WorldWideScience

Sample records for electronic government applications

  1. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e-government/e-governance...

  2. U.S. Government Electronic Data Sources for Global Marketing Decisions: An Evaluation and Classroom Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Vaughan C.; Tims, Betty J.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. government publishes considerable information applicable to business people interested in global marketing opportunities, much of which is available via the Internet and CD-ROMs. Evaluates the usefulness of four of the government's electronic sources of global marketing information (e.g., the World Fact Book), describing workshops using…

  3. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K; Gascó, M; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I; Milano, M; Panagiotopoulos, P; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P; Sæbø, Ø

    2016-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies.This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information

  4. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information

  5. Canadian Government Electronic Information Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Kirsti

    1993-01-01

    Examines development and evolution of Canadian government information policy in response to issues of preservation of data, information industry involvement in government data development and marketing, role of Crown copyright, and public access to government information in electronic formats. Six key information policy instruments are also…

  6. Electronic Freight Management (EFM) Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The Electronic Freight Management (EFM) initiative is a USDOT-sponsored project that applies web technologies to improve data and message transmissions between supply chain partners. This report describes a new EFM Governance Model and the necessary ...

  7. Application Possibilities of Social Marketing Technologies for Publicity of Electronic Government Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Limba

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays e-government projects and projects in the public sector are changing the consistency and reality of our daily life and will need to be managed by project managers, who uge modern marketing tools and technologies. Social marketing is one of the modern marketing tools and, probably, it is the best tool to provide marketing in public sector project management, It has been changing in different ways since the founding of social marketing: the aim of social marketing, the technologies for using i ; but nowadays it’s hard to imagine public sector projects and, especially, egovernment projects, without using social marketing technologies. The usage of social marketing technologies can improve public sector project management and make the project more attractive to society or some part of it. This scientific paper represents social marketing transformation, the way in which social marketing needs to be used in the public sector project management process and analyses the phases of social marketing. It also gives some practical advics for public sector organizations o, how to implement social marketing in the e-government project deployment process.

  8. The Marketplace and Electronic Government Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, James P.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the economic impact of government-produced electronic information. Examples of government prices for electronic information products are given; the debate over the privatization of government information dissemination is addressed, including examples from various government agencies; government bulletin board services are described; and…

  9. Payment Procedures for Electronic Government Services

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar Georg

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse payment procedures for their suitability for electronic government. We provide an overview of the payment procedures currently available on the market, compare the situation in electronic government with the situation in electronic commerce and analyze what we can transfer. Based on functional requirements we propose a scheme that allows public agencies to examine the appropriateness of any given payment procedure for electronic government.

  10. Electronic Government : Caribbean Pilot Project | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Electronic Government : Caribbean Pilot Project. Caribbean countries are increasingly adopting information and communication technologies (ICTs) in ... The Government of Jamaica is willing to donate the solution to other ... Related content ...

  11. Peculiarities of designing Holistic Electronic Government Services Integration Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Limba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpos– the aim ok this paper is to develop a Holistic Electronic Government Services Integration Model which could ensure the efficient integration of electronic government services in the local self-government level.Methodolog– the following analyses have been carried out in thirkpaper: theoretical-systematic; normative and conceptual comparative analysis of the researcha A method of modeling has also been applied.Finding– the scientific work analyzes the improvement opportunities of the models of electronic government services and their application alternatives in Lithuanian municipalities. The newly developed model of electronic government services that has been designed basng on the principle of integrating online expert consultation is primarily targeted at improvement of inside processes’ changes of an organization. Practicing the application of that model in the local self-government level starting with improvement of inside processes of an organization should help adapt more accurately and efficiently to the changing needs of the society while providing electronic government services, thus establishing a higher public value.Practical implication– the practical novelty of work is reflected not only through the integration opportunities’ assessment of the principle of online expert consultation services into the theoretical models of electronic government services that have already been developed by the scientists, but also on the basis of this principle there has been created a “Holistic Electronic Government Services Integration Model” in accordance with “E-Diamond” model basis and its practical application realization with the design of “The project of implementing the principle of online expert consultation on the model of electronic government services” for the future investigations.Originalit– the systematic, comparative analysis of the models of electronic government services carried out in the scientific

  12. Dimer and cluster approach for the evaluation of electronic couplings governing charge transport: Application to two pentacene polymorphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canola, Sofia; Pecoraro, Claudia; Negri, Fabrizia

    2016-01-01

    Hole transport properties are modeled for two polymorphs of pentacene: the single crystal polymorph and the thin film polymorph relevant for organic thin-film transistor applications. Electronic couplings are evaluated in the standard dimer approach but also considering a cluster approach in which the central molecule is surrounded by a large number of molecules quantum-chemically described. The effective electronic couplings suitable for the parametrization of a tight-binding model are derived either from the orthogonalization scheme limited to HOMO orbitals and from the orthogonalization of the full basis of molecular orbitals. The angular dependent mobilities estimated for the two polymorphs using the predicted pattern of couplings display different anisotropy characteristics as suggested from experimental investigations.

  13. Dimer and cluster approach for the evaluation of electronic couplings governing charge transport: Application to two pentacene polymorphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canola, Sofia; Pecoraro, Claudia; Negri, Fabrizia

    2016-10-20

    Hole transport properties are modeled for two polymorphs of pentacene: the single crystal polymorph and the thin film polymorph relevant for organic thin-film transistor applications. Electronic couplings are evaluated in the standard dimer approach but also considering a cluster approach in which the central molecule is surrounded by a large number of molecules quantum-chemically described. The effective electronic couplings suitable for the parametrization of a tight-binding model are derived either from the orthogonalization scheme limited to HOMO orbitals and from the orthogonalization of the full basis of molecular orbitals. The angular dependent mobilities estimated for the two polymorphs using the predicted pattern of couplings display different anisotropy characteristics as suggested from experimental investigations.

  14. A Standardization Framework for Electronic Government Service Portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarantis, Demetrios; Tsiakaliaris, Christos; Lampathaki, Fenareti; Charalabidis, Yannis

    Although most eGovernment interoperability frameworks (eGIFs) cover adequately the technical aspects of developing and supporting the provision of electronic services to citizens and businesses, they do not exclusively address several important areas regarding the organization, presentation, accessibility and security of the content and the electronic services offered through government portals. This chapter extends the scope of existing eGIFs presenting the overall architecture and the basic concepts of the Greek standardization framework for electronic government service portals which, for the first time in Europe, is part of a country's eGovernment framework. The proposed standardization framework includes standards, guidelines and recommendations regarding the design, development and operation of government portals that support the provision of administrative information and services to citizens and businesses. By applying the guidelines of the framework, the design, development and operation of portals in central, regional and municipal government can be systematically addressed resulting in an applicable, sustainable and ever-expanding framework.

  15. Time-delay equation governing electron motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, J.

    1976-01-01

    A previously proposed differential-difference equation governing the motion of the classical radiating electron is considered further. A set of three assumptions is offered, under which the proposed equation yields asymptotically stable acceleration

  16. GOVERNMENT ELECTRONIC PURCHASING: AN ASSESSMENT OF BRAZILIAN STATE GOVERNMENTS' E-PROCUREMENT WEBSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Tomaz Rodrigo; Universidade de São Paulo; Souza, Cesar Alexandre; Universidade de São Paulo

    2011-01-01

    One of the electronic government applications that has been fast developing in Brazil is e-procurement. It’s a field that allows relatively objective measuring, regarding price cuts and savings generated by the reduction of bureaucracy. This research evaluated the quality of the e-procurement portals of the 26 Brazilian state governments and also the Federal District, considering primarily features that could be useful to suppliers. In order to do so, a scoring method was developed, in which ...

  17. Electronic U.S. Government Information: Policy Issues and Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon, Peter; McClure, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of U.S. federal information policy and its treatment of electronic information resources. Highlights include government publications; electronic government information; main providers of government information, including the Government Printing Office; the Freedom of Information Act; public access and use; information…

  18. Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Terrence A., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This newsletter features innovations in resource management and information technology to support New York State government. The newsletter contains the following six sections: (1) "Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium" -- examining the need for government involvement in electronic commerce policy and…

  19. Electronic Submissions of Pesticide Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applications for pesticide registration can be submitted electronically, including forms, studies, and draft product labeling. Applicants need not submit multiple electronic copies of any pieces of their applications.

  20. Electron beam simulation applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    A system for simulating electron beam treatment portals using low-temperature melting point alloy is described. Special frames having the same physical dimensions as the electron beam applicators used on the Varian Clinac 20 linear accelerator were designed and constructed

  1. Electronic Government in the Age of Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halchin, L. Elaine

    2002-01-01

    Provides examples of how federal agencies have responded to the possibility that terrorists could use information on their Web sites to plan further attacks, following the September 11 attacks. Discusses implications of the removal and alteration of government information and offers suggestions for developing a government-wide Web site policy.…

  2. Federal Government Electronic Bulletin Boards: An Assessment with Policy Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    Identifies and analyzes federal government electronic bulletin boards; assesses the types of information available to users, including costs and technological access issues; discusses federal information policy; and considers the role of federal bulletin boards in accessing and managing electronic government information. (Contains 29 references.)…

  3. U.S. Government Electronic Information Service Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ridley R., Jr.; Barkley, Dan

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the development of electronic government publications and the resulting standards and service needs. Focuses on results of a report on the impact that electronic information has brought to bear on depository library services. Includes 11 draft Depository Library Public Service Guidelines for government information. (AEF)

  4. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  5. Electronic government: Rethinking channel management strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebbers, Wolfgang E.; Pieterson, Willem Jan; Noordman, H.N.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores how an alternative multichannel management strategy can improve the way governments and citizens interact. Improvement is necessary because, based on empirical data from various sources, the conclusion can be drawn that there is a gap between the communication channels

  6. Electronic Government Information and the Depository Library Program: Paradise Found?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Robert E.; Cheverie, Joan F.

    1992-01-01

    The trend in the 1980s to provide an increasingly larger amounts of government information in electronic formats has led to concerns regarding the inclusion of electronic items in the depository library program (DLP). Inclusion of electronic formats in the DLP provides increased public access but also poses technical problems for the depository…

  7. Nepal : Electronic Government Procurement Readiness Assessment and Roadmap

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The assessment focused on the degree of readiness of Government of Nepal's (GoN's) current public procurement environment for making a transition from a traditional paper-based, manual procurement transaction processing and communication to electronic government procurement (e-GP). Some 20 public and private sector organizations, involved in a wide range of functions that relate to public...

  8. Maldives : Electronic Government Procurement Readiness Assessment and Roadmap

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The assessment focuses on the degree of readiness of Government of The Maldives's (GoTM's) current public procurement environment for making a transition from traditional paper-based, manual methods of procurement transaction processing and communication to electronic government procurement (e-GP). The e-GP Assessment was discussed individually with informed respondents in the public and p...

  9. Public Access to Government Electronic Information. Policy Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This policy framework provides guidelines for federal agencies on public access to government electronic information. Highlights include reasons for disseminating information; defining user groups; which technology to use; pricing flexibility; security and privacy issues; and the private sector and state and local government roles. (LRW)

  10. Applications for electronic documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of electronic media to documents, specifically Safety Analysis Reports (SARs), prepared for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER ampersand WM) programs being conducted for the Department of Energy (DOE) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Efforts are underway to upgrade our document system using electronic format. To satisfy external requirements (DOE, State, and Federal), ER ampersand WM programs generate a complement of internal requirements documents including a SAR and Technical Safety Requirements along with procedures and training materials. Of interest, is the volume of information and the difficulty in handling it. A recently prepared ER ampersand WM SAR consists of 1,000 pages of text and graphics; supporting references add 10,000 pages. Other programmatic requirements documents consist of an estimated 5,000 pages plus references

  11. Electronic Noses and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine LUMBRERAS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic noses are customized devices employed to detect and to identify gaseous mixtures, even to give the concentration of the atmosphere components. Nowadays, the research in this domain is more and more growing, in Europe and other countries in the world, for many applications, such as environmental protection, food industries, perfumery, public safety, medicine, and pharmacy. Electronic noses allow to detect many organic volatile compounds, for which there is no specific detector. They constitute an alternative to complex, long, and too expensive existing methods, unable to ensure continuous monitoring. Their conception deals with many related areas (metrology, chemistry, physics, electronics, informatics, statistics, modelisation as well as areas related to the molecules to be detected. The system training is a primary step: during a measurement under a gaseous atmosphere, we must record the sensor time-responses in a treatment system, while specifying the name of the concerned odor. This process must be repeated many times for each studied atmosphere, and for all the chosen atmospheres. So a learning data base can be created, made from representative parameters of all the realized measures. After this training stage, clustering software will classify the data analysis in “concentration” or “nature” groups. Using the group separation rules given by this supervised classification, the system will be able to find itself the name of an odor or a concentration.

  12. Neo-Institutional Approach to the Study of Electronic Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan I. Vaslavskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the neo-institutional approach as a methodological basis in the study of electronic government. In this article substantiates the choice of neo-institutional approach to the study of the processes of implementation of information and communication technologies in the activity of state institutions, analyzes the differences of neoinstitutionalism from traditional institutional approach, considers the features of the different directions of neo-institutionalism, namely sociological, historical and rational choice theory. Attention is paid to the reasons for the renewed interest in political institutions in political science. The article emphasizes the importance of considering the electronic government as an institution, and the conditions for its implementation in the Russian political system as the institutional environment. The authors pay special attention to the variety of sociological neo-institutionalism, used, in addition to political science in sociology of organizations. The article substantiates the value of using sociological institutionalism to explore the electronic government based on a comparative analysis of e-government projects in Russia and abroad and explores its heuristic capabilities. It examines the impact of the system of norms and values of the institutional environment on the processes of formation and development of electronic government in Russia. The research capacity of this theory is due to the fact that it allows us to trace the reasons for copying and replication of inefficient practices and organizational and management schemes, to identify the factors impeding innovation use by the state of electronic interaction technologies. It is emphasized that the use of the theory of institutional isomorphism is useful in the sphere of implementation of electronic technologies, in which a key role play pluralism, horizontal managerial communication, inter-agency coordination.

  13. A Study on Technology Architecture and Serving Approaches of Electronic Government System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunnian; Huang, Yiyun; Pan, Qin

    As E-government becomes a very active research area, a lot of solutions to solve citizens' needs are being deployed. This paper provides technology architecture of E-government system and approaches of service in Public Administrations. The proposed electronic system addresses the basic E-government requirements of user friendliness, security, interoperability, transparency and effectiveness in the communication between small and medium sized public organizations and their citizens, businesses and other public organizations. The paper has provided several serving approaches of E-government, which includes SOA, web service, mobile E-government, public library and every has its own characteristics and application scenes. Still, there are a number of E-government issues for further research on organization structure change, including research methodology, data collection analysis, etc.

  14. 12 CFR 1710.10 - Law applicable to corporate governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS CORPORATE GOVERNANCE Corporate Practices and Procedures § 1710.10 Law applicable to corporate governance. (a) General. The corporate governance practices and... Enterprise shall follow the corporate governance practices and procedures of the law of the jurisdiction in...

  15. Electronic Signature and Electronic Government Applications in Turkey: An Evaluative Essay from the Viewpoint of Electronic Records Management2 Türkiye’de Elektronik İmza ve Elektronik Devlet Uygulamaları: Elektronik Belge Yönetimi Açısından Bir Değerlendirme Denemesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Altın

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The most important component that enables electronic government (e-government applications function is that of electronic record (e-record management. In accordance with the e-record management strategies, all information and records produced by the state are opened to public access. By means of electronic record management systems (ERMS, record supervision becomes easy and processing time becomes shorter. E-record applications bring along the absolute necessity of accomplishing total record security, integrity and so on. That’s where electronic signature (e-signature technologies come on scene. E-signature holds an important place in terms of implementing ERMS and, in a more general sense, electronic archive (e-archive applications securely, and in terms of legal validity. Taking this fact as a starting point, this paper is an attempt to create consciousness on the necessity of the e-record management by emphasizing its importance in the process of e-transformation. This study provides introductory information on e-government, e-signature and the relationship between the e-record management and e-government, and erecord managemnt and e-signature applications. Using the survey method, proceedings and governmental publications issued by the USA, England and Turkey between 1999 and 2006 were reviewed. It was concluded that the importance of the e-record management for e-government has not been fully appreciated in Turkey. More qualifi ed humanpower is needed during the e-transformation process to carry out the e-record management applications Elektronik devlet (e-devlet uygulamalarının işlerliğini sağlayan en önemli unsur elektronik belge (e-belge yönetimidir. E-belge yönetim stratejileri doğrultusunda devletin ürettiği her türlü bilgi ve belge kamu erişimine açılır. Bu stratejiler izlenerek oluşturulan e-belge yönetim sistemleri (EBYS sayesinde belgelerin denetimi kolaylaşır ve iş süreçleri hızlanır. EBYS ile e

  16. Electron beams and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haouat, G.; Couillaud, C.

    1998-01-01

    Studies of the physical properties of the ELSA-linac electron beam are presented. They include measurements of the characteristic beam parameter and analyzes of the beam transport using simulation codes. The aim of these studies is to determine the best conditions for production of intense and very short electron bunches and to optimize the transport of space-charge dominated beams. Precise knowledge of the transport dynamics allows to produce beams with the required characteristics for light production in Free-Electron Laser (FEL), and to give a good description of energy-transfer phenomena between electrons and photons in the wriggler. The particular features of ELSA authorize studies of high-intensity, high-brightness beam properties, especially the halo surrounding the dense core of the electron bunches, which is formed by the space charge effects. It is also shown that the ELSA facility is well suited for the fabrication of very short γ and X-rays sources for applied research in nuclear and plasma physics, or for time response studies of fast detectors. (author)

  17. Electronic applications presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grants.gov requirement effective February 17, 2015. All initial applications submitted for competitiveawards based on solicitations issued on or after February 17, 2015 must be submitted to EPAelectronically through Grants.gov.

  18. Modern trends in international researches in the sphere of electronic governance (in the case of publications of the international journal Electronic Government)

    OpenAIRE

    V. M. Dreshpak

    2017-01-01

    Current trends of studying the problems of electronic government by world scientific community have been revealed in the article using the analysis of publications in the international journal Electronic Government. It has been noted that the peculiarity of modern research in the sphere of electronic government is that this sphere is changing constantly and dynamically under the influence of many factors and is being modernized together with the development of information and communication te...

  19. Modern trends in international researches in the sphere of electronic governance (in the case of publications of the international journal Electronic Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Dreshpak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Current trends of studying the problems of electronic government by world scientific community have been revealed in the article using the analysis of publications in the international journal Electronic Government. It has been noted that the peculiarity of modern research in the sphere of electronic government is that this sphere is changing constantly and dynamically under the influence of many factors and is being modernized together with the development of information and communication technologies and social relations. This requires a bigger degree of integration of Ukrainian researches in the sphere of public administration with the global scientific context, more active introduction of the foreign researches’ materials on electronic government issues to the scientific Ukrainian use, study of foreign approaches on publications in scientific periodicals of the industry. The survey was conducted on the basis of Electronic Government, an International Journal, which has been published since 2004 in the UK and is submitted to the international Scientometrics Scopus database and publishes materials in the sphere of «Public administration». It has been found that the key topics of the journal relate to the current practice and studies of various aspects of electronic government in different countries. In particular, the analyzed publications of 2015 - 2017 years provide a broad picture of the situation with e-government in the world and reveal specific problems of different states according to the level of development of their e-government powers. The authors of these articles are scientists from 24 countries. They have studied the problems of electronic government in 14 states and the global problems of electronic government. For example, the magazine focuses on issues related to technological, social and humanitarian components of functioning and development of electronic governance, issues of methodology and methods of implementation of

  20. Polymers for electronic & photonic application

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, C P

    2013-01-01

    The most recent advances in the use of polymeric materials by the electronic industry can be found in Polymers for Electronic and Photonic Applications. This bookprovides in-depth coverage of photoresis for micro-lithography, microelectronic encapsulants and packaging, insulators, dielectrics for multichip packaging,electronic and photonic applications of polymeric materials, among many other topics. Intended for engineers and scientists who design, process, and manufacturemicroelectronic components, this book will also prove useful for hybrid and systems packaging managers who want to be info

  1. Factors Influencing Electronic Government Adoption Perspectives Of Less Frequent Internet Users Of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Alam Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Much literature on electronic government services research could be found on adoptability issues from government and service providers point of view. Many studies have looked into adoptability factors from user perspectives and majority captured adoptability perspectives of frequent Internet users the ones who use Internet applications for more than 10 hours a week. On the contrary the perspectives of majority of Pakistani users which use Internet applications for less than 10 hours per week are never inquired. This paper tries to fill this gap by looking into electronic government adoptability perspectives and expectations of such Internet users of Pakistan which are much greater in numbers than others. An amended UTAUT model with all its moderators is used in this study and the results demonstrate that performance level ease of effort and social influence strongly effect behavioral intention of users in using electronic government services in Pakistan. The individuals behavioral intention along with presence of appropriate facilitating conditions triggers use behavior of users. The results show that only gender moderates majority of UTAUT relationships and accordingly a modified UTAUT model is presented. The paper provides certain insights for people making policies and academicians for performing further research while it stresses for service proliferation with special attention towards female population.

  2. Industrial applications of electron accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Cleland, M R

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the industrial applications of electron accelerators for modifying the physical, chemical or biological properties of materials and commercial products by treatment with ionizing radiation. Many beneficial effects can be obtained with these methods, which are known as radiation processing. The earliest practical applications occurred during the 1950s, and the business of radiation processing has been expanding since that time. The most prevalent applications are the modification of many different plastic and rubber products and the sterilization of single-use medical devices. Emerging applications are the pasteurization and preservation of foods and the treatment of toxic industrial wastes. Industrial accelerators can now provide electron energies greater than 10 MeV and average beam powers as high as 700 kW. The availability of high-energy, high-power electron beams is stimulating interest in the use of X-rays (bremsstrahlung) as an alternative to gamma rays from radioactive nuclides.

  3. A Model for Electronic Good Governance in Electronic Learning Sector of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Moghaddasi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the various models and frameworks on electronic good governance are introduced, the multiple dimensions model of electronic good governance in the field of e-Learning has not been reviewed this subject in a integrated, comprehensive, process-oriented and systematic model. In this article, in order to explain the process of electronic good governance, by a systematic review of the related literature and backgrounds, all factors were identified using meta-synthesis methodology. Then, based on grounded theory methodology and Strauss and Corbin paradigmatic approach, the open, axial and selective coding were conducted. In the following, by using survey method, we determined the importance and priority of all proposed factors. It was also indicated that this research was innovative in the fields of methodology, results and the proposed model which had not been considered in the previous researches. So that, the proposed model resolved the shortcomings of past researches and made it possible for the public sector, private and civil society organizations to consider the process of establishing electronic good governance in e-Learning sector in Iran as a dynamic process.

  4. Application of electron accelerator worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Sueo

    2003-01-01

    Electron accelerator is an important radiation source for radiation technology, which covers broad fields such as industry, health care, food and environmental protection. There are about 1,000 electron accelerators for radiation processing worldwide. Electron accelerator has advantage over Co-60 irradiator in term of high dose rate and power, assurance of safety, and higher economic performance at larger volume of irradiation. Accelerator generating higher energy in the range of 10 MeV and high power electron beam is now commercially available. There is a trend to use high-energy electron accelerator replacing Co-60 in case of large through-put of medical products. Irradiated foods, in particular species, are on the commercial market in 35 countries. Electron accelerator is used efficiently and economically for production of new or modified polymeric materials through radiation-induced cross-linking, grafting and polymerization reaction. Another important application of electron beam is the curing of surface coatings in the manufacture of products. Electron accelerators of large capacity are used for cleaning exhaust gases in industrial scale. Economic feasibility studies of this electron beam process have shown that this technology is more cost effective than the conventional process. It should be noted that the conventional limestone process produce gypsum as a by-product, which cannot be used in some countries. By contrast, the by-product of the electron beam process is a valuable fertilizer. (Y. Tanaka)

  5. Application of electron accelerator worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Sueo [Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Electron accelerator is an important radiation source for radiation technology, which covers broad fields such as industry, health care, food and environmental protection. There are about 1,000 electron accelerators for radiation processing worldwide. Electron accelerator has advantage over Co-60 irradiator in term of high dose rate and power, assurance of safety, and higher economic performance at larger volume of irradiation. Accelerator generating higher energy in the range of 10 MeV and high power electron beam is now commercially available. There is a trend to use high-energy electron accelerator replacing Co-60 in case of large through-put of medical products. Irradiated foods, in particular species, are on the commercial market in 35 countries. Electron accelerator is used efficiently and economically for production of new or modified polymeric materials through radiation-induced cross-linking, grafting and polymerization reaction. Another important application of electron beam is the curing of surface coatings in the manufacture of products. Electron accelerators of large capacity are used for cleaning exhaust gases in industrial scale. Economic feasibility studies of this electron beam process have shown that this technology is more cost effective than the conventional process. It should be noted that the conventional limestone process produce gypsum as a by-product, which cannot be used in some countries. By contrast, the by-product of the electron beam process is a valuable fertilizer. (Y. Tanaka)

  6. Industrial applications of electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.

    1994-01-01

    The interaction of high-energy radiation with organic systems produces very reactive, short-lived, ionic and free-radical species. The chemical changes brought about by these species are very useful in several systems, and are the basis of the growth of the electron processing industry. Some typical areas of the industrial use of electron accelerators are crosslinking wire and cable insulation, manufacturing heat shrink plastic items, curing coatings, and partially curing rubber products. Electron accelerators are also being considered in other areas such as sewage treatment, sterilizing medical disposables, and food irradiation. An emerging application of industrial electron accelerators is the production of advanced composites for the aerospace and other industries. Traditionally, the carbon-, aramid- and glass-fibre-reinforced composites with epoxy matrices are produced by thermal curing. However, equivalent composites with acrylated-epoxy matrices can be made by electron curing. Cost estimates suggest that electron curing could be more economical than thermal curing. Food irradiation has traditionally been an application for 60 Co γ-radiation. With the increasing demand for food irradiation in various countries, it may become necessary to use electron accelerators for this purpose. Since the dose rate during gamma and electron irradiation are generally very different, a review of the relevant work on the effect of dose rates has been done. This paper presents an overview of the industrial applications of electron accelerator for radiation processing, emphasises the electron curing of advanced composites and, briefly reviews the dose-rate effects in radiation processing of advanced composites and food irradiation. (author). 84 refs., 8 tabs

  7. Challenges of 4D(ata Model for Electronic Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan GHILIC-MICU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Social evolution pyramid, built on the foundation of the ‘90s capitalist society, lead to the emergence of the informational society – years 1990 to 2005 – and knowledge society – years 2005 to 2020. The literature starts using a new concept, a new form of association – artificial intelligence society – foreseen to be established in the next time frame. All these developments of human society and translations or leaps (most of the times apparently timeless were, are and will be possible only due to the advancing information and communications technologies. The leap to Democracy 3.0, based on information and communication technologies prompts to a radical change in the majority of the classical concepts targeting society structure and the way it is guided and controlled. Thus, concepts become electronic concepts (or e-concepts through the use of new technologies. E-concepts keep the essence of the classical principles of liberty and democracy, adding a major aspect of the new way of communication and spreading ideas between people. The main problem is to quantify, analyze and foresee the way technological changes will influence not only the economic system, but also the daily life of the individual and the society. Unfortunately (or maybe fortunately, depending on the point of view, all these evolutions and technological and social developments are as many challenges for the governments of the world. In this paper we will highlight only four of the challenges facing the governments, grouped in a structured model with the following specific concepts: Big Data, Social Data, Linked Data and Mobile Data. This is an emerging paradigm of the information and communication technology supporting national and global eGovernment projects.

  8. Industrial applications of electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    The review of industrial applications with use of electron beams has been done. Especially the radiation technologies being developed in Poland have been shown. Industrial installations with electron accelerators as radiation source have been applied for: modification of polymers; modification of thyristors; sterilization of health care materials; radiopreservation of food and other consumer products; purification of combustion flue gases in heat and power plants. 14 refs, 6 tabs, 7 figs

  9. Recognition of Obstacles and Providing Different Guidelines and Promotion of Electronic Government in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    E. Asgharizadeh; M. Ajalli; S.R. Safavi.M.M; A. Medghalchi

    2010-01-01

    Electronic Government is one of the special concepts which has been performed successfully within recent decades. Electronic government is a digital, wall-free government with a virtual organization for presenting of online governmental services and further cooperation in different political/social activities. In order to have a successful implementation of electronic government strategy and benefiting from its complete potential and benefits and generally for establishme...

  10. Industrial applications or electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J. I.

    2001-01-01

    Industrial use of electron beams began in the 1950's with the crosslinking of polyethylene film and wire insulation. Today the number of electron beam Processing Systems installed for industrial applications throughout the world has grown to more than six hundred stations in over 35 countries. Total installed power is now approaching 40 megawatts (over 8 million tons of products per year). Electron beam is now utilized by many major industries including plastics, automotive, rubber goods, wire and cable, electrical insulation, semiconductor, medical, packaging, or pollution control. The principal effect of high-energy electrons is to produce ions in the materials treated, resulting in the liberation of orbital electrons. As a result, the original molecule is modified and the ree radicals combine to form new molecules with new chemical reactions or dis organisation od the DNA chains of living organisms (insects, fungus, microorganisms, etc.). (Author) 8 refs

  11. Electronic Document Imaging and Optical Storage Systems for Local Governments: An Introduction. Local Government Records Technical Information Series. Number 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stanley F.

    This publication introduces electronic document imaging systems and provides guidance for local governments in New York in deciding whether such systems should be adopted for their own records and information management purposes. It advises local governments on how to develop plans for using such technology by discussing its advantages and…

  12. Electronic Government in the City of Fez, Morocco : Scaling up to the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Electronic Government in the City of Fez, Morocco : Scaling up to the National Level. In the pilot phase of the project (101980), electronic service delivery was introduced and successfully deployed in the Fez-Agdal local government office. This phase will scale up the project to include the remaining local government offices ...

  13. Standardization of software application development and governance

    OpenAIRE

    Labbe, Peter P.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A number of Defense Department initiatives focus on how to engineer better systems that directly influence software architecture, including Open Architecture, Enterprise Architecture, and Joint Information Enterprise. Additionally, the Department of Defense (DOD) mandates moving applications to consolidated datacenters and cloud computing. When examined from an application development perspective, the DOD lacks a common approach for in...

  14. State E-Government Strategies: Identifying Best Practices and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-23

    Internet; ! Developing meaningful online applications for local government, businesses, educators, and other sectors; ! Establishing local “ eCommunity ...state, national, and international levels. However, frequently there is little meaningful coordination or communication between various e-government...weekly with the governor, 13% reported meeting monthly, and 21% reported “other,” meaning that these states have a different meeting schedule

  15. The Applicability of Governance at King Saud University in Riyadh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentab, Mohammad Y.

    2018-01-01

    The problem of the study revolves around the application of the requirements of governance at King Saud University. The study aims to identify the extent of governance requirements at King Saud University as seen by faculty members through transparency, accountability, organizational structure, laws, regulations, and justice. To achieve the…

  16. Standardization of Software Application Development and Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    of their systems or applications. DOD systems do not have the luxury of replacing systems at the same pace as commercial companies. DOD has to...is not that the commercial market purposefully sells products that are not complete, but having a 100% complete product requires extensive testing...develop applications for Google ’s Android and Apple ’s iOS devices. Both these companies have SDKs online as well as a number of resources available

  17. Criteria governing electron plasma waves in a two-temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell, M.P.; Gledhill, I.M.A.; Hellberg, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Using a technique based on the saddle-points of the dielectric function, criteria are found which govern the behaviour of electron plasma waves in plasmas with two electron populations having different temperatures. (orig.)

  18. Dosimetry for electron beam application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    1983-12-01

    This report describes two aspects of electron beam dosimetry, on one hand development of film dosimeters and measurements of their properties, and on the other hand development of calorimeters for calibration of routine dosimeters, e.g. thin films. Two types of radiochromic thin film dosimeters have been developed in this department, and the properties of these and commercially available dosimeters have been measured and found to be comparable. Calorimeters which are in use for routine measurements, are being investigated with reference to their application as standardizing instruments, and new calorimeters are being developed. (author)

  19. Visual Culture and Electronic Government: Exploring a New Generation of E-Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkers, Victor; Moody, Rebecca

    E-government is becoming more picture-oriented. What meaning do stakeholders attach to visual events and visualization? Comparative case study research show the functional meaning primarily refers to registration, integration, transparency and communication. The political meaning refers to new ways of framing in order to secure specific interests and claims. To what the institutional meaning relates is ambiguous: either it improves the position of citizens, or it reinforces the existing bias presented by governments. Hence, we expect that the emergence of a visualized public space, through omnipresent penetration of (mobile) multimedia technologies, will influence government-citizen interactions.

  20. Sample Development on Java Smart-Card Electronic Wallet Application

    OpenAIRE

    Toma Cristian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, are highlighted concepts as: complete Java card application, life cycle of an applet, and a practical electronic wallet sample implemented in Java card technology. As a practical approach it would be interesting building applets for ID, Driving License, Health-Insurance smart cards, for encrypt and digitally sign documents, for E-Commerce and for accessing critical resources in government and military field. The end of this article it is presented a java card electronic wallet ...

  1. The development of mountain risk governance: challenges for application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, S.; Stötter, J.

    2015-01-01

    The complexity the management of mountain risks in the Alps has considerably increased since its institutionalisation in the late nineteenth century. In the history of approaches to dealing with mountain risks four successive paradigms can be distinguished on the basis of key indicators such as guiding principles, characteristic elements and typical instruments: "hazard protection", "hazard management", "risk management", and "risk governance". In this contribution, special attention is paid to the development of hazard zone planning and the growing importance of communication and participation over the course of this transformation. At present, the risk management paradigm has reached maturity. In the Alps, risk governance frameworks are not yet applied to risks from natural hazards. Based on a historical analysis, the suitability and applicability of general risk governance frameworks in the context of mountain risks are discussed. Necessary adaptations (e.g., in administration, educational, and legal structures) are proposed for the upcoming transformation towards mountain risk governance.

  2. User’s Perspective of Electronic Government Adoption in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Hermínio Salati Marcondes de Moraes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study which factors influence the use of e-government in Brazil, focusing on investigating government computerization initiatives of fiscal control mechanisms, through a study on the Nota Fiscal Paulista program. We interviewed approximately 3,500 citizens who have used the program, in 11 cities in the State of São Paulo. Of this total, 715 responses were considered valid. We used a quantitative methodology for the development of this research, through the multivariate analysis technique of structural equation modeling. The study presented a robust model with a high explanatory power, in which the influencing factors are: Perceived Benefit; Perceived Ease of Use; Social Influence; Perceived Security; Trust in the Government and Habit.

  3. DEVELOPING APPLICATIONS FOR ELECTRONIC BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Șoavă

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We are in the early 3rd millennium as companies face the need to exploit technology changing computer environments, in order to improve customer satisfaction and reduce costs. Thus, the development of e-business, the efficient use of new information technologies in business, by developing an alternative sales channel with relatively low costs, it manages to establish relationships with incomparably greater number of customers, to traditional approaches. Starting from these general considerations, we conducted this work we divided it into four parts. In the first part we present general context in which companies can achieve needs using new technologies, then we reviewed the basic elements in developing e-business type applications presenting their main benefits. Next, I approached refining models for e-business software development and use of distributed architectures for electronic commerce, concluding with a set of conclusions.

  4. Recent Challenges Facing US Government Climate Science Access and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, G. T.; Carter, J. M.; Licker, R.

    2017-12-01

    Climate scientists have long faced politicization of their work, especially those working within the US federal government. However, political interference in federal government climate change science has escalated in the current political era with efforts by political actors to undermine and disrupt infrastructure supporting climate science. This has included funding changes, decreased access to climate science information on federal agency websites, restrictions on media access to scientific experts within the government, and rolling back of science-based policies designed to incorporate and respond to climate science findings. What are the impacts of such changes for both the climate science community and the broader public? What can be done to ensure that access to and application of climate change-related research to policy decisions continues? We will summarize and analyze the state of climate change research and application in the US government. The impacts of political interference in climate change science as well as opportunities the scientific community has to support climate science in the US government, will be discussed.

  5. Application of models for exchange of electronic documents in complex administrative services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glavev, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The report presents application of models for exchange of electronic documents between different administrations in government and business sectors. It shows the benefits of implementing electronic exchange of documents between different local offices of one administration in government sector such as a municipality and the way it is useful for implementing complex administrative services

  6. Application of models for exchange of electronic documents in complex administrative services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glavev, Victor

    2015-11-30

    The report presents application of models for exchange of electronic documents between different administrations in government and business sectors. It shows the benefits of implementing electronic exchange of documents between different local offices of one administration in government sector such as a municipality and the way it is useful for implementing complex administrative services.

  7. Electronic Democracy and Environmental Governance: A Survey of the States

    OpenAIRE

    Beierle, Thomas; Cahill, Sarah

    2000-01-01

    Just as information technology is rapidly changing how we work, shop, and play, it is changing how we practice democracy. This paper focuses on one area where the Internet is broadening public participation in governance: the administration of environmental laws and regulations. It describes a survey of how each of the 50 states is using the Internet to provide citizens with environmental information, gather public input on agency decisions, and foster networks of interested citizens. As "lab...

  8. An Enterprise Architecture Perspective to Electronic Health Record Based Care Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoc, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an Enterprise Architecture viewpoint of Electronic Health Record (EHR) based care governance. The improvements expected are derived from the collaboration framework and the clinical health model proposed as foundation for the concept of EHR.

  9. Electronic Government in the City of Fez, Morocco : Scaling up to the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In the pilot phase of the project (101980), electronic service delivery was introduced and successfully deployed in the Fez-Agdal local government office. This phase will scale up the project to include the remaining local government offices in the city of Fez. It will also upgrade, enhance and complete the automation of the ...

  10. Electron-molecule interactions and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Christophorou, L G

    1984-01-01

    Electron-Molecule Interactions and Their Applications, Volume 2 provides a balanced and comprehensive account of electron-molecule interactions in dilute and dense gases and liquid media. This book consists of six chapters. Chapter 1 deals with electron transfer reactions, while Chapter 2 discusses electron-molecular positive-ion recombination. The electron motion in high-pressure gases and electron-molecule interactions from single- to multiple-collision conditions is deliberated in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, knowledge on electron-molecule interactions in gases is linked to that on similar proc

  11. Dosimetry for Electron Beam Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1983-01-01

    This report describes two aspects of electron bean dosimetry, on one hand developaent of thin fil« dosimeters and measurements of their properties, and on the other hand developaent of calorimeters for calibration of routine dosimeters, e.g. thin films. Two types of radiochromic thin film...

  12. 48 CFR 52.232-35 - Designation of Office for Government Receipt of Electronic Funds Transfer Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government Receipt of Electronic Funds Transfer Information. 52.232-35 Section 52.232-35 Federal Acquisition... of Office for Government Receipt of Electronic Funds Transfer Information (MAY 1999) (a) As provided... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.232-35 Designation of Office for Government Receipt of...

  13. Intranet and village community: optimization of public service based on electronic government at the local level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradana, G. W.; Fanida, E. H.; Niswah, F.

    2018-01-01

    The demand for good governance is directed towards the realization of efficiency, effectiveness, and clean government. The move is demonstrated through national and regional levels to develop and implement electronic government concepts. Through the development of electronic government is done structuring management systems and work processes in the government environment by optimizing the utilization of information technology. One of the real forms of electronic government (e-Gov) implementation at the local level is the Intranet Sub-District program in Sukodono Sub-District, Sidoarjo. Intranet Sub-District is an innovation whose purpose is to realize the availability of information on the utilization of management, distribution, and storage of official scripts, and also the optimal delivery of information and communication in the implementation of guidance and supervision of local administration. The type of this paper is descriptive with a qualitative approach and focus on the implementation of the Intranet District Program in Sukodono District, Sidoarjo. The findings of the study are the limited number of human resources who have mastered ICT, the uneven network, the adequacy of institutional needs and the existence of budget support from the authorized institution and the information system has not accommodated all the service needs.

  14. Trust in government and support for governmental regulation: the case of electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herian, Mitchel N; Shank, Nancy C; Abdel-Monem, Tarik L

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents results from a public engagement effort in Nebraska, USA, which measured public opinions about governmental involvement in encouraging the use of electronic health records (EHRs). We examine the role of trust in government in contributing to public support for government involvement in the development of EHR technologies. We hypothesize that trust in government will lead to support for federal and state governmental encouragement of the use of EHRs among doctors and insurance companies. Further, because individual experiences with health-care professionals will reduce perceptions of risk, we expect that support for governmental involvement will be tempered by greater personal experience with the health-care industry. Examining a small survey of individuals on the issue, we find general support for both of our hypotheses. The findings suggest that trust in government does have a positive relationship with support for government involvement in the policy domain, but that the frequency of personal experiences with health-care providers reduces the extent to which the public supports governmental involvement in the development of EHR technology. This inquiry contributes to our understanding of public attitudes towards government involvement in EHRs in the United States specifically and contributes to social science examining links between trust in government and support for governmental activity in the emerging policy domain regarding electronic health records systems. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Power electronics handbook components, circuits and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1993-01-01

    Power Electronics Handbook: Components, Circuits, and Applications is a collection of materials about power components, circuit design, and applications. Presented in a practical form, theoretical information is given as formulae. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 deals with the usual components found in power electronics such as semiconductor devices and power semiconductor control components, their electronic compatibility, and protection. Part 2 tackles parts and principles related to circuits such as switches; link frequency chargers; converters; and AC line control, and Part 3

  16. Electron accelerators: History, applications, and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, M. N.; Silva, T. F.

    2014-02-01

    This paper will present an outlook on sources of radiation, focusing on electron accelerators. We will review advances that were important for the development of particle accelerators, concentrating on those that led to modern electron accelerators. Electron accelerators are multipurpose machines that deliver beams with energies spanning five orders of magnitude, and are used in applications that range from fundamental studies of particle interactions to cross-linking polymer chains in industrial plants. Each accelerator type presents specific characteristics that make it more suitable for certain applications. Our work will focus on radiation sources for medical applications, dominated by electron linacs (linear accelerators), and those used for research, field where electron rings dominate. We will outline the main technological advances that occurred in the past decades, which made possible the construction of machines fit for clinical environments. Their compactness, efficiency and reliability have been key to their acceptance in clinical applications. This outline will include advances that allowed for the construction of brighter synchrotron light sources, where the relevant beam characteristics are good optical quality and high beam current. The development of insertion devices will also be discussed, as well the development of Free Electron Lasers (FEL). We conclude the review with an outline of the new developments of electron accelerators and the expectations for Energy Recovery Linacs.

  17. Industrial applications of electron beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan

    1997-01-01

    Electron beam technology was first introduced in Malaysia in 1989 with the conclusion of the bilateral cooperation between the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) and Japan International Co-operation Agency (JICA) on Radiation Application Projects. Two electron beam accelerators with energy of 3.0 MeV and 200 keV were installed at MINT. These two accelerators pave the way for R and D to be carried out in radiation processing of polymers for cross-linking and surface curing. In 1994, another electron beam accelerator was installed in the private sector for cross-linking of home appliance wires. Since then, two more accelerators were installed in the private sector for cross-linking of heat shrinkable plastic films. Recently, a local company has acquired a low energy electron beam machine for cross-linking of plastic film. Within a period of 7 years, industrial applications of electron beam technology in Malaysia have increased significantly

  18. Government Applications Task Force ground truth study of WAG 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evers, T.K.; Smyre, J.L.; King, A.L.

    1997-06-01

    This report documents the Government Applications Task Force (GATF) Buried Waste Project. The project was initiated as a field investigation and verification of the 1994 Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program's (SERDP) Buried Waste Identification Project results. The GATF project team included staff from three US Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratories [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC)] and from the National Exploitation Laboratory. Similar studies were conducted at each of the three DOE laboratories to demonstrate the effective use of remote sensing technologies. The three locations were selected to assess differences in buried waste signatures under various environmental conditions (i.e., climate, terrain, precipitation, geology, etc.). After a brief background discussion of the SERDP Project, this report documents the field investigation (ground truth) results from the 1994--1995 GATF Buried Waste Study at ORNL's Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4. Figures for this report are located in Appendix A

  19. Electron accelerators: History, applications, and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, M.N.; Silva, T.F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper will present an outlook on sources of radiation, focusing on electron accelerators. We will review advances that were important for the development of particle accelerators, concentrating on those that led to modern electron accelerators. Electron accelerators are multipurpose machines that deliver beams with energies spanning five orders of magnitude, and are used in applications that range from fundamental studies of particle interactions to cross-linking polymer chains in industrial plants. Each accelerator type presents specific characteristics that make it more suitable for certain applications. Our work will focus on radiation sources for medical applications, dominated by electron linacs (linear accelerators), and those used for research, field where electron rings dominate. We will outline the main technological advances that occurred in the past decades, which made possible the construction of machines fit for clinical environments. Their compactness, efficiency and reliability have been key to their acceptance in clinical applications. This outline will include advances that allowed for the construction of brighter synchrotron light sources, where the relevant beam characteristics are good optical quality and high beam current. The development of insertion devices will also be discussed, as well the development of Free Electron Lasers (FEL). We conclude the review with an outline of the new developments of electron accelerators and the expectations for Energy Recovery Linacs. - Highlights: ► We present an outlook on sources of radiation, focusing on electron accelerators. ► We review important advances for the development of modern electron accelerators. ► We outline advances that allowed for brighter synchrotron light sources. ► We describe the history of the development of electron accelerators in Brazil

  20. 78 FR 62362 - Revisions to Procedural Regulations Governing Transportation by Intrastate Pipelines; Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    ...] Revisions to Procedural Regulations Governing Transportation by Intrastate Pipelines; Electronic Tariff... under the Commission's jurisdiction pursuant to the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 or the Natural Gas Act.\\1\\ Take notice that, effective November 12, 2013, the list of available eTariff Type of Filing...

  1. Sustainable Development and African Local Government: Can Electronic Training Help Build Capacities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hazel; Thomas, Alan

    2007-01-01

    A recent study carried out by European and African organizations into the potential for electronic distance training (EDT) on sustainability in African local governments concluded that EDT was both "useful and feasible". This article reflects on some of the theoretical and practical implications of that study. It focuses on the…

  2. Materials and applications of bioresorbable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xian

    2018-01-01

    Bioresorbable electronics is a new type of electronics technology that can potentially lead to biodegradable and dissolvable electronic devices to replace current built-to-last circuits predominantly used in implantable devices and consumer electronics. Such devices dissolve in an aqueous environment in time periods from seconds to months, and generate biological safe products. This paper reviews materials, fabrication techniques, and applications of bioresorbable electronics, and aims to inspire more revolutionary bioresorbable systems that can generate broader social and economic impact. Existing challenges and potential solutions in developing bioresorbable electronics have also been presented to arouse more joint research efforts in this field to build systematic technology framework. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61604108) and the Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin (No. 16JCYBJC40600).

