WorldWideScience

Sample records for electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma sputtering

  1. Control of composition and crystallinity in hydroxyapatite films deposited by electron cyclotron resonance plasma sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Housei; Ueno, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) films were deposited by electron cyclotron resonance plasma sputtering under a simultaneous flow of H2O vapor gas. Crystallization during sputter-deposition at elevated temperatures and solid-phase crystallization of amorphous films were compared in terms of film properties. When HAp films were deposited with Ar sputtering gas at temperatures above 460 °C, CaO byproducts precipitated with HAp crystallites. Using Xe instead of Ar resolved the compositional problem, yielding a single HAp phase. Preferentially c-axis-oriented HAp films were obtained at substrate temperatures between 460 and 500 °C and H2O pressures higher than 1×10-2 Pa. The absorption signal of the asymmetric stretching mode of the PO43- unit (ν3) in the Fourier-transform infrared absorption (FT-IR) spectra was the narrowest for films as-crystallized during deposition with Xe, but widest for solid-phase crystallized films. While the symmetric stretching mode of PO43- (ν1) is theoretically IR-inactive, this signal emerged in the FT-IR spectra of solid-phase crystallized films, but was absent for as-crystallized films, indicating superior crystallinity for the latter. The Raman scattering signal corresponding to ν1 PO43- sensitively reflected this crystallinity. The surface hardness of as-crystallized films evaluated by a pencil hardness test was higher than that of solid-phase crystallized films.

  2. Electron cyclotron resonance plasma photos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, R.; Palinkas, J. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary); University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1 (Hungary); Biri, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary)

    2010-02-15

    In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open ECR plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from Ne, Ar, and Kr gases and from their mixtures. We studied and recorded the effect of ion source setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, and microwave power) to the shape, color, and structure of the plasma. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas.

  3. Electron cyclotron resonance plasma photos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, R.; Palinkas, J.; Biri, S.

    2010-01-01

    In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open ECR plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from Ne, Ar, and Kr gases and from their mixtures. We studied and recorded the effect of ion source setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, and microwave power) to the shape, color, and structure of the plasma. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas.

  4. Characterization of electron cyclotron resonance hydrogen plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outten, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas yield low energy and high ion density plasmas. The characteristics downstream of an ECR hydrogen plasma were investigated as a function of microwave power and magnetic field. A fast-injection Langmuir probe and a carbon resistance probe were used to determine plasma potential (V p ), electron density (N e ), electron temperature (T e ), ion energy (T i ), and ion fluence. Langmuir probe results showed that at 17 cm downstream from the ECR chamber the plasma characteristics are approximately constant across the center 7 cm of the plasma for 50 Watts of absorbed power. These results gave V p = 30 ± 5 eV, N e = 1 x 10 8 cm -3 , and T e = 10--13 eV. In good agreement with the Langmuir probe results, carbon resistance probes have shown that T i ≤ 50 eV. Also, based on hydrogen chemical sputtering of carbon, the hydrogen (ion and energetic neutrals) fluence rate was determined to be 1 x 10 16 /cm 2 -sec. at a pressure of 1 x 10 -4 Torr and for 50 Watts of absorbed power. 19 refs

  5. Influence of Substrate Biasing on (Ba,Sr)TiO3 Films Prepared by Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Niino, Atsushi; Ohtsu, Yasunori; Misawa, Tatsuya; Yonesu, Akira; Fujita, Hiroharu; Miyake, Shoji

    2004-03-01

    (Ba,Sr)TiO3 (BST) films were deposited by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma sputtering with mirror confinement. DC bias voltage was applied to Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates during deposition to vary the intensity of bombardment of energetic ions and to modify film properties. BST films deposited on the substrates at floating potential (approximately +20 V) were found to be amorphous, while films deposited on +40 V-biased substrates were crystalline in spite of a low substrate temperature below 648 K. In addition, atomic diffusion, which causes deterioration in the electrical properties of the films, was hardly observed in the crystallized films deposited with +40 V bias perhaps due to the low substrate temperature. Plasma diagnoses revealed that application of a positive bias to the substrate reduced the energy of ion bombardment and increased the density of excited neutral particles, which was assumed to result in the promotion of chemical reactions during deposition and the crystallization of BST films at a low temperature.

  6. Note: Easy-to-maintain electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma sputtering apparatus featuring hybrid waveguide and coaxial cables for microwave delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akazawa, Housei, E-mail: akazawa.housei@lab.ntt.co.jp [NTT Device Innovation Center, Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    The branched-waveguide electron cyclotron resonance plasma sputtering apparatus places quartz windows for transmitting microwaves into the plasma source not in the line of sight of the target. However, the quartz windows must be replaced after some time of operation. For maintenance, the loop waveguide branching from the T-junction must be dismounted and re-assembled accurately, which is a time-consuming job. We investigated substituting the waveguide branches with two sets of coaxial cables and waveguide/coaxial cable converters to simplify assembly as far as connection and disconnection go. The resulting hybrid system worked well for the purposes of plasma generation and film deposition.

  7. Note: Easy-to-maintain electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma sputtering apparatus featuring hybrid waveguide and coaxial cables for microwave delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Housei

    2016-06-01

    The branched-waveguide electron cyclotron resonance plasma sputtering apparatus places quartz windows for transmitting microwaves into the plasma source not in the line of sight of the target. However, the quartz windows must be replaced after some time of operation. For maintenance, the loop waveguide branching from the T-junction must be dismounted and re-assembled accurately, which is a time-consuming job. We investigated substituting the waveguide branches with two sets of coaxial cables and waveguide/coaxial cable converters to simplify assembly as far as connection and disconnection go. The resulting hybrid system worked well for the purposes of plasma generation and film deposition.

  8. Permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance plasma source with remote window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, L.A.; Gorbatkin, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma has been used in conjunction with a solid metal sputter target for Cu deposition over 200 mm diameters. The goal is to develop a deposition system and process suitable for filling submicron, high-aspect ratio ULSI features. The system uses a permanent magnet for creation of the magnetic field necessary for ECR, and is significantly more compact than systems equipped with electromagnets. A custom launcher design allows remote microwave injection with the microwave entrance window shielded from the copper flux. When microwaves are introduced at an angle with respect to the plasma, high electron densities can be produced with a plasma frequency significantly greater than the electron cyclotron frequency. Copper deposition rates of 1000 A/min have been achieved

  9. Electron cyclotron resonance plasmas and electron cyclotron resonance ion sources: Physics and technology (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, A.; Hitz, D.; Melin, G.; Serebrennikov, K.

    2004-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are scientific instruments particularly useful for physics: they are extensively used in atomic, nuclear, and high energy physics, for the production of multicharged beams. Moreover, these sources are also of fundamental interest for plasma physics, because of the very particular properties of the ECR plasma. This article describes the state of the art on the physics of the ECR plasma related to multiply charged ion sources. In Sec. I, we describe the general aspects of ECR ion sources. Physics related to the electrons is presented in Sec. II: we discuss there the problems of heating and confinement. In Sec. III, the problem of ion production and confinement is presented. A numerical code is presented, and some particular and important effects, specific to ECR ion sources, are shown in Sec. IV. Eventually, in Sec. V, technological aspects of ECR are presented and different types of sources are shown

  10. Morphology and structure evolution of Cu(In,Ga)S{sub 2} films deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering with electron cyclotron resonance plasma assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Man, E-mail: man.nie@helmholtz-berlin.de; Ellmer, Klaus [Department of Solar Fuels and Energy Storage Materials, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-02-28

    Cu(In,Ga)S{sub 2} (CIGS) films were deposited on Mo coated soda lime glass substrates using an electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced one-step reactive magnetron co-sputtering process (ECR-RMS). The crystalline quality and the morphology of the Cu(In,Ga)S{sub 2} films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray fluorescence. We also compared these CIGS films with films previously prepared without ECR assistance and find that the crystallinity of the CIGS films is correlated with the roughness evolution during deposition. Atomic force microscopy was used to measure the surface topography and to derive one-dimensional power spectral densities (1DPSD). All 1DPSD spectra of CIGS films exhibit no characteristic peak which is typical for the scaling of a self-affine surface. The growth exponent β, characterizing the roughness R{sub q} evolution during the film growth as R{sub q} ∼ d{sup β}, changes with film thickness. The root-mean-square roughness at low temperatures increases only slightly with a growth exponent β = 0.013 in the initial growth stage, while R{sub q} increases with a much higher exponent β = 0.584 when the film thickness is larger than about 270 nm. Additionally, we found that the H{sub 2}S content of the sputtering atmosphere and the Cu- to-(In + Ga) ratio has a strong influence of the morphology of the CIGS films in this one-step ECR-RMS process.

  11. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating of a High-Density Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, F. Ramskov

    1986-01-01

    Various schemes for electron cyclotron resonance heating of tokamak plasmas with the ratio of electron plasma frequency to electron cyclotron frequency, "»pe/^ce* larger than 1 on axis, are investigated. In particular, a mode conversion scheme is investigated using ordinary waves at the fundamental...... of the electron cyclotron frequency. These are injected obliquely from the outside of the tokamak near an optimal angle to the magnetic field lines. This method involves two mode conversions. The ordinary waves are converted into extraordinary waves near the plasma cut-off layer. The extraordinary waves...... are subsequently converted into electrostatic electron Bernstein waves at the upper hybrid resonance layer, and the Bernstein waves are completely absorbed close to the plasma centre. Results are presented from ray-tracinq calculations in full three-dimensional geometry using the dispersion function for a hot non...

