piglet welfare around weaning and also induce lactational oestrus. To be of practical use, IS regimes need to result in a predictable oestrus and good reproductive performance. This review describes the effects of IS on sow reproductive performance. During IS, the LH pulsatility pattern switches to a high frequency, low amplitude release during separation, as is normally observed at weaning. In sows that ovulate during IS, LH pulsatility remains higher than in anovulatory sows. Around 90% of the IS sows show follicle growth up to pre-ovulatory size in a similar time period as sows post-weaning. Depending on the stage of lactation that IS commenced, 13% (day 21) to 21% (day 14) of the sows with pre-ovulatory follicles did not ovulate, but follicles either regressed or developed into cystic follicles. In the ovulatory IS sows oestradiol production is comparable but the LH surge is lower with an early start of IS (day 14) when compared with the weaned sows. Continuation of IS post-ovulation has negative effects on pregnancy rate, embryo development and progesterone levels. Factors related to lactation (e.g. a high metabolic clearance rate), may play a role in this. In conclusion, IS can result in a fertile oestrus when the timing of start of IS and duration of IS are taken into account, but for practical use IS regimes result in a too variable reproductive performance.

  1. Automatic detection of lameness in gestating group-housed sows using positioning and acceleration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traulsen, I; Breitenberger, S; Auer, W; Stamer, E; Müller, K; Krieter, J

    2016-06-01

    Lameness is an important issue in group-housed sows. Automatic detection systems are a beneficial diagnostic tool to support management. The aim of the present study was to evaluate data of a positioning system including acceleration measurements to detect lameness in group-housed sows. Data were acquired at the Futterkamp research farm from May 2012 until April 2013. In the gestation unit, 212 group-housed sows were equipped with an ear sensor to sample position and acceleration per sow and second. Three activity indices were calculated per sow and day: path length walked by a sow during the day (Path), number of squares (25×25 cm) visited during the day (Square) and variance of the acceleration measurement during the day (Acc). In addition, data on lameness treatments of the sows and a weekly lameness score were used as reference systems. To determine the influence of a lameness event, all indices were analysed in a linear random regression model. Test day, parity class and day before treatment had a significant influence on all activity indices (P<0.05). In healthy sows, indices Path and Square increased with increasing parity, whereas variance slightly decreased. The indices Path and Square showed a decreasing trend in a 14-day period before a lameness treatment and to a smaller extent before a lameness score of 2 (severe lameness). For the index acceleration, there was no obvious difference between the lame and non-lame periods. In conclusion, positioning and acceleration measurements with ear sensors can be used to describe the activity pattern of sows. However, improvements in sampling rate and analysis techniques should be made for a practical application as an automatic lameness detection system.

  2. Field experiences with early pregnancy diagnosis by progesterone-based ELISA in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boma, M H; Bilkei, G

    2008-03-01

    In four Kenyan pig breeding units the pregnancy diagnosis of sows has been carried out in two groups: Group 1 (n = 1911): the sows were transrectaly pregnancy tested between Days 17-22 post-mating by ultrasound. Sows testing non-pregnant immediately received one dose of 400 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) (equine chorion gonadotropin, eCG) and 200 IU human chorion gonadotropin (hCG). On showing signs of oestrous, the animals were subsequently artificially inseminated (AI). Group 2 (n = 1923): sows were pregnancy tested by serum progesterone (P4)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on Day 17 post-breeding. P4 concentrations were categorized as positive (> 5 ng/ml) or negative (PMSG and 200 IU hCG by injection, and were subsequently artificially inseminated. The following parameters were evaluated: sows diagnosed non-pregnant, days from first post-weaning insemination until the sows were inseminated at their first return to oestrus; farrowing rate and total piglets born and number of live-born piglets in litters. The percentage of sows diagnosed non-pregnant in the two groups, as well as the totals of born piglets and of live-born piglets in litters did not differ significantly between the two groups. The number of days from the first post-weaning mating until the sows were artificially inseminated at their first return to oestrus and the administration of eCG and hCG was shorter (P < 0.01) and farrowing rate was higher (P< 0.01) in the ELISA-tested sows.

  3. Predicting milk yield and composition in lactating sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A V; Strathe, A B; Kebreab, E

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a framework describing the milk production curve in sows as affected by parity, method of milk yield (MY) determination, litter size (LS), and litter gain (LG). A database containing data on LS, LG, dietary protein and fat content, MY, and composition.......0; 3.3) and 9.5 piglets (5; 14), respectively. The MY was affected by LS on d 5 and 20 (P MY at peak lactation was 9.23 kg (SD = 0.14). The average protein, lactose......, and fat content of milk was 5.22 (SD = 0.06), 5.41 (SD = 0.08), and 7.32% (SD = 0.17%), respectively. The NE requirement for lactation increased from d 5 to 20 because of increased MY. Requirements also increased with increasing LG and LS. The framework could be used to predict energy and protein...

  4. Drinking behaviour in sows kept outdoors during the winter months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2014-01-01

    -proof drinking bowl were used. Theindividual sow’s water intake from the drinking bowl was measured continuously fromsix days before farrowing until weaning at seven weeks after farrowing. Temperature ofsupplied water to each drinking bowl, air temperature and rainfall was measured contin-uously. Numbers of born...... alive, stillborn and weaned piglets were recorded. The recordingperiod was divided into two temperature categories; control days (CD) with daily averageair temperature at or above 0◦C and frosty days (FD) with daily average air temperaturebelow 0◦C. The FD included data from 22 days representing 11 sows......, while the remainingobservations were defined as CD. Average water uptake from six days before farrowinguntil four weeks after farrowing was higher on FD than CD (28.9 ± 0.8 vs. 23.1 ± 1.8 l/day,P

  5. Dietary administration of probiotics to sows and/or their neonates improves the reproductive performance, incidence of post-weaning diarrhea and histopathological parameters in the intestine of weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Teruo; Masuda, Tomohide; Kurosawa, Daisuke; Tsukahara, Takamitsu

    2016-12-01

    Probiotics have gained considerable attention with respect to their beneficial effects on livestock performance and health. The most significant effects of probiotics on the gut microbiota and the host animals take place when they are included in diets during particularly stressful periods such as weaning and/or at the beginning of the lactation period. The probiotics Bacillus mesentericus strain TO-A at 1 × 108  colony forming units (CFU)/g, Clostridium butyricum strain TO-A at 1 × 108  CFU/g and Enterococcus faecalis strain T-110 at 1 × 109  CFU/g were used. Litter weight at delivery and ratio of return to estrous improved significantly (17% and 24% improvement, respectively) by probiotic administration to sows (0.2% (w/w)). Furthermore, the feed intake of the probiotics-administered sows was greater than that of the control sows during the late lactation period. Post-weaning diarrheal incidence and growth performance was improved by probiotics administration to neonates (0.02% (w/w)), while the combined use of probiotics in sows and their neonates induced the enlargement of villous height and prevented muscle layer thinning in the small intestine of weaning piglets. The administration of probiotics of three species of live bacteria improved the porcine reproductive performance around stressful periods of sows (farrowing) and piglets (weaning). [Corrections added on 26 April 2016, after first online publication: 'Enterococcus faecalis strain T-100' has been corrected to 'Enterococcus faecalis strain T-110' in the above paragraph and in the 'Probiotics' section under the Materials and Methods heading.]. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) increases milk yield without losing body weight in lactating sows

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Joo, Young-Kuk; Lee, Jin-Woo; Ha, Young-Joo; Yeo, Joon-Mo; Kim, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance of lactating sows and piglets as well as the immunity of piglets suckling from sows fed CLA. Eighteen multiparous Duroc sows with an average body weight (BW) of 232.0???6.38 kg were randomly selected and assigned to two dietary treatments (n?=?9 for each treatment), control (no CLA addition) and 1% CLA supplementation. For the control diet, CLA was replaced with soybean oil. Experimen...

  7. Concentration and centralization of capital in the Pampas.The case of the big sowing pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón Caligaris

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the potentialities of the process of concentration of agrarian capital from the case of the so-called 'big sowing pools'. For this purpose we analyze the investment and production projects of the sowing pools constituted as Mutual Funds Closed Investment and Financial Trusts. In addition, we perform an in-depth study on the case of the chief administrator of big sowing pools: the company Cazenave & Asociados. We conclude that the agrarian production in the Pampas remains a hostile environment for the accumulation of the most concentrated capitals of the economy.

  8. A field study on feed supplementation, body weight and selected blood parameters in local pigs in Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittavong, Malavanh; Lindberg, Jan Erik; Jansson, Anna

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate feed allowances, body weight (BW), haematocrit, haemoglobin, plasma ionised calcium (iCa), sodium, potassium, pH and glucose concentration and faecal K/Na ratio in local growing pigs, sows and piglets kept by small-holder farmers in Laos. Starting hypotheses were that (1) local pigs are under fed, (2) BW is higher in pigs receiving supplementary feed and (3) the blood profile of pigs subjected to very poor nutrition is outside the normal range. On 54 pig-keeping smallholdings in Borikhamxay province, Lao PDR, daily feed allowances were weighed and BW recorded for 27 lactating sows, 54 piglets and 27 growing pigs. Blood samples were collected from the vena jugularis in all pigs. Feed supplementation did not affect BW, but plasma iCa concentration was outside the normal range for all pigs. There was a tendency for lower faecal K/Na ratio in Na-supplemented sows. The results confirm that local pigs in small-scale production systems in Laos suffer from poor nutrition. The most important challenge for farmers appears to be provision of more feed, particularly feed with a high Ca content.

  9. Weaning strategies to improve the performance of sows and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Restricted suckling resulted in an increased creep feed intake by the piglets. Piglets that were suckled once a day consumed 8.76 kg creep feed during the experimental period compared to 8.49, 8.35 and 8.21 kg for split weaning, twice a day suckling and the control, respectively. All intakes were significantly different.

  10. Effects of altrenogest treatment in sows on the variation of piglet birth weight and pre-weaning piglet performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supatee Kitkha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of altrenogest (ALT feeding combined with induced ovulation by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG in sows was evaluated on piglet birth weight (BW variation and pre-weaning performance. Sows were divided into four groups: the control (no ALT; without hCG induction; artificial inseminated (AI at 12 and 36 h after estrus; n = 40, ALT + hCG72 (ALT 20 mg/d, D-4–D2 (D0: weaning day; hCG 750 IU at 72 h post ALT; AI at 24 and 40 h after hCG; n = 41, ALT + hCG96 (ALT 20 mg/d, D-4–D2; hCG 750 IU at 96 h post ALT; AI at 24 and 40 h after hCG; n = 41 and ALT + no hCG (20 mg/d, D-4–D2; without hCG induction; AI at 12 and 36 h after estrus; n = 41. The results revealed that piglet BW was not different among the groups (p > 0.05. However, the standard deviation of piglet BW (SDBW was lower in ALT + hCG72 (0.32 ± 0.02 kg; p = 0.032, compared to ALT + hCG96 (0.40 ± 0.02 kg and ALT + no hCG (0.40 ± 0.02 kg, except for the control (0.39 ± 0.02 kg. In addition, the pre-weaning mortality rate (%PWM due to underweight elimination at weaning (below 3.50 kg was decreased in ALT + hCG72 (8.33% compared to the control (32.50%; p = 0.007 but similar to ALT + hCG96 (10.71% and ALT + no hCG (24.05%. Therefore, ALT + hCG72 treatment in sows could reduce piglet BW variation and the number of piglets eliminated at weaning.

  11. Complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fewtrell, Mary; Bronsky, Jiri; Campoy, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    but should not be delayed beyond 6 months. Content: Infants should be offered foods with a variety of flavours and textures including bitter tasting green vegetables. Continued breast-feeding is recommended alongside CF. Whole cows' milk should not be used as the main drink before 12 months of age...

  12. Breast Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  13. Selection response and genetic parameters for residual feed intake in Yorkshire swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, W; Casey, D S; Dekkers, J C M

    2008-02-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency defined as the difference between the observed feed intake and that predicted from the average requirements for growth and maintenance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response in a selection experiment consisting of a line selected for low RFI and a random control line and to estimate the genetic parameters for RFI and related production and carcass traits. Beginning with random allocation of purebred Yorkshire littermates, in each generation, electronically measured ADFI, ADG, and ultrasound backfat (BF) were evaluated during a approximately 40- to approximately 115-kg of BW test period on approximately 90 boars from first parity and approximately 90 gilts from second parity sows of the low RFI line. After evaluation of first parity boars, approximately 12 boars and approximately 70 gilts from the low RFI line were selected to produce approximately 50 litters for the next generation. Approximately 30 control line litters were produced by random selection and mating. Selection was on EBV for RFI from an animal model analysis of ADFI, with on-test group and sex (fixed), pen within group and litter (random), and covariates for interactions of on- and off-test BW, on-test age, ADG, and BF with generations. The RFI explained 34% of phenotypic variation in ADFI. After 4 generations of selection, estimates of heritability for RFI, ADFI, ADG, feed efficiency (FE, which is the reciprocal of the feed conversion ratio and equals ADG/ ADFI), and ultrasound-predicted BF, LM area (LMA), and intramuscular fat (IMF) were 0.29, 0.51, 0.42, 0.17, 0.68, 0.57, and 0.28, respectively; predicted responses based on average EBV in the low RFI line were -114, -202, and -39 g/d for RFI (= 0.9 phenotypic SD), ADFI (0.9 SD), and ADG (0.4 SD), respectively, and 1.56% for FE (0.5 SD), -0.37 mm for BF (0.1 SD), 0.35 cm(2) for LMA (0.1 SD), and -0.10% for IMF (0.3 SD). Direct phenotypic comparison of the low RFI and

  14. Probiótico e/ou prebiótico sobre as características da leitegada e da matriz lactante Probiotic and/or prebiotic on litter characteristics and sow breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danillo Salgado de Barros

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de verificar o efeito do uso de probiótico e/ou prebiótico na alimentação de matrizes suínas. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 4 tratamentos e 6 repetições (T1= controle; T2= prebiótico; T3= probiótico; e T4= prebiótico + probiótico, sendo cada fêmea considerada uma parcela. A adição de probiótico e/ou prebiótico diminuiu o número de leitões mumificados. A adição de prebiótico na ração das matrizes adicionado ou não de probiótico, elevou a concentração de proteína no leite no 21º dia de lactação. No 14º dia de lactação, as concentrações de Clostridium perfringens foram menores nas fezes de matrizes que se alimentaram de probiótico. No 21º dia de lactação, as concentrações de Bifidobacterium nas fezes das matrizes foram estatisticamente menores no tratamento com prebiótico (T2. As concentrações de Enterobacteriaceae foram maiores nas fezes de matrizes que receberam a adição de probiótico (T3.The objective of the present study was to in determine the effect of probiotic and/or prebiotic added to feed for sows. An entirely randomized design with 24 sows, 4 treatments and 6 replicates (T1 = control; T2 = prebiotic; T3 = probiotic; and T4 = prebiotic + probiotic was used. The addition of probiotic and/or prebiotic decreased the number of mummified piglets. The addition of prebiotic to sow´s feed, with or without probiotic, increased the concentration of milk protein on the 21st day of lactation. On the14th day of lactation, the of Clostridium perfringens was smaller in the faeces of sows fed with probiotic (T3 and T4. On the 21st day of lactation, the concentration of Bifidobacterium in the faeces was statistically lower in sow food with prebiotic (T2. Concentrations of Enterobacteriaceae were higher in the faeces of sows that received probiotic (T3.

  15. Systematic analysis of feeding behaviors and their effects on feed efficiency in Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Gao, Yahui; Lin, Fangbin; Hao, Jinping; Yang, Fangxi; Hou, Zhuocheng

    2017-01-01

    Feeding behavior study is important for animal husbandry and production. However, few studies were conducted on the feeding behavior and their relationship with feeding efficiency in Pekin ducks. In order to investigate the feeding behavior and their relationship with feed efficiency and other economic traits in Pekin ducks, we selected 358 male Pekin ducks and recorded feeding information between 3 to 6 wk of age using automatic electronic feeders, and compared the feeding behavior under different residual feed intake (RFI) levels. We observed that total feed time, daily feed intake and feed intake per meal had strong positive correlations with feed efficiency traits; moreover, strong correlation between feed intake per meal and body weight was found (R=0.32, 0.36). Daily feeding rate meal and meal duration had weak correlations with feed efficiency (R=0.14~0.15). The phenotypic correlation of between-meal pauses, with feed efficiency was not observed. When daily changes were analyzed, high RFI ducks had the highest feed consumption over all times, and obvious differences in daily visits were found among different RFI level animals during the middle period; these differences were magnified with age, but there was no difference in daily meal number. Moreover, our data indicate that high RFI birds mainly take their meals at the edge of the population enclosure, where they are more susceptible to environmental interference. Overall, this study suggests that the general feeding behaviors can be accurately measured using automatic electronic feeders and certain feeding behaviors in Pekin ducks are associated with improved feed efficiency.

  16. Systematic analysis of feeding behaviors and their effects on feed efficiency in Pekin ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeding behavior study is important for animal husbandry and production. However, few studies were conducted on the feeding behavior and their relationship with feeding efficiency in Pekin ducks. In order to investigate the feeding behavior and their relationship with feed efficiency and other economic traits in Pekin ducks, we selected 358 male Pekin ducks and recorded feeding information between 3 to 6 wk of age using automatic electronic feeders, and compared the feeding behavior under different residual feed intake (RFI levels. Results We observed that total feed time, daily feed intake and feed intake per meal had strong positive correlations with feed efficiency traits; moreover, strong correlation between feed intake per meal and body weight was found (R=0.32, 0.36. Daily feeding rate meal and meal duration had weak correlations with feed efficiency (R=0.14~0.15. The phenotypic correlation of between-meal pauses, with feed efficiency was not observed. When daily changes were analyzed, high RFI ducks had the highest feed consumption over all times, and obvious differences in daily visits were found among different RFI level animals during the middle period; these differences were magnified with age, but there was no difference in daily meal number. Moreover, our data indicate that high RFI birds mainly take their meals at the edge of the population enclosure, where they are more susceptible to environmental interference. Conclusions Overall, this study suggests that the general feeding behaviors can be accurately measured using automatic electronic feeders and certain feeding behaviors in Pekin ducks are associated with improved feed efficiency.

  17. Uterine activity, sperm transport, and the role of boar stimuli around insemination in sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, P.; Soede, N.M.; Kemp, B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes changes in spontaneous myometrial activity around estrus, factors that affect myometrial activity, and the possible role of uterine contractions in the process of (artificial) insemination, sperm transport and fertilization. Myometrial activity in the sow increases during

  18. Corn performance with late sowing in Planalto Catarinense, Brazil, simulated with CERES-maize model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Célio Orli Cardoso; Olívio José Soccol

    2008-01-01

    This work had the objective to investigate the delay effects in the sowing date on corn establishment, cycle duration and yield through the computer simulations using CERES-Maize model, in order to...

  19. Reducing sow confinement during farrowing and in early lactation increases piglet mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condous, P C; Plush, K J; Tilbrook, A J; van Wettere, W H E J

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sow confinement and nonconfinement during parturition and early lactation on the performance of sows and piglets prior to weaning. Sows and their litters were housed in either a conventional farrowing crate (control; 1.7 × 2.4 m) or a swing-sided pen (2.8 × 2.15 m). Sows housed in the swing-sided pen had the crate open (open) or closed (closed) during farrowing and opened on d 3 (LAC3) or 7 (LAC7) of lactation. Data are means ± SEM. The numbers of total and live-born piglets were not different between treatments and averaged 13.1 ± 0.4 and 12.3 ± 0.2 piglets/litter, respectively. Sows housed in a farrowing crate had a greater ( = 0.03) number of stillborn piglets compared with open sows from pens (1.1 ± 0.2 vs. 0.6 ± 0.1 piglets/litter, respectively). Live-born piglet mortality before litter equalization on d 1 was greater ( lactation was greater ( = 0.03) in LAC3 sows compared to LAC7 and control sows (0.4 ± 0.1 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1 piglets/litter, respectively). Treatment did not affect either the incidence or cause of piglet mortality after d 7 of lactation ( > 0.05). Total live-born piglet mortality from birth until weaning for the control, closedLAC7, closedLAC3, openLAC7, and openLAC3 was 1.86 ± 0.19, 1.95 ± 0.23, 2.10 ± 0.39, 2.45 ± 0.27, and 3.74 ± 0.48, piglets/litter, respectively. Total live-born piglet mortality from birth until weaning was greater in the openLAC3 and openLAC7 treatments compared to control ( lactation further increased total piglet mortality compared to removing sow confinement on d 7 of lactation in sows that farrowed open. Sows that were confined during farrowing and until d 3 or 7 of lactation in a swing-sided pen had a similar piglet mortality compared to those in a farrowing crate.

  20. Histological changes within ovarian cortex, oviductal and uterine mucosa in case of ovarian cysts presence in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulańczyk, Katarzyna

    2009-01-01

    The aim of study was histological evaluation of oviduct and uterus mucosa in case of cystic ovarian degeneration in sows. Materials for evaluations were received after slaughtering of 294 sows at age of 2-5 years. Sows were eliminated breeding and culled due to reproduction disorders: anoestrus after weaning of piglets, return of estrus, small litters and due to age, number of birth, bad condition after lactation. 20 sows (6,8%) had cysts on ovaries. Histological investigations were conducted on reproductive organs of sows with ovarian cysts. Sows were divided onto two groups: 1. with polycystic ovaries (12 sows), 2. with simple cyst (8 sows) occurred unilaterally (3 sows) or bilaterally (5 sows).In our studies we noted different kids of ovarian cysts and structural changes in ovarian cortex like decreasing numbers of ovarian follicules of all generations, increasing of follicular atresia. We compared the state of oviduct and uterus mucosa in case of polycystic ovaries with the histological changes in these tissues when single cysts were present on the ovaries. The single follicular cysts aren't accompanied with important changes in reproductive system. In case of polycystic ovaries the presence of cyst is connected with occurrence of morphological changes in endothelium of oviduct and uterus which would have been a reason of persistent infertility of pigs.

  1. Histological changes within ovarian cortex, oviductal and uterine mucosa in case of ovarian cysts presence in sows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szulańczyk

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was histological evaluation of oviduct and uterus mucosa in case of cystic ovarian degeneration in sows. Materials for evaluations were received after slaughtering of 294 sows at age of 2-5 years. Sows were eliminated breeding and culled due to reproduction disorders: anoestrus after weaning of piglets, return of estrus, small litters and due to age, number of birth, bad condition after lactation. 20 sows (6,8% had cysts on ovaries. Histological investigations were conducted on reproductive organs of sows with ovarian cysts. Sows were divided onto two groups: 1. with polycystic ovaries (12 sows, 2. with simple cyst (8 sows occurred unilaterally (3 sows or bilaterally (5 sows.In our studies we noted different kids of ovarian cysts and structural changes in ovarian cortex like decreasing numbers of ovarian follicules of all generations, increasing of follicular atresia. We compared the state of oviduct and uterus mucosa in case of polycystic ovaries with the histological changes in these tissues when single cysts were present on the ovaries. The single follicular cysts aren't accompanied with important changes in reproductive system. In case of polycystic ovaries the presence of cyst is connected with occurrence of morphological changes in endothelium of oviduct and uterus which would have been a reason of persistent infertility of pigs.