  3. Electronic Nose Technology and its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil MAHMOUDI

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, Electronic Nose instrumentation has generated much interest internationally for its potential to solve a wide variety of problems in fragrance and cosmetics production, food and beverages manufacturing, chemical engineering, environmental monitoring and more recently medical diagnostic, bioprocesses and clinical diagnostic plant diseases. This instrument measure electrical resistance changes generated by adsorption of volatiles to the surface of electro active- polymer coated sensor- unique digital electronic fingerprint of aroma derived from multi-sensor- responses to distinct mixture of microbial volatiles. Major advances in information and gas sensor technology could enhance the diagnostic power of future bio-electronic nose and facilitate global surveillance mode of disease control and management. Several dozen companies are now designed and selling electronic nose units globally for a wide variety of expending markets. The present review includes principles of electronic nose technology, biosensor structure and applications of electronic nose in many fields.

  4. Application of electron beam irradiation, (1). Development and application of electron beam processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumura, Yosuke

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with characteristics, equipment (principle and kinds), present conditions, and future issues in the application of electron beam irradiation. Characteristics of electron beams are described in terms of the following: chemical and biological effects of radiation; energy and penetrating power of electron beams; and principle and kinds of electron beam accelerator. Industrial application of electron beam irradiation has advantages of high speed procedure and producibility, less energy, avoidance of poisonous gas, and extreme reduction of organic solvents to be used. The present application of electron beam irradiation cen be divided into the following: (1) hardening of resin or coated membrane; (2) improvement of macromolecular materials; (3) environmental protection; (4) sterilization; (5) food sterilization. The present equipment for electron beam irradiation is introduced according to low energy, medium energy, and high energy equipment. Finally, future issues focuses on (1) the improvement of traceability system and development of electron dosimetric techniques and (2) food sterilization. (N.K.)

  5. Technology and applications of electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsir, M.

    1998-01-01

    Technology of electron accelerator have been developed so fast in advanced countries. It was applied in the research and development (R and D) and comercially in various industries. The industries applying electron accelerator includes polymers industry, sterilization of medical tools, material surface modification, and environmental management. The radiation process using electron beam is an ionization radiation process. Two facilities of electron accelerator have been established in pilot scale at the Centre for the Application of Isotope and Radiation CAIR-BATAN, Jakarta, for the RandD of radiation process technology and in demonstrating the electron accelerator application in industry in Indonesia. The first has low energy specification of 300 keV, 50 mA, EPS-300 type and the second has medium energy specification of 2 MeV, 10 mA dynamitron model GJ-2 type. Both the electron accelerators have an electron penetration depth capability of 0.6 and 12 mm, respectively, for the double side irradiation in the materials with density of 1 g/cm 3 . They also highly capacity production and electron beam cross-section of 120 cm length and 10 cm width. The beam will go through the atmosphere for irradiation samples or industrial products. The radiation dose can be selected precisely by adjusting the electron beam current and conveyor speed. Both of these facilities were applied in many aspects RandD, for examples dosimetry, wood surface coating, cross-linking of polymer, heatshrincable tube, polymer grafting, plastic degradation, food preservation, sterilization and so on. Engineering factors of radiation design process and general observation of electron accelerator application in RandD for various industries in Indonesia are briefly discussed

  6. Application of dematel method in integrated framework of corporate governance

    OpenAIRE

    Klozíková, Jana; Dočkalíková, Iveta

    2015-01-01

    Corporate governance was created in recent decades and we can say that it is a new field of science. The most famous companies failed from day to day. Their failure and scandals had significant impact on local and international community. Finding of a new effective framework of level of corporate governance can help that the similar negative events wouldn't be repeated never again. The new approach in the corporate governance - an integrated framework, created for corporate governance is one ...

  7. Potential application of electron accelerators in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alang Md Rashid, Nahrul Khair; Mohd Dahlan, Khairul Zaman [Nuclear Energy Unit, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1994-12-31

    Briefly discussed some applications of electron accelerators i.e. sterilization, pasteurization (high energy EBM - up to 10 MV), crosslinking of wire and cable and insulation (medium energy EBM - 1 to 5 MV), treatment of flue gases for removal of NO sub x and SO sub x from burning coal(low energy EBM - 700 to 900 kV), curing of surface coatings, printing ink, adhesives (low energy EBM - 200 to 500 kV); advantages and electron beam processing.

  8. Potential application of electron accelerators in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan

    1994-01-01

    Briefly discussed some applications of electron accelerators i.e. sterilization, pasteurization (high energy EBM - up to 10 MV), crosslinking of wire and cable and insulation (medium energy EBM - 1 to 5 MV), treatment of flue gases for removal of NO sub x and SO sub x from burning coal(low energy EBM - 700 to 900 kV), curing of surface coatings, printing ink, adhesives (low energy EBM - 200 to 500 kV); advantages and electron beam processing

  9. 76 FR 70651 - Fee for Filing a Patent Application Other Than by the Electronic Filing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... government; or (3) preempt tribal law. Therefore, a tribal summary impact statement is not required under... 0651-AC64 Fee for Filing a Patent Application Other Than by the Electronic Filing System AGENCY: United..., that is not filed by electronic means as prescribed by the Director of the United States Patent and...

  10. Practical application of corporate governance principles in a developing country: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Wanjiru Gachie; Desmond Wesley Govender

    2017-01-01

    The importance of examining corporate governance in organisations cannot be overemphasised. Corporate governance failure which has resulted from weak corporate governance systems has highlighted the need for research aimed at contributing to the improvement and reform of corporate governance at business, national and international level. A review of corporate governance mechanisms and their practical application in two retail companies in South Africa was undertaken. The research question tha...

  11. Nano crystals for Electronic and Optoelectronic Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, T.; Cloutier, S.G.; Ivanov, I; Knappenberger Jr, K.L.; Robel, I.; Zhang, F

    2012-01-01

    Electronic and optoelectronic devices, from computers and smart cell phones to solar cells, have become a part of our life. Currently, devices with featured circuits of 45 nm in size can be fabricated for commercial use. However, further development based on traditional semiconductor is hindered by the increasing thermal issues and the manufacturing cost. During the last decade, nano crystals have been widely adopted in various electronic and optoelectronic applications. They provide alternative options in terms of ease of processing, low cost, better flexibility, and superior electronic/optoelectronic properties. By taking advantage of solution-processing, self-assembly, and surface engineering, nano crystals could serve as new building blocks for low-cost manufacturing of flexible and large area devices. Tunable electronic structures combined with small exciton binding energy, high luminescence efficiency, and low thermal conductivity make nano crystals extremely attractive for FET, memory device, solar cell, solid-state lighting/display, photodetector, and lasing applications. Efforts to harness the nano crystal quantum tunability have led to the successful demonstration of many prototype devices, raising the public awareness to the wide range of solutions that nano technology can provide for an efficient energy economy. This special issue aims to provide the readers with the latest achievements of nano crystals in electronic and optoelectronic applications, including the synthesis and engineering of nano crystals towards the applications and the corresponding device fabrication, characterization and computer modeling.

  12. An Analysis of the Regulatory Environment Governing Hearsay Electronic Evidence in South Africa: Suggestions for Reform – Part One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Swales

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this two-part article is to examine the regulatory environment governing hearsay electronic evidence in South Africa – with a view to providing clear, practical suggestions for regulatory reform in the context of the South African Law Reform Commission's most recent Discussion Paper on electronic evidence. Technology has become an indispensable part of modern life. In particular, the Internet has facilitated new forms of business enterprise, and shifted basic communication norms. From a legal perspective, technology has presented several novel challenges for courts and legal practitioners to deal with – one of these key challenges relates to electronic evidence and in particular the application of the hearsay rules to the digital environment. The South African Law Reform Commission has identified the application of the hearsay rule as one of the core concerns with regard to electronic evidence, and certain academic analysis has revealed inefficiency in the current legal position which may involve multiple sources of law. Moreover, the Law Society of South Africa has stated that there is some confusion amongst members of the profession in relation to hearsay as it applies to electronic evidence. With the pervasive and burgeoning nature of technology, and with the Internet in mind, it is natural to assume that electronic evidence will be relevant in most forms of legal proceedings in future, and hearsay electronic evidence in particular will play an increasingly important role in years to come. Consequently, part one of this article will consider the key definitional concept in relation to electronic evidence – data messages - and examine whether the definition should be revised. In addition, part one of this article will answer two further critical questions posed by the South African Law Reform Commission in relation to data messages and hearsay evidence, namely: should a data message constitute hearsay? And, how should one

  13. Electron Beam Scanning in Industrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Yves; Herer, Arnold

    1996-05-01

    Scanned electron beams are used within many industries for applications such as sterilization of medical disposables, crosslinking of wire and cables insulating jackets, polymerization and degradation of resins and biomaterials, modification of semiconductors, coloration of gemstones and glasses, removal of oxides from coal plant flue gasses, and the curing of advanced composites and other molded forms. X-rays generated from scanned electron beams make yet other applications, such as food irradiation, viable. Typical accelerators for these applications range in beam energy from 0.5MeV to 10 MeV, with beam powers between 5 to 500kW and scanning widths between 20 and 300 cm. Since precise control of dose delivery is required in many of these applications, the integration of beam characteristics, product conveyance, and beam scanning mechanisms must be well understood and optimized. Fundamental issues and some case examples are presented.

  14. Model Penguatan Kapasitas Pemerintah Desa dalam Menjalankan Fungsi Pemerintahan Berbasis Electronic Government (E-Government menuju Pembangunan Desa Berdaya Saing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulismadi Sulismadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One aspect that needs to be studied more deeply about the village administration in the era of village autonomy is the ability of the human resources in the management of village government in accordance village governance objectives and the demands of, “Undang – undang no 06 Tahun 2014 about the village. The capacity of the village government deemed not qualified to run the authority possessed by law the village. Weak capacity of rural government impact on law implementation failure that led to the poor rural village development. This study examines these issues. This study used qualitative research methods. The unit of analysis of this research that the village government Landungsari Dau District of Malang, East Java. This study was conducted over three years (2016, 2017, 2018. The findings of the research during the last four months in the first year of the study is Landungsari village administration showed a good performance in governance at the village of village autonomy era (the era of the Village Law. The village government is able to carry out rural development planning, village administrative governance, and the financial management of the village properly. Nevertheless, the village government also faces serious problems is the lack of human resource capacity of the village administration, village very less quantity, and village officials do not understand the duties of each. To address these issues, the village government seeks to organize village governance based on information technology (e-government, but the effort has not worked well because the village government does not have a human resources professional in the field of information technology and the village government does not have enough budget to develop the e-government program. Therefore, the research team conducting FGD on the development of e-government program. FGD village government resulted in an agreement in cooperation with governmental science labs and e-government

  15. Radiation leakage from linac electron applicator assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keys, R.A.; Purdy, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The electron beam applicator system currently in use on the linear accelerator is constructed of light-weight fiberglass and aluminum. With an applicator in place on the accelerator, the photon collimator jaws are automatically set several centimeters greater than the electron field size projected at the patient's surface. To ensure that no regions of high dose levels exist outside the useful beam, ionization and film measurements were made to quantitate the amount of leakage radiation through the 10 cm x 10 cm and 25 cm x 25 cm applicators. In most regions, the ionization levels at the patient's surface were below 5% of the central axis dose. In one area for the 25 cm applicator, the percentage ionization was 8.5%, which could be reduced by the addition of a small piece of 1/8 inch thick lead. However, ionization levels on the outside surface of the applicator were found to be considerably higher at certain locations for the 25 cm applicator. Results for 6, 9, 12 and 20 MeV electrons are reported here

  16. Applications for Energy Recovering Free Electron Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Neil

    2007-08-01

    The availability of high-power, high-brilliance sources of tunable photons from energy-recovered Free Electron Lasers is opening up whole new fields of application of accelerators in industry. This talk will review some of the ideas that are already being put into production, and some of the newer ideas that are still under development.

  17. Electronic Data Safes as an Infrastructure for Transformational Government? A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pfister, Joachim; Schwabe, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Part 3: Services, Processes and Infrastructure; International audience; This article introduces and explores the potential of an active electronic data safe (AEDS) serving as an infrastructure to achieve transformational government. An AEDS connects individuals and organizations from the private and the public sector to exchange information items related to business processes following the user-managed access paradigm. To realize the transformational government’s vision of user-centricity, fu...

  18. Special Reports; Homeland Security and Information Management; The Development of Electronic Government in the United States: The Federal Policy Experience; Digital Rights Management: Why Libraries Should Be Major Players; The Current State and Future Promise of Portal Applications; Recruitment and Retention: A Professional Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relyea, Harold C.; Halchin, L. Elaine; Hogue, Henry B.; Agnew, Grace; Martin, Mairead; Schottlaender, Brian E. C.; Jackson, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Theses five reports address five special issues: the effects of the September 11 attacks on information management, including homeland security, Web site information removal, scientific and technical information, and privacy concerns; federal policy for electronic government information; digital rights management and libraries; library Web portal…

  19. 13 CFR 121.402 - What size standards are applicable to Federal Government Contracting programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Size Eligibility Requirements for Government Procurement § 121.402 What size standards are applicable... being purchased. Other factors considered include previous Government procurement classifications of the... to Federal Government Contracting programs? 121.402 Section 121.402 Business Credit and Assistance...

  20. The Usage of E-Governance Applications by Higher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öktem, M. Kemal; Demirhan, Kamil; Demirhan, Haydar

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the factors affecting the Internet usage of university students using e-governance applications. It is important to examine these factors to understand why the online citizen participation is not increasing as expected, while Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) usage is improving in governance. Governance is…

  1. The cornerstone of data warehousing for government applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenbeek, Doug; Rothschild, Jack

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss data warehousing storage issues and the impact of EMC open storage technology for meeting the myriad of challenges government organizations face when building Decision Support/Data Warehouse system.

  2. Zhengdong New District Smart Government Application System Construction and Its Development Strategy Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart government is the advanced stage of e-government development, whose essence is the fusion of Internet, Internet of things, cloud computing, big data and other high and new technology and e-government, to achieve the efficient management of all kinds of information resources and make the government services more transparent, scientific and wisdom. Based on the introduce, basic principle and construct meaning, application system construction, main problems and developing countermeasures and other aspects of smart government to make a comprehensive analysis in the construction of Zhengdong new district smart government, then advise the government departments to speed up the transformation of government management functions and social service mode to integrate the business processes, and promote the construction of service-oriented and smart-oriented government actively.

  3. Applications of electron accelerator in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khairul Zaman Hj. Mohd Dahlan [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2003-02-01

    Current status of radiation processing, as one of the core research programs of the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), is presented. Industrial applications of six electron accelerators from 150 kV up to 3 MV in Malaysia now in operation are mainly for curing of surface coatings, crosslinking of tubes, heat shrinkable tubes and packaging films, crosslinking of wire insulation. Their performances are listed. New technology now in R and D stage includes natural rubber, sago starch and chitosan for biomedical applications, and radiation curable materials from oil palm for pressure sensitive adhesive and printing ink. (S. Ohno)

  4. Axial Vircator for Electronic Warfare Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Drazan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a high power microwave generator with virtual cathode – vircator in axial release for electronic warfare applications. The classification of directed energy weapons microwave (DEWM is introduced together with basic block diagrams of a particular class of DEWM. In the paper, methods for designing vircator pulsed power supply, axial vircator structure, measurement methods and experimental results are presented. The vircator in electromagnetic ammunition is powered by magneto-cumulative generator and in weapons for defense of objects (WDO, it is powered by Marx generator. The possible applications of a vircator in the DEWM area are discussed.

  5. Applications of electron accelerator in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman Hj. Mohd Dahlan

    2003-01-01

    Current status of radiation processing, as one of the core research programs of the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), is presented. Industrial applications of six electron accelerators from 150 kV up to 3 MV in Malaysia now in operation are mainly for curing of surface coatings, crosslinking of tubes, heat shrinkable tubes and packaging films, crosslinking of wire insulation. Their performances are listed. New technology now in R and D stage includes natural rubber, sago starch and chitosan for biomedical applications, and radiation curable materials from oil palm for pressure sensitive adhesive and printing ink. (S. Ohno)

  6. Electronic Attendance Application Using Raspberry Pi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan; Saaidi Ismail; Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman

    2016-01-01

    Raspberry Pi is a cheap mini-computer that officially runs on a Linux distribution Operating System (OS) such as Raspbian. It has many input and output mechanisms simulating a computer which make it useful replacement for a computer system. SimpleCV, an open source python-based image processing software and Telegram, a popular social application provide API that allow communication trough a device such as Raspberry Pi. Combining these two, an electronic attendance has been developed using open source basis, and the electronic attendance also provide enhancement of current system that is to record the person face and sending information through Telegram application. The methodology include gathering requirements on remaining system and test it on Linux which will discuss further. This project is serve as a prototype for enhancement of current Commersial Of The Shelf (COTS) electronic attendance that only record ID of the attendees. In the future, the electronic attendance can be enhanced with many features and should be make in-a-box for commercialization. (author)

  7. Synaptic electronics: materials, devices and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzum, Duygu; Yu, Shimeng; Wong, H-S Philip

    2013-09-27

    In this paper, the recent progress of synaptic electronics is reviewed. The basics of biological synaptic plasticity and learning are described. The material properties and electrical switching characteristics of a variety of synaptic devices are discussed, with a focus on the use of synaptic devices for neuromorphic or brain-inspired computing. Performance metrics desirable for large-scale implementations of synaptic devices are illustrated. A review of recent work on targeted computing applications with synaptic devices is presented.

  8. Synaptic electronics: materials, devices and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzum, Duygu; Yu, Shimeng; Philip Wong, H-S

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the recent progress of synaptic electronics is reviewed. The basics of biological synaptic plasticity and learning are described. The material properties and electrical switching characteristics of a variety of synaptic devices are discussed, with a focus on the use of synaptic devices for neuromorphic or brain-inspired computing. Performance metrics desirable for large-scale implementations of synaptic devices are illustrated. A review of recent work on targeted computing applications with synaptic devices is presented. (topical review)

  9. 48 CFR 23.704 - Application to Government-owned or -leased facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application to Government... and Services 23.704 Application to Government-owned or -leased facilities. Executive Order 13101...

  10. Eucalyptus Cloud to Remotely Provision e-Governance Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreerama Prabhu Chivukula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote rural areas are constrained by lack of reliable power supply, essential for setting up advanced IT infrastructure as servers or storage; therefore, cloud computing comprising an Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS is well suited to provide such IT infrastructure in remote rural areas. Additional cloud layers of Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS can be added above IaaS. Cluster-based IaaS cloud can be set up by using open-source middleware Eucalyptus in data centres of NIC. Data centres of the central and state governments can be integrated with State Wide Area Networks and NICNET together to form the e-governance grid of India. Web service repositories at centre, state, and district level can be built over the national e-governance grid of India. Using Globus Toolkit, we can achieve stateful web services with speed and security. Adding the cloud layer over the e-governance grid will make a grid-cloud environment possible through Globus Nimbus. Service delivery can be in terms of web services delivery through heterogeneous client devices. Data mining using Weka4WS and DataMiningGrid can produce meaningful knowledge discovery from data. In this paper, a plan of action is provided for the implementation of the above proposed architecture.

  11. Peripheral dose outside applicators in electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, James C L; Grigorov, Grigor N

    2006-01-01

    The peripheral dose outside the applicators in electron beams was studied using a Varian 21 EX linear accelerator. To measure the peripheral dose profiles and point doses for the applicator, a solid water phantom was used with calibrated Kodak TL films. Peak dose spot was observed in the 4 MeV beam outside the applicator. The peripheral dose peak was very small in the 6 MeV beam and was ignorable at higher energies. Using the 10 x 10 cm 2 cutout and applicator, the dose peak for the 4 MeV beam was about 12 cm away from the field central beam axis (CAX) and the peripheral dose profiles did not change with depths measured at 0.2, 0.5 and 1 cm. The peripheral doses and profiles were further measured by varying the angle of obliquity, cutout and applicator size for the 4 MeV beam. The local peak dose was increased with about 3% per degree angle of obliquity, and was about 1% of the prescribed dose (angle of obliquity equals zero) at 1 cm depth in the phantom using the 10 x 10 cm 2 cutout and applicator. The peak dose position was also shifted 7 mm towards the CAX when the angle of obliquity was increased from 0 to 15 deg. (note)

  12. Geo-spatial Service and Application based on National E-government Network Platform and Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, X.; Deng, Y.; Li, H.; Yao, L.; Shi, J.

    2014-04-01

    With the acceleration of China's informatization process, our party and government take a substantive stride in advancing development and application of digital technology, which promotes the evolution of e-government and its informatization. Meanwhile, as a service mode based on innovative resources, cloud computing may connect huge pools together to provide a variety of IT services, and has become one relatively mature technical pattern with further studies and massive practical applications. Based on cloud computing technology and national e-government network platform, "National Natural Resources and Geospatial Database (NRGD)" project integrated and transformed natural resources and geospatial information dispersed in various sectors and regions, established logically unified and physically dispersed fundamental database and developed national integrated information database system supporting main e-government applications. Cross-sector e-government applications and services are realized to provide long-term, stable and standardized natural resources and geospatial fundamental information products and services for national egovernment and public users.

  13. Electronic Government In Democratic Public Service In One Door Integrated Permit Handling Services Agency In The City Of Samarinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Surya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Electronic government needs to carry out in a fundamental public services of democracy. But in practice BPPTSP one door integrated permit service board of Samarinda not able to perform the activities. The aim of this research described analyzing electronic government and public services in a democracy. The methodology used in this research using descriptive qualitative approach the study was on the one door integrated permit service of Samarinda respondents in Samarinda the mayor head of Samarinda the citizen private group of government agencies and interests. Then variable measured in electronic government includes support capacity value and public services including democratic information consultancy and participation. The results of research shows that the variables measured having a deficiency and inability in accommodate aspirations built between citizens and the government in developing electronic democratic government. It is influenced by the absence of elements of liaison which is justice diversity and access electronic between government and public services that make democratic BPPTSP the inability of the city of Samarinda to make changes in depth in an effort to build and create a public being communicative with citizens.

  14. Environmental applications of electron-beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    The main directions of modern environmental applications of electron-beam technology are the following: 1) treatment of polluted natural and drinking water, municipal and industrial wastewater, other liquid wastes; 2) purification of gases; 3) treatment of sewage sludges; 4) treatment of solid wastes (medical wastes, contaminated soil and so on). In some cases, the results of respective researches and developments found a large-scale application. For example, recently several industrial plants for electron-beam purification of flue gases of thermal power plants from SO2 and NOx were created in China, Poland and Japan. In the report, a brief summary of the most important results obtained in the mentioned directions will be presented. A special attention will be paid to the data in the first direction. In particular, the recent results on radiation treatment of some liquid systems obtained in the laboratory under author's leadership will be considered. One of them is water polluted with petroleum products (motor oil, diesel fuel, residual fuel oil). The pollutants were present in water in dissolved form and as a separate phase. It was found that irradiation (dose 25-40 kGy) decomposes and removes the pollutants as a precipitate. The second system is natural oil gas consisting of gaseous and low-boiling hydrocarbons, water and so on. Laboratory- and pilot-scale (with electron accelerator of 0.7 MeV and 30 kW) studies have shown that electron-beam treatment (in a recycling regime with continuous sampling the liquid phase) of this gas leads to the formation of a mixture of liquid branched hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers and so on, i.e., there is a radiation-induced liquefaction of the natural oil gas. The mechanism of radiolytic conversions occurring in the mentioned systems will be discussed

  15. Adhesion-governed buckling of thin-film electronics on soft tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stretchable/flexible electronics has attracted great interest and attention due to its potentially broad applications in bio-compatible systems. One class of these ultra-thin electronic systems has found promising and important utilities in bio-integrated monitoring and therapeutic devices. These devices can conform to the surfaces of soft bio-tissues such as the epidermis, the epicardium, and the brain to provide portable healthcare functionalities. Upon contractions of the soft tissues, the electronics undergoes compression and buckles into various modes, depending on the stiffness of the tissue and the strength of the interfacial adhesion. These buckling modes result in different kinds of interfacial delamination and shapes of the deformed electronics, which are very important to the proper functioning of the bio-electronic devices. In this paper, detailed buckling mechanics of these thin-film electronics on elastomeric substrates is studied. The analytical results, validated by experiments, provide a very convenient tool for predicting peak strain in the electronics and the intactness of the interface under various conditions.

  16. Miniature sensor suitable for electronic nose applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinnaduwage, L. A.; Gehl, A. C.; Allman, S. L.

    2007-01-01

    A major research effort has been devoted over the years for the development of chemical sensors for the detection of chemical and explosive vapors. However, the deployment of such chemical sensors will require the use of multiple sensors probably tens of sensors in a sensor package to achieve sel...... microcantilevers. The sensor can detect parts-per-trillion concentrations of DMMP within 10 s exposure times. The small size of the sensor makes it ideally suited for electronic nose applications. © 2007 American Institute of Physics....

  17. Governance of Offshore IT Outsourcing at Shell Global Functions IT-BAM Development and Application of a Governance Framework to Improve Outsourcing Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Floor; van Hillegersberg, Jos; van Eck, Pascal; van der Kolk, Feiko; Jorissen, Rene; Oshri, Ilan; Kotlarsky, Julia

    The lack of effective IT governance is widely recognized as a key inhibitor to successful global IT outsourcing relationships. In this study we present the development and application of a governance framework to improve outsourcing relationships. The approach used to developing an IT governance

  18. 76 FR 13598 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program's Micronutrient... the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition (McGovern-Dole) Program... through FAS's McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition (McGovern-Dole) Program...

  19. Electron collisions—experiment, theory, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartschat, Klaus

    2018-07-01

    Electron collisions with atoms, ions, and molecules have represented an important area of ‘applied quantum mechanics’ for more than a century. This Topical Review is the write-up of the Allis Prize Lecture given by the author at the 2016 meeting of the Division of Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics of the American Physical Society and the 2017 Gaseous Electronics Conference. In light of the enormous size of the field, the examples presented were selected in order to tell the story of how experimental and theoretical/numerical methods have developed over time, how fruitful collaborations between data producers (experimentalists and theorists) and data users have led to significant progress, and how the results of these studies, which were often designed for fundamental research in order to push both experiment and theory to new frontiers, continue to be highly sought after for modeling applications in a variety of fields. The impact of electron collision studies on other fields, such as photoinduced processes and quantum information, is also discussed.

  20. Approach of ICT Application to Governance in Urban Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtudes, Ana; Sá, João

    2017-10-01

    This article discusses the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) at the local level of governance in the field of urban planning. It is based on a literature review, in order to define a set of considerations about their use in the urban context and the challenges ahead on this domain. As a starting point, there is the need of rethinking the local governance through the use of ICT related to cities, focused on the modernization of the processes associated with urban planning. Nowadays, in several societies the paradigm about cities if shifting, from an expansionist way of acting towards a regeneration and rehabilitation approach. In the case of Portugal, the local authorities; the municipalities; are the main responsible for the coordination, and integration of policies with territorial impacts. However, these policies are generally onerous and inefficient, triggering communication and information failures in between local administration and citizens. In this sense, governance should support the decision-making process related to cities’ policies, engaging citizens and socio-economic agents. As the main result in this scenario, the use of ICT demonstrates the ability to play an important role in urban planning, by contributing as a simplifying tool, regarding the information and knowledge sharing, gathering local authorities, citizens and socio-economic agents. On the one hand, they promote the reduction of inefficiencies associated to the urban planning process. On the other hand, they boost the development of networks, and consequently the social and territorial cohesion. In summary, the use of ICT infrastructures works as a glue allowing the integration of several intelligence elements of the city, and operating as their base platform. Finally, the literature has revealed that the use of ICT in urban planning should be seen as a means to a wider social goal, and not as an end by itself. With the use of ICT, urban planning authorities are more

  1. Interdomain electron transfer in cellobiose dehydrogenase is governed by surface electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadek, Alan; Kavan, Daniel; Marcoux, Julien; Stojko, Johann; Felice, Alfons K G; Cianférani, Sarah; Ludwig, Roland; Halada, Petr; Man, Petr

    2017-02-01

    Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is a fungal extracellular oxidoreductase which fuels lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase with electrons during cellulose degradation. Interdomain electron transfer between the flavin and cytochrome domain in CDH, preceding the electron flow to lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase, is known to be pH dependent, but the exact mechanism of this regulation has not been experimentally proven so far. To investigate the structural aspects underlying the domain interaction in CDH, hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX-MS) with improved proteolytic setup (combination of nepenthesin-1 with rhizopuspepsin), native mass spectrometry with ion mobility and electrostatics calculations were used. HDX-MS revealed pH-dependent changes in solvent accessibility and hydrogen bonding at the interdomain interface. Electrostatics calculations identified these differences to result from charge neutralization by protonation and together with ion mobility pointed at higher electrostatic repulsion between CDH domains at neutral pH. In addition, we uncovered extensive O-glycosylation in the linker region and identified the long-unknown exact cleavage point in papain-mediated domain separation. Transition of CDH between its inactive (open) and interdomain electron transfer-capable (closed) state is shown to be governed by changes in the protein surface electrostatics at the domain interface. Our study confirms that the interdomain electrostatic repulsion is the key factor modulating the functioning of CDH. The results presented in this paper provide experimental evidence for the role of charge repulsion in the interdomain electron transfer in cellobiose dehydrogenases, which is relevant for exploiting their biotechnological potential in biosensors and biofuel cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Modifying thin film diamond for electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baral, B.

    1999-01-01

    The unique combination of properties that diamond possesses are being exploited in both electronic and mechanical applications. An important step forward in the field has been the ability to grow thin film diamond by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) methods and to control parameters such as crystal orientation, dopant level and surface roughness. An extensive understanding of the surface of any potential electronic material is vital to fully comprehend its behaviour within device structures. The surface itself ultimately controls key aspects of device performance when interfaced with other materials. This study has provided insight into important chemical reactions on polycrystalline CVD diamond surfaces, addressing how certain surface modifications will ultimately affect the properties of the material. A review of the structure, bonding, properties and potential of diamond along with an account of the current state of diamond technology and CVD diamond growth is provided. The experimental chapter reviews bulk material and surface analytical techniques employed in this work and is followed by an investigation of cleaning treatments for polycrystalline CVD diamond aimed at removing non-diamond carbon from the surface. Selective acid etch treatments are compared and contrasted for efficacy with excimer laser irradiation and hydrogen plasma etching. The adsorption/desorption kinetics of potential dopant-containing precursors on polycrystalline CVD diamond surfaces have been investigated to compare their effectiveness at introducing dopants into the diamond during the growth stage. Both boron and sulphur-containing precursor compounds have been investigated. Treating polycrystalline CVD diamond in various atmospheres / combination of atmospheres has been performed to enhance electron field emission from the films. Films which do not emit electrons under low field conditions can be modified such that they emit at fields as low as 10 V/μm. The origin of this enhancement

  3. 48 CFR 32.503-15 - Application of Government title terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Application of Government title terms. (a) Property to which the Government obtains title by operation of the... Property; and (2) The termination clauses at 52.249, for termination inventory. (c) The contractor may sell... the scrap disposition. (d) When the title to materials or other inventories is vested in the...

  4. Risk Governance: An Application of Analytic-Deliberative Policy Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, Ortwin

    2006-01-01

    The paper introduces an integrated analytic framework for risk governance which provides guidance for the development of comprehensive assessment and management strategies to cope with risks, in particular at the global level. The framework integrates scientific, economic, social and cultural aspects and includes the effective engagement of stakeholders. The concept of risk governance comprises a broad picture of risk: not only does it include what has been termed 'risk management' or 'risk analysis, it also looks at how risk-related decision-making unfolds when a range of actors is involved, requiring co-ordination and possibly reconciliation between a profusion of roles, perspectives, goals and activities. The framework's risk process breaks down into three main phases: 'pre-assessment', 'appraisal', and 'management'. A further phase, comprising the 'characterisation' and 'evaluation' of risk, is placed between the appraisal and management phases and, depending on whether those charged with the assessment or those responsible for management are better equipped to perform the associated tasks, can be assigned to either of them - thus concluding the appraisal phase or marking the start of the management phase. The risk process has 'communication' as a companion to all phases of addressing and handling risk and is itself of a cyclical nature. However, the clear sequence of phases and steps offered by this process is primarily a logical and functional one and will not always correspond to reality. The paper will address in particular the role of public participation and stakeholder involvement

  5. Applications of laser printing for organic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaporte, Ph.; Ainsebaa, A.; Alloncle, A.-P.; Benetti, M.; Boutopoulos, C.; Cannata, D.; Di Pietrantonio, F.; Dinca, V.; Dinescu, M.; Dutroncy, J.; Eason, R.; Feinaugle, M.; Fernández-Pradas, J.-M.; Grisel, A.; Kaur, K.; Lehmann, U.; Lippert, T.; Loussert, C.; Makrygianni, M.; Manfredonia, I.; Mattle, T.; Morenza, J.-L.; Nagel, M.; Nüesch, F.; Palla-Papavlu, A.; Rapp, L.; Rizvi, N.; Rodio, G.; Sanaur, S.; Serra, P.; Shaw-Stewart, J.; Sones, C. L.; Verona, E.; Zergioti, I.

    2013-03-01

    The development of organic electronic requires a non contact digital printing process. The European funded e-LIFT project investigated the possibility of using the Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) technique to address this field of applications. This process has been optimized for the deposition of functional organic and inorganic materials in liquid and solid phase, and a set of polymer dynamic release layer (DRL) has been developed to allow a safe transfer of a large range of thin films. Then, some specific applications related to the development of heterogeneous integration in organic electronics have been addressed. We demonstrated the ability of LIFT process to print thin film of organic semiconductor and to realize Organic Thin Film Transistors (OTFT) with mobilities as high as 4 10-2 cm2.V-1.s-1 and Ion/Ioff ratio of 2.8 105. Polymer Light Emitting Diodes (PLED) have been laser printed by transferring in a single step process a stack of thin films, leading to the fabrication of red, blue green PLEDs with luminance ranging from 145 cd.m-2 to 540 cd.m-2. Then, chemical sensors and biosensors have been fabricated by printing polymers and proteins on Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices. The ability of LIFT to transfer several sensing elements on a same device with high resolution allows improving the selectivity of these sensors and biosensors. Gas sensors based on the deposition of semiconducting oxide (SnO2) and biosensors for the detection of herbicides relying on the printing of proteins have also been realized and their performances overcome those of commercial devices. At last, we successfully laser-printed thermoelectric materials and realized microgenerators for energy harvesting applications.

  6. Electron accelerators and applications in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo

    2006-01-01

    Types of high-energy radiation were discovered more than one hundred years ago. Since then, properties of radiation providing ability to modify physico-chemical properties of materials have found many applications. Radiation technologies applying gamma sources as well as electron accelerators for treatment of materials are well-established processes. Worldwide, there are over 2000 industrial gamma irradiators and 1,300 industrial electron accelerators in operation that are being widely used for sterilization, food irradiation and polymer processing. Indeed, radiation processing is today a well established multi-billion dollar industry world over that is providing unique high value products for mankind in an environmentally friendly manner. Electron accelerators are introduced at late 70s in Korea, firstly for researches and later for insulated wire and cable production, and up to now, over 30 accelerators are used in industries. They are mainly for cable productions, thermo-shrinkable materials, foam sheets, coating and curing and others. While polymerization and polymer modification have proved to be the most widespread applications of radiation processing, many other applications, such as environmental protection is becoming an increasingly important concern in industrialized nations, and wide ranging investigations have identified several areas of waste control to which radiation processing may contribute. In recent years, large metropolitan cities including Seoul, Tokyo and other major cities have been facing the challenge of increasing environmental pollution resulting from ever increasing population and industrial activities. As a result, issues regarding environmental pollution, be it air, liquid or solid, are becoming significant matters of concern. The realization that such pollutants pose a serious threat to human health has necessitated the need for development of cost effective and environmentally friendly technologies to overcome the problem. Radiation

  7. 48 CFR 3053.222-70 - Application of labor laws to Government acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application of labor laws... Prescription of Forms 3053.222-70 Application of labor laws to Government acquisitions. The following form is prescribed for use in connection with the application of labor laws, as specified in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3022.406-9...

  8. The Corporate Governance Framework & its Application to Privatizations of Public Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenourgios, Dimitris; Samitas, Aristidis; Konstantopoulos, Nikolaos

    2007-12-01

    This paper is an attempt to evaluate the application of Corporate Governance framework issue within Public domain. It is an attempt to quantify the compliance of Greek companies with international best practices.

  9. Electron holography-basics and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichte, Hannes; Lehmann, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Despite the huge progress achieved recently by means of the corrector for aberrations, allowing now a true atomic resolution of 0.1 nm, hence making it an unrivalled tool for nanoscience, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) suffers from a severe drawback: in a conventional electron micrograph only a poor phase contrast can be achieved, i.e. phase structures are virtually invisible. Therefore, conventional TEM is nearly blind for electric and magnetic fields, which are pure phase objects. Since such fields provoked by the atomic structure, e.g. of semiconductors and ferroelectrics, largely determine the solid state properties, hence the importance for high technology applications, substantial object information is missing. Electron holography in TEM offers the solution: by superposition with a coherent reference wave, a hologram is recorded, from which the image wave can be completely reconstructed by amplitude and phase. Now the object is displayed quantitatively in two separate images: one representing the amplitude, the other the phase. From the phase image, electric and magnetic fields can be determined quantitatively in the range from micrometre down to atomic dimensions by all wave optical methods that one can think of, both in real space and in Fourier space. Electron holography is pure wave optics. Therefore, we discuss the basics of coherence and interference, the implementation into a TEM, the path of rays for recording holograms as well as the limits in lateral and signal resolution. We outline the methods of reconstructing the wave by numerical image processing and procedures for extracting the object properties of interest. Furthermore, we present a broad spectrum of applications both at mesoscopic and atomic dimensions. This paper gives an overview of the state of the art pointing at the needs for further development. It is also meant as encouragement for those who refrain from holography, thinking that it can only be performed by specialists in

  10. Risk Governance: An Application of Analytic-Deliberative Policy Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renn, Ortwin [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    The paper introduces an integrated analytic framework for risk governance which provides guidance for the development of comprehensive assessment and management strategies to cope with risks, in particular at the global level. The framework integrates scientific, economic, social and cultural aspects and includes the effective engagement of stakeholders. The concept of risk governance comprises a broad picture of risk: not only does it include what has been termed 'risk management' or 'risk analysis, it also looks at how risk-related decision-making unfolds when a range of actors is involved, requiring co-ordination and possibly reconciliation between a profusion of roles, perspectives, goals and activities. The framework's risk process breaks down into three main phases: 'pre-assessment', 'appraisal', and 'management'. A further phase, comprising the 'characterisation' and 'evaluation' of risk, is placed between the appraisal and management phases and, depending on whether those charged with the assessment or those responsible for management are better equipped to perform the associated tasks, can be assigned to either of them - thus concluding the appraisal phase or marking the start of the management phase. The risk process has 'communication' as a companion to all phases of addressing and handling risk and is itself of a cyclical nature. However, the clear sequence of phases and steps offered by this process is primarily a logical and functional one and will not always correspond to reality. The paper will address in particular the role of public participation and stakeholder involvement.

  11. The application of electron paramagnetic resonance in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Ximei; Wang Liqin; Zhang Wenyi; Liu Zhongchao; Cui Songye; Feng Xin; Jiaoling

    2013-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance technique has been found more than half a century, for free radicals detection application, it has been applied to various research studies, and promotes the development of the biomedicine. This article summarized the various free radicals measurement by the electron paramagnetic resonance in biology tissue, and the application of the spin labeling and electron paramagnetic resonance imaging technology in biomedicine. (authors)

  12. Electronic Out-fall Inspection Application - 12007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weymouth, A Kent III; Pham, Minh; Messick, Chuck [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    In early 2009 an exciting opportunity was presented to the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) team at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS maintenance group was directed to maintain all Out-falls on Site, increasing their workload from 75 to 183 out-falls with no additional resources. The existing out-fall inspection system consisted of inspections performed manually and documented via paper trail. The inspections were closed out upon completion of activities and placed in file cabinets with no central location for tracking/trending maintenance activities. A platform for meeting new improvements required for documentation by the Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC) out-fall permits was needed to replace this current system that had been in place since the 1980's. This was accomplished by building a geographically aware electronic application that improved reliability of site out-fall maintenance and ensured consistent standards were maintained for environmental excellence and worker efficiency. Inspections are now performed via tablet and uploaded to a central point. Work orders are completed and closed either in the field using tablets (mobile application) or in their offices (via web portal) using PCs. And finally completed work orders are now stored in a central database allowing trending of maintenance activities. (authors)

  13. Governance and oversight of researcher access to electronic health data: the role of the Independent Scientific Advisory Committee for MHRA database research, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, P; Cassell, J A; Saunders, M H; Stevens, R

    2017-03-01

    In order to promote understanding of UK governance and assurance relating to electronic health records research, we present and discuss the role of the Independent Scientific Advisory Committee (ISAC) for MHRA database research in evaluating protocols proposing the use of the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We describe the development of the Committee's activities between 2006 and 2015, alongside growth in data linkage and wider national electronic health records programmes, including the application and assessment processes, and our approach to undertaking this work. Our model can provide independence, challenge and support to data providers such as the Clinical Practice Research Datalink database which has been used for well over 1,000 medical research projects. ISAC's role in scientific oversight ensures feasible and scientifically acceptable plans are in place, while having both lay and professional membership addresses governance issues in order to protect the integrity of the database and ensure that public confidence is maintained.

  14. Power electronic converters and systems frontiers and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M

    2016-01-01

    Power electronics is a branch of electrical engineering dealing with conversion and control of electric power using semiconductor power switches. This book provides an overview of modern power electronic converters and systems, and their applications.

  15. Practical application of corporate governance principles in a developing country: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjiru Gachie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of examining corporate governance in organisations cannot be overemphasised. Corporate governance failure which has resulted from weak corporate governance systems has highlighted the need for research aimed at contributing to the improvement and reform of corporate governance at business, national and international level. A review of corporate governance mechanisms and their practical application in two retail companies in South Africa was undertaken. The research question that informed the study was: What is the nature of corporate governance mechanisms in the South African retail sector? The research design entailed analysis of secondary data, namely Annual Reports and other pertinent documents, and document analysis was used to show what is accessible to the ordinary share/stake-holder and what is not. Data analysis was conducted both qualitatively and quantitatively. With regard to corporate governance mechanisms, the results and discussion show that the two companies have not yet complied with the King II and III codes. Recommended strategies to strengthen corporate governance mechanisms in the South African retail sector should include a commitment to risk disclosure and revamping of the corporate governance structure of the ‘whole’ system.

  16. Industrial application of electron sources with plasma emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Belyuk, S I; Rempe, N G

    2001-01-01

    Paper contains a description, operation, design and parameters of electron sources with plasma emitters. One presents examples of application of these sources as part of automated electron-beam welding lines. Paper describes application of such sources for electron-beam deposition of composite powders. Electron-beam deposition is used to rebuild worn out part and to increase strength of new parts of machines and tools. Paper presents some examples of rebuilding part and the advantages gained in this case

  17. Novel Structures for the Excess Electron State of the Water Hexamer and the Interaction Forces Governing the Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Kim, J.; Lee, S.J.; Kim, K.S.

    1997-01-01

    The geometrical and electronic structures of partially hydrated electron systems, in particular, the water hexamer, which have been controversial for decades, have been clarified by an exhaustive search for possible low-lying energy structures. Several competing interaction forces governing the conformation have been examined for the first time. The low-lying energy structures are hybrid (or partially internal and partially surface) excess electron states. Our prediction is evidenced from excellent agreements with available experimental data. The vertical electron-detachment energies are mainly determined by the number of dangling H atoms (H d ) . copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. Modelling End-User of Electronic-Government Service: The Role of Information quality, System Quality and Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witarsyah Jacob, Deden; Fudzee, Mohd Farhan Md; Aizi Salamat, Mohamad; Kasim, Shahreen; Mahdin, Hairulnizam; Azhar Ramli, Azizul

    2017-08-01

    Many governments around the world increasingly use internet technologies such as electronic government to provide public services. These services range from providing the most basic informational website to deploying sophisticated tools for managing interactions between government agencies and beyond government. Electronic government (e-government) aims to provide a more accurate, easily accessible, cost-effective and time saving for the community. In this study, we develop a new model of e-government adoption service by extending the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) through the incorporation of some variables such as System Quality, Information Quality and Trust. The model is then tested using a large-scale, multi-site survey research of 237 Indonesian citizens. This model will be validated by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The result indicates that System Quality, Information Quality and Trust variables proven to effect user behavior. This study extends the current understanding on the influence of System Quality, Information Quality and Trust factors to researchers, practitioners, and policy makers.

  19. 31 CFR 1.30 - Application to system of records maintained by Government contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application to system of records maintained by Government contractors. 1.30 Section 1.30 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS Privacy Act § 1.30 Application to system of records maintained...

  20. Thermoelectric cooler application in electronic cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chein Reiyu; Huang Guanming

    2004-01-01

    This study addresses thermoelectric cooler (TEC) applications in the electronic cooling. The cold side temperature (T c ) and temperature difference between TEC cold and hot sides (ΔT=T h -T c , T h =temperature of hot side of TEC) were used as the parameters. The cooling capacity, junction temperature, coefficient of performance (COP) of TEC and the required heat sink thermal resistance at the TEC hot side were computed. The results indicated that the cooling capacity could be increased as T c increased and ΔT was reduced. The maximum cooling capacity and chip junction temperature obtained were 207 W and 88 deg. C, respectively. The required heat sink thermal resistance on TEC hot side was 0.054 deg. C/W. Larger cooling capacity and higher COP could be obtained when the TEC was operated in the enforced regimes (ΔT c values and heat sink thermal resistance at the TEC hot side. A microchannel heat sink using water or air as the coolant was demonstrated to meet the low thermal heat sink resistance requirement for TEC operated at maximum cooling capacity conditions

  1. Geo-spatial Service and Application based on National E-government Network Platform and Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, X.; Deng, Y.; Li, H.; Yao, L.; Shi, J.

    2014-01-01

    With the acceleration of China’s informatization process, our party and government take a substantive stride in advancing development and application of digital technology, which promotes the evolution of e-government and its informatization. Meanwhile, as a service mode based on innovative resources, cloud computing may connect huge pools together to provide a variety of IT services, and has become one relatively mature technical pattern with further studies and massive practical ap...

  2. An Examination of the Utilization of Electronic Government Services by Minority Small Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Wendy G.

    2010-01-01

    There are a wide variety of e-government information and services that small business owners and managers can utilize. However, in spite of all of the service incentives and initiatives to promote e-government, research studies have shown that this information is not widely accessed. Studies that explore the utilization of e-government information…

  3. Freeform Compliant CMOS Electronic Systems for Internet of Everything Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Shaikh, Sohail F.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Sevilla, Galo T.; Nassar, Joanna M.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    of flexibility and stretchability in electronics for emerging Internet of Everything application can unleash smart application horizon in unexplored areas, such as robotics, healthcare, smart cities, transport, and entertainment systems. While flexible

  4. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation : Joint Proceedings of Ongoing Research, PhD Papers, Posters and Workshops of IFIP EGOV and ePart 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholl, H.J.; Glassey, O; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I; Parycek, P; Tambouris, E; Wimmer, M.A.; Janowski, T; Sá Soares, D.