  12. Enhanced confinement in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, L; Stiebing, K E; Dobrescu, S

    2010-02-01

    Power loss by plasma-wall interactions may become a limitation for the performance of ECR and fusion plasma devices. Based on our research to optimize the performance of electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) devices by the use of metal-dielectric (MD) structures, the development of the method presented here, allows to significantly improve the confinement of plasma electrons and hence to reduce losses. Dedicated measurements were performed at the Frankfurt 14 GHz ECRIS using argon and helium as working gas and high temperature resistive material for the MD structures. The analyzed charge state distributions and bremsstrahlung radiation spectra (corrected for background) also clearly verify the anticipated increase in the plasma-electron density and hence demonstrate the advantage by the MD-method.

  13. Plasma heating by radiofrequency in the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha Raposo, C. da; Aihara, S.; Universidade Estadual de Campinas

    1982-01-01

    The characteristics of the experimental set-up mounted in the Physical Institute of UFF (Brazil) to produce the gas ionization by radio-frequency are shown and its behaviour when confined by a mirror-geometry magnetic field is studied. The diagnostic is made by a langmuir probe and a prisme spectrogaph is used in order to verify the nature of the ionized helium gas and the degree of purity through its spectral lines. The argon ionization by R.f. is produced in the 'LISA' machine obtain a plasma column of approximatelly 60 cm length and with the Langmuir probe the study of the profile distribution of the plasma parameters such as: electron temperature and density and floating potencial in function of the magnetic field variation is made. The main focus is given to the fundamental electron cyclotron resonance (ECR). A new expression on the ion saturation current (I sub(is)) produced by radiofrequency is developed. (L.C.) [pt

  14. Studies of electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, O.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis consists of an introduction to the plasma physics of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) and a review of the results obtained by the author and co-workers including discussion of related work by others. The thesis begins with a theoretical discussion dealing with plasma physics relevant for the production of highly charged ions in ECR ion source plasmas. This is followed by an overview of different techniques, such as gas mixing and double frequency heating, that can be used to improve the performance of this type of ion source. The experimental part of the work consists of studies related to ECRIS plasma physics. The effect of the gas mixing technique on the production efficiency of different ion beams was studied with both gaseous and solid materials. It was observed that gas mixing improves the confinement of the heavier element while the confinement of the lighter element is reduced. When the effect of gas mixing on MIVOC-plasmas was studied with several mixing gases it was observed that applying this technique can reduce the inevitable carbon contamination by a significant factor. In order to understand the different plasma processes taking place in ECRIS plasmas, a series of plasma potential and emittance measurements was carried out. An instrument, which can be used to measure the plasma potential in a single measurement without disturbing the plasma, was developed for this work. Studying the plasma potential of ECR ion sources is important not only because it helps to understand different plasma processes, but also because the information can be used as an input parameter for beam transport simulations and ion source extraction design. The experiments performed have revealed clear dependencies of the plasma potential on certain source parameters such as the amount of carbon contamination accumulated on the walls of the plasma chamber during a MIVOC-run. It was also observed that gas mixing affects not only the production efficiency

  15. Investigation and application of microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma physical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Zhaoxing; Sheng Yanya; Shi Yicai; Wen Haihu; Cao Xiaowen

    1991-06-01

    The evaporating deposition of Ti film and Cu film by using microwave electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) technique was investigated. It deposition rate was about 50 nm/min and the temperature of the substrate was 50∼150 deg C. The thin amorphous films with strong adherent force were obtained. The sputtering deposition with ECR plasma was studied by employing higher plasma density and ionicity and negative substrate potential to make YBaCuO superconducting film. Its film was compact and amorphous with a thickness of 1.0 μm and the deposition rate was about 10 nm/min. The results show that this technique can initiate a high density and high ionicity plasma at lower gas pressure (10 -2 ∼10 -3 Pa). This plasma is the most suitable plasma source in thin film deposition process and surface treatment technique

  16. An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron as metal vapor supply for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichsel, T., E-mail: tim.weichsel@fep.fraunhofer.de; Hartung, U.; Kopte, T. [Fraunhofer Institute for Electron Beam and Plasma Technology, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Zschornack, G. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, 01062 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany); Kreller, M.; Silze, A. [DREEBIT GmbH, 01900 Grossroehrsdorf (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron device has been developed. The magnetron is acting as a metal vapor supply for an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. FEM simulation of magnetic flux density was used to ensure that there is no critical interaction between both magnetic fields of magnetron and ECR ion source. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy measurements show an increase in electron density by one order of magnitude from 1 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} to 1 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3}, when the magnetron plasma is exposed to the magnetic mirror field of the ECR ion source. Electron density enhancement is also indicated by magnetron plasma emission photography with a CCD camera. Furthermore, photographs visualize the formation of a localized loss-cone - area, when the magnetron is operated at magnetic mirror field conditions. The inverted cylindrical magnetron supplies a metal atom load rate of R > 1 × 10{sup 18} atoms/s for aluminum, which meets the demand for the production of a milliampere Al{sup +} ion beam.

  17. Diagnostics of microwave assisted electron cyclotron resonance plasma source for surface modification of nylon 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Supriya E.; Das, Partha Sarathi; Bansode, Avinash; Dhamale, Gayatri; Ghorui, S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Sahasrabudhe, S. N.; Mathe, Vikas L.

    2018-01-01

    Looking at the increasing scope of plasma processing of materials surface, here we present the development and diagnostics of a microwave assisted Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasma system suitable for surface modification of polymers. Prior to the surface-treatment, a detailed diagnostic mapping of the plasma parameters throughout the reactor chamber was carried out by using single and double Langmuir probe measurements in Ar plasma. Conventional analysis of I-V curves as well as the elucidation form of the Electron Energy Distribution Function (EEDF) has become the source of calibration of plasma parameters in the reaction chamber. The high energy tail in the EEDF of electron temperature is seen to extend beyond 60 eV, at much larger distances from the ECR zone. This proves the suitability of the rector for plasma processing, since the electron energy is much beyond the threshold energy of bond breaking in most of the polymers. Nylon 6 is used as a representative candidate for surface processing in the presence of Ar, H2 + N2, and O2 plasma, treated at different locations inside the plasma chamber. In a typical case, the work of adhesion is seen to almost get doubled when treated with oxygen plasma. Morphology of the plasma treated surface and its hydrophilicity are discussed in view of the variation in electron density and electron temperature at these locations. Nano-protrusions arising from plasma treatment are set to be responsible for the hydrophobicity. Chemical sputtering and physical sputtering are seen to influence the surface morphology on account of sufficient electron energies and increased plasma potential.

  18. Influence of the shear flow on electron cyclotron resonance plasma confinement in an axisymmetric magnetic mirror trap of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izotov, I. V.; Razin, S. V.; Sidorov, A. V.; Skalyga, V. A.; Zorin, V. G.; Bagryansky, P. A.; Beklemishev, A. D.; Prikhodko, V. V.

    2012-01-01

    Influence of shear flows of the dense plasma created under conditions of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) gas breakdown on the plasma confinement in the axisymmetric mirror trap (''vortex'' confinement) was studied experimentally and theoretically. A limiter with bias potential was set inside the mirror trap for plasma rotation. The limiter construction and the optimal value of the potential were chosen according to the results of the preliminary theoretical analysis. This method of ''vortex'' confinement realization in an axisymmetric mirror trap for non-equilibrium heavy-ion plasmas seems to be promising for creation of ECR multicharged ion sources with high magnetic fields, more than 1 T.

  19. Influence of the shear flow on electron cyclotron resonance plasma confinement in an axisymmetric magnetic mirror trap of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, I V; Razin, S V; Sidorov, A V; Skalyga, V A; Zorin, V G; Bagryansky, P A; Beklemishev, A D; Prikhodko, V V

    2012-02-01

    Influence of shear flows of the dense plasma created under conditions of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) gas breakdown on the plasma confinement in the axisymmetric mirror trap ("vortex" confinement) was studied experimentally and theoretically. A limiter with bias potential was set inside the mirror trap for plasma rotation. The limiter construction and the optimal value of the potential were chosen according to the results of the preliminary theoretical analysis. This method of "vortex" confinement realization in an axisymmetric mirror trap for non-equilibrium heavy-ion plasmas seems to be promising for creation of ECR multicharged ion sources with high magnetic fields, more than 1 T.