  2. Effect of sowing date on water use efficiency of sunflower crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Perniola

    Full Text Available Results of a trial carried out on sunflower in order to evaluate the most appropriate sowing date and irrigation regime for a more efficient water use are reported. Sunflower was sown in 1995-1996 at the usual date (end of April and in advance (end of March. It was subjected to three irrigation regimes: full restoration of consumptive water use, supplementary irrigation at the bud stage and flowering and unirrigated control. During the growing cycle, the following parameters were measured: water use, the main climatic data that can affect growth and evapotranspiration, yield and its components. Despite the lower vapor pressure deficit of the air during the cropping cycle of the first sowing date caused a reduction in the average daily evapotranspiration, the colder temperature regime of this period, by making longer the growing cycle, caused almost the same total water use respect to the usual sowing dates. However, with early sowing, the crop could benefit from the spring rainfall at the initial stages of its cycle that reduced the seasonal irrigation volume, in the case of full irrigation and made available a greater amount of water in the case of unirrigated treatment or with supplementary irrigation. The greater water availability in the stressed treatments also produced higher grain yield in early sowing, so that an interesting interaction between the sowing date and the irrigation regime in terms of water use efficiency was observed. In fact, a significant higher irrigation yield water use efficiency and an interesting yield response was measured in the treatment with supplementary irrigation of the first sowing date. No effect of sowing date, both in terms of yield that of water use efficiency was measured in the treatment irrigated with the full restoration of evapotranspiration.

  3. Relationships between ovarian cysts and morphological and hormonal state of ovarian cortex in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulańczyk-Mencel, K; Rzasa, A; Bielas, W

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ovarian cysts and concentrations of ovarian steroid hormones: 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), progesterone (P(4)), testosterone (T), and androstendione (A(4)) both in blood plasma and in cysts and morphological state of the ovarian cortex in sows. Females were divided into three groups: PCO (sows with polycystical ovaries), OO (sows with oligocystic ovaries) and control (sows without ovarian cysts). The ovaries for evaluations were collected after slaughtering of 18 multiparous sows. Between the PCO and OO animals, statistically significant differences in numbers of the follicular cysts (FC) (8.6 vs. 1.5), follicular theca-lutein cysts (FTLC) (8.0 vs. 2.0), follicular lutein cysts (FLC) (4.5 vs. 2.0) and corpus luteum cysts (CLC) (1.7 vs. 0.4) (Pcysts were FC and FTLC (8.6 and 8.0) whilst in OO sows the cysts occurred on their ovaries on a similar level (FC - 1.6, FTLC - 2.0, FLC - 2.0). Existence of more than 10 ovarian cysts in the sows significantly decreases the frequency of physiological ovarian follicles (primary, growing and maturing) and significantly increases the pathological process of atresia on all stages of ovarian follicles development (Povarian cyst on concentrations of E(2) and P(4) in blood plasma of sows. Polycystical ovaries significantly decreased concentrations of A(4) but increased the concentration of T in blood plasma (Povarian cysts considerably positively correlated with concentrations of E(2), T and A(4) from cysts' fluid, of all kinds of ovarian cysts and atresia of primary follicles (a correlation coefficient r from 0.72 up to 0.97, Povarian cysts significantly negatively correlated with all generations of ovarian follicles (P< or =0.05). 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fat and whey supplementation influence milk composition, backfat loss, and reproductive performance in lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummaruk, Padet; Sumransap, Peerapong; Jiebna, Nithitad

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of microencapsulated fat (FAT) and whey protein (WHEY) supplementation on the milk composition, backfat loss, and reproductive performance in lactating sows. A total of 144 sows were divided according to their backfat thickness at farrowing into three groups, i.e., low (12.0-16.5 mm, n = 33), moderate (17.0-21.5 mm, n = 78), and high (22.0-24.5 mm, n = 33). The lactation diet was divided into three types, i.e., a control diet (CONTROL, n = 50), a diet supplemented with FAT (n = 48), and a diet supplemented with WHEY (n = 50). Pooled milk samples were collected at the second and third week of lactation. On average, the sows lost backfat 23.5 % during lactation. The backfat loss during lactation was 24.5, 22.7, and 22.8 % in sows fed with CONTROL, FAT, and WHEY diets, respectively (P > 0.05). Supplementation of FAT increased the percentage of fat in the sow's milk compared to the CONTROL (9.1 and 8.4 %, P = 0.022). For sows with low backfat, FAT and WHEY supplementation increased the average daily gain of piglets compared to the CONTROL (244, 236, and 205 g/days, respectively, P FAT or WHEY (28.1, 14.1, and 13.0 %, respectively, P FAT in the diet of sow during lactation significantly enhanced the fat content in the sow's milk, improved the piglet's daily weight gain, and reduced piglet mortality.

  5. A comparison of the indigenous and exotic pure and crossbred sows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No seasonal effect was reported for lit1er size, milk ingested per piglet and weight lost by the sow. Seasonal factors accounted for 0.43% of variation in litter size but 60.9% of litter weight. Breed differences accounted for 25.7% of birth weight and 59.8% of milk utilization efficiency and the sow age contributed 5.3% of pig ...

  6. Impact of spring warming on sowing times of cereal, potato and sugar beet in Finland

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    T. KAUKORANTA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical data were used to determine if the warm springs experienced in recent decades have influenced time of sowing of spring cereals (barley, wheat and oats, potato and sugar beet in Finland. The start of the thermal growing season was used to represent all climatic factors affecting sowing time. Regional anomalies in sowing and start of growing season were computed for the years 1965–2007. The start of the growing season was 2–2.8 days earlier per decade, with a steeper increase since 1980. Sugar beet sowing advanced 2.5 (since 1980 5.2 and potato planting 3.4 (since 1980 4.5 days per decade, more than expected solely due to earlier starts to the growing season. Sowing of spring cereals advanced 0.6, 0.7 and 1.7 days per decade in the east, north and west respectively (since 1980 1.0, 1.9 and 3.1, with statistically significant trend (p < 0.01 in the west. Earlier sowings can be largely explained by warmer springs, but the trend was not as steep as that for the growing season. This has however not led to increased temperatures during early vegetative phases and thus faster development and increased drought or pest risk, which would have reduced the positive effects of earlier sowing on yield potential. Earlier sowing detected in the west can be explained by changes in spring temperatures, but may also result from economic and technological development. Farmers seem to have adequately adjusted their field activities to the changes in spring temperatures.;

  7. Influence of Drought and Sowing Time on Protein Composition, Antinutrients, and Mineral Contents of Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Sondeep Singh; Gupta, Anil K.; Narinder Kaur

    2012-01-01

    The present study in a two-year experiment investigated the influence of drought and sowing time on protein composition, antinutrients, and mineral contents of wheat whole meal of two genotypes differing in their water requirements. Different thermal conditions prevailing during the grain filling period under different sowing time generated a large effect on the amount of total soluble proteins. Late sown conditions offered higher protein content accompanied by increased albumin-globulin but...

  8. Concentration of citrate in the mammary secretion of sows during lactogenesis II and established lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, M A; Hartmann, P E

    1993-08-01

    The functional significance of citrate in the mammary secretion of six sows was investigated during the second stage of lactogenesis (lactogenesis II) and established lactation. The changes in the concentrations of progesterone and lactose in the maternal blood, and lactose, Na and K in the mammary secretion, suggested that lactogenesis II began during the final day of pregnancy. The concentration of citrate in the mammary secretion of the sows during lactogenesis II was high and varied from 5.4 (SEM 0.5) mM at day 0.5 post partum to 6.8 (SEM 0.4) mM at day 1.5 post partum. There was a decline of approximately 30% in the concentration of citrate in the milk of sows during the first week of lactation. These findings suggest that, in contrast to all other species studied previously, milk citrate is not a harbinger of lactogenesis II in the sow. However, the changes in the concentration of citrate in the mammary secretions of sows may reflect changes in the rate of de novo synthesis of fatty acids that take place in the mammary glands of sows during lactogenesis II and established lactation.

  9. Endometritis therapy in sows by intra uterine instillation of yeast cell wall solution

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    Lazarević M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of our investigations it was possible to conclude that intrauterine treatment of sows with puerperal uterine infections with sterile YCW (Yeast Cell Wall resulted in significant clinical improvement. The percent of recidivism was the lowest (10% in groups of sows treated with 10 and 20 g of YCW. The degree of bacterial CFU (Colony Forming Units reduction in samples of sows uterine flushings following instillation of YCW (5, 10 and 20 g was wery high and ranged from 1361 to 1444 times, while in sows treated with Lotagen 2% solution (100 mL this parametar was only 32. At the moment of weaning, piglets from sows treated with 10 and 20 g of YCW were heavier when compared to the control and Lotagen group and their DBWG (Daily Body Weight Gain was higher when compared to the Lotagen and control group. Treatment of sows by IU instillation of YCW did not influence the number of piglets in the next breeding cycle.

  10. THE EFFECT OF THE BACKFAT THICKNESS LOSS ON REPRODUCTION IN LACTATING SOWS

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    Luboš Brzobohatý

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The work discusses the influence of the backfat thickness change, during sow´s lactation, on their subsequent litter characteristics. The reproduction potential of 478 sows of two genotypes was assessed. The genotypes were 50 Large White (LWD sows and 428 crossbreeds Large White x Landrace (LWD x L sows. The backfat thickness decline was examined in accordance to P2, backfat thickness in sows during lactation namely 1 day before planned parturition as well as weaning. From the obtained results it can be stated that the backfat thickness decline level during lactation has a small influence on the number of total born piglets. In contrast, the number of piglets born alive increased when backfat thickness rate increased. With a moderate backfat thickness decline, the average birthweight piglets gradually increased. However, the opposite trend was shown for the average weight at weaning. The backfat thickness decline level during sow´s lactation influences their farrowing interval. Animals with a lower increase of the backfat thickness subsequently showed a shorter farrowing interval (148.99, respectively 151.86 days, as well as a shorter weaning – estrus interval.

  11. Sowing time affects the abundance of pests and weeds in winter rye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. HUUSELA-VEISTOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection of an appropriate sowing time for some winter rye (Secale cereale cultivars could reduce the need for crop protection measures. In this study the occurrence and status of pests and weeds in relation to sowing time and growth habit of winter rye was studied in southern Finland. This was done using three sowing times and four rye varieties in field trials conducted at three locations in 1999–2001. The early sown rye was severely affected by pests (Oscinella frit, Mayetiola destructor and weeds, whereas postponing sowing for two weeks after the recommended sowing time in late August resulted in considerably less damage and the optimal establishment of crop stands. The German hybrid varieties Picasso and Esprit produced more tillers m-2 in autumn than the Finnish varieties Anna and Bor 7068. However, the number of pests and weeds did not differ among rye varieties. Late sowing of rye should be considered to minimize the need for plant protection. If rye is sown at the recommended time it may still require insecticide treatments promptly in the autumn whereas herbicide treatment need not be determined until spring, after recording the winter mortality of weeds.;

  12. A Preliminary Trial on the Use of Barium Chloride for Pregnancy Diagnosis in Sows

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    Ndu, A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Urine was collected twice daily (once in the morning and once in the afternoon for 5 days from 80 Yorkshire x Landrace crossbred gilts/sows made up of 40 non-pregnant and 40 pregnant pigs in an investigation to determine the possibility of using 1 % barium chloride solution for pregnancy diagnosis in pigs based on a previous report that addition of a few drops of 1 % barium chloride solution to bovine urine caused a white precipitate with non-pregnant but not with pregnant cows. The pregnant pigs were in various stages of gestation. Urine reaction to 1 % barium chloride was highly (P <0.01 dependent on the pregnancy status of the sows, the test being 100 % and 81 % effective in identifying non-pregnant and pregnant sows respectively. The sensitivity of the test in the gravid sows was significantly (P <0.05 influenced by and tended to increa-se with the stage of gestation, with 59 % of the sows in their first stage of gestation (<38 days post-coitum being correctly diagnosed as pregnant, and 95-100 % of those in their latter stages of gestation being so correctly diagnosed. Parity and time of day of performance of the test had no effect on urine reaction. It was concluded that the test was at least 95 % accurate when used as from about 39 days after breeding for pregnancy diagnosis in sows.

  13. Development of a test method for sowing machines concerning the drift of dust abrasion

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    Bahmer, Roland

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available For a long time the seed treatment was regarded as the most effective and in terms of the impact of the natural environment as the safest form of plant protection. Since the serious damage of bees, caused by dust of abraded seed treatment in the Rhine Valley five years ago, the admission of seed treatment products containing insecticide is in the discussion. To evaluate the emission characteristics of sowing machines during sowing based on secure data, the technical basis for a test method for measuring the drift of abraded seed-dust in sowing machines were developed at the Centre for Agricultural Technology Augustenberg. An indoor test bench was created and a standardized test method by which it is possible to evaluate the drift behavior of sowing machines in comparison was developed. A granulate which is stained with a fluorescent Tracer is used as test seed. The „tracer technique“ allows a reproducible, rapid and inexpensive assessment of the drift behavior of the sowing technology, which is commonly used. To classify the obtained drift values in the test bench, measurements in the field were carried out for comparison. The determined drift volumes of those measurements were at a similar level as the measured values in the test stand. Therefore the standardized measurement of drift in the test stand is suitable for the calculation of exposure scenarios for the sowing of treated seeds.

  14. Influence of housing conditions, number of farrowing and number of pigs in litter on weight loss in sows during lactation

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    Sladojević Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of housing conditions, number of farrowing and number of pigs in litter on weight loss in sows during lactation. The experiment included 60 sows, half breed developed by cross breeding of Big Yorkshire and Swedish Landrace in lactation. Body weight of the sows (kg was determined 2nd, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day after farrowing. On the basis of the obtained values, there was calculated the difference in body weight between two consecutive investigation periods. The sows were divided into two groups and held in different housing conditions: 30 of them were held in extensive, and other 30 sows in intensive way of farming. In regard to number of farrowing, the sows were divided into three groups: sows with one or two farrowing (group P1, n=20, with three or four farrowing (group P2, n=20, and sows that farrowed five or more times (P3,n=20. In regard to number of pigs in litter, the sows were divided into two groups: the first (Group I, n=30 with sows that had up to eight pigs, and the second (Group II, n=30 with sows that had nine or more pigs in litter. The obtained results showed that in all perids of the investigation during lactation, body weight in sows held in extensive farming conditions was statistically significantly higher compared to those from intensive farming conditions. On the other hand, the loss of body weight during lactation was significantly higher in sows from extensive in regard to intensive farming conditions in the first two weeks of lactation. The sows with bigger number of farrowing had greater body weight, compared to those with smaller number of farrowing. There was no statistically significant difference in body weight loss during lactation, between sows with different number of farrowing, but considering that the sows with less farrowings had significantly lower body weight, they consequently lost more weight in percentage. The sows with greater number of pigs

  15. Comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) of pork using different protein sources in pig feed

    OpenAIRE

    Reckmann, K.; Blank, R.; Traulsen, I.; J. Krieter

    2016-01-01

    Feed production is the main contributor to a subset of environmental impacts of pork production. In this context, this study is concerned with the substitution of soy products in pig diets in order to reduce these impacts. The aim of this study was to assess three alternative diets in gestating and lactating sows as well as growing and finishing pigs in order to reduce the amount of soy products used as ingredients. In the three alternative scenarios soy proteins were compen...

  16. Gross pathological findings in sows of different parity, culled due to recurring swine urogenital disease (SUGD in Kenya

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    M.H. Boma

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In a large Kenyan production unit the urogenital organs and mammary glands of 771 sows, culled due to recurring swine urogenital disease (SUGD were subjected to necropsy Necropsy findings were analysed separately according to parity group of the sows [parities 2 (n = 252; 3-5 (n = 250; and > 5 (n = 269]. Sows of higher parities had more pathological changes in their ovaries, uteri, vaginas, cervices, urinary bladders, kidneys and mammary glands compared to parity 2 sows (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively. Parity 2 sows had more ovarian degeneration, mucosal hyperaemia, congestion in the bladder, and acute purulent exudative mastitis than parity > 5 sows (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively.

  17. Treatment of shoulder ulcers in sows – rubber mats and zinc ointment compared to chlortetracycline spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Shoulder ulcers can have a significant impact on the welfare of sows. In Denmark, rubber mats are used for treatment of shoulder ulcers. The objective of the study was to compare a treatment consisting of a combination of rubber mats and zinc ointment with the effect of local antibiotic spray (chlortetracycline) on shoulder ulcers. Methods A total of 304 sows with shoulder ulcers were observed shortly after farrowing (day 1) and on days 14 and 21 after the first observation. The sows were paired according to the grade of the shoulder ulcer using the official Danish scoring system. From each pair of sows, one sow was allocated to mat group (M) and the other to an antibiotic group (A) in a random way. In the M group, rubber mats were placed on the floor, and the ulcers were treated with zinc ointment once a day. In the A group, sows were treated with antibiotic spray daily. The size of the shoulder ulcer was measured manually on a continuous scale on days 1, 14 and 21. The data were analysed by use of two multivariable models where the response was the area of the shoulder ulcer on day 14 and day 21, respectively. Explanatory variables were treatment, herd, parity, body condition and size of ulcer on day 1. If a sow had an ulcer on both shoulders, the shoulder with the largest ulcer was selected. Results The treatment consisting of mats and zinc ointment had a statistical significant effect on the size of the shoulder ulcer on day 14 and day 21 compared to daily treatment with antibiotic spray. For lean sows that were kept on rubber mats and zinc ointment, the average shoulder ulcer was significantly smaller on day 14 (3.8 cm2 versus 9.5 cm2 when antibiotic spray was used) and day 21 (3.4 cm2 versus 6.6 cm2) compared to lean sows that were only treated with antibiotic spray. For fat sows this was also the case when using the lesion on day 21 as the response (2.0 cm2 versus 5.7 cm2) but not on day 14. Moreover, the size of the lesion on day 1 was

  18. Temporary confinement of loose-housed hyperprolific sows reduces piglet mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, J; Moustsen, V A; Nielsen, M B F; Hansen, C F

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate piglet mortality in a commercial setting where sows were accommodated in a loose-housed system with an option to confine the sow for a few days around farrowing and during early lactation. The study was conducted in a Danish piggery where records were obtained from 2,139 farrowings. Sows were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 treatments: loose-loose (LL), loose-confined (LC), and confined-confined (CC). In LL, sows were loose housed from the time they entered the farrowing pens to weaning. In LC, sows were loose housed until farrowing was finished and then confined to d 4 after farrowing. In CC, sows were confined at d 114 of gestation to d 4 after farrowing. All sows were loose housed from d 5 to weaning. Total piglet mortality was analyzed at batch level to include piglets fostered by nurse sows and at sow level to analyze the effects of confinement during different time periods. Total piglet mortality was greater in LL (26.0%) and LC (25.4%) compared with CC (22.1%; piglets was not different between treatments ( = 0.21) but a larger proportion was crushed in LL (10.7%) compared with LC (9.7%; = 0.03), which again was greater than CC (7.8%; Piglet mortality before equalization was lower in CC (3.7%) than in LL (7.5%) and LC (7.0%; weaning, LL had lower mortality (5.6%) than LC (6.9%) and CC (6.6%; = 0.01). A larger proportion of sows in CC were classified as "low mortality" compared with LL and LC both before ( piglet to litter equalization is important in relation to piglet mortality. The results also suggest that confinement for 4 d after farrowing can reduce mortality in this specific period, but only confinement from d 114 of gestation to d 4 after farrowing reduced total piglet mortality.

  19. Effect of a GnRH analogue (Maprelin) on the reproductive performance of gilts and sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Ellen; Kauffold, Johannes; Engl, Silke; Jourquin, Jan; Maes, Dominiek

    2013-11-01

    The ability of peforelin (l-GnRH-III) to stimulate follicular growth, FSH release, and estrus in gilts after altrenogest treatment and in sows after weaning was investigated. In three farrow-to-wean herds, with at least 600 sows and average production performance, 216 gilts, 335 primiparous, and 1299 pluriparous sows were randomly allocated to three treatments: peforelin (M group: Maprelin), eCG (F group: Folligon), and physiological saline solution (C group). Animals were treated 48 hours after their last altrenogest treatment (gilts) or 24 hours after weaning (sows). The weaning-to-estrus interval, estrus duration, estrus rate (ER), pregnancy rate, and total born (TB), live born, and stillborn (SB) numbers were recorded and compared between treatments for the different parity groups (gilts and primiparous and pluriparous sows). Follicle sizes were measured in representative animals from each group on the occasion of their last altrenogest treatment or at weaning, and also on the occasions of their first (FS1) and second (FS2) attempted inseminations. Blood samples were taken to determine FSH concentrations at weaning and 2 hours after injection, and progesterone concentrations 10 days after the first insemination attempt. The relative change in FSH concentrations was calculated. Significant differences were found for ER within 7 days of weaning in pluriparous sows (95%, 91%, and 90% for the M, F, and C groups, respectively, P = 0.005). Gilts in the F-group had high TB numbers, and pluriparous sows in the M group had high SB numbers (TB gilts = 13.6, 15.4, and 14.9 [P = 0.02] and SB pluriparous sows = 1.8, 1.4, and 1.7 [P = 0.05] for the M, F, and C groups, respectively). The M group had the highest FS1 (for gilts) and FS2 (for pluriparous sows) values: FS1 = 5.4, 4.9, and 4.9 mm [P = 0.02] and FS2 = 6.8, 5.3, and 6.3 mm [P = 0.03] for the M, F, and C groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between the different treatments within each parity

  20. WHEAT CULTIVARS: RESPONSE TO IRRIGATION AND SOWING DATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klar A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in an Alfisol-Oxisol transition sandy-clay texture, using six wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum, L.: two tall and tolerant to soil aluminium toxicity (BH-1146, and IAC-18, and four semi-dwarf cultivars - Anahuac, IAC-162, IAC-24, and IAC-60 - of which only the first two are sensitive to soil aluminium toxicity. Two minimum soil water potentials (ys levels were used: 1. watered, when Ys reached about -0.05 MPa; 2. dry, when the water potential reached around -1.5 MPa. Two sowing dates, 05/22/92 and 06/11/92, were used. The results showed that Anahuac and IAC-60 are the most indicated cultivars for the studied region; when irrigated all cultivars presented similar yield level under no irrigation conditions; the irrigation was not sufficient to avoid yield differences between the two growing seasons; differences in rainfall were important for the crop in the dry treatment for both seasons.

  1. Tillering affected by sowing density and growth regulators in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Luiz Fioreze

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tillering capacity of wheat is highly influenced by environmental conditions and management practices. This research had as objective to evaluate tiller emission, survival and contribution to grain final yield affected by increasing sowing densities and growth regulators application in wheat. The experiment was conducted under completely randomized block design, with subdivided plots and four replications. Treatments consisted of four plant densities (30, 50, 70 and 90 plants m-1 combined with the application of growth regulators [control, (IBA+GA+KT, Trinexapac-Ethyl and (IBA+GA+KT + Trinexapac- Ethyl]. Tiller emission, contribution to dry matter accumulation and grain yield, survival and yield potential in relation to the main stem were evaluated, as well as yield components and grain final yield. The application plant growth regulators did not affect tiller emission or any other yield parameters related to the main stem. Increasing plant densities reduced tiller emission and dry matter accumulation, which led to lower tiller contribution and yield potential. Reduced plant densities increased grain yield due to higher grain number and mass per ear, making up for lower number of ears per area.