    2016-01-01

    CT, e-government and electronic participation have become increasingly important in the public sector and the social sphere in recent years.

    This book presents 53 of the papers accepted for the dual IFIP EGOV-ePart conference 2016, which took place in Guimarães, Portugal, in September 2016.

  5. Industrial applications of electron beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braid, W.G. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The use of electron beam accelerators for crosslinking polyolefins for shrinking food packaging is discussed. Irradiation procedures, accelerator characteristics, and industrial operations are described

  6. Examining Agencies' Satisfaction with Electronic Record Management Systems in e-Government: A Large-Scale Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Fang-Ming; Hu, Paul Jen-Hwa; Chen, Hsinchun; Hu, Han-Fen

    While e-government is propelling and maturing steadily, advanced technological capabilities alone cannot guarantee agencies’ realizing the full benefits of the enabling computer-based systems. This study analyzes information systems in e-government settings by examining agencies’ satisfaction with an electronic record management system (ERMS). Specifically, we investigate key satisfaction determinants that include regulatory compliance, job relevance, and satisfaction with support services for using the ERMS. We test our model and the hypotheses in it, using a large-scale survey that involves a total of 1,652 government agencies in Taiwan. Our results show significant effects of regulatory compliance on job relevance and satisfaction with support services, which in turn determine government agencies’ satisfaction with an ERMS. Our data exhibit a reasonably good fit to our model, which can explain a significant portion of the variance in agencies’ satisfaction with an ERMS. Our findings have several important implications to research and practice, which are also discussed.

  7. Application of principal component and factor analyses in electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siuda, R.; Balcerowska, G.

    1998-01-01

    Fundamentals of two methods, taken from multivariate analysis and known as principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA), are presented. Both methods are well known in chemometrics. Since 1979, when application of the methods to electron spectroscopy was reported for the first time, they became to be more and more popular in different branches of electron spectroscopy. The paper presents examples of standard applications of the method of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Advantages one can take from application of the methods, their potentialities as well as their limitations are pointed out. (author)

  8. Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Applications: Joint Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothgeb, Matt; Kessel, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of the Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Applications project is to evaluate and test pretreatments not containing hexavalent chrome in avionics and electronics housing applications. This objective will be accomplished by testing strong performing coating systems from prior NASA and DoD testing or new coating systems as determined by the stakeholders.

  9. Advances in Electronic Commerce, Web Application and Communication v.1

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Sally; Second International Conference on Electronic Commerce, Web Application and Communication (ECWAC 2012)

    2012-01-01

    ECWAC2012 is an integrated conference devoted to Electronic Commerce, Web Application and Communication. In the this proceedings you can find the carefully reviewed scientific outcome of the second International Conference on Electronic Commerce, Web Application and Communication (ECWAC 2012) held at March 17-18,2012  in Wuhan, China, bringing together researchers from all around the world in the field.

  10. CERN's web application updates for electron and laser beam technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sigas, Christos

    2017-01-01

    This report describes the modifications at CERN's web application for electron and laser beam technologies. There are updates at both the front and the back end of the application. New electron and laser machines were added and also old machines were updated. There is also a new feature for printing needed information.

  11. Applications and advances in electronic-nose technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. D. Wilson; M. Baietto

    2009-01-01

    Electronic-nose devices have received considerable attention in the field of sensor technology during the past twenty years, largely due to the discovery of numerous applications derived from research in diverse fields of applied sciences. Recent applications of electronic nose technologies have come through advances in sensor design, material improvements, software...

  12. Advances in Electronic Commerce, Web Application and Communication v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Sally; Second International Conference on Electronic Commerce, Web Application and Communication (ECWAC 2012)

    2012-01-01

    ECWAC2012 is an integrated conference devoted to Electronic Commerce, Web Application and Communication. In the this proceedings you can find the carefully reviewed scientific outcome of the second International Conference on Electronic Commerce, Web Application and Communication (ECWAC 2012) held at March 17-18,2012  in Wuhan, China, bringing together researchers from all around the world in the field.

  13. AN APPLICATION OF ELECTRONIC AMPLIFIER STETHOSCOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper KAÇAR

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic stethoscopes are one of the important medical devices which affects the self-diagnostic or remote diagnostic in medical area. Rather the general stethoscopes, electronic ones increases the sound amplitude and quality. By filtering ambient noise, they can be used for advance analysis of heart or lung related diseases.

  14. Polycystalline silicon thin films for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Christian Claus

    2012-01-15

    with an activation energy of E{sub A}{sup poly-Si}=1.1 eV. By long-lasting tempering or a short high-temperature step finally the stable layer configuration substrate/Al+Si islands(hillocks)/poly-Si can be reached (E{sub A}{sup hillocks}=2.4 eV). The further main topic of this thesis is the study of the applicability of the poly-silicon layers fabricated by means of the ALILE and R-ALILE process for electronic applications. First thin-film transistors were studied. Additionally thin-film solar cells with microcrystalline silicon as absorber material on polycrystalline R-ALILE seed layers were fabricated. Finally the suitedness of the fabricated poly-silicon layers for crytographic applications were studied.

  15. Workshop on scientific and industrial applications of free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difilippo, F.C.; Perez, R.B.

    1990-05-01

    A Workshop on Scientific and Industrial Applications of Free Electron Lasers was organized to address potential uses of a Free Electron Laser in the infrared wavelength region. A total of 13 speakers from national laboratories, universities, and the industry gave seminars to an average audience of 30 persons during June 12 and 13, 1989. The areas covered were: Free Electron Laser Technology, Chemistry and Surface Science, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Condensed Matter, and Biomedical Applications, Optical Damage, and Optoelectronics

  16. E-government and the Electronic Transformation of Modes of Rule: The Case of Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Henman

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically examines some aspects of the discursive and material transformation of government as a result the deployment of the internet and new information technologies. Particular attention is given to the constitution of partnerships and network forms of governing. The paper illustrates the dynamics of egovernment through two case studies of e-government projects in Australia's social security/welfare system.

  17. Survey of potential electronic applications of high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, R.B.; Bourne, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors present a survey of the potential electronic applications of high temperature superconductor (HTSC) thin films. During the past four years there has been substantial speculation on this topic. The authors will cover only a small fraction of the potential electronic applications that have been identified. Their treatment is influenced by the developments over the past few years in materials and device development and in market analysis. They present their view of the most promising potential applications. Superconductors have two important properties that make them attractive for electronic applications. These are (a) low surface resistance at high frequencies, and (b) the Josephson effect

  18. Printed Dielectric Mirrors and their Application in Organic Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Bronnbauer, Carina

    2017-01-01

    Organic electronics are one of the future technologies of these days. It offers many advantages in comparison to heavy metal based inorganic electronics. For example, organic electronics are available in various colors, are often semitransparent, they can be fully solution processed and thus allow printing on top of rigid as well as on flexible substrates. All these characteristics enable a complete new area of applications for electronics. For example, the integration of semitransparent phot...

  19. Technology and application of two sets of industrial electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Degen

    2000-01-01

    The radiation industry in China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP) has had a big scale, and the two sets of industrial electron accelerators play important roles. The Electron Processing System (E.P.S), which was introduced in 1987, is a powerful electron accelerator. And the 10 MeV Accelerator, which is a traveling wave linear electron accelerator, has the higher electron energy. Both of the stes are equipped the driving devices under the beam, and has made a considerable economic results. This article describes the technology and application of the two electron accelerators. (author)

  20. Applications and technology of electron beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, R.C.

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, accelerators have been employed for pursuing research in basic sciences. But over the last couple of decades their uses have proliferated into the applied fields as well. The major credit for which goes to the electron beams. Electron beams or the radiations generated by them are being extensively used in almost all the applied areas. This article is a brief account of the impact made by the accelerator based electron beams and the attempts initiated by DAE for building a base in this technology. (author)

  1. Inkjet and screen printing for electronic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Rodríguez, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Printed electronics (PE) is a set of printing methods used to create electrical devices on various substrates. Printing typically uses common printing equipment suitable for defining patterns on material, such as screen printing, flexography, gravure, offset lithography, and inkjet. Electrically functional, electronic or optical inks are deposited on the substrate, creating active or passive devices. PE offers a great advantage when compared to traditional processes or microelectronics du...

  2. Envisioning Advanced User Interfaces for E-Government Applications: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvary, Gaëlle; Serna, Audrey; Coutaz, Joëlle; Scapin, Dominique; Pontico, Florence; Winckler, Marco

    The increasing use of the Web as a software platform together with the advance of technology has promoted Web applications as a starting point for improving communication between citizens and administration. Currently, several e-government Web portals propose applications for accessing information regarding healthcare, taxation, registration, housing, agriculture, education, and social services, which otherwise may be difficult to obtain. However, the adoption of services provided to citizens depends upon how such applications comply with the users' needs. Unfortunately, building an e-government website doesn't guarantee that all citizens who come to use it can access its contents. These services need to be accessible to all citizens/customers equally to ensure wider reach and subsequent adoption of the e-government services. User disabilities, computer or language illiteracy (e.g., foreign language), flexibility on information access (e.g., user remotely located in rural areas, homeless, mobile users), and ensuring user privacy on sensitive data are some of the barriers that must be taken into account when designing the User Interface (UI) of e-government applications.

  3. Equity in Assistance? Usability of a U.S. Government Food Assistance Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saal, Leah Katherine

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the quantitative phase of a multiphase mixed methods study investigating adults' and families' access to government food assistance. The research evaluates participants' comprehension of, and ability to, adequately complete authentic complex texts--national food assistance application documents. Summative usability testing…

  4. Sustainability Discourse in Hungary. An analysis of the sustainability discourse by state and government leaders in the electronic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyene, Gyoengyver

    2009-01-01

    During the period starting around Hungary's accession to the European Union in 2004 and finishing before the financial crisis in 2008, Hungary became the member of the European Union, had three governments, prepared its Sustainable Development Strategy, established its National Council for Sustainable Development, and created the position of Parliamentary Commissioner for Future Generations. This article analysis sustainability discourse in the Hungarian electronic media by state and government leaders during this period, and reviews three public opinion polls about sustainability awareness taken in 2006 and 2008 to demonstrate if any concurrent change of sustainability attitudes can be traced in the Hungarian population

  5. Advancing Public Trust Relationships in Electronic Government : The Singapore E-Filing Journey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, Eric T. K.; Tan, Chee-Wee; Cyr, Dianne; Pan, Shan L.; Xiao, Bo

    2012-01-01

    E-governments have become an increasingly integral part of the virtual economic landscape. However, e-government systems have been plagued by an unsatisfactory, or even a decreasing, level of trust among citizen users. The political exclusivity and longstanding bureaucracy of governmental

  6. Transition to Electronic Access of Government Information: Are the Depository Libraries Prepared?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Liwen Qiu; Dolan, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Examines the readiness of depository libraries in Canada to adopt new technologies for disseminating government publications. Findings are reported on current use of different publication formats, type of help sought by users, staff skills and training needs, adequacy of physical and financial resources, support from governing bodies, and…

  7. Resistance and support to electronic government, building a model of innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebbers, Wolfgang E.; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    In several countries forces that resist e-government innovations apparently override those that support them. A first step is taken in order to identify organizational processes of resistance and support to e-government innovations. A multi-disciplinary and non-linear innovation model is proposed

  8. Freeform Compliant CMOS Electronic Systems for Internet of Everything Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Shaikh, Sohail F.

    2017-01-17

    The state-of-the-art electronics technology has been an integral part of modern advances. The prevalent rise of the mobile device and computational technology in the age of information technology offers exciting applications that are attributed to sophisticated, enormously reliable, and most mature CMOS-based electronics. We are accustomed to high performance, cost-effective, multifunctional, and energy-efficient scaled electronics. However, they are rigid, bulky, and brittle. The convolution of flexibility and stretchability in electronics for emerging Internet of Everything application can unleash smart application horizon in unexplored areas, such as robotics, healthcare, smart cities, transport, and entertainment systems. While flexible and stretchable device themes are being remarkably chased, the realization of the fully compliant electronic system is unaddressed. Integration of data processing, storage, communication, and energy management devices complements a compliant system. Here, a comprehensive review is presented on necessity and design criteria for freeform (physically flexible and stretchable) compliant high-performance CMOS electronic systems.

  9. An analysis of current and desirable situation of electronic government service provision in rural areas of the Hamedan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Aazami

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The informative society is seen as the central element of rural development at the beginning of the third millennium and the development of information technology and communication in villages has always been considered in current summits across the world. Nowadays, information and communication technology service offices are the basis of electronic government. Therefore, recognition of these offices is necessary for sustainable rural development. The purpose of this research was a comparative analysis between the current situation and the desirable situation of e-government services in the rural districts of the Hamedan province as perceived by their directors (Hamedan, Bahar and Famenin Counties. The study population consists of 91 respondents who were chosen and studied through the census method. The findings of this research study consist of two sections. The items related to satisfaction with the activities in information and communication technology service offices were prioritized in the first section. Moreover, the current and the desirable conditions for electronic service provision were identified. The gap between these two were analyzed in the second section. The results indicate that there is a significant difference between these two conditions of electronic service provisions in rural areas. This significant difference was recognized through the paired T test at the 0.05 level with 6.33 value that illustrates the existence of a gap between these two situations. Electronic government, information technology and communication, information and communication technology service offices

  10. Governance of Offshore IT Outsourcing at Shell Global Functions IT-BAM Development and Application of a Governance Framework to Improve Outsourcing Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Floor; van Hillegersberg, Jos; van Eck, Pascal; van der Kolk, Feiko; Jorissen, Rene

    The lack of effective IT governance is widely recognized as a key inhibitor to successful global IT outsourcing relationships. In this study we present the development and application of a governance framework to improve outsourcing relationships. The approach used to developing an IT governance framework includes a meta model and a customization process to fit the framework to the target organization. The IT governance framework consists of four different elements (1) organisational structures, (2) joint processes between in- and outsourcer, (3) responsibilities that link roles to processes and (4) a diverse set of control indicators to measure the success of the relationship. The IT governance framework is put in practice in Shell GFIT BAM, a part of Shell that concluded to have a lack of management control over at least one of their outsourcing relationships. In a workshop the governance framework was used to perform a gap analysis between the current and desired governance. Several gaps were identified in the way roles and responsibilities are assigned and joint processes are set-up. Moreover, this workshop also showed the usefulness and usability of the IT governance framework in structuring, providing input and managing stakeholders in the discussions around IT governance.

  11. 76 FR 45223 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... Applications for McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program Announcement Type... program promotes education, child development, and food security for poor [[Page 45224

  12. 21 CFR 1311.120 - Electronic prescription application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic prescription application requirements. 1311.120 Section 1311.120 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... application must clear the plain text password from the application memory to prevent the unauthorized access...

  13. Applications of electron linacs to ADS: one potential path forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, D.P.; Harmon, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    The application of electron linac accelerators to ADS systems offers a number of advantages for ADS applications. We propose a path forward with electron linac-driven ADS that takes advantage of those important ADS applications that are most easily achieved at relatively low cost, and then building on those successes to enable the more difficult applications with larger impact. We argue that the applications that are most easily achieved are medical isotope production, materials irradiation and environmental applications. The accelerator and target demands for each of these applications are essentially the same as for the ADS needs in energy production and the transmutation of waste. The successful demonstration of these important and highly-visible applications will, in turn, lead to greater visibility and funding to further major advances of ADS systems in energy production, nuclear waste transmutation, and applications to the thorium fuel cycle. (author)

  14. Electron beam welding fundamentals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mara, G.L.; Armstrong, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    The electron beam welding process is described and the unique mode of operation and penetration explained by a description of the forces operating within the weld pool. This penetration model is demonstrated by high speed cinematography of the weld pool on several materials. The conditions under which weld defects are formed are discussed and examples are presented. (auth)

  15. Electronic Government: Challenges to Effective Adoption of the Extensible Markup Language

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    ...) technology and the challenges the federal government faces in implementing it. XML is a flexible, nonproprietary set of standards designed to facilitate the exchange of information among disparate computer systems, using the Internet's protocols...

  16. Applications of electron beam to precoated steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshiishi, K.; Masuhara, K.

    1992-01-01

    Applications of EB to precoated steel started with paint cure and have expanded to film lamination and surface modification. These applications can offer precoated steel some advantages which are difficult or impossible to gain by thermal methods. But there are also such problems as adhesion, formability and paintability in EB processing. In practice, using EB technologies along with thermal technologies cannot be avoided for precoated steel at the present. Future development of EB applications to precoated steel will depend on how we can seek superiority and distinction of EB technology against conventional and competitive technologies. (author)

  17. Application of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in electronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in electronic ticket purchase for ... current study examined the perceived usefulness and ease of use of online technology ... The findings are discussed in the light of these perspectives.

  18. Power electronic converter systems for direct drive renewable energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents power electronic conversion systems for wind and marine energy generation applications, in particular, direct drive generator energy conversion systems. Various topologies are presented and system design optimization and reliability are briefly discussed....

  19. Ferrite nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterisation and applications in electronic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefeni, Kebede K., E-mail: kkefeni@gmail.com; Msagati, Titus A.M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Available synthesis methods of ferrite nanoparticles (FNPs) are briefly reviewed. • Summary of the advantage and limitation of FNPs synthesis techniques are presented. • The existing most common FNPs characterisation techniques are briefly reviewed. • Major application areas of FNPs in electronic materials are reviewed. - Abstract: Ferrite nanoparticles (FNPs) have attracted a great interest due to their wide applications in several areas such as biomedical, wastewater treatment, catalyst and electronic device. This review focuses on the synthesis, characterisation and application of FNPs in electronic device with more emphasis on the recently published works. The most commonly used synthesis techniques along with their advantages and limitations are discussed. The available characterisation techniques and their application in electronic materials such as sensors and biosensors, energy storage, microwave device, electromagnetic interference shielding and high-density recording media are briefly reviewed.

  20. Scattered radiation from applicators in clinical electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battum, L J van; Zee, W van der; Huizenga, H

    2003-01-01

    In radiotherapy with high-energy (4-25 MeV) electron beams, scattered radiation from the electron applicator influences the dose distribution in the patient. In most currently available treatment planning systems for radiotherapy this component is not explicitly included and handled only by a slight change of the intensity of the primary beam. The scattered radiation from an applicator changes with the field size and distance from the applicator. The amount of scattered radiation is dependent on the applicator design and on the formation of the electron beam in the treatment head. Electron applicators currently applied in most treatment machines are essentially a set of diaphragms, but still do produce scattered radiation. This paper investigates the present level of scattered dose from electron applicators, and as such provides an extensive set of measured data. The data provided could for instance serve as example input data or benchmark data for advanced treatment planning algorithms which employ a parametrized initial phase space to characterize the clinical electron beam. Central axis depth dose curves of the electron beams have been measured with and without applicators in place, for various applicator sizes and energies, for a Siemens Primus, a Varian 2300 C/D and an Elekta SLi accelerator. Scattered radiation generated by the applicator has been found by subtraction of the central axis depth dose curves, obtained with and without applicator. Scattered radiation from Siemens, Varian and Elekta electron applicators is still significant and cannot be neglected in advanced treatment planning. Scattered radiation at the surface of a water phantom can be as high as 12%. Scattered radiation decreases almost linearly with depth. Scattered radiation from Varian applicators shows clear dependence on beam energy. The Elekta applicators produce less scattered radiation than those of Varian and Siemens, but feature a higher effective angular variance. The scattered

  1. Application of carbon nanoclusters in electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krachkovskaya, T. M.; Sahadji, G. V.; Emelyanov, A. S.; Silaeva, M. V.

    2018-04-01

    Nanocarbon material (Ugleron and Astralens) is used for the first time for the production of metal porous cathode (MPC). It can be assumed that its implementation in the MPC matrix can change the mechanism and rate of occurrence of three-phase reactions of formation of active elements and oxygen and, thereby, improve its emission properties. The new technology of manufacturing MPC is aimed at solving the problem of increasing the durability of electro vacuum devices - more than 100,000 hours. The obtained results are intended for use in technologies for manufacturing of electron sources for electro vacuum devices used in space communication and navigation systems. In addition, they can be useful for other areas of electronics that use a metal-porous thermal cathode as sources of electron emission. There are manufactured models with the use of Ugleron and Astralens in a sponge and emission substance. A layout using Ugleron in the emission substance is tested for durability and currently has an operating time of 40,000 hours. A model with the use of Astralens and Ugleron in a sponge and emission substance respectively is tested for maximum current density. To date, it shows results comparable to the standard cathode. However, there is a suggestion that cathodes with Astralens and Ugleron have a lower evaporation rate of the active substance. There is predicted longer durability than for the standard cathode at the same emissivity.

  2. Improving ICT Governance by Reorganizing Operation of ICT and Software Applications: The First Step to Outsource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Björn

    During recent years great attention has been paid to outsourcing as well as to the reverse, insourcing (Dibbern et al., 2004). There has been a strong focus on how the management of software applications and information and communication technology (ICT), expressed as ICT management versus ICT governance, should be carried out (Grembergen, 2004). The maintenance and operation of software applications and ICT use a lot of the resources spent on ICT in organizations today (Bearingpoint, 2004), and managers are asked to increase the business benefits of these investments (Weill & Ross, 2004). That is, they are asked to improve the usage of ICT and to develop new business critical solutions supported by ICT. It also means that investments in ICT and software applications need to be shown to be worthwhile. Basically there are two considerations to take into account with ICT usage: cost reduction and improving business value. How the governance and management of ICT and software applications are organized is important. This means that the improvement of the control of maintenance and operation may be of interest to executives of organizations. It can be stated that usage is dependent on how it is organized. So, if an increase of ICT governance is the same as having well-organized ICT resources, could this be seen as the first step in organizations striving for external provision of ICT? This question is dealt with to some degree in this paper.

  3. Scattered radiation from applicators in clinical electron beams.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battum, L.J. van; Zee, W. van der; Huizenga, H.

    2003-01-01

    In radiotherapy with high-energy (4-25 MeV) electron beams, scattered radiation from the electron applicator influences the dose distribution in the patient. In most currently available treatment planning systems for radiotherapy this component is not explicitly included and handled only by a slight

  4. Surface analysis by electron spectroscopy. General concepts and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feliu, S.

    1993-01-01

    An introduction is made to the techniques of electron spectroscopy (XPS and AES) used in the study of surface phenomena. Their theoretical principles, the singular information supplied by these techniques and their basic instrumentation (vacuum systems, excitation sources and electron analysers) are described. A revision of their applications to the Materials Science and the Corrosion Sciences is also made. Author. 44 refs

  5. Potential applications of electron emission membranes in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilevych, Yevgen [Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration (IZM), Berlin (Germany); University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Brunner, Stefan E. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Chan, Hong Wah; Charbon, Edoardo [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Graaf, Harry van der, E-mail: vdgraaf@nikhef.nl [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hagen, Cornelis W. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Nützel, Gert; Pinto, Serge D. [Photonis, Roden (Netherlands); Prodanović, Violeta [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Rotman, Daan [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Santagata, Fabio [State Key Lab for Solid State Lighti Changzhou base, F7 R& D HUB 1, Science and Education Town, Changzhou 213161, Jangsu Province (China); Sarro, Lina; Schaart, Dennis R. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Sinsheimer, John; Smedley, John [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Tao, Shuxia; Theulings, Anne M.M.G. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-02-11

    With a miniaturised stack of transmission dynodes, a noise free amplifier is being developed for the detection of single free electrons, with excellent time- and 2D spatial resolution and efficiency. With this generic technology, a new family of detectors for individual elementary particles may become possible. Potential applications of such electron emission membranes in medicine are discussed.

  6. Handbook of power systems engineering with power electronics applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hase, Yoshihide

    2012-01-01

    Formerly known as Handbook of Power System Engineering, this second edition provides rigorous revisions to the original treatment of systems analysis together with a substantial new four-chapter section on power electronics applications. Encompassing a whole range of equipment, phenomena, and analytical approaches, this handbook offers a complete overview of power systems and their power electronics applications, and presents a thorough examination of the fundamental principles, combining theories and technologies that are usually treated in separate specialised fields, in a single u

  7. Optical Thermal Characterization Enables High-Performance Electronics Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    NREL developed a modeling and experimental strategy to characterize thermal performance of materials. The technique provides critical data on thermal properties with relevance for electronics packaging applications. Thermal contact resistance and bulk thermal conductivity were characterized for new high-performance materials such as thermoplastics, boron-nitride nanosheets, copper nanowires, and atomically bonded layers. The technique is an important tool for developing designs and materials that enable power electronics packaging with small footprint, high power density, and low cost for numerous applications.

  8. 76 FR 55869 - Notice of Funding Availability: Inviting Applications for the McGovern-Dole International Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... Applications for the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program; Correction... Education and Child Nutrition (McGovern-Dole) program. The notice stated that eligible applicants could... highest-level result of this framework is ``Improved Literacy of School-aged Children.'' Proposals that do...

  9. Evaluation of Corporate Governance Measures: An Application to the Australian Higher Education SectorEvaluation of Corporate Governance Measures: An Application to the Australian Higher Education Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Chitra De Silva; Anona Armstrong

    2014-01-01

    Governance has emerged as a major concern in the higher education sector. Although evaluation of performance of governance is widely used in the private and public sectors, little attention has been given to the assessment of good governance practices in university contexts. The purpose of this paper was to describe the changes in government policy associated with the introduction of Governance Protocols that have impacted on the higher education sector and to answer the research question: do...

  10. Electronic Administration Styles and Their Determinants. Evidence from Spanish Local Governments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Valeriano FRÍAS-ACEITUNO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the factors underlying the development of e-government, as an overall process, as well as of each of the three stages identified in the prior literature (e-government, egovernance and e-democracy. The analysis has focused on 102 Spanish municipalities, and it consists in a content analysis of their web pages, based on an information index, in order to develop a dependency model. The results obtained indicate that Spanish municipalities show high information transparency regarding economic, environmental and social matters, allowing the undertaking of administrative proceedings online and actively promoting the participation of interest groups in strategic, sustainable and managerial issues. Our findings stress the importance of the municipality’s size and the ruling party’s political ideology of a deeper commitment with the development of e-government.

  11. Semiconductor nanowires and templates for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Xiang

    2009-07-15

    This thesis starts by developing a platform for the organized growth of nanowires directly on a planar substrate. For this, a method to fabricate horizontal porous alumina membranes is studied. The second part of the thesis focuses on the study of nanowires. It starts by the understanding of the growth mechanisms of germanium nanowires and follows by the structural and electrical properties at the single nanowire level. Horizontally aligned porous anodic alumina (PAA) was used as a template for the nanowire synthesis. Three PAA arrangements were studied: - high density membranes - micron-sized fingers - multi-contacts Membranes formed by a high density of nanopores were obtained by anodizing aluminum thin films. Metallic and semiconducting nanowires were synthesized into the PAA structures via DC deposition, pulsed electro-depostion and CVD growth. The presence of gold, copper, indium, nickel, tellurium, and silicon nanowires inside PAA templates was verified by SEM and EDX analysis. Further, room-temperature transport measurements showed that the pores are completely filled till the bottom of the pores. In this dissertation, single crystalline and core-shell germanium nanowires are synthesized using indium and bismuth as catalyst in a chemical vapor deposition procedure with germane (GeH{sub 4}) as growth precursor. A systematic growth study has been performed to obtain high aspect-ratio germanium nanowires. The influence of the growth conditions on the final morphology and the crystalline structure has been determined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). In the case of indium catalyzed germanium nanowires, two different structures were identified: single crystalline and crystalline core-amorphous shell. The preferential growth axis of both kinds of nanowires is along the [110] direction. The occurrence of the two morphologies was found to only depend on the nanowire dimension. In the case of bismuth

  12. Pulsed electron accelerator for radiation technologies in the enviromental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, Sergey

    1997-05-01

    The project of pulsed electron accelerator for radiation technologies in the environmental applications is considered. An accelerator consists of high voltage generator with vacuum insulation and vacuum diode with plasma cathode on the basis discharge on the surface of dielectric of large dimensions. The main parameters of electron accelerators are following: kinetic energy 0.2 - 2.0 MeV, electron beam current 1 - 30 kA and pulse duration 1- 5 microseconds. The main applications of accelerator for decomposition of wastewaters are considered.

  13. Power electronics basics operating principles, design, formulas, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rozanov, Yuriy; Chaplygin, Evgeny; Voronin, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Power Electronics Basics: Operating Principles, Design, Formulas, and Applications provides fundamental knowledge for the analysis and design of modern power electronic devices. This concise and user-friendly resource:Explains the basic concepts and most important terms of power electronicsDescribes the power assemblies, control, and passive components of semiconductor power switchesCovers the control of power electronic devices, from mathematical modeling to the analysis of the electrical processesAddresses pulse-width modulation, power quality control, and multilevel, modular, and multicell

  14. Application of electron accelerator for thin film in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danu, Sugiarto; Darsono, Dadang

    2004-01-01

    Electron accelerator is widely used for the crosslinking of wire and cable insulation, the treatment of heat shrinkable products, precuring of tire components, and the sterilization of medical products. Research and development the use of electron accelerator for thin film in Indonesia covered radiation curing of surface coating, crosslinking of poly (butylenes succinate), crosslinking of wire, cable and heat shrinkable, sterilization of wound dressing, and prevulcanization of tire. In general, comparing with conventional method, electron beam processing have some advantages, such as, less energy consumption, much higher production rate, processing ability at ambient temperature and environmental friendly. Indonesia has a great potential to develop the application of electron accelerator, due to the remarkable growth industrial sector, the abundant of natural resources and the increasing demand of the high quality products. This paper describes the activities concerning with R and D, and application of electron accelerator for processing of thin film. (author)

  15. High-Power Electron Accelerators for Space (and other) Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lewellen, John W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-23

    This is a presentation on high-power electron accelerators for space and other applications. The main points covered are: electron beams for space applications, new designs of RF accelerators, high-power high-electron mobility transistors (HEMT) testing, and Li-ion battery design. In summary, the authors have considered a concept of 1-MeV electron accelerator that can operate up to several seconds. This concept can be extended to higher energy to produce higher beam power. Going to higher beam energy requires adding more cavities and solid-state HEMT RF power devices. The commercial HEMT have been tested for frequency response and RF output power (up to 420 W). Finally, the authors are testing these HEMT into a resonant load and planning for an electron beam test in FY17.

  16. Applications in Electronics Pervading Industry, Environment and Society

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a thorough overview of cutting-edge research on electronics applications relevant to industry, the environment, and society at large. A wide spectrum of application domains are covered, from automotive to space and from health to security, and special attention is devoted to the use of embedded devices and sensors for imaging, communication, and control. The book is based on the 2014 APPLEPIES Conference, held in Rome, which brought together researchers and stakeholders to consider the most significant current trends in the field of applied electronics and to debate visions for the future. Areas covered by the conference included information communication technology; biotechnology and biomedical imaging; space; secure, clean, and efficient energy; the environment; and smart, green, and integrated transport. As electronics technology continues to develop apace, constantly meeting previously unthinkable targets, further attention needs to be directed toward the electronics applications and th...

  17. 2015 Applications in Electronics Pervading Industry, Environment and Society Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a thorough overview of cutting-edge research on electronics applications relevant to industry, the environment, and society at large. It covers a broad spectrum of application domains, from automotive to space and from health to security, while devoting special attention to the use of embedded devices and sensors for imaging, communication and control. The book is based on the 2015 ApplePies Conference, held in Rome, which brought together researchers and stakeholders to consider the most significant current trends in the field of applied electronics and to debate visions for the future. Areas addressed by the conference included information communication technology; biotechnology and biomedical imaging; space; secure, clean and efficient energy; the environment; and smart, green and integrated transport. As electronics technology continues to develop apace, constantly meeting previously unthinkable targets, further attention needs to be directed toward the electronics applications and the ...

  18. Effective applications of auger electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnabi, H.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this study is to explore different aspects of the AES process and to present the new techniques which can be used effectively for analytical purposes. More emphasis is given to AES data acquisition, sensitivity factor and Auger intensity. The experimental details of a typical scanning Auger microprobe (SAM) is also presented. Applications of AES to selected systems such as microelectronic devices, superconductors, an in metallurgy are described

  19. Multifrequency Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, Sushil K

    2011-01-01

    Filling the gap for a systematic, authoritative, and up-to-date review of this cutting-edge technique, this book covers both low and high frequency EPR, emphasizing the importance of adopting the multifrequency approach to study paramagnetic systems in full detail by using the EPR method. In so doing, it discusses not only the underlying theory and applications, but also all recent advances -- with a final section devoted to future perspectives.

  20. Advances in electronic-nose technologies developed for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Wilson; Manuela. Baietto

    2011-01-01

    The research and development of new electronic-nose applications in the biomedical field has accelerated at a phenomenal rate over the past 25 years. Many innovative e-nose technologies have provided solutions and applications to a wide variety of complex biomedical and healthcare problems. The purposes of this review are to present a comprehensive analysis of past and...

  1. Applications of electronic noses in meat analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta GÓRSKA-HORCZYCZAK

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Electronic noses are devices able to characterize and differentiate the aroma profiles of various food, especially meat and meat products. During recent years e-noses have been widely used in food analysis and proved to provide a fast, simple, non-expensive and non-destructive method of food assessment and quality control. The aim of this study is to summarize the most important features of this analytic tool and to present basic fields and typical areas of e-nose use as well as most commonly used sensor types and patterns for e-nose design. Prospects for the future development of this technique are presented. Methods and research results presented in this manuscript may be a guideline for practical e-nose use.

  2. Electronic microscopy application in artificial minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, L E.

    1995-07-01

    One of the uses of electronic microscopy in combination with the analysis microprobe EDAX is to characterize the properties of the minerals. The technique consist of studying the chemical composition by elements or by oxides of particles which can be enlarged successfully up to 100000x. With the help of the optical microscope one is able to determine the textual characteristics, the form, cleavage and other cristallographic properties which, combined with microprobe analysis enable one to determine its classification. The industrial processes which use ovens usually have problems due to the formation of impurities, spots and abnormal aspects which are reflected in a lower quality of the final material produced. These types of defects appear in minerals which are made in laboratories; knowing the natural minerals one can exercise a better quality control since this permits to know the behaviour of the raw material at a particular temperature and its reactions depending on the additives used

  3. Physics of electronic materials principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rammer, Jorgen

    2017-01-01

    Adopting a uniquely pedagogical approach, this comprehensive textbook on the quantum mechanics of semiconductor materials and devices focuses on the materials, components and devices themselves whilst incorporating a substantial amount of fundamental physics related to condensed matter theory and quantum mechanics. Written primarily for advanced undergraduate students in physics and engineering, this book can also be used as a supporting text for introductory quantum mechanics courses, and will be of interest to anyone interested in how electronic devices function at a fundamental level. Complete with numerous exercises, and with all the necessary mathematics and physics included in appendices, this book guides the reader seamlessly through the principles of quantum mechanics and the quantum theory of metals and semiconductors, before describing in detail how devices are exploited within electric circuits and in the hardware of computers, for example as amplifiers, switches and transistors. Includes nume...

  4. Electronically commutated motors for vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echolds, E. F.

    1980-02-01

    Two permanent magnet electronically commutated motors for electric vehicle traction are discussed. One, based on existing technology, produces 23 kW (peak) at 26,000 rpm, and 11 kW continuous at 18,000 rpm. The motor has a conventional design: a four-pole permanent magnet rotor and a three-phase stator similar to those used on ordinary induction motors. The other, advanced technology motor, is rated at 27 kW (peak) at 14,000 rpm, and 11 kW continuous at 10,500 rpm. The machine employs a permanent magnet rotor and a novel ironless stator design in an axial air gap, homopolar configuration. Comparison of the new motors with conventional brush type machines indicates potential for substantial cost savings.

  5. Developing a model for application of electronic banking based on electronic trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hooshang Nazarpoori

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a model for application of electronic banking based on electronic trust among costumers of Day bank in KhoramAbad city. A sample of 150 people was selected based on stratified random sampling. Questionnaires were used for the investigation. Results indicate that technology-based factors, user-based factors, and trust had negative relationships with perceived risk types including financial, functional, personal, and private. Moreover, trust including trust in system and trust in bank had a positive relationship with tendency to use and real application of electronic banking.

  6. Advances in electronic-nose technologies developed for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alphus D; Baietto, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    The research and development of new electronic-nose applications in the biomedical field has accelerated at a phenomenal rate over the past 25 years. Many innovative e-nose technologies have provided solutions and applications to a wide variety of complex biomedical and healthcare problems. The purposes of this review are to present a comprehensive analysis of past and recent biomedical research findings and developments of electronic-nose sensor technologies, and to identify current and future potential e-nose applications that will continue to advance the effectiveness and efficiency of biomedical treatments and healthcare services for many years. An abundance of electronic-nose applications has been developed for a variety of healthcare sectors including diagnostics, immunology, pathology, patient recovery, pharmacology, physical therapy, physiology, preventative medicine, remote healthcare, and wound and graft healing. Specific biomedical e-nose applications range from uses in biochemical testing, blood-compatibility evaluations, disease diagnoses, and drug delivery to monitoring of metabolic levels, organ dysfunctions, and patient conditions through telemedicine. This paper summarizes the major electronic-nose technologies developed for healthcare and biomedical applications since the late 1980s when electronic aroma detection technologies were first recognized to be potentially useful in providing effective solutions to problems in the healthcare industry.

  7. Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies Developed for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphus D. Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research and development of new electronic-nose applications in the biomedical field has accelerated at a phenomenal rate over the past 25 years. Many innovative e-nose technologies have provided solutions and applications to a wide variety of complex biomedical and healthcare problems. The purposes of this review are to present a comprehensive analysis of past and recent biomedical research findings and developments of electronic-nose sensor technologies, and to identify current and future potential e-nose applications that will continue to advance the effectiveness and efficiency of biomedical treatments and healthcare services for many years. An abundance of electronic-nose applications has been developed for a variety of healthcare sectors including diagnostics, immunology, pathology, patient recovery, pharmacology, physical therapy, physiology, preventative medicine, remote healthcare, and wound and graft healing. Specific biomedical e-nose applications range from uses in biochemical testing, blood-compatibility evaluations, disease diagnoses, and drug delivery to monitoring of metabolic levels, organ dysfunctions, and patient conditions through telemedicine. This paper summarizes the major electronic-nose technologies developed for healthcare and biomedical applications since the late 1980s when electronic aroma detection technologies were first recognized to be potentially useful in providing effective solutions to problems in the healthcare industry.

  8. 76 FR 66721 - New Policies and Procedural Requirements for the Electronic Submission of Discretionary Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... electronic submission of discretionary grant applications through the government-wide grants application site... Procedural Requirements for the Electronic Submission of Discretionary Grant Applications AGENCY: Division of... requirements for the electronic submission of discretionary grant applications. Overview Information: The...

  9. Power electronics for renewable energy systems, transportation and industrial applications

    CERN Document Server

    Malinowski, Mariusz; Al-Haddad, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Power Electronics for Renewable Energy, Transportation, and Industrial Applications combines state-of-the-art global expertise to present the latest research on power electronics and its application in transportation, renewable energy, and different industrial applications. This timely book aims to facilitate the implementation of cutting-edge techniques to design problems offering innovative solutions to the growing power demands in small- and large-size industries. Application areas in the book range from smart homes and electric and plug-in hybrid electrical vehicles (PHEVs), to smart distribution and intelligence operation centers where significant energy efficiency improvements can be achieved through the appropriate use and design of power electronics and energy storage devices.

  10. Applications of electron beam in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman Hj. Mohd Dahlan; Jamaliah Sharif

    2005-01-01

    The use of radiation technique to process nanostructured materials or to produce nanostructured materials have been shown technically superior as alternative and viable techniques for further commercial exploitation. Research on radiation processing of nanocomposites have been initiated at the Radiation Processing Technology Division of MINT in the past three years. The main focus of this research is to utilize indigenous natural polymer for production of nanocomposites material. Natural rubber/clay composites and thermoplastic natural rubber/clay composites are the important materials that under studied. The natural rubber used in this work is of grade SMRL (Standard Malaysian Rubber) and the clay used was sodium montmorillonite modified with various types of cationic surfactants in order to make the galleries hydrophobic and thus more compatible with the elastomer. The natural rubber/clay nanocomposites were prepared by melt mixing. The compound was then irradiated using electron beam at optimum dose of 250 kGy. X-ray diffraction results indicated intercalation of the natural rubber into silicate interlayer. Upon irradiation at 250 kGy, the tensile strength of the NR/Na-MMT nanocomposites constantly reduced slightly with increasing clay loading, whereas the tensile strengths of NR/DDA-MMT and NR/ODA-MMT increases to optimum levels, 12.1 MPa and 9.5 MPa respectively at 3 phr clay contents. On the other hand, the elongation of NR/DDA-MMT nanocomposites is less affected with increasing clay content up to 3 phr. (author)

  11. EVALUATING THE ROLL OF SERVICE QUALITY AS A MEDIATOR ON USER SATISFACTION IN E- GOVERNMENT APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Kafaji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is designed to assess the mediating effect of the Service Quality in shaping the experience of users of e-Government applications. Users normally evaluate their satisfaction in using technological innovation such as e-Government from their direct and indirect involvement and the perceived value of the system in question. To study the mediation effect, a self-administered questionnaire based on a tested model is used to collect the experience of users of recently implemented e-Government applications in the public sector in Saudi Arabia. Data was gathered from 208 internal respondents and then analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM. Different mediation models were tested and evaluated using common standard SEM parameters. The results showed that the value perceived from the System Quality and Information Quality does impact the User Satisfaction, but Service Quality was found to play a stronger role in mediating the relationship between User Satisfaction and both the System Quality and Information Quality. The degree and direction of this mediation were analyzed and interpreted from the user and the technical support perspectives. The study compares these findings with those from earlier studies using similar models.

  12. Liquid phase exfoliated graphene for electronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Sheena S.; Jinesh, K. B.; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2017-09-01

    Graphene dispersions were prepared using the liquid phase exfoliation method with three different surfactants. One surfactant was used from each of the surfactant types, anionic, cationic, and non-ionic; those used, were sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), respectively. Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the number of layers and the nature of any defects present in the exfoliated graphene. The yield of graphene was found to be less with the non-ionic surfactant, PVP. The deconvolution of 2D peaks at ~2700 cm-1 indicated that graphene prepared using these surfactants resulted in sheets consisting of few-layer graphene. The ratio of intensity of the D and G bands in the Raman spectra showed that edge defect density is high for samples prepared with SDBS compared to the other two, and is attributed to the smaller size of the graphene sheets, as shown in the electron micrographs. In the case of the dispersion in PVP, it is found that the sizes of the graphene sheets are highly sensitive to the concentration of the surfactant used. Here, we have made an attempt to investigate the local density of states in the graphene sheets by measuring the tunnelling current-voltage characteristics. Graphene layers have shown consistent p-type behaviour when exfoliated with SDBS and n-type behaviour when exfoliated with CTAB, with a larger band gap for graphene exfoliated using CTAB. Hence, in addition to the known advantages of liquid phase exfoliation, we found that by selecting suitable surfactants, to a certain extent it is possible to tune the band gap and determine the type of majority carriers.

  13. Toward Environmentally Robust Organic Electronics: Approaches and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Kwang; Lee, Moo Yeol; Park, Cheol Hee; Lee, Hae Rang; Oh, Joon Hak

    2017-11-01

    Recent interest in flexible electronics has led to a paradigm shift in consumer electronics, and the emergent development of stretchable and wearable electronics is opening a new spectrum of ubiquitous applications for electronics. Organic electronic materials, such as π-conjugated small molecules and polymers, are highly suitable for use in low-cost wearable electronic devices, and their charge-carrier mobilities have now exceeded that of amorphous silicon. However, their commercialization is minimal, mainly because of weaknesses in terms of operational stability, long-term stability under ambient conditions, and chemical stability related to fabrication processes. Recently, however, many attempts have been made to overcome such instabilities of organic electronic materials. Here, an overview is provided of the strategies developed for environmentally robust organic electronics to overcome the detrimental effects of various critical factors such as oxygen, water, chemicals, heat, and light. Additionally, molecular design approaches to π-conjugated small molecules and polymers that are highly stable under ambient and harsh conditions are explored; such materials will circumvent the need for encapsulation and provide a greater degree of freedom using simple solution-based device-fabrication techniques. Applications that are made possible through these strategies are highlighted. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Silicon nanocrystal films for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechner, Robert W.

    2009-02-06

    Whether nanoparticles of silicon are really suited for such applications, whether layers fabricated from this exhibit semiconducting properties, whether they can be doped, and whether for instance via the doping the conductivity can be tuned, was studied in the present thesis. Starting material for this were on the one hand spherical silicon nanocrystals with a sharp size distribution and mean diameters in the range from 4-50 nm. Furthermore silicon particle were available, which are with 50-500 nm distinctly larger and exhibit a broad distribution of the mean size and a polycrystalline fine structure with strongly bifurcated external morphology. The small conductivities and tje low mobility values of the charge carriers in the layers of silicon nanocrystals suggest to apply suited thermal after-treatment procedures. So was found that the aluminium-induced layer exchange (ALILE) also can be transferred to the porous layers of nanocrystals. With the deuteron passivation a method was available to change the charge-carrier concentration in the polycrystalline layers. Additionally to ALILE laser crystallization as alternative after-treatment procedure of the nanocrystal layers was studied.

  15. Molecular modeling and multiscaling issues for electronic material applications

    CERN Document Server

    Iwamoto, Nancy; Yuen, Matthew; Fan, Haibo

    Volume 1 : Molecular Modeling and Multiscaling Issues for Electronic Material Applications provides a snapshot on the progression of molecular modeling in the electronics industry and how molecular modeling is currently being used to understand material performance to solve relevant issues in this field. This book is intended to introduce the reader to the evolving role of molecular modeling, especially seen through the eyes of the IEEE community involved in material modeling for electronic applications.  Part I presents  the role that quantum mechanics can play in performance prediction, such as properties dependent upon electronic structure, but also shows examples how molecular models may be used in performance diagnostics, especially when chemistry is part of the performance issue.  Part II gives examples of large-scale atomistic methods in material failure and shows several examples of transitioning between grain boundary simulations (on the atomistic level)and large-scale models including an example ...

  16. Industrial applications of electron beam; Przemyslowe zastosowamia wiazki elektronow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A G [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    The review of industrial applications with use of electron beams has been done. Especially the radiation technologies being developed in Poland have been shown. Industrial installations with electron accelerators as radiation source have been applied for: modification of polymers; modification of thyristors; sterilization of health care materials; radiopreservation of food and other consumer products; purification of combustion flue gases in heat and power plants. 14 refs, 6 tabs, 7 figs.

  17. Applications and Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Baietto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic-nose devices have received considerable attention in the field of sensor technology during the past twenty years, largely due to the discovery of numerous applications derived from research in diverse fields of applied sciences. Recent applications of electronic nose technologies have come through advances in sensor design, material improvements, software innovations and progress in microcircuitry design and systems integration. The invention of many new e-nose sensor types and arrays, based on different detection principles and mechanisms, is closely correlated with the expansion of new applications. Electronic noses have provided a plethora of benefits to a variety of commercial industries, including the agricultural, biomedical, cosmetics, environmental, food, manufacturing, military, pharmaceutical, regulatory, and various scientific research fields. Advances have improved product attributes, uniformity, and consistency as a result of increases in quality control capabilities afforded by electronic-nose monitoring of all phases of industrial manufacturing processes. This paper is a review of the major electronic-nose technologies, developed since this specialized field was born and became prominent in the mid 1980s, and a summarization of some of the more important and useful applications that have been of greatest benefit to man.