  20. Electron cyclotron resonance hydrogen/helium plasma characterization and simulation of pumping in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outten, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasmas have been employed to simulate the plasma conditions at the edge of a tokamak in order to investigate hydrogen/helium uptake in thin metal films. The process of microwave power absorption, important to characterizing the ECR plasma source, was investigated by measuring the electron density and temperature with a Langmuir probe and optical spectroscopy as a function of the magnetic field gradient and incident microwave power. A novel diagnostic, carbon resistance probe, provided a direct measure of the ion energy and fluence while measurements from a Langmuir probe were used for comparison. The Langmuir probe gave a plasma potential minus floating potential of 30 ± 5 eV, in good agreement with the carbon resistance probe result of ion energy ≤ 40 eV. The measured ion energy was consistent with the ion energy predicted from a model based upon divergent magnetic field extraction. Also, based upon physical sputtering of the carbon, the hydrogen fluence rate was determined to be 1 x 10 16 /cm 2 -sec for 50 Watts of incident microwave power. ECR hydrogen/helium plasmas were used to study preferential pumping of helium in candidate materials for tokamak pump-limiters: nickel, vanadium, aluminum, and nickel/aluminum multi-layers. Nickel and vanadium exhibited similar pumping capacities whereas aluminum showed a reduced capacity due to increased sputtering. A helium retention model based upon ion implantation ranges and sputtering rates agreed with the experimental data. A new multilayer/bilayer pumping concept showed improved pumping above that for single element films

  1. Model of charge-state distributions for electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Edgell

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A computer model for the ion charge-state distribution (CSD in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS plasma is presented that incorporates non-Maxwellian distribution functions, multiple atomic species, and ion confinement due to the ambipolar potential well that arises from confinement of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR heated electrons. Atomic processes incorporated into the model include multiple ionization and multiple charge exchange with rate coefficients calculated for non-Maxwellian electron distributions. The electron distribution function is calculated using a Fokker-Planck code with an ECR heating term. This eliminates the electron temperature as an arbitrary user input. The model produces results that are a good match to CSD data from the ANL-ECRII ECRIS. Extending the model to 1D axial will also allow the model to determine the plasma and electrostatic potential profiles, further eliminating arbitrary user input to the model.

  2. Electron cyclotron resonance heating in a short cylindrical plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The power mode conversion efficiency is estimated to be ... has also found application in electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) in fusion ... (few GHz) of microwave sources, a small linear ECR plasma system can also serve ..... References.

  3. Mode converter for electron cyclotron resonance heating of toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motley, R.W.; Hsuan, H.; Glanz, J.

    1980-09-01

    A method is proposed for improving the efficiency of cyclotron resonance heating of a toroidal plasma by ordinary mode radiation from the outside of the torus. Radiation not absorbed in the first pass is reflected from the inside of the torus by a corrugated surface which rotates the polarization by 90 0 , so that a secondary source of extraordinary waves is created in the high field, accessible region of the plasma

  4. Extreme ultraviolet narrow band emission from electron cyclotron resonance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Wang, H.; Ma, B. H.; Li, X. X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Sheng, L. S.; Zhang, G. B.; Tian, Y. C.

    2008-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is considered as the most promising solution at and below dynamic random access memory 32 nm half pitch among the next generation lithography, and EUV light sources with high output power and sufficient lifetime are crucial for the realization of EUVL. However, there is no EUV light source completely meeting the requirements for the commercial application in lithography yet. Therefore, ECR plasma is proposed as a novel concept EUV light source. In order to investigate the feasibility of ECR plasma as a EUV light source, the narrow band EUV power around 13.5 nm emitted by two highly charged ECR ion sources--LECR2M and SECRAL--was measured with a calibrated EUV power measurement tool. Since the emission lines around 13.5 nm can be attributed to the 4d-5p transitions of Xe XI or the 4d-4f unresolved transition array of Sn VIII-XIII, xenon plasma was investigated. The dependence of the EUV throughput and the corresponding conversion efficiency on the parameters of the ion source, such as the rf power and the magnetic confinement configurations, were preliminarily studied

  5. Fullerene-rare gas mixed plasmas in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaji, T., E-mail: asaji@oshima-k.ac.jp; Ohba, T. [Oshima National College of Maritime Technology, 1091-1 Komatsu, Suo-oshima, Oshima, Yamaguchi 742-2193 (Japan); Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Minezaki, H.; Ishihara, S. [Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Racz, R.; Biri, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem Tér 18/c (Hungary); Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    A synthesis technology of endohedral fullerenes such as Fe@C{sub 60} has developed with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. The production of N@C{sub 60} was reported. However, the yield was quite low, since most fullerene molecules were broken in the ECR plasma. We have adopted gas-mixing techniques in order to cool the plasma and then reduce fullerene dissociation. Mass spectra of ion beams extracted from fullerene-He, Ar or Xe mixed plasmas were observed with a Faraday cup. From the results, the He gas mixing technique is effective against fullerene destruction.

  6. Dry cleaning of fluorocarbon residues by low-power electron cyclotron resonance hydrogen plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, S H; Yuh, H K; Yoon Eui Joon; Lee, S I

    1988-01-01

    A low-power ( 50 W) electron cyclotron resonance hydrogen plasma cleaning process was demonstrated for the removal of fluorocarbon residue layers formed by reactive ion etching of silicon dioxide. The absence of residue layers was confirmed by in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction and cross-sectional high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The ECR hydrogen plasma cleaning was applied to contact cleaning of a contact string structure, resulting in comparable contact resistance arising during by a conventional contact cleaning procedure. Ion-assisted chemical reaction involving reactive atomic hydrogen species generated in the plasma is attributed for the removal of fluorocarbon residue layers.

  7. Influence of the electron cyclotron resonance plasma confinement on reducing the bremsstrahlung production of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source with metal-dielectric structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, L; Stiebing, K E; Dobrescu, S

    2009-01-01

    The influence of metal-dielectric (MD) layers (MD structures) inserted into the plasma chamber of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) onto the production of electron bremsstrahlung radiation has been studied in a series of dedicated experiments at the 14 GHz ECRIS of the Institut für Kernphysik der Universität Frankfurt. The IKF-ECRIS was equipped with a MD liner, covering the inner walls of the plasma chamber, and a MD electrode, covering the plasma-facing side of the extraction electrode. On the basis of similar extracted currents of highly charged ions, significantly reduced yields of bremsstrahlung radiation for the "MD source" as compared to the standard (stainless steel) source have been measured and can be explained by the significantly better plasma confinement in a MD source as compared to an "all stainless steel" ECRIS.

  8. Influence of the electron cyclotron resonance plasma confinement on reducing the bremsstrahlung production of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source with metal-dielectric structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schachter, L.; Dobrescu, S.; Stiebing, K. E.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of metal-dielectric (MD) layers (MD structures) inserted into the plasma chamber of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) onto the production of electron bremsstrahlung radiation has been studied in a series of dedicated experiments at the 14 GHz ECRIS of the Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet Frankfurt. The IKF-ECRIS was equipped with a MD liner, covering the inner walls of the plasma chamber, and a MD electrode, covering the plasma-facing side of the extraction electrode. On the basis of similar extracted currents of highly charged ions, significantly reduced yields of bremsstrahlung radiation for the 'MD source' as compared to the standard (stainless steel) source have been measured and can be explained by the significantly better plasma confinement in a MD source as compared to an ''all stainless steel'' ECRIS.

  9. Quasilinear theory of the ordinary-mode electron-cyclotron resonance in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunasalam, V.; Efthimion, P.C.; Hosea, J.C.; Hsuan, H.; Taylor, G.

    1983-11-01

    A coupled set of equations, one describing the time evolution of the ordinary-mode wave energy and the other describing the time evolution of the electron distribution function is presented. The wave damping is mainly determined by T/sub parallel/ while the radiative equilibrium is mainly an equipartition with T/sub perpendicular/. The time rate of change of T/sub perpendicular/, T/sub parallel/, particle (N 0 ), and current (J/sub parellel/) densities are examined for finite k/sub parallel/ electron-cyclotron-resonance heating of plasmas

  10. Field-aligned plasma-potential structure formed by local electron cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Kaneko, Toshiro; Sato, Noriyoshi

    2001-01-01

    The significance of basic experiments on field-aligned plasma-potential structure formed by local electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) is claimed based on the historical development of the investigation on electric double layer and electrostatic potential confinement of open-ended fusion-oriented plasmas. In the presence of a single ECR point in simple mirror-type configurations of magnetic field, a potential dip (thermal barrier) appears around this point, being followed by a subsequent potential hump (plug potential) along a collisionless plasma flow. The observed phenomenon gives a clear-cut physics to the formation of field-aligned plug potential with thermal barrier, which is closely related to the double layer formation triggered by a negative dip. (author)

  11. First plasma of the A-PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuillier, T.; Lamy, T.; Latrasse, L.; Angot, J.

    2008-01-01

    A-PHOENIX is a new compact hybrid electron cyclotron resonance ion source using a large permanent magnet hexapole (1.92 T at the magnet surface) and high temperature superconducting Solenoids (3 T) to make min-vertical bar B vertical bar structure suitable for 28 GHz cw operation. The final assembly of the source was achieved at the end of June 2007. The first plasma of A-PHOENIX at 18 GHz was done on the 16th of August, 2007. The technological specificities of A-PHOENIX are presented. The large hexapole built is presented and experimental magnetic measurements show that it is nominal with respect to simulation. A fake plasma chamber prototype including thin iron inserts showed that the predicted radial magnetic confinement can be fulfilled up to 2.15 T at the plasma chamber wall. Scheduled planning of experiments until the end of 2008 is presented

  12. Poloidal rotation driven by electron cyclotron resonance wave in tokamak plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The poloidal electric filed, which is the drive field of poloidal rotation, has been observed and increases obviously after the injection of electron cyclotron resonance wave in HL-2A experiment, and the amplitude of the poloidal electric field is in the order of 103 V/m. Through theoretical analysis using Stringer rotation model, the observed poloidal electric field is of the same order as the theoretical calculation value. In addition, the magnetic pump damping which would damp the poloidal rotation is calculated numerically and the calculation results show that the closer to the core plasmas, the stronger the magnetic pump damping will be. Meanwhile, according to the value of the calculated magnetic pump damping, the threshold of the poloidal electric field which could overcome magnetic pump damping and drive poloidal rotation in tokamak plasmas is given out. Finally, the poloidal rotation velocity over time at different minor radius is studied theoretically.