  2. Endocrine profiles of sows during the oestrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enne, G; Perotti, L; Delrio, G; Inaudi, P; d'Istria, M; Pierantoni, R; Citarella, F; Musaro, M A; Monittola, C; Genazzani, A R

    1981-01-01

    We measured the plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), oestradiol (E2), progesterone (P), 17 alpha-hydroxy progesterone (17P), androstenediona (A) and testosterone (T) at oestrus and during the oestrous cycle for four consecutive cycles in a group of 15 normal sows. The results show that at oestrus the peak LH value was preceded, 24 hours earlier, by an E2 peak, and indicate that the LH rise begins when E2 concentrations reach their highest value. During diestrus, concentrations of LH and E2 were constantly low, P and 17P were characterized by lowest concentrations during the oestrous period which showed significant (p less than 0.001), progressive increases from the second day after the LH ovulatory peak, to reach their highest values after 8-14 days. The 17P decrease in proestrus precedes that of P.T and A concentrations showed a significant (p less than 0.001) increase 2 days before the LH ovulatory peak; high plasma concentrations of both androgens were maintained until the LH peak occurred. Measurements taken in consecutive cycles in the same animals showed a high reproducibility of the hormone concentrations examined, which showed similar patterns and values in each of the cycles studied. This high reproducibility suggests that these hormones have an important physiological role and may affect oestrous behaviour.

  3. [Multiresistant Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in a Dutch sow herd].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duinhof, T F; Dierikx, C M; Koene, M G J; van Bergen, M A P; Mevius, D J; Veldman, K T; van Beers-Schreurs, H M G; de Winne, R T J A

    This case study describes the isolation ofa multiresistant strain ofBrachyspira hyodysenteriae in April 2007 in a Dutch sow herd with recurrent diarrhoea. Examination of faecal samples taken from 7-month-old breeding gilts with diarrhoea revealed the presence of resistance against tiamulin, lincomycin, tylosin, doxycycline, and tylvalosin (the active substance in Aivlosin) in four of five samples. Tiamulin resistance has not been reported in The Netherlands before. The repeated use of tiamulin on the affected farm was assumed to be the main cause of the development of resistance to the drug. The farmer was advised to adopt a medication strategy and to implement management practices that would prevent an ongoing cycle of infection on the farm. It is important that the Dutch swine industry appreciates that tiamulin-resistant strains of B. hyodysenteriae may be found on other farms as well. The appropriate and prudent use of antibiotics is essential in order to prevent the development of resistance against the last option left to cure B. hyodysenteriae infections: valnemulin.

  4. Biological treatment to bean seeds before sowing them.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Edel Castro Mayo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Even in some bibliography about the bean cultivation is recommended the use of Rhizobium which association with the cultivation is very advantageous for the fixation of the atmospheric nitrogen, as well as the employment of the antagonistic mushroom Trichoderma spp., for the control of fungous illnesses of the floor and knowing that the cultivation has its fertilization demands and of the plagues control and illnesses that are in definitive the causes that limit the yields of the cultivation, these practices are not used. We proceeded to the disinfection of bean seeds with the resulting solution of the laundry of 1Kg of Trichoderma harzianum of the stock A-34 with 2 liters of water and the mixture of this fluid with 1 Kg of Rhizobium, more a package (134 grams of Gaucho PS 70 for 45.35 kg (100 pounds of t seed. The disinfection of the seed was made by hand, 12 hour before sowing them and the results were very encouraging, so much in the delay of days in appearing the illnesses and the plagues and its low attack intensity as the increase of the yields with relationship to the not treated seed.

  5. Maternal Vaccination. Immunization of Sows during Pregnancy against ETEC Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Matías

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The immunology of pregnancy is an evolving consequence of multiple reciprocal interactions between the maternal and the fetal-placental systems. The immune response must warrant the pregnancy outcome (including tolerance to paternal antigens, but at the same time, efficiently respond to pathogenic challenges. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC strains are a major cause of illness and death in neonatal and recently weaned pigs. This review aims to give an overview of the current rationale on the maternal vaccination strategies for the protection of the newborn pig against ETEC. Newborn piglets are immunodeficient and naturally dependent on the maternal immunity transferred by colostrum for protection—a maternal immunity that can be obtained by vaccinating the sow during pregnancy. Our current knowledge of the interactions between the pathogen strategies, virulence factors, and the host immune system is aiding the better design of vaccination strategies in this particular and challenging host status. Challenges include the need for better induction of immunity at the mucosal level with the appropriate use of adjuvants, able to induce the most appropriate and long-lasting protective immune response. These include nanoparticle-based adjuvants for oral immunization. Experiences can be extrapolated to other species, including humans.

  6. Botanical and agronomic growth of two Panicum maximum cultivars, Mombasa and Tanzania, at varying sowing rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Hare

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A field trial in northeast Thailand during 2011–2013 compared the establishment and growth of 2 Panicum maximum cultivars, Mombasa and Tanzania, sown at seeding rates of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 kg/ha. In the first 3 months of establishment, higher sowing rates produced significantly more DM than sowing at 2 kg/ha, but thereafter there were no significant differences in total DM production between sowing rates of 2–12 kg/ha. Lower sowing rates produced fewer tillers/m2 than higher sowing rates but these fewer tillers were significantly heavier than the more numerous smaller tillers produced by higher sowing rates. Mombasa produced 23% more DM than Tanzania in successive wet seasons (7,060 vs. 5,712 kg DM/ha from 16 June to 1 November 2011; and 16,433 vs. 13,350 kg DM/ha from 25 April to 24 October 2012. Both cultivars produced similar DM yields in the dry seasons (November–April, averaging 2,000 kg DM/ha in the first dry season and 1,750 kg DM/ha in the second dry season. Mombasa produced taller tillers (104 vs. 82 cm, longer leaves (60 vs. 47 cm, wider leaves (2 vs. 1.8 cm and heavier tillers (1 vs. 0.7 g than Tanzania but fewer tillers/m2 (260 vs. 304. If farmers improve soil preparation and place more emphasis on sowing techniques, there is potential to dramatically reduce seed costs.Keywords: Guinea grass, tillering, forage production, seeding rates, Thailand.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(2246-253

  7. Lifetime and per year productivity of sows in four pig farms in the tropics of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek-Mex, Jesús Enrique; Segura-Correa, José Candelario; Alzina-López, Alejandro; Batista-Garcia, Laura

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the lifetime and per year productivity of sows and to determine the effect of some factor on those traits in four pig farms in the tropics of Mexico. Data from 7526 sows for lifetime number of piglets born alive per sow (LBA), lifetime kilograms of piglets at farrowing (LKF), number of piglets born alive per year (NPF/Y), and kilograms of piglets at farrowing per year (KPF/Y); and data from 7230 sows for lifetime number of piglets weaned (LPW), lifetime kilograms of piglets weaned (LKW), number of piglets weaned per year (NPW/Y), and kilograms of piglets weaned per year (KPW/Y) per sow were used. The statistical model for all traits included the fixed effects of farm, year of first farrowing, season of first farrowing, litter size at first farrowing, age at first farrowing, removal reason, simple interactions, and the error term. The means for LBA, LKF, NPF/Y, and KPF/Y were 45.1 piglets, 67.1 kg, 22.7 piglets, and 33.7 kg, respectively. The means for LPW, LKW, NPW/Y, and KPW/Y were 43.2 piglets, 251.9 kg, 21.5 piglets, and 125.1 kg, respectively. All factors were significant for all traits, except for age at first farrowing on LPW and LKW. Sows with large litter sizes and those that farrowed the first time, at an early age, had the highest lifetime and per year productivity. Therefore, more care and better management should be provided to those types of sows to improve the farms profit.

  8. Comparison of the traditional paper visual analogue scale questionnaire with an Apple Newton electronic appetite rating system (EARS) in free living subjects feeding ad libitum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, R J; Stubbs, R J; Hughes, D; King, N; Blundell, J E; Elia, M

    1998-10-01

    Assessing the value of a newly developed electronic visual analogue scale questionnaire (Apple Newton Message Pad) with the traditional paper method for appetite rating. In a random, crossover design, subjects completed both electronic and paper questionnaires to compare results obtained by the two methods; individual methods were completed consecutively to assess test-retest reliability; preference was established using a questionnaire. Healthy, free-living adults were studied for comparison of methods (n = 12), test-retest reliability (n = 8) and preference (n = 13). Visual analogue scales were completed each waking hour to assess appetite. Preference was assessed after both methods were completed. There was no significant difference in the hourly results obtained by the paper and electronic methods for 'desire to eat', 'how much can you eat now', 'urge to eat' and 'preoccupation with thoughts of food'. Small differences in 'hunger' and 'fullness' ratings were noted (approximately 5% mean difference between methods, P Apple Newton questionnaire is as sensitive and reliable as the paper method, has the advantage that it automatically records the time of data acquisition and data collection and processing are more efficient for the researcher. The two methods should not be used interchangeably.

  9. Soil preparation and forage sowing time for crop-livestock integration in corn culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Andrade Fritsch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out during the 2008/2009 crop season, in an Oxisol. It was used a split-plot arrangement design, with each plot corresponding to a different soil preparation system and each split-plot corresponding to a different sowing time of the forage Brachiaria brizantha Stapf. The soil preparation systems were: heavy harrowing (HH, disk plough (DP, chisel plough (CP and no-till (NT, and the forage sowing times were: 0, 8, 16 and 25 days after sowing (DAS of corn, arranged in 16 treatments with 3 replicates. The productive and vegetative characteristics of the corn were evaluated. Soil preparations have influenced plant height and the first ear height, with the highest value found for the heavy harrow treatment. Forage sowing time had no influence on vegetative characteristics of the corn and productive characteristics were not influenced by the soil preparations. The forage sowing time had influence on corn productivity, causing decrease in competition with corn forage from 5 DAS. The productivity was highly correlated with the number of grains per ear.

  10. Slaughter value and pork quality traits in primiparous sows nursing a different number of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiecińska, K; Wajda, S; Kapelański, W

    2009-01-01

    The study involved 70 sows slaughtered after the first farrowing. The carcass dressing percentage and the percentage content of primal cuts in the carcass were evaluated. Samples of m. longissimus dorsi were taken to determine the chemical composition and the physicochemical and sensory properties of the pork. Primiparous sows were divided into five groups, based on the number of piglets they had nursed, i.e. from 11 to 13 piglets, 10 piglets, 9 piglets, 8 piglets, and from 4 to 7 piglets. It was found that among sows culled after the first farrowing a higher carcass dressing percentage and a higher percentage content of neck and loin in the carcass can be expected in those nursing a lower number of piglets (up to 8). An analysis of the pork quality revealed a similar content of chemical components. Only the mineral content of the carcass was lower in the group of sows that had nursed the fewest piglets. Meat from sows that had nursed fewer piglets was characterized by a higher water-holding capacity, a brighter color and a lower aroma intensity, and it received higher scores for juiciness and palatability.

  11. Association of inhibin-α gene polymorphisms with follicular cysts in large white sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wanhong; Sun, Lina; Chen, Shuxiong; Chen, Lu; Liu, Zhuo; Hou, Xiaofeng; Chen, Chao; Han, Yamei; Wang, Chunqiang; Li, Chunjin; Zhou, Xu

    2015-10-01

    Ovarian follicular cysts are anovulatory follicular structures that have been identified in sows and are known to cause infertility. The pathogenesis of follicular cysts remains poorly understood. Hormones play key roles in the formation and persistence of cysts. The hormone inhibin is a member of the TGF-β superfamily and is named for its negative regulation of FSH, another hormone that controls follicular recruitment and growth. In the present study, 48 sows with follicular cysts and 60 normal sows with no cysts were screened for mutations in the inhibin-α gene to examine the association of inhibin-α gene polymorphisms with the presence of follicular cysts. The results show that the c.-42G>A and c.3222G>A polymorphisms are significantly associated with follicular cysts and that sows with c.-42GG and c.3222GG genotypes have lower risk of developing cysts. Our findings may provide novel biological biomarkers and promising gene therapy candidates for follicular cyst formation in sows, which would greatly benefit pig breeding programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Colostrum and milk production of sows is affected by dietary conjugated linoleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Uffe; Flummer, Christine; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2012-01-01

    .03). Weight at birth (1.40 kg for both groups; P = 0.98) and at weaning [8.2 kg (CLA) and 8.0 kg (CON); P = 0.52] was not statistically different. In conclusion, colostrum yield was inhibited but milk yield was stimulated by dietary inclusion of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA and indicates that sow......The present experiment was conducted to investigate dietary effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on sow traits related to piglet survival and growth performance. A total of 23 gestating sows were fed either a standard lactation diet (control diet [CON]) or the CON supplemented with 1.3% CLA...... (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12) from day 108 of gestation until weaning (4 wk after parturition) to evaluate whether dietary CLA affects the yield and composition of colostrum, time for initiation of milk production, and sow milk yield. Sows fed CLA tended to produce more colostral fat (6.3 vs...

  13. Reproductive performance in sows in relation to Japanese Encephalitis Virus seropositivity in an endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Johanna; Boqvist, Sofia; Ståhl, Karl; Thu, Ho Thi Viet; Magnusson, Ulf

    2012-02-01

    Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) is considered an important reproductive pathogen in pigs. Most studies of the reproductive impact of JEV have been conducted in areas where the disease occurs in seasonal epidemics. In this study, the associations between seropositivity for JEV, measured with an IgG ELISA, and the number of piglets born alive and stillborn were investigated in a tropical area endemic for JEV in Vietnam. Sixty percent of sows from four farms in the Mekong delta of Vietnam were seropositive to JEV and the Odds Ratio for a sow being infected was highest (6.4) in sows above 3.5 years (95% confidence interval 2.2-18.3). There was an association between increasing Optical Density (OD) values from the ELISA and the number of stillborn piglets in sows less than 1.5 years, but no effect of seropositivity could be shown when all sows were studied. OD values had an effect (p = 0.04) on the number of piglets born alive in the statistical analysis only when interacting with the effect of the breeds. An increase in mean OD value of the herd was correlated (p immunity in many gilts before their first pregnancy. This, in turn, may imply that JEV infection in pigs is of minor importance for the reproductive performance in endemic areas.

  14. Response of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. quality traits and yield to sowing date.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar Ahmed

    Full Text Available The unpredictability and large fluctuation of the climatic conditions in rainfed regions do affect spring wheat yield and grain quality. These variations offer the opportunity for the production of better quality wheat. The effect of variable years, locations and sowing managements on wheat grain yield and quality was studied through field experiments using three genotypes, three locations for two years under rainfed conditions. The two studied years as contrasting years at three locations and sowing dates depicted variability in temperature and water stress during grain filling which resulted considerable change in grain yield and quality. Delayed sowing, years (2009-10 and location (Talagang with high temperature and water stress resulted increased proline, and grain quality traits i.e. grain protein (GP and grain ash (GA than optimum conditions (during 2008-09, at Islamabad and early sowing. However, opposite trend was observed for dry gluten (DG, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, SPAD content and grain yield irrespective of genotypes. The influence of variable climatic conditions was dominant in determining the quality traits and inverse relationship was observed among some quality traits and grain yield. It may be concluded that by selecting suitable locations and different sowing managements for subjecting the crop to desirable environmental conditions (temperature and water quality traits of wheat crop could be modified.

  15. Effect of social ranks and gestation housing systems on oxidative stress status, reproductive performance, and immune status of sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Flowers, W L; Saraiva, A; Yeum, K-J; Kim, S W

    2013-12-01

    Ninety-six multiparous sows were randomly assigned into 2 different gestation housing systems on d 35 of gestation: individual gestational crates (n = 24) or small groups with 3 sows in gestational pens (n = 24). Sows were classified into 4 treatments based on gestation housing systems and social ranks within each gestational pen: sows housed in individual gestational crates were in control treatment (CON), and sows destined to high, middle, or low social ranks within each pen were classified into high social rank treatment (HR), middle social rank treatment (MR), and low social rank treatment (LR). The social rank of sows within a pen was determined by their winning percentage during aggressive interactions observed for a 4-d period after mixing on d 35 of gestation. Plasma samples collected from each sow on d 35, 60, 90, and 109 of gestation and d 1 and 18 of lactation were used to determine concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), IgG, and IgM. Sows in HR had higher (P gestation and lactation, smallest (P gestation, d 3 and 18 of lactation, and greater (P gestation and lactation. Collectively, the reproductive performance, oxidative stress status, and immune status did not differ between sows housed in gestational crates (CON) and pens (HR + MR + LR). Sows in CON and MR did not show inferior reproductive performance during gestation and lactation. Sows in HR and LR had increased oxidative damage during late gestation and lactation which could contribute to the reduced litter size and litter weight in HR and lower farrowing rate in LR.

  16. EFFECT OF THE SELECTED IMMUNOSTIMULATORS ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PRODUCTION PARAMETERS OF SOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna REKIEL

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of immunostimulation of sows during the perinatal period (Biostymine, Lydium-KLP on physiological-production parameters of the sows: haematological and biochemical blood indices, colostrum and milk composition and fatty acid profile, physical (pH and cytological (somatic cells count - SCC parameters as well as results of reproduction and rearing of piglets. None effect of the examined immunostimulators on the most of the studied traits and indices was found. There were the changes in pH, energy level and composition of milk. Additionally, the changes in fatty acid profile in milk fat were recorded; they consisted in significantly lower or higher participation of certain fatty acids in the samples, collected from the sows which received Biostymine, as compared to the group, receiving Lydium-KLP and/or groups which did not receive any additive.

  17. Enzimas carboidrases na dieta de porcas lactantes e suas leitegadas Carbohydrase enzymes in diets for lactating sows and their litters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Cristina Nichelle Lopes

    2009-12-01

    treatments, in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (lactating diet (LD x pre-starter diet (PD, with two levels per factor (with or without EC. The following variables were measured in the sows: weaning weight; weaning weight variation; backfat; backfat variation; body condition; feed consumption and milk composition. The following variables were measured in the litter: feed consumption; post-natal weight; weaning weight; and average weaning weight. No interaction was found among LD and PD for any of the variables studied. Additionally, no effect was observed for either, female weight, backfat, body condition score or milk composition (fat content, crude protein, lactose and dry matter. Litter weaning weight and average litter weaning weight were higher when LD was supplemented with EC in comparison to the piglets from sows fed with diets without EC (74.6 vs 72.9kg and 6.32 vs 6.47kg, respectively. Litters from female fed with CE were 1.7kg heavier at weaning and showed a 0.15kg increase in the average weaning weight (P=0.06; P=0.07, respectively. This resulted in an estimate 2.27kg increase in the body weight at slaughter. Lactating sows fed with diets containing enzymatic complex with carbohydrases had heavier litters at weaning.

  18. Modelling of animal welfare : the development of a decision support system to assess the welfare status of pregnant sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2001-01-01

    A computer-based decision support system for welfare assessment in pregnant sows was constructed. This system uses a description of a husbandry system as input and produces a welfare score on a scale from 0 to 10 as output. Pregnant sows were chosen as a case in search for a formalised,

  19. Effect of live weight development and reproduction in first parity on reproductive performance of second parity sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, L.L.; Soede, N.M.; Graat, E.A.M.; Feitsma, H.; Kemp, B.

    2010-01-01

    An impaired reproductive performance in second parity compared to first parity sows, decreases reproductive efficiency and, perhaps, longevity of sows. This study aims to quantify the effect of live weight development and reproduction in first parity on reproductive performance of second parity

  20. Depletion of penicillin G residues in heavy sows after intramuscular injection. Part II: Application of kidney inhibition swab tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sows (n = 126; 228 ± 30.1 kg) were administered daily IM doses of penicillin G procaine (33 000 IU/kg bw; 5× the label dose) for 3 consecutive days using three different administration patterns. Within treatment, six sows each were slaughtered on withdrawal day 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 32, and 39. Tissues...

  1. The interrelationships between clinical signs and their effect on involuntary culling among pregnant sows in group-housing systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Birk; Bonde, Marianne; Kongsted, Anne Grete

    2010-01-01

    Sows suffering from clinical signs of disease (e.g. lameness, wounds and shoulder ulcers) are often involuntarily culled, affecting the farmer's economy and the welfare of the animals. In order to investigate the interrelationships between clinical signs of individual pregnant group-housed sows, ...

  2. Relationships between ovulation rate and embryonic and placental characteristics in multiparous sows at 35 days of pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Da C.L.; Brand, van den H.; Laurenssen, B.F.A.; Broekhuijse, M.L.W.J.; Knol, E.F.; Kemp, B.; Soede, N.M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate relationships between ovulation rate (OR) and embryonic and placental development in sows. Topigs Norsvin® sows (n=91, parity 2 to 17) from three different genetic backgrounds were slaughtered at 35 days of pregnancy and the reproductive tract was

  3. Potential ammonia emissions from straw, slurry pit and concrete floor in a group housing system for sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestein, C.M.; Hartog, den L.A.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    To assess the contribution of straw bedding, concrete floors, slats, and slurry in the pits to ammonia emission in a straw-bedded group-housing system for sows, the ammonia volatilisation response of urination on the potential emitting surfaces from a sow house was studied under laboratory

  4. Pathogenesis and pathology of shoulder ulcerations in sows with special reference to peripheral nerves and behavioural responses to palpation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Pedersen, Kirstin; Bonde, Marianne Kjær; Herskin, Mette S

    2013-01-01

    Shoulder ulcerations are common in breeding sows in production systems but the consequences for the animals in terms of pain or discomfort are not well-described. This study presents data from a histopathological examination of shoulders of sows, specially focusing on the peripheral nerves in the...

  5. The social behavior carried out by unacquainted sows on mixing may predict the likelihood of escalation into aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggression is a major problem when housing sows in groups. Aggression can increase injuries, stress, and cost of production, and decrease productivity. The aim of this project was to determine the behavioral sequences associated with fight and non-fight interactions when two unacquainted sows are mi...

  6. Myometrical activity around estrus in sows : spontaneous activity and effects of estrogens, cloprostenol, seminal plasma and clenbuterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, P.; Bouwman, E.G.; Soede, N.M.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Kemp, B.

    2002-01-01

    A new, nonsurgical, open-end catheter technique was used to study spontaneous uterine activity around estrus in sows, and the effects of estrogens, seminal plasma, cloprostenol, and clenbuterol on uterine activity. In the first experiment, uterine activity was studied in 14 multiparous, cyclic sows,

  7. SEVERITY OF RAMULARIA LEAF SPOT AND SEED COTTON YIELD IN DIFFERENT SOWING TIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO PAULO ASCARI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ramularia leaf spot (RLS disease causes cotton yield losses. Choosing a less susceptible cultivar and a sowing time that are less favorable to the pathogen contribute to the management of this disease. The objective of this work was to evaluate the severity of ramularia leaf spot on cotton cultivars sowed in two different times. The experiment was conducted in a triple factorial design (4x3x2, consisted of four cultivars, the three thirds of the plant and two sowing times, with four replications. Each plot was divided in two twin plots, one with fungicide application (with disease control and the other without fungicide application (without disease control. The severity assessments were performed every seven days, considering each third of the plant with a diagrammatic scale. Yield was evaluated in each plot. There was a significant interaction between sowing times and the thirds of the plant in the plots without disease control for RLS severity, with the highest values of area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC in the first sowing time (ST1 and in the lower third of the plant. The FMT705 cultivar had the highest and FM951LL the lowest value of AUDPC. The AUDPC of these cultivars were no statistically different in the second sowing time (ST2, but they had higher AUDPC values in the lower third. Highest yields were found with ST1 in plots with disease control, with no differences between the cultivars, however, lower yields were found in plots without disease control.