  18. Proceedings of the FNCA workshop on application of electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-02-01

    'Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA) Workshop on Application of Electron Accelerator' was sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) and hosted by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Japan Atomic Industry Forum (JAIF). It was held at the Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment (TRCRE), JAERI, Takasaki, Japan from 28 January to 1 February, 2002. The Workshop was attended by experts on application of electron accelerator from each of the participating countries, i.e. China, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, The Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam and 16 participants from Japan. A total of 17 papers including invited papers on the current status of application of electron accelerator in the participating countries were presented. The characteristics of various kinds of electron accelerators were introduced. Current research and development on the utilization radiation processing for natural rubber latex, natural polymer solution, polymer films, sterilization of spices and seeds, radiation treatment of flue gases and dioxin in liquid, solid, and gases were reported. Based on the proposed needs from the participating countries, the work plan was discussed and agreed on application of electron accelerator for liquid and for solid (thin films and granules/powder). All manuscripts submitted by every speaker were included in the proceedings. The 16 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  19. Proceedings of the FNCA workshop on application of electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2003-02-01

    'Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA) Workshop on Application of Electron Accelerator' was sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) and hosted by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Japan Atomic Industry Forum (JAIF). It was held at the Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment (TRCRE), JAERI, Takasaki, Japan from 28 January to 1 February, 2002. The Workshop was attended by experts on application of electron accelerator from each of the participating countries, i.e. China, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, The Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam and 16 participants from Japan. A total of 17 papers including invited papers on the current status of application of electron accelerator in the participating countries were presented. The characteristics of various kinds of electron accelerators were introduced. Current research and development on the utilization radiation processing for natural rubber latex, natural polymer solution, polymer films, sterilization of spices and seeds, radiation treatment of flue gases and dioxin in liquid, solid, and gases were reported. Based on the proposed needs from the participating countries, the work plan was discussed and agreed on application of electron accelerator for liquid and for solid (thin films and granules/powder). All manuscripts submitted by every speaker were included in the proceedings. The 16 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  20. Adhesives technology for electronic applications materials, processing, reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Licari, James J

    2011-01-01

    Adhesives are widely used in the manufacture and assembly of electronic circuits and products. Generally, electronics design engineers and manufacturing engineers are not well versed in adhesives, while adhesion chemists have a limited knowledge of electronics. This book bridges these knowledge gaps and is useful to both groups. The book includes chapters covering types of adhesive, the chemistry on which they are based, and their properties, applications, processes, specifications, and reliability. Coverage of toxicity, environmental impacts and the regulatory framework make this book par

  1. Handbook of polymer coatings for electronics chemistry, technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Licari, James J

    1990-01-01

    This completely revised edition remains the only comprehensive treatise on polymer coatings for electronics. Since the original edition, the applications of coatings for the environmental protection of electronic systems have greatly increased, largely driven by the competitive need to reduce costs, weight and volume. The demands for high-speed circuits for the rapid processing of signals and data, high-density circuits for the storage and retrieval of megabits of memory, and the improved reliability required of electronics for guiding and controlling weapons and space vehicles have triggered

  2. Biological applications of ultraviolet free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, J.C.

    1997-10-01

    This review examines the possibilities for biological research using the three ultraviolet free-electron lasers that are nearing operational status in the US. The projected operating characteristics of major interest in biological research of the free-electron lasers at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, and Duke University are presented. Experimental applications in the areas of far- and vacuum ultraviolet photophysics and photochemistry, structural biology, environmental photobiology, and medical research are discussed and the prospects for advances in these areas, based upon the characteristics of the new ultraviolet free-electron lasers, are evaluated

  3. 10 MeV RF electron linac for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Electron linacs have found numerous applications in the field of radiation processing on an industrial scale. High power RF electron linacs are commonly used for food irradiation, medical sterilization, cross-linking of polymers, etc. For this purpose, the 10 MeV RF linac has been indigenously designed, developed, commissioned and is being used regularly at 3 kW beam power. This paper gives a brief description of the linac and its utilization for various applications. Safety considerations and regulatory aspects of the linac are also discussed

  4. Electron spectroscopy for surface analysis - the ES300 electron spectrometer and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.A.J.; Price, W.B.

    1980-07-01

    The features of the ES300 electron spectrometer are described together with factors which affect the energy spectrum, experimental variables and interpretation of the spectral information. A discussion of five applications illustrates the use of X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) in the diverse work of the Risley Nuclear Power Development Laboratories (RNL). The analytical results are given for each of the examples and their interpretation discussed in the chemical context of the original problem. (author)

  5. Dosimetric differences between electrons beams with rio applicators of GMV and conventional Elekta applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sendon del Rio, J. R.; Ayala Lazaro, R.; Jimenez Rojas, M. R.; Gomez Cores, S.; Gonzalez Ruiz, C.; Garcia Hernandez, M. J.; Lopez Bote, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Intraoperative radiotherapy (River) is a form of cancer treatment that consists of a session of radiation ionizing on macroscopic tumor or tumor bed surgically exposed. In our institution, is administered with beams of electrons in a Linear Accelerator for use general and adapted through specific (applicators RIVER). In this work we studied the dosimetry differences between modified by applicators electron beams conventional and they changed by applicators River. (Author)

  6. Public Policy Instruments and Their Impact: From Analogue to Electronic Government in the Bus Services of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Lopes Campos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the relations between public policy instruments and production practices of objects related to government action. It demonstrates that the materiality of the instruments built to make a public policy object legible to its operators has independent effects on the relations among private operators, bureaucrats, and the public sector. Based on the bus service provision policies in the city of São Paulo between the 1980s and the 2000s, it shows that transportation policies are structured around the dilemmas and conflicts associated with the production of reports and databases. This article suggests that everyday practices and instruments, especially those associated with the documentation of operational performance, are key dimensions to understand the limits and potential of both state capacities and the regulation of companies’ profits. Because of its materiality, documentation practices and document pathways, operate as devices and artifacts which structure opacities, asymmetries of information, and power struggles between the state bureaucrats and private companies in the construction of service legibility. This article concludes that the transition from the governance through analogue instruments to the governance through electronic instruments is characterized by more transparency and greater regulatory potential over the private sector.

  7. On the applicability of one- and many-electron quantum chemistry models for hydrated electron clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, László

    2016-04-01

    We evaluate the applicability of a hierarchy of quantum models in characterizing the binding energy of excess electrons to water clusters. In particular, we calculate the vertical detachment energy of an excess electron from water cluster anions with methods that include one-electron pseudopotential calculations, density functional theory (DFT) based calculations, and ab initio quantum chemistry using MP2 and eom-EA-CCSD levels of theory. The examined clusters range from the smallest cluster size (n = 2) up to nearly nanosize clusters with n = 1000 molecules. The examined cluster configurations are extracted from mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics trajectories of cluster anions with n = 1000 water molecules using two different one-electron pseudopotenial models. We find that while MP2 calculations with large diffuse basis set provide a reasonable description for the hydrated electron system, DFT methods should be used with precaution and only after careful benchmarking. Strictly tested one-electron psudopotentials can still be considered as reasonable alternatives to DFT methods, especially in large systems. The results of quantum chemistry calculations performed on configurations, that represent possible excess electron binding motifs in the clusters, appear to be consistent with the results using a cavity structure preferring one-electron pseudopotential for the hydrated electron, while they are in sharp disagreement with the structural predictions of a non-cavity model.

  8. On the applicability of one- and many-electron quantum chemistry models for hydrated electron clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turi, László, E-mail: turi@chem.elte.hu [Department of Physical Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest 112 (Hungary)

    2016-04-21

    We evaluate the applicability of a hierarchy of quantum models in characterizing the binding energy of excess electrons to water clusters. In particular, we calculate the vertical detachment energy of an excess electron from water cluster anions with methods that include one-electron pseudopotential calculations, density functional theory (DFT) based calculations, and ab initio quantum chemistry using MP2 and eom-EA-CCSD levels of theory. The examined clusters range from the smallest cluster size (n = 2) up to nearly nanosize clusters with n = 1000 molecules. The examined cluster configurations are extracted from mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics trajectories of cluster anions with n = 1000 water molecules using two different one-electron pseudopotenial models. We find that while MP2 calculations with large diffuse basis set provide a reasonable description for the hydrated electron system, DFT methods should be used with precaution and only after careful benchmarking. Strictly tested one-electron psudopotentials can still be considered as reasonable alternatives to DFT methods, especially in large systems. The results of quantum chemistry calculations performed on configurations, that represent possible excess electron binding motifs in the clusters, appear to be consistent with the results using a cavity structure preferring one-electron pseudopotential for the hydrated electron, while they are in sharp disagreement with the structural predictions of a non-cavity model.

  9. Interdomain electron transfer in cellobiose dehydrogenase is governed by surface electrostatics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kádek, Alan; Kavan, Daniel; Marcoux, J.; Stojko, J.; Felice, A.K.G.; Cianférani, S.; Ludwig, R.; Halada, Petr; Man, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1861, č. 2 (2017), s. 157-167 ISSN 0304-4165 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/12/0503; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Cellobiose dehydrogenase * Direct electron transfer * Electrostatic interaction Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.702, year: 2016

  10. Optimization and application of electron acceleration in relativistic laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenigstein, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes experiments and simulations of the acceleration of electrons to relativistic energies (toward γ e ∼ 10 3 ) by structures in plasmas which are generated by ultrashort (pulse length < 10 -14 s) laser pulses. The first part of this work discusses experiments in a parameter space where quasimonoenergetic electron bunches are generated in subcritical (gaseous) plasmas and compares them to analytical scalings. A primary concern in this work is to optimize the stability of the energy and the pointing of the electrons. The second part deals with acceleration of electrons along the surface of solid substrates by laser-plasma interaction. The measurements show good agreement with existing analytical scalings and dedicated numerical simulations. In the third part, two new concepts for multi-stage acceleration will be presented and parameterised by analytical considerations and numerical simulations. The first method uses electron pairs, as produced in the first part, to transfer energy from the first bunch to the second by means of a plasma wave. The second method utilizes a low intensity laser pulse in order to inject electrons from a neutral gas into the accelerating phase of a plasma wave. The final chapter proposes and demonstrates a first application that has been developed in collaboration with ESA. The use of electron beams with exponential energy distribution, as in the second part of this work, offers the potential to investigate the resistance of electronic components against space radiation exposure.

  11. A National Identity Management Strategy to Enhance the Brazilian Electronic Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Sousa Torres

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the several problems with the Brazilian e-government services (e-Gov, many of them are related to the fact that Brazil does not have a National Strategy for Digital Identity Management (IdM. To design a  national strategy, it is crucial to analyze the solutions adopted in other countries and take into account Brazilian characteristics, such as its area, population, digital inclusion index, socio-political and economic profile, the current national identity registration system and the fraud rate. In this context, this paper aims to propose a national strategy for IdM for the Brazilian e-Gov program. This strategy was built upon by a literature review of the experiences of European countries and, mainly, the peculiarities inherent to Brazil.

  12. 48 CFR 53.222 - Application of labor laws to Government acquisitions (SF's 308, 1093, 1413, 1444, 1445, 1446, WH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application of labor laws... Prescription of Forms 53.222 Application of labor laws to Government acquisitions (SF's 308, 1093, 1413, 1444... application of labor laws: (a) [Reserved] (b) [Reserved] (c) SF 308 (DOL) (Rev. 5/85), Request for Wage...

  13. Stretchable electronics for wearable and high-current applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbich, Daniel; Shannon, Lesley; Gray, Bonnie L.

    2016-04-01

    Advances in the development of novel materials and fabrication processes are resulting in an increased number of flexible and stretchable electronics applications. This evolving technology enables new devices that are not readily fabricated using traditional silicon processes, and has the potential to transform many industries, including personalized healthcare, consumer electronics, and communication. Fabrication of stretchable devices is typically achieved through the use of stretchable polymer-based conductors, or more rigid conductors, such as metals, with patterned geometries that can accommodate stretching. Although the application space for stretchable electronics is extensive, the practicality of these devices can be severely limited by power consumption and cost. Moreover, strict process flows can impede innovation that would otherwise enable new applications. In an effort to overcome these impediments, we present two modified approaches and applications based on a newly developed process for stretchable and flexible electronics fabrication. This includes the development of a metallization pattern stamping process allowing for 1) stretchable interconnects to be directly integrated with stretchable/wearable fabrics, and 2) a process variation enabling aligned multi-layer devices with integrated ferromagnetic nanocomposite polymer components enabling a fully-flexible electromagnetic microactuator for large-magnitude magnetic field generation. The wearable interconnects are measured, showing high conductivity, and can accommodate over 20% strain before experiencing conductive failure. The electromagnetic actuators have been fabricated and initial measurements show well-aligned, highly conductive, isolated metal layers. These two applications demonstrate the versatility of the newly developed process and suggest potential for its furthered use in stretchable electronics and MEMS applications.

  14. Generation and application of bessel beams in electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillo, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.grillo@cnr.it [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); CNR-IMEM, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, I-43124 Parma (Italy); Harris, Jérémie [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton St., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Gazzadi, Gian Carlo [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Balboni, Roberto [CNR-IMM Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Mafakheri, Erfan [Dipartimento di Fisica Informatica e Matematica, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Dennis, Mark R. [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Frabboni, Stefano [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Informatica e Matematica, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Boyd, Robert W.; Karimi, Ebrahim [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton St., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2016-07-15

    We report a systematic treatment of the holographic generation of electron Bessel beams, with a view to applications in electron microscopy. We describe in detail the theory underlying hologram patterning, as well as the actual electron-optical configuration used experimentally. We show that by optimizing our nanofabrication recipe, electron Bessel beams can be generated with relative efficiencies reaching 37±3%. We also demonstrate by tuning various hologram parameters that electron Bessel beams can be produced with many visible rings, making them ideal for interferometric applications, or in more highly localized forms with fewer rings, more suitable for imaging. We describe the settings required to tune beam localization in this way, and explore beam and hologram configurations that allow the convergences and topological charges of electron Bessel beams to be controlled. We also characterize the phase structure of the Bessel beams generated with our technique, using a simulation procedure that accounts for imperfections in the hologram manufacturing process. - Highlights: • Bessel beams with different convergence, topological charge, visible fringes are demonstrated. • The relation between the Fresnel hologram and the probe shape is explained by detailed calculations and experiments. • Among the holograms here presented the highest relative efficiency is 37%, the best result ever reached for blazed holograms.

  15. Generation and application of bessel beams in electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grillo, Vincenzo; Harris, Jérémie; Gazzadi, Gian Carlo; Balboni, Roberto; Mafakheri, Erfan; Dennis, Mark R.; Frabboni, Stefano; Boyd, Robert W.; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    We report a systematic treatment of the holographic generation of electron Bessel beams, with a view to applications in electron microscopy. We describe in detail the theory underlying hologram patterning, as well as the actual electron-optical configuration used experimentally. We show that by optimizing our nanofabrication recipe, electron Bessel beams can be generated with relative efficiencies reaching 37±3%. We also demonstrate by tuning various hologram parameters that electron Bessel beams can be produced with many visible rings, making them ideal for interferometric applications, or in more highly localized forms with fewer rings, more suitable for imaging. We describe the settings required to tune beam localization in this way, and explore beam and hologram configurations that allow the convergences and topological charges of electron Bessel beams to be controlled. We also characterize the phase structure of the Bessel beams generated with our technique, using a simulation procedure that accounts for imperfections in the hologram manufacturing process. - Highlights: • Bessel beams with different convergence, topological charge, visible fringes are demonstrated. • The relation between the Fresnel hologram and the probe shape is explained by detailed calculations and experiments. • Among the holograms here presented the highest relative efficiency is 37%, the best result ever reached for blazed holograms.

  16. Design of Functional Polyesters for Electronic and Biological Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Ashley Marie

    2015-01-01

    Melt polymerization and novel monomers enabled the synthesis of polyesters for electronic and biological applications. Inspiration from nature and a passion for environmental preservation instigated an emphasis on the incorporation of renewable resources into polymeric materials. Critical analysis of current research surrounding bisphenol-A replacements and ioncontaining segmented polyurethanes aided in identifying benchmark polymers, including limitations, challenges, and future needs. Struc...

  17. Application of electron beams to environmental conservation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    The paper is a review of current status of the application of electron beams to environmental conservation technology. Different aspects of radiation treatment of natural and polluted drinking water, radiation purification of industrial and municipal wastes, radiation treatment of sewage sludge and radiation purification of exhaust gases are considered. The special attention is paid to the respective pilot and industrial facilities. (author) 70 refs

  18. Dromion solutions for an electron acoustic wave and its application ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Davey–Stewartson equation; electron acoustic wave; space plasma. ... Its potential application in different physical fields are also well .... bi-linear method. .... One of the authors, S S Ghosh, would like to thank CSIR for its financial assistance ...

  19. Application of local vacuum slide sealing electron beam welding procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shozo; Takano, Genta; Minami, Masaharu; Enami, Koji; Uchikawa, Takashi; Kuri, Shuhei

    1982-01-01

    Electron beam welding process is efficient and is superior in workmanship and its application to the welding of large plate structures is eagerly awaited. However, since electron beam welding is generally performed with the object of welding entirely put in a vacuum chamber, high welding cost becomes a problem. In response to this demand, two kinds of local vacuum slide sealing type electron beam welding machines have been developed. These welding machines are designed to perform welding with only the neighborhood of the weld line put in vacuum, one of which is for longitudinal joints and the other for circumferential joints. The welding machine for circumferential joints has been put to practical use for the welding of nucear fusion reactor vacuum vessels (outside diameter 3.5 m, inside diameter 1.7 m), showing that it is applicable to the welding of large structures. (author)

  20. Biological applications of phase-contrast electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Kuniaki

    2014-01-01

    Here, I review the principles and applications of phase-contrast electron microscopy using phase plates. First, I develop the principle of phase contrast based on a minimal model of microscopy, introducing a double Fourier-transform process to mathematically formulate the image formation. Next, I explain four phase-contrast (PC) schemes, defocus PC, Zernike PC, Hilbert differential contrast, and schlieren optics, as image-filtering processes in the context of the minimal model, with particular emphases on the Zernike PC and corresponding Zernike phase plates. Finally, I review applications of Zernike PC cryo-electron microscopy to biological systems such as protein molecules, virus particles, and cells, including single-particle analysis to delineate three-dimensional (3D) structures of protein and virus particles and cryo-electron tomography to reconstruct 3D images of complex protein systems and cells.

  1. Application of electron beam curing in web-offset printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, A.M.; Newcomb, W.T.

    1984-01-01

    Four years ago, the first commercial installation of an electron beam processor, coupled with a high speed web offset printing press was described. This line has been in operation since and its success demonstrates the advantages and feasibility of such an application. Just recently, another company has announced that it is using electron beam curing in its printing lines. Judging from the amount of inquiries and opportunities being actively pursued one can state that the use of electron beam systems in printing applications has come of age. This paper describes the advantages of this process, the characteristics of the equipment that are important for industrial use in a multishift environment, and addresses its economics through analysis of some major cost elements

  2. An Empirical Analysis of Citizens' Acceptance Decisions of Electronic-Government Services: A Modification of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Model to Include Trust as a Basis for Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awuah, Lawrence J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding citizens' adoption of electronic-government (e-government) is an important topic, as the use of e-government has become an integral part of governance. Success of such initiatives depends largely on the efficient use of e-government services. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model has provided a…

  3. Knowledge, perceptions and clinical application of the shortened dental arch concept among Malaysian government dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Siti Kamilah Mohd; Razak, Ishak Abdul; Yusof, Zamros Yuzadi Mohd

    2018-02-01

    To assess the knowledge and perceptions of Malaysian government dentists regarding the shortened dental arch (SDA) concept and its application in clinical practice. The SDA concept refers to a specific type of dentition with intact anterior teeth and a reduction in posterior occlusal pairs. Dentists' knowledge and perceptions of the SDA concept can influence its application in clinical practice. A self-administered questionnaire on the SDA concept was distributed to 326 government dentists in the states of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The data were analysed using SPSS version 22 software. The response rate was 84.0%. The majority of respondents had good knowledge on five of six knowledge items and good attitudes towards 10 of 17 perception items. However, only one-fifth (20.4%) reported having applied the SDA concept in the clinic. A larger number of participants who graduated locally than who graduated abroad perceived that patients 5 years of work experience perceived that the SDA concept enables simpler treatment planning (P concept, it is not widely applied in the clinic. Concerted efforts in SDA training of dentists are needed to help to shorten denture waiting lists and reduce costs. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.

  4. Quantum entanglement in electron optics generation, characterization, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Naresh

    2013-01-01

    This monograph forms an interdisciplinary study in atomic, molecular, and quantum information (QI) science. Here a reader will find that applications of the tools developed in QI provide new physical insights into electron optics as well as properties of atoms & molecules which, in turn, are useful in studying QI both at fundamental and applied levels. In particular, this book investigates entanglement properties of flying electronic qubits generated in some of the well known processes capable of taking place in an atom or a molecule following the absorption of a photon. Here, one can generate Coulombic or fine-structure entanglement of electronic qubits. The properties of these entanglements differ not only from each other, but also from those when spin of an inner-shell photoelectron is entangled with the polarization of the subsequent fluorescence. Spins of an outer-shell electron and of a residual photoion can have free or bound entanglement in a laboratory.

  5. Outline of FNCA project on application of electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2005-01-01

    FNCA (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia) activities in the field of electron accelerator applications are reported. The paper mainly reports on the achievement of the 3rd workshop to discuss status of utilization of electron accelerator for thin films/hydrogel in the FNCA participating countries, China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, held in August, 2003, at Kuala Lumpur. Cross-linking of thin film from sago starch polymer blend using the Cureton (200 keV, 20 mA) and cross-linking of hydrogel for wound dressing and CMC paste-like sheet using the medium energy (3.0 MeV, 30 mA) electron accelerator of MINT (from Malaysia) were successfully demonstrated. Efforts are being made by Vietnam, Thailand and Philippines having no electron accelerator to acquire the machine for R and D and commercial use in the near future. (S. Ohno)

  6. Electronic sputtering of biomolecules and its application in mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haakansson, P.; Sundqvist, B.U.R.

    1989-01-01

    In 1974 Macfarlane discovered that fast heavy ions from a 252-Cf source can desorb and ionize molecules from a solid surface. The mass of the molecules was determined by time-of-flight technique. It has been shown that the desorption mechanism is associated with the electron part of the stopping power of the primary ion and the name 'electron sputtering' has been adopted for the phenomenon to distinguish it from the well-known sputtering process with ions of KeV energy. A review of electronic sputtering of biomolecules will be given as well as recent measurements on Langmuir-Blodgett films. One important application of electronic sputtering is in the field of mass spectrometry. With this technique large and nonvolatile molecules can be studied. Particularly adsorption of biomolecules to a nitrocellulose backing has proven to be very useful. Examples will be given of mass spectra from peptides with a molecular weight above 20,000 u. (author)

  7. Social Media Used by Government Institutions in Iceland: Application, Role and Aims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Már Einarsson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the use and role of social media hosted by government institutions in Iceland. The research was conducted using quantitative and qualitative research methods. A survey was sent electronically to all government institutions in Iceland and semi-structured interviews were conducted with specialists working for institutions. No research has been conducted on this subject in Iceland before. It was therefore considered timely that a research was conducted on the use of social media in public institutions, with the intention of adding new knowledge to the field. No similar research from outside of Iceland was found, but this research was based on related studies and sources from abroad. A little less than half of government institutions used social media as part of their activities and Facebook and YouTube were most widely used. Popularity, circulation, usefulness and convenience were the most important factors when choosing social media. The majority of institutions had neither defined social media goals nor the role and responsibility of employees when using social media. The institutions placed strong emphasis on publishing adverts and news items on the institutions’ activities via social media pages and there were a considerable number of references to material on other web pages. Among other things the interviewees said that the purpose of using social media was information dissemination, reception of information, more visibility, the opening of institutions to the public and increased transparency. They talked about the importance of being informal on social media, but they also pointed out that there had been some fear among institutions of using them, in particular fear of employees showing a human side via social media. There was minimal use of original material on institutions’ social media pages, while institutions were quite systematic in posting material from their website through social media

  8. The Relationship between Corporate Governance Approach and Internal Audit in Tourism Sector: An Application in Marmaris Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağrı Köroğlu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tourism sector is one of the important sectors in Turkey. Corporate governance is an important tool to increase the efficiency of tourism sector. An effective i nternal audit helps to improve the effectiveness of corporate governance in tourism sector. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between corporate governance and the internal audit at four -star and five-star hotels in Marmaris. First, corporate governance and internal control concepts have been discussed within the scope of the literature. Next, in the application part, for the purpose of our study, four-star and five-star hotels were selected in Marmaris region. A survey was conducted on the hotel managers. The data set is analyzed by using SPSS. The results show significant relationship between internal control and corporate governance. In addition, hotel managements recognize the importance of the both the basic principles of corporate governance and internal audit activities.

  9. Chemical Vapor-Deposited (CVD) Diamond Films for Electronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Diamond films have a variety of useful applications as electron emitters in devices such as magnetrons, electron multipliers, displays, and sensors. Secondary electron emission is the effect in which electrons are emitted from the near surface of a material because of energetic incident electrons. The total secondary yield coefficient, which is the ratio of the number of secondary electrons to the number of incident electrons, generally ranges from 2 to 4 for most materials used in such applications. It was discovered recently at the NASA Lewis Research Center that chemical vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond films have very high secondary electron yields, particularly when they are coated with thin layers of CsI. For CsI-coated diamond films, the total secondary yield coefficient can exceed 60. In addition, diamond films exhibit field emission at fields orders of magnitude lower than for existing state-of-the-art emitters. Present state-of-the-art microfabricated field emitters generally require applied fields above 5x10^7 V/cm. Research on field emission from CVD diamond and high-pressure, high-temperature diamond has shown that field emission can be obtained at fields as low as 2x10^4 V/cm. It has also been shown that thin layers of metals, such as gold, and of alkali halides, such as CsI, can significantly increase field emission and stability. Emitters with nanometer-scale lithography will be able to obtain high-current densities with voltages on the order of only 10 to 15 V.

  10. 25 CFR 1000.27 - How does the Director select which Tribes in the applicant pool become self-governance Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... applicant pool become self-governance Tribes? 1000.27 Section 1000.27 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... for Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Admission into the Applicant Pool § 1000.27 How does the Director select which Tribes in the applicant pool become self-governance Tribes? The Director selects up...

  11. Development and application of advanced methods for electronic structure calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Per Simmendefeldt

    . For this reason, part of this thesis relates to developing and applying a new method for constructing so-called norm-conserving PAW setups, that are applicable to GW calculations by using a genetic algorithm. The effect of applying the new setups significantly affects the absolute band positions, both for bulk......This thesis relates to improvements and applications of beyond-DFT methods for electronic structure calculations that are applied in computational material science. The improvements are of both technical and principal character. The well-known GW approximation is optimized for accurate calculations...... of electronic excitations in two-dimensional materials by exploiting exact limits of the screened Coulomb potential. This approach reduces the computational time by an order of magnitude, enabling large scale applications. The GW method is further improved by including so-called vertex corrections. This turns...

  12. A Trusted Smart Phone and Its Applications in Electronic Payment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With the growing intelligence and popularity of mobile phones, and the trend of cellular network's convergence to IP based network, more and more mobile applications emerge on the market. For mission critical applications, like the electronic payment which will be discussed in this paper, the lack of trust in the underlying mobile infrastructure and secure interface to legacy systems (for this case, the banking systems) poses obstacles to their widespread presence in mobile services. Recently, the exposure of hacking of iPhone and other smart phones further emphasizes the criticality of establishing a trust platform for mobile applications. This paper analyzes the building blocks of the trusted smart phone, and proposes a framework to provide a trusted platform for mobile electronic payment. Such a proposed system may allow direct interface to the banking systems due to the banking industry recognized strong security, and hence, may enable its widespread use.

  13. Application of low energy electron beam to precoated steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshiishi, Kenji

    1989-01-01

    Recently in the fields of home electric appliances, machinery and equipment and interior building materials, the needs for the precoated steel plates having the design and function of high class increase rapidly. In order to cope with such needs, the authors have advanced the examination on the application of electron beam hardening technology to precoated steel plates, and developed the precoated steel plates of high grade and high design 'Super Tecstar EB Series' by utilizing low energy electron beam. The features of this process are (1) hardening can be done at room temperature in a short time-thermally weak films can be adhered, (2) high energy irradiation-the hardening of thick enamel coating and the adhesion of colored films are feasible, (3) the use of monomers of low molecular weight-by high crosslinking, the performance of high sharpness, high hardness, anti-contamination property and so on can be given. The application to precoated steel plate production process is the coating and curing of electron beam hardening type paints, the coating of films with electron beam hardening type adhesives, and the reforming of surface polymer layers by impregnating monomers and causing graft polymerization with electron beam irradiation. The outline of the Super Tecstar EB Series is described. (K.I.)

  14. Application of electron beam for preparation of membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Mahmoud Nasef

    2004-01-01

    Membranes have generated considerable interest in a number of technologically significant fields, such as chemical, biochemical and biomedical engineering. However, it becomes important to design and develop particular membranes for specific applications. Radiation induced grafting of hydrophilic monomers into polymeric films has been found to be an appealing method for producing various membranes. The method has the flexibility of using various types of radiation, such as γ-rays, electron beam, and plasma, irrespective of the shape and size of the polymer. Of all, electron beam accelerator is an advantageous source of high-energy radiations that can initiate grafting reactions required for preparation of membranes particularly when pilot production and commercial applications are sought. The grafting penetration can be varied from surface to bulk of membranes by applying acceleration energy. This article briefly reviews the use of electron beam radiation to prepare various membranes by radiation induced grafting of vinyl and acrylic monomers onto polymer films. Some basic fundamentals of radiation induced grafting and advantages of electron beam over Co-60 are highlighted. Potential applications of radiation-grafted membranes in various fields are also surveyed. (author)

  15. Laser applications in the electronics and optoelectronics industry in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Kunihiko

    1999-07-01

    This paper explains current status and technological trends in laser materials processing applications in electronics and optoelectronics industry in Japan. Various laser equipment based on solid state lasers or gas lasers such as excimer lasers or CO2 lasers has been developed and applied in manufacturing electronic and optoelectronic devices to meet the strong demands for advanced device manufacturing technologies for high-performance, lightweight, low power-consumption portable digital electronic appliances, cellular mobile phones, personal computers, etc. Representative applications of solid-state lasers are, opaque and clear defects repairing of photomasks for LSIs and LCDs, trimming of thick-film chip resistors and low resistance metal resistors, laser cutting and drilling of thin films for high-pin count semiconductor CSP packages, laser patterning of thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells, and laser welding of electronic components such as hard-disk head suspensions, optical modules, miniature relays and lithium ion batteries. Compact and highly efficient diode- pumped and Q-switched solid-state lasers in second or third harmonic operation mode are now being increasingly incorporated in various laser equipment for fine material processing. Representative applications of excimer lasers are, sub-quarter micron design-rule LSI lithography and low- temperature annealing of poly-silicon TFT LCD.

  16. Inverse-Electron-Demand Diels-Alder Reactions: Principles and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Png, Zhuang Mao; Zeng, Huining; Ye, Qun; Xu, Jianwei

    2017-09-05

    Inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder (iEDDA) reactions are an intriguing class of cycloaddition reactions that have attracted increasing attention for their application in bioorthogonal chemistry, the total synthesis of natural products, and materials science. In many cases, the application of the iEDDA reaction has been demonstrated as an innovative approach to achieve target structures. The theoretical aspects of this class of reactions are of particular interest for scientists as a means to understand the various factors, such as steric strain and electron density of the attached groups, that govern the reaction and thus to elucidate the reaction mechanism. This review aims to summarize both theoretical investigations and application-driven research work on the iEDDA reaction. First, the historical aspects and the theoretical basis of the reaction, especially recent advances in time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations, as well as catalysis strategies will be highlighted and discussed. Second, the applications of this novel reaction in the context of materials science, bioorthogonal chemistry, and total synthesis of natural products will be elaborated with selected recent examples. The challenges and opportunities of the iEDDA reaction will be highlighted to give more insight into its potential applications in many other research areas. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Development of superconducting cryo-electron microscope and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsuki, Masashi

    1988-01-01

    Recently, a superconducting cryo-electron microscope in which specimens are cooled to the liquid helium temperature (4.2 K) has been developed. The main components and functional features of this new microscope are reported together with application data on polyethylene, poly (4-methyl-1-pentene), valonia cellulose, rock salt, ice crystallites and ceramic superconductor. The resistance to electron radiation damage, of beam-sensitive specimens including polymers has been increased more than ten times. Thus, the microscope has made it possible to take high resolution images and to analyze the crystal-structure of micro-areas. (orig.) [de

  18. Organic structures design applications in optical and electronic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Chow, Tahsin J

    2014-01-01

    ""Presenting an overview of the syntheses and properties of organic molecules and their applications in optical and electronic devices, this book covers aspects concerning theoretical modeling for electron transfer, solution-processed micro- and nanomaterials, donor-acceptor cyclophanes, molecular motors, organogels, polyazaacenes, fluorogenic sensors based on calix[4]arenes, and organic light-emitting diodes. The publication of this book is timely because these topics have become very popular nowadays. The book is definitely an excellent reference for scientists working in these a

  19. High speed electronic imaging application in aeroballistic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.R.; Parker, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Physical and temporal restrictions imposed by modern aeroballistics have pushed imaging technology to the point where special photoconductive surfaces and high-speed support electronics are dictated. Specifications for these devices can be formulated by a methodical analysis of critical parameters and how they interact. In terms of system theory, system transfer functions and state equations can be used in optimal coupling of devices to maximize system performance. Application of these methods to electronic imaging at the Eglin Aeroballistics Research Facility is described in this report. 7 references, 14 figures, 1 table

  20. Is small beautiful? A multicriteria assessment of small-scale energy technology applications in local governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, Jonathan; Hubacek, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    In its 2003 White Paper the UK government set ambitious renewable energy targets. Local governments and households have an increasing role in the overall energy system as consumers, suppliers of smaller-scale applications and citizens discussing energy projects. In this paper, we consider if small-scale or large-scale approaches to renewable energy provision can achieve energy targets in the most socially, economically and environmentally (SEE) effective way. We take a local case study of renewable energy provision in the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees in Yorkshire, UK, and apply a multi-criteria decision analysis methodology to compare the small-scale schemes implemented in Kirklees with large-scale alternatives. The results indicate that small-scale schemes are the most SEE effective, despite large-scale schemes being more financially viable. The selection of the criteria on which the alternatives are assessed and the assigned weights for each criterion are of crucial importance. It is thus very important to include the relevant stakeholders to elicit this information

  1. Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy: Fundamentals and applications in the characterization of minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, K.M.

    1989-04-01

    The combined use of an energy-loss spectrometer and an analytical electron microscope with fine probe forming capabilities provides a wealth of information about the sample at high spatial resolution. Fundamental principles governing the physics of the interaction between the fast electron and a thin foil sample, to account for the fine structure in the inelastically scattered fast electron distribution (Electron-Energy Loss Spectroscopy, EELS), will be reviewed. General application of EELS is in the area of low atomic number elements (Z < 11) microanalysis, where it significantly complements the more widely used Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDXS). However, a careful analysis of the low loss plasmon oscillations and the fine structure in the core-loss edges, can provide additional information related to the bonding and electronic structure of the sample. An illustration of this is presented from our study of Cδ diamond residue from the Allende carbonaceous chondrite. Combination of EELS with channeling effects can provide specific site occupation/valence information in crystalline materials. Details of this novel crystallographic method will be outlined and illustrated with an example of the study of chromite spinels. Finally, some pertinent experimental details will be discussed. 7 figs

  2. The Physics and Applications of High Brightness Electron Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Luigi; Rosenzweig, J.; Serafini, Luca

    2007-09-01

    Plenary sessions. RF deflector based sub-Ps beam diagnostics: application to FEL and advanced accelerators / D. Alesini. Production of fermtosecond pulses and micron beam spots for high brightness electron beam applications / S.G. Anderson ... [et al.]. Wakefields of sub-picosecond electron bunches / K.L.F. Bane. Diamond secondary emitter / I. Ben-Zvi ... [et al.]. Parametric optimization for an X-ray free electron laser with a laser wiggler / R. Bonifacio, N. Piovella and M.M. Cola. Needle cathodes for high-brightness beams / C.H. Boulware ... [et al.]. Non linear evolution of short pulses in FEL cascaded undulators and the FEL harmonic cascade / L. Giannessi and P. Musumeci. High brightness laser induced multi-meV electron/proton sources / D. Giulietti ... [et al.]. Emittance limitation of a conditioned beam in a strong focusing FEL undulator / Z. Huang, G. Stupakov and S. Reiche. Scaled models: space-charge dominated electron storage rings / R.A. Kishek ... [et al.]. High brightness beam applications: energy recovered linacs / G.A. Krafft. Maximizing brightness in photoinjectors / C. Limborg-Deprey and H. Tomizawa. Ultracold electron sources / O.J. Luiten ... [et al.]. Scaling laws of structure-based optical accelerators / A. Mizrahi, V. Karagodsky and L. Schächter. High brightness beams-applications to free-electron lasers / S. Reiche. Conception of photo-injectors for the CTF3 experiment / R. Roux. Superconducting RF photoinjectors: an overview / J. Sekutowicz. Status and perspectives of photo injector developments for high brightness beams / F. Stephan. Results from the UCLA/FNLP underdense plasma lens experiment / M.C. Thompson ... [et al.]. Medical application of multi-beam compton scattering monochromatic tunable hard X-ray source / M. Uesaka ... [et al.]. Design of a 2 kA, 30 fs RF-photoinjector for waterbag compression / S.B. Van Der Geer, O.J. Luiten and M.J. De Loos. Proposal for a high-brightness pulsed electron source / M. Zolotorev ... [et al

  3. Potential ceramics processing applications with high-energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struve, K.W.; Turman, B.N.

    1993-01-01

    High-energy, high-current electron beams may offer unique features for processing of ceramics that are not available with any other heat source. These include the capability to instantaneously heat to several centimeters in depth, to preferentially deposit energy in dense, high-z materials, to process at atmospheric pressures in air or other gases, to have large control over heating volume and heating rate, and to have efficient energy conversion. At a recent workshop organized by the authors to explore opportunities for electron beam processing of ceramics, several applications were identified for further development. These were ceramic joining, fabrication of ceramic powders, and surface processing of ceramics. It may be possible to join ceramics by either electron-beam brazing or welding. Brazing with refractory metals might also be feasible. The primary concern for brazing is whether the braze material can wet to the ceramic when rapidly heated by an electron beam. Raw ceramic powders, such as silicon nitride and aluminum nitride, which are difficult to produce by conventional techniques, could possibly be produced by vaporizing metals in a nitrogen atmosphere. Experiments need to be done to verify that the vaporized metal can fully react with the nitrogen. By adjusting beam parameters, high-energy beams can be used to remove surface flaws which are often sites of fracture initiation. They can also be used for surface cleaning. The advantage of electron beams rather than ion beams for this application is that the heat deposition can be graded into the material. The authors will discuss the capabilities of beams from existing machines for these applications and discuss planned experiments

  4. Applications of Free Electron Lasers in Biology and Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelka, J.B.; Tybor, K.R.; Nietubyc, R.; Wrochna, G.

    2010-01-01

    The advent of free electron lasers opens up new opportunities to probe the dynamics of ultrafast processes and the structure of matter with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. New methods inaccessible with other known types of radiation sources can be developed, resulting in a breakthrough in deep understanding the fundamentals of life as well as in numerous medical and biological applications. In the present work the properties of free electron laser radiation that make the sources excellent for probing biological matter at an arbitrary wavelength, in a wide range of intensities and pulse durations are briefly discussed. A number of biophysical and biomedical applications of the new sources, currently considered among the most promising in the field, are presented. (author)

  5. The application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, YuPing; Yin, Hua; Han, Dezhi; Yu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Traditional online shopping platform (OSP), which searches product information by keywords, faces three problems: indirect search mode, large search space, and inaccuracy in search results. For solving these problems, we discuss and research the application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce. Aiming at improving the network customers' experience and providing merchants with the accuracy of advertising, we design a reasonable and extensive electronic commerce application system, which includes three subsystems: image search display subsystem, image search subsystem, and product information collecting subsystem. This system can provide seamless connection between information platform and OSP, on which consumers can automatically and directly search similar images according to the pictures from information platform. At the same time, it can be used to provide accuracy of internet marketing for enterprises. The experiment shows the efficiency of constructing the system.

  6. Application of phase change materials in thermal management of electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandasamy, Ravi; Wang Xiangqi; Mujumdar, Arun S.

    2007-01-01

    Application of a novel PCM package for thermal management of portable electronic devices was investigated experimentally for effects of various parameters e.g. power input, orientation of package, and various melting/freezing times under cyclic steady conditions. Also, a two-dimensional numerical study was made and compared the experimental results. Results show that increased power inputs increase the melting rate, while orientation of the package to gravity has negligible effect on the thermal performance of the PCM package. The thermal resistance of the device and the power level applied to the PCM package are of critical importance for design of a passive thermal control system. Comparison with numerical results confirms that PCM-based design is an excellent candidate design for transient electronic cooling applications

  7. The Application of Similar Image Retrieval in Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YuPing Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional online shopping platform (OSP, which searches product information by keywords, faces three problems: indirect search mode, large search space, and inaccuracy in search results. For solving these problems, we discuss and research the application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce. Aiming at improving the network customers’ experience and providing merchants with the accuracy of advertising, we design a reasonable and extensive electronic commerce application system, which includes three subsystems: image search display subsystem, image search subsystem, and product information collecting subsystem. This system can provide seamless connection between information platform and OSP, on which consumers can automatically and directly search similar images according to the pictures from information platform. At the same time, it can be used to provide accuracy of internet marketing for enterprises. The experiment shows the efficiency of constructing the system.

  8. The Application of Similar Image Retrieval in Electronic Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, YuPing; Yin, Hua; Han, Dezhi; Yu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Traditional online shopping platform (OSP), which searches product information by keywords, faces three problems: indirect search mode, large search space, and inaccuracy in search results. For solving these problems, we discuss and research the application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce. Aiming at improving the network customers' experience and providing merchants with the accuracy of advertising, we design a reasonable and extensive electronic commerce application system, which includes three subsystems: image search display subsystem, image search subsystem, and product information collecting subsystem. This system can provide seamless connection between information platform and OSP, on which consumers can automatically and directly search similar images according to the pictures from information platform. At the same time, it can be used to provide accuracy of internet marketing for enterprises. The experiment shows the efficiency of constructing the system. PMID:24883411

  9. Application of electron back-scatter diffraction to texture research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randle, V.

    1996-01-01

    The application of electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) to materials research is reviewed. A brief history of the technique is given, followed by a description of present-day operation. The methodology of 'microtexture', i.e. spatially specific orientations, is described and recent examples of its application using EBSD are given, in particular to interstitial-free steel processing, growth of phases in a white iron and grain boundary phenomena in a superplastic alloy. The advantages and disadvantages of EBSD compared to use of X-rays for texture determination are discussed in detail

  10. New fiber optics illumination system for application to electronics holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.

    1995-08-01

    The practical application of electronic holography requires the use of fiber optics. The need of employing coherent fiber optics imposes restrictions in the efficient use of laser light. This paper proposes a new solution to this problem. The proposed method increases the efficiency in the use of the laser light and simplifies the interface between the laser source and the fiber optics. This paper will present the theory behind the proposed method. A discussion of the effect of the different parameters that influence the formation of interference fringes is presented. Limitations and results that can be achieved are given. An example of application is presented.

  11. Development of applications for Indian industry using electron beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, K.S.S.; Khader, S.A.; Sabharwal, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a report on the industrial applications that have been developed and demonstrated to the Indian industry using 2MeV/20kW Electron Beam accelerator at BARC-BRIT in the field of polymer modifications (crosslinking and degradation), gem stone coloration etc. Technological scale demonstration of the applications citing the benefits in terms of clean technology and better economics, encouraged three companies in private industry to set up EB facilities for the treatment of cable insulations, heat shrinkable products, diamond and gem stones during the last five years. Recent work on EB processing of automobile rubber tires is also included. (author)

  12. Trends for Electron Beam Accelerator Applications in Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machi, Sueo

    2011-02-01

    Electron beam (EB) accelerators are major pieces of industrial equipment used for many commercial radiation processing applications. The industrial use of EB accelerators has a history of more than 50 years and is still growing in terms of both its economic scale and new applications. Major applications involve the modification of polymeric materials to create value-added products, such as heat-resistant wires, heat-shrinkable sheets, automobile tires, foamed plastics, battery separators and hydrogel wound dressing. The surface curing of coatings and printing inks is a growing application for low energy electron accelerators, resulting in an environmentally friendly and an energy-saving process. Recently there has been the acceptance of the use of EB accelerators in lieu of the radioactive isotope cobalt-60 as a source for sterilizing disposable medical products. Environmental protection by the use of EB accelerators is a new and important field of application. A commercial plant for the cleaning flue gases from a coal-burning power plant is in operation in Poland, employing high power EB accelerators. In Korea, a commercial plant uses EB to clean waste water from a dye factory.