  13. Parallel ion flow velocity measurement using laser induced fluorescence method in an electron cyclotron resonance plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Okamoto, Atsushi; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Ogiwara, Kohei; Tanaka, Masayoshi Y.; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi

    2010-01-01

    Parallel ion flow velocity along a magnetic field has been measured using a laser induced fluorescence (LIF) method in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) argon plasma with a weakly-diverging magnetic field. To measure parallel flow velocity in a cylindrical plasma using the LIF method, the laser beam should be injected along device axis; however, the reflection of the incident beam causes interference between the LIF emission of the incident and reflected beams. Here we present a method of quasi-parallel laser injection at a small angle, which utilizes the reflected beam as well as the incident beam to obtain the parallel ion flow velocity. Using this method, we observed an increase in parallel ion flow velocity along the magnetic field. The acceleration mechanism is briefly discussed on the basis of the ion fluid model. (author)

  14. Field emission studies of silver nanoparticles synthesized by electron cyclotron resonance plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, Vishwas; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Bhise, A.B.; Poddar, Pankaj; Joag, D.S.; Bhoraskar, S.V.

    2011-01-01

    Field emission has been studied for silver nanoparticles (25-200 nm), deposited within a cylindrical silver target in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma. Particle size distribution was controlled by optimum biasing voltages between the chamber and the target. Presence of non-oxidized silver was confirmed from the X-Ray diffraction analysis; however, thin protective layer of oxide was identified from the selective area electron diffraction pattern obtained with transmission electron microscopy. The silver nanoparticles were seen to exhibit hilly pointed like structures when viewed under the atomic force microscopy (AFM). The emissive properties of these particles were investigated by field emission microscopy. It is found that this technique of deposition is ideal for formation of nanoparticles films on different substrate geometries with size controllability as well as its application to emission devices.

  15. CH4/H2/Ar electron cyclotron resonance plasma etching for GaAs-based field effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassel, van J.G.; Es, van C.M.; Nouwens, P.A.M.; Maahury, J.H.; Kaufmann, L.M.F.

    1995-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma etch processes with CH4/H2/AR have been investigated on different III–Vsemiconductor materials (GaAs, AlGaAs, InGaAs, and InP). The passivation depth as a function of the GaAs carrierconcentration and the recovery upon annealing at different temperatures

  16. Plasma potentials and performance of the advanced electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The mean plasma potential was measured on the LBL advanced electron cyclotron resonance (AECR) ion source for a variety of conditions. The mean potentials for plasmas of oxygen, argon, and argon mixed with oxygen in the AECR were determined. These plasma potentials are positive with respect to the plasma chamber wall and are on the order of tens of volts. Electrons injected into the plasma by an electron gun or from an aluminum oxide wall coating with a very high secondary electron emission reduce the plasma potential as does gas mixing. A lower plasma potential in the AECR source coincides with enhanced production of high charged state ions indicating longer ion confinement times. The effect of the extra electrons from external injection or wall coatings is to lower the average plasma potential and to increase the n e τ i of the ECR plasma. With sufficient extra electrons, the need for gas mixing can be eliminated or reduced to a lower level, so the source can operate at lower neutral pressures. A reduction of the neutral pressure decreases charge exchange between ions and neutrals and enhances the production of high charge state ions. An aluminum oxide coating results in the lowest plasma potential among the three methods discussed and the best source performance

  17. Nonlinear Right-Hand Polarized Wave in Plasma in the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasovitskiy, V. B.; Turikov, V. A.

    2018-05-01

    The propagation of a nonlinear right-hand polarized wave along an external magnetic field in subcritical plasma in the electron cyclotron resonance region is studied using numerical simulations. It is shown that a small-amplitude plasma wave excited in low-density plasma is unstable against modulation instability with a modulation period equal to the wavelength of the excited wave. The modulation amplitude in this case increases with decreasing detuning from the resonance frequency. The simulations have shown that, for large-amplitude waves of the laser frequency range propagating in plasma in a superstrong magnetic field, the maximum amplitude of the excited longitudinal electric field increases with the increasing external magnetic field and can reach 30% of the initial amplitude of the electric field in the laser wave. In this case, the energy of plasma electrons begins to substantially increase already at magnetic fields significantly lower than the resonance value. The laser energy transferred to plasma electrons in a strong external magnetic field is found to increase severalfold compared to that in isotropic plasma. It is shown that this mechanism of laser radiation absorption depends only slightly on the electron temperature.

  18. Plasma studies of the permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Peking University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, H T; Peng, S X; Xu, Y; Zhao, J; Lu, P N; Chen, J; Zhang, A L; Zhang, T; Guo, Z Y; Chen, J E

    2014-02-01

    At Peking University (PKU) we have developed several 2.45 GHz Permanent Magnet Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion sources for PKUNIFTY, SFRFQ, Coupled RFQ&SFRFQ, and Dielectric-Wall Accelerator (DWA) projects (respectively, 50 mA of D(+), 10 mA of O(+), 10 mA of He(+), and 50 mA of H(+)). In order to improve performance of these ion sources, it is necessary to better understand the principal factors that influence the plasma density and the atomic ion fraction. Theoretical analysis about microwave transmission and cut-off inside the discharge chamber were carried out to study the influence of the discharge chamber diameters. As a consequence, experimental studies on plasma density and ion fraction with different discharge chamber sizes have been carried out. Due to the difficulties in measuring plasma density inside the discharge chamber, the output beam current was measured to reflect the plasma density. Experimental results show that the plasma density increases to the maximum and then decreases significantly as the diameter changed from 64 mm to 30 mm, and the atomic ion fraction has the same tendency. The maximum beam intensity was obtained with the diameter of 35 mm, but the maximum atomic ion fraction with a diameter of 40 mm. The experimental results are basically accordant with the theoretical calculation. Details are presented in this paper.

  19. Plasma studies of the permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Peking University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, H. T.; Peng, S. X., E-mail: sxpeng@pku.edu.cn; Xu, Y.; Zhao, J.; Lu, P. N.; Chen, J.; Zhang, A. L.; Zhang, T.; Guo, Z. Y.; Chen, J. E. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-02-15

    At Peking University (PKU) we have developed several 2.45 GHz Permanent Magnet Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion sources for PKUNIFTY, SFRFQ, Coupled RFQ and SFRFQ, and Dielectric-Wall Accelerator (DWA) projects (respectively, 50 mA of D{sup +}, 10 mA of O{sup +}, 10 mA of He{sup +}, and 50 mA of H{sup +}). In order to improve performance of these ion sources, it is necessary to better understand the principal factors that influence the plasma density and the atomic ion fraction. Theoretical analysis about microwave transmission and cut-off inside the discharge chamber were carried out to study the influence of the discharge chamber diameters. As a consequence, experimental studies on plasma density and ion fraction with different discharge chamber sizes have been carried out. Due to the difficulties in measuring plasma density inside the discharge chamber, the output beam current was measured to reflect the plasma density. Experimental results show that the plasma density increases to the maximum and then decreases significantly as the diameter changed from 64 mm to 30 mm, and the atomic ion fraction has the same tendency. The maximum beam intensity was obtained with the diameter of 35 mm, but the maximum atomic ion fraction with a diameter of 40 mm. The experimental results are basically accordant with the theoretical calculation. Details are presented in this paper.

  20. Spatial profiling of ion and neutral excitation in noble gas electron cyclotron resonance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoades, R.L.; Gorbatkin, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Optical emission from neutrals and ions of several noble gases has been profiled in an electron cyclotron resonance plasma system. In argon plasmas with a net microwave power of 750 W, the neutral (696.5-nm) and ion (488-nm) emission profiles are slightly center peaked at 0.32 mTorr and gradually shift to a hollow appearance at 2.5 mTorr. Neon profiles show a similar trend from 2.5 to 10.0 mTorr. For the noble gases, transition pressure scales with the ionization potential of the gas, which is consistent with neutral depletion. Studies of noble gas mixtures, however, indicate that neutral depletion is not always dominant in the formation of hollow profiles. For Kr/Ar, Ar/Ne, and Ne/He plasmas, the majority gas tends to set the overall shape of the profile at any given pressure. For the conditions of the current system, plasma density appears to be more dominant than electron temperature in the formation of hollow profiles. The general method described is also a straightforward, inexpensive technique for measuring the spatial distribution of power deposited in plasmas, particularly where absolute scale can be calibrated by some other means

  1. In vacuo substrate pretreatments for enhancing nanodiamond formation in electron cyclotron resonance plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teii, Kungen; Kouzuma, Yutaka; Uchino, Kiichiro

    2006-01-01

    Substrate pretreatment conditions at low pressures have been examined for enhancing nanocrystalline diamond formation on silicon in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma. Three kinds of pretreatments (I) exposure to an ECR H 2 plasma with application of a substrate bias from -100 to +30 V (II) hot-filament heating in H 2 gas, and (III) hot-filament heating in vacuum, were used alone or followed by carburization prior to a two-step process of ion-enhanced nucleation in an ECR plasma and subsequent growth in a hot-filament system. The number density of diamond particles after the final growth step was greatly increased up to the order of 10 7 -10 8 cm -2 when applying pretreatment (I) at the bias of 0 V corresponding to the ion-bombardment energy of around 10 eV. In this treatment, a clean and smooth surface with minimal damage was made by the dominance of anisotropic etching by hydrogen ions over isotropic etching by hydrogen atoms. The number density of diamond particles was still more increased when applying pretreatment (II), but the treated surface was unfavorably contaminated and roughened

  2. Design study of electron cyclotron resonance-ion plasma accelerator for heavy ion cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, T.; Sugimoto, S.; Sasai, K.; Hattori, T.