  8. Sow preferences for farrowing under a cover with and without access to straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Birgitte Iversen; Heiskanen, Teresia; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2010-01-01

    randomly distributed to four treatment groups of +/- ad libitum access to straw combined with +/- access to a covered area in the pen. The sows' position in the pen (left or right side) was observed from 24 h prior to birth of the first piglet until 24 h after using 10-min interval scan sampling...... and the temporal pattern of sow position in relation to position of the cover (left or right side of the pen) was studied. Furthermore, postural and nest-building behaviours were observed, as well as situations where the piglets were either at risk of being crushed or were crushed. The results showed...

  9. A regional evaluation of injections of high levels of vitamin A on reproductive performance of sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, M D; Brendemuhl, J H; Chiba, L I; Darroch, C S; Dove, C R; Estienne, M J; Harper, A F

    2008-02-01

    A regional study involving 443 litters from 182 sows was conducted at 5 cooperating experiment stations to determine the effects of an i.m. injection of vitamin A at weaning and breeding on subsequent litter size of sows. Sows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments given at weaning and again at breeding: 1) a placebo i.m. injection (2 mL of corn oil), 2) i.m. injection with 250,000 IU of vitamin A (1 mL of vitamin A palmitate in oil), and 3) i.m. injection with 500,000 IU of vitamin A (2 mL of vitamin A palmitate in oil). Corn-soybean meal diets in gestation were formulated to contain 13% CP and 0.60% total Lys. Lactation diets were formulated to contain 17% CP and 0.90% Lys. A common vitamin-mineral premix that supplied 11,000 IU of vitamin A/kg of diet (as-fed) was used by all stations. As expected, station effects were noted for many response measures. Analysis of the data also revealed both treatment x station and treatment x parity interactions for litter size responses. The treatment x parity interactions were stronger than the treatment x station effects, and when the litter size response was separated into early parity sows (parity 1 and 2) and late-parity sows (parity 3 to 6), the treatment x station interactions were no longer present in either subgroup. For sows of parity 1 and 2, litter sizes were increased linearly (P weaned (8.92, 10.12, and 10.60) piglets. For sows of parity 3 to 6, litter sizes were not affected for treatment 1 to 3, respectively, for the total (11.82, 11.71, and 11.46), live born (10.82, 10.64, and 10.23), and weaned (8.65, 9.01, 8.79) piglets. Piglet BW were affected (P Piglet BW decreased due to vitamin A treatment in parity 1 and 2 sows (linear, P weaning and breeding improves the subsequent number of pigs born and weaned per litter, indicating that vitamin A requirements for maximal performance may vary with age.

  10. Isolation and identification of a high molecular weight protein in sow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Y; Qi, N; Tang, Y; He, J; Li, X; Gu, F; Zou, S

    2015-05-01

    A high molecular weight protein (HMWP) was isolated and purified from sow milk, and some of its biochemical characteristics and biological functions were identified. The origin of HMWP was also investigated. The molecular weight of HMWP was determined to be about 115 000 and 114 800 by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration, respectively. The sequence of 10 amino acids in N-terminal of HMWP was Ala-Leu-Val-Gln-Ser-Cys-Leu-Asn-Leu-Val. The sequence was blasted against GenBank. No protein showed significant similarity with this sequence suggesting the HMWP may be novel. The result of liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) also proved HMWP could be a novel protein. By amino acid assay, HMWP was rich in glutamate (including glutamine), cysteine, glycine, aspartic acid (including asparagines) and proline. The content of hydrophobic amino acids (Ala, Val, Leu, Ile, Met, Phe and Pro) was lower at 18.59% of the total amino acids suggesting HMWP has high solubility in water. Western blots of lectins were used to identify the kinds of carbohydrate residues attached to HMWP qualitatively. The result showed that HMWP was a kind of glycoprotein containing N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuNAc), mannose (Man) and/or N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). By isoelectric focusing, HMWP pI was found to be 5.1. Compared with milk fat globule membrane protein (MFGMP) isolated from the sow milk in SDS-PAGE, MFGMP did not contain HMWP. HMWP was assumed to be a secretory milk protein. HMWP was not found in bovine, goat, rabbit or human milk in SDS-PAGE gel suggesting HMWP may be unique to sow milk. By Western blot, HMWP could be detected in sow milk, not in sow serum, which suggests it is synthesized and secreted by the mammary gland. HMWP concentrations in sows milk were the lowest in the first day of lactation, rose significantly during lactation 1 to 7 days. The HMWP content of sows milk remained relatively constant ((1.95±0.13) g/l) during lactation 7 to 20 days. HMWP significantly inhibited

  11. Evidence that oxidative stress is higher in replacement gilts than in multiparous sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, C; Lavoie, M; Richard, G; Archambault, A; Lapointe, J

    2016-10-01

    The recent success obtained in term of increasing the litter size of sows has not correlated with a reduction of replacement rate. There is thus an increased economic demand for gilts with optimal reproductive potential and longevity. Unfortunately, replacement gilts are known to be more susceptible to diseases and less productive than multiparous sows. Interestingly, reproductive performance, resistance to diseases and longevity could all be largely affected by oxidative stress. To investigate whether oxidative stress conditions could account for the poor longevity of gilts, three distinct groups of conventional Yorkshire × Landrace sows were formed based on their similar age and parity (gilts, second parity sows as well as fourth to fifth parity sows). All animals were slaughtered during the post-ovulatory period, and blood as well as tissue samples were collected. Biomarkers of oxidative damage to proteins (carbonyls) and DNA (8-OHdG) were analysed in samples. Specific mRNA expression of major antioxidants such as glutathione peroxidases 1, 3 and 4 (GPx1, GPx3, GPx4) as well as superoxide dismutases 1 and 2 (Sod1, Sod2) were monitored in liver and kidney samples by quantitative RT-PCR. Specific enzymatic activities of both GPx and SOD were measured by spectrophotometric assays. The plasma concentration of protein carbonyls was significantly different between the three groups with the highest concentration being observed in gilts (p ≤ 0.001). The mRNA expression levels of GPx1 and GPx4 were also significantly increased in the liver of gilts when compared to multiparous sows (p ≤ 0.05). SOD2 enzymatic activity was found to be higher in the liver of gilts than multiparous sows (p ≤ 0.05). Taken together, these results indicate that replacement gilts sustain significantly higher oxidative conditions than multiparous sows. Current findings may contribute to the design of nutritional regimens that will increase the productivity of gilts by counteracting

  12. Colostrum production in sows fed different sources of fiber and fat during late gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Bruun, Thomas S; Amdi, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to study yield and composition of colostrum and transient milk from 36 second-parity sows fed a standard lactation diet (CON) low in fiber or one of two high-fiber diets based on sugar beet pulp (SBP) or alfalfa meal (ALF), combined with one of three fat sources, palm fatty acid...... distillate (PFAD), soybean oil (SOYO) or trioctanoate (C8TG) from day 105 of gestation onward. Sows were milked at 0, 12, 24 and 36 h relative to onset of parturition. Jugular vein blood was collected on day 112 of gestation. Plasma acetate content was affected by dietary fiber and fat treatment (P

  13. Effects of oral administration of caffeine on some physiological parameters and maternal behaviour of sows at farrowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Superchi, Paola; Saleri, Roberta; Farina, Elena; Cavalli, Valeria; Riccardi, Enzo; Sabbioni, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Caffeine has been demonstrated to have a protective effect on neonatal viability of piglets. In order to assess whether caffeine, administered to parturient sows, also affects maternal behaviour, respiratory rate, and dopamine, nitric oxide and serotonin plasma levels, 20 sows, with induced parturition, received orally 27 mg/kg of body weight of caffeine (T group; n=10) or not (NT group; n=10), on day 113 of gestation. Treatment did not affect the farrowing length. There were less stillborn piglets in T group than NT group (0.67 vs 2.44; PCaffeine did not affect physiological parameters of sows, as the behaviour score of sows laying on belly was reduced (Pcaffeine to parturient sows has the potential for reducing the number of stillborn. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inclusion of poplar trees in pasture-based pig systems to reduce the heat load of lactating sows during hot periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Malene; Schild, Sarah-Lina Aagaard; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2017-01-01

    different pasture-based systems in which each sow had access to an area with either no tree s or 32 trees. Sow sunburn was assessed on different body parts as: 1. no sunburn; 2. visible redness of skin; 3. severe redness of skin; 4. visible wounds or flaking skin. In addition, sow respiration frequency...

  15. Perbaikan Fenotipe Pertumbuhan Anak Babi Lokal Melalui Penyuntikan Gonadotropin Sebelum Induk Dikawinkan (IMPROVEMENT OF GROWTH PHENOTYPE OF LOCAL PIGLET BY GONADOTROPHIN INJECTION OF SOW PRIOR TO MATING)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1Debby Jacqueline Jochebed Rayer; Muladno; Hera Maheshwari; Wasmen Manalu

    2016-01-01

    .... The experimental sows were then divided into two groups, each consisted of 5 sows. The firstgroup was injected with 200 IU PMSG and 100 IU hCG per sow at the same time with the secondprostaglandin injection (day 15th...

  16. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Common ... X Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  17. Effects of thermal environment on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones, oxytocin, and behavioral activity in periparturient sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmkvist, J; Damgaard, B M; Pedersen, L J; Jørgensen, E; Thodberg, K; Chaloupková, H; Bruckmaier, R M

    2009-09-01

    Provision of additional floor heating (33 to 34 degrees C) at birth and during the early postnatal hours is favorable for newborn piglets of domestic sows (Sus scrofa). We investigated whether this relatively high temperature influenced sow behavior and physiology around farrowing. One-half of 28 second-parity pregnant sows were randomly chosen to be exposed to floor heating 12 h after onset of nest building and until 48 h after birth of the first piglet (heat treatment), whereas the rest of the sows entered the control group (control treatment) with no floor heating. Hourly blood sampling from 8 h before and until 24 h after the birth of the first piglet was used for investigation of temporal changes in plasma concentrations of oxytocin, cortisol, and ACTH. In addition, occurrence and duration of sow postures were recorded -8 to +48 h relative to the birth of the first piglet. There was a clear temporal development in sow behavior and hormone concentrations (ACTH, cortisol, and oxytocin) across parturition (P heating increased the mean concentration of cortisol (P = 0.02; estimated as 29% greater than in controls) and tended to increase the mean concentration of ACTH (P = 0.08; estimated as 17% greater than in controls), but we did not find any treatment effect on mean oxytocin concentrations, the course of parturition, or the behavior of sows. Behavioral thermoregulation may, however, have lost some function for the sows because the floor was fully heated in our study. In addition, exposure to heat decreased the between-sow variation of plasma oxytocin (approximately 31% less relative to control) and ACTH (approximately 46% less relative to control). Whether this decreased variation may be indicative of acute stress or linked to other biological events is unclear. In conclusion, inescapable floor heating (around 33.5 degrees C) may be considered a stressor for sows around farrowing, giving rise to elevated plasma concentrations of cortisol, but without concurrent

  18. Antibody response to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in vaccinated pigs with or without maternal antibodies induced by sow vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, P; Terreni, M; Guazzetti, S; Cavirani, S

    2006-06-01

    Vaccination with bacterins is an important tool for the control of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection of pigs. Because such vaccination often involves piglets that have suckled M. hyopneumoniae antibody-positive dams it is important to understand the effect of pre-existing (passively acquired) antibody on vaccine-induced immunity. To investigate this issue experimentally, 20 sows that were seronegative for M. hyopneumoniae were selected from a M. hyopneumoniae-infected herd and then randomly allocated to one of four treatment groups (five sows/group): Group A, vaccinated sows/vaccinated piglets; Group B, vaccinated sows/non-vaccinated piglets; Group C, non-vaccinated sows/vaccinated piglets; Group D, non-vaccinated sows/non-vaccinated piglets. Sows (Groups A and B) were vaccinated 14 days before farrowing and seroconverted within the next 14 days. Conversely, none of the non-vaccinated sows was seropositive at farrowing. Piglets (Groups A and C) were vaccinated when they were 7 days of age. Regardless of treatments none of the piglets had any evidence of an active immune response until many of those of Groups A and C and a few of those of Groups B and D seroconverted after it had been shown that at least some pigs of all groups had been naturally infected with a field strain of M. hyopneumoniae. This pattern of immune responsiveness (i.e. the collective results of Groups A, B, C and D) suggested that vaccination of pigs had primed their immune system for subsequent exposure to M. hyopneumoniae, and that passively acquired antibody had little or no effect on either a vaccine-induced priming or a subsequent anamnestic response. According to the statistical analysis sow serological status did not interfere with the antibody response in early vaccinated piglets. In conclusion, the results pointed out that early vaccination of piglets may assist M. hyopneumoniae control independently from the serological status of sows.

  19. Group space allowance has little effect on sow health, productivity, or welfare in a free-access stall system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, L A; Lay, D C; Eicher, S D; Johnson, A K; Richert, B T; Pajor, E A

    2014-06-01

    Free-access stalls allow sows to choose the protection of a stall or use of a shared group space. This study investigated the effect of group space width, 0.91 (SS), 2.13 (IS), and 3.05 (LS) m, on the health, production, behavior, and welfare of gestating sows. Nine replications of 21 (N = 189) gestating sows were used. At gestational d 35.4 ± 2.3, the pregnant sows were distributed into 3 pens of 7 sows, where they remained until 104.6 ± 3.5 d. Each treatment pen had 7 free-access stalls and a group space that together provided 1.93 (SS), 2.68 (IS), or 3.24 (LS) m(2)/sow. Baseline measurements were obtained before mixing. Back fat depth, BW, BCS, and lameness were measured monthly, and skin lesions were scored weekly. Blood was collected monthly for hematological, immunological, and cortisol analyses. Sow behavior was video recorded continuously during the initial 4 d of treatment and 24 h every other week thereafter. Behavior was analyzed for location, posture, pen investigation, social contact, and aggression. Skin response to the mitogen concanavalin A (Con A) was tested at mean gestational d 106. Litter characteristics including size and weight were collected at birth and weaning. The data were analyzed using a mixed model. Multiple comparisons were adjusted with the Tukey-Kramer and Bejamini-Hochberg methods. Group space allowance had no effect on any measure of sow health, physiology, or production (P ≥ 0.10). Sows in the SS, IS, and LS pens spent 77.88% ± 3.88%, 66.02% ± 3.87%, and 63.64% ± 3.91%, respectively, of their time in the free-access stalls (P = 0.12). However, SS sows used the group space less than IS and LS sows (P = 0.01). Overall, pen investigatory behavior was not affected by group space allowance (P = 0.91). Sows in the LS pens spent more time in a social group than SS sows (P = 0.02), whereas sows in IS pens were intermediate to, but not different from, the other treatments (P ≥ 0.10). The size of the social groups was also

  20. Energy metabolism and lactation performance of primiparous sows as affected by dietary fat and vitamin E

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babinszky, L.

    1992-01-01

    In this thesis different levels of dietary fat (37, 43, 75 and 125 g/kg DM, respectively) and vitamin E (from 14 to 151 mg α-tocopherol/kg diet) in the lactation diet, were studied for their effect on the energy metabolism, and lactation performance of primiparous sows. The effects of

  1. DIE ONTW"IKKELING VAN DIE SOW"JET.VLOOT SEDERT 1945

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SOW"JET.VLOOT SEDERT 1945. Kdr R. II. HAI'M. After the second World War, Stalin decided on a naval programme for Soviet Russia inwhich the strategies of a 'fortress fleet' and a 'fleet in being' were combined. The naval strategy was based on the premise that a Western attack could only be repulsed in home waters ...

  2. The roles of age at puberty and energy restriction in sow reproductive longevity: a genomic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 50% of sows are culled annually with more than one third due to poor fertility. Our research demonstrated that age at puberty is an early pre-breeding indicator of reproductive longevity. Age at puberty can be measured early in life, has a moderate heritability and is negatively correl...

  3. Effects of sowing date on the growth and yield of maize cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    Effects of harvest and sowing time on the performance of the rotation of winter wheat–summer maize in the North China Plain. Ind. Crop. Prod. 25:239-247. Killi F, Altunbay SG (2005). Seed yield, oil content and yield components of confection and oil seed sunflower cultivars. (Helianthus annuus L) planted on different dates.

  4. The Intermittent Suckling Regimen in Pigs: Consequences for Reproductive Performance of Sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, R.; Soede, N.M.; Langendijk, P.; Hazeleger, W.; Kemp, B.

    2008-01-01

    Intermittent suckling (IS), a system in which the sow and the piglets are separated for a number of hours per day during lactation, is put forward as a system that can increase piglet welfare around weaning and also induce lactational oestrus. To be of practical use, IS regimes need to result in a

  5. Effects of sows age on total tract nutrient digestibility in diet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eugenia

    2016-07-31

    Jul 31, 2016 ... Effect of sow age on the apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients in the diet. E. Jacyno, A. ..... Influence of dietary fibre on digestive utilization and rate of passage in ... Physiology of small and large intestine of swine -review-.

  6. Energy and lysine requirements and balances of sows during transition and lactation: A factorial approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyera, Takele; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify daily requirements for metabolizable energy (ME) and standard ileal digestible (SID) lysine in late gestating and lactating sows using a factorial approach. Metabolizable energy and SID lysine required for fetal and mammary growth, colostrum and milk production, uteri...

  7. Increased dietary protein levels during lactation improved sow and litter performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anja V.; Bruun, Thomas S.; Geertsen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    ) crude protein (CP) level of 104.3, 113.3, 120.9, 128.5, 139.2 or 150.0 g/kg. At d 2 post-partum litters were standardized to 14 piglets and body weight (BW), back fat (BF) thickness of sows and litter weight were recorded. Body weight, BF thickness and litter weight was also recorded at weaning....... On a subsample of 70 sows (parity 2 and 3) milk samples were obtained at day 3, 10 and 17 post-partum and analyzed for fat, CP and lactose. In the analysis of the dose-response data the dietary SID CP concentration were used as explanatory variable. The abovementioned response variables were fitted with linear...... broken-line, quadratic broken-line and linear regression models. Sow BW and BF loss reached a break point at 143 g SID CP/kg and 127 g SID CP/kg, where sows lost 0.58 kg/d and 3 mm, respectively (P

  8. Impact of grasspea genotypes and sowing dates on seed β-ODAP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grasspea (Lathyrus sativus) is an important food legume crop in Ethiopia. However, its nutritional value ishindered by β-ODAP that causes lathyrism in humans. The extent of toxicity is influenced by genetic andagronomic factors.We conducted an experiment to determine the effect of varieties and sowing dates on the ...

  9. The effect of energy intake on development and reproduction of gilts and sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The rate of reproduction in female pigs is an important trait with regard to pig production. Reproduction may be defined as the number of piglets reared per sow per year. This trait is dependent on age at puberty, conception rate, litter size, the interval from weaning to oestrus and the

  10. Effect of daily environmental temperature on farrowing rate and total born in dam line sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemhof, S.; Mathur, P.K.; Knol, E.F.; Waaij, van der E.H.

    2013-01-01

    Heat stress is known to adversely affect reproductive performance of sows. However, it is important to know on which days or periods during the reproduction cycle heat stress has the greatest effects for designing appropriate genetic or management strategies. Therefore, this study was conducted to

  11. A quantitative trait locus for the number of days from sowing to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping provides useful information for breeding programs since it allows the estimation of genomic locations and genetic effects of chromosomal regions related to the expression of quantitative traits. The number of days from sowing to seedling emergence (NDSSE) is an important agronomic ...

  12. Pollination of Rapeseed (Brassica napus by Africanized Honeybees (Hymenoptera: Apidae on Two Sowing Dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMERSON D. CHAMBÓ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, performed in the western part of the state of Paraná, Brazil, two self-fertile hybrid commercial rapeseed genotypes were evaluated for yield components and physiological quality using three pollination tests and spanning two sowing dates. The treatments consisted of combinations of two rapeseed genotypes (Hyola 61 and Hyola 433, three pollination tests (uncovered area, covered area without insects and covered area containing a single colony of Africanized Apis mellifera honeybees and two sowing dates (May 25th, 2011 and June 25th, 2011. The presence of Africanized honeybees during flowering time increased the productivity of the rapeseed. Losses in the productivity of the hybrids caused by weather conditions unfavorable for rapeseed development were mitigated through cross-pollination performed by the Africanized honeybees. Weather conditions may limit the foraging activity of Africanized honeybees, causing decreased cross-pollination by potential pollinators, especially the Africanized A. mellifera honeybee. The rapeseed hybrids respond differently depending on the sowing date, and the short-cycle Hyola 433 hybrid is the most suitable hybrid for sowing under less favorable weather conditions.

  13. Effect of sowing depth and soil conditions on the germination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The viability of D. eriantha subsp. eriantha (=D. smutsii) seed is generally experienced to be very low, which often results in poor establishment in this grass. The effect of different external factors on the germination of this species was investigated. Results indicated that sowing depth had no significant effect on germination, ...

  14. Sowing rules for estimating rainfed yield potential of sorghum and maize in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Quattara, K.; Supit, I.

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the dependence on local expert knowledge, which is important for large-scale crop modelling studies, we analyzed sowing dates and rules for maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.)) at three locations in Burkina Faso with strongly decreasing rainfall amounts from south to

  15. Genetic association between leg conformation in young pigs and longevity of Yorkshire sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Thu Hong; Nilsson, Katja; Norberg, Elise

    Direct selection for improved longevity might be ineffective due to late in life information on this trait. This study aims at studying genetic correlations between leg conformation traits scored in young Yorkshire pigs in nucleus herds and longevity traits of purebred Yorkshire sows in multiplie...

  16. Milk Oligosaccharide Variation in Sow Milk and Milk Oligosaccharide Fermentation in Piglet Intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Difilippo, Elisabetta; Pan, Feipeng; Logtenberg, Madelon; Willems, Rianne; Braber, Saskia; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Schols, Henk Arie; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Porcine milk oligosaccharides (PMOs) were analyzed in six colostrum and two mature milk samples from Dutch Landrace sows. In total, 35 PMOs were recognized of which 13 were new for the PMO literature: Neutral HexNAc-Hex, β4′-galactosyllactose, putative GalNAc(α/β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc,

  17. Milk Oligosaccharide Variation in Sow Milk and Milk Oligosaccharide Fermentation in Piglet Intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Difilippo, Elisabetta; Pan, Feipeng; Logtenberg, Madelon; Willems, Rianne H A M; Braber, Saskia; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Schols, Henk Arie; Gruppen, Harry

    Porcine milk oligosaccharides (PMOs) were analyzed in six colostrum and two mature milk samples from Dutch Landrace sows. In total, 35 PMOs were recognized of which 13 were new for the PMO literature: neutral HexNAc-Hex, β4'-galactosyllactose, putative GalNAc(α/β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc,

  18. The impact of elbow and knee joint lesions on abnormal gait and posture of sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Bente

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Joint lesions occur widespread in the Danish sow population and they are the most frequent cause for euthanasia. Clinically, it is generally impossible to differentiate between various types of non-inflammatory joint lesions. Consequently, it is often necessary to perform a post mortem examination in order to diagnose these lesions. A study was performed in order to examine the relation of abnormal gait and posture in sows with specific joint lesions, and thereby obtaining a clinical diagnostic tool, to be used by farmers and veterinarians for the evaluation of sows with joint problems. Methods The gait, posture and lesions in elbow- and knee joints of 60 randomly selected sows from one herd were scored clinically and pathologically. Associations between the scorings were estimated. Results The variables 'fore- and hind legs turned out' and 'stiff in front and rear' were associated with lesions in the elbow joint, and the variables 'hind legs turned out' and 'stiff in rear' were associated with lesions in the knee joint. Conclusion It was shown that specified gait and posture variables reflected certain joint lesions. However, further studies are needed to strengthen and optimize the diagnostic tool.