  13. Development and characterization of electron sources for diffraction applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casandruc, Albert

    2015-12-15

    The dream to control chemical reactions that are essential to life is now closer than ever to gratify. Recent scientific progress has made it possible to investigate phenomena and processes which deploy at the angstroms scale and at rates on the order femtoseconds. Techniques such as Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED) are currently able to reveal the spatial atomic configuration of systems with unit cell sizes on the order of a few nanometers with about 100 femtosecond temporal resolution. Still, major advances are needed for structural interrogation of biological systems like protein crystals, which have unit cell sizes of 10 nanometers or larger, and sample sizes of less than one micrometer. For such samples, the performance of these electron-based techniques is now limited by the quality, in particular the brightness, of the electron source. The current Ph.D. work represents a contribution towards the development and the characterization of electron sources which are essential to static and time-resolved electron diffraction techniques. The focus was on electron source fabrication and electron beam characterization measurements, using the solenoid and the aperture scan techniques, but also on the development and maintenance of the relevant experimental setups. As a result, new experimental facilities are now available in the group and, at the same time, novel concepts for generating electron beams for electron diffraction applications have been developed. In terms of existing electron sources, the capability to trigger and detect field emission from single double-gated field emitter Mo tips was successfully proven. These sharp emitter tips promise high brightness electron beams, but for investigating individual such structures, new engineering was needed. Secondly, the influence of the surface electric field on electron beam properties has been systematically performed for flat Mo photocathodes. This study is very valuable especially for state

  14. Development and characterization of electron sources for diffraction applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casandruc, Albert

    2015-12-01

    The dream to control chemical reactions that are essential to life is now closer than ever to gratify. Recent scientific progress has made it possible to investigate phenomena and processes which deploy at the angstroms scale and at rates on the order femtoseconds. Techniques such as Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED) are currently able to reveal the spatial atomic configuration of systems with unit cell sizes on the order of a few nanometers with about 100 femtosecond temporal resolution. Still, major advances are needed for structural interrogation of biological systems like protein crystals, which have unit cell sizes of 10 nanometers or larger, and sample sizes of less than one micrometer. For such samples, the performance of these electron-based techniques is now limited by the quality, in particular the brightness, of the electron source. The current Ph.D. work represents a contribution towards the development and the characterization of electron sources which are essential to static and time-resolved electron diffraction techniques. The focus was on electron source fabrication and electron beam characterization measurements, using the solenoid and the aperture scan techniques, but also on the development and maintenance of the relevant experimental setups. As a result, new experimental facilities are now available in the group and, at the same time, novel concepts for generating electron beams for electron diffraction applications have been developed. In terms of existing electron sources, the capability to trigger and detect field emission from single double-gated field emitter Mo tips was successfully proven. These sharp emitter tips promise high brightness electron beams, but for investigating individual such structures, new engineering was needed. Secondly, the influence of the surface electric field on electron beam properties has been systematically performed for flat Mo photocathodes. This study is very valuable especially for state

  15. The applications of electron accelerator. Liquid, thin film and gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd Dahlan; Kamaruddin Hashim; Zulkafli Ghazali

    2004-01-01

    As indicated by the results of this study, low energy electron beam accelerator of 200 keV to 500 keV can be utilized to irradiate thin hydrogel film in the range of 60 to 500 μm thickness. However, the industrial applications of this technology will depend on its applications. For thin films, cosmetic use such as faced mask is possible. The production of sago hydrogel for cosmetic used is in the process of commercialization in Malaysia. As for electron beam treatment of industrial wastewater in particular the effluent from the textile industry is still at infancy. Further work is necessary in order to have a base line data before the commercialization is taken place. Malaysia has also embarked on the electron beam treatment of flue gases and has completed the semi-pilot scale study by using 1.0 MeV electron accelerator voltage and 400 cum flue gas generated from diesel generator. This study was conducted together with the TNB Research, the research institute belongs to the electrical power company in Malaysia. For technology transfer and commercialization, MINT is planned to promote this technology to Independent Power Producers (IPP) in Malaysia. (author)

  16. A flexible inkjet printed antenna for wearable electronics applications

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2016-11-02

    Wearable electronics has gained enormous attention since past few years because it is a promising technology to enhance the human experience. This paper shows a modified inverted-F antenna (IFA), inkjet printed directly on the fabric. A flexible and UV curable interface layer has been used to reduce the surface roughness of the fabric to realize the antenna on top of fabric with fine features. Flexibility tests of the prototype confirm the viability of the design for the wearable applications.

  17. Graphene Tribotronics for Electronic Skin and Touch Screen Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Usman; Kim, Tae-Ho; Ryu, Hanjun; Seung, Wanchul; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2017-01-01

    Graphene tribotronics is introduced for touch-sensing applications such as electronic skins and touch screens. The devices are based on a coplanar coupling of triboelectrification and current transport in graphene transistors. The touch sensors are ultrasensitive, fast, and stable. Furthermore, they are transparent and flexible, and can spatially map touch stimuli such as movement of a ball, multi-touch, etc. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Electrically and Thermally Conducting Nanocomposites for Electronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Santos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites made up of polymer matrices and carbon nanotubes are a class of advanced materials with great application potential in electronics packaging. Nanocomposites with carbon nanotubes as fillers have been designed with the aim of exploiting the high thermal, electrical and mechanical properties characteristic of carbon nanotubes. Heat dissipation in electronic devices requires interface materials with high thermal conductivity. Here, current developments and challenges in the application of nanotubes as fillers in polymer matrices are explored. The blending together of nanotubes and polymers result in what are known as nanocomposites. Among the most pressing current issues related to nanocomposite fabrication are (i dispersion of carbon nanotubes in the polymer host, (ii carbon nanotube-polymer interaction and the nature of the interface, and (iii alignment of carbon nanotubes in a polymer matrix. These issues are believed to be directly related to the electrical and thermal performance of nanocomposites. The recent progress in the fabrication of nanocomposites with carbon nanotubes as fillers and their potential application in electronics packaging as thermal interface materials is also reported.

  19. Applications of electron beam technology for healthcare and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    Radiation technology has matured from lab scale to industrial scale in many areas of interests to industry, healthcare, agriculture and environment. Some of the well established applications include radiation sterilization, wires and cable, composites for automobiles, radiation surface curing, nanomaterials, hydrogels and special materials for nuclear and aerospace industry, radiation treatment of effluents, sewage sludge etc. These applications are as a result of characteristics of high energy radiation like gamma and electron beams which are able to deliver energy directly at molecular level. Unlike nuclear based radiations, electron beam accelerator technology is amenable to easy acceptance by public as well has capability to manipulate processes and product treatment to produce varieties of advanced/smart materials for healthcare and environment. Faster dose rates and depth profiling are the important characteristics of electron beam technology which gives it an edge over gamma radiation processing. Department of Atomic Energy has an ambitious program to indigenously develop accelerator technology and utilize them for national progress. In the presentation some important applications of radiation technology will be discussed. (author)

  20. Calculations of secondary electron yield of graphene coated copper for vacuum electronic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. A. Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The suppression of secondary electron yield (SEY which can possibly lead to multipactor is an important goal for several applications. Though some techniques have focused on geometric modifications to lower the SEY, the use of graphene coatings as thin as a few monolayers is a promising new development that deserves attention either as a standalone technique or in concert with geometric alterations. Here we report on Monte Carlo based numerical studies of SEY on graphene coated copper with comparisons to recent experimental data. Our predicted values are generally in good agreement with reported measurements. Suppression of the secondary electron yield by as much as 50 percent (over copper with graphene coating is predicted at energies below 125 eV, and bodes well for multipactor suppression in radio frequency applications.

  1. Application of IPSAS Standards to the Vietnamese Government Accounting and Financial Statements

    OpenAIRE

    LE , TRANG THI NHA

    2012-01-01

    The Vietnamese government has implemented a reform of public financial management in a realm of government accounting. The current government accounting regime has met requirements of budget management. However, it provides very little information of financial position and performance. Furthermore, in the context of the increasing international integration and requirements of public sector management reform, the Vietnamese government accounting needs to be improved with applying full accrual ...

  2. The role of risk management in corporate governance: Guidelines and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Grove

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk management should be a key concern of board members to enhance corporate governance in any organization. Eleven key numbers, ratios, and models were advocated in this paper for risk management analyses, including an analysis of their variability with graphs. They are applied to Kaisa, a Chinese property developer, located in Shenzhen but incorporated with limited liability in the Cayman Islands. The importance of such risk management analyses was demonstrated in this paper as Kaisa destroyed $12.9 billion in four different types of investments: $2.2 billion in stock market value, $0.3 billion in private equity investments, $2.5 billion in global bonds, and $7.9 billion in Chinese short-term and long-term debt. Thus, the use of key financial statement metrics, including fraud models and ratios, has been shown here to provide enhanced corporate governance with risk management guidelines and applications. Boards of Directors need to pay attention to key financial statement metrics, which have been shown to work over and over again, as with Kaisa in this paper. These key metrics usually start with operating cash flows which then may indicate problems with debt service (the fixed charge coverage ratio which then may lead to bankruptcy predictions by the Altman bankruptcy model. To cover up such survival problems, companies often resort to earnings management and even fraudulent financial reporting which are typically red flagged by the quality of earnings, the quality of revenues, the new fraud model and the old fraud model

  3. III - V semiconductor structures for biosensor and molecular electronics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luber, S M

    2007-01-15

    The present work reports on the employment of III-V semiconductor structures to biosensor and molecular electronics applications. In the first part a sensor based on a surface-near two dimensional electron gas for a use in biological environment is studied. Such a two dimensional electron gas inherently forms in a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown, doped aluminum gallium arsenide - gallium arsenide (AlGaAs-GaAs) heterostructure. Due to the intrinsic instability of GaAs in aqueous solutions the device is passivated by deposition of a monolayer of 4'-substituted mercaptobiphenyl molecules. The influence of these molecules which bind to the GaAs via a sulfur group is investigated by Kelvin probe measurements in air. They reveal a dependence of GaAs electron affinity on the intrinsic molecular dipole moment of the mercaptobiphenyls. Furthermore, transient surface photovoltage measurements are presented which demonstrate an additional influence of mercaptobiphenyl chemisorption on surface carrier recombination rates. As a next step, the influence of pH-value and salt concentration upon the sensor device is discussed based on the results obtained from sensor conductance measurements in physiological solutions. A dependence of the device surface potential on both parameters due to surface charging is deduced. Model calculations applying Poisson-Boltzmann theory reveal as possible surface charging mechanisms either the adsorption of OH- ions on the surface, or the dissociation of OH groups in surface oxides. A comparison between simulation settings and physical device properties indicate the OH- adsorption as the most probable mechanism. In the second part of the present study the suitability of MBE grown III-V semiconductor structures for molecular electronics applications is examined. In doing so, a method to fabricate nanometer separated, coplanar, metallic electrodes based on the cleavage of a supporting AlGaAs-GaAs heterostructure is presented. This is followed by a

  4. III - V semiconductor structures for biosensor and molecular electronics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luber, S.M.

    2007-01-15

    The present work reports on the employment of III-V semiconductor structures to biosensor and molecular electronics applications. In the first part a sensor based on a surface-near two dimensional electron gas for a use in biological environment is studied. Such a two dimensional electron gas inherently forms in a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown, doped aluminum gallium arsenide - gallium arsenide (AlGaAs-GaAs) heterostructure. Due to the intrinsic instability of GaAs in aqueous solutions the device is passivated by deposition of a monolayer of 4'-substituted mercaptobiphenyl molecules. The influence of these molecules which bind to the GaAs via a sulfur group is investigated by Kelvin probe measurements in air. They reveal a dependence of GaAs electron affinity on the intrinsic molecular dipole moment of the mercaptobiphenyls. Furthermore, transient surface photovoltage measurements are presented which demonstrate an additional influence of mercaptobiphenyl chemisorption on surface carrier recombination rates. As a next step, the influence of pH-value and salt concentration upon the sensor device is discussed based on the results obtained from sensor conductance measurements in physiological solutions. A dependence of the device surface potential on both parameters due to surface charging is deduced. Model calculations applying Poisson-Boltzmann theory reveal as possible surface charging mechanisms either the adsorption of OH- ions on the surface, or the dissociation of OH groups in surface oxides. A comparison between simulation settings and physical device properties indicate the OH- adsorption as the most probable mechanism. In the second part of the present study the suitability of MBE grown III-V semiconductor structures for molecular electronics applications is examined. In doing so, a method to fabricate nanometer separated, coplanar, metallic electrodes based on the cleavage of a supporting AlGaAs-GaAs heterostructure is presented. This is followed

  5. The use and potential application of electron accelerator in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danu, Sugiarto

    2003-01-01

    The use of electron accelerator in Indonesia for research and development, radiation services, commercial purposes and potential application in the future is described. A pilot plant for radiation curing technology particularly for wood surface coating using low energy electron accelerator (300 keV, 50 mA; installed in 1984) and a EBM GJ 2 (2 MeV, 10 mA, installed in 1994) for R and D of crosslinking process such as wire and cable and heat shrinkable tube and sheets in Center for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, Jakarta, and also a low energy electron accelerator (installed in 1998) in a private company, PT Gajah Tunggai, are being mainly used. Their performances are presented with activities achieved in the fields of wood surface coating, vulcanization of natural rubber latex, grafting of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), radiation sterilization, degradation of cellulose and, as promising applications, radiation curing for composite production and uses for environmental preservation are introduced. (S. Ohno)

  6. Electron Beam Irradiated Intercalated CNT Yarns For Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Deborah L.; Gaier, James R.; Williams, Tiffany S.; Lopez Calero, Johnny E.; Ramirez, Christopher; Meador, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-walled CNT yarns have been experimentally and commercially created to yield lightweight, high conductivity fibers with good tensile properties for application as electrical wiring and multifunctional tendons. Multifunctional tendons are needed as the cable structures in tensegrity robots for use in planetary exploration. These lightweight robust tendons can provide mechanical strength for movement of the robot in addition to power distribution and data transmission. In aerospace vehicles, such as Orion, electrical wiring and harnessing mass can approach half of the avionics mass. Use of CNT yarns as electrical power and data cables could reduce mass of the wiring by thirty to seventy percent. These fibers have been intercalated with mixed halogens to increase their specific electrical conductivity to that near copper. This conductivity, combined with the superior strength and fatigue resistance makes it an attractive alternative to copper for wiring and multifunctional tendon applications. Electron beam irradiation has been shown to increase mechanical strength in pristine CNT fibers through increased cross-linking. Both pristine and intercalated CNT yarns have been irradiated using a 5-megavolt electron beam for various durations and the conductivities and tensile properties will be discussed. Structural information obtained using a field emission scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Raman spectroscopy will correlate microstructural details with bulk properties.

  7. The use and potential application of electron accelerator in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danu, Sugiarto [National Nuclear Energy Agency, Center for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2003-02-01

    The use of electron accelerator in Indonesia for research and development, radiation services, commercial purposes and potential application in the future is described. A pilot plant for radiation curing technology particularly for wood surface coating using low energy electron accelerator (300 keV, 50 mA; installed in 1984) and a EBM GJ 2 (2 MeV, 10 mA, installed in 1994) for R and D of crosslinking process such as wire and cable and heat shrinkable tube and sheets in Center for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, Jakarta, and also a low energy electron accelerator (installed in 1998) in a private company, PT Gajah Tunggai, are being mainly used. Their performances are presented with activities achieved in the fields of wood surface coating, vulcanization of natural rubber latex, grafting of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), radiation sterilization, degradation of cellulose and, as promising applications, radiation curing for composite production and uses for environmental preservation are introduced. (S. Ohno)

  8. Field Emitter Arrays for a Free Electron Laser Application

    CERN Document Server

    Shing-Bruce-Li, Kevin; Ganter, Romain; Gobrecht, Jens; Raguin, Jean Yves; Rivkin, Leonid; Wrulich, Albin F

    2004-01-01

    The development of a new electron gun with the lowest possible emittance would help reducing the total length and cost of a free electron laser. Field emitter arrays (FEAs) are an attractive technology for electron sources of ultra high brightness. Indeed, several thousands of microscopic tips can be deposited on a 1 mm diameter area. Electrons are then extracted by applying voltage to a first grid layer close to the tip apexes, the so called gate layer, and focused by a second grid layer one micrometer above the tips. The typical aperture diameter of the gate and the focusing layer is in the range of one micrometer. One challenge for such cathodes is to produce peak currents in the ampere range since the usual applications of FEAs require less than milliampere. Encouraging peak current performances have been obtained by applying voltage pulses at low frequency between gate and tips. In this paper we report on different tip materials available on the market: diamond FEAs from Extreme Devices Inc., ZrC single ...

  9. CMOS-Technology-Enabled Flexible and Stretchable Electronics for Internet of Everything Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Flexible and stretchable electronics can dramatically enhance the application of electronics for the emerging Internet of Everything applications where people, processes, data and devices will be integrated and connected, to augment quality of life

  10. Analysis of the three-dimensional delamination behavior of stretchable electronics applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der O.; Timmermans, P.H.M.; Zanden, van der E.J.L.; Hoefnagels, J.P.M.; Ernst, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Stretchable electronics offer potential application areasin biological implants interacting with human tissue. Furthermore, they facilitate increased design freedom of electronic products. Typical applications can be found in healthcare, wellness and functional clothes. A key requirement on these

  11. Design of the XML Security System for Electronic Commerce Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The invocation of World Wide Web (www) first triggered mass adoption of the Internet for public access to digital information exchanges across the globe. To get a big market on the Web, a special security infrastructure would need to be put into place transforming the wild-and-woolly Internet into a network with end-to-end protections. XML (extensible Markup Language) is widely accepted as powerful data representation standard for electronic documents, so a security mechanism for XML documents must be provided in the first place to secure electronic commerce over Internet. In this paper the authors design and implement a secure framework that provides XML signature function, XML Element-wise Encryption function, smart card based crypto API library and Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) security functions to achieve confidentiality, integrity, message authentication, and/or signer authentication services for XML documents and existing non-XML documents that are exchanged by Internet for E-commerce application.

  12. Ceramic materials on perovskite-type structure for electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surowiak, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Ceramic materials exhibiting the perovskite-type structure constitute among others, resource base for many fields of widely understood electronics (i.e., piezoelectronics, accustoelectronics, optoelectronics, computer science, tele- and radioelectronics etc.). Most often they are used for fabrication of different type sensors (detectors), transducers, ferroelectric memories, limiters of the electronic current intensity, etc., and hence they are numbered among so-called intelligent materials. Prototype structure of this group of materials is the structure of the mineral called perovskite (CaTiO 3 ). By means of right choice of the chemical composition of ABO 3 and deforming the regular perovskite structure (m3m) more than 5000 different chemical compounds and solid solutions exhibiting the perovskite-type structure have been fabricated. The concept of perovskite functional ceramics among often things ferroelectric ceramics, pyroelectric ceramics, piezoelectric ceramics, electrostrictive ceramics, posistor ceramics, superconductive ceramics and ferromagnetic ceramics. New possibilities of application of the perovskite-type ceramics are opened by nanotechnology. (author)

  13. Si quantum dots for nano electronics: From materials to applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, S.; Spinella, C.; Rimini, E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the subject of Si quantum dots embedded in dielectric and its application to the realization of non volatile semiconductor memories. In the first part of the paper various approaches for the analysis of the materials through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are critically discussed. The advantages coming from an innovative application of energy filtered TEM are put in clear evidence. The paper then focuses on the synthesis of the materials: two different methodologies for the realization of the dots, both based on chemical vapor deposition are described in detail, and physical models providing some understanding of the observed phenomenology are reported. We then discuss the application of this nano technology to the realization of the storage nodes in non volatile semiconductor memories. The following sections describe the electrical characteristics found in the test devices and some key aspects are described in terms of quantitative models. The test devices show several performance advantages, indicating that the approach is an excellent candidate for the realization of Flash memories of the nano electronic era

  14. Electron energy loss spectroscopy microanalysis and imaging in the transmission electron microscope: example of biological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diociaiuti, Marco

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports original results obtained in our laboratory over the past few years in the application of both electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and electron spectroscopy imaging (ESI) to biological samples, performed in two transmission electron microscopes (TEM) equipped with high-resolution electron filters and spectrometers: a Gatan model 607 single magnetic sector double focusing EEL serial spectrometer attached to a Philips 430 TEM and a Zeiss EM902 Energy Filtering TEM. The primary interest was on the possibility offered by the combined application of these spectroscopic techniques with those offered by the TEM. In particular, the electron beam focusing available in a TEM allowed us to perform EELS and ESI on very small sample volumes, where high-resolution imaging and electron diffraction techniques can provide important structural information. I show that ESI was able to improve TEM performance, due to the reduced chromatic aberration and the possibility of avoiding the sample staining procedure. Finally, the analysis of the oscillating extended energy loss fine structure (EXELFS) beyond the ionization edges characterizing the EELS spectra allowed me, in a manner very similar to the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of the X-ray absorption spectra, to obtain short-range structural information for such light elements of biological interest as O or Fe. The Philips EM430 (250-300 keV) TEM was used to perform EELS microanalysis on Ca, P, O, Fe, Al and Si. The assessment of the detection limits of this method was obtained working with well-characterized samples containing Ca and P, and mimicking the actual cellular matrix. I applied EELS microanalysis to Ca detection in bone tissue during the mineralization process and to P detection in the cellular membrane of erythrocytes treated with an anti-tumoral drug, demonstrating that the cellular membrane is a drug target. I applied EELS microanalysis and selected area electron

  15. Systems Engineering and Management Applications of ISO 9001:2015 for Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Christena C.

    2016-01-01

    The manufacturing segment of the business world is busy assessing the impact of ISO 9001:2015, and updating their management systems to meet the required compliance date. What does the new revision mean for government agencies that deliver large engineering projects rather than mass production? In fact, the standard, especially the new revision, can be used quite readily for government agencies, or applied to specific projects, once it is understood in terms of the similarities with systems engineering and project management. From there it can be extrapolated to "mission realization" systems, and a Quality Management System (QMS) is a logical result that can bring order to processes and systems that likely already exist in some fashion. ISO 9001:2015 is less product-oriented than previous versions. It can be more broadly applied to public organizations as well as private; and to services (missions) as well as products. The emphasis on risk management in the revised standard provides the needed balance for weighing decisions with respect to cost, schedule, technical, safety, and regulatory compliance; so if this is not part of agency governance already, this is a good place to start, especially for large engineering projects. The Systems Engineering standard used for this analysis is from NASA's NPR 7123.1 NASA Systems Engineering Processes and Requirements; however, those who are more familiar with ISO/IEC 26702 Systems Engineering-application and management of the systems engineering process, or SAE/EIA 632 Processes for Engineering a System will also recognize the similarities. In reality, the QMS outlined by ISO 9001 reinforces the systems engineering processes, and serves to ensure that they are adequately implemented, although most of the ISO 9001 literature emphasizes the production and process aspects of the standard. Rather than beginning with ISO 9001and getting lost in the vocabulary, it is useful to begin with the systems engineering lifecycle

  16. GaN Based Electronics And Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fan

    2002-03-01

    The Group III-nitrides were initially researched for their promise to fill the void for a blue solid state light emitter. Electronic devices from III-nitrides have been a more recent phenomenon. The thermal conductivity of GaN is three times that of GaAs. For high power or high temperature applications, good thermal conductivity is imperative for heat removal or sustained operation at elevated temperatures. The development of III-N and other wide bandgap technologies for high temperature applications will likely take place at the expense of competing technologies, such as silicon-on-insulator (SOI), at moderate temperatures. At higher temperatures (>300°C), novel devices and components will become possible. The automotive industry will likely be one of the largest markets for such high temperature electronics. One of the most noteworthy advantages for III-N materials over other wide bandgap semiconductors is the availability of AlGaN/GaN and InGaN/GaN heterostructures. A 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) has been shown to exist at the AlGaN/GaN interface, and heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs) from these materials can exhibit 2DEG mobilities approaching 2000 cm2 / V?s at 300K. Power handling capabilities of 12 W/mm appear feasible, and extraordinary large signal performance has already been demonstrated, with a current state-of-the-art of >10W/mm at X-band. In this talk, high speed and high temperature AlGaN/GaN HEMTs as well as MOSHEMTs, high breakdown voltage GaN (>6KV) and AlGaN (9.7 KV) Schottky diodes, and their applications will be presented.

  17. IT-Mediated customer service content and delivery in electronic governments : An empirical investigation of the antecedents of service quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.W.; Benbasat, I.; Cenfetelli, R.

    Despite extensive deliberations in contemporary literature, the design of citizen-centric e-government websites remains an unresolved theoretical and pragmatic conundrum. Operationalizing e-government service quality to investigate and improve the design of e-government websites has been a much

  18. High-Energy Electron Beam Application to Air Pollutants Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ighigeanu, D.; Martin, D.; Manaila, E.; Craciun, G.; Calinescu, I.

    2009-01-01

    The advantage of electron beam (EB) process in pollutants removal is connected to its high efficiency to transfer high amount of energy directly into the matter under treatment. Disadvantage which is mostly related to high investment cost of accelerator may be effectively overcome in future as the result of use accelerator new developments. The potential use of medium to high-energy high power EB accelerators for air pollutants removal is demonstrated in [1]. The lower electrical efficiencies of accelerators with higher energies are partially compensated by the lower electron energy losses in the beam windows. In addition, accelerators with higher electron energies can provide higher beam powers with lower beam currents [1]. The total EB energy losses (backscattering, windows and in the intervening air space) are substantially lower with higher EB incident energy. The useful EB energy is under 50% for 0.5 MeV and about 95% above 3 MeV. In view of these arguments we decided to study the application of high energy EB for air pollutants removal. Two electron beam accelerators are available for our studies: electron linear accelerators ALIN-10 and ALID-7, built in the Electron Accelerator Laboratory, INFLPR, Bucharest, Romania. Both accelerators are of traveling-wave type, operating at a wavelength of 10 cm. They utilize tunable S-band magnetrons, EEV M 5125 type, delivering 2 MW of power in 4 μ pulses. The accelerating structure is a disk-loaded tube operating in the 2 mode. The optimum values of the EB peak current IEB and EB energy EEB to produce maximum output power PEB for a fixed pulse duration EB and repetition frequency fEB are as follows: for ALIN-10: EEB = 6.23 MeV; IEB =75 mA; PEB 164 W (fEB = 100 Hz, EB = 3.5 s) and for ALID-7: EEB 5.5 MeV; IEB = 130 mA; PEB = 670 W (fEB = 250 Hz, EB = 3.75 s). This paper presents a special designed installation, named SDI-1, and several representative results obtained by high energy EB application to SO 2 , NOx and VOCs

  19. Application of electron beam irradiation. 4. Treatment of pollutants by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Okihiro; Arai, Hidehiko

    1994-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation is capable of dissolving and removing pollutants, such as sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and organic compounds, by easy production of OH radicals in flue gas and water. This paper deals with current status in the search for techniques for treating flue gas and waste water, using electron beam irradiation. Pilot tests have been conducted during the period 1991-1994 for the treatment of flue gas caused by coal and garbage burning and road tunnels. Firstly, techniques for cleaning flue gas with electron beams are outlined, with special reference to their characteristics and process of research development. Secondly, the application of electron beam irradiation in the treatment of waste water is described in terms of the following: (1) disinfection of sewage, (2) cleaning of water polluted with toxic organic compounds, (3) treatment for eliminating sewage sludge, (4) promotion of sewage sludge sedimentation, (5) disinfection and composting of sewage sludge, and (6) regeneration of activated carbon used for the treatment of waste water. (N.K.)

  20. Development of mobile electron beam plant for environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Jinkyu; Kang, Wongu; Choi, Jang Seung; Jeong, Kwang-Young

    2016-01-01

    Due to the necessity of pilot scale test facility for continuous treatment of wastewater and gases on site, a mobile electron beam irradiation system mounted on a trailer has developed. This mobile electron beam irradiation system is designed for the individual field application with self-shielded structure of steel plate and lead block which will satisfy the required safety figures of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Shielding of a mobile electron accelerator of 0.7 MeV, 30 mA has been designed and examined by Monte Carlo technique. Based on a 3-D model of electron accelerator shielding which is designed with steel and lead shield, radiation leakage was examined using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport (MCNP) Code. Simulations with two different versions (version 4c2 and version 5) of MCNP code showed agreements within statistical uncertainties, and the highest leakage expected is 5.5061×10 −01 (1±0.0454) μSv/h, which is far below the tolerable radiation dose limit for occupational workers. This unit could treat up to 500 m 3 of liquid waste per day at 2 kGy or 10,000 N m 3 of gases per hour at 15 kGy. - Highlights: • A mobile electron beam irradiation system mounted on a trailer has developed. • It is designed for treatment of wastewater and flue gas on site. • Shielding of 0.7 MeV, 30 mA accelerator has done by a Monte Carlo technique. • It can treat up to 500 m 3 /d of liquid waste at 2 kGy or 10,000 N m 3 /h of gas at 15 kGy.

  1. Progress and applications of in situ transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rongming; Liu Jialong; Song Yuanjun

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in the application of in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is briefly reviewed. It is emphasized that the development of advanced in situ TEM techniques makes it possible to investigate the evolution of materials under heat, strain, magnetic field, electric field or chemical reaction environments on the atomic scale. The mechanism of the microstructure evolution under various conditions and the relationship between the atomic structures and their properties can be obtained, which is beneficial for the design of new materials with tailored properties. The clarification of the structure-property relationship will help to develop new materials and solve related basic problems in the field of condensed matter physics. (authors)

  2. Application of FPGA's in Flexible Analogue Electronic Image Generator Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kulla

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on usage of the FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays Xilinx as a part of our more complex workdedicated to design of flexible analogue electronic images generator for application in TV measurement technique or/and TV servicetechnique or/and education process. The FPGAs performs here the role of component colour R, G, B, synchronization and blanking signals source. These signals are next processed and amplified in other parts of the generator as NTSC/PAL source encoder and RF modulator. The main aim of this paper is to show the possibilities how with suitable development software use a FPGAs in analog TV technology.

  3. Advanced electrical and electronics materials processes and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, K M

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and unique book is intended to cover the vast and fast-growing field of electrical and electronic materials and their engineering in accordance with modern developments.   Basic and pre-requisite information has been included for easy transition to more complex topics. Latest developments in various fields of materials and their sciences/engineering, processing and applications have been included. Latest topics like PLZT, vacuum as insulator, fiber-optics, high temperature superconductors, smart materials, ferromagnetic semiconductors etc. are covered. Illustrations and exa

  4. Investigation of Heat Sink Efficiency for Electronic Component Cooling Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staliulionis, Ž.; Zhang, Zhe; Pittini, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Research and optimisation of cooling of electronic components using heat sinks becomes increasingly important in modern industry. Numerical methods with experimental real-world verification are the main tools to evaluate efficiency of heat sinks or heat sink systems. Here the investigation...... of relatively simple heat sink application is performed using modeling based on finite element method, and also the potential of such analysis was demonstrated by real-world measurements and comparing obtained results. Thermal modeling was accomplished using finite element analysis software COMSOL and thermo...

  5. High performance protection circuit for power electronics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudoran, Cristian D., E-mail: cristian.tudoran@itim-cj.ro; Dădârlat, Dorin N.; Toşa, Nicoleta; Mişan, Ioan [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat, PO 5 Box 700, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    In this paper we present a high performance protection circuit designed for the power electronics applications where the load currents can increase rapidly and exceed the maximum allowed values, like in the case of high frequency induction heating inverters or high frequency plasma generators. The protection circuit is based on a microcontroller and can be adapted for use on single-phase or three-phase power systems. Its versatility comes from the fact that the circuit can communicate with the protected system, having the role of a “sensor” or it can interrupt the power supply for protection, in this case functioning as an external, independent protection circuit.

  6. Electronic applications for the CFQ-R scoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Gelpi, Marco; Argentiero, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Patient reported outcomes (PROs) have become widely accepted outcome measures in cystic fibrosis (CF) and other respiratory diseases. The Cystic Fibrosis-Questionnaire-Revised (CFQ-R) is the best validated and most widely used PRO for CF. Data collection can be time-intensive, and electronic plat......, score and save CFQ-R data for all versions. All codes are open access, which will enable other PRO users to design similar applications for other respiratory diseases, such as primary ciliary dyskinesia and non-CF bronchiectasis....

  7. X-ray free electron laser and its application to 3-dimensional imaging of non-crystalline nano-structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    The Laser in the X-ray region has been anticipated to be realized as a light source to probe the nano-world. Free electron lasers using high energy electron accelerators have been promising the candidates. The finding of the principle of Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) resolved the technological difficulties accompanying the X-ray free electron laser, and the construction of large scale SASE facilities started in western countries. In Japan the construction of an SASE facility started in 2006 to be completed in 2010 at the site of the large synchrotron radiation facility, SPring-8 positioned as a 'critical technology of national importance' by the Japanese government. The principle of the X-ray free electron laser is explained and the outline of the Japanese facility construction plan is presented. Also the application of the X-ray laser to the imaging of non-crystalline nano-structure is introduced. (K.Yoshida)

  8. Effect of protonation on the electronic properties of DNA base pairs: applications for molecular electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallajosyula, Sairam S; Pati, Swapan K

    2007-10-11

    Protonation of DNA basepairs is a reversible phenomenon that can be controlled by tuning the pH of the system. Under mild acidic conditions, the hydrogen-bonding pattern of the DNA basepairs undergoes a change. We study the effect of protonation on the electronic properties of the DNA basepairs to probe for possible molecular electronics applications. We find that, under mild acidic pH conditions, the A:T basepair shows excellent rectification behavior that is, however, absent in the G:C basepair. The mechanism of rectification has been discussed using a simple chemical potential model. We also consider the noncanonical A:A basepair and find that it can be used as efficient pH dependent molecular switch. The switching action in the A:A basepair is explained in the light of pi-pi interactions, which lead to efficient delocalization over the entire basepair.

  9. Successful IT governance in SMES: An application of the Technology–Organisation–Environment theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaitan Olutoyin

    2016-05-01

    Objectives: This paper seeks to examine ways by which SMEs can successfully adapt a suitable IT governance framework to manage its IT investments. Method: A content analysis of extant literature was done in this paper. The Technology–Organisation–Environment theory forms the theoretical basis of the proposed key pillars for an SME to evaluate its capability to embark on an IT governance initiative in order to obtain the desired results. Results: From the content analysis of relevant literature, the paper proposed three key pillars which should be in place before an SME adapts any IT governance framework to manage its IT investments. The key pillars are considered an important link between strategic IT governance plans and measurable successful outcomes. Conclusion: It was concluded that an SME would be better positioned for successful IT governance if it were to conduct a careful analysis of the components of these key pillars before embarking on the implementation of any IT governance framework.

  10. A non-docking intraoperative electron beam applicator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palta, J.R.; Suntharalingam, N.

    1989-01-01

    A non-docking intraoperative radiation therapy electron beam applicator system for a linear accelerator has been designed to minimize the mechanical, electrical, and tumor visualization problems associated with a docking system. A number of technical innovations have been used in the design of this system. These include: (a) a new intraoperative radiation therapy cone design that gives a better dose uniformity in the treatment volume at all depths; (b) a collimation system which reduces the leakage radiation dose to tissues outside the intraoperative radiation therapy cone; (c) a non-docking system with a translational accuracy of 2 mm and a rotational accuracy of 0.5 degrees; and (d) a rigid clamping system for the cones. A comprehensive set of dosimetric characteristics of the intraoperative radiation therapy applicator system is presented

  11. Applications of selfshielded electron processors in industry 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nablo, S.V.

    1988-01-01

    Many new applications of the selfshielded electron processor have emerged over the past 5 years which continue to demonstrate the advantages and practical problems associated with these efficient, compact energy sources. Many of these, such as for the curing of: binders for abrasive products, binders for magnetic media, binders for textile flocking, silicone coatings for release papers, etc., offer good prospects for growth but are thusfar in limited use. With this ever broadening base of process technology, the prospects remain 'bullish' for the expanded industrial use of these new energy sources. With their unrivalled process off-licences and high throughputs, improved appreciation of their advantageous economics assures expanded application in an increasingly energy/environmentally concerned world economy(author)

  12. Current status of electron beam processing system and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, S.

    2005-01-01

    The feature and application fields of electron beam processing systems (EPS), the selection of machine ratings and safety measures for EPS are described. EPS has the various features: a) Chemical reactions occurs independent of the temperature, b) it occurs without any added substances such as catalysts, c) mass productivity, d) easy operation, as is exemplified by switch ON and OFF, and e) easy maintenance, compared with radioisotope sources. After briefly explaining acceleration type (DC or AC), power supply (Van-de-Graaf or Cockcroft-walton and others), beam scanning to be used for large area irradiation, and some typical applications (cross-linking, radical polymerization, the paper describes necessary safety measures such as X-ray shielding, ozone control including ozone generation and its disposal, interlock system, warning buzzer, and monitoring and measuring. (S. Ohno)

  13. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: AN APPLICATION ON THE ISTANBUL STOCK EXCHANGE

    OpenAIRE

    MELEK ACAR BOYACIOGLU; YUNUS EMRE AKDOGAN

    2010-01-01

    Corporate governance forms a system in which the objectives of the firm is determined, and points out the ways to achieve these aims and how performance is to be assessed. An efficient corporate governance system both at firm-level and economy in general will provide trust, which is necessary for the market economy to operate properly. Especially negative effects of the problems on economy which can result from deficiencies in the corporate governance of financial institutions urge that speci...

  14. A Pragmatic Framework of E-Governance Evaluation. Application and assessment of an e-governance evaluation framework in three Dutch public bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butt, M.

    2015-01-01

    The thesis focuses on presenting a pragmatic approach for e-governance evaluation by constructing a methodology built over two streams of literature i.e., e-governance and evaluation. Since the available literature on e-governance evaluation mostly examines approaches from a strictly e-governance

  15. Learning Experiences and Gains from Continuing Professional Education and Their Applicability to Work for Japanese Government Officials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Ayaka; Kim, Mikyong Minsun

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to understand the perceived learning experiences and gains for Japanese government officials from US and Japanese graduate and professional schools, and how applicable their continuing professional education (CPE) is to professional performance. Interview participants were drawn from long-term overseas and domestic fellowship…

  16. Fluorinated graphene films with graphene quantum dots for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonova, I. V., E-mail: antonova@isp.nsc.ru [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Nebogatikova, N. A.; Prinz, V. Ya. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-14

    This work analyzes carrier transport, the relaxation of non-equilibrium charge, and the electronic structure of fluorinated graphene (FG) films with graphene quantum dots (GQDs). The FG films with GQDs were fabricated by means of chemical functionalization in an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid. High fluctuations of potential relief inside the FG barriers have been detected in the range of up to 200 mV. A phenomenological expression that describes the dependence of the time of non-equilibrium charge emission from GQDs on quantum confinement levels and film thickness (potential barrier parameters between GQDs) is suggested. An increase in the degree of functionalization leads to a decrease in GQD size, the removal of the GQD effect on carrier transport, and the relaxation of non-equilibrium charge. The study of the electronic properties of FG films with GQDs has revealed a unipolar resistive switching effect in the films with a relatively high degree of fluorination and a high current modulation (up to ON/OFF ∼ 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5}) in transistor-like structures with a lower degree of fluorination. 2D films with GQDs are believed to have considerable potential for various electronic applications (nonvolatile memory, 2D connections with optical control and logic elements).

  17. Indoor Fast Neutron Generator for Biophysical and Electronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannuli, A.; Caccamo, M. T.; Marchese, N.; Tomarchio, E. A.; Pace, C.; Magazù, S.

    2018-05-01

    This study focuses the attention on an indoor fast neutron generator for biophysical and electronic applications. More specifically, the findings obtained by several simulations with the MCNP Monte Carlo code, necessary for the realization of a shield for indoor measurements, are presented. Furthermore, an evaluation of the neutron spectrum modification caused by the shielding is reported. Fast neutron generators are a valid and interesting available source of neutrons, increasingly employed in a wide range of research fields, such as science and engineering. The employed portable pulsed neutron source is a MP320 Thermo Scientific neutron generator, able to generate 2.5 MeV neutrons with a neutron yield of 2.0 x 106 n/s, a pulse rate of 250 Hz to 20 KHz and a duty factor varying from 5% to 100%. The neutron generator, based on Deuterium-Deuterium nuclear fusion reactions, is employed in conjunction with a solid-state photon detector, made of n-type high-purity germanium (PINS-GMX by ORTEC) and it is mainly addressed to biophysical and electronic studies. The present study showed a proposal for the realization of a shield necessary for indoor applications for MP320 neutron generator, with a particular analysis of the transport of neutrons simulated with Monte Carlo code and described the two main lines of research in which the source will be used.

  18. Hospital electronic medical record enterprise application strategies: do they matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareed, Naleef; Ozcan, Yasar A; DeShazo, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    Successful implementations and the ability to reap the benefits of electronic medical record (EMR) systems may be correlated with the type of enterprise application strategy that an administrator chooses when acquiring an EMR system. Moreover, identifying the most optimal enterprise application strategy is a task that may have important linkages with hospital performance. This study explored whether hospitals that have adopted differential EMR enterprise application strategies concomitantly differ in their overall efficiency. Specifically, the study examined whether hospitals with a single-vendor strategy had a higher likelihood of being efficient than those with a best-of-breed strategy and whether hospitals with a best-of-suite strategy had a higher probability of being efficient than those with best-of-breed or single-vendor strategies. A conceptual framework was used to formulate testable hypotheses. A retrospective cross-sectional approach using data envelopment analysis was used to obtain efficiency scores of hospitals by EMR enterprise application strategy. A Tobit regression analysis was then used to determine the probability of a hospital being inefficient as related to its EMR enterprise application strategy, while moderating for the hospital's EMR "implementation status" and controlling for hospital and market characteristics. The data envelopment analysis of hospitals suggested that only 32 hospitals were efficient in the study's sample of 2,171 hospitals. The results from the post hoc analysis showed partial support for the hypothesis that hospitals with a best-of-suite strategy were more likely to be efficient than those with a single-vendor strategy. This study underscores the importance of understanding the differences between the three strategies discussed in this article. On the basis of the findings, hospital administrators should consider the efficiency associations that a specific strategy may have compared with another prior to moving toward

  19. Flexible organic electronic devices: Materials, process and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logothetidis, Stergios

    2008-01-01

    The research for the development of flexible organic electronic devices (FEDs) is rapidly increasing worldwide, since FEDs will change radically several aspects of everyday life. Although there has been considerable progress in the area of flexible inorganic devices (a-Si or solution processed Si), there are numerous advances in the organic (semiconducting, conducting and insulating), inorganic and hybrid (organic-inorganic) materials that exhibit customized properties and stability, and in the synthesis and preparation methods, which are characterized by a significant amount of multidisciplinary efforts. Furthermore, the development and encapsulation of organic electronic devices onto flexible polymeric substrates by large-scale and low-cost roll-to-roll production processes will allow their market implementation in numerous application areas, including displays, lighting, photovoltaics, radio-frequency identification circuitry and chemical sensors, as well as to a new generation of modern exotic applications. In this work, we report on some of the latest advances in the fields of polymeric substrates, hybrid barrier layers, inorganic and organic materials to be used as novel active and functional thin films and nanomaterials as well as for the encapsulation of the materials components for the production of FEDs (flexible organic light-emitting diodes, and organic photovoltaics). Moreover, we will emphasize on the real-time optical monitoring and characterization of the growing films onto the flexible polymeric substrates by spectroscopic ellipsometry methods. Finally, the potentiality for the in-line characterization processes for the development of organic electronics materials will be emphasized, since it will also establish the framework for the achievement of the future scientific and technological breakthroughs

  20. On Study of Application of Power Electronical Technology in Field of Energy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ke

    2017-09-01

    aiming at achieving the sustainable development in economy and improving living standard of the residents, the government departments in China have strengthened the promotion of green, low-carbon and sustainable development concepts. Under this context, the energy conservation concept is implemented during the implementation of social production and life activities. Currently, in order to ensure the improvement in social energy conservation benefits, the advanced technologies are applied by China's enterprises and residents. This paper, based on this, discusses the development situations of energy conservation in China, and analyzes the application of power electronical technology in the field of energy conservation, hoping to realize the sustainable development of energy conservation cause in China and to gain high yield.

  1. The impact of e-Procurement practice in Indonesia government: A Preliminary Study (The case of Electronic Procurement Service at Bekasi District)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candra, S.; E Gunawan, F.

    2017-01-01

    In digital economy, government of Indonesia uses the internet to deliver services and to communicate with citizens and organizations. One of applications are e-Procurement and LPSE is a unit to hold the service system of e-Procurement. Procurement of goods and services electronically in addition will increase transparency and accountability, improve market access and healthy competition, as well as improving the efficiency of the procurement process. Based on the background and specific objectives to be achieved, then the research will be viewed from e-Marketplace participation, Trust and its impact on the performance of existing procurement within the institution. Methods of data analysis used in this research is by using analysis of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) by using the program Partial Least Square (PLS) to examine the relationship between variables. The population used in this study is an enterprise as well as other clients using the system LPSE Bekasi District. There are three part in this study population, namely the provision of a company, customer, and supplier of LPSE users amounted to 60 users. From data analysis, there are one hypothesis that rejected. The implication of this study are implementation of e-procurement and e-marketplace participation giving impact to procurement performance.

  2. 48 CFR 29.303 - Application of State and local taxes to Government contractors and subcontractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... claiming immunity from State or local sales or use taxes. Before any activity contends that a contractor is an agent of the Government, the matter shall be referred to the agency head for review. The referral... transaction from a sales or use tax may not rest on the Government's immunity from direct taxation by States...

  3. Text of a Protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Norway and the United States of America in Connection with the Application of Safeguards under a Co-Operation Agreement between the Two Governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The text of a protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Norway and the United States of America in connection with the application of safeguards under the Agreement for Co-operation between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Norway Concerning Civil Uses of Atomic Energy signed on 4 May 1967, as amended, is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The protocol entered into force on 25 September 1973 pursuant to Section 4.

  4. Information technology Governance standards on mobile applications for fishing zone based onCobIT 5 Framework in Majene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palalloi, Irfan Andi; Anwar, Azwar; Syarifuddin

    2018-05-01

    Most of the activities of Majene regency society dominant as a fisherman, by and large, they work based on the hereditary experiences of their ancestors. This is proven by fishery industry statistic that highest from other industry with 18,30 % in the distribution of the gross regional domestic product. In each specific case, utilization of technology becomes a necessity that plays a key role. Adoption of technology for fishermen groups in use of GPSequipment has frequently committed by the government also non-profit organization go through training and mentoring. Nowadays there are some modern mobile applications has been developed by government agency assist the group of fishermen handy on managing their fishing activity. Such us ZPPI data row from Lapan Satelite, nelpinwas also known as smart fisheries, infrastructure development for space oceanography (indeso). However, all of them carry out of the risk and problems on the user side. One of them related toaccuracy and reliability. In this research, we elaborate technical factor, governance, through Cobit framework and analyze the best practice standardfor implementing the technology. All in all, the result presented of the governance standard on control and implementing technology under customer dimension in information technology governance on the standard process to ensure benefit delivery for implementing mobile application fishery in DKP Majene regency.

  5. The Peruvian Citizen Perception and Expectation toward the e-Government. The Electronic Tax Payment as a Successful e-Gov Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cardona

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this chapter, the authors try to stand out how the Latin American governments, specifically the Peruvian government, can evaluate its efforts implementing electronic administration initiatives, identifying what the citizen expects from the electronic administration and how he or she perceives it, applying an evaluation model to the electronic tax payment service implemented, as a successful initiative at Latin-America. The proposed model to achieve this, was developed by one of the authors during his doctoral dissertation (Cardona, 2004 and evaluated by the other one as dissertation judge. It includes five different independent and latent constructs, Attitude, Aptitude, Trust, Relevance and Satisfaction that affect two dependent and latent constructs, the Citizen Perception and the Citizen Expectative towards its relationship with the Public Administration through the use of Information and Communication Technologies - ICT, under the effect of illustrative variables related with citizen, institutions and context.