    2014-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance-Ion Plasma Accelerator (ECR-IPAC) device, which theoretically can accelerate multiple charged ions to several hundred MeV with short acceleration length, has been proposed. The acceleration mechanism is based on the combination of two physical principles, plasma electron ion adiabatic ejection (PLEIADE) and Gyromagnetic Autoresonance (GYRAC). In this study, we have designed the proof of principle machine ECR-IPAC device and simulated the electromagnetic field distribution generating in the resonance cavity. ECR-IPAC device consisted of three parts, ECR ion source section, GYRAC section, and PLEIADE section. ECR ion source section and PLEIADE section were designed using several multi-turn solenoid coils and sextupole magnets, and GYRAC section was designed using 10 turns coil. The structure of ECR-IPAC device was the cylindrical shape, and the total length was 1024 mm and the maximum diameter was 580 mm. The magnetic field distribution, which maintains the stable acceleration of plasma, was generated on the acceleration center axis throughout three sections. In addition, the electric field for efficient acceleration of electrons was generated in the resonance cavity by supplying microwave of 2.45 GHz

  3. Production of hydrogen and deuterium negative ions in an electron cyclotron resonance driven plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougar-Jabon, V.D. [Industrial Univ. of Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2001-04-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance source with driven plasma rings for hydrogen isotope ion production is studied. Extracted currents of positive and negative ions depending on gas pressure, microwave power value and extraction voltage are obtained. The study shows that the negative ion yield is an order of magnitude higher than the yield of positive particles when a driven ring is in contact with the surface of the plasma electrode. The production of negative ions of deuterium, D{sup -}, is close to the production of negative ions of light hydrogen isotope, H{sup -}. The comparison of the experimental data with the calculated ones shows that the most probable process of the H{sup -} and D{sup -} ion formation in the electron cyclotron driven plasma is dissociative attachment of electrons to molecules in high Rydberg states. For hydrogen ions and ions of deuterium, the negative current at a microwave power of 200 W through a 3-mm aperture and 8 kV extraction voltage are 4.7 mA and 3.1 mA respectively. (orig.)

  4. Production of hydrogen and deuterium negative ions in an electron cyclotron resonance driven plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougar-Jabon, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance source with driven plasma rings for hydrogen isotope ion production is studied. Extracted currents of positive and negative ions depending on gas pressure, microwave power value and extraction voltage are obtained. The study shows that the negative ion yield is an order of magnitude higher than the yield of positive particles when a driven ring is in contact with the surface of the plasma electrode. The production of negative ions of deuterium, D - , is close to the production of negative ions of light hydrogen isotope, H - . The comparison of the experimental data with the calculated ones shows that the most probable process of the H - and D - ion formation in the electron cyclotron driven plasma is dissociative attachment of electrons to molecules in high Rydberg states. For hydrogen ions and ions of deuterium, the negative current at a microwave power of 200 W through a 3-mm aperture and 8 kV extraction voltage are 4.7 mA and 3.1 mA respectively. (orig.)

  5. Phosphorus Doping Using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma for Large-Area Polycrystalline Silicon Thin Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinuma, Hiroaki; Mohri, Mikio; Tsuruoka, Taiji

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated phosphorus doping using an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma, for application to the poly-Si driving circuits of liquid crystal displays or image sensors. The PH3/He was ionized and accelerated to poly-Si and c-Si substrates with a self bias of -220 V. The P concentration, as detected by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), is ˜5×1021 cm-3 at the surface, which decayed to ˜1017 cm-3 within 50 100 nm depth. The surface is found to be etched during doping. The etching is restored by adding a small amount of SiH4 and the sheet resistance R s decreases. The optimized as-irradiated R s is ˜ 1× 105 Ω/\\Box and 1.7× 102 Ω/\\Box for poly-Si and (110) c-Si, respectively. The dependence of R s on the substrates and the anomalous diffusion constants derived from SIMS are also discussed.

  6. Response of a core coherent density oscillation on electron cyclotron resonance heating in Heliotron J plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Lu, X. X.; Kenmochi, N.; Ida, K.; Ohshima, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Kado, S.; Kokubu, D.; Nagasaki, K.; Okada, H.; Minami, T.; Otani, Y.; Mizuuchi, T.

    2018-01-01

    We report properties of a coherent density oscillation observed in the core region and its response to electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECH) in Heliotron J plasma. The measurement was performed using a multi-channel beam emission spectroscopy system. The density oscillation is observed in a radial region between the core and the half radius. The poloidal mode number is found to be 1 (or 2). By modulating the ECH power with 100 Hz, repetition of formation and deformation of a strong electron temperature gradient, which is likely ascribed to be an electron internal transport barrier, is realized. Amplitude and rotation frequency of the coherent density oscillation sitting at the strong electron temperature gradient location are modulated by the ECH, while the poloidal mode structure remains almost unchanged. The change in the rotation velocity in the laboratory frame is derived. Assuming that the change of the rotation velocity is given by the background E × B velocity, a possible time evolution of the radial electric field was deduced.

  7. Development and studies on a compact electron cyclotron resonance plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, A.; Tarey, R. D.; Arora, N.; Narayanan, R.

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) produced plasmas are efficient, high-density plasma sources and have many industrial applications. The concept of a portable compact ECR plasma source (CEPS) would thus become important from an application point of view. This paper gives details of such a CEPS that is both portable and easily mountable on a chamber of any size. It uses a fully integrated microwave line operating at 2.45 GHz, up to 800 W, cw. The required magnetic field is produced by a set of suitably designed NdFeB ring magnets; the device has an overall length of  ≈60 cm and weighs  ≈14 kg including the permanent magnets. The CEPS was attached to a small experimental chamber to judge its efficacy for plasma production. In the pressure range of 0.5-10 mTorr and microwave power of  ≈400-500 W the experiments indicate that the CEPS is capable of producing high-density plasma (≈9  ×  1011-1012 cm-3) with bulk electron temperature in the range  ≈2-3 eV. In addition, a warm electron population with density and temperature in the range ≈7  ×  108-109 cm-3 and  ≈45-80 eV, respectively has been detected. This warm population plays an important role at high pressures in maintaining the high-density plasma, when plasma flow from the CEPS into the test chamber is strongly affected.

  8. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma characterization by X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascali, David, E-mail: davidmascali@lns.infn.it; Castro, Giuseppe; Celona, Luigi; Neri, Lorenzo; Gammino, Santo [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Biri, Sándor; Rácz, Richárd; Pálinkás, József [Institute for Nuclear Research (Atomki), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem tér 18/c, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Caliri, Claudia [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Catania, Dip.to di Fisica e Astronomia, via Santa Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Romano, Francesco Paolo [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); CNR, Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Torrisi, Giuseppe [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, DIIES, Via Graziella, I-89100 Reggio Calabria (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    An experimental campaign aiming to investigate electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma X-ray emission has been recently carried out at the ECRISs—Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources laboratory of Atomki based on a collaboration between the Debrecen and Catania ECR teams. In a first series, the X-ray spectroscopy was performed through silicon drift detectors and high purity germanium detectors, characterizing the volumetric plasma emission. The on-purpose developed collimation system was suitable for direct plasma density evaluation, performed “on-line” during beam extraction and charge state distribution characterization. A campaign for correlating the plasma density and temperature with the output charge states and the beam intensity for different pumping wave frequencies, different magnetic field profiles, and single-gas/gas-mixing configurations was carried out. The results reveal a surprisingly very good agreement between warm-electron density fluctuations, output beam currents, and the calculated electromagnetic modal density of the plasma chamber. A charge-coupled device camera coupled to a small pin-hole allowing X-ray imaging was installed and numerous X-ray photos were taken in order to study the peculiarities of the ECRIS plasma structure.