  19. Boar effects and their relations to fertility and litter size in sows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Peer-reviewed paper: Proc. 43rd Congress of the South African Society for Animal Science. 471. Boar effects and their relations to fertility and litter size in sows. D.O. Umesiobi. Department of Agriculture, School of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Central University of Technology,. Free State, Private Bag X20539, ...

  20. Effect of DGAT1 gene mutation in sows of dam-line on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    magdalena.szyndler

    2015-08-05

    Aug 5, 2015 ... of breeds used in breeding program as a dam-line: polish large white (PLW) and polish landrace (PL). Colostrum and milk of sows were collected at 1, 7, 14 and 21 days of lactation to assay solids, total protein, fat and lactose. Data on piglet rearing performance were collected at 1, 7, 14 and 21 days of.

  1. Influence of cross-breeding of native breed sows of Zlotnicka spotted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was the estimation of the cross-breeding influence of Zlotnicka spotted sows with boars of polish large white and Duroc breeds on carcass traits of fatteners. 50 pigs were divided into four groups: Zlotnicka spotted (ZS), Zlotnicka spotted x polish large white (ZS x PLW), Zlotnicka spotted x Duroc (ZS x D) ...

  2. Senecavirus A infection in market weight gilts, sows and neonates with subsequent protective immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The objectives of this study were to 1) characterize SVA infection in market weight pigs, late-gestation sows, and neonates and 2) examine protective immunity in late-gestation gilts Materials and Methods: For Part 1 of the study 15 gilts were inoculated with SVA, bled regularly for 2 we...

  3. Senecavirus A infection in sows, neonates, and market weight gilts with subsequent protective immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The objectives of this study were to 1) characterize SVA infection late-gestation sows, neonates, and market weight gilts and 2) examine protective immunity in late-gestation gilts Methods: For Part 1, 15 market weight gilts were inoculated with SVA, bled regularly, and clinical observat...

  4. Effect of Sowing Media and Gibberellic Acid on the Growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Sowing Media and Gibberellic Acid on the Growth and Seedling Establishment of Bougainvillea glabra, Ixora coccinea and Rosa chinensis . 2. ... 100 and 200ppm) and three plant species (Bougainvillea, Ixora and Rose); factorially combined and laid out in a completely randomized design with four repetitions.

  5. Growth rate and growth composition of artificially-reared piglets from specific pathogen free sows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hel, van der W.; Pijls, F.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Heat production, energy and nitrogen balances of artificially reared piglets from specific pathogen free sows, housed in a respiratory chamber, were measured over five successive periods of 7 days each from 4 to 39 days of age. The experiment was carried out at an environmental temperature

  6. Rice grain yield as affected by subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneraldo Pinheiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the effects of subsoiling, compaction on sowing furrow and seed treatments with insecticides on the grain yield of upland rice cultivated under no-tillage. Two experiments were carried out, one in an area with and the other in an area without subsoiling, in which five seed treatments combined with five compaction pressures on the sowing furrow were compared in a randomized block design, in a factorial scheme, with three replicates. The seed treatments were: T0 - without treatment, T1 - imidacloprid + thiodicarb, T2 - thiamethoxam, T3 - carbofuran, and T4 - fipronil + pyraclostrobin + thiophanate methyl. The compaction pressures were: 25, 42, 126, 268 and 366 kPa. Subsoiling positively affected rice yield in the presence of higher compaction pressures on the sowing furrow. Seed treatment was effective at increasing rice grain yield only at the lowest compaction pressures. Rice yield showed quadratic response to compaction on the sowing furrow, with maximum values obtained at pressures ranging from 238.5 to 280.3 kPa.

  7. Genome Sequence of Lawsonia intracellularis Strain N343, Isolated from a Sow with Hemorrhagic Proliferative Enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sait, Michelle; Aitchison, Kevin; Wheelhouse, Nick; Wilson, Kim; Lainson, F Alex; Longbottom, David; Smith, David G E

    2013-01-01

    Lawsonia intracellularis is the etiological agent of proliferative enteropathy (PE), causing mild or acute hemorrhagic diarrhea in infected animals. Here we report the genome sequence of strain N343, isolated from a sow that died of hemorrhagic PE. N343 contains 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 90 indels compared to the reference strain PHE/MN1-00.

  8. Winter sowings produce 1-0 sugar pine planting stock in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Jenkinson; Arthur H. McCain

    1993-01-01

    Seed source and sowing date effects on first-year seedling growth and Fusarium root and collar rot of sugar pine were analyzed in two consecutive nursery tests at the Pacific Southwest Research Station's Institute of Forest Genetics, near Placerville in the western Sierra Nevada. The experimental design in both tests consisted of four replications of a randomized...

  9. Dietary fiber stabilizes blood glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in sows (Sus scrofa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a diet with a high level of fermentable dietary fiber can stabilize interprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, prevent declines below basal levels, and reduce physical activity in limited-fed breeding sows. Stable levels of glucose and insulin may

  10. Cytoskeletal proteins in the follicular wall of normal andcystic ovaries of sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano J.F. de Sant'Ana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The expression of cytoskeletal proteins was evaluated immunohistochemically in 36 normal ovaries sampled from 18 sows and 44 cystic ovaries sampled from of 22 sows, was evaluated. All sows had history of reproductive problems, such as infertility or subfertility. The immunohistochemically stained area (IHCSA was quantified through image analysis to evaluate the expression of these proteins in the follicular wall of secondary, tertiary, and cystic follicles. Cytokeratins (CK immunoreactivity was strong in the granulosa cell layer (GC and mild in the theca interna (TI and externa (TE of the normal follicles. There was severe reduction of the reaction to CK in the GC in the cystic follicles, mainly in the luteinized cysts. The immunoreactivity for vimentin was higher in the GC from normal and cystic follicles in contrast with the other follicular structures. In the luteinized cysts, the IHCSA for vimentin was significantly higher in TI and in both observed cysts, the labeling was more accentuated in TE. Immunohistochemical detection of desmin and α-SMA was restricted to the TE, without differences between the normal and cystic follicles. The results of the current study show that the development of ovarian cysts in sows is associated to changes in the expression of the cytoskeletal proteins CK and vimentin.

  11. Does dietary tryptophan around farrowing affect sow behavior and piglet mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piglet mortality remains a serious welfare and economic problem. Much of the early mortality is due to crushing by the sow. Tryptophan has been shown to reduce aggression and have a calming effect on behaviour, which may reduce the number and type of posture changes, thereby altering risk of crushin...

  12. Dietary inulin affects the intestinal microbiota in sows and their suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paßlack, Nadine; Vahjen, Wilfried; Zentek, Jürgen

    2015-03-07

    Several studies have focused on the effects of dietary inulin on the intestinal microbiota of weaned piglets. In the present study, inulin was added to a diet for gestating and lactating sows, expecting not only effects on the faecal microbiota of sows, but also on the bacterial cell numbers in the gastrointestinal tract of their piglets during the suckling period. Sows were fed a diet without (n = 11) or with (n = 10) 3% inulin, and selected bacterial groups were determined in their faeces ante and post partum. Suckling piglets, 8 per group, were euthanised on day 10 after birth to analyse digesta samples of the gastrointestinal tract. Dietary inulin increased the cell numbers of enterococci, both, in the faeces of the sows during gestation and lactation, and in the caecum of the piglets (P ≤ 0.05). Moreover, higher cell numbers of eubacteria (stomach) and C. leptum (caecum), but lower cell numbers of enterobacteria and L. amylovorus (stomach) were detected in the digesta of the piglets in the inulin group (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, inulin seems to have the potential to influence the gastrointestinal microbiota of suckling piglets through the diet of their mother, showing the importance of the mother-piglet couple for the microbial development. Early modulation of the intestinal microbiota could be especially interesting with regard to the critical weaning time.

  13. The influence of cross-breeding Zlotnicka Spotted native breed sows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of cross-breeding of Zlotnicka Spotted sows with Duroc and Polish Large White boars on the quality of meat of crossbred fatteners. The investigation was done on 50 carcasses of fatteners from four genetic groups: Zlotnicka Spotted x Zlotnicka Spotted (n = 20), Zlotnicka ...

  14. Dietary manipulation of the sow milk does not influence the lipid absorption capacity of the progeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Pierzynowski, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    A control diet without supplemental fat and four diets containing 8% of coconut oil, rapeseed oil, fish oil or sunflower oil were fed to lactating sows in order to investigate the lipid absorption capacity of their progeny in terms of pancreatic enzyme activity, hormonal regulation, and bile salt...

  15. Effect of growing media, sowing depth, and hot water treatment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To optimize seedling production for reforestation of degraded dryland with A. senegal seeds, a study was conducted on the effect of boiled water treatment, growing media, sowing depth on seed germination and seedling growth of A. senegal. Three different growing media (farm soil, forest soil and sand soil), boiled water ...

  16. Influence of thermal environment on sows around farrowing and during the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Sund Kammersgaard, Trine

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the effects of floor heating duration (HEAT: 35°C for 12 or 48 h) after birth of first piglet (BFP) under different room temperatures (ROOM: 15, 20, 25°C) on sows during farrowing and lactation. The study included 8 to 11 repetitions for each combination of ROOM a...

  17. Influence of cross-breeding of native breed sows of Zlotnicka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZUZA

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... The aim of this study was the estimation of the cross-breeding influence of Zlotnicka spotted sows with boars of polish large white and Duroc breeds on carcass traits of fatteners. 50 pigs were divided into four groups: Zlotnicka spotted (ZS), Zlotnicka spotted x polish large white (ZS x PLW), Zlotnicka.

  18. Effect of pre-sowing treatments on seed germination and seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... Pre-sowing treatments were evaluated for Tetracarpidium conophorum. Mechanically scarified T. conophorum seeds soaked in indole acetic acid for 24 h yielded 90% seed germination. Smoked- and sun-dried seeds for 14 days yielded 73 and 33.3% seed germination, respectively. Poorest values were.

  19. Effects of food motivation on stereotypies and aggression in group housed sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoolder, H.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Changing legislation and consumer attitudes towards the welfare of farm animals means that individual housing of dry sows will soon be illegal in the United Kingdom. Other European countries, and in particular those for whom the UK is an important export market (such as The Netherlands),

  20. A survey on the prevalence of lameness in sows from three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of lameness and determine the risk factors for its occurrence in three commercial pig farms in and around Harare. During routine health checks, the sows were examined for lameness and foot lesions present recorded. Culling records from 2005 to 2007 were ...

  1. Group housing of sows in early pregnancy: A review of success and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoolder, H.A.M.; Geudeke, M.J.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Soede, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    A recent telephone survey of 735 Dutch farmers with group housing of sows in early pregnancy suggested a wide variation in reproductive success, irrespective of husbandry system. The reason for these differences between farms is not known, but of great importance to the pig industry which is moving

  2. Effects of boar stimuli on the follicular phase and on oestrous behaviour in sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, P.; Soede, N.M.; Kemp, B.

    2006-01-01

    This review describes the role of boar stimuli in receptive behaviour, and the influence of boar stimuli during the follicular phase. Receptive behaviour (standing response) in an oestrous sow is elicited by boar stimuli, which can be olfactory, auditory, tactile, or visual. The relative importance

  3. Effect of sowing date on grain quality of sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amongst the varieties, Seredo and Agany contained high tannins while Beer and Dhet contained less tannins. Iron and zinc content in sorghum showed higher values for 29th June sowing date both in Bor and Arek. The study showed that Beer and Dhet varieties have good quality grains that can be used to improve human ...

  4. Maize production as affected by sowing date, plant density and row spacing in the Bolivian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Casini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional cropping system widespread in the Department of Pando (Bolivian Amazon is the slash and burn methodology. The main crops sowed soon after the slash are maize, rice, cassava and common beans. Two separate field experiments (carried out in 2008-2009 were carried out to determine the agronomic responses of maize to sowing date, plant population and row width. For the first experiment a split-plot design was used. Maize cultivar (Bayo Blando and Perla Pandino was considered as main plots and the date of sowing as subplots. For the second experiment a split-split-plot design was used. Row spacing (0.5, 0.7 and 0.9 m was considered as main plot, maize cultivar (Cubano Amrarillo and Perla Pandino as subplots, and plant density (5.0, 7.5 and 10 plant m-2 as sub-subplots. A significant reduction of grain yield was observed as the date of sowing (DS delayied. Yield reduction of the second DS compared to the first, was 85 and 45% for Perla Pandino and Bayo Blando. The importance of plant density as a function of the correct row spacing is clearly shown. With the row spacing in use in the considered area (0.9 m and with the narrowest (0.5 m, the best yields were obtained with 10 plants m-2 (5.5 t ha-1. The following conclusions can be drawn from the present study: 1. A delay in the sowing date for maize by 15-20 days (compared to sowing ??immediately after the cutting of the virgin forest or the secondary forest strongly reduces grain production. The cultivar Perla Pandino was the most susceptible with a reduction of 85%. Late sowing of maize (mais de socorro, is suitable only if intercropped with other crops in order to protect the soil from erosion. Traditionally, rice and cassava are intercropped with maize, even if common beans or a legume cover crop would be more advisable. 2. The density of maize may be increased up until 10 m-2 in order to achieve the most productive results by using row spacings of 0.5 e 0.9 m, respectively

  5. Effect of rubber flooring on group-housed sows' gait and claw and skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, E-J; van Riet, M M J; Maes, D; Millet, S; Ampe, B; Janssens, G P J; Tuyttens, F A M

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the influence of floor type on sow welfare in terms of lameness, claw lesions, and skin lesions. In a 2 × 3 factorial design, we have investigated the effect of rubber coverings on concrete floors and the effect of 3 levels of dietary zinc supplementation on locomotion and claw and skin lesions in group-housed sows. Six groups of 21 ± 4 hybrid sows were monitored during 3 successive reproductive cycles. The sows were group housed from d 28 after insemination (d 0) until 1 wk before expected farrowing date (d 108) in pens with either exposed concrete floors or concrete floors covered with rubber in part of the lying area and the fully slatted area. During each reproductive cycle, locomotion and skin lesions were assessed 4 times (d 28, 50, 108, and 140) and claw lesions were assessed twice (d 50 and 140). Results are given as least squares means ± SE. Locomotion and claw scores were given in millimeters, on analog scales of 150 and 160 mm, respectively. Here, we report on the effect of floor type, which did not interact with dietary zinc concentration ( > 0.10 for all variables). At move to group (d 28) and mid gestation (d 50), no differences between floor treatments were seen in locomotion ( > 0.10). At the end of gestation (d 108), sows housed on rubber flooring scored 9.9 ± 4.1 mm better on gait ( flooring at mid gestation (d 50). However, sows on rubber flooring scored worse for "vertical cracks in the wall horn" (difference of 3.4 ± 1.7 mm; = 0.04). At the end of lactation (d 140), both "white line" (difference of 2.9 ± 1 mm; = 0.02) and "claw length" (difference of 4.7 ± 1.4 mm; flooring. No differences for skin lesions were observed between floor treatments. The improved scores for gait toward the end of gestation and some types of claw disorders at mid gestation suggest that rubber flooring in group housing has a beneficial effect on the overall leg health of sows. The documented increase in vertical cracks in the wall horn at d

  6. Effects of perforated rubber mats in the lying and walking area of pregnant sows on claws and joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Jais

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a group pen for pregnant sows the floor was covered with perforated rubber mats in the lying and in the walking area. In a reference pen the lying area had hole-perforated concrete elements and the walking area conventional concrete slatted floor. The experiment lasted from November 2011 to June 2014 and included 6 trial runs. To detect the effects of the rubber mats, claws and joints of the sows were evaluated regularly. The sows were stabled in their second pregnancy and passed, depending on their lifespan and their entry into the trial, up to six pregnancies in the experiment. For evaluation of the recorded traits of claws, joints and lameness of the sows, data of 630 pregnancies of 199 sows could be used. The results of the evaluation of the claws showed that the claws of the sows on rubber floor were significantly longer than those of the sows on concrete floor. The traits wall horn abrasion and horn wall cracks were rated significantly worse on concrete floor. No differences were found in the evaluation of lameness.

  7. Temporal Polarimetric Behavior of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L. at C-Band for Early Season Sowing Date Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Spatial monitoring of the sowing date plays an important role in crop yield estimation at the regional scale. The feasibility of using polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR data for early season monitoring of the sowing dates of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. fields is explored in this paper. Polarimetric SAR responses of six parameters, relying on polarization decomposition methods, were investigated as a function of days after sowing (DAS during the entire growing season, by means of five consecutive Radarsat-2 images. A near-continuous temporal evolution of these parameters was observed, based on 88 oilseed rape fields. It provided a solid basis for determining the suitable temporal window and the best polarimetric parameters for sowing date monitoring. A high sensitivity of all polarimetric parameters to the DAS at different growing stages was shown. Simple linear models could be calibrated to estimate sowing dates at early growth stages and were validated on an independent data set. Although Volume and Span parameters provided the highest sowing date estimation accuracy at the earlier growth stages, the other four parameters (Volume/Total, Odd/Total, Entropy and Alpha were more accurate for a wider temporal window. These results demonstrate the capability and high potential of polarimetric SAR data for monitoring the sowing date of crops in the early season.

  8. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis for Deep-Sowing Germination Ability in the Maize IBM Syn10 DH Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjun; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Jiechen; Li, Changsheng; Zeng, Xing; Xie, Shupeng; Zhang, Yongzhong; Liu, Sisi; Hu, Songlin; Wang, Jianhua; Lee, Michael; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Zhao, Guangwu

    2017-01-01

    Deep-sowing is an effective measure to ensure seeds absorbing water from deep soil layer and emerging normally in arid and semiarid regions. However, existing varieties demonstrate poor germination ability in deep soil layer and some key quantitative trait loci (QTL) or genes related to deep-sowing germination ability remain to be identified and analyzed. In this study, a high-resolution genetic map based on 280 lines of the intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM) Syn10 doubled haploid (DH) population which comprised 6618 bin markers was used for the QTL analysis of deep-sowing germination related traits. The results showed significant differences in germination related traits under deep-sowing condition (12.5 cm) and standard-germination condition (2 cm) between two parental lines. In total, 8, 11, 13, 15, and 18 QTL for germination rate, seedling length, mesocotyl length, plumule length, and coleoptile length were detected for the two sowing conditions, respectively. These QTL explained 2.51-7.8% of the phenotypic variance with LOD scores ranging from 2.52 to 7.13. Additionally, 32 overlapping QTL formed 11 QTL clusters on all chromosomes except for chromosome 8, indicating the minor effect genes have a pleiotropic role in regulating various traits. Furthermore, we identified six candidate genes related to deep-sowing germination ability, which were co-located in the cluster regions. The results provide a basis for molecular marker assisted breeding and functional study in deep-sowing germination ability of maize.

  9. Effects of lactation length and boar contact in early lactation on expression of oestrus in multiparous sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Alice C; Kind, Karen L; Terry, Robyn; van Wettere, William H E J

    2014-10-01

    The ability to stimulate a fertile oestrus during early lactation provides an opportunity to increase piglet weaning age whilst maintaining 2.4 litters per sow per year. This study evaluated the effects of boar contact beginning on day 7 of lactation and lactation length on lactation oestrus induction and subsequent reproductive output in multiparous sows (parity 2.9 ± 0.16; mean ± SEM; range 2-6). Large White × Landrace multiparous sows were allocated to one of four treatment groups; weaning at 26 days post-partum and no boar contact (control); weaning at 26 days and boar contact (BC); weaning at 7 days and boar contact (BC+short lactation (SL)); and weaning at 7 days and no boar contact (SL). Control and SL sows were taken for a short walk daily during which a backpressure test was performed in the absence of a boar. Oestrus expression within 26 days of farrowing was significantly higher in BC (67%) and BC+SL (93%) sows than control (11%) and SL (13%) sows (Plactating and weaned sows. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. REALIZING OF BREAST FEEDING IS NECESSARY OBJECTIVE OF A PEDIATRICIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Belyaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes several problems of breast feeding existing. The data on composition of breast milk in different groups of women, recommended terms of beginning and duration of breast feeding are presented. Authors discuss principles of effectiveness evaluation and advantages of prolonged breast feeding on the basis of comparative estimation of physical and psychical development and morbidity of children with different types of feeding. Methods of breast feeding optimization including modern electronic breast pump use are described.Key words: infants, breast feeding, breast pumps.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (3: 86–91

  11. EPA OIG's RSS Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA OIG's RSS Feed - The EPA OIG offers an XML news feed (RSS) covering all of our publications and news. To use our pre-made feed, click on the link below, copy the URL, then paste it into your prefferred feed reader.

  12. The Effects of Polyethylene Mulch and Sowing Date on Early Maturity, Growth and Yield of Okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tavoosi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of plastic bed mulch and sowing date on early maturity, growth and yield of Ahvazi-Okra and obtaining the highest production during the peak price period, an experiment was executed in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Khuzestan. The experiment was laid out as split plot design in RCBD with four replications. Four sowing dates including Feb. 14, Feb. 24, Mar. 6, and Mar. 16 were considered as main plots and three different kinds of mulch including black plastic, clear plastic and control (without mulch were considered as sub plots. The results showed that the effects of sowing date, kind of mulch, and their interactions on early maturity, early production, total production, germination period, and the number of days to harvest time were significant. The mulch application led to the acceleration of growth stages, and 2.64, 1.53, and 0.9 °C increases respectively in soil temperature at 10cm depth, soil surface temperature and crop canopy temperature, compared to the control treatment. Sowing date did not have significant effect on weeds population. Black plastic mulch could control weeds population effectively. The results demonstrated that the Feb. 14 sowing date together with using clear bed plastic mulch had the highest early production yield (1.9 t/ha, total yield (6.4 t/ha, and the longest crop growth cycle (135 days, the longest fruit production period (70 days and the most number of harvestings (22 times among the other ones.