  6. High Temperature Wireless Communication And Electronics For Harsh Environment Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Beheim, G. M.; Ponchak, G. E.; Chen, L.-Y

    2007-01-01

    In order for future aerospace propulsion systems to meet the increasing requirements for decreased maintenance, improved capability, and increased safety, the inclusion of intelligence into the propulsion system design and operation becomes necessary. These propulsion systems will have to incorporate technology that will monitor propulsion component conditions, analyze the incoming data, and modify operating parameters to optimize propulsion system operations. This implies the development of sensors, actuators, and electronics, with associated packaging, that will be able to operate under the harsh environments present in an engine. However, given the harsh environments inherent in propulsion systems, the development of engine-compatible electronics and sensors is not straightforward. The ability of a sensor system to operate in a given environment often depends as much on the technologies supporting the sensor element as the element itself. If the supporting technology cannot handle the application, then no matter how good the sensor is itself, the sensor system will fail. An example is high temperature environments where supporting technologies are often not capable of operation in engine conditions. Further, for every sensor going into an engine environment, i.e., for every new piece of hardware that improves the in-situ intelligence of the components, communication wires almost always must follow. The communication wires may be within or between parts, or from the engine to the controller. As more hardware is added, more wires, weight, complexity, and potential for unreliability is also introduced. Thus, wireless communication combined with in-situ processing of data would significantly improve the ability to include sensors into high temperature systems and thus lead toward more intelligent engine systems. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is presently leading the development of electronics, communication systems, and sensors capable of prolonged stable

  7. Applications and research on nano power electronics: an adventure beyond quantum electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arindam; Emadi, Ali

    2005-06-01

    This paper is a roadmap to the exhaustive role of the newly emerging field of nanotechnology in various application and research areas. Some of the today's important topics are plasma, dielectric layer semiconductor, and carbon nanoparticle based technologies. Carbon nanotubes are very useful for the purpose of fabricating nano opto power devices. The basic concept behind tunneling of electrons has been utilized to define another scope of this technology, and thus came many quantum scale tunneling devices and elements. Fabrication of crystal semiconductors of high quality along with oxides of nano aspect would give rise to superior device performance and find applications such as LEDs, LASER, VLSI technology and also in highly efficient solar cells. Many nano-research based organizations are fully devoted to develop nano power cells, which would give birth to new battery cells, tunneling devises, with high power quality, longer lives, and higher activation rates. Different electronics industries as well as the military organizations would be largely benefited due to this major component and system design ideas of 'Smart Power' technologies. The contribution of nano scale power electronics would be realized in various fields like switching devices, electromechanical systems and quantum science. Such a sophisticated technology will have great impact on the modernization of robotics; space systems, automotive systems and many other fields. The highly emerging field of nanomedicine according to specialists would bring a dramatic revolution in the present century. However nanomedicine is nothing but an integration of biology, medicine and technology. Thermoelectric materials as been referred earlier also are used in case of implantable medical equipments for generation of electric power sufficient for those equipments.

  8. Indium antimonide quantum well structures for electronic device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edirisooriya, Madhavie

    The electron effective mass is smaller in InSb than in any other III-V semiconductor. Since the electron mobility depends inversely on the effective mass, InSb-based devices are attractive for field effect transistors, magnetic field sensors, ballistic transport devices, and other applications where the performance depends on a high mobility or a long mean free path. In addition, electrons in InSb have a large g-factor and strong spin orbit coupling, which makes them well suited for certain spin transport devices. The first n-channel InSb high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) was produced in 2005 with a power-delay product superior to HEMTs with a channel made from any other III-V semiconductor. The high electron mobility in the InSb quantum-well channel increases the switching speed and lowers the required supply voltage. This dissertation focuses on several materials challenges that can further increase the appeal of InSb quantum wells for transistors and other electronic device applications. First, the electron mobility in InSb quantum wells, which is the highest for any semiconductor quantum well, can be further increased by reducing scattering by crystal defects. InSb-based heteroepitaxy is usually performed on semi-insulating GaAs (001) substrates due to the lack of a lattice matched semi-insulating substrate. The 14.6% mismatch between the lattice parameters of GaAs and InSb results in the formation of structural defects such as threading dislocations and microtwins which degrade the electrical and optical properties of InSb-based devices. Chapter 1 reviews the methods and procedures for growing InSb-based heterostructures by molecular beam epitaxy. Chapters 2 and 3 introduce techniques for minimizing the crystalline defects in InSb-based structures grown on GaAs substrates. Chapter 2 discusses a method of reducing threading dislocations by incorporating AlyIn1-ySb interlayers in an AlxIn1-xSb buffer layer and the reduction of microtwin defects by growth

  9. Application of the Strategic Alignment Model and Information Technology Governance Concepts to Support Network Centric Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valentine, Jennifer R

    2006-01-01

    .... This thesis proposes that while the two areas? success fundamentally resides in the implementation and exploitation of technology, it is only through sound IT Governance policies and strategic alignment practices that success can be measured...

  10. Development of multifunctional electronic modules for cryogenic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, Norbert; Kade, Andreas; Klier, Juergen [Institut fuer Luft- und Kaeltetechnik (ILK) gemeinuetzige Gesellschaft mbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    A new universal cryogenic measurement system has been developed which can measure resistance and voltages with high precision (< 0.025 %) and low noise (-88 dB) at low powers (< 1 nW) in a high electromagnetic interference environment. The system is effectively designed and equipped with noise and distortion suppressing electronics and algorithms. It can be extended with cryogenic multiplexers for up to 80 sensors, which can be directly mounted inside cryostats for reduced wiring. The size of the devices is relatively small (handheld), low power (< 2 W), can operate on battery and has easy access to calibration and sensor data. Sensor types are not limited and it can be used to measure, e.g., temperature, voltage, magnetic field, pressure and level simultaneously. Within this paper we present our developments and first measurement results. The key components which we describe in detail are cold multiplexers and smart measurement bridges for a wide field of applications.

  11. Development of nanocomposite polymer materials for electrical and electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chine, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Some results and experimental procedures of laboratory are reported in the frame of researches conducted for the development of new nanostructured composite materials. These new materials, which are constituted by an organic phase: the polymer and an inorganic phase: the silicate, are being strongly investigated nowadays so it is expected that they could provide, among other, better electrical insulation properties and flame-delay in electrical and electronic applications. The laboratory experimental work has been developed from two families of polymers, thermoplastics and thermosets and clays silicates providing lamellar type. There are now some preliminary results, such as obtaining thin films of these nanocomposite materials, their complete characterization by X-ray diffraction, scanning microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, they do well to wait for future research activities. (author) [es

  12. High-Tc film development for electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talvacchio, J.; Wagner, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe the requirements and status of high-T c superconductor (HTS) films for the development of electronic applications with an emphasis on passive microwave devices. One of the most general requirements, a low rf Surface resistance relative to Cu, has been achieved in films of several different HTS compounds. However the best films, made of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) by any one of several techniques, have in common a residual surface resistance that is much greater than predicted by conventional superconductivity theory. Improvement in films is also limited by the current size and selection of single-crystal substrate materials. Other issues that must be resolved to develop a full integrated circuit technology for HTS are substrate heating during film deposition, deposited epitaxial insulators, and determination of which interfaces in a multilevel circuit must be formed in situ

  13. Current and future industrial application of electron accelerators in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siri-Upathum, Chyagrit

    2003-01-01

    Industrial applications of electron accelerators in Thailand, first introduced in 1997 for radiation sterilized products such as doctor gown, pampas, feminine napkin etc followed by installation of accelerators, one with energies at 20 MV and the other at 5 MV to produce new value added products like gem stones, topaz, tourmaline and zircon. The machines operate in pulse mode and is also used for irradiation services for food and sterilized products treatment. The need for low and medium energy accelerators in radiation technology is stressed. They are to be used for crosslinking of electrical wire and cable, heat shrinkable materials, low protein concentrated rubber latex, rubber wood furniture and parts, and silk protein degradation. The role of governmental organizations like Nuclear Research Institute (OAEP) and universities in stimulating the utilization of radiation processing in Thailand is strengthened. (S. Ohno)

  14. Current and future industrial application of electron accelerators in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siri-Upathum, Chyagrit [Chulalongkorn Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2003-02-01

    Industrial applications of electron accelerators in Thailand, first introduced in 1997 for radiation sterilized products such as doctor gown, pampas, feminine napkin etc followed by installation of accelerators, one with energies at 20 MV and the other at 5 MV to produce new value added products like gem stones, topaz, tourmaline and zircon. The machines operate in pulse mode and is also used for irradiation services for food and sterilized products treatment. The need for low and medium energy accelerators in radiation technology is stressed. They are to be used for crosslinking of electrical wire and cable, heat shrinkable materials, low protein concentrated rubber latex, rubber wood furniture and parts, and silk protein degradation. The role of governmental organizations like Nuclear Research Institute (OAEP) and universities in stimulating the utilization of radiation processing in Thailand is strengthened. (S. Ohno)

  15. Density functional application to strongly correlated electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschrig, H.; Koepernik, K.; Chaplygin, I.

    2003-01-01

    The local spin density approximation plus onsite Coulomb repulsion approach (LSDA+U) to density functional theory is carefully reanalyzed. Its possible link to single-particle Green's function theory is occasionally discussed. A simple and elegant derivation of the important sum rules for the on-site interaction matrix elements linking them to the values of U and J is presented. All necessary expressions for an implementation of LSDA+U into a non-orthogonal basis solver for the Kohn-Sham equations are given, and implementation into the full-potential local-orbital solver (Phys. Rev. B 59 (1999) 1743) is made. Results of application to several planar cuprate structures are reported in detail and conclusions on the interpretation of the physics of the electronic structure of the cuprates are drawn

  16. Application of electron beam curing technology for paper products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaharu Miura

    1999-01-01

    The electron beam (EB) curing technology has rapidly advanced in recent years. However there were few examples applying this technology to paper products. One reason comes from the high price of EB equipment and the other comes from the difficulty of controlling the irradiation which gives damages to paper. In spite of these problems, the EB cured coating layer shows remarkable features, such as solvent-resistance, water-resistance, heat-resistance and high smoothness using the drum casting technique. Concentrating on application of this technology to paper, we have already developed some products. For example, paper for printings (Super Mirror PN) and for white boards (Super Mirror WB) have been manufactured. In this presentation, we are going to introduce this EB curing technique and the products

  17. Electron enhanced Raman scattering and its applications in solution chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yui, Hiroharu

    2007-01-01

    The present review describes a new enhancement technique for Raman scattering in aqueous solutions. Raman scattering spectroscopy has an inherent ability to distinguish between molecules with great similarity and provides useful information on local physical and chemical environments at their functional groups' level. Since the Raman scattering signals from water molecules are quite weak, Raman spectroscopy has great advantage for detection or discrimination of a trace amount of analytes in aqueous environments. However, Raman scattering cross-sections are inherently small and it generally requires high power excitation and long acquisition times to obtain high-quality Raman spectra. These conditions create disadvantages for the analyses for living cells and real-time monitoring for environmental analyses. Here, I describe a new Raman enhancement technique, namely electron enhanced Raman scattering (EERS)', where artificially generated electrons additionally affect the polarizability of target molecular systems and enhance their inherent Raman cross-section. Principles of the EERS and its applications to aqueous solution are presented. (author)

  18. Virtual screening of electron acceptor materials for organic photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D Halls, Mathew; Giesen, David J; Goldberg, Alexander; Djurovich, Peter J; Sommer, Jonathan; McAnally, Eric; Thompson, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    Virtual screening involves the generation of structure libraries, automated analysis to predict properties related to application performance and subsequent screening to identify lead systems and estimate critical structure–property limits across a targeted chemical design space. This approach holds great promise for informing experimental discovery and development efforts for next-generation materials, such as organic semiconductors. In this work, the virtual screening approach is illustrated for nitrogen-substituted pentacene molecules to identify systems for development as electron acceptor materials for use in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. A structure library of tetra-azapentacenes (TAPs) was generated by substituting four nitrogens for CH at 12 sites on the pentacene molecular framework. Molecular properties (e.g. E LUMO , E g and μ) were computed for each candidate structure using hybrid DFT at the B3LYP/6-311G** level of theory. The resulting TAPs library was then analyzed with respect to intrinsic properties associated with OPV acceptor performance. Marcus reorganization energies for charge transport for the most favorable TAP candidates were then calculated to further determine suitability as OPV electron acceptors. The synthesis, characterization and OPV device testing of TAP materials is underway, guided by these results. (paper)

  19. Carbon Nano tube Composites for Electronic Packaging Applications: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryasomayajula, L.; Wolter, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    Composite engineering comprises of metal matrix composites. They have high strength-weight ratio, better stiffness, economical production, and ease of availability of raw materials. The discovery of carbon nano tubes has opened new possibilities to face challenges better. Carbon Nano tubes are known for their high mechanical strength, excellent thermal and electrical properties. Recent research has made progress in fabricating carbon nano tube metal matrix and polymer-based composites. The methods of fabrication of these composites, their properties and possible applications restricted to the field of electronic packaging have been discussed in this paper. Experimental and theoretical calculations have shown improved mechanical and physical properties like tensile stress, toughness, and improved electrical and thermal properties. They have also demonstrated the ease of production of the composites and their adaptability as one can tailor their properties as per the requirement. This paper reviews work reported on fabricating and characterizing carbon- nano tube-based metal matrix and polymer composites. The focus of this paper is mainly to review the importance of these composites in the field of electronics packaging.

  20. High temperature, radiation hardened electronics for application to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gover, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    Electronic circuits were developed and built at Sandia for many aerospace and energy systems applications. Among recent developments were high temperature electronics for geothermal well logging and radiation hardened electronics for a variety of aerospace applications. Sandia has also been active in technology transfer to commercial industry in both of these areas

  1. Diamond-based heat spreaders for power electronic packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemet, Thomas

    As any semiconductor-based devices, power electronic packages are driven by the constant increase of operating speed (higher frequency), integration level (higher power), and decrease in feature size (higher packing density). Although research and innovation efforts have kept these trends continuous for now more than fifty years, the electronic packaging technology is currently facing a challenge that must be addressed in order to move toward any further improvements in terms of performances or miniaturization: thermal management. Thermal issues in high-power packages strongly affect their reliability and lifetime and have now become one of the major limiting factors of power modules development. Thus, there is a strong need for materials that can sustain higher heat flux levels while safely integrating into the electronic package architecture. In such context, diamond is an attractive candidate because of its outstanding thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, and high electrical resistivity. Its low heat capacity relative to metals such as aluminum or copper makes it however preferable for heat spreading applications (as a heat-spreader) rather than for dissipating the heat flux itself (as a heat sink). In this study, a dual diamond-based heat-spreading solution is proposed. Polycrystalline diamond films were grown through laser-assisted combustion synthesis on electronic substrates (in the U.S) while, in parallel, diamond-reinforced copper-matrix composite films were fabricated through tape casting and hot pressing (in France). These two types of diamond-based heat-spreading films were characterized and their microstructure and chemical composition were related to their thermal performances. Particular emphasize was put on the influence of interfaces on the thermal properties of the materials, either inside a single material (grain boundaries) or between dissimilar materials (film/substrate interface, matrix/reinforcement interface). Finally, the packaging

  2. Electron beam application in industrial polymer processing - Review and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gielenz, G.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The various established industrial electron beam (EB) applications as related to polymers, their corresponding material and process fundamentals are discussed in this paper. The basics of nowadays most common irradiation processes, which are for continuous stranded products: Single Beam, Rotary Technique; Single Beam, Multiple Pass Technique; Dual Beam, Multiple Pass Technique; and Single Beam, Single (Multiple) Pass Technique by means of a conveyor belt or cart system for discontinuous goods are briefly addressed together with some typical examples for illustration. Some comments on the (dis)advantages and the future economic optimization potential which EB processing technologies could provide to the respective polymer processing industries are presented with respect to material, accelerator equipment and related product handling hardware. The future competitiveness of irradiation crosslinking technologies, which offer numerous advantages in comparison to conventional CV curing and silane crosslinking technologies, only can be maintained by increasing their economic attractiveness, which is: high processing speeds, high material throughput at low production costs and comparatively low capital investment of the hardware involved. Other, more sophisticated irradiation process proposals found in the literature and respective patent publications will be briefly presented, although all of which lack more or less practical evidence for industrial economic and reliable application. Finally, the authors vision of a more efficient, economical EB-process design, by combining quasi state of the art EB-equipment components with a novel beam deflection system to practically achieve a 'Dual Beam, Four Side Crossfiring Process' for continuous strand-products, will be presented. (author)

  3. Implementation of Optical Characterization for Flexible Organic Electronics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskarakis, A.; Logothetidis, S.

    One of the most rapidly evolving sectors of the modern science and technology is the flexible organic electronic devices (FEDs) that are expected to significantly improve and revolutionize our everyday life. The FED application includes the generation of electricity by renewable sources (by organic photovoltaic cells - OPVs), power storage (thin film batteries), the visualization of information (by organic displays), the working and living environment (ambient lighting, sensors), safety, market (smart labels, radio frequency identification tags - RFID), textiles (smart fabrics with embedded display and sensor capabilities), as well as healthcare (smart sensors for vital sign monitoring), etc. Although there has been important progresses in inorganic-based Si devices, there are numerous advances in the organic (semiconducting, conducting), inorganic, and hybrid (organic-inorganic) materials that exhibit desirable properties and stability, and in the synthesis and preparation methods. The understanding of the organic material properties can lead to the fast progress of the functionality and performance of FEDs. The investigation of the optical properties of these materials can promote the understanding of the optical, electrical, structural properties of organic semiconductors and electrodes and can contribute to the optimization of the synthesis process and the tuning of their structure and morphology. In this chapter, we will describe briefly some of the advances toward the implementation of optical characterization methods, such as Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) from the infrared to the visible and ultraviolet spectral region for the study of materials (flexible polymer substrates, barrier layers, transparent electrodes) to be used for application in the fabrication of FEDs.

  4. 'Good Governance' dan 'Governability'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Pratikno

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The article endeavors to trace the outset of governance concept, its dominant meanings and discourse, and its implication towards governability. The central role of government in the governing processes has predominantly been adopted. The concept of governance was emerged precisely in the context of the failure of government as key player in regulation, economic redistribution and political participation. Governance is therefore aimed to emphasize pattern of governing which are based both on democratic mechanism and sound development management. However, practices of such good governance concept –which are mainly adopted and promoted by donor states and agencies– tend to degrade state and/or government authority and legitimacy. Traditional function of the state as sole facilitator of equal societal, political and legal membership among citizens has been diminished. The logic of fair competition has been substituted almost completely by the logic of free competition in nearly all sectors of public life. The concept and practices of good governance have resulted in decayed state authority and failed state which in turn created a condition for "ungovernability". By promoting democratic and humane governance, the article accordingly encourages discourse to reinstall and bring the idea of accountable state back in.

  5. Introduction to electronics and applications in high energy physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    Electronics in HEP experiments: specificities and evolution The Art of Electronics: is there something beyond Ohm's law? Basic building blocks of Analog electronics: quickly understanding a schematic Charge preamps, current preamps and future preamps, shaping and the rest Electronics noise: fundamental and practical Evolution of technology: ASICs, FPGAs...

  6. The application and processing of paints hardened by electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Electron beam hardening is a process for changing liquid surface coatings of different thicknesses by irradiation with electrons of high energy into solid, hard, elastic films. In contrast to the UV process, one can harden pigmented paints with electron beams. An electron accelerator, which remits free electrons is used as the energy source for starting the chemical reaction in the coating material. In order to irradiate flat parts, which were coated with liquid paint by rolling, pouring or spraying, equally with electrons, one must produce an 'electron curtain', similar to that in a paint pouring machine. (orig./PW) [de

  7. Multiplier effects and government assistance to energy megaprojects: An application to Hibernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feehan, J.P.; Locke, L.W.

    1993-01-01

    Energy megaprojects typically require several years to construct and entail substantial costs. These costs, in the forms of employment, capital equipment and material inputs, are sometimes viewed as benefits. Moreover, the expenditures on these inputs can induce further increases in employment and income. On the basis of these project-specific and induced effects, government assistance is sometimes sought. The very limiting circumstances under which such government aid is justified are described. Multiplier effects only become relevant if private expenditure would not otherwise occur in some form in the economy. There are contractionary multiplier effects associated with the imposition of taxes to finance the project, and so the two opposing forces may be largely offsetting. Government assistance can only be justified in the presence of unemployment, and where the multiplier effects are large. When these criteria are applied to the Hibernia project, it is found that the project does not generate employment and income effects that are large relative to the total expenditure, or even relative to the level of federal government assistance. The job creation argument for the justification of government assistance to the Hibernia project is very weak. 18 refs., 1 tab

  8. Federal government and the domestic uranium market: an application of the theory of rational expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, M.W.

    1978-01-01

    Domestic uranium prices began to rise dramatically in 1973 after having experienced virtually no change for nearly seven years. This thesis puts forth the proposal that the cause of the increase was the simultaneous occurrence of several unanticipated events. It is argued here that the government's aboutface decision not to sell uranium from its stockpiles, the sudden unavailability of low-cost foreign uranium, and the coincidental occurrence of the Arab oil embargo and widespread materials shortages, caused uranium prices to rise faster and higher than was or could have been anticipated at the time. A sudden change in the federal government's enrichment contracting procedure triggered the initial increases in early 1973. The sequence of events suggest that the instability witnessed in the market was due to the occurrence of unanticipated events, in general, and unexpected changes in government policies, in particular. The policy problem is due to the fact that the federal government has, from the inception of the domestic uranium industry, shaped its structure and direction. It is clear that this influence is likely to continue. To the extent that the hypothesis is correct, the government needs to better evaluate the indirect impact of its policies upon people's expectations. In order to evaluate the hypothesis an econometric model of the domestic uranium market incorporating the theory of rational expectations is developed

  9. Applications of CCTO supercapacitor in energy storage and electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Pandey

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of colossal dielectric constant in CCTO supercapacitor in 2000, development of its practical application to energy storage has been of great interest. In spite of intensive efforts, there has been thus far, no report of proven application. The object of this research is to understand the reason for this lack of success and to find ways to overcome this limitation. Reported herein is the synthesis of our research in ceramic processing of this material and its characterization, particularly with the objective of identifying potential applications. Experimental results have shown that CCTO's permittivity and loss tangent, the two most essential dielectric parameters of fundamental importance for the efficiency of a capacitor device, are intrinsically coupled. They increase or decrease in tandem. Therefore, efforts to simultaneously retain the high permittivity while minimizing the loss tangent of CCTO might not succeed unless an entirely non-typical approach is taken for processing this material. Based on the experimental results and their analysis, it has been identified that it is possible to produce CCTO bulk ceramics with conventional processes having properties that can be exploited for fabricating an efficient energy storage device (EDS. We have additionally identified that CCTO can be used for the development of efficient solid state capacitors of Class II type comparable to the widely used barium titanate (BT capacitors. Based on high temperature studies of the resistivity and the Seebeck coefficient it is found that CCTO is a wide bandgap n-type semiconductor material which could be used for high temperature electronics. The temperature dependence of the linear thermal expansion of CCTO shows the presence of possible phase changes at 220 and 770 °C the origin of which remains unexplained.

  10. Applications of CCTO supercapacitor in energy storage and electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, R. K.; Stapleton, W. A.; Tate, J.; Bandyopadhyay, A. K.; Sutanto, I.; Sprissler, S.; Lin, S.

    2013-06-01

    Since the discovery of colossal dielectric constant in CCTO supercapacitor in 2000, development of its practical application to energy storage has been of great interest. In spite of intensive efforts, there has been thus far, no report of proven application. The object of this research is to understand the reason for this lack of success and to find ways to overcome this limitation. Reported herein is the synthesis of our research in ceramic processing of this material and its characterization, particularly with the objective of identifying potential applications. Experimental results have shown that CCTO's permittivity and loss tangent, the two most essential dielectric parameters of fundamental importance for the efficiency of a capacitor device, are intrinsically coupled. They increase or decrease in tandem. Therefore, efforts to simultaneously retain the high permittivity while minimizing the loss tangent of CCTO might not succeed unless an entirely non-typical approach is taken for processing this material. Based on the experimental results and their analysis, it has been identified that it is possible to produce CCTO bulk ceramics with conventional processes having properties that can be exploited for fabricating an efficient energy storage device (EDS). We have additionally identified that CCTO can be used for the development of efficient solid state capacitors of Class II type comparable to the widely used barium titanate (BT) capacitors. Based on high temperature studies of the resistivity and the Seebeck coefficient it is found that CCTO is a wide bandgap n-type semiconductor material which could be used for high temperature electronics. The temperature dependence of the linear thermal expansion of CCTO shows the presence of possible phase changes at 220 and 770 °C the origin of which remains unexplained.

  11. An application of TOPSIS for selection of appropriate e-Governance practices to improve customer satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajinkya Joshi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available E-governance practices and standardization of processes are significant factors affecting the per-formance of government organizations and undertakings in India. Customer is the backbone of any organization and customer satisfaction is the key for ensuring the success. Using a multiple-criteria decision analysis method named TOPSIS, we attempt to study the impact of e-governance practices on customer satisfaction of Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority (MHADA. The method determines the ranking and contribution of different elements in an attempt to determine a suitable strategy for every customer segment. Results show that cus-tomers belonging to Higher Income Group (HIG and Middle Income Group (MIG are more satisfied with the Online Mitra Service while the customers of Lower Income Group (LIG and Economic Weaker Section (EWS are more inclined towards Process Standardization. In order to remove bias and obtain fairly accurate results the data were collected through questionnaire from every customer segment.

  12. Does more government deficit raise the interest rate? Application of extended loanable funds model to Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hsing

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Extending the open-economy loanable funds model, this paper finds that more government deficit as a percentage of GDP does not lead to a higher government bond yield. In addition, a higher real Treasury bill rate, a higher expected inflation rate, a higher EU government bond yield, or an expected depreciation of the euro against the U.S. dollar would increase Slovenia’s long-term interest rate. The negative coefficient of the percentage change in real GDP is insignificant at the10% level. Applying the standard closed-economy or open-economy loanable funds model without including the world interest rate and the expected exchange rate, we find similar conclusions except that the positive coefficient of the ratio of the net capital inflow to GDP has a wrong sign and is insignificant at the 10% level.

  13. Application of time release electron donors and electron acceptors for accelerated bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksimovich, V.; Koenigsberg, S.

    2002-01-01

    Currently, there are limited options for cost effective approaches to soil and groundwater contamination. One technology that has proven its potential involves the use of time release electron acceptors to accelerate the natural bioattenuation of aerobically degradable compounds and time release electron donors to accelerate the natural bioattenuation of anaerobic compounds. This technology enjoys its reputations as a sensible strategy for engineering accelerated bioattenuation, because it delivers results while 1) limiting or eliminating design, capital and management costs and 2) allowing for the engineering of a low-impact application and a subsequently invisible remediation process. Oxygen Release Compound (ORC ) is proprietary formulation of intercalated magnesium peroxide that releases oxygen slowly, for about a year, and facilitates the aerobic degradation of a range of environmental contaminants including petroleum hydrocarbons, certain chlorinated hydrocarbons, ether oxygenates and nitroaromatics. The history of ORC's introduction and acceptance represents a model for the evolution of an innovative technology. This statement comes by virtue of the fact that since 1994 ORC has been used on over 7000 sites worldwide and has been the subject of an extensive body of literature. Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC) is also a proprietary polylactate ester that is food grade and, upon being deposited into the aquifer, is slowly hydrolyzed to release lactic acid and other organic acid derivatives for about one to two years. The organic acids are fermented to hydrogen, which in turn donates electrons that drive reductive bioattenuation processes. This is primarily directed at a wide range of chlorinated hydrocarbons, but can be applied to the remediation of metals by redox induced precipitation. HRC has now been used on over 220 sites, which we believe make it the most widely used electron donor for accelerating bioattenuation. ORC and HRC can be configured as a

  14. Growth, characterisation and electronic applications of amorphous hydrogenated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, S.

    2000-11-01

    My thesis proposes solutions to a number of riddles associated with the material, hydrogenated amorphous carbon, (a-C:H). This material has lately generated interest in the electronic engineering community, owing to some remarkable properties. The characterisation of amorphous carbon films, grown by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition has been reported. The coexistence of multiple phases in the same a-C:H film manifests itself in the inconsistent electrical behaviour of different parts of the film, thus rendering it difficult to predict the nature of films. For the first time, in this thesis, a reliable prediction of Schottky contact formation on a-C:H films is reported. A novel and simple development on a Scanning Electron Microscope, configured to study the electrical properties of the grown a-C:H films, has been reported. Since device performance is crucially linked to the density of states in the film, a study of the same was undertaken in my doctoral research. I present a mathematical formalism to estimate the density of states in a-C:H. The most commonly used metal, (aluminium), for contact formation on a-C:H films, has been concluded to be the least suitable. On the basis of the study presented in this thesis, copper and chromium are judged to be the best alternatives. The resilience of a-C:H/Si heterostructures under high voltages (upto 900 V) has been reported in this thesis for the first time. The performance of a-C:H grown at room temperature on GaAs, has been studied and concluded to be satisfactory on the basis of good adherence and low leakage currents. Such a structure was motivated by the applicability in Metal Insulator Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MISFET). (author)

  15. Metastable State Diamond Growth and its Applications to Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, David Guang-Kai

    Diamond which consists of a dense array of carbon atoms joined by strong covalent bonds and formed into a tetrahedral crystal structure has remarkable mechanical, thermal, optical and electrical properties suitable for many industrial applications. With a proper type of doping, diamond is also an ideal semiconductor for high performance electronic devices. Unfortunately, natural diamond is rare and limited by its size and cost, it is not surprising that people continuously look for a synthetic replacement. It was believed for long time that graphite, another form of carbon, may be converted into diamond under high pressure and temperature. However, the exact condition of conversion was not clear. In 1939, O. I. Leipunsky developed an equilibrium phase diagram between graphite and diamond based on thermodynamic considerations. In the phase diagram, there is a low temperature (below 1000^ circC) and low pressure (below 1 atm) region in which diamond is metastable and graphite is stable, therefore establishes the conditions for the coexistence of the two species. Leipunsky's pioneer work opened the door for diamond synthesis. In 1955, the General Electric company (GE) was able to produce artificial diamond at 55k atm pressure and a temperature of 2000^ circC. Contrary to GE, B. Derjaguin and B. V. Spitzyn in Soviet Union, developed a method of growing diamonds at 1000^circC and at a much lower pressure in 1956. Since then, researchers, particularly in Soviet Union, are continuously looking for methods to grow diamond and diamond film at lower temperatures and pressures with slow but steady progress. It was only in the early 80's that the importance of growing diamond films had attracted the attentions of researchers in the Western world and in Japan. Recent progress in plasma physics and chemical vapor deposition techniques in integrated electronics technology have pushed the diamond growth in its metastable states into a new era. In this research, a microwave plasma

  16. Toward an integrative perspective on alliance governance : Connecting contract design, trust dynamics, and contract application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faems, Dries; Janssens, Maddy; Madhok, Anoop; Van Looy, Bart

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of a case study of two sequential alliances between the same firms, we develop a more integrative perspective on alliance governance, providing insights into the interactions between structural and relational aspects, both within and between transactions. In particular, we disentangle

  17. Corporate governance in the Netherlands : an overview of the application of the Tabaksblat Code in 2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, Dirk; van Ees, Hans; Hermes, Niels; Hooghiemstra, Reggy; van der Laan, Gerwin; Postma, Theo; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the overall acceptance of the best practice provisions contained in the Dutch corporate governance code and identifies those that receive comparably less agreement among 150 Dutch listed companies in 2004. The findings indicate a high level of compliance with the Code.

  18. When network governance is needed to control IT-applications used in coordination and innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Frank Jan; Velthuijsen, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    IT-based networking trends such as the rise of social media, crowd sourcing, open innovation, and cloud computing enable a profoundly different way of working and collaborating that challenges significantly traditional approaches of companies towards governance, i.e. the mechanisms a company employs

  19. 48 CFR 29.302 - Application of State and local taxes to the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government are immune from State and local taxation. Whether any specific purchase or lease is immune, however, is a legal question requiring advice and assistance of the agency-designated counsel. (b) When it... from State and local taxation that may be available. If appropriate, the contracting officer shall...

  20. Application of electron beams irradiation in science and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, N.; Razzak, M.T.; Chosdu, R.; Soebianto, Y.S.

    1996-01-01

    The research and development of radiation technology in Indonesia is mainly conducted at the Center for Application of Isotopes and Radiation of the National Atomic Energy Agency (CAIR-BATAN). During the past 10 years, the center has gained a great progress in the development of gamma irradiation techniques for industrial processing, food preservation, health care products sterilization, and waste treatment. A low energy (300 keV, 50 mA) electron beam accelerator has been installed in cooperation with IAEA/UNDP as a training and demonstration facility for wood surface coating. In spite of the advantages of radiation curing, this technique is still unacceptable in the industries due to the uneconomical reasons and inferiority of the products. The research and development using this facility is also considered expensive, due to the high cost of the liquid nitrogen consumed by the accelerator. The medium energy (2 MeV, 10 mA) accelerator has been installed recently. This is a multipurpose irradiator provided with a belt conveyer, but also designed for wire and cable irradiation. The main technical parameters have been measured under different operating conditions during its commissioning, and the nominal dose measurement has been performed using alanine polyethylene, ethanol-chlorobenzene solution, and FWT-60 film dosimeters. Research and development of polymer cross-linking and shrinkable tubes have become the concern of the accelerator application. The radiation curable polyethylene compound for the cable insulation has been formulated with a characteristic of high voltage and heat resistant. Dosimetry of spices with 0.3-0.6 g/cm 3 density and health care products of 0.2-0.3 g/cm 3 density have been carried out for the promising food preservation and radiation sterilization, energy beam on micro-organism, and surface modification of some synthetic and natural polymers are also carried out. (J.P.N.)

  1. Vacuum nanoelectronic devices novel electron sources and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Evtukh, Anatoliy; Yilmazoglu, Oktay; Mimura, Hidenori; Pavlidis, Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    Introducing up-to-date coverage of research in electron field emission from nanostructures, Vacuum Nanoelectronic Devices outlines the physics of quantum nanostructures, basic principles of electron field emission, and vacuum nanoelectronic devices operation, and offers as insight state-of-the-art and future researches and developments.  This book also evaluates the results of research and development of novel quantum electron sources that will determine the future development of vacuum nanoelectronics. Further to this, the influence of quantum mechanical effects on high frequency vacuum nanoelectronic devices is also assessed. Key features: In-depth description and analysis of the fundamentals of Quantum Electron effects in novel electron sources. Comprehensive and up-to-date summary of the physics and technologies for THz sources for students of physical and engineering specialties and electronics engineers. Unique coverage of quantum physical results for electron-field emission and novel electron sourc...

  2. Basic opto-electronics on silicon for sensor applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joppe, J.L.; Bekman, H.H.P.Th.; de Krijger, A.J.T.; Albers, H.; Chalmers, J.; Chalmers, J.D.; Holleman, J.; Ikkink, T.J.; Ikkink, T.; van Kranenburg, H.; Zhou, M.-J.; Zhou, Ming-Jiang; Lambeck, Paul

    1994-01-01

    A general platform for integrated opto-electronic sensor systems on silicon is proposed. The system is based on a hybridly integrated semiconductor laser, ZnO optical waveguides and monolithic photodiodes and electronic circuiry.

  3. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE-THE ROLE AND APPLICATION OF THE PRINCIPLE OF TRANSPARENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulop Melinda Timea

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current research is to clarify the concept of corporate governance as we believe it is a relatively new concept at national level. At the same time, our analysis focused on the manner in which the principle of transparency has been incorporated into the recommendations and regulations/provisions of the Bucharest Stock Exchange (Romanian: BVB and how this principle has been applied by the companies listed with the BVB. In order to accomplish the objectives of our research, we adopted a deductive approach, from general to specific, by means of which we were able to combine qualitative with quantitative studies. Therefore, our approach started from the definition found within the principles of OECD according to which corporate governance is the system by which companies are run and controlled. In Romania, the concept of corporate governance was first advanced in 1999 by the Strategic Alliance of the Business Associations (Romanian: ASAA, which drew up a Voluntary code of corporate governance in association with the Confederation of Private Entrepreneurs in Timis county and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Romania and Bucharest. Another facet of our research is the principle of transparency and the manner in which entities should put it to practice in order to ensure efficient corporate governance. To this effect, since the beginning of 2009 the entities listed with the BVB have been under obligation to report which recommendations of the new Corporate Governance Code have actually been implemented by the company in the current financial year by disclosing to BVB the Comply or Explain Statement. The findings of our research show that the concept of corporate governance has lately been a matter for intense debate due to the famous financial failures in recent years. In 2009, Transelectrica was the only company in tier I of the BVB which filled in and submitted the Comply or Explain Statement. Therefore, we believe that

  4. Electron-beam generated plasmas for processing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meger, Robert; Leonhardt, Darrin; Murphy, Donald; Walton, Scott; Blackwell, David; Fernsler, Richard; Lampe, Martin; Manheimer, Wallace

    2001-10-01

    NRL's Large Area Plasma Processing System (LAPPS) utilizes a 5-10 mA/cm^2, 2-4 kV, 1 cm x 30-60 cm cross section beam of electrons guided by a magnetic field to ionize a low density (10-100 mTorr) gas.[1] Beam ionization allows large area, high density, low temperature plasmas to be generated in an arbitrary gas mixture at a well defined location. Energy and composition of particle fluxes to surfaces on both sides of the plasma can be controlled by gas mixture, location, rf bias, and other factors. Experiments have been performed using both pulsed and cw beams. Extensive diagnostics (Langmuir probes, mass and ion energy analyzers, optical emissions, microwave interferometry, etc.) have been fielded to measure the plasma properties and neutral particle fluxes (ions, neutrals, free radicals) with and without rf bias on nearby surfaces both with the beam on and off. Uniform, cold (Te < 1eV), dense (ne 10^13 cm-3) plasmas in molecular and atomic gases and mixtures thereof have been produced in agreement with theoretical expectations. Initial tests of LAPPS application such as ashing, etching, sputtering, and diamond growth have been performed. Program status will be presented. [1]R.A. Meger, et al, Phys. of Plasmas 8(5), p. 2558 (2001)

  5. Applications of Organic and Printed Electronics A Technology-Enabled Revolution

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Organic and printed electronics can enable a revolution in the applications of electronics and this book offers readers an overview of the state-of-the-art in this rapidly evolving domain.  The potentially low cost, compatibility with flexible substrates and the wealth of devices that characterize organic and printed electronics will make possible applications that go far beyond the well-known displays made with large-area silicon electronics. Since organic electronics are still in their early stage, undergoing transition from lab-scale and prototype activities to production, this book serves as a valuable snapshot of the current landscape of the different devices enabled by this technology, reviewing all applications that are developing and those can be foreseen.   Provides a complete roadmap for organic and printed electronics research and development for the next several years; Includes an overview of the printing processes for organic electronics, along with state of the art applications, such as solar ...

  6. 48 CFR 1253.222 - Application of labor laws to Government acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application of labor laws... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1253.222 Application of labor laws... application of labor laws, as specified in (TAR) 48 CFR 1222.406-9: Form DOT F 4220.7, Employee Claim for Wage...

  7. Governance Dynamics and the Application of the Multilevel Governance Approach in Vocational Education and Training (VET) in the European Neighbourhood Countries: The Case of the ENPI South Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin Arribas, J. Manuel

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses moves towards good multilevel governance approaches in Vocational Education and Training (VET) as an effective way to improve VET policy making in transition and developing countries, focusing on the Southern Neighbourhood of the EU (ENPI South). The centralised approaches in public administration and to VET governance still…

  8. Electron beam application in gas waste treatment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Haifeng

    2003-01-01

    In the most recent decade, electron beam waste treatment technology attracted serious attention from environment policymaker and industrial leaders in power industry in China. Starting in middle of 1980's, Chinese research institute began experiment of electron beam treatment on flue gas. By the end of 2000, two 10,000 cubic meters per hour small scale electron beam gas purifying station were established in Sichuang province and Beijing. Several electron beam gas purifying demonstration projects are under construction. With robust economy and strong energy demand, needless to say, in near future, electron beam gas purifying technology will have a bright prospect in China. (author)

  9. Mineralogical applications of electron diffraction. 1. Theory and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Malcolm; Christ, C.L.

    1958-01-01

    The small wavelengths used in electron-diffraction experiments and the thinness of the crystals necessary for the transmission of the electron beam combine to require a somewhat different diffraction geometry for the interpretation of electron-diffraction patterns than is used in the interpretation of X-ray diffraction patterns. This geometry, based on the reciprocal lattice concept and geometrical construction of Ewald, needed for the interpretation.

  10. Optical electronics self-organized integration and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshimura, Tetsuzo

    2012-01-01

    IntroductionFrom Electronics to Optical ElectronicsAnalysis Tools for Optical CircuitsSelf-Organized Optical Waveguides: Theoretical AnalysisSelf-Organized Optical Waveguides: Experimental DemonstrationsOptical Waveguide Films with Vertical Mirrors 3-D Optical Circuits with Stacked Waveguide Films Heterogeneous Thin-Film Device IntegrationOptical Switches OE Hardware Built by Optical ElectronicsIntegrated Solar Energy Conversion SystemsFuture Challenges.

  11. Applications of Electronstatic Lenses to Electron Gun and Energy Analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sise, O.

    2004-01-01

    Focal properties and geometries are given for several types of electrostatic lens systems commonly needed in electron impact studies. One type is an electron gun which focuses electrons over a wide range of energy onto a fixed point, such as target, and the other type is an analyzer system which focuses scattered electrons of variable energy onto a fixed position, such as the entrance plane of an analyzer. There are many different types and geometries of these lenses for controlling and focusing of the electron beams. In this presentation we discussed the criteria used for the design of the electrostatic lenses associated with the electron gun and energy analyzers and determined the fundamental relationships between the operation and behaviour of multi-element electrostatic lenses, containing five, six and seven elements. The focusing of the electron beam was achieved by applying suitable voltages to the series of these lens elements, Design of the lens system for electron gun was based on our requirements that the beam at the target had a small spot size and zero beam angle, that is, afocal mode. For energy analyzer systems we considered the entrance of the hemispherical analyzer which determines the energy of the electron beam and discussed the focusing condition of this lens systems

  12. New Leverage for Increasing Tax Revenues in Turkey: Traditional Tax Applications Supported by Electronic Tax Audits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Onkan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is examined for the period 2000- 2015 in Turkey that increasing the electronic applications regarding tax audits had the effects on the required amount of tax levied as a result of tax audits. Tax Inspectors reach strategic information without uneasiness by means of electronic applications developed by some institutions such as Electronic Risk Analysis that Tax Inspection Board founded in 2011 and Revenue Administration as institutions designated by law for auditing tax in Turkey. Thus, this leads to an increase the tax revenues obtained in the course of tax audits compared to the times when there is not electronic applications.

  13. 20 CFR 422.106 - Filing applications with other government agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... In carrying out its responsibilities to assign social security numbers, SSA enters into agreements... accept social security number card applications from some individuals who apply for or are receiving... employee will then send the application to SSA which will issue a social security number card. [55 FR 46665...

  14. Government leadership in addressing public health priorities: strides and delays in electronic laboratory reporting in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluskin, Rebecca Tave; Mavinkurve, Maushumi; Varma, Jay K

    2014-03-01

    For nearly a decade, interest groups, from politicians to economists to physicians, have touted digitization of the nation's health information. One frequently mentioned benefit is the transmission of information electronically from laboratories to public health personnel, allowing them to rapidly analyze and act on these data. Switching from paper to electronic laboratory reports (ELRs) was thought to solve many public health surveillance issues, including workload, accuracy, and timeliness. However, barriers remain for both laboratories and public health agencies to realize the full benefits of ELRs. The New York City experience highlights several successes and challenges of electronic reporting and is supported by peer-reviewed literature. Lessons learned from ELR systems will benefit efforts to standardize electronic medical records reporting to health departments.

  15. The Text of a Protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Thailand and the United States of America Terminating the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand and the Government of the United States of America for the Application of Safeguards and Terminating the Protocol Suspending that Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The text of a protocol between the Agency and the Governments of Thailand and the United States of America terminating the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Government of the Kingdom of Thailand and the Government of the United States of America for the Application of Safeguards and terminating the Protocol suspending that Agreement is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Protocol entered into force on 27 June 1974, pursuant to Section 6 thereof.

  16. Applications of cross sections for electron-molecule collision processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    The role of electron-molecule collision cross sections is discussed for the study of the ionospheric and auroral processes in planetary atmospheres and of discharge-pumped lasers. These two areas emphasize the importance of further theoretical and experimental studies concerning electron-impact processes. 13 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Application of maximum entropy method for the study of electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in terms of the computing power of the machine on which it runs. Since the electron ... Table 1. The Debye–Waller factors of individual atoms and the reliability indices of three sulphides. .... The size of the electron cloud indicates the size of the ...

  18. Applications of transmission electron microscopy in the materials and mineral sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murr, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    Unique capabilities of transmission electron microscopy in characterizing the structure and properties of metals, minerals, and other crystaline materials are illustrated and compared with observations in the scanning electron and field-ion microscopes. Contrast mechanisms involving both mass-thickness and diffraction processes are illustrated, and examples presented of applications of bright and dark-field techiques. Applications of the electron microscope in the investigation of metallurgical and mineralogical problems are outlined with representative examples [pt

  19. Current state and prospects of industrial application of electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washio, Masakazu

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviewed the low energy, medium energy, and high energy accelerators used for the industrial application of electron beams. Next, it described the absorption of electron beam energy, distribution of the absorbed dose of electron beams in a substance, and the basis of electron beam reaction. Furthermore, as the industrial application examples of electron beams, it briefly described about the reforming and curing of polymers, irradiation effect of inorganic material (characteristic control of semiconductors), and sterilization. Regarding curing, as examples using mainly low energy electron beams (300 keV or below), this paper briefly explained the manufacture of thermosensitive recording materials, electron beam cured silicone for release papers, tunnel metal interior finishing board, high gloss - high smooth paper. Finally, it looked at latest trends and prospects of electron beam generators. (A.O.)

  20. Applicability of the local field concept for the electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, D.; Sjoelander, A.; Swierkowski, L.

    1990-01-01

    The static exchange-correlation hole surrounding an electron in an electron gas at metallic densities has been a highly successful and useful concept. The properties of the static exchange-correlation hole can be accurately reflected by the construction of a static local field. This field surrounds each electron and modifies it interaction with the other electrons in the system. An important limitation of the local field concept is that it does not handle the time-dependent relaxation of the surrounding electron cloud in a particularly transparent way. At metallic densities this is if no consequence since relaxation effects are only small corrections anyway, but at lower densities and in two-dimensional systems they become increasingly important. Approaches which attempt to address these problems are discussed. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs

  1. Application of high power microwave vacuum electron devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yaogen; Liu Pukun; Zhang Zhaochuan; Wang Yong; Shen Bin

    2011-01-01

    High power microwave vacuum electron devices can work at high frequency, high peak and average power. They have been widely used in military and civil microwave electron systems, such as radar, communication,countermeasure, TV broadcast, particle accelerators, plasma heating devices of fusion, microwave sensing and microwave heating. In scientific research, high power microwave vacuum electron devices are used mainly on high energy particle accelerator and fusion research. The devices include high peak power klystron, CW and long pulse high power klystron, multi-beam klystron,and high power gyrotron. In national economy, high power microwave vacuum electron devices are used mainly on weather and navigation radar, medical and radiation accelerator, TV broadcast and communication system. The devices include high power pulse and CW klystron, extended interaction klystron, traveling wave tube (TWT), magnetron and induced output tube (IOT). The state of art, common technology problems and trends of high power microwave vacuum electron devices are introduced in this paper. (authors)

  2. 7 CFR 1783.8 - What are the acceptable methods for submitting applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... necessary to be qualified to apply for Federal Government grants using electronic submissions. Electronic.... Mail, an applicant may file its application electronically by using the Federal Government's eGrants... reflect changes in addresses and electronic submission procedures. Applicants should refer to the most...