  9. Hollow density profile on electron cyclotron resonance heating JFT-2M plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Toshihiko; Hoshino, Katsumichi; Kawashima, Hisato; Ogawa, Toshihide; Kawakami, Tomohide; Shiina, Tomio; Ishige, Youichi

    1998-01-01

    The first hollow electron density profile in the central region on the JAERI Fusion Torus-2M (JFT-2M) is measured during electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) with a TV Thomson scattering system (TVTS). The peripheral region is not hollow but is accumulated due to pump-out from the central region. The hollowness increases with time but is saturated at ∼40 ms and maintains a constant hollow ratio. The hollowness is strongly related to the steep temperature gradient of the heated zone. (author)

  10. The influence of ambipolarity on plasma confinement and on the performance of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, L; Dobrescu, S; Stiebing, K E; Thuillier, T; Lamy, T

    2008-02-01

    Charge diffusion in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) discharge is usually characterized by nonambipolar behavior. While the ions are transported to the radial walls, electrons are lost axially from the magnetic trap. Global neutrality is maintained via compensating currents in the conducting walls of the vacuum chamber. It is assumed that this behavior reduces the ion breeding times compared to a truly ambipolar plasma. We have carried out a series of dedicated experiments in which the ambipolarity of the ECRIS plasma was influenced by inserting special metal-dielectric structures (MD layers) into the plasma chamber of the Frankfurt 14 GHz ECRIS. The measurements demonstrate the positive influence on the source performance when the ECR plasma is changed toward more ambipolar behavior.

  11. A hybrid electron cyclotron resonance metal ion source with integrated sputter magnetron for the production of an intense Al{sup +} ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichsel, T., E-mail: tim.weichsel@fep.fraunhofer.de; Hartung, U.; Kopte, T. [Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Zschornack, G. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, 01062 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany); Kreller, M.; Philipp, A. [DREEBIT GmbH, 01900 Grossroehrsdorf (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    A metal ion source prototype has been developed: a combination of magnetron sputter technology with 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source technology—a so called magnetron ECR ion source (MECRIS). An integrated ring-shaped sputter magnetron with an Al target is acting as a powerful metal atom supply in order to produce an intense current of singly charged metal ions. Preliminary experiments show that an Al{sup +} ion current with a density of 167 μA/cm{sup 2} is extracted from the source at an acceleration voltage of 27 kV. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy were used to study the plasma states of the ion source: sputter magnetron, ECR, and MECRIS plasma. Electron density and temperature as well as Al atom density were determined as a function of microwave and sputter magnetron power. The effect of ECR heating is strongly pronounced in the center of the source. There the electron density is increased by one order of magnitude from 6 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −3} to 6 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} and the electron temperature is enhanced from about 5 eV to 12 eV, when the ECR plasma is ignited to the magnetron plasma. Operating the magnetron at constant power, it was observed that its discharge current is raised from 1.8 A to 4.8 A, when the ECR discharge was superimposed with a microwave power of 2 kW. At the same time, the discharge voltage decreased from about 560 V to 210 V, clearly indicating a higher plasma density of the MECRIS mode. The optical emission spectrum of the MECRIS plasma is dominated by lines of excited Al atoms and shows a significant contribution of lines arising from singly ionized Al. Plasma emission photography with a CCD camera was used to prove probe measurements and to identify separated plasma emission zones originating from the ECR and magnetron discharge.

  12. Plasma heating in the TM-3 Tokamak at electron-cyclotron resonance with magnetic fields up to 25 ke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikaev, V.V.; Bobrovskii, G.A.; Poznyak, V.I.; Razumova, K.A.; Sannikov, V.V.; Sokolov, Yu.A.; Shmarin, A.A.

    Experiments were conducted in heating plasma at electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR) with longitudinal magnetic fields up to 25 ke. It was shown by the aid of laser diagnosis that the temperature of the basic component of the electrons increases in accordance with the classical mechanism of heating at ECR in the process of electron-cyclotron heating (ECH). The distribution of the temperature of electrons with respect to radius was measured. The relationship of energetic lifetime in the Tokamak and electron temperature was obtained and the magnitude of energetic lifetime of accelerated electrons in the function of their energy was estimated. The value β/sub tau/ approximately equal to 2.2 was obtained by the aid of ECH in a regime with small discharge currents

  13. Characteristics of an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Source for the Production of Active Nitrogen Species in III-V Nitride Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    A simple analysis is provided to determine the characteristics of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source for the generation of active nitrogen species in the molecular beam epitaxy of III-V nitrides. The effects of reactor geometry, pressure, power, and flow rate on the dissociation efficiency and ion flux are presented. Pulsing the input power is proposed to reduce the ion flux.

  14. Structural and interfacial characteristics of thin (2 films grown by electron cyclotron resonance plasma oxidation on [100] Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.D.; Carl, D.A.; Hess, D.W.; Lieberman, M.A.; Gronsky, R.

    1991-04-01

    The feasibility of fabricating ultra-thin SiO 2 films on the order of a few nanometer thickness has been demonstrated. SiO 2 thin films of approximately 7 nm thickness have been produced by ion flux-controlled Electron Cyclotron Resonance plasma oxidation at low temperature on [100] Si substrates, in reproducible fashion. Electrical measurements of these films indicate that they have characteristics comparable to those of thermally grown oxides. The thickness of the films was determined by ellipsometry, and further confirmed by cross-sectional High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. Comparison between the ECR and the thermal oxide films shows that the ECR films are uniform and continuous over at least a few microns in lateral direction, similar to the thermal oxide films grown at comparable thickness. In addition, HRTEM images reveal a thin (1--1.5 nm) crystalline interfacial layer between the ECR film and the [100] substrate. Thinner oxide films of approximately 5 nm thickness have also been attempted, but so far have resulted in nonuniform coverage. Reproducibility at this thickness is difficult to achieve

  15. Electron cyclotron resonance heating assisted plasma startup in the Tore Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucalossi, J.; Hertout, P.; Lennholm, M.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Bouquey, F.; Darbos, C.; Traisnel, E.

    2009-04-01

    ECRH assisted plasma startup at fundamental resonance is investigated in Tore Supra in view of ITER operation. ECRH pre-ionisation is found to be very efficient allowing plasma initiation in a wide range of pre-fill pressure compared to ohmic startup. Reliable assisted startup has been achieved at the ITER reference toroidal electric field (0.3 V/m) with 160 kW of ECRH. Resonance location scan indicates that the plasma is initiated at the resonance location and that the plasma current channel position had to be real-time controlled since the very beginning of the discharge to obtain robust plasma startup. (authors)

  16. Fast camera studies at an electron cyclotron resonance table plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rácz, R.; Biri, S.; Hajdu, P.; Pálinkás, J.

    2014-01-01

    A simple table-size ECR plasma generator operates in the ATOMKI without axial magnetic trap and without any particle extraction tool. Radial plasma confinement is ensured by a NdFeB hexapole. The table-top ECR is a simplified version of the 14 GHz ATOMKI-ECRIS. Plasma diagnostics experiments are planned to be performed at this device before installing the measurement setting at the “big” ECRIS. Recently, the plasma generator has been operated in pulsed RF mode in order to investigate the time evolution of the ECR plasma in two different ways. (1) The visible light radiation emitted by the plasma was investigated by the frames of a fast camera images with 1 ms temporal resolution. Since the visible light photographs are in strong correlation with the two-dimensional spatial distribution of the cold electron components of the plasma it can be important to understand better the transient processes just after the breakdown and just after the glow. (2) The time-resolved ion current on a specially shaped electrode was measured simultaneously in order to compare it with the visible light photographs. The response of the plasma was detected by changing some external setting parameters (gas pressure and microwave power) and was described in this paper

  17. Fast camera studies at an electron cyclotron resonance table plasma generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, R; Biri, S; Hajdu, P; Pálinkás, J

    2014-02-01

    A simple table-size ECR plasma generator operates in the ATOMKI without axial magnetic trap and without any particle extraction tool. Radial plasma confinement is ensured by a NdFeB hexapole. The table-top ECR is a simplified version of the 14 GHz ATOMKI-ECRIS. Plasma diagnostics experiments are planned to be performed at this device before installing the measurement setting at the "big" ECRIS. Recently, the plasma generator has been operated in pulsed RF mode in order to investigate the time evolution of the ECR plasma in two different ways. (1) The visible light radiation emitted by the plasma was investigated by the frames of a fast camera images with 1 ms temporal resolution. Since the visible light photographs are in strong correlation with the two-dimensional spatial distribution of the cold electron components of the plasma it can be important to understand better the transient processes just after the breakdown and just after the glow. (2) The time-resolved ion current on a specially shaped electrode was measured simultaneously in order to compare it with the visible light photographs. The response of the plasma was detected by changing some external setting parameters (gas pressure and microwave power) and was described in this paper.

  18. Fast camera studies at an electron cyclotron resonance table plasma generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rácz, R., E-mail: rracz@atomki.hu [Institute for Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem tér 18/c (Hungary); Department of Experimental Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4032 Debrecen, Egyetem tér 1 (Hungary); Biri, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem tér 18/c (Hungary); Hajdu, P.; Pálinkás, J. [Department of Experimental Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4032 Debrecen, Egyetem tér 1 (Hungary)

    2014-02-15

    A simple table-size ECR plasma generator operates in the ATOMKI without axial magnetic trap and without any particle extraction tool. Radial plasma confinement is ensured by a NdFeB hexapole. The table-top ECR is a simplified version of the 14 GHz ATOMKI-ECRIS. Plasma diagnostics experiments are planned to be performed at this device before installing the measurement setting at the “big” ECRIS. Recently, the plasma generator has been operated in pulsed RF mode in order to investigate the time evolution of the ECR plasma in two different ways. (1) The visible light radiation emitted by the plasma was investigated by the frames of a fast camera images with 1 ms temporal resolution. Since the visible light photographs are in strong correlation with the two-dimensional spatial distribution of the cold electron components of the plasma it can be important to understand better the transient processes just after the breakdown and just after the glow. (2) The time-resolved ion current on a specially shaped electrode was measured simultaneously in order to compare it with the visible light photographs. The response of the plasma was detected by changing some external setting parameters (gas pressure and microwave power) and was described in this paper.