  13. Yields of ZP sweet maize hybrids in dependence on sowing densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet maize differs from maize of standard grain quality by many important traits that affect the ear appearance, and especially by traits controlling taste. The ear appearance trait encompasses the kernel row number, configuration, row pattern (direction and arrangement, seed set, kernel width and depth, ear shape and size. The quality of immature kernels is controlled by genes by which sweet maize differs from common maize. In order to obtain high-ranking and high-quality yields, it is necessary to provide the most suitable cropping practices for sweet maize hybrids developed at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje. The adequate sowing density is one of more important elements of correct cropping practices. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of four sowing densities in four ZP sweet maize hybrids of different FAO maturity groups on ear qualitative traits and yields obtained on chernozem type of soil in Zemun Polje. The observed traits of sweet maize (ear length, kernel row number, number of kernels per row, yield and shelling percentage significantly varied over years. The higher sowing density was the higher yield of sweet maize was, hence the highest ear yield of 9.67 t ha-1 , on the average for all four hybrids, was recorded at the highest sowing density of 70,000 plants ha-1. The highest yield was detected in the hybrid ZP 424su. The highest shelling percentage (67.81% was found in the hybrid ZP 521su at the sowing density of 60,000 plants ha-1. Generally, it can be stated that sweet maize hybrids of a shorter growing season (FAO 400 could be cultivated up to 70,000 plants ha-1, while those of a longer growing season (FAO 500 could be grown up to 60,000 plants ha-1. In such a way, the most favorable parameters of yields and the highest yields can be obtained.

  14. In vivo body composition estimation in nongravid and reproducing first-litter sows with deuterium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, R.G. Jr.; Mahan, D.C.; Byers, F.M.

    1984-11-01

    An experiment was conducted with 64 first-litter sows to evaluate the efficacy of a D/sub 2/O dilution procedure for measuring in vivo body composition during the reproduction cycle. Eight gilts were each infused at breeding, 57 and 105 d postcoitum and at 5 and 25 d postpartum, with equivalent numbers of nongravid controls infused at corresponding periods except at 5 d postpartum. Results from D/sub 2/O dilution were compared with body water estimates obtained from chemical analysis. An early-equilibrating D/sub 2/O pool (before 15 min) was similar quantitatively to empty body (ingesta free) water in nongravid and lactating animals, but not in pregnant sows. Because of inconsistent D/sub 2/O equilibration patterns in gravid sows, the early pool was considered to have equilibrated with part but not all of the water in the conceptus products. Total body D/sub 2/O space measurement obtained from data following equilibration of D/sub 2/O in the entire body (1 to 2 h) overestimated total body water (including gastrointestinal water) by approximately 19%. Coefficients of determination for equations relating total body D/sub 2/O space to empty body and maternal body water were .96 and .88, respectively, in gestating sows and .67 and .74, respectively, for lactating sows, while coefficients of variation were below 6% in all cases. Prediction equations were developed to estimate empty and maternal body components (protein, fat and ash) from body weight and D/sub 2/O space. Accuracy of protein and ash weight prediction is lowest with this procedure because it involves the composite error of estimation of the other body components.

  15. Effect of sowing date on yield and quality of high moisture ear and grain production for maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Svečnjak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available High moisture ear and grain production of maize (Zea mays L. hasadvantages in comparison with dry grain production because longer maturity hybrids might be grown and there are no grain drying costs. A two year study was carried out at the Faculty of Agriculture experimental field Maksimir to evaluate the effect of delayed sowing dates on yield and quality of high moisture ear and grain production when compared to optimum sowing date. Maize hybrids belonging to the maturity groups FAO 200 (PR39K38 and 300 (PR38P05 were sown at optimum (early May and two delayed sowing dates (middle May and early June and grown under intensive cropping system.When compared to optimum sowing date, grain and ear yield significantly decreased with delayed sowing dates despite the fact that grown hybrids reached physiological maturity before the first autumn frosts. These yield reductions at delayed sowing dates were mainly associated with fewer grains per ear, and partly due to lighter 1000-grain weights. Both hybrids resulted in similar ear yield; however, a longer maturity hybrid (PR38P05 had larger grain yields than a shorter-maturity hybrid (PR39K38 because the latter hadsignificantly smaller shelling index (82,1 % than the former one (87,0 %. Sowing date and growing conditions showed no significant effect on grain protein and oil contents. Hybrids also had similar grain protein content, whereas PR38P05 had absolutely small, but significantly higher grain oil content than PR39K38. Thus, delayed sowing of the maize hybrids of FAO 200 - 300 maturity groups might occur into early June with no effect on grain quality, but with significant yield losses when compared to optimum sowing date.

  16. Risk factors for development of lameness in gestating sows within the first days after moving to group housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluym, Liesbet M; Maes, Dominiek; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; Van Nuffel, Annelies

    2017-02-01

    Lameness in sows is an important welfare issue that is affected by housing conditions and is thought to be influenced by hierarchical fights within the first days after mixing sows in groups. A longitudinal study in 15 randomly selected herds was performed to investigate the incidence of sow lameness and possible risk factors within the first days of group housing. Each herd was visited just before and again 3-5 days after the sows were moved to group housing. The floor characteristics and dimensions of the group housing facilities were assessed. Locomotion ability, body condition, skin lesions and degree of faecal soiling were recorded for all sows. Additional information on housing and management was obtained using a questionnaire. Amongst the 810 sows included in the study, the mean lameness incidence was 13.1% (95% confidence interval 10.9-15.6%). Following binomial logistic regression analysis, sows with >10% of the body covered with faeces had an increased risk for development of lameness (odds ratio, OR = 2.33, P = 0.001). An increase in space allowance from 1.7 m(2) to 3.0 m(2) (OR = 0.40, P = 0.03) and of herd size from 144 to 750 sows per herd (OR = 0.71, P = 0.02) decreased the risk of development of lameness. Neither the degree of aggression, indicated by skin lesions, nor the floor characteristics influenced the development of lameness. These results indicate that sows can benefit from a larger floor area. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of mechanical and thermal nociception as objective tools to measure painful and nonpainful lameness phases in multiparous sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohling, C M; Johnson, A K; Coetzee, J F; Karriker, L A; Stalder, K J; Abell, C E; Tyler, H D; Millman, S T

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify pain sensitivity differences using mechanical nociception threshold (MNT) and thermal nociception threshold (TNT) tests when sows were in painful and nonpainful transient lameness phases. A total of 24 mixed parity crossbred sows (220.15 ± 21.23 kg) were utilized for the MNT test, and a total of 12 sows (211.41 ± 20.21 kg) were utilized for the TNT test. On induction day (D0), all sows were anesthetized and injected with Amphotericin B (10mg/mL) in the distal interphalangeal joint space in both claws of one randomly selected hind limb to induce transient lameness. Three days were compared: (1) D-1 (sound phase, defined as 1 d before induction), (2) D+1 (most lame phase, defined as 1 d after induction), and (3) D+6 (resolution phase, defined as 6 d after induction). After completion of the first round, sows were given a 7-d rest period and then the procedures were repeated with lameness induced in the contralateral hind limb. During the MNT test, pressure was applied perpendicularly to 3 landmarks in a randomized sequence for each sow: 1) middle of cannon on the hind limb (cannon), 2) 1 cm above the coronary band on the medial hind claw (medial claw), and 3) 1 cm above the coronary band on the lateral hind claw (lateral claw). During the TNT test, a radiant heat stimulus was directed 1 cm above the coronary band. The data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure in SAS with sow as the experimental unit. Differences were analyzed between sound and lame limbs on each day. For the MNT test, pressure tolerated by the lame limb decreased for every landmark (P 0.05). However, the sows tolerated less heat stimulation on their lame limb on D+1 compared to D-1 levels (P < 0.05). Both MNT and TNT tests indicated greater pain sensitivity thresholds when sows were acutely lame.

  18. Grain yield and competitive ability against weeds in modern and heritage common wheat cultivars are differently influenced by sowing density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariateresa Lazzaro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sowing density can have a strong impact on crop stand development during wheat growing cycle. In organic and low-input agriculture, and therefore with minimum or nil use of chemical herbicides, increased sowing density is expected to affect not only grain yield but also weed suppression. In this study we tested, under Mediterranean conditions, six common wheat cultivars (three modern and three heritage and two three-component mixtures (arranged by combining the three modern or the three heritage cultivars. The different crop stands were tested at sowing densities of 250 (low and 400 (high, similar to standard sowing density used by local farmers viable seeds m–2 for two growing seasons. We did not detect a significant effect of crop stand diversity (single cultivars vs mixtures on grain yield and weed suppression. Differences were ascribed to type of cultivars used (heritage vs modern. Compared to high sowing density, in modern cultivars grain yield did not decrease significantly with low sowing density, whereas in heritage cultivars it increased by 15.6%, possibly also because of 21.5% lower plant lodging. Weed biomass increased with low sowing density both in heritage and modern cultivar crop stand types. However, heritage crop stands had, on average, a lower weed biomass (56% than modern crop stands. Moreover, weed biomass in heritage crop stands at low density (6.82±1.50 g m–2 was lower than that of modern cultivars at the same sowing density (15.54±3.35 g m–2, confirming the higher suppressive potential of the former. We can conclude that lower sowing density can be advisable when using heritage crop stands as it keeps productivity while decreasing plant lodging and maintaining weeds under control.

  19. Sensitivity and specificity of various serologic tests for detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in naturally infected sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, J.P.; Thulliez, P.; Weigel, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of various serologic tests for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were compared in 1,000 naturally exposed sows, using isolation of viable T gondii as the definitive test. Serum samples obtained from heart blood of 1,000 sows from Iowa were examined for T gondii...... antibodies by use of the modified agglutination test (MAT), latex agglutination test (LAT), indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT), and ELISA. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 170 hearts of 1,000 sows by bioassays in mice and cats. The percentage of samples diagnosed as positive for each of the serologic...

  20. Effect of Organic Selenium from Se-enriched Alga (Chlorella spp. on Selenium Transfer from Sows to Their Progeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Svoboda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the efficacy of organic Se from Se-enriched alga Chlorella spp. in placental transfer to piglets. In group A (n = 8 the sows were fed during the gestation a diet supplemented with inorganic Se (sodium selenite, 0.3 mg/kg. In group B (n = 8 the diet of the sows was supplemented with organic Se from Se-enriched alga (0.3 mg/kg. The Se concentrations in the whole blood (P P Chlorella spp. in sows resulted in greater transfer of Se to their progeny.

  1. A cross sectional study of the prevalence, risk factors and population attributable fractions for limb and body lesions in lactating sows on commercial farms in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillman Claire E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lesions on sows' limbs and bodies are an abnormality that might impact on their welfare. The prevalence of and risks for limb and body lesions on lactating sows on commercial English pig farms were investigated using direct observation of the sows and their housing. Results The prevalence of lesions on the limbs and body were 93% (260/279 and 20% (57/288 respectively. The prevalence of limb and body lesions was significantly lower in outdoor-housed sows compared with indoor-housed sows. Indoor-housed sows had an increased risk of wounds (OR 6.8, calluses (OR 8.8 and capped hock (OR 3.8 on their limbs when housed on fully slatted floors compared with solid concrete floors. In addition, there was an increased risk of bursitis (OR 2.7, capped hock (OR 2.3 and shoulder lesions (OR 4.8 in sows that were unwilling to rise to their feet. There was a decreased risk of shoulder lesions (OR 0.3 and lesions elsewhere on the body (OR 0.2 in sows with more than 20 cm between their tail and the back of the crate compared with sows with less than 10 cm. Conclusion The sample of outdoor housed sows in this study had the lowest prevalence of limb and body lesions. In lactating sows housed indoors there was a general trend for an increased risk of limb and body lesions in sows housed on slatted floors compared with those housed on solid concrete floors with bedding. Sows that were less responsive to human presence and sows that had the least space to move within their crates had an additional increased risk of lesions.

  2. Mapping Smallholder Wheat Yields and Sowing Dates Using Micro-Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meha Jain

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing offers a low-cost method for developing spatially continuous crop production statistics across large areas and through time. Nevertheless, it has been difficult to characterize the production of individual smallholder farms, given that the land-holding size in most areas of South Asia (<2 ha is smaller than the spatial resolution of most freely available satellite imagery, like Landsat and MODIS. In addition, existing methods to map yield require field-level data to develop and parameterize predictive algorithms that translate satellite vegetation indices to yield, yet these data are costly or difficult to obtain in many smallholder systems. To overcome these challenges, this study explores two issues. First, we employ new high spatial (2 m and temporal (bi-weekly resolution micro-satellite SkySat data to map sowing dates and yields of smallholder wheat fields in Bihar, India in the 2014–2015 and 2015–2016 growing seasons. Second, we compare how well we predict sowing date and yield when using ground data, like crop cuts and self-reports, versus using crop models, which require no on-the-ground data, to develop and parameterize prediction models. Overall, sow dates were predicted well (R2 = 0.41 in 2014–2015 and R2 = 0.62 in 2015–2016, particularly when using models that were parameterized using self-report sow dates collected close to the time of planting and when using imagery that spanned the entire growing season. We were also able to map yields fairly well (R2 = 0.27 in 2014–2015 and R2 = 0.33 in 2015–2016, with crop cut parameterized models resulting in the highest accuracies. While less accurate, we were able to capture the large range in sow dates and yields across farms when using models parameterized with crop model data and these estimates were able to detect known relationships between management factors (e.g., sow date, fertilizer, and irrigation and yield. While these results are specific to our study

  3. A sow replacement model using Bayesian updating in a three-level hierarchic Markov process. I. Biological model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard; Søllested, Thomas Algot

    2004-01-01

    Several replacement models have been presented in literature. In other applicational areas like dairy cow replacement, various methodological improvements like hierarchical Markov processes and Bayesian updating have been implemented, but not in sow models. Furthermore, there are methodological i...

  4. The questionable value of some science-based 'welfare' assessments in intensive animal farming: sow stalls as an illustrative example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, M P; Cambridge, H

    2008-11-01

    A recent review of the code of practice for pigs brought attention to the question of how to assess the impact of housing conditions on pig welfare. The stance adopted by the law-makers, which mirrors that of industry, is that the status quo should be maintained until there is irrefutable scientific evidence in favour of change. Sows in intensive pig farms are often confined in cages (sow stalls) that are little bigger than their body. Many people find this repellent and the question of whether keeping sows in stalls is detrimental to their welfare has become a major focus of debate. All animal welfare groups in Australia, including the RSPCA, oppose the use of sow stalls. This brief essay critically examines the rationale for refusing to sanction change unless supported by scientific evidence. We conclude that the criteria for assessing welfare should not be restricted to consideration of scientific evidence alone, but should be widened to encompass moral and ethical considerations.

  5. Antibody response and maternal immunity upon boosting PRRSV-immune sows with experimental farm-specific and commercial PRRSV vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldhof, Marc F; Van Breedam, Wander; De Jong, Ellen; Lopez Rodriguez, Alfonso; Karniychuk, Uladzimir U; Vanhee, Merijn; Van Doorsselaere, Jan; Maes, Dominiek; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2013-12-27

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory disease in pigs of all ages. Despite the frequent use of vaccines to maintain PRRSV immunity in sows, little is known on how the currently used vaccines affect the immunity against currently circulating and genetically divergent PRRSV variants in PRRSV-immune sows, i.e. sows that have a pre-existing PRRSV-specific immunity due to previous infection with or vaccination against the virus. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the capacity of commercially available attenuated/inactivated PRRSV vaccines and autogenous inactivated PRRSV vaccines - prepared according to a previously optimized in-house protocol - to boost the antibody immunity against currently circulating PRRSV variants in PRRSV-immune sows. PRRSV isolates were obtained from 3 different swine herds experiencing PRRSV-related problems, despite regular vaccination of gilts and sows against the virus. In a first part of the study, the PRRSV-specific antibody response upon booster vaccination with commercial PRRSV vaccines and inactivated farm-specific PRRSV vaccines was evaluated in PRRSV-immune, non-pregnant replacement sows from the 3 herds. A boost in virus-neutralizing antibodies against the farm-specific isolate was observed in all sow groups vaccinated with the corresponding farm-specific inactivated vaccines. Use of the commercial attenuated EU type vaccine boosted neutralizing antibodies against the farm-specific isolate in sows derived from 2 farms, while use of the commercial attenuated NA type vaccine did not boost farm-specific virus-neutralizing antibodies in any of the sow groups. Interestingly, the commercial inactivated EU type vaccine boosted farm-specific virus-neutralizing antibodies in sows from 1 farm. In the second part of the study, a field trial was performed at one of the farms to evaluate the booster effect of an inactivated farm-specific vaccine and a commercial

  6. Environmental and breed factors associated with lifetime and per year productivity of sows in a commercial farm in Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C Segura-Correa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of some environmental and breed group factors on lifetime and per year productivity of sows. A retrospective study was carried out from 1998 to 2007 using information of a production system with 2,400 sows, in La Piedad, Michoacan, Mexico. Data from 6,063 sows belonging to the breed groups PIC Camborough 22, Yorkshire (Y, F1 Landrace (L x Y (F1 LY and 3/4Y1/4L were used. The response variables were the number of pigs born alive per sow per year (PBY or per productive lifetime (PBL, number of pigs weaned per year (PWY or per productive lifetime (PWL, kg of pigs weaned per sow per year (KWY, kg of pigs weaned per sow per lifetime (KWL and productive lifetime (PLT of sows. The statistical model included the fixed effect of year of first farrowing (1998-2007, season of first farrowing (spring, summer, fall, winter, breed group of the sow, number of pigs born alive at first farrowing (10 pigs and year by season interaction. Means and standard deviations estimated for PBY, PWY, KPY, PBL, PWL, KWL and PLT were 21.4±3.71 pigs, 18.2±4.04 pigs, 107.5+25.8 kg, 48.3±22.7 pigs, 41.4±3.71 kg, 243.7±122.9 kg and 805.6±338.8 days, respectively. All factors studied had effect on all traits (P < 0.05, except, breed group on PBY, and season on PWY and KWL. The interaction of year by season was not significant only for PBY. Sows farrowing from 2005 to 2007 and in the fall season had the poorest performance. The best performance per year or productive lifetime corresponded to the 1/4L3/4Y breed group, except for PBY where no differences were found. Also, the 1/4L3/4Y sows stayed longer in the herd. The sows with the smallest litter size at first parity (≤ 6 piglets had the worst performance.

  7. Effects of confinement on physiological and psychological responses and expression of interleukin 6 and brain derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in primiparous and multiparous weaning sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study aimed to investigate whether the long-lasting, recurrent restricting of sows leads to the physiological and psychological reaction of discomfort. Methods Sows (Large White that had experienced restricting for about 0.5 or 3 years and age-matched sows kept in a group housing system (loose sows were compared. Pupillary light reflex parameters were measured at the weaning stage. Immediately after slaughter, blood samples were taken to measure serum cortisol levels, and the brain was dissected, gene expression in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and hypothalamus was analyzed. Results The serum cortisol levels were higher in the confined sows than in the loose sows. The full maturity, but not the young adolescent, confined sows had longer latency time in the onset of pupil constriction than their loose counterparts. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed an increased expression of interleukin 6 mRNA in the hippocampus and decreased expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in hippocampus and hypothalamus and to a lesser extent in the frontal cortex of the full maturity confined sows, compared with the full maturity loose sows. Conclusion Taken together, these data indicated that recurrent restricting stress in full maturity sows leads to the physiological and psychological reaction of discomfort.

  8. Effects of dietary arginine supplementation during gestation and lactation on the performance of lactating primiparous sows and nursing piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, R D; Wu, G; Moon, H K; Carroll, J A; Kim, S W

    2008-04-01

    A 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized block design was used to determine the effects of dietary Arg supplementation during gestation and lactation on the lactation performance of 38 first-parity sows. At 30 d of gestation, pregnant gilts were allotted based on BW to 1 of 2 diets supplemented with 1% L-Arg.HCl or 1.7% L-Ala (isonitrogenous control). After farrowing, sows were further allotted based on BW within previous gestation treatment groups to 1 of 2 lactation diets supplemented with 1% L-Arg.HCl or 1.7% L-Ala (isonitrogenous control). All gestation diets contained 3.1 Mcal/kg and 12.2% CP (as is) and were fed 2 kg/d in 2 equally sized meals, whereas all lactation diets contained 3.2 Mcal/kg and 18.6% CP (as is) and were fed ad libitum. Litter size was standardized to 10 piglets by cross-fostering within 24 h postfarrowing. On a weekly basis, BW and backfat (BF) thickness of sows, as well as piglet BW were measured, and blood and milk samples were obtained from the sows. Number of days from weaning to estrus and ADFI were also recorded. There were no differences in BW, BF thickness, ADFI, or days until return to estrus among treatment groups. There was no effect of the gestation diet or a gestation x lactation diet interaction on any parameter measured. On d 7 of lactation, plasma concentrations of Arg and insulin in sows, as well as concentrations of most AA in milk, were greater (P piglets from sows fed the Arg-supplemented diet during lactation was greater between d 0 and 7 (P piglets from sows fed the control diet. Collectively, results from this study indicate the potential beneficial effects of dietary Arg supplementation in improving the lactation performance of first-parity sows.

  9. Estimating inter-annual variability in winter wheat sowing dates from satellite time series in Camargue, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfron, Giacinto; Delmotte, Sylvestre; Busetto, Lorenzo; Hossard, Laure; Ranghetti, Luigi; Brivio, Pietro Alessandro; Boschetti, Mirco

    2017-05-01

    Crop simulation models are commonly used to forecast the performance of cropping systems under different hypotheses of change. Their use on a regional scale is generally constrained, however, by a lack of information on the spatial and temporal variability of environment-related input variables (e.g., soil) and agricultural practices (e.g., sowing dates) that influence crop yields. Satellite remote sensing data can shed light on such variability by providing timely information on crop dynamics and conditions over large areas. This paper proposes a method for analyzing time series of MODIS satellite data in order to estimate the inter-annual variability of winter wheat sowing dates. A rule-based method was developed to automatically identify a reliable sample of winter wheat field time series, and to infer the corresponding sowing dates. The method was designed for a case study in the Camargue region (France), where winter wheat is characterized by vernalization, as in other temperate regions. The detection criteria were chosen on the grounds of agronomic expertise and by analyzing high-confidence time-series vegetation index profiles for winter wheat. This automatic method identified the target crop on more than 56% (four-year average) of the cultivated areas, with low commission errors (11%). It also captured the seasonal variability in sowing dates with errors of ±8 and ±16 days in 46% and 66% of cases, respectively. Extending the analysis to the years 2002-2012 showed that sowing in the Camargue was usually done on or around November 1st (±4 days). Comparing inter-annual sowing date variability with the main local agro-climatic drivers showed that the type of preceding crop and the weather conditions during the summer season before the wheat sowing had a prominent role in influencing winter wheat sowing dates.

  10. Effects of sowing dates and different fertilizers on yield, yield components, and oil percentage of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parviz rezvani moghadam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of sowing dates and different fertilizers on yield, yield components, and oil percentage of castor bean, an experiment was conducted at Experimental station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in years 2004-2005. The experimental treatments comprised all combinations of four sowing dates (11 April, 25 April, 8 May and 22 May and three different fertilizers (cow manure (30 tons/ha, compost (30 tons/ha, chemical fertilizers (100 kg/ha N and 250 kg/ha of super phosphate and no fertilizer as control. Different characteristics such as plant height, main inflorescence height, number of inflorescence per plant, number of secondary stems per plant, number of capsules per plant, number of grain per plant, grain weight per plant, 100 seed weight, grain yield, oil percentage and oil yield were recorded. A factorial arrangement based on a randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The results showed by delaying sowing date grain yield, seed oil percentage and oil yield were decreased, but there was no significant differences between 25 April, 8 May and 22 May sowing dates. Harvest index and 100 seed weight did not affect by neither sowing dates nor fertilizer treatments. The highest number of branches per plant, number of fertile inflorescences per plant, number of fertile capsules per plant, number of grain per plant, grain weight per plant and biological yield were obtained at 8 May sowing date on chemical fertilizer. Percentage of seed oil, grain yield and oil yield was higher at the first sowing date (11 April in compost and chemical fertilizer treatments. Keywords: Castor bean, sowing date, fertilizer, grain yield, oil percentage.