  3. Carbon nanotubes--electronic/electrochemical properties and application for nanoelectronics and photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgobba, Vito; Guldi, Dirk M

    2009-01-01

    The fundamental chemical, redox, electrochemical, photoelectrochemical, optical and optoelectronic features of carbon nanotubes are surveyed with particular emphasis on the most relevant applications as electron donor/electron acceptor or as electron conductor/hole conductor materials, in solutions and in the solid state. Methods that aim at p- and n-doping as a means to favor hole or electron injection/transport are covered as well (critical review, 208 references).

  4. Annual survey on the level and extent of usage of electronic health records in government-related hospitals in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bah, Sulaiman; Alharthi, Hana; El Mahalli, Azza Ali; Jabali, Abdelkaream; Al-Qahtani, Mona; Al-kahtani, Nouf

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to determine the level and extent of usage of electronic health records (EHRs) in government-related hospitals in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Another aim is to develop a Web site to serve as a forum of exchange on the development of EHRs in Saudi Arabia. All government hospitals (n = 19) in the province were included. The information technology (IT) managers in those hospitals made up the target population. An online questionnaire was developed, and the IT managers in all 19 government hospitals were invited to participate in the survey. The responses from the online survey were downloaded and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Of the 19 hospitals, only three (15.8 percent) use EHRs. These hospitals were established in 1984, 1995, and 2005. All three of these hospitals have implemented the same EHR software and were using it successfully, and all three were using the three core features of laboratory, radiology, and pharmacy electronic modules. Some modules were present in the EHR system but were underutilized. Some of the main challenges faced by the IT managers in implementing EHRs in their hospitals were related to the uncooperative attitudes of some physicians and nurses toward EHRs. In fulfillment of the second aim of the study, a Web site, http://ehr2011.weebly.com, was developed to serve as a forum for exchange of information on the development of EHRs in Saudi Arabia. The government of Saudi Arabia has prioritized the development of eHealth (health information technology) and allocated committed funding for it during 2008-2011. During this period, some sectors of government made highly commendable efforts in developing eHealth services. Along these lines, we had hoped to see higher uptake of EHRs than the 15.8 percent found in this study. The rate of implementing EHRs in government hospitals should be accelerated. The aim should be on achieving some basic EHR functionality in these hospitals, and once this has been achieved

  5. Creation of new electronic services of Moscow government, interested for students, and their impact on the economy of the region (on the example of the real estate services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarev V.G.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available options for implementation in the framework of the Internet portal of the Government of Moscow of new electronic services associated primarily with the effective visualization and informing of new real estate in the city of Moscow, as well as the ability to influence the proposed services on the development of the regional economy are considered in the article. Offers of the author based on the results of research carried out in the course of the joint work of the Department of territorial bodies of the executive power of the city of Moscow and the Moscow State University of Technology and Management named after K.G. Razumovsky.

  6. State governance evolution in resource-rich transition economies: An application to Russia and Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyuzhnova, Yelena; Nygaard, Christian [The Centre for Euro-Asian Studies, The University of Reading, Whiteknights, PO Box, Reading RG6 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    Following a decade of transition in the Former Soviet Union (FSU), governance of the oil and gas sectors has evolved to economic nationalism. In the newly independent states this has manifested itself through greater (direct) state ownership or participation in oil and gas production, at the expense of both domestic (in the case of Russia) and international oil companies, as well as legislative developments that increase the flow of oil and gas value to the state. Here we analyse some of the dynamics giving rise to economic nationalism within a model of a state capacity and the ability to implement policy and extract value. Our analysis is based on the institutional and economic functioning of the oil and gas sector. We analyse a vector of institutions and examine Production Sharing Agreements and National Oil Companies. (author)

  7. Derivation of governing equation for predicting thermal conductivity of composites with spherical inclusions and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-Kon; Kim, Jin-Gon

    2011-01-01

    A governing differential equation for predicting the effective thermal conductivity of composites with spherical inclusions is shown to be simply derived by using the result of the generalized self-consistent model. By applying the equation to composites including spherical inclusions such as graded spherical inclusions, microballoons, mutiply-coated spheres, and spherical inclusions with an interphase, their effective thermal conductivities are easily predicted. The results are compared with those in the literatures to be consistent. It can be stated from the investigations that the effective thermal conductivity of composites with spherical inclusions can be estimated as long as their conductivities are expressed as a function of their radius. -- Highlights: → We derive equation for predicting the effective thermal conductivity of composites. → The equation is derived using the results of the generalized self-consistent model. → The inclusions are graded sphere, microballoons, and mutiply-coated spheres.

  8. Application of electron irradiation to food containers and packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Koji

    2010-01-01

    Problems caused by microbial contamination and hazardous chemicals have attracted much attention in the food industry. The number of systems such as hygienic management systems and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) systems adopted in the manufacturing process is increasing. As manufacturing process control has become stricter, stricter control is also required for microbial control for containers and packaging materials (from disinfection to sterilization). Since safe and reliable methods for sterilizing food containers and packaging materials that leave no residue are required, electron beam sterilization used for medical equipment has attracted attention from the food industry. This paper describes an electron irradiation facility, methods for applying electron beams to food containers and packaging materials, and products irradiated with electron beams. (author)

  9. A flexible inkjet printed antenna for wearable electronics applications

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram; Shamim, Atif

    2016-01-01

    Wearable electronics has gained enormous attention since past few years because it is a promising technology to enhance the human experience. This paper shows a modified inverted-F antenna (IFA), inkjet printed directly on the fabric. A flexible

  10. Forensic applications of scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analyser in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y S

    1982-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscopy - Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (SEM/EDX) has been applied in casework for more than a year in the Forensic Division, Government Laboratory of Hong Kong. The types of samples being analysed are summarised and three cases of scientific interest are described. The first case applies SEM/EDX to characterize microscopic gold particles recovered from clothing of suspects involved in goldsmith robberies. Both elemental and morphological results obtained were used as supporting evidence. The second case describes the three types of beaded ends on fibres found in a single cloth sample. These beaded ends are different in shape and surface features and can be used as an additional parameter in fibre identification. The final case shows the application of vacuum evaporation of graphite on a document sample to reveal the area of paper which has been skillfully mechanically erased. Both the image intensity and the composition of the ink are used to differentiate between original and altered characters on the document.

  11. Ionic molecular films. Applications. 3. Electron beam stimulated enhanced adherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldacchini, G; Montereali, R M; Scavarda do Carmo, L C

    1989-11-01

    This paper reports on the advantages of the use of the technique of electron beam lithography to imprint enhanced sensitive patterns on ionic molecular substrates (bulk crystals or films). With this technique, localized superficial defects are produced which change the chemical properties of surfaces. Sensitized surfaces react with absorbates providing enhanced adherence of such substances. The use of spacially controlled electron beams allows the construction of small (sub-micron) feature chemical and very localized enhanced adherence of absorbates.

  12. Piezoelectric Transformer Characterization and Application of Electronic Ballast

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ray-Lee

    2001-01-01

    The characterization and modeling of piezoelectric transformers are studied and developed for use in electronic ballasts. By replacing conventional L-C resonant tanks with piezoelectric transformers, inductor-less piezoelectric transformer electronic ballasts have been developed for use in fluorescent lamps. The piezoelectric transformer is a combination of piezoelectric actuators as the primary side and piezoelectric transducers as the secondary side, both of which work in longitudinal o...

  13. [Application of electronic fence technology based on GIS in Oncomelania hupensis snail monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi-Hua, Chen; Yi-Sheng, Zhu; Zhi-Qiang, Xue; Xue-Bing, Li; Yi-Min, Ding; Li-Jun, Bi; Kai-Min, Gao; You, Zhang

    2017-07-27

    To study the application of Geographic Information System (GIS) electronic fence technique in Oncomelania hupensis snail monitoring. The electronic fence was set around the history and existing snail environments in the electronic map, the information about snail monitoring and controlling was linked to the electronic fence, and the snail monitoring information system was established on these bases. The monitoring information was input through the computer and smart phone. The electronic fence around the history and existing snail environments was set in the electronic map (Baidu map), and the snail monitoring information system and smart phone APP were established. The monitoring information was input and upload real-time, and the snail monitoring information was demonstrated in real time on Baidu map. By using the electronic fence technology based on GIS, the unique "environment electronic archives" for each snail monitoring environment can be established in the electronic map, and real-time, dynamic monitoring and visual management can be realized.

  14. Functional zinc oxide nanostructures for electronic and energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Abhishek

    ZnO has proven to be a multifunctional material with important nanotechnological applications. ZnO nanostructures can be grown in various forms such as nanowires, nanorods, nanobelts, nanocombs etc. In this work, ZnO nanostructures are grown in a double quartz tube configuration thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) system. We focus on functionalized ZnO Nanostructures by controlling their structures and tuning their properties for various applications. The following topics have been investigated: (1) We have fabricated various ZnO nanostructures using a thermal CVD technique. The growth parameters were optimized and studied for different nanostructures. (2) We have studied the application of ZnO nanowires (ZnONWs) for field effect transistors (FETs). Unintentional n-type conductivity was observed in our FETs based on as-grown ZnO NWs. We have then shown for the first time that controlled incorporation of hydrogen into ZnO NWs can introduce p-type characters to the nanowires. We further found that the n-type behaviors remained, leading to the ambipolar behaviors of hydrogen incorporated ZnO NWs. Importantly, the detected p- and n- type behaviors are stable for longer than two years when devices were kept in ambient conditions. All these can be explained by an ab initio model of Zn vacancy-Hydrogen complexes, which can serve as the donor, acceptors, or green photoluminescence quencher, depend on the number of hydrogen atoms involved. (3) Next ZnONWs were tested for electron field emission. We focus on reducing the threshold field (Eth) of field emission from non-aligned ZnO NWs. As encouraged by our results on enhancing the conductivity of ZnO NWs by hydrogen annealing described in Chapter 3, we have studied the effect of hydrogen annealing for improving field emission behavior of our ZnO NWs. We found that optimally annealed ZnO NWs offered much lower threshold electric field and improved emission stability. We also studied field emission from ZnO NWs at moderate

  15. "Teaching Case": ComprehensiveCare and the Stalled Adoption of an Electronic Health Records System: IT Governance and Employee Succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomillion, David L.

    2017-01-01

    ComprehensiveCare, a multi-specialty healthcare organization, struggles to implement Electronic Health Records. The first adoption failed outright because the customizations made the system unusable. The second attempted adoption has not officially failed yet, but the system fails to live up to the expectations. It lingers on the edge of…

  16. Secondary electron spectroscopy and Auger microscopy at high spatial resolution. Application to scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gressus, Claude; Massignon, Daniel; Sopizet, Rene

    1979-01-01

    Secondary electron spectroscopy (SES), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (ELS) are combined with ultra high vacuum scanning microscopy (SEM) for surface analysis at high spatial resolution. Reliability tests for the optical column for the vacuum and for the spectrometer are discussed. Furthermore the sensitivity threshold in AES which is compatible with a non destructive surface analysis at high spatial resolution is evaluated. This combination of all spectroscopies is used in the study of the beam damage correlated with the well known secondary electron image (SEI) darkening still observed in ultra high vacuum. The darkening is explained as a bulk decontamination of the sample rather than as a surface contamination from the residual vacuum gas [fr

  17. Approximate reduction of linear population models governed by stochastic differential equations: application to multiregional models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Luis; Alonso, Juan Antonio

    2017-12-01

    In this work we develop approximate aggregation techniques in the context of slow-fast linear population models governed by stochastic differential equations and apply the results to the treatment of populations with spatial heterogeneity. Approximate aggregation techniques allow one to transform a complex system involving many coupled variables and in which there are processes with different time scales, by a simpler reduced model with a fewer number of 'global' variables, in such a way that the dynamics of the former can be approximated by that of the latter. In our model we contemplate a linear fast deterministic process together with a linear slow process in which the parameters are affected by additive noise, and give conditions for the solutions corresponding to positive initial conditions to remain positive for all times. By letting the fast process reach equilibrium we build a reduced system with a lesser number of variables, and provide results relating the asymptotic behaviour of the first- and second-order moments of the population vector for the original and the reduced system. The general technique is illustrated by analysing a multiregional stochastic system in which dispersal is deterministic and the rate growth of the populations in each patch is affected by additive noise.

  18. The Development and Application of Water Governance Matrix: A Case of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Remali Atina Rahmah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study proposes a framework (in the form of a matrix to map organisations on their level of water-related risk, taking into consideration ‘industry intensity’ and ‘corporate commitment towards water protection and preservation’. On the basis of Ceres (2011, ‘industry intensity’ is measured as either low, medium, or high. Furthermore, ‘corporate commitment’ - measured along the same classification (low, medium, or high – is based on the extent of corporate disclosure of water policies, initiatives, and performance. These indicators are then aggregated and used to develop a matrix - called Water Governance Matrix (WaGM - which measures the level of riskiness of an organisation towards water - high (red, moderate (yellow, and low (green. An exploratory study of 30 top public listed companies in Malaysia reveals that only one company falls under the low-risk category, while more than 50% falls under the high-risk category; mainly due to low corporate water disclosure. This innovative matrix is of importance for organisations to monitor and manage their water risk and for stakeholders to make informed investment and other decisions about the organisations.

  19. Monte Carlo calculation of scattered radiation from applicators in low energy clinical electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbari, N.; Hashemi-Malayeri, B.; Farajollahi, A. R.; Kazemnejad, A.

    2007-01-01

    In radiotherapy with electron beams, scattered radiation from an electron applicator influences the dose distribution in the patient. The contribution of this radiation to the patient dose is significant, even in modern accelerators. In most of radiotherapy treatment planning systems, this component is not explicitly included. In addition, the scattered radiation produced by applicators varies based on the applicator design as well as the field size and distance from the applicators. The aim of this study was to calculate the amount of scattered dose contribution from applicators. We also tried to provide an extensive set of calculated data that could be used as input or benchmark data for advanced treatment planning systems that use Monte Carlo algorithms for dose distribution calculations. Electron beams produced by a NEPTUN 10PC medical linac were modeled using the BEAMnrc system. Central axis depth dose curves of the electron beams were measured and calculated, with and without the applicators in place, for different field sizes and energies. The scattered radiation from the applicators was determined by subtracting the central axis depth dose curves obtained without the applicators from that with the applicator. The results of this study indicated that the scattered radiation from the electron applicators of the NEPTUN 10PC is significant and cannot be neglected in advanced treatment planning systems. Furthermore, our results showed that the scattered radiation depends on the field size and decreases almost linearly with depth. (author)

  20. A concept of applications in the electronic commerce market

    OpenAIRE

    Oboyanskiy, Andrey; Shuvalova, Mariya

    2017-01-01

    This article considers the potential of mobile applications in the e-commerce. The current state of e-commerce has been considered. The Internet users' involvement in the e-commerce has been analyzed. Analyzed example of the most popular applications for further analysis sphere of e-commerce. The work analyzes the successful e-commerce site on the market. The different concepts for using mobile applications on e-commerce market. Examples of the use of augmented reality applications aimed at p...

  1. Electron spin relaxation governed by Raman processes both for Cu2+ ions and carbonate radicals in KHCO3 crystals: EPR and electron spin echo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Stanislaw K.; Goslar, Janina; Lijewski, Stefan

    2012-08-01

    EPR studies of Cu2+ and two free radicals formed by γ-radiation were performed for KHCO3 single crystal at room temperature. From the rotational EPR results we concluded that Cu2+ is chelated by two carbonate molecules in a square planar configuration with spin-Hamiltonian parameters g|| = 2.2349 and A|| = 18.2 mT. Free radicals were identified as neutral HOCOrad with unpaired electron localized on the carbon atom and a radical anion CO3·- with unpaired electron localized on two oxygen atoms. The hyperfine splitting of the EPR lines by an interaction with a single hydrogen atom of HOCOrad was observed with isotropic coupling constants ao = 0.31 mT. Two differently oriented radical sites were identified in the crystal unit cell. Electron spin-lattice relaxation measured by electron spin echo methods shows that both Cu2+ and free radicals relax via two-phonon Raman processes with almost the same relaxation rate. The temperature dependence of the relaxation rate 1/T1 is well described with the effective Debye temperature ΘD = 175 K obtained from a fit to the Debye-type phonon spectrum. We calculated a more realistic Debye temperature value from available elastic constant values of the crystal as ΘD = 246 K. This ΘD-value and the Debye phonon spectrum approximation give a much worse fit to the experimental results. Possible contributions from a local mode or an optical mode are considered and it is suggested that the real phonon spectrum should be used for the relaxation data interpretation. It is unusual that free radicals in KHCO3 relax similarly to the well localized Cu2+ ions, which suggests a small destruction of the host crystal lattice by the ionizing irradiation allowing well coupling between radical and lattice dynamics.

  2. Clinical application of dosimetry in electron beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshiura, Takao

    1995-01-01

    In everyday radiotherapy we must carry out the determination of absorbed dose measurement according to JARP's protocol. We explained an outline of JARP's 1974 and 1986 protocol in electron beam therapy, and mentioned it about the matter that should examined. To use it easily in clinic, a simplified procedure based on precisely to JARP's 1986 protocol is practical, the character of this procedure settles briefly the determination of mean incident energy of electron beams and get ready to table of ionization to absorbed dose conversion factor for various ionization chamber. Also, this procedure almost not influence on the accuracy of determination. We described systematically practical procedure for requisite absorbed dose calculation in a patient in electron beam therapy. (author)

  3. Electron tunneling in nanoscale electrodes for battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hidenori; Narayanan, Rajaram; Bandaru, Prabhakar R.

    2018-03-01

    It is shown that the electrical current that may be obtained from a nanoscale electrochemical system is sensitive to the dimensionality of the electrode and the density of states (DOS). Considering the DOS of lower dimensional systems, such as two-dimensional graphene, one-dimensional nanotubes, or zero-dimensional quantum dots, yields a distinct variation of the current-voltage characteristics. Such aspects go beyond conventional Arrhenius theory based kinetics which are often used in experimental interpretation. The obtained insights may be adapted to other devices, such as solid-state batteries. It is also indicated that electron transport in such devices may be considered through electron tunneling.

  4. Low energy electron beams for industrial and environmental applications

    CERN Document Server

    Skarda, Vlad

    2017-01-01

    EuCARD-2 Workshop, 8-9 December 2016, Warsaw, Poland. Organizers: Science and Technology Facilities Council, UK CERN - The European Organization for Nuclear Research, Switzerland, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Poland, Fraunhofer Institute for Electron Beam and Plasma Technology, Germany, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland. An article presents short information about EuCARD-2 Workshop “Low energy electron beams for industrial and environmental applications”, which was held in December 2016 in Warsaw. Objectives, main topics and expected output of meeting are described. List of organizers is included.

  5. Application of electron and Bremsstrahlung beams for composite materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalyubovsky, I.I.; Avilov, A.M.; Popov, G.F.; Rudychev, V.G.

    1998-01-01

    In Kharkiv University the radiation process of obtaining composite polymer materials, CPM, with high strength properties and corrosion resistance was studied. CPM are manufactured by vacuum impregnating capillary-porous materials with synthetic monomers and oligomers or by molding granular waste and resins which are further treated by relativistic electron or Bremsstrahlung beam. Such radiation treatment yields new CPM in which capillary-porous structure acting as reinforcement is filled with polymer. The results of the applied research with industrial electron accelerator in the field of thick CPM formation are presented

  6. Failure modes of conducting yarns in electronic-textile applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, M. de; Vries, H. de; Pacheco, K.; Heck, G. van

    2015-01-01

    Integration of electronic functionalities into textiles adds to the value of textiles. It allows measuring, detecting, actuating and treating or communicating with a body or object. These added values can render the smart textiles very useful, fun, supporting, protecting or even lifesaving. It is,

  7. Reliable protection of electronics against lightning: some practical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der P.C.T.; Deursen, van A.P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The classical lightning conductor, which must prevent fire, has to have a sufficiently small resistance. An analogous condition can be formulated for the new challenge: the protection of sensitive electronics against lightning. In this case, the so-called transfer impedance, which gives the

  8. A reflexing electron microwave amplifier for rf particle accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, M.V.; Hoeberling, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The evolution of rf-accelerator technology toward high-power, high-current, low-emittance beams produces an ever-increasing demand for efficient, very high power microwave power sources. The present klystron technology has performed very well but is not expected to produce reliable gigawatt peak-power units in the 1- to 10-GHz regime. Further major advancements must involve other types of sources. The reflexing-electron class of sources can produce microwave powers at the gigawatt level and has demonstrated operation from 800-MHz to 40-GHz. The pulse length appears to be limited by diode closure, and reflexing-electron devices have been operated in a repetitively pulsed mode. A design is presented for a reflexing electron microwave amplifier that is frequency and phase locked. In this design, the generated microwave power can be efficiently coupled to one or several accelerator loads. Frequency and phase-locking capability may permit parallel-source operation for higher power. The low-frequency (500-MHz to 10-GHz) operation at very high power required by present and proposed microwave particle accelerators makes an amplifier, based on reflexing electron phenomena, a candidate for the development of new accelerator power sources. (author)

  9. Screening conditions in a magnetized plasma with electron beam, with application to ripple trapped electron losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faudot, E.; Heuraux, S. [Nancy-1 Univ. Henri Poincare, LPMIA, UMR CNRS 7040, 54 (France); Colas, L.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Martin, G.; Basiuk, V. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    2004-07-01

    In Tore Supra, electrons are accelerated by lower hybrid waves in the direction parallel to the confinement magnetic field, in order to drive non-inductive current. But electrons have also on increase of their perpendicular velocity, then 10% of the most energetic electrons get trapped in the magnetic ripple between 2 adjacent toroidal coils, thus forming a beam. The electron beam follows a banana trajectory, the 20 mm wide protection represented by a cooled copper tube is assumed to protect the VP entrance from this energetic flux. Nevertheless, this beam is able to go beyond the copper tube and creates a hot spot on the steel panel edge able to melt the metal. Heat fluxes deposition on the vertical port (VP) can be understood with a beam+sheath theory including the fact that the sheaths can be obstructed when their length becomes greater than flux tube length. By this way, we identify 4 deposition regimes: 2 free sheath regimes and 2 obstructed sheath regimes. Beam flux deposits either at the entrance of the VP along first 2 cm behind the copper tube or until the end of the VP when beam flux is high and for free sheath. Obstructed sheaths make the repulsive, potential for electrons decrease and so accelerate the flux deposition. (authors)

  10. Applications of time-dependent Raman scattering theory to the one-electron reduction of 4-cyano-n-methylpyridinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    Activation barrier heights, and therefore rates, for molecule-based electron-transfer (ET) reactions are governed by redox thermodynamics and Frank-Condon effects. Quantitative assessment of the latter requires a detailed, quantitative knowledge of all internal and external normal-coordinate displacements, together with appropriate vibrational frequencies (v) or force constants (f). In favorable cases, the desire internal or vibrational displacement information can be satisfactorily estimated from redox-induced bond-length changes as provided, for example, by x-ray crystallography or extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements. Other potentially useful methods include Franck-Condon analysis of structured emission or absorption spectra, hole burning techniques, and application of empirical structure/frequency relationships (E.g., Badger's rules). There are, however, a number of limitations. The most obvious limitations for crystallography are that measurements can be made only in a crystalline environment and that experiments cannot be done on short-lived electron-transfer excited states or on systems which suffer from chemical decomposition following oxidation or reduction. For EXAFS there are additional constrains in that only selected elements display useful scattering and only atoms in close proximity to the scattering center may be detected. This report contains the first successful applications of the Raman methodology to a much larger class of ET reactions, namely, outer-sphere reactions. The report also necessarily represents the first application to a monomeric redox system

  11. A Survey on the Reliability of Power Electronics in Electro-Mobility Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadalla, Brwene Salah Abdelkarim; Schaltz, Erik; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Reliability is an important issue in the field of power electronics since most of the electrical energy is today processed by power electronics. In most of the electro-mobility applications, e.g. electric and hybridelectric vehicles, power electronic are commonly used in very harsh environment...... and extending the service lifetime as well. Research within power electronics is of high interest as it has an important impact in the industry of the electro-mobility applications. According to the aforementioned explanations, this paper will provide an overview of the common factors (thermal cycles, power...... cycles, vibrations, voltage stress and current ripple stress) affecting the reliability of power electronics in electromobility applications. Also, the researchers perspective is summarized from 2001 to 2015....

  12. Inkjet printing and low temperature sintering for organic electronic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wünscher, S.; Teichler, A.; Perelaer, J.; Abbel, R.J.; Schubert, U.S.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, inkjet printing is increasingly used as a flexible and digital patterning technique in order to deposit functional materials for the manufacturing of microelectronic applications, including radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, organic photovoltaics (OPV), organic light

  13. Industrial application of electron beams for grafting and vulcanization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makuuchi, Keizo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1994-12-31

    The topics discussed are radiation graft polymerization; industrial application of radiation grafting - ion exchange membrane for a battery separator, ammonia adsorbent, non-flammable PE (polyethylene) foam; R and D on radiation grafting, radiation vulcanization of natural rubber.

  14. Superconductors. Applications to electronics and electro-technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baixeras, J.

    1998-01-01

    This book replaces superconductivity in its historical background and gives the current and potential applications of superconductors. It is devoted to searchers, engineers and engineer students. (O.M.)

  15. Application of electron beam technology in improving sewage water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    irradiation sewage water can find its application either in agriculture for irrigation or in industry sector for cooling ... The water samples were collected from sewage water treatment .... to be irrigated, soil conditions and the irrigation system.

  16. Industrial application of electron beams for grafting and vulcanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keizo Makuuchi

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed are radiation graft polymerization; industrial application of radiation grafting - ion exchange membrane for a battery separator, ammonia adsorbent, non-flammable PE (polyethylene) foam; R and D on radiation grafting, radiation vulcanization of natural rubber

  17. 47 CFR 1.10007 - What applications can I file electronically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... International Bureau Filing System § 1.10007 What applications can I file electronically? (a) For a complete... the following formats: Word, Adobe Acrobat, Excel and Text. (c) For paper filing rules and procedures...

  18. METHODOLOGICAL BASIS FOR CREATING AN ELECTRONIC APPLICATION TO THE TEXTBOOK "PHYSICS 9"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.U. Blagodarenko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of the analysis of educational software that exist on the Ukrainian market are presented. The structure, functions and advantages of the electronic application to the textbook "Physics 9" are defined.

  19. METHODOLOGICAL BASIS FOR CREATING AN ELECTRONIC APPLICATION TO THE TEXTBOOK "PHYSICS 9"

    OpenAIRE

    L.U. Blagodarenko

    2010-01-01

    The results of the analysis of educational software that exist on the Ukrainian market are presented. The structure, functions and advantages of the electronic application to the textbook "Physics 9" are defined.

  20. Textual Data Mining Applications in the Service Chain Knowledge Management of e-Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Rezaeenour

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Systems related to knowledge management can improve quality and efficiency of knowledge used for decision making process. Approximately 80 percent of corporate information are in textual data formats. That is why text mining is useful and important in service chain knowledge management. For example, one of the most important applications of text mining is in managing on-line source of digital documents and the analysis of internal documents. This research is based on text-based documents and textual information and interviews processed by Grounded theory. In this research clustering techniques were applied at first step. In the second step, Apriori association rules techniques for discovering and extracting the most useful association rules were applied. In other words, integration of datamining techniques was emphasized to improve the accuracy and precision of classification. Using decision tree technique for classification may result in reducing classification precision. But, the proposed method showed a significant improvement in classification precision.

  1. Quantum Kinetic Theory and Applications Electrons, Photons, Phonons

    CERN Document Server

    Vasko, Fedir T

    2006-01-01

    This lecture-style monograph is addressed to several categories of readers. First, it will be useful for graduate students studying theory. Second, the topics covered should be interesting for postgraduate students of various specializations. Third, the researchers who want to understand the background of modern theoretical issues in more detail can find a number of useful results here. The phenomena covered involve kinetics of electron, phonon, and photon systems in solids. The dynamical properties and interactions of electrons, phonons, and photons are briefly described in Chapter 1. Further, in Chapters 2-8, the authors present the main theoretical methods: linear response theory, various kinetic equations for the quasiparticles under consideration, and diagram technique. The presentation of the key approaches is always accompanied by solutions of concrete problems to illustrate ways to apply the theory. The remaining chapters are devoted to various manifestations of quantum transport in solids. The choice...

  2. Survey of electronic safety systems in accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results and analysis of a comprehensive survey of the implementation of accelerator safety interlock systems from over 30 international labs. At the present time there is not a self consistent means to evaluate both the experiences and level of protection provided by electronic safety interlock systems. This research is intended to analyze the strength and weaknesses of several different types of interlock system implementation methodologies. Research, medical, and industrial accelerators are compared. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) was one of the first large particle accelerators to implement a safety interlock system using programmable logic controllers. Since that time all of the major new U.S. accelerator construction projects plan to use some form of programmable electronics as part of a safety interlock system in some capacity

  3. REVIEW OF INDUSTRIES AND GOVERNMENT AGENCIES FOR TECHNOLOGIES APPLICABLE TO DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilkoff, T. E.; Hetland, M. D.; O' Leary, E. M.

    2002-02-25

    The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area's (DDFA's) mission is to develop, demonstrate, and deploy improved deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) technologies. This mission requires that emphasis be continually placed on identifying technologies currently employed or under development in other nuclear as well as nonnuclear industries and government agencies. In support of DDFA efforts to clean up the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) radiologically contaminated surplus facilities using technologies that improve worker safety, reduce costs, and accelerate cleanup schedules, a study was conducted to identify innovative technologies developed for use in nonnuclear arenas that are appropriate for D&D applications.

  4. Investigation and optimisation of a plasma cathode electron beam gun for material processing applications

    OpenAIRE

    Del Pozo Rodriguez, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University London. This thesis describes design, development and testing work on a plasma cathode electron beam gun as well as plasma diagnosis experiments and Electron Beam (EB) current measurements carried out with the aim of maximising the power of the EB extracted and optimising the electron beam gun system for material processing applications. The elements which influence EB gun design are described...

  5. THE MARKET POTENTIAL FOR ELECTRONIC PAYMENT APPLICATIONS IN GHANA AND UGANDA. CASE COMPANY– MAVIANCE GMBH

    OpenAIRE

    Terekhova, Mariia

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, electronic payment solutions are widespread all around the world. Besides, their popularity is rapidly growing in emerging markets bringing numerous business opportunities to the international companies specializing in electronic payment systems. The aim of this thesis is to create a marketing strategy for the penetration of Ghana and Uganda with Smobilpay, which is an electronic payment application of Maviance GmbH. The research is done with the help of an analysis of the busin...

  6. Microwave free-electron laser applications for electron cyclotron heating of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, K.

    1990-01-01

    Millimeter wave power may be the ideal source of heat for the plasma, but advances in technology are needed to meet requirements of next generation fusion devices. Free electron lasers (FEL) are one candidate for such sources, and this paper reviews the progress, issues of physics and technology, and potential benefits for fusion from these devices

  7. Electron irradiation of polymers and its application to resists for electron-beam lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    Resists are used in the fabrication of microelectronic devices to protect the underlying substrate during processes such as chemical etching. Photolithographic techniques are currently used to selectively pattern the resist. However, diffraction effects limit resolution to 1 to 2 μm, and recent trends have been towards using a finely focused beam of high-energy (5 to 20 kV) electrons. This technology potentially offers a much higher resolution as well as other advantages such as improved line-width control and direct computer-controlled fabrication. Several electron-beam writing machines which employ different writing strategies have been developed. These strategies are discussed with reference to current processing needs and constraints which they place on resist performance. Resolution in electron lithography is limited by electron scattering and resist contrast. A variety of models have been developed based on Monte Carlo, analytical, and phenomenological approaches, to predict developed profiles for a given set of exposure and development parameters. These models are reviewed and their results compared with experimental observations of scattering profiles. Optimum design of a resist requires a detailed understanding of the radiation chemistry of polymeric systems. This is discussed with particular emphasis on those resist parameters (such as sensitivity and contrast) which affect lithographic performance. Finally, developments in both positive and negative resists are reviewed. 95 references, 35 figures, 3 tables

  8. Microwave free-electron laser applications for electron cyclotron heating of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1990-01-01

    Millimeter wave power may be the ideal source of heat for a plasma, but advances in technology are needed to meet requirements of next generation fusion devices. Free electron lasers (FEL) are one candidate for such sources, and this paper reviews the progress, issues of physics and technology, and potential benefits for fusion from these devices. 15 refs., 13 figs

  9. Environmental high resolution electron microscopy and applications to chemical science

    OpenAIRE

    Boyes, Edward; Gai, Pratibha

    2017-01-01

    An environmental cell high resolution electron microscope (EHREM) has been developed for in situ studies of dynamic chemical reactions on the atomic scale. It allows access to metastable intermediate phases of catalysts and to sequences of reversible microstructural and chemical development associated with the activation, deactivation and poisoning of a catalyst. Materials transported through air can be restored or recreated and samples damaged, e.g. by dehydration, by the usual vacuum enviro...

  10. Quantum Monte Carlo for electronic structure: Recent developments and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.M.S.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1995-04-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods have been found to give excellent results when applied to chemical systems. The main goal of the present work is to use QMC to perform electronic structure calculations. In QMC, a Monte Carlo simulation is used to solve the Schroedinger equation, taking advantage of its analogy to a classical diffusion process with branching. In the present work the author focuses on how to extend the usefulness of QMC to more meaningful molecular systems. This study is aimed at questions concerning polyatomic and large atomic number systems. The accuracy of the solution obtained is determined by the accuracy of the trial wave function's nodal structure. Efforts in the group have given great emphasis to finding optimized wave functions for the QMC calculations. Little work had been done by systematically looking at a family of systems to see how the best wave functions evolve with system size. In this work the author presents a study of trial wave functions for C, CH, C 2 H and C 2 H 2 . The goal is to study how to build wave functions for larger systems by accumulating knowledge from the wave functions of its fragments as well as gaining some knowledge on the usefulness of multi-reference wave functions. In a MC calculation of a heavy atom, for reasonable time steps most moves for core electrons are rejected. For this reason true equilibration is rarely achieved. A method proposed by Batrouni and Reynolds modifies the way the simulation is performed without altering the final steady-state solution. It introduces an acceleration matrix chosen so that all coordinates (i.e., of core and valence electrons) propagate at comparable speeds. A study of the results obtained using their proposed matrix suggests that it may not be the optimum choice. In this work the author has found that the desired mixing of coordinates between core and valence electrons is not achieved when using this matrix. A bibliography of 175 references is included

  11. Application of Colloidal Palladium Nanoparticles for Labeling in Electron Microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vancová, Marie; Šlouf, Miroslav; Langhans, Jan; Pavlová, Eva; Nebesářová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 5 (2011), s. 810-816 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200520704; GA AV ČR KJB600960906; GA ČR GAP205/10/0348 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : electron microscopy * colloidal palladium * nanoparticles * labeling * salivary glands * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.007, year: 2011

  12. 24 CFR 1000.28 - May a self-governance Indian tribe be exempted from the applicability of § 1000.26?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... be exempted from the applicability of § 1000.26? 1000.28 Section 1000.28 Housing and Urban... ACTIVITIES General § 1000.28 May a self-governance Indian tribe be exempted from the applicability of § 1000... and systems meet or exceed the comparable requirements of § 1000.26. For purposes of this section, a...

  13. Applications of organic and printed electronics : a technology-enabled revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantatore, E.

    2013-01-01

    Organic and printed electronics can enable a revolution in the applications of electronics and this book offers readers an overview of the state-of-the-art in this rapidly evolving domain. The potentially low cost, compatibility with flexible substrates and the wealth of devices that characterize

  14. 75 FR 4343 - Foreign-Trade Zone 22-Chicago, IL; Application for Manufacturing Authority; LG Electronics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Docket 3-2010] Foreign-Trade Zone 22--Chicago, IL; Application for Manufacturing Authority; LG Electronics MobileComm USA, Inc. (Cell Phone Kitting... authority on behalf of LG Electronics MobileComm USA, Inc. (LGEMU), located in Bolingbrook, Illinois. The...

  15. Application of Hybrid IC's to the Automotive Electronics Market in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Eckart von Roda

    1981-01-01

    In the last few years hybrids have been increasingly used in automotive electronics in Europe. With examples from the BOSCH and BLAUPUNKT production range their application in regulators, breakerless ignition modules, electronically-controlled fuel injection systems and car radios is illustrated. The elements and techniques used to assemble the hybrids, and the advantages which can be gained are discussed.

  16. A Study on the Training Mode of Electronic Application-Oriented Undergraduate with Industry Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhonghua; Cheng, Lifang; Wang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Electronic industry is an economic pillar in China. Due to the Moore's Law, the industry requires continuous development and innovation. In order to achieve these goals, the cultivation of electronic application-oriented undergraduate is essential. However, at current, the innovative educational concepts and teaching methods are lagging behind so…

  17. Future applications of electronic-nose technologies in healthcare and biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphus D. Wilson

    2011-01-01

    The development and utilization of many new electronic-nose (e-nose) applications in the healthcare and biomedical fields have continued to rapidly accelerate over the past 20 years. Innovative e-nose technologies are providing unique solutions to a diversity of complex problems in biomedicine that are now coming to fruition. A wide range of electronic-nose instrument...

  18. On the applicability of nearly free electron model for resistivity calculations in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorecki, J.; Popielawski, J.

    1982-09-01

    The calculations of resistivity based on the nearly free electron model are presented for many noble and transition liquid metals. The triple ion correlation is included in resistivity formula according to SCQCA approximation. Two different methods for describing the conduction band are used. The problem of applicability of the nearly free electron model for different metals is discussed. (author)

  19. Information Management: The Challenges of Managing Electronic Records. Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Information Policy, Census and National Archives, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-10-838T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Valerie C.

    2010-01-01

    Federal agencies are increasingly using electronic means to create, exchange, and store information, and in doing so, they frequently create federal records: that is, information, in whatever form, that documents government functions, activities, decisions, and other important transactions. As the volume of electronic information grows, so does…

  20. HIL Simulation of Power Electronics and Electric Drives for Automotive Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Puschmann; Axel Kiffe; Thomas Schulte

    2012-01-01

    Hardware-in-the-loop simulation is today a standard method for testing electronic equipment in the automotive industry. Since electric drives and power electronic devices are more and more important in automotive applications, these kinds of systems have to be integrated into the hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Power converters and electric drives are used in many different applications in vehicles today (hybrid electric or electric powertrain, electric steering systems, DC-DC converters, et...

  1. Electronic aroma detection technology for forensic and law enforcement applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barshick, S.-A.; Griest, W.H.; Vass, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    A major problem hindering criminal investigations is the lack of appropriate tools for proper crime scene investigations. Often locating important pieces of evidence means relying on the ability of trained detection canines. Development of analytical technology to uncover and analyze evidence, potentially at the scene, could serve to expedite criminal investigations, searches, and court proceedings. To address this problem, a new technology based on gas sensor arrays was investigated for its applicability to forensic and law enforcement problems. The technology employs an array of sensors that respond to volatile chemical components yielding a characteristic `fingerprint` pattern representative of the vapor- phase composition of a sample. Sample aromas can be analyzed and identified using artificial neural networks that are trained on known aroma patterns. Several candidate applications based on known technological needs of the forensic and law enforcement communities have been investigated. These applications have included the detection of aromas emanating from cadavers to aid in determining time since death, drug detection for deterring the manufacture, sale, and use of drugs of abuse, and the analysis of fire debris for accelerant identification. The results to date for these applications have been extremely promising and demonstrate the potential applicability of this technology for forensic use.

  2. Governo eletrônico e capital intelectual nas organizações públicas Electronic government and human capital in public organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Joia

    2009-12-01

    between the intellectual capital in the public organizations and the perception of value by the workers involved in those enterprises. Finally, the article presents the limitations of the research, as well as a few conclusions so that public managers, practitioners and scholars can understand the potential of applying the intellectual capital theory to assess electronic government initiatives.

  3. Modified Monte Carlo method for study of electron transport in degenerate electron gas in the presence of electron-electron interactions, application to graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowik, Piotr; Thobel, Jean-Luc; Adamowicz, Leszek

    2017-07-01

    Standard computational methods used to take account of the Pauli Exclusion Principle into Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of electron transport in semiconductors may give unphysical results in low field regime, where obtained electron distribution function takes values exceeding unity. Modified algorithms were already proposed and allow to correctly account for electron scattering on phonons or impurities. Present paper extends this approach and proposes improved simulation scheme allowing including Pauli exclusion principle for electron-electron (e-e) scattering into MC simulations. Simulations with significantly reduced computational cost recreate correct values of the electron distribution function. Proposed algorithm is applied to study transport properties of degenerate electrons in graphene with e-e interactions. This required adapting the treatment of e-e scattering in the case of linear band dispersion relation. Hence, this part of the simulation algorithm is described in details.

  4. Photon and electron interaction databases and their use in medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.

    1994-05-01

    This paper discusses the All Particle-Method photon and electron interaction, and atomic relaxation data bases, that were initially developed for use in medical applications. Currently these data bases are being used in both medical and industrial applications. The All Particle Method data bases are designed to allow modelling of individual collisions in as much detail as possible. Elastic scattering can be modelled as single, as opposed to multiple, scattering events. Ionization can be modelled at the atomic subshell level, to define which subshell was ionized, spectrum of the initially emitted electron, as well as the spectra of electron and photons emitted as the atom relaxes back to neutrality. These data bases are currently being used in applications involving rather small spatial regions, where detailed calculations of individual events are required. While initially designed for use in medical applications, these data bases are now being used in a variety of industrial applications, e.g., transport in microelectronics

  5. Electron, electron-bremsstrahlung and proton depth-dose data for space-shielding applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, S. M.

    1979-01-01

    A data set has been developed, consisting of depth-dose distributions for omni-directional electron and proton fluxes incident on aluminum shields. The principal new feature of this work is the accurate treatment, based on detailed Monte Carlo calculations, of the electron-produced bremsstrahlung component. Results covering the energy region of interest in space-shielding calculations have been obtained for the absorbed dose (a) as a function of depth in a semi-infinite medium, (b) at the edge of slab shields, and (c) at the center of a solid sphere. The dose to a thin tissue-equivalent detector was obtained as well as that in aluminum. Various results and comparisons with other work are given.

  6. Potential application of UV radiation processing in electronic packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng Chee Mang; Lim Yoke Keem; Kumar, R.N.

    1999-01-01

    UV-curable epoxies have been formulated for use in place of the established heat cure epoxy systems for coating, adhesion and encapsulation of electronic devices. The UV-cured epoxy systems can be formulated to give comparable or even better physical and chemical properties than the more common heat cured systems. The UV systems offer significant advantage in very fast cure and hence very short production cycle time. UV systems can also be formulated to give desired properties of increased strength, high Tg, increased humidity resistance and improved temperature cycling performance

  7. Quantum Monte Carlo for electronic structure: Recent developments and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriquez, Maria Milagos Soto [Lawrence Berkeley Lab. and Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-04-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods have been found to give excellent results when applied to chemical systems. The main goal of the present work is to use QMC to perform electronic structure calculations. In QMC, a Monte Carlo simulation is used to solve the Schroedinger equation, taking advantage of its analogy to a classical diffusion process with branching. In the present work the author focuses on how to extend the usefulness of QMC to more meaningful molecular systems. This study is aimed at questions concerning polyatomic and large atomic number systems. The accuracy of the solution obtained is determined by the accuracy of the trial wave function`s nodal structure. Efforts in the group have given great emphasis to finding optimized wave functions for the QMC calculations. Little work had been done by systematically looking at a family of systems to see how the best wave functions evolve with system size. In this work the author presents a study of trial wave functions for C, CH, C2H and C2H2. The goal is to study how to build wave functions for larger systems by accumulating knowledge from the wave functions of its fragments as well as gaining some knowledge on the usefulness of multi-reference wave functions. In a MC calculation of a heavy atom, for reasonable time steps most moves for core electrons are rejected. For this reason true equilibration is rarely achieved. A method proposed by Batrouni and Reynolds modifies the way the simulation is performed without altering the final steady-state solution. It introduces an acceleration matrix chosen so that all coordinates (i.e., of core and valence electrons) propagate at comparable speeds. A study of the results obtained using their proposed matrix suggests that it may not be the optimum choice. In this work the author has found that the desired mixing of coordinates between core and valence electrons is not achieved when using this matrix. A bibliography of 175 references is

  8. Scaling of electron beam sources for laser fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlitt, L.G.; Bradley, L.P.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a scheme for constructing electron beam machines capable of pumping large volumes of gas, to analyze their performance within the framework of existing knowledge of the physical mechanisms involved, to use this analysis to assess the viability of the overall concept, pinpoint weaknesses in the understanding of the physics, identify the most important limiting physical processes, and hence to propose a program to prepare for the eventual construction of a large scale gas laser system. (auth)

  9. Analysis and application of analog electronic circuits to biomedical instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Northrop, Robert B

    2012-01-01

    All chapters include an introduction and chapter summary.Sources and Properties of Biomedical SignalsSources of Endogenous Bioelectric SignalsNerve Action PotentialsMuscle Action PotentialsThe ElectrocardiogramOther BiopotentialsElectrical Properties of BioelectrodesExogenous Bioelectric SignalsProperties and Models of Semiconductor Devices Used in Analog Electronic Systemspn Junction DiodesMidfrequency Models for BJT BehaviorMidfrequency Models for Field-Effect TransistorsHigh-Frequency Models for Transistors and Simple Transistor AmplifiersPhotons, Photodiodes, Photoconductors, LEDs, and Las

  10. The thin layer technique and its application to electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranc, G.

    1957-10-01

    This work deals with the technique of thin layers obtained by evaporation under vacuum, in the thickness range extending from a few monoatomic layers to several hundred angstroms. The great theoretical and practical interest of these layers has, it is well known, given rise to many investigations from Faraday onwards. Within the necessarily restricted limits of this study, we shall approach the problem more particularly from the point of view of: - their production; - their use in electron microscopy. A critical appraisal is made, in the light of present-day knowledge, based on our personal experience and on an extensive bibliography which we have collected on the subject. (author) [fr

  11. DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS ICT AND E-GOVERNMENT IN UZBEKISTAN'S ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman T. Кenjabaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the role and importanceof information and communication technologies (ICTs in the economic development ofUzbekistan. The article deals with national characteristics of ICT applications and analyzes the growth rates of the economy of the republic withthe help of ICT, as well as discusses the theory and practice of application of e-government.Analyzes the shortcomings of it modern systemof "electronic government" in Uzbekistan andrecommended ways to overcome them.