  19. High electronegativity multi-dipolar electron cyclotron resonance plasma source for etching by negative ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Draghici, M.

    2012-01-01

    A large area plasma source based on 12 multi-dipolar ECR plasma cells arranged in a 3 x 4 matrix configuration was built and optimized for silicon etching by negative ions. The density ratio of negative ions to electrons has exceeded 300 in Ar/SF6 gas mixture when a magnetic filter was used...... to reduce the electron temperature to about 1.2 eV. Mass spectrometry and electrostatic probe were used for plasma diagnostics. The new source is free of density jumps and instabilities and shows a very good stability for plasma potential, and the dominant negative ion species is F-. The magnetic field...... in plasma volume is negligible and there is no contamination by filaments. The etching rate by negative ions measured in Ar/SF6/O-2 mixtures was almost similar with that by positive ions reaching 700 nm/min. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics...

  20. Plasma potential in a magnetic mirror with electron-cyclotron-resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of the ECRH plasma in the University of Wisconsin DE Machine magnetic mirror have been undertaken. Typical plasma parameters in these experiments were T/sub e/ - 10 to 30 eV, T/sub i/ - 4 eV, V/sub po/ (plasma potential at midplane) - 20 to 50 V, midplane plasma density n 0 - 10 16 m - 3 , B 0 (magnetic field strength on axis at midplane) - .005 to .01 T, mirror ratio R - 5 to 20. The principal experimental findings were the appearance of strong density peaks (approx. 2 x background) and notable V/sub f/ dips (approx. kT/sub e//e) in a narrow (approx. 1 cm) region near the axial positions of cyclotron resonance. The properties of these dips do not change greatly over the range of operating parameters, but are narrower at higher pressures

  1. Simulation of the Plasma Density Evolution during Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating at the T-10 Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dnestrovskij, Yu. N.; Vershkov, V. A.; Danilov, A. V.; Dnestrovskij, A. Yu.; Zenin, V. N.; Lysenko, S. E.; Melnikov, A. V.; Shelukhin, D. A.; Subbotin, G. F.; Cherkasov, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    In ohmically heated (OH) plasma with low recycling, an improved particle confinement (IPC) mode is established during gas puffing. However, after gas puffing is switched off, this mode is retained only for about 100 ms, after which an abrupt phase transition into the low particle confinement (LPC) mode occurs in the entire plasma cross section. During such a transition, energy transport due to heat conduction does not change. The phase transition in OH plasma is similar to the effect of density pump-out from the plasma core, which occurs after electron cyclotron heating (ECH) is switched on. Analysis of the measured plasma pressure profiles in the T-10 tokamak shows that, after gas puffing in the OH mode is switched off, the plasma pressure profile in the IPC stage becomes more peaked and, after the peakedness exceeds a certain critical value, the IPC-LPC transition occurs. Similar processes are also observed during ECH. If the pressure profile is insufficiently peaked during ECH, then the density pump-out effect comes into play only after the critical peakedness of the pressure profile is reached. In the plasma core, the density and pressure profiles are close to the corresponding canonical profiles. This allows one to derive an expression for the particle flux within the canonical profile model and formulate a criterion for the IPC-LPC transition. The time evolution of the plasma density profile during phase transitions was simulated for a number of T-10 shots with ECH and high recycling. The particle transport coefficients in the IPC and LPC phases, as well as the dependences of these coefficients on the ECH power, are determined.

  2. Study of diffused particles by an electron cyclotron-resonance ions source plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    A double electrostatic analyser has been built mainly to study the loss cone electron population. The analysis of the ions can help to determine the plasma potential. The possibility of applying two analysing potentials along the extraction decaying magnetic filed allowed us to determine the anisotropy of the electron distribution function, of parallel temperature Tpar and perpendicular temperature Tper outside the plasma. The Tpar temperature remains constant at around 10 eV when Tper increases from 30 eV to 150 eV with improved confinement. The electron cyclotron heating provides mainly perpendicular energy to the electrons. The perpendicular electron energy is then converted to parallel energy predominantly by electron ion collisions and leave the plasma with a frequency depending on v per -3 . Taking a Maxwellian function of temperature T per cent to describe the electron function distribution f cent (v per ) in the center of the plasma is in line with the experimental electron characteristics obtained with a single electrostatic potential. Temperatures of 2 keV have been reached at 10 Ghz and 6 keV at 18 Ggz. Measurements of density and diamagnetism can complete the description of this warm population: the warm electrons dominate in number but leave the plasma quicker than the very hot electron population (analysed with the X ray diagnostic). For this reason the energy density of warm electrons is less than that of the very hot population by warm electrons consume most of the injected rf power. (author). 52 refs., 100 figs

  3. Electron velocity-space diffusion in a micro-unstable ECRH [electron cyclotron resonance heated] mirror plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hokin, S.A.

    1987-09-01

    An experimental study of the velocity-space diffusion of electrons in an electron cyclotron resonance heated (ECRH) mirror plasma, in the presence of micro-unstable whistler rf emission, is presented. It is found that the dominant loss mechanism for hot electrons is endloss produced by rf diffusion into the mirror loss cone. In a standard case with 4.5 kW of ECRH power, this loss limits the stored energy to 120 J with an energy confinement time of 40 ms. The energy confinement time associated with collisional scattering is 350 ms in this case. Whistler microinstability rf produces up to 25% of the rf-induced loss. The hot electron temperature is not limited by loss of adiabaticity, but by rf-induced loss of high energy electrons, and decreases with increasing rf power in strong diffusion regimes. Collisional loss is in agreement with standard scattering theory. No super-adiabatic effects are clearly seen. Experiments in which the vacuum chamber walls are lined with microwave absorber reveal that single pass absorption is limited to less than 60%, whereas experiments with reflecting walls exhibit up to 90% absorption. Stronger diffusion is seen in the latter, with a hot electron heating rate which is twice that of the absorber experiments. This increase in diffusion can be produced by two distinct aspects of wall-reflected rf: the broader spatial rf profile, which enlarges the resonant region in velocity space, or a reduction in super-adiabatic effects due to randomization of the electron gyrophase. Since no other aspects of super-adiabaticity are observed, the first mechanism appears more likely. 39 refs., 54 figs

  4. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the plasma near electron cyclotron resonance: Undulator-induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvets, G.; Tushentsov, M.; Tokman, M.D.; Kryachko, A.

    2005-01-01

    Propagation of electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasma near the electron cyclotron frequency can be strongly modified by adding a weak magnetic undulator. For example, both right- and left-hand circularly polarized waves can propagate along the magnetic field without experiencing resonant absorption. This effect of entirely eliminating electron cyclotron heating is referred to as the undulator-induced transparency (UIT) of the plasma, and is the classical equivalent of the well-known quantum mechanical effect of electromagnetically induced transparency. The basics of UIT are reviewed, and various ways in which UIT can be utilized to achieve exotic propagation properties of electromagnetic waves in plasmas are discussed. For example, UIT can dramatically slow down the waves' group velocity, resulting in the extreme compression of the wave energy in the plasma. Compressed waves are polarized along the propagation direction, and can be used for synchronous electron or ion acceleration. Strong coupling between the two wave helicities are explored to impart the waves with high group velocities ∂ω/∂k for vanishing wave numbers k. Cross-helicity coupling for realistic density and magnetic field profiles are examined using a linearized fluid code, particle-in-cell simulations, and ray-tracing WKB calculations

  5. Optimization of a coaxial electron cyclotron resonance plasma thruster with an analytical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannat, F., E-mail: felix.cannat@onera.fr, E-mail: felix.cannat@gmail.com; Lafleur, T. [Physics and Instrumentation Department, Onera -The French Aerospace Lab, Palaiseau, Cedex 91123 (France); Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS, Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris-Sud, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Jarrige, J.; Elias, P.-Q.; Packan, D. [Physics and Instrumentation Department, Onera -The French Aerospace Lab, Palaiseau, Cedex 91123 (France); Chabert, P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS, Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris-Sud, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2015-05-15

    A new cathodeless plasma thruster currently under development at Onera is presented and characterized experimentally and analytically. The coaxial thruster consists of a microwave antenna immersed in a magnetic field, which allows electron heating via cyclotron resonance. The magnetic field diverges at the thruster exit and forms a nozzle that accelerates the quasi-neutral plasma to generate a thrust. Different thruster configurations are tested, and in particular, the influence of the source diameter on the thruster performance is investigated. At microwave powers of about 30 W and a xenon flow rate of 0.1 mg/s (1 SCCM), a mass utilization of 60% and a thrust of 1 mN are estimated based on angular electrostatic probe measurements performed downstream of the thruster in the exhaust plume. Results are found to be in fair agreement with a recent analytical helicon thruster model that has been adapted for the coaxial geometry used here.

  6. High-power microwave transmission systems for electron cyclotron resonance plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernon, R.J.