  11. Sowing terms of winter bread wheat variety-innovations (Triticum aestivum L. in the conditions of change of climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Л. Дергачов

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of studying of influence of sowing terms on productivity and indices of quality of grain of winter bread wheat variety-innovations of V.M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat of NAAS of Ukraine in the conditions of Right-bank Forest-steppe are shown. Negative correlation of productivity of varieties on average temperature of air during the sowing period is shown.

  12. Study of the thermal mode of a barn for piglets and a sow, created by combined heating system

    OpenAIRE

    Zhelykh, Vasyl; Dzeryn, Oleksandra; Shapoval, Stepan; Furdas, Yurij; Piznak, Bohdan

    2017-01-01

    The present research addresses solution to the relevant problem of energy efficient heating supply of pig farms with barns of pigs and a sow by applying combined heating systems based on local heating of places for animal keeping. A physical model is developed, which offered the possibility to carry out a complex of experimental studies on determining temperature mode in the barn for piglets and a sow. We established the patterns of influence of thermal capacity of individual heating devices,...

  13. Perbaikan Fenotipe Pertumbuhan Anak Babi Lokal Melalui Penyuntikan Gonadotropin Sebelum Induk Dikawinkan (IMPROVEMENT OF GROWTH PHENOTYPE OF LOCAL PIGLET BY GONADOTROPHIN INJECTION OF SOW PRIOR TO MATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1Debby Jacqueline Jochebed Rayer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was designed to study the growth phenotypes of piglets born to sows injected withpregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG prior to mating inorder to improve endogenous secretions of pregnant hormones during pregnancy. The experimental sowsused in this study were 10 local breed sows with body weight ranges of 30-40 kg. Before mating, estrouscycles of the experimental sows were synchronized by injecting 3.75 mg prostaglandin twice with 14 daysinterval. The experimental sows were then divided into two groups, each consisted of 5 sows. The firstgroup was injected with 200 IU PMSG and 100 IU hCG per sow at the same time with the secondprostaglandin injection (day 15th, while the second group was not injected with PMSG and hCG but it wasinjected with NaCl 0.95% as a control. After showing estrous behavior, the experimental sows were mixedwith selected boars for natural mating. The pregnant sows were maintained until farrowing and weaning. Variable measured were body weights and body lengths and leg heights of the piglets at birth andweaning. The results showed that injection of the sows with PMSG and hCG prior to the mating, increasedbirth weight by 76.92% and total birth weight of live piglets per sow by 265.6% as compared to control.Piglets born to sows injected with PMSG and hCG prior to mating had higher survival rate with adramatically decreased mortality and a higher pre-weaning growth rate that finally increased total weightof weaned pigs per sows dramatically by 107.44% (increased 2 times as compared to control. It is concludedthat the growth phenotypes of local piglets could be improved by injecting the sows with gonadotropinbefore mating.

  14. Decubital shoulder ulcers in sows - a review of classification, pain and welfare consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S; Bonde, Marianne; Jørgensen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    in the skin and the underlying tissue. This paper reviews existing knowledge about decubital shoulder ulcers in sows, focusing on the pathogenesis, classification and consequences in terms of pain and animal welfare. On the basis of available human as well as animal literature, we describe the primary causal...... of the welfare consequences of decubital shoulder ulcers is limited. On the basis of the tissue structures that are involved, we assume that the development and presence of decubital shoulder ulcers in sows are a painful and prolonged condition. It is concluded that the extent of the welfare problem related...... to decubital shoulder ulcers cannot be fully determined until a valid ante-mortem classification system is available, and knowledge about the duration of the condition (including the various stages), as well as the possible consequences in terms of pain or discomfort have been established...

  15. Colostrum and milk production in multiparous sows fed supplementary arginine during gestation and lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Oksbjerg, Niels; Purup, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Arginine can be converted into the vasoactive metabolite nitric oxide and may, consequently, increase mammary blood flow, and arginine was, therefore, hypothesized to increase the output of nutrients in mammary secreta. Sows were supplemented with an additional 25 g arginine/d (ARG; n = 11......) or isonitrogenous amounts of alanine (CON; n = 10) from d 30 of gestation until weaning on d 28 of lactation (in 2 blocks). Piglets were weighed 0, 12, 24, and 36 h after birth of the first piglet and on d 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 in lactation for estimation of colostrum and milk intake. Colostrum samples obtained at 0......, 12, 24, and 36 h after parturition and milk from sows on d 3, 10, 17, and 24 of lactation were analyzed for macrochemical composition. Also, the content of IGF-I was determined in colostrum. Arginine supplementation decreased lactose and increased DM content of colostrum (P

  16. Impact of Early Sowing on Winter Wheat Receiving Manure or Mineral Fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Tolstrup; Jensen, Johannes Lund; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2017-01-01

    To reduce over-winter nitrate leaching from temperate soil, nitrate catch crops can be grown between main crops. We hypothesize that earlier sowing can replace catch crops sown before winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and improve wheat yields and N uptake. Early sown (late August) and timely sown...... (late September) wheat were tested over two cropping seasons (2011–2012 and 2013–2014) using two contemporary cultivars (Hereford and Mariboss) and increasing rates of N (0–300 kg total N ha–1) with animal manure (AM; cattle slurry) or mineral fertilizers (NPK), surface applied in late March. We...... to late August provided higher grain and straw yields; the increased over-winter N uptake suggests that the beneficial effect of earlier sowing may surpass that of a catch crop. Cattle slurry surface applied in late March gave poor N use efficiency and low grain protein content....

  17. Effect of sowing date and plant density on grain and flower yield of Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad javad seghatol eslami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. is a medicinal herb whose dried flower heads are used to heal wounds. In order to study the effects of sowing dates and plant density on grain and flower yield of pot marigold, an experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Center of Islamic Azad University, Birjand Branch in 2005. Three sowing dates (30 March, 14 April and 30 April and three plant densities (plant distances on row were 10, 20 and 30 centimeters were compared in a split- plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Seed and flower yields were significantly different at planting dates and plant densities. Sowing date had significant effects on flower and seed harvest index. The latest sowing dates had the highest flower and seed harvest index. Plant density had not significant effect on flower harvest index, but the effect on seed harvest index, was significant. In total our result showed that the first sowing date with 25 plants/m2 had the highest grain and flower yield. Keywords: Marigold, sowing date, plant density, medicinal plant.

  18. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping ... This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping ...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... issues and advocacy priorities National Network of Perinatal Quality Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team ... and more. Stony Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E- ...

  20. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your personal ...

  1. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... and more. Stony Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E- ... Collaborative Info for your patients Medical resources Professional education Awards, scholarships & grants For policy makers Policies & positions ...

  2. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... pump Baby Feeding your baby Other Baby topics ') document.write(' Caring for your baby ') document.write('') } ') document.write(' Feeding your baby ') document.write('') } ') ...

  3. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... Thank you! Your e-mail was sent. Save to my dashboard Sign in or Sign up to ...

  4. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... and more. Stony Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E- ... Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby ...

  5. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  6. Heritability of longevity in Large White and Landrace sows using continuous time and grouped data models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, Gábor; Pálos, Judit; Ducrocq, Vincent; Sölkner, Johann

    2010-05-13

    Using conventional measurements of lifetime, it is not possible to differentiate between productive and non-productive days during a sow's lifetime and this can lead to estimated breeding values favoring less productive animals. By rescaling the time axis from continuous to several discrete classes, grouped survival data (discrete survival time) models can be used instead. The productive life length of 12319 Large White and 9833 Landrace sows was analyzed with continuous scale and grouped data models. Random effect of herd*year, fixed effects of interaction between parity and relative number of piglets, age at first farrowing and annual herd size change were included in the analysis. The genetic component was estimated from sire, sire-maternal grandsire, sire-dam, sire-maternal grandsire and animal models, and the heritabilities computed for each model type in both breeds. If age at first farrowing was under 43 weeks or above 60 weeks, the risk of culling sows increased. An interaction between parity and relative litter size was observed, expressed by limited culling during first parity and severe risk increase of culling sows having small litters later in life. In the Landrace breed, heritabilities ranged between 0.05 and 0.08 (s.e. 0.014-0.020) for the continuous and between 0.07 and 0.11 (s.e. 0.016-0.023) for the grouped data models, and in the Large White breed, they ranged between 0.08 and 0.14 (s.e. 0.012-0.026) for the continuous and between 0.08 and 0.13 (s.e. 0.012-0.025) for the grouped data models. Heritabilities for length of productive life were similar with continuous time and grouped data models in both breeds. Based on these results and because grouped data models better reflect the economical needs in meat animals, we conclude that grouped data models are more appropriate in pig.

  7. Rapid revegetation by sowing seed mixtures of shrub and herbaceous species

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, J.; Zhang, C.; Zhao, T.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-01-01

    Fast revegetation by means of sowing seed mixtures of shrub and herbaceous species is a measure to prevent bare soils from wind and water erosion. A field experiment was used to test the effect of species selection and the ratio of shrub to herbaceous species on vegetation formation and shrub growth. Results showed that herbaceous species hastened cover formation and maintained a high coverage for a longer period. However, the growth of shrubs was hindered. In the North Chin...

  8. Using classification trees to detect induced sow lameness with a transient model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, C E; Johnson, A K; Karriker, L A; Rothschild, M F; Hoff, S J; Sun, G; Fitzgerald, R F; Stalder, K J

    2014-06-01

    Feet and legs issues are some of the main causes for sow removal in the US swine industry. More timely lameness detection among breeding herd females will allow better treatment decisions and outcomes. Producers will be able to treat lame females before the problem becomes too severe and cull females while they still have salvage value. The objective of this study was to compare the predictive abilities and accuracies of weight distribution and gait measures relative to each other and to a visual lameness detection method when detecting induced lameness among multiparous sows. Developing an objective lameness diagnosis algorithm will benefit animals, producers and scientists in timely and effective identification of lame individuals as well as aid producers in their efforts to decrease herd lameness by selecting animals that are less prone to become lame. In the early stages of lameness, weight distribution and gait are impacted. Lameness was chemically induced for a short time period in 24 multiparous sows and their weight distribution and walking gait were measured in the days following lameness induction. A linear mixed model was used to determine differences between measurements collected from day to day. Using a classification tree analysis, it was determined that the mean weight being placed on each leg was the most predictive measurement when determining whether the leg was sound or lame. The classification tree's predictive ability decreased as the number of days post-lameness induction increased. The weight distribution measurements had a greater predictive ability compared with the gait measurements. The error rates associated with the weight distribution trees were 29.2% and 31.3% at 6 days post-lameness induction for front and rear injected feet, respectively. For the gait classification trees, the error rates were 60.9% and 29.8% at 6 days post-lameness induction for front and rear injected feet, respectively. More timely lameness detection can improve

  9. Lactose in plasma during lactogenesis, established lactation and weaning in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, P E; Whitely, J L; Willcox, D L

    1984-02-01

    The concentration of lactose in plasma was determined in different sows at all phases of their reproductive cycle and related to the compositional changes in mammary secretion during lactogenesis, established lactation and weaning. Lactose was present in low concentrations (3-4 microM) in the blood of virgin sows and pregnant sows up to 107 days of gestation. From day 4 pre-partum to day 1 pre-partum circulating lactose rose gradually to 34.5 +/- 7.7 microM (mean +/- S.E. of mean). Maximal concentrations of 262 +/- 168.4 microM were reached 6 h after parturition. The concentration of lactose in plasma was correlated with the amount of lactose in mammary secretion (r = 0.88, P less than 0.01) at the beginning of farrowing. During established lactation the concentrations of lactose, Na and K in milk, and of lactose in plasma (72-86 microM), were constant. The concentration of lactose in plasma did not vary significantly during periods of suckling, or after stimulation of milk ejection by oxytocin. However, the amount of lactose in plasma rose significantly (P less than 0.02) after the administration of oxytocin if milk ejection was not accompanied by suckling. The mean plasma concentration of lactose began to rise 36 h after weaning to a peak value of 241.8 +/- 53.6 microM at 48 h; thereafter it declined to 10.2 +/- 2.0 microM by 6 days. This study has shown that lactose concentrations in the plasma vary according to the secretory activity of the mammary gland. Its plasma concentration provides an earlier temporal measure of lactogenesis in individual sows than is obtained either from observation or analysis of mammary secretion.

  10. Financial implications of installing air filtration systems to prevent PRRSV infection in large sow herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carmen; Davies, Peter R; Polson, Dale D; Dee, Scott A; Lazarus, William F

    2013-09-01

    Air filtration systems implemented in large sow herds have been demonstrated to decrease the probability of having a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) outbreak. However, implementation of air filtration represents a considerable capital investment, and does not eliminate the risk of new virus introductions. The specific objectives of the study were: 1) to determine productivity differences between a cohort of filtered and non-filtered sow farms; and 2) to employ those productivity differences to model the profitability of filtration system investments in a hypothetical 3000 sow farm. Variables included in the study were production variables (quarterly) from respective herds; air filtration status; number of pig sites within 4.7 km of the farm; occurrence of a PRRSV outbreak in a quarter, and season. For the investment analyses, three Scenarios were compared in a deterministic spreadsheet model of weaned pig cost: (1) control, (2) filtered conventional attic, and (3) filtered tunnel ventilation. Model outputs indicated that a filtered farm produced 5927 more pigs than unfiltered farms. The payback periods for the investments, were estimated to be 5.35 years for Scenario 2 and 7.13 years for Scenario 3 based solely on sow herd productivity. Payback period sensitivity analyses were performed for both biological and financial inputs. The payback period was most influenced by the premium for weaned pig sales price for PRRSV-negative pigs, and the relative proportions of time that filtered vs. unfiltered farms produced PRRSV-negative pigs. A premium of $5 per pig for PRRS-negative weaned pigs reduced the estimated payback periods to 2.1 years for Scenario 2 and 2.8 years for Scenario 3. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of sows age on total tract nutrient digestibility in diet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eugenia

    2016-07-31

    Jul 31, 2016 ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v46i3.2. Effect of sow age on the apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients in the diet. E. Jacyno, A. Pietruszka#, W. Biel, A. Kołodziej-Skalska, B. Matysiak,. M. Kawęcka & A. Sosnowska. Department of Pig Breeding, Animal Nutrition and Food, West Pomeranian University of ...

  12. Evaluation of floor cooling on lactating sows under mild and moderate heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of sow cooling pads during lactation was evaluated under mild and moderate heat stress conditions. The moderate heat stress room was targeted to achieve 32°C from 0800 to 1600 h and 27°C for the rest of the day. The mild heat stress room was targeted to achieve 27°C and 22°C for th...

  13. Evalution of the healthiness of winter wheat cultivated in conventional tillage, direct sowing and direct sowing with underplant crop of white clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Moszczyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of the healthiness of winter wheat depending on the soil tillage system and rate of nitrogen fertilization were carried out in 1998-2001. The largest threat to the healthiness of plants was tan spot, which was caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, especially in cropping season 1999/2000. The soil tillage system diversified the intensification of occurence of this pathogen, only in two last years of research. The most infected by P. tritici-i was wheat, which was cultivated in the direct sowing. Application of underplant crop of white clover in the direct sowing contributed to the improvement of the plants healthiness. The highest rate of nitrogen fertilization (120 kg N.ha-1 in the highest degree favoured the damage of wheat by P. tritici-repentis, but only in two first years of research. The second pathogen Blumeria graminis, which caused powdery mildew of cereals, occured in small amount and didn't have any influence on the healthiness of winter wheat.

  14. [Porcine proliferative enteropathy in feeders and breeder sows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlein, J; Breuer, W; Heinritzi, K; Hermanns, W

    1997-08-01

    Porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE) was recognized as an important economic factor in pig production. In the following, three cases of PPE in pigs presented for necropsy are discussed. The animals were raised in a stud stock and a weaning production facility in Bavaria. The clinical signs described in the history indicated a herd problem with hemorrhagic diarrhoea and paleness being the cardinal signs. The diagnosis was based upon gross and histopathological findings and was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The different types of manifestation of the disease seen in the two production facilities are discussed in the context of the current literature on etiology and pathogenesis.

  15. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE MAIN REPRODUCTION INDICATORS DETERMINATED IN SOWS, STAND GESTATION PEN TIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMONA UNTARU

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Current researches were carried out with the goal to quantisize the lost from the weaning to early gestation at the sows housed in open pen gestation. In this trail we tested two pen types, different not only by size, but also by feeders’ emplacement. The main reproduction indicators that we calculated until the 28 gestation day were the proportion of sows in heat after weaning, the weaning to estrus interval and the gestation rates. The weaning to estrus interval was about 4 to 7 days, most sows were in heat in the day 5 and 6 days after weaning. The percent of heat detection after weaning was 71.42% for the small pens and 70.71% for the big pens (differences statistically non significant, chi test value was 0.983. The gestation rate at 28 days after insemination was 91.62% for the small pens and 94.72% for the large pens (chi test value 0,959, statistically non significant differences. The overpopulation for heat induction and after that chipping animals together in those pens, show that the lost are up to 40.47%, between weaning – day 28 of gestation.

  16. Effect of Minimal Disease in a Herd on Reproductive Parameters of Sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Nevrkla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluation of reproductive performance in sows from herds with minimal disease. Total number of 40 sows were included in the observation and evaluated from the 1st to the 4th parity. The highest reproductive performance was recorded at the 3rd parity. Statistically significant difference (P < 0.05 was found between the 1st and the 3rd parity and highly statistically significant difference (P < 0.01 was recorded between the 2nd and the 3rd parity in number of live‑born piglets. Comparison of numbers of stillborn piglets showed statistically significant difference (P < 0.05 between the mean values of the 1st and the 4th parity. The results also showed highly statistically significant difference (P < 0.01 in number of reared piglets between the 3rd and the 4th parity. The conclusions of this study indicate that creation and maintenance of herds of sows with high health status lead to excellent results in the area of pig reproduction.

  17. Within-litter variation in birth weight: impact of nutritional status in the sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tao-lin; Zhu, Yu-hua; Shi, Meng; Li, Tian-tian; Li, Na; Wu, Guo-yao; Bazer, Fuller W; Zang, Jian-jun; Wang, Feng-lai; Wang, Jun-jun

    2015-06-01

    Accompanying the beneficial improvement in litter size from genetic selection for high-prolificacy sows, within-litter variation in birth weight has increased with detrimental effects on post-natal growth and survival due to an increase in the proportion of piglets with low birth-weight. Causes of within-litter variation in birth weight include breed characteristics that affect uterine space, ovulation rate, degree of maturation of oocytes, duration of time required for ovulation, interval between ovulation and fertilization, uterine capacity for implantation and placentation, size and efficiency of placental transport of nutrients, communication between conceptus/fetus and maternal systems, as well as nutritional status and environmental influences during gestation. Because these factors contribute to within-litter variation in birth weight, nutritional status of the sow to improve fetal-placental development must focus on the following three important stages in the reproductive cycle: pre-mating or weaning to estrus, early gestation and late gestation. The goal is to increase the homogeneity of development of oocytes and conceptuses, decrease variations in conceptus development during implantation and placentation, and improve birth weights of newborn piglets. Though some progress has been made in nutritional regulation of within-litter variation in the birth weight of piglets, additional studies, with a focus on and insights into molecular mechanisms of reproductive physiology from the aspects of maternal growth and offspring development, as well as their regulation by nutrients provided to the sow, are urgently needed.

  18. Within-litter variation in birth weight: impact of nutritional status in the sow*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tao-lin; Zhu, Yu-hua; Shi, Meng; Li, Tian-tian; Li, Na; Wu, Guo-yao; Bazer, Fuller W.; Zang, Jian-jun; Wang, Feng-lai; Wang, Jun-jun

    2015-01-01

    Accompanying the beneficial improvement in litter size from genetic selection for high-prolificacy sows, within-litter variation in birth weight has increased with detrimental effects on post-natal growth and survival due to an increase in the proportion of piglets with low birth-weight. Causes of within-litter variation in birth weight include breed characteristics that affect uterine space, ovulation rate, degree of maturation of oocytes, duration of time required for ovulation, interval between ovulation and fertilization, uterine capacity for implantation and placentation, size and efficiency of placental transport of nutrients, communication between conceptus/fetus and maternal systems, as well as nutritional status and environmental influences during gestation. Because these factors contribute to within-litter variation in birth weight, nutritional status of the sow to improve fetal-placental development must focus on the following three important stages in the reproductive cycle: pre-mating or weaning to estrus, early gestation and late gestation. The goal is to increase the homogeneity of development of oocytes and conceptuses, decrease variations in conceptus development during implantation and placentation, and improve birth weights of newborn piglets. Though some progress has been made in nutritional regulation of within-litter variation in the birth weight of piglets, additional studies, with a focus on and insights into molecular mechanisms of reproductive physiology from the aspects of maternal growth and offspring development, as well as their regulation by nutrients provided to the sow, are urgently needed. PMID:26055904

  19. SOWS FERTILITY AFTER INTRACERVICAL OR POSTCERVICAL ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION (AI IN WORM AND COLD SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stančić

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Reduced fertility of boars and sows during the warmer period of the year significantly reduces the reproductive efficiency of pigs in intensive production. The aim of this study was to determine whether the application of intrauterine (postcervical artificial insemination (AI, with twice reduced dose volume (50 mL and the number of spermatozoa per dose (2x109, compared to the classical intracervical insemination (dose volume 50 mL with 4x109 spermatozoa, can increase the fertility of sows inseminated in the warm season of the year. After classical intracervical insemination, farrowing rate was significantly (P0.05, neither depending on the season, or depending on the number of spermatozoa per dose (78% and 75% in warm, or 86% and 83% in cold season of the year. The results show that the use of intrauterine insemination, with doses twice reduced in volume and sperm number, can significantly reduce the negative impact of the warm season on sows fertility.

  20. Prolificacy of old genotype Lithuanian white sows in small closed population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmaite Violeta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the influence of generation, parity number and year on sow prolificacy in the nucleus herd of the closed population of old genotype Lithuanian White pigs. Data on farrowing and litter size (total born, born alive, including sex of piglets, stillborn were available per parities for individual sows from 2000 to 2011. The piglets originated from 395 litters (104 dams and 28 sires of five generations. The generation showed effects on the number of total born piglets, piglets born alive, including males (p<0.01 per litters and did not appear to affect the number of stillborn piglets. The parity showed overall effects on the numbers of total born and stillborn piglets (p<0.01. Least square means for these traits increased with increasing parity number and reached significant (p<0.05 increase in parity 5. The year of farrowing showed the overall effect on the numbers of total born (p<0.01, born alive (p<0.001, including their sex and stillborn piglets (p<0.05. The decline in the numbers of piglets born alive was observed from 2008. This study showed that breeding of old genotype Lithuanian White pigs in a small closed population over the first four generations had no clear negative influence on sow prolificacy.