  12. Application of thiolterminated prepolymers for electron beam curing coating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seko, Kenji; Isozaki, Osamu; Iwasawa, Naozumi

    1988-01-01

    It has been known that the mixture of an unsaturated prepolymer and a thiolated prepolymer can be cured by the relatively low dose of electron beam irradiation. As a thiolated prepolymer, polyether-polythiol prepolymer has been in the market. However, the coating films derived from the composition comprising the thiolated prepolymer do not have enough mechanical strength for practical use. In this study, the synthesis of thiolterminated urethane prepolymer and the coating composition comprising this prepolymer for obtaining the coating films having good mechanical properties were investigated. The raw materials used for the synthesis of thiolterminated urethane prepolymer are shown. Its synthesis and the measurement of thiol content, coating formation, the electron beam curing of the coatings and the testing method of coated film performance are explained. The results of the synthesis of the thiolterminated urethane prepolymer, the thermal stability, curability, physical properties and adhesion strength of the coatings are reported. The coatings can be applied to steel and PVC films, and used as the adhesive for steel-PVC film laminates. (Kako, I.)

  13. Recent applications of scanning electron microscopy; Neueste Anwendungen der Rasterelektronenmikroskopie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Sten; Moverare, Johan; Peng, Ru [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Management and Engineering

    2013-07-01

    A few examples were shown of how to use SEM to study phenomena that are not normally visible and possible to identify by introducing a known phenomenon called Electron Channeling. The channeling is best utilized in a FEG SEM not because of the in lens detection system but due to the fact that the highly coherent high electron density probe is creating a high contrast image with a resolution that is high enough to image crystal defects on a dislocation level. The fact that diffraction phenomena are involved in channeling is also of great importance for the contrast formation. The technique allows the user to choose to either just take a picture or decide if the image should be based on careful determination of the Bragg condition. The biggest advantage with channeling in addition the good contrast produced is the possibility to literally combine it with other techniques like EBSD. In fact, it is also possible to use thin foils to combine ECCI, EBSD, EDS and STEM in a modern FEG SEM. The development of a eucentric specimen stage of the same class as a TEM stage would allow even more advanced microscopy in SEM. (orig.)

  14. Application of printed nanocrystalline diamond film for electron emission cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiuxia; Wei Shuyi; Lei Chongmin; Wei Jie; Lu Bingheng; Ding Yucheng; Zhu Changchun

    2011-01-01

    The low-cost and large area screen-printed nano-diamond film (NDF) for electronic emission was fabricated. The edges and corners of nanocrystalline diamond are natural field-emitters. The nano-diamond paste for screen-printing was fabricated of mixing nano-graphite and other inorganic or organic vehicles. Through enough disperse in isopropyl alcohol by ultrasonic nano-diamond paste was screen-printed on the substrates to form NDF. SEM images showed that the surface morphology of NDF was improved, and the nano-diamond emitters were exposed from NDF through the special thermal-sintering technique and post-treatment process. The field emission characteristics of NDF were measured under all conditions with 10 -6 Pa pressure. The results indicated that the field emission stability and emission uniformity of NDF were improved through hydrogen plasma post-treatment process. The turn-on field decreased from 1.60 V/μm to 1.25 V/μm. The screen-printed NDF can be applied to the displays electronic emission cathode for low-cost outdoor in large area.

  15. Application of electron beam on natural polymer systems. Viscose rayon and polysaccharide derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudoh, Hisaaki

    2003-01-01

    Application of electron accelerator on natural polymers, viscose rayon and polysaccharide derivatives is presented. In Canada at AECL, a high-energy (10 MeV) electron linear accelerator named IMPELA was used to reduce and control molecular weight of cellulose. Recently, under UNDP/RCA/IAEA project, Asian countries had a cooperated research program on this subject. Kinetics of radiation chemistry of polysaccharide derivatives is under investigation by means of pulse radiolysis with a 35 MeV electron linear accelerator. Rate constants between polymers and hydrated electron etc., and characteristics of very long-lived polymer radical were reported. (author)

  16. Silicon-germanium (Sige) nanostructures production, properties and applications in electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Usami, N

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructured silicon-germanium (SiGe) provides the prospect of novel and enhanced electronic device performance. This book reviews the materials science and technology of SiGe nanostructures, including crystal growth, fabrication of nanostructures, material properties and applications in electronics.$bNanostructured silicon-germanium (SiGe) opens up the prospects of novel and enhanced electronic device performance, especially for semiconductor devices. Silicon-germanium (SiGe) nanostructures reviews the materials science of nanostructures and their properties and applications in different electronic devices. The introductory part one covers the structural properties of SiGe nanostructures, with a further chapter discussing electronic band structures of SiGe alloys. Part two concentrates on the formation of SiGe nanostructures, with chapters on different methods of crystal growth such as molecular beam epitaxy and chemical vapour deposition. This part also includes chapters covering strain engineering and mo...

  17. Today's status of application of high power electron beam welding to heavy electric machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Hisanao; Okuni, Tetsuo; Sejima, Itsuhiko.

    1980-01-01

    The progress in high energy welding is remarkable in recent years, and electron beam welding is now widely used in heavy industries. However, there are number of problems to be solved in the application of high power electron beam welding to ultra thick steel plates (over 100 mm). The following matters are described: the economy of high power electron beam welding; the development of the welding machines; the problems in the actual application; the instances of the welding in a high-pressure spherical gas tank, non-magnetic steel structures and high-precision welded structures; weldor training; etc. For the future rise in the capacities of heavy electric machinery, the high efficiency by high power electron beam welding will be useful. The current status is its applications to the high-precision welding of large structures with 6 m diameter and the high-quality welding of heavy structures with 160 mm thickness. (J.P.N.)

  18. SP@CE - An SP-based programming model for consumer electronics streaming applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varbanescu, Ana Lucia; Nijhuis, Maik; Escribano, Arturo González; Sips, Henk; Bos, Herbert; Bal, Henri

    2007-01-01

    Efficient programming of multimedia streaming applications for Consumer Electronics (CE) devices is not trivial. As a solution for this problem, we present SP@CE, a novel programming model designed to balance the specific requirements of CE streaming applications with the simplicity and efficiency

  19. Application of scandium oxide in an electron emission material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suqiu, Y.; Zhizheng, Z.; Yongde, W.

    1985-01-01

    Modern microwave devices impose a number of harsh requirements on the cathodes. For instance, they require cathodes having low working temperature, high emissive current density, slow evaporation rate of the emissive-active material, long lifetime, quick heating and so on. The commercial B-cathode is no longer able to meet these requirements completely. A scandate cathode may be a promising one for use in these devices. Adding rare-earth elements in the electron emission material has been reported in many papers. Based on a B-cathode we add a little amount of scandium oxide (about 3%) into emission material to manufacture a scandate cathode. The emission property of such a cathode has been improved greatly. If the composition is controlled correctly, the emission level of such a cathode may be five times more as high as the B-cathode

  20. Accelerator for medical applications and electron acceleration by laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokai, Tomonao; Uesaka, Mitsuru

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the current status of radiation therapies in Japan and updated medical accelerators are reviewed. For medical use, there is a strong demand of a compact and flexible accelerator. At present, however, we have only two choices of the S-band linac with one or two rotation axis combined with the multi leaf collimator, or the X-band linac with a rather flexible robotic arm. In addition, the laser plasma cathode that is the second generation of the laser wake-field accelerator (LWFA) is studied as a high-quality electron source for medical use though it is still at the stage of the basic research. The potential of LWFA as medical accelerator near future is discussed based on updated results of laser plasma cathode experiment in Univ. of Tokyo. (author)

  1. High-resolution electron microscopy and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F H

    1987-12-01

    A review of research on high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) carried out at the Institute of Physics, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is presented. Apart from the direct observation of crystal and quasicrystal defects for some alloys, oxides, minerals, etc., and the structure determination for some minute crystals, an approximate image-contrast theory named pseudo-weak-phase object approximation (PWPOA), which shows the image contrast change with crystal thickness, is described. Within the framework of PWPOA, the image contrast of lithium ions in the crystal of R-Li2Ti3O7 has been observed. The usefulness of diffraction analysis techniques such as the direct method and Patterson method in HREM is discussed. Image deconvolution and resolution enhancement for weak-phase objects by use of the direct method are illustrated. In addition, preliminary results of image restoration for thick crystals are given.

  2. Synthesis and electrical properties of silver nanoplates for electronic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Nana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, silver nanoplates of 100 to 500 nm size were synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate with N,Ndimethylformamide, using poly(vinylpyrolidone as a surfactant and ferric chloride as a controlling agent, at 120 to 160 °C for 5 to 24 hours. The influence of the concentration of ferric chloride, the reaction temperature and reaction time on the morphology of the product has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results indicated that the products obtained at the low reaction temperature and short reaction time in the presence of FeCl3 in the reaction solution were in the form of silver nanoplates, whose morphology was mainly triangular and hexagonal. In addition, the size and thickness of the nanoplates increased with increasing of the FeCl3 concentration. At a high reaction temperature and long reaction time, the truncated triangle and hexagonal nanoplates were mainly produced. Furthermore, the sintering behavior of nanoplates was studied and the results showed that sintering of the silver nanoplates started at 180 °C, and a typical sintering behavior was observed at higher temperatures. The incorporation of the silver nanoplates into the polymer matrix with micro-sized silver flakes led to an increase in the matrix resistivity in almost all cases, especially at high fractions and low curing temperatures. The curing temperature had an influence on the resistivity of the conductive adhesives filled with micro-sized silver flakes and silver nanoplates due to sintering of the silver nanoplates.

  3. An Evaluation of Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration for Signal and Image Processing in Professional Electronics Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulagnier Denis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Signal and image processing applications require a lot of computing resources. For low-volume applications like in professional electronics applications, FPGA are used in combination with DSP and GPP in order to reach the performances required by the product roadmaps. Nevertheless, FPGA designs are static, which raises a flexibility issue with new complex or software defined applications like software-defined radio (SDR. In this scope, dynamic partial reconfiguration (DPR is used to bring a virtualization layer upon the static hardware of FPGA. During the last decade, DPR has been widely studied in academia. Nevertheless, there are very few real applications using it, and therefore, there is a lack of feedback providing relevant issues to address in order to improve its applicability. This paper evaluates the interest and limitations when using DPR in professional electronics applications and provides guidelines to improve its applicability. It makes a fair evaluation based on experiments made on a set of signal and image processing applications. It identifies the missing elements of the design flow to use DPR in professional electronics applications. Finally, it introduces a fast reconfiguration manager providing an 84-time improvement compared to the vendor solution.

  4. CMOS-Technology-Enabled Flexible and Stretchable Electronics for Internet of Everything Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2015-11-26

    Flexible and stretchable electronics can dramatically enhance the application of electronics for the emerging Internet of Everything applications where people, processes, data and devices will be integrated and connected, to augment quality of life. Using naturally flexible and stretchable polymeric substrates in combination with emerging organic and molecular materials, nanowires, nanoribbons, nanotubes, and 2D atomic crystal structured materials, significant progress has been made in the general area of such electronics. However, high volume manufacturing, reliability and performance per cost remain elusive goals for wide commercialization of these electronics. On the other hand, highly sophisticated but extremely reliable, batch-fabrication-capable and mature complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based technology has facilitated tremendous growth of today\\'s digital world using thin-film-based electronics; in particular, bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) which is used in most of the electronics existing today. However, one fundamental challenge is that state-of-the-art CMOS electronics are physically rigid and brittle. Therefore, in this work, how CMOS-technology-enabled flexible and stretchable electronics can be developed is discussed, with particular focus on bulk monocrystalline silicon (100). A comprehensive information base to realistically devise an integration strategy by rational design of materials, devices and processes for Internet of Everything electronics is offered. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. CMOS technology: a critical enabler for free-form electronics-based killer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Muhammad M.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Hanna, Amir

    2016-05-01

    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology offers batch manufacturability by ultra-large-scaleintegration (ULSI) of high performance electronics with a performance/cost advantage and profound reliability. However, as of today their focus has been on rigid and bulky thin film based materials. Their applications have been limited to computation, communication, display and vehicular electronics. With the upcoming surge of Internet of Everything, we have critical opportunity to expand the world of electronics by bridging between CMOS technology and free form electronics which can be used as wearable, implantable and embedded form. The asymmetry of shape and softness of surface (skins) in natural living objects including human, other species, plants make them incompatible with the presently available uniformly shaped and rigidly structured today's CMOS electronics. But if we can break this barrier then we can use the physically free form electronics for applications like plant monitoring for expansion of agricultural productivity and quality, we can find monitoring and treatment focused consumer healthcare electronics - and many more creative applications. In our view, the fundamental challenge is to engage the mass users to materialize their creative ideas. Present form of electronics are too complex to understand, to work with and to use. By deploying game changing additive manufacturing, low-cost raw materials, transfer printing along with CMOS technology, we can potentially stick high quality CMOS electronics on any existing objects and embed such electronics into any future objects that will be made. The end goal is to make them smart to augment the quality of our life. We use a particular example on implantable electronics (brain machine interface) and its integration strategy enabled by CMOS device design and technology run path.

  6. CMOS technology: a critical enabler for free-form electronics-based killer applications

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-05-17

    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology offers batch manufacturability by ultra-large-scaleintegration (ULSI) of high performance electronics with a performance/cost advantage and profound reliability. However, as of today their focus has been on rigid and bulky thin film based materials. Their applications have been limited to computation, communication, display and vehicular electronics. With the upcoming surge of Internet of Everything, we have critical opportunity to expand the world of electronics by bridging between CMOS technology and free form electronics which can be used as wearable, implantable and embedded form. The asymmetry of shape and softness of surface (skins) in natural living objects including human, other species, plants make them incompatible with the presently available uniformly shaped and rigidly structured today’s CMOS electronics. But if we can break this barrier then we can use the physically free form electronics for applications like plant monitoring for expansion of agricultural productivity and quality, we can find monitoring and treatment focused consumer healthcare electronics – and many more creative applications. In our view, the fundamental challenge is to engage the mass users to materialize their creative ideas. Present form of electronics are too complex to understand, to work with and to use. By deploying game changing additive manufacturing, low-cost raw materials, transfer printing along with CMOS technology, we can potentially stick high quality CMOS electronics on any existing objects and embed such electronics into any future objects that will be made. The end goal is to make them smart to augment the quality of our life. We use a particular example on implantable electronics (brain machine interface) and its integration strategy enabled by CMOS device design and technology run path. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is

  7. Generation and application of slow positrons based on a electron LINAC

    CERN Document Server

    Kurihara, T

    2002-01-01

    History of slow positron in Institute of Materials Structure Science High Energy Accelerator Research Organization is explained. The principle of generation and application of intense positron beam is mentioned. Two sources of intense positron are radioactive decay of radioactive isotopes emitting positron and electron-positron pair creation. The radioactive decay method uses sup 5 sup 8 Co, sup 6 sup 4 Cu, sup 1 sup 1 C, sup 1 sup 3 N, sup 1 sup 5 O and sup 1 sup 8 F. The electron-positron pair creation method uses nuclear reactor or electron linear accelerator (LINAC). The positron experimental facility in this organization consists of electron LINAC, slow positron beam source, positron transport and experimental station. The outline of this facility is started. The intense slow positron beam is applied to research positronium work function, electron structure of surface. New method such as combination of positron lifetime measurement and slow positron beam or Auger electron spectroscopy by positron annihil...

  8. Generation of low-emittance electron beams in electrostatic accelerators for FEL applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Chen; Elias, Luis R.

    1995-02-01

    This paper reports results of transverse emittance studies and beam propagation in electrostatic accelerators for free electron laser applications. In particular, we discuss emittance growth analysis of a low current electron beam system consisting of a miniature thermoionic electron gun and a National Electrostatics Accelerator (NEC) tube. The emittance growth phenomenon is discussed in terms of thermal effects in the electron gun cathode and aberrations produced by field gradient changes occurring inside the electron gun and throughout the accelerator tube. A method of reducing aberrations using a magnetic solenoidal field is described. Analysis of electron beam emittance was done with the EGUN code. Beam propagation along the accelerator tube was studied using a cylindrically symmetric beam envelope equation that included beam self-fields and the external accelerator fields which were derived from POISSON simulations.

  9. Generation of low-emittance electron beams in electrostatic accelerators for FEL applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Teng; Central Florida Univ., Orlando, FL; Elias, L.R. R.; Central Florida Univ., Orlando, FL

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports results of transverse emittance studies and beam propagation in electrostatic accelerators for free electron laser applications. In particular, we discuss emittance growth analysis of a low current electron beam system consisting of a miniature thermoionic electron gun and a National Electrostatics Accelerator (NEC) tube. The emittance growth phenomenon is discussed in terms of thermal effects in the electron gun cathode and aberrations produced by field gradient changes occurring inside the electron gun and throughout the accelerator tube. A method of reducing aberrations using a magnetic solenoidal field is described. Analysis of electron beam emittance was done with the EGUN code. Beam propagation along the accelerator tube was studied using a cylindrically symmetric beam envelope equation that included beam self-fields and the external accelerator fields which were derived from POISSON simulations. ((orig.))

  10. Generation of low-emittance electron beams in electrostatic accelerators for FEL applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Teng [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States). Center for Research in Electro-Optics and Lasers (CREOL)]|[Central Florida Univ., Orlando, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Elias, L.R. R. [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States). Center for Research in Electro-Optics and Lasers (CREOL)]|[Central Florida Univ., Orlando, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1995-01-30

    This paper reports results of transverse emittance studies and beam propagation in electrostatic accelerators for free electron laser applications. In particular, we discuss emittance growth analysis of a low current electron beam system consisting of a miniature thermoionic electron gun and a National Electrostatics Accelerator (NEC) tube. The emittance growth phenomenon is discussed in terms of thermal effects in the electron gun cathode and aberrations produced by field gradient changes occurring inside the electron gun and throughout the accelerator tube. A method of reducing aberrations using a magnetic solenoidal field is described. Analysis of electron beam emittance was done with the EGUN code. Beam propagation along the accelerator tube was studied using a cylindrically symmetric beam envelope equation that included beam self-fields and the external accelerator fields which were derived from POISSON simulations. ((orig.))

  11. Generation and application of slow positrons based on a electron LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Toshikazu

    2002-01-01

    History of slow positron in Institute of Materials Structure Science High Energy Accelerator Research Organization is explained. The principle of generation and application of intense positron beam is mentioned. Two sources of intense positron are radioactive decay of radioactive isotopes emitting positron and electron-positron pair creation. The radioactive decay method uses 58 Co, 64 Cu, 11 C, 13 N, 15 O and 18 F. The electron-positron pair creation method uses nuclear reactor or electron linear accelerator (LINAC). The positron experimental facility in this organization consists of electron LINAC, slow positron beam source, positron transport and experimental station. The outline of this facility is started. The intense slow positron beam is applied to research positronium work function, electron structure of surface. New method such as combination of positron lifetime measurement and slow positron beam or Auger electron spectroscopy by positron annihilation excitation and positron reemission microscope are developed. (S.Y.)

  12. Graphene-Based Chemical Vapor Sensors for Electronic Nose Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallon, Eric C.

    An electronic nose (e-nose) is a biologically inspired device designed to mimic the operation of the olfactory system. The e-nose utilizes a chemical sensor array consisting of broadly responsive vapor sensors, whose combined response produces a unique pattern for a given compound or mixture. The sensor array is inspired by the biological function of the receptor neurons found in the human olfactory system, which are inherently cross-reactive and respond to many different compounds. The use of an e-nose is an attractive approach to predict unknown odors and is used in many fields for quantitative and qualitative analysis. If properly designed, an e-nose has the potential to adapt to new odors it was not originally designed for through laboratory training and algorithm updates. This would eliminate the lengthy and costly R&D costs associated with materiel and product development. Although e-nose technology has been around for over two decades, much research is still being undertaken in order to find new and more diverse types of sensors. Graphene is a single-layer, 2D material comprised of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice, with extraordinary electrical, mechanical, thermal and optical properties due to its 2D, sp2-bonded structure. Graphene has much potential as a chemical sensing material due to its 2D structure, which provides a surface entirely exposed to its surrounding environment. In this configuration, every carbon atom in graphene is a surface atom, providing the greatest possible surface area per unit volume, so that electron transport is highly sensitive to adsorbed molecular species. Graphene has gained much attention since its discovery in 2004, but has not been realized in many commercial electronics. It has the potential to be a revolutionary material for use in chemical sensors due to its excellent conductivity, large surface area, low noise, and versatile surface for functionalization. In this work, graphene is incorporated into a

  13. Modification of indole by electron-rich atoms and their application in novel electron donor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Maolin; Qin, Guangjiong; Liu, Jialei; Zhen, Zhen; Fedorchuk, A. A.; Lakshminarayana, G.; Albassam, A. A.; El-Naggar, A. M.; Ozga, Katarzyna; Kityk, I. V.

    2017-08-01

    Novel nonlinear optical (NLO) chromophore based on 6-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)-1H-indole as the electron donor group was designed and synthesized. The molecular structure of this chromophore was characterized by 1H NMR spectra, 13C NMR spectra, and MS spectra. The delocalized energy level was estimated by UV-Vis. spectra. The thermal property was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The poled films containing chromophores ZML-1 with a loading density of 10 wt% in amorphous polycarbonate (APC) afford an average electro-optic (EO) coefficient (r33) of 19 pm/V at 1310 nm. Compared to the reported aniline-based chromophore (r33 = 12 pm/V) analogues, chromophore ZML-1 exhibits enhanced electro-optical activity.

  14. Application of electron paramagnetic resonance to identify irradiated soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskar, S.; Behere, Arun; Sharma, Arun

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy was applied to study free radicals in soy bean seed after gamma irradiation and to establish the potential of these radiation induced free radicals as the indicator of the radiation treatment. The radiation doses administered to the samples were 1 to 30 kGy. A stable doublet signal was detected at g = 2.0279 with hyperfine coupling constant of 2.8 mT, produced only by radiolysis. This signal can be used to identify irradiated soy bean seed samples. With the increase of the radiation dose the central line intensity and the intensities of the satellite lines showed almost a linear rise having linear correlation factors of 0.99724 and 0.99996, respectively. Thermal treatment at 373 deg K in air was studied. No line specific to thermolysis was observed. The spectrometer was operated with power 0.253 mW, microwave frequency 9.74 GHz, modulation frequency 100 kHz and scan range 10 mT. To study the stability of the signal, EPR spectra were obtained from the irradiated skin part of soy bean seeds samples following 1 and 90 days of storage after radiation treatment. The two satellite lines of g left = 2.0279 and g right 1.99529 were detected in all samples. This suggests that the signal is associated with a stable radical and therefore, the detection of a particular free radical as a marker of irradiation is proposed

  15. Properties of TBCCO 2212 thin films for electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreone, A.; Cassinese, A.; Palomba, F.; Pica, G.; Salluzzo, M.; Malandrino, G.; Ancarani, V.; Fragala, I.L.

    1999-01-01

    The authors report on the synthesis and structural and electrical characterization of high quality Tl 2 Ba 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O x superconducting thin films. The samples have been prepared ex-situ by a combined approach of metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) and thallium vapor diffusion. The films have been grown on 10x10 mm 2 (100) LaAlO 3 substrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analyses (EDX) have investigated the morphological and compositional nature of the films. The transport properties have been measured using both a four-probes and an inductive method. The highest critical temperature and critical current density are 104 K and 1 x 10 6 A/cm 2 respectively. The microwave response of two samples has been studied using a microstrip resonator technique. The best surface resistance values are below 200 μΩ at 1.2 GHz and 4.2 K. Measurements of the field dependence of the surface resistance have been performed

  16. Applications of pulsed intense relativistic electron beam to aquatic conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Kondo, Hironobu; Sasaki, Toru; Harada, Nob.; Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Imada, Go

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we propose aquatic conservations by using a pulsed intense relativistic electron beam (PIREB). Treatments of introduced species and toxics azo dyes by irradiating PIREB are investigated in this report. Zooplankton contained in water have been inactivated by irradiation of PIREB. A treatment chamber is filled with a solution of 3-wt% salt in water containing Artemia larvae as zooplankton samples, and is irradiated using the PIREB (2 MeV, 0.4 kA, 140 ns). We found that up to 24% of the Artemia are inactivated by firing 10 shots of PIREB irradiation. It is found that pH changes did not affect to inactivate the Artemia larvae during the time scale of PIREB irradiation. The reaction of congo red, a well-known toxic azo dye, occurred after irradiation by PIREB. An aquation of congo red was irradiated by PIREB (2 MeV, 0.36 kA, 140 ns). After PIREB irradiation, the solution was measured by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. It was found that congo red underwent a reaction (77% conversion after five shots of PIREB irradiation) and the hydroxylated compounds of the dye were observed as reaction products. (author)

  17. Nano-PCMs for passive electronic cooling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, L.; Fedele, L.; Mancin, S.; Buonomo, B.; Ercole, D.; Manca, O.

    2015-11-01

    The present work aims at investigating a new challenging use of oxide (TiO2, Al2O3, etc.) nanoparticles to enhance the thermal properties: thermal conductivity, specific heat, and latent heat of pure paraffin waxes to obtain a new class of Phase Change Materials (PCMs), the so-called nano-PCMs. The nano-PCMs were obtained by seeding different amounts of oxide nanoparticles in a paraffin wax having a melting temperature of 45°C. The thermophysical properties such as latent heat and thermal conductivity were then measured to understand the effects of the nanoparticles on the thermal properties of both the solid and liquid PCM. Finally, a numerical comparison between the use of the pure paraffin wax and the nano-PCM in a typical electronics passive cooling device was implemented. Numerical simulations were carried out using the Ansys-Fluent 15.0 code. Results in terms of solid and liquid phase temperatures, melting time and junction temperature were reported. Moreover, a comparison with experimental results was also performed.

  18. Optical and Electronic NOx Sensors for Applications in Mechatronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Wolter

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Current production and emerging NOx sensors based on optical and nanomaterials technologies are reviewed. In view of their potential applications in mechatronics, we compared the performance of: i Quantum cascade lasers (QCL based photoacoustic (PA systems; ii gold nanoparticles as catalytically active materials in field-effect transistor (FET sensors, and iii functionalized III-V semiconductor based devices. QCL-based PA sensors for NOx show a detection limit in the sub part-per-million range and are characterized by high selectivity and compact set-up. Electrochemically synthesized gold-nanoparticle FET sensors are able to monitor NOx in a concentration range from 50 to 200 parts per million and are suitable for miniaturization. Porphyrin-functionalized III-V semiconductor materials can be used for the fabrication of a reliable NOx sensor platform characterized by high conductivity, corrosion resistance, and strong surface state coupling.

  19. Optical and Electronic NOx Sensors for Applications in Mechatronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Cinzia; Elia, Angela; Spagnolo, Vincenzo; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Lugarà, Pietro Mario; Ieva, Eliana; Cioffi, Nicola; Torsi, Luisa; Bruno, Giovanni; Losurdo, Maria; Garcia, Michael A.; Wolter, Scott D.; Brown, April; Ricco, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Current production and emerging NOx sensors based on optical and nanomaterials technologies are reviewed. In view of their potential applications in mechatronics, we compared the performance of: i) Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) based photoacoustic (PA) systems; ii) gold nanoparticles as catalytically active materials in field-effect transistor (FET) sensors, and iii) functionalized III-V semiconductor based devices. QCL-based PA sensors for NOx show a detection limit in the sub part-per-million range and are characterized by high selectivity and compact set-up. Electrochemically synthesized gold-nanoparticle FET sensors are able to monitor NOx in a concentration range from 50 to 200 parts per million and are suitable for miniaturization. Porphyrin-functionalized III-V semiconductor materials can be used for the fabrication of a reliable NOx sensor platform characterized by high conductivity, corrosion resistance, and strong surface state coupling. PMID:22412315

  20. Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Applications: Joint Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Regardless of the corrosivity of the environment, all metals require periodic maintenance activity to guard against the insidious effects of corrosion and thus ensure that alloys meet or exceed design or performance life. The standard practice for protecting metallic substrates is the application of a coating system. Applied coating systems work via a variety of methods (barrier, galvanic, and/or inhibitor) and adhere to the substrate through a combination of chemical and physical bonds. For years hexavalent chromium has been a widely used element within applied coating systems because of its self healing and corrosion resistant properties. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) studies have concluded that hexavalent chromium (hex chrome) is carcinogenic and poses significant risk to human health. On May 5, 2011 amendments to the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) were issued in the Federal Register. Subpart 223.73 prohibits contracts from requiring hexavalent chromium in deliverables unless certain exceptions apply. These exceptions include authorization from a general or flag officer and members of the Senior Executive Service from a Program Executive Office, and unmodified legacy systems. Otherwise, Subpart 252.223-7008 provides the contract clause prohibiting contractors from using or delivering hexavalent chromium in a concentration greater than 0.1 percent by weight for all new contracts and to be included down to subcontractors for supplies, maintenance and repair services, and construction materials. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Department of Defense (DoD), and industry stakeholders continue to search for alternatives to hex chrome in coatings applications that meet their performance requirements in corrosion protection, cost, operability, and health and safety, while typically specifying that performance must be equal to or greater than existing systems.

  1. Application of a dummy eye shield for electron treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sei-Kwon; Park, Soah; Hwang, Taejin; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Han, Taejin; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Me-Yeon; Kim, Kyoung Ju; Oh, Do Hoon; Bae, Hoonsik

    2013-01-01

    Metallic eye shields have been widely used for near-eye treatments to protect critical regions, but have never been incorporated into treatment plans because of the unwanted appearance of the metal artifacts on CT images. The purpose of this work was to test the use of an acrylic dummy eye shield as a substitute for a metallic eye shield during CT scans. An acrylic dummy shield of the same size as the tungsten eye shield was machined and CT scanned. The BEAMnrc and the DOSXYZnrc were used for the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, with the appropriate material information and density for the aluminum cover, steel knob and tungsten body of the eye shield. The Pinnacle adopting the Hogstrom electron pencil-beam algorithm was used for the one-port 6-MeV beam plan after delineation and density override of the metallic parts. The results were confirmed with the metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) detectors and the Gafchromic EBT2 film measurements. For both the maximum eyelid dose over the shield and the maximum dose under the shield, the MC results agreed with the EBT2 measurements within 1.7%. For the Pinnacle plan, the maximum dose under the shield agreed with the MC within 0.3%; however, the eyelid dose differed by -19.3%. The adoption of the acrylic dummy eye shield was successful for the treatment plan. However, the Pinnacle pencil-beam algorithm was not sufficient to predict the eyelid dose on the tungsten shield, and more accurate algorithms like MC should be considered for a treatment plan. (author)

  2. Application of Distributed DC/DC Electronics in Photovoltaic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabala, Michael

    In a typical residential, commercial or utility grade photovoltaic (PV) system, PV modules are connected in series and in parallel to form an array that is connected to a standard DC/AC inverter, which is then connected directly to the grid. This type of standard installation; however, does very little to maximize the energy output of the solar array if certain conditions exist. These conditions could include age, temperature, irradiance and other factors that can cause mismatch between PV modules in an array that severely cripple the output power of the system. Since PV modules are typically connected in series to form a string, the output of the entire string is limited by the efficiency of the weakest module. With PV module efficiencies already relatively low, it is critical to extract the maximum power out of each module in order to make solar energy an economically viable competitor to oil and gas. Module level DC/DC electronics with maximum power point (MPP) tracking solves this issue by decoupling each module from the string in order for the module to operate independently of the geometry and complexity of the surrounding system. This allows each PV module to work at its maximum power point by transferring the maximum power the module is able to deliver directly to the load by either boosting (stepping up) the voltage or bucking (stepping down) the voltage. The goal of this thesis is to discuss the development of a per-module DC/DC converter in order to maximize the energy output of a PV module and reduce the overall cost of the system by increasing the energy harvest.

  3. Application of the electron pencil beam redefinition algorithm to electron arc therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, P.-C.M.; Hogstrom, Kenneth R.; Starkschall, George; Boyd, Robert A.; Tucker, Susan L.; Antolak, John A.

    2006-01-01

    This project investigated the potential of summing fixed-beam dose distributions calculated using the pencil-beam redefinition algorithm (PBRA) at small angular steps (1 deg.) to model an electron arc therapy beam. The PRBA, previously modified to model skin collimation, was modified further by incorporating two correction factors. One correction factor that is energy, SSD (source-to-surface distance), and field-width dependent constrained the calculated dose output to be the same as the measured dose output for fixed-beam geometries within the range of field widths and SSDs encountered in arc therapy. Another correction factor (single field-width correction factor for each energy) compensated for large-angle scattering not being modeled, allowing a more accurate calculation of dose output at mid arc. The PBRA was commissioned to accurately calculate dose in a water phantom for fixed-beam geometries typical of electron arc therapy. Calculated central-axis depth doses agreed with measured doses to within 2% in the low-dose gradient regions and within 1-mm in the high-dose gradient regions. Off-axis doses agreed to within 2 mm in the high-dose gradient regions and within 3% in the low-dose gradient regions. Arced-beam calculations of dose output and depth dose at mid arc were evaluated by comparing to data measured using two cylindrical water phantoms with radii of 12 and 15 cm at 10 and 15 MeV. Dose output was measured for all combinations of phantom radii of curvature, collimator widths (4, 5, and 6 cm), and arc angles (0 deg., 20 deg., 40 deg., 60 deg., 80 deg., and 90 deg.) for both beam energies. Results showed the calculated mid-arc dose output to agree within 2% of measurement for all combinations. For a 90 deg.arc angle and 5x20 cm 2 field size, the calculated mid-arc depth dose in the low-dose gradient region agreed to within 2% of measurement for all depths at 10 MeV and for depths greater than depth of dose maximum R 100 at 15 MeV. For depths in the

  4. Interactive governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy

    Governance has become one of the most commonly used concepts in contemporary political science. It is, however, often used to mean a variety of different things. This book helps to clarify this conceptual muddle by concentrating on one variety of governance-interactive governance. The authors argue...... that although the state may remain important for many aspects of governing, interactions between state and society represent an important, and perhaps increasingly important, dimension of governance. These interactions may be with social actors such as networks, with market actors or with other governments......, but all these forms represent means of governing involving mixtures of state action with the actions of other entities.This book explores thoroughly this meaning of governance, and links it to broader questions of governance. In the process of explicating this dimension of governance the authors also...

  5. 47 CFR 1.10011 - Who may sign applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... electronically filed applications. An electronic application is “signed” when there is an electronic signature. An electronic signature is the typed name of the person “signing” the application, which is then..., amendments, and related statements of fact on behalf of eligible government entities, an elected or appointed...

  6. Electronic Power System Application of Diamond-Like Carbon Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Richard L. C.; Kosai, H.; Fries-Carr, S.; Weimer, J.; Freeman, M.; Schwarze, G. E.

    2003-01-01

    A prototype manufacturing technology for producing high volume efficiency and high energy density diamond-like carbon (DLC) capacitors has been developed. Unique dual ion-beam deposition and web-handling systems have been designed and constructed to deposit high quality DLC films simultaneously on both sides of capacitor grade aluminum foil and aluminum-coated polymer films. An optimized process, using inductively coupled RF ion sources, has been used to synthesize electrically robust DLC films. DLC films are amorphous and highly flexible, making them suitable for the production of wound capacitors. DLC capacitors are reliable and stable over a wide range of AC frequencies from 20 Hz to 1 MHz, and over a temperature range from .500 C to 3000 C. The compact DLC capacitors offer at least a 50% decrease in weight and volume and a greater than 50% increase in temperature handling capability over equal value capacitors built with existing technologies. The DLC capacitors will be suitable for high temperature, high voltage, pulsed power and filter applications.

  7. Graphene Inks with Cellulosic Dispersants: Development and Applications for Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Ethan Benjamin

    Graphene offers promising opportunities for applications in printed and flexible electronic devices due to its high electrical and thermal conductivity, mechanical flexibility and strength, and chemical and environmental stability. However, scalable production and processing of graphene presents a critical technological challenge preventing the application of graphene for flexible electronic interconnects, electrochemical energy storage, and chemically robust electrical contacts. In this thesis, a promising and versatile platform for the production, patterning, and application of graphene inks is presented based on cellulosic dispersants. Graphene is produced from flake graphite using scalable liquid-phase exfoliation methods, using the polymers ethyl cellulose and nitrocellulose as multifunctional dispersing agents. These cellulose derivatives offer high colloidal stability and broadly tunable rheology for graphene dispersions, providing an effective and tunable platform for graphene ink development. Thermal or photonic annealing decomposes the polymer dispersant to yield high conductivity, flexible graphene patterns for various electronics applications. In particular, the chemical stability of graphene enables robust electrical contacts for ceramic, metallic, organic and electrolytic materials, validating the diverse applicability of graphene in printed electronics. Overall, the strategy for graphene ink design presented here offers a simple, efficient, and versatile method for integrating graphene in a wide range of printed devices and systems, providing both fundamental insight for nanomaterial ink development and realistic opportunities for practical applications.

  8. Power Electronics for Distributed Energy Systems and Transmission and Distribution Applications: Assessing the Technical Needs for Utility Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolbert, L.M.

    2005-12-21

    Power electronics can provide utilities the ability to more effectively deliver power to their customers while providing increased reliability to the bulk power system. In general, power electronics is the process of using semiconductor switching devices to control and convert electrical power flow from one form to another to meet a specific need. These conversion techniques have revolutionized modern life by streamlining manufacturing processes, increasing product efficiencies, and increasing the quality of life by enhancing many modern conveniences such as computers, and they can help to improve the delivery of reliable power from utilities. This report summarizes the technical challenges associated with utilizing power electronics devices across the entire spectrum from applications to manufacturing and materials development, and it provides recommendations for research and development (R&D) needs for power electronics systems in which the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) could make a substantial impact toward improving the reliability of the bulk power system.

  9. Evaluation of Value Added Tax Application Problems in Terms of Taxation of Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Güneş ÇETİN GERGER; Adnan GERÇEK

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays electronic taxation is being one of the important issues for revenue administrations. Tax administrations try to organize their tax system fairly and give attention on equity. Value added tax is most preferable taxes among the consumption taxes. Because it’s application is easy and taxpayers don’t show resistance to the value added tax. On electronic commerce value added taxes are using commonly. To provide equity in taxation, some taxation principles are adapted for value added tax...

  10. Transmission electron microscope interfaced with ion accelerators and its application to materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hiroaki; Naramoto, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Hojou, Kiichi; Furuno, Shigemi; Tsukamoto, Tetsuo

    1997-03-01

    We have developed the transmission/analytical electron microscope interfaced with two sets of ion accelerators (TEM-Accelerators Facility) at JAERI-Takasaki. The facility is expected to provide quantitative insights into radiation effects, such as damage evolution, irradiation-induced phase transformation and their stability, through in-situ observation and analysis under ion and/or electron irradiation. The TEM-Accelerators Facility and its application to materials research are reviewed. (author)

  11. 3D detector and electronics integration technologies: Applications to ILC, SLHC, and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipton, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    The application of vertically integrated (3D) electronics to particle physics has been explored by the our group for the past several years. We have successfully designed the first vertically integrated demonstrator chip for ILC vertex detection in the three-tier MIT-Lincoln Labs process. We have also studied sensor integration with electronics through oxide bonding and silicon-on-insulator technology. This paper will discuss the status of these studies and prospects for future work.

  12. 3D detector and electronics integration technologies: Applications to ILC, SLHC, and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipton, Ronald, E-mail: lipton@fnal.gov [Fermilab, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2011-04-21

    The application of vertically integrated (3D) electronics to particle physics has been explored by the our group for the past several years. We have successfully designed the first vertically integrated demonstrator chip for ILC vertex detection in the three-tier MIT-Lincoln Labs process. We have also studied sensor integration with electronics through oxide bonding and silicon-on-insulator technology. This paper will discuss the status of these studies and prospects for future work.

  13. Application of Electronic Noses for Disease Diagnosis and Food Spoilage Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Casalinuovo, Ida A.; Di Pierro, Donato; Coletta, Massimiliano; Di Francesco, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, newly developed chemical sensor systems (so-called “electronic noses”) have odour analyses made possible. This paper describes the applications of these systems for microbial detection in different fields such as medicine and the food industry, where fast detection methods are essential for appropriate management of health care. Several groups have employed different electronic noses for classification and quantification of bacteria and fungi to obtain accurate med...

  14. PLZT Film Capacitors for Power Electronics and Energy Storage Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Beihai; Hu, Zhongqiang; Koritala, Rachel E.; Lee, Tae H.; Dorris, Stephen E.; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2015-12-01

    Ceramic film capacitors with high dielectric constant and high breakdown strength hold special promise for applications demanding high power density. By means of chemical solution deposition, we deposited ≈2-μm-thick films of lanthanum-doped lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) on LaNiO3-buffered Ni (LNO/Ni) foils and platinized silicon (PtSi) substrates. The dielectric properties and energy storage performance of the resulting samples were determined under a high level of applied electric field. X-ray diffraction stress analysis revealed that PLZT on LNO/Ni bears a compressive stress of ≈370 MPa while PLZT on PtSi endures a tensile stress of ≈250 MPa. Compressive stress was found to lead to heightened polarization, improved tunability, increased irreversible domain wall motion, and enhanced breakdown strength for PLZT deposited on the LNO/Ni as compared with the PtSi substrate. We observed a tunability of ≈55 and ≈40 % at room temperature under 100 kV/cm applied field, remanent polarization of ≈23.5 and ≈7.4 µC/cm^2, coercive electric field of ≈25.6 and ≈21.1 kV/cm, and dielectric breakdown strength of ≈2.6 and ≈1.5 MV/cm for PLZT deposited on LNO/Ni foils and PtSi substrates, respectively. A high recoverable energy density of ≈85 J/cm^3 and energy conversion efficiency of ≈65 % were measured on the PLZT film grown on LNO/Ni.

  15. Organic electronics on fibers for energy conversion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Brendan T.

    Currently, there is great demand for pollution-free and renewable sources of electricity. Solar cells are particularly attractive from the standpoint of sunlight abundance. However, truly widespread adoption of solar cells is impeded by the high cost and poor scalability of existing technologies. For example, while 53,000 mi2 of 10% efficient solar cell modules would be required to supply the current U.S. energy demand, only about 50 mi2 have been installed worldwide. Organic semiconductors potentially offer a route to realizing low-cost solar cell modules, but currently suffer from low conversion efficiency. For organic-based solar cells to become commercially viable, further research is required to improve device performance, develop scalable manufacturing methods, and reduce installation costs via, for example, novel device form factors. This thesis makes several contributions to the field of organic solar cells, including the replacement of costly and brittle indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes by inexpensive and malleable, thin metal films, and the application of external dielectric coatings to improve power conversion efficiency. Furthermore, we show that devices with non-planar geometries (e.g. organic solar cells deposited onto long fibers) can have higher efficiencies than conventional planar devices. Building on these results, we demonstrate novel fiber-based organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) that offer substantially improved color quality and manufacturability as a next-generation solid-state lighting technology. An intriguing possibility afforded by the fiber-based device architectures is the ability to integrate energy conversion and lighting functionalities with textiles, a mature, commodity-scale technology.

  16. HIL Simulation of Power Electronics and Electric Drives for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Puschmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hardware-in-the-loop simulation is today a standard method for testing electronic equipment in the automotive industry. Since electric drives and power electronic devices are more and more important in automotive applications, these kinds of systems have to be integrated into the hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Power converters and electric drives are used in many different applications in vehicles today (hybrid electric or electric powertrain, electric steering systems, DC-DC converters, etc.. The wide range of applications, topologies, and power levels results in various different approaches and solutions for hardware-in-the-loop testing. This paper gives an overview of hardware-in-the-loop simulation of power electronics and electric drives in the automotive industry. The currently available technologies are described and future challenges are outlined.

  17. Recent Advancements in Liquid Metal Flexible Printed Electronics: Properties, Technologies, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelin Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview on typical properties, technologies, and applications of liquid metal based flexible printed electronics. The core manufacturing material—room-temperature liquid metal, currently mainly represented by gallium and its alloys with the properties of excellent resistivity, enormous bendability, low adhesion, and large surface tension, was focused on in particular. In addition, a series of recently developed printing technologies spanning from personal electronic circuit printing (direct painting or writing, mechanical system printing, mask layer based printing, high-resolution nanoimprinting, etc. to 3D room temperature liquid metal printing is comprehensively reviewed. Applications of these planar or three-dimensional printing technologies and the related liquid metal alloy inks in making flexible electronics, such as electronical components, health care sensors, and other functional devices were discussed. The significantly different adhesions of liquid metal inks on various substrates under different oxidation degrees, weakness of circuits, difficulty of fabricating high-accuracy devices, and low rate of good product—all of which are challenges faced by current liquid metal flexible printed electronics—are discussed. Prospects for liquid metal flexible printed electronics to develop ending user electronics and more extensive applications in the future are given.

  18. Industrial applications or electron beams; Aplicaciones industriales de la irradiacion como servicio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J. I.

    2001-07-01

    Industrial use of electron beams began in the 1950's with the crosslinking of polyethylene film and wire insulation. Today the number of electron beam Processing Systems installed for industrial applications throughout the world has grown to more than six hundred stations in over 35 countries. Total installed power is now approaching 40 megawatts (over 8 million tons of products per year). Electron beam is now utilized by many major industries including plastics, automotive, rubber goods, wire and cable, electrical insulation, semiconductor, medical, packaging, or pollution control. The principal effect of high-energy electrons is to produce ions in the materials treated, resulting in the liberation of orbital electrons. As a result, the original molecule is modified and the ree radicals combine to form new molecules with new chemical reactions or dis organisation od the DNA chains of living organisms (insects, fungus, microorganisms, etc.). (Author) 8 refs.

  19. Textile-Based Electronic Components for Energy Applications: Principles, Problems, and Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Vishakha; Lee, Jaehong; Hong, Juree; Lee, Seulah; Lee, Sanggeun; Seo, Jungmok; Mahata, Chandreswar; Lee, Taeyoon

    2015-09-07

    Textile-based electronic components have gained interest in the fields of science and technology. Recent developments in nanotechnology have enabled the integration of electronic components into textiles while retaining desirable characteristics such as flexibility, strength, and conductivity. Various materials were investigated in detail to obtain current conductive textile technology, and the integration of electronic components into these textiles shows great promise for common everyday applications. The harvest and storage of energy in textile electronics is a challenge that requires further attention in order to enable complete adoption of this technology in practical implementations. This review focuses on the various conductive textiles, their methods of preparation, and textile-based electronic components. We also focus on fabrication and the function of textile-based energy harvesting and storage devices, discuss their fundamental limitations, and suggest new areas of study.

  20. Thermal Peak Management Using Organic Phase Change Materials for Latent Heat Storage in Electronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxa, Jacob; Novikov, Andrej; Nowottnick, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Modern high power electronics devices consists of a large amount of integrated circuits for switching and supply applications. Beside the benefits, the technology exhibits the problem of an ever increasing power density. Nowadays, heat sinks that are directly mounted on a device, are used to reduce the on-chip temperature and dissipate the thermal energy to the environment. This paper presents a concept of a composite coating for electronic components on printed circuit boards or electronic assemblies that is able to buffer a certain amount of thermal energy, dissipated from a device. The idea is to suppress temperature peaks in electronic components during load peaks or electronic shorts, which otherwise could damage or destroy the device, by using a phase change material to buffer the thermal energy. The phase change material coating could be directly applied on the chip package or the PCB using different mechanical retaining jigs.