  1. Influence of drought and sowing time on protein composition, antinutrients, and mineral contents of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sondeep; Gupta, Anil K; Kaur, Narinder

    2012-01-01

    The present study in a two-year experiment investigated the influence of drought and sowing time on protein composition, antinutrients, and mineral contents of wheat whole meal of two genotypes differing in their water requirements. Different thermal conditions prevailing during the grain filling period under different sowing time generated a large effect on the amount of total soluble proteins. Late sown conditions offered higher protein content accompanied by increased albumin-globulin but decreased glutenin content. Fe content was increased to 20-23%; however, tannin decreased to 18-35% under early sown rain-fed conditions as compared to irrigated timely sown conditions in both the genotypes. Activity of trypsin inhibitor was decreased under rain-fed conditions in both genotypes. This study inferred that variable sowing times and irrigation practices can be used for inducing variation in different wheat whole meal quality characteristics. Lower temperature prevailing under early sown rain-fed conditions; resulted in higher protein content. Higher Fe and lower tannin contents were reported under early sown rain-fed conditions however, late sown conditions offered an increase in phytic acid accompanied by decreased micronutrients and glutenin contents.

  2. Influence of Drought and Sowing Time on Protein Composition, Antinutrients, and Mineral Contents of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sondeep Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study in a two-year experiment investigated the influence of drought and sowing time on protein composition, antinutrients, and mineral contents of wheat whole meal of two genotypes differing in their water requirements. Different thermal conditions prevailing during the grain filling period under different sowing time generated a large effect on the amount of total soluble proteins. Late sown conditions offered higher protein content accompanied by increased albumin-globulin but decreased glutenin content. Fe content was increased to 20–23%; however, tannin decreased to 18–35% under early sown rain-fed conditions as compared to irrigated timely sown conditions in both the genotypes. Activity of trypsin inhibitor was decreased under rain-fed conditions in both genotypes. This study inferred that variable sowing times and irrigation practices can be used for inducing variation in different wheat whole meal quality characteristics. Lower temperature prevailing under early sown rain-fed conditions; resulted in higher protein content. Higher Fe and lower tannin contents were reported under early sown rain-fed conditions however, late sown conditions offered an increase in phytic acid accompanied by decreased micronutrients and glutenin contents.

  3. Mammary nutrient uptake in multiparous sows fed supplementary arginine during gestation and lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Oksbjerg, Niels; Storm, Adam Christian

    2017-01-01

    from d 30 of gestation until weaning on d 28 of lactation and 2) to quantify mammary nutrient uptake in late gestation and in early and at peak lactation. Sows were surgically fitted with indwelling catheters on d 76 ± 2 SEM of gestation. Para-amino hippuric acid (pAH) was infused (3.0 mmol.......03) and net mammary flux (P = 0.01) of Ala were increased in CON sows, while the net flux of most other metabolites (P > 0.05) was unaffected by treatment. The mammary extraction of all essential AA was below 13% in late gestation. The average mammary extraction of essential AA at peak lactation was greatest......, we failed to observe an increased MPF and mammary uptake of AA and energy metabolites in ARG-supplemented sows. The mammary extraction rate of essential AA indicated that AA were not limiting for the mammary glands in late gestation, while Lys and Leu appeared to be the 2 most limiting essential AA...

  4. Performance of irrigated green corn cultivars in different plant populations at sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Soares Neto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the yield of green corn hybrids grown under irrigation in different plant populations at sowing. The assay was carried out in the experimental area located in the city of Arapiraca, Alagoas State, Brazil, from November 2015 to January 2016. A randomized complete block design (RCBD was used, in a 2 x 5 factorial scheme with four replicates. A double- and a single-cross hybrid (AG 1051 and BM 3061, which are suitable for green corn production, were cultivated in five spacings between plants at sowing (15.0, 17.5, 20.0, 22.5 and 25.0 cm. The characteristics photosynthetic rate (PR, ear length with rusk (HEL and without husk (UEL, husked ear weight (HEW, unhusked ear weight (UEW, percentage of marketable ears (%ME and weight of husk (HW were evaluated. The double- and single-cross hybrids AG 1051 and BM 3061 showed green ears with commercial standard. The cultivar BM 3061 showed the best results for most of the characteristics related to the performance of green corn (PR, HEL, UEL, UEW, HEW, %ME. The spacing of 17.5 cm between plants at sowing was the most indicated for irrigated green corn cultivation.

  5. Dietary ractopamine supplementation during the first lactation affects milk composition, piglet growth and sow reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wettere, W H E J; Pain, S J; Hughes, P E

    2016-11-01

    Excessive mobilization of body reserves during lactation delays the return to reproductive function in weaned primiparous sows. This study tested the hypothesis that supplementing the lactation diets of first-parity sows with ractopamine hydrochloride would reduce maternal weight loss and improve subsequent reproductive performance. Gestating gilts were allocated to one of two treatment groups (n=30 sows/treatment), with one group fed a standard lactation diet (2.5g/Mcal LYS: DE) throughout lactation (CTRL), whereas the treatment group received the standard lactation diet supplemented with 10mg/kg ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) from d 1 to 13 of lactation and 20mg/kg RAC from d 14 of lactation until artificial insemination (AI). Weaning occurred on d 21 of lactation, with AI occurring at the first post-weaning estrus. Compared to CTRL, RAC supplementation decreased (Plactation (4.3±0.90 versus 1.3±0.96kg), and tended to increase (P=0.06) the number of second litter piglets born alive (9.5±0.52 versus 8.1±0.74). Treatment (RAC versus CTRL) reduced milk protein levels on d 13 and 20 of lactation (Plactation (260±0.01 versus 310±0.01g/day, Plactation, resulting in a beneficial effect on subsequent reproductive performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or discomforts . If you’re feeding your baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for your baby and how to make bottle-feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding ... feeding How to breastfeed Keeping a breastfeeding log ...

  7. Shoot apex development date of anthesis and grain yield of autumn-sown spring and winter barley hordeum-vulgare after different sowing times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knopp, E.

    1985-01-01

    One spring and eight winter barley cultivars were sown at intervals from the middle of September (normal) until the end of October (late). The apical meristem of the spring cultivar had developed furthest until the onset of winter. It had started ear differentiation after normal sowing. Among...... the winter cultivars, five were after all sowing times completely vegetative, three cultivars had started ear differentiation after the first sowing time. Presumably, these latter ones are of the alternative types. Until the end of winter all cultivars had started ear differentiation after the earlier sowing...... dates. There were no clear differences between spring and winter cultivars any more. Within one sowing time there was no relation between the developmental succession of the cultivars at the end of winter and their date of anthesis. Grain yield was the lower the later the sowing time. Six...

  8. High Quality Rapeseed Products as Feed for Sensitive Monogastrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Heidi Blok

    The Danish pig production is among the world biggest and in 2010 the slaughtering reached 20.2 milion pigs, while 7.5 milion piglets and 0.9 milion finisher pigs and sows were exported, moreover 90% of the produced meat is exported. The main cost of pork production is the feed, and in the search...... of the plant materials prior to the process treatment. It was thus found that a great amount of the glucosinolate loss has occurred in the broccoli juice and purée prior to PEF processing. Only a minor loss was observed in broccoli flowers prior to processing, and HP treatment at 700 MPa for 10 min. was found...

  9. Detecting lameness in sows from ear tag-sampled acceleration data using wavelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, C; Traulsen, I; Auer, W; Müller, K; Stamer, E; Krieter, J

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an automated monitoring system to detect lameness in group-housed sows early and reliably on the basis of acceleration data sampled from ear tags. To this end, acceleration data from ear tags were acquired from an experimental system deployed at the Futterkamp Agriculture Research Farm from May 2012 until November 2013. The developed method performs a wavelet transform for each individual sow's time series of total acceleration. Feature series are then computed by locally estimating the energy, variation and variance in a small moving window. These feature series are then further decomposed into uniform level sets. From these series of level sets, the highest and lowest levels are monitored for lameness detection. To that end, they are split into a past record to serve as reference data representing a sow's expected behaviour. The deviations between the reference and the remaining detection part of current data, termed feature activated, were then utilised to possibly indicate a lameness condition. The method was applied to a sample of 14 sows, seven of which were diagnosed as lame by a veterinarian on the last day of the sampling period of 14 days each. A prediction part of 3 days was set. Feature activated were clearly separable for the lame and healthy group with means of 8.8 and 0.8, respectively. The day-wise means were 1.93, 9.47 and 15.16 for the lame group and 0.02, 1.13 and 1.44 for the healthy group. A threshold could be set to completely avoid false positives while successfully classifying six lame sows on at least one of the 2 last days. The accuracy values for this threshold were 0.57, 0.71 and 0.78 when restricting to data from the particular day. A threshold that maximised the accuracy achieved values of 0.57, 0.79 and 0.93. Thus, the method presented seems powerful enough to suggest that an individual classification from ear tag-sampled acceleration data into lame and healthy is feasible without previous

  10. Estimating challenge load due to disease outbreaks and other challenges using reproduction records of sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, P K; Herrero-Medrano, J M; Alexandri, P; Knol, E F; ten Napel, J; Rashidi, H; Mulder, H A

    2014-12-01

    A method was developed and tested to estimate challenge load due to disease outbreaks and other challenges in sows using reproduction records. The method was based on reproduction records from a farm with known disease outbreaks. It was assumed that the reduction in weekly reproductive output within a farm is proportional to the magnitude of the challenge. As the challenge increases beyond certain threshold, it is manifested as an outbreak. The reproduction records were divided into 3 datasets. The first dataset called the Training dataset consisted of 57,135 reproduction records from 10,901 sows from 1 farm in Canada with several outbreaks of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). The known disease status of sows was regressed on the traits number born alive, number of losses as a combination of still birth and mummified piglets, and number of weaned piglets. The regression coefficients from this analysis were then used as weighting factors for derivation of an index measure called challenge load indicator. These weighting factors were derived with i) a two-step approach using residuals or year-week solutions estimated from a previous step, and ii) a single-step approach using the trait values directly. Two types of models were used for each approach: a logistic regression model and a general additive model. The estimates of challenge load indicator were then compared based on their ability to detect PRRS outbreaks in a Test dataset consisting of records from 65,826 sows from 15 farms in the Netherlands. These farms differed from the Canadian farm with respect to PRRS virus strains, severity and frequency of outbreaks. The single-step approach using a general additive model was best and detected 14 out of the 15 outbreaks. This approach was then further validated using the third dataset consisting of reproduction records of 831,855 sows in 431 farms located in different countries in Europe and America. A total of 41 out of 48 outbreaks detected

  11. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  12. Meat production in sheep hybrids in agro-ecological feeding and growing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sauer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research points out the effect of feeding young hybrid sheep (Black-faced German x Ţurcană in the conditions of permanent hill grasslands with two technological systems of improving grasslands: the conventional chemical (NPK fertilisation system and the agro-ecological organic fertilisation (sheep folding and over-sowing system. Studies show that the changes in the floristic structure of the grasslands have influenced both fodder yield and quality and meat production and quality. Meat production depending on experimental factors ranged between 189 and 393 kg/ha in the grasslands improved conventionally and between 191 and 461 kg/ha in the grasslands fertilised organically.

  13. Comparison of changes in fatness of sows in high pregnancy and at weaning and determination of their association with reproduction results and rearing of piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna REKIEL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixty crossbred sows were investigated for the effect of the level of fat reserves in high pregnancy and pre-weaning changes in lipid reserves on reproductive performance of sows and rearing of piglets. At 104 days of pregnancy and at weaning, sows were analysed for body weight, P2 and P4 backfat thickness and M. Longissimus dorsi (MLD thickness at P4M (Piglog 105. Sows were grouped according to mean backfat thickness (P2 + P4/2 at 104 days of pregnancy into primiparous (P2 + P4/2>18 mm (group I, primiparous (P2 + P4/2.18 mm (group II, multiparous (P2 + P4/2>20 mm (group I and multiparous (P2 + P4/2.20 mm (group II. The body weight of sows from group I was higher than sows from group II at 104 days of pregnancy (P.0.05 and at weaning (P.0.01. As assumed in the experiment, fatness in high pregnant sows (points P2 and P4 was significantly higher in group I than in group II (P.0.01, and the differences between the groups persisted when piglets were weaned (P.0.01. At weaning, sows from group II had a significantly greater P4M thickness compared to sows from group I. The differences in backfat thickness in late-pregnant sows in groups I and II and in the loss of fat reserves during a 21-day lactation had no effect on reproduction results and rearing of piglets. Sows lost body weight to a small extent and fat reserves to a moderate degree; the changes were greater in primiparous than multiparous sows, regardless of the group (I or II.

  14. Effect of dietary organic and inorganic micromineral source and level on sow body, liver, colostrum, mature milk, and progeny mineral compositions over six parities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, J C; Mahan, D C; Wiseman, T G; Fastinger, N D

    2010-02-01

    A sow study evaluated the effects of 2 dietary micromineral sources (organic or inorganic) and 3 dietary mineral levels [NRC, industry (IND), and IND + Ca:P] with selected sows killed at parities 1, 2, 4, and 6. Three sows per treatment group were killed at weaning (total = 68), and their body and liver, 72 colostrum and milk samples (17 d), 69 full-term stillborn pigs and their livers, and 32 pigs at weaning were analyzed for minerals. Tissue and milk samples from the sows were analyzed as a 2 x 3 x 4 factorial arrangement of treatments in a completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 replicates per treatment. Full-term stillborn pig mineral compositions were determined at parities 1, 3, and 5 and evaluated as a 2 x 3 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments in a CRD with 3 replicates per treatment. Weanling pigs from parity 6 sows were analyzed as a 2 x 3 factorial in a CRD. Sow and pig mineral compositions are reported on an equivalent empty BW and kilograms of liver weight basis. The results indicated that sow body macromineral contents were not affected by dietary micromineral source or level or when the diets contained added Ca and P. Sow body Se increased when dietary organic microminerals increased from the NRC to the IND level, resulting in a source x level interaction (P sows fed inorganic microminerals. There were increases in Cu (P sow liver Cu, Se, and Zn occurred as microminerals increased from the NRC to the IND level. As parity advanced, there were cubic increases (P sow body Cu, Fe, and Se, but a quadratic increase in Zn (P sow dietary treatments on full-term stillborn pig or liver micromineral contents, except Se (P pig body Se content when sows were fed organic microminerals at the greater level, resulting in a source x level interaction (P sows were fed the organic micromineral source than the inorganic source at the greater level, resulting in a source x level interaction (P pig body Fe (P sow, whereas Mn (P sow body and liver mineral contents or

  15. Providing supplemental milk to piglets preweaning improves the growth but not survival of gilt progeny compared with sow progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Y J; Collins, A M; Smits, R J; Thomson, P C; Holyoake, P K

    2012-12-01

    Gilt progeny have lighter weaning weights and greater postweaning medication and mortality rates compared with the progeny of older parity sows. Because weaning weight has been positively correlated with postweaning survival, this study aimed to determine whether the provision of supplemental milk preweaning could improve weaning weight and subsequent weights as well as postweaning survival of gilt progeny. The study was replicated in summer and winter as the effects of supplemental milk were expected to vary with season. The progeny of 80 gilts (parity 0) and 80 sows (parity 2 to 5) were allocated to both treatments: with or without supplemental milk in these 2 seasons with 5 sheds/season. Litter size was standardized (10 to 11 piglets) and each piglet was weighed at birth, d 21, weaning (4 wk), and 10 wk of age. Medications and mortalities were recorded both preweaning and postweaning. Pigs were housed within treatment groups postweaning, and ADFI and G:F were measured. Gilt progeny were 200 g lighter at birth in both replicates (P gilt and sow progeny by 800 g in summer (P gilts or sows (P > 0.05). Supplemental milk disappearance (the daily difference between the volume of milk provided and the residue left in the drinker) was greater in summer than winter (by 130 mL/piglet d(-1); P gilt progeny reached or exceeded that of nonsupplemented sow progeny. Gilt progeny had greater postweaning mortality (2.6%) and medication rates (6.2%) than sow progeny (1 and 2.2%, respectively; both P Gilt progeny also had less postweaning ADFI than sow progeny in winter (528 and 636 g, respectively; P 0.05). The hypothesis that supplemental milk provision did increase gilt progeny weaning weight was supported (especially in summer) but the supplementation had no effect on postweaning weights and survival. Efforts to improve gilt progeny postweaning growth and survival need to be aimed at improving health and immunity, not just weaning weight.

  16. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis for Deep-Sowing Germination Ability in the Maize IBM Syn10 DH Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjun; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Jiechen; Li, Changsheng; Zeng, Xing; Xie, Shupeng; Zhang, Yongzhong; Liu, Sisi; Hu, Songlin; Wang, Jianhua; Lee, Michael; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Zhao, Guangwu

    2017-01-01

    Deep-sowing is an effective measure to ensure seeds absorbing water from deep soil layer and emerging normally in arid and semiarid regions. However, existing varieties demonstrate poor germination ability in deep soil layer and some key quantitative trait loci (QTL) or genes related to deep-sowing germination ability remain to be identified and analyzed. In this study, a high-resolution genetic map based on 280 lines of the intermated B73 × Mo17 (IBM) Syn10 doubled haploid (DH) population which comprised 6618 bin markers was used for the QTL analysis of deep-sowing germination related traits. The results showed significant differences in germination related traits under deep-sowing condition (12.5 cm) and standard-germination condition (2 cm) between two parental lines. In total, 8, 11, 13, 15, and 18 QTL for germination rate, seedling length, mesocotyl length, plumule length, and coleoptile length were detected for the two sowing conditions, respectively. These QTL explained 2.51–7.8% of the phenotypic variance with LOD scores ranging from 2.52 to 7.13. Additionally, 32 overlapping QTL formed 11 QTL clusters on all chromosomes except for chromosome 8, indicating the minor effect genes have a pleiotropic role in regulating various traits. Furthermore, we identified six candidate genes related to deep-sowing germination ability, which were co-located in the cluster regions. The results provide a basis for molecular marker assisted breeding and functional study in deep-sowing germination ability of maize. PMID:28588594

  17. Effect of dietary supplementation with glycitein during late pregnancy and lactation on antioxidative indices and performance of primiparous sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y J; Gao, K G; Zheng, C T; Wu, Z J; Yang, X F; Wang, L; Ma, X Y; Zhou, A G; Jiang, Z J

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with glycitein, a major soy isoflavone, during late pregnancy (starting on d 85) and lactation on antioxidative indices and performance in primiparous sows. A total of 227 gilts (Yorkshire × Landrace) were used, and after parturition, piglets were cross-fostered within treatment so that each sow suckled 10 piglets. Gilts were randomly divided into 4 groups on d 85 of pregnancy and thereafter fed the basal diets of gestation or lactation (controls) or those supplemented with 15, 30, or 45 mg/kg diet glycitein. Reproductive performance of the sows, growth of litters, concentration of plasma glycitein, milk composition, and antioxidative indices in sows' plasma and milk, such as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), were measured. Supplementation of the dam's diets with glycitein increased ADG of piglets (linear, P = 0.003) and weaned BW of litters (linear, P = 0.01) and both variables were approximately 10% greater than controls with the 45 mg/kg treatment. The percentage of milk protein was linearly (P lactation, and milk fat content increased on d 7 and 14 (linear, P 0.05). The glycitein concentration in sow's plasma was linearly (P lactation, linear increases occurred in plasma activities of SOD (P lactation, P lactation, P lactation with glycitein supplementation. Activities of CAT and T-AOC in milk were not affected by maternal supplementation with glycitein, but increases in SOD on d 18 of lactation (Plactation except d 14. Collectively, the results of this study indicate that dietary supplementation with glycitein in sows during late pregnancy and lactation elevated the antioxidative indices, decreased the content of MDA in sow's plasma and milk, improved milk composition, and enhanced the growth performance of the sucking piglets.

  18. Sowing Density: A Neglected Factor Fundamentally Affecting Root Distribution and Biomass Allocation of Field Grown Spring Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Vera L; Temperton, Vicky M; Nagel, Kerstin A; Rascher, Uwe; Postma, Johannes A

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the function of root traits and the genetic variation in these traits are often conducted under controlled conditions using individual potted plants. Little is known about root growth under field conditions and how root traits are affected by agronomic practices in particular sowing density. We hypothesized that with increasing sowing density, root length density (root length per soil volume, cm cm(-3)) increases in the topsoil as well as specific root length (root length per root dry weight, cm g(-1)) due to greater investment in fine roots. Therefore, we studied two spring barley cultivars at ten different sowing densities (24-340 seeds m(-2)) in 2 consecutive years in a clay loam field in Germany and established sowing density dose-response curves for several root and shoot traits. We took soil cores for measuring roots up to a depth of 60 cm in and between plant rows (inter-row distance 21 cm). Root length density increased with increasing sowing density and was greatest in the plant row in the topsoil (0-10 cm). Greater sowing density increased specific root length partly through greater production of fine roots in the topsoil. Rooting depth (D50) of the major root axes (root diameter class 0.4-1.0 mm) was not affected. Root mass fraction decreased, while stem mass fraction increased with sowing density and over time. Leaf mass fraction was constant over sowing density but greater leaf area was realized through increased specific leaf area. Considering fertilization, we assume that light competition caused plants to grow more shoot mass at the cost of investment into roots, which is partly compensated by increased specific root length and shallow rooting. Increased biomass per area with greater densities suggest that density increases the efficiency of the cropping system, however, declines in harvest index at densities over 230 plants m(-2) suggest that this efficiency did not translate into greater yield. We conclude that plant density is a

  19. Complex Feeding Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Miles PhD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Where swallowing difficulties are chronic or progressive, or a patient is palliative, tube feeding is often not deemed appropriate. Instead, patients continue to eat and drink despite the risks of pneumonia and death. There is currently little evidence to guide clinical practice in this field often termed “risk feeding.” This qualitative study investigated staff, patient, and family member perceptions of risk feeding practices in one New Zealand hospital. Method: Twenty-nine staff members and six patients and/or their family were interviewed. Results: Thematic analysis revealed four global themes: supporting practice, communication, complexity of feeding decisions, and patient and family-centered care. Staff described limited education and organizational policy around risk feeding decisions. Communication was considered a major factor in the success. Conclusion: Feeding decisions are complex in the hospital environment. The themes identified in this study provide a foundation for hospital guideline development and implementation.

  20. The Impact of Sowing Technology on Ponderal Features of Winter Wheat Seeds in Timişoara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Dragoş

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is a grass, originally from the Fertile Crescent region of the Near East, but now cultivated worldwide. The paper presents the results obtained in the last two years of experience, about the influence of sowing technology on the ponderal features of the winter wheat seeds. The experimental parcels were laid down in a randomized complete block design with three replications in the pedo-climatic conditions of Timişoara. The purpose of the research is to determine the influence of some sowing links on the thousand grain mass and hectoliter mass. The average data obtained after two years of study indicate an increase of about 2 % of the thousand grain mass and hectoliter mass on the second sowing period (16-31 Octoberand a distinctive decrease of 2-3% on the fourth sowing period(16-30 November. During the two years of experience the row distance and the sowing density had a negative impact on both thousand grain mass and hectoliter mass in both variants compared with the control variant, the difference being statistical significant.