    1990-08-01

    This progress report is for the fifth year of a grant from the US Department of Energy (Contract FG02-85ER52122) for the design, development, and fabrication of ECRF transmission and mode conversion systems to transport microwave power from a gyrotron, or other high power source, to a magnetically confined plasma. (This period is also the second year covered by a three-year renewal proposal submitted in June of 1988.) The development of new and improved components for such systems and underlying theory, where necessary, is the focus of this project. Devising and improving component testing and diagnostic techniques is also an important part of this effort. The development of possible designs for sections of gyrotrons themselves, such as tapers or Vlasov-type launchers, in support of the Varian gyrotron development program is also considered in this work

  7. High power microwave transmission systems for electron cyclotron resonance plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernon, R.J.

    1989-08-01

    This progress report is for the fourth year of a grant from the US Department of Energy for the design, development, and fabrication of ECRF transmission and mode conversion systems to transport microwave power from a gyrotron to a magnetically confined plasma. The development and testing of new and improved components for such systems and underlying theory, where necessary, is the focus of this project. Devising and improving component testing and diagnostic techniques is also an important part of this effort. During the last year, we developed a preliminary design for a Te 15,2 --TE 15, 1 mode converter for the MIT 150 GHz gyrotron and considered its performance as the frequency and mode was step tuned. A preliminary design for a combined uptaper and TE 15,2 --TE 15,1 converter for possible use with the Varian 140 GHz gyrotron was also developed. Work was begun on a combined TE 15,n uptaper -- mode converter to produce a mode combination which would reduce microwave radiation into an azimuthal waveguide gap. Simple models for the radiation from TE 0n and TM 0n Vlasov launcher baffles were developed and compared with measurements which were taken in our radiation pattern measurement facility. Work began on testing possible methods for generating high azimuthal index rotating modes. Work on the further refinement of the method of mode content determination from open-end radiation pattern measurement was carried out. An investigation of the Wiener-Hopf method for obtaining open- end radiation patterns produced improved radiation patterns for the TE 0n modes in a circular waveguide. 15 refs., 15 figs

  8. Study of plasma start-up initiated by second harmonic electron cyclotron resonance heating on WEGA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preynas, M.; Laqua, H. P.; Otte, M.; Stange, T.; Aßmus, D.; Wauters, T.

    2014-01-01

    Although both 1st harmonic ordinary mode (O1) and 2nd harmonic extra-ordinary mode (X2) have been successfully used to initiate pre-ionization and breakdown in many devices, a complete theoretical model is still missing to explain the success of this method. Moreover, some experimental observations are not completely understood, such as what occurs during the delay time between the turn-on of ECRH power and first signals of density or light measurements. Since during this free period the ECRH power has to be absorbed by in-vessel components, it is of prime importance to know what governs this delay time. Recently, dedicated start-up experiments have been performed on WEGA, using a 28 GHz ECRH system in X2-mode. This machine has the interesting capability to be run also as a tokamak allowing comparative experiments between stellarator (ι/2π > 0) and tokamak (ι/2π = 0) configurations. Different scans in heating power, neutral gas pressure, and rotational transform (ι) show clearly that the start-up is a two step process. A first step following the turn-on of the ECRH power during which no measurable electron density (or just above the noise level in some cases), ECE and radiated power is detected. Its duration depends strongly on the level of injected power. The second step corresponds to the gas ionization and plasma expansion phase, with a velocity of density build-up and filling-up of the vessel volume depending mainly on pressure, gas and rotational transform. Moreover, an interesting scenario of ECRH pre-ionization without loop voltage in tokamak configuration by applying a small optimal vertical field is relevant for start-up assistance on future experiments like ITER. The results from this experimental parametric study are useful for the modeling of the start-up assisted by the second harmonic electron cyclotron resonance heating. The aim of this work is to establish predictive scenarios for both ITER and W7-X operation

  9. Study of plasma start-up initiated by second harmonic electron cyclotron resonance heating on WEGA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preynas, M.; Laqua, H. P.; Otte, M.; Stange, T.; Aßmus, D. [Max Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Wauters, T. [Association Euratom-Belgian State, LPP-ERM/KMS, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-02-12

    Although both 1st harmonic ordinary mode (O1) and 2nd harmonic extra-ordinary mode (X2) have been successfully used to initiate pre-ionization and breakdown in many devices, a complete theoretical model is still missing to explain the success of this method. Moreover, some experimental observations are not completely understood, such as what occurs during the delay time between the turn-on of ECRH power and first signals of density or light measurements. Since during this free period the ECRH power has to be absorbed by in-vessel components, it is of prime importance to know what governs this delay time. Recently, dedicated start-up experiments have been performed on WEGA, using a 28 GHz ECRH system in X2-mode. This machine has the interesting capability to be run also as a tokamak allowing comparative experiments between stellarator (ι/2π > 0) and tokamak (ι/2π = 0) configurations. Different scans in heating power, neutral gas pressure, and rotational transform (ι) show clearly that the start-up is a two step process. A first step following the turn-on of the ECRH power during which no measurable electron density (or just above the noise level in some cases), ECE and radiated power is detected. Its duration depends strongly on the level of injected power. The second step corresponds to the gas ionization and plasma expansion phase, with a velocity of density build-up and filling-up of the vessel volume depending mainly on pressure, gas and rotational transform. Moreover, an interesting scenario of ECRH pre-ionization without loop voltage in tokamak configuration by applying a small optimal vertical field is relevant for start-up assistance on future experiments like ITER. The results from this experimental parametric study are useful for the modeling of the start-up assisted by the second harmonic electron cyclotron resonance heating. The aim of this work is to establish predictive scenarios for both ITER and W7-X operation.

  10. Summary of experimental core turbulence characteristics in ohmic and electron cyclotron resonance heated discharges in T-10 tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vershkov, V.A.; Shelukhin, D.A.; Soldatov, S.V.; Urazbaev, A.O.; Grashin, S.A.; Eliseev, L.G.; Melnikov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of experimental turbulence investigations carried out at T-10 for more than 10 years. The turbulence characteristics were investigated using correlation reflectometry, multipin Langmuir probe (MLP) and heavy ion beam probe diagnostics. The reflectometry capabilities were analysed using 2D full-wave simulations and verified by direct comparison using a MLP. The ohmic and electron cyclotron resonance heated discharges show the distinct transition from the core turbulence, having complex spectral structure, to the unstructured one in the scrape-off layer. The core turbulence includes 'broad band, quasi-coherent' features, arising due to the excitation of rational surfaces with high poloidal m-numbers, with a low frequency near zero and specific oscillations at 15-30 kHz. All experimentally measured properties of low frequency and high frequency quasi-coherent oscillations are in good agreement with predictions of linear theory for the ion temperature gradient/dissipative trapped electron mode instabilities. Significant local changes in the turbulence characteristics were observed at the edge velocity shear layer and in the core near q = 1 radius after switching off the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). The local decrease in the electron heat conductivity and decrease in the turbulence level could be evidence of the formation of an electron internal transport barrier. The dynamic behaviour of the core turbulence was also investigated for the case of fast edge cooling and the beginning phase of ECRH

  11. Electron cyclotron resonance multiply charged ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, R.

    1975-01-01

    Three ion sources, that deliver multiply charged ion beams are described. All of them are E.C.R. ion sources and are characterized by the fact that the electrons are emitted by the plasma itself and are accelerated to the adequate energy through electron cyclotron resonance (E.C.R.). They can work without interruption during several months in a quasi-continuous regime. (Duty cycle: [fr

  12. Hybrid simulation of electron cyclotron resonance heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropponen, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland)], E-mail: tommi.ropponen@phys.jyu.fi; Tarvainen, O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Suominen, P. [CERN Geneve 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Koponen, T.K. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, Nanoscience Center, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland); Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland)

    2008-03-11

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heating is a fundamentally important aspect in understanding the physics of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS). Absorption of the radio frequency (RF) microwave power by electron heating in the resonance zone depends on many parameters including frequency and electric field strength of the microwave, magnetic field structure and electron and ion density profiles. ECR absorption has been studied in the past by e.g. modelling electric field behaviour in the resonance zone and its near proximity. This paper introduces a new ECR heating code that implements damping of the microwave power in the vicinity of the resonance zone, utilizes electron density profiles and uses right hand circularly polarized (RHCP) electromagnetic waves to simulate electron heating in ECRIS plasma.

  13. Theoretical and experimental study of the electron distribution function in the plasma of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, A.; Perret, C.; Bourg, F.; Khodja, H.; Melin, G.; Lecot, C.

    1997-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) are mirror machines which can deliver important fluxes of Highly Charged Ions (HCI). These performances are strongly correlated with hot electrons sustained by an RF wave. This paper presents an analysis of the EDF in an ECR source. In the first part of the paper a one-dimensional Fokker-Planck code for the Electron Distribution Function is presented: this code includes a quasilinear diffusion operator for the RF wave, a collision term and a source term due to electron impact ionization. The present status of this code is presented. In the second part of the paper experiments related to the measurement of the EDF are presented: electron density, diamagnetism, electron endloss current have been measured at the Quadrumafios ECRIS. With these results it is possible to give a precise description of the EDF. (author)

  14. Linear theory of microwave absortion in fusion plasmas. A study of the electron cyclotron resonance and its particularization to a helical axis device for magnetic confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castejon M, F.

    1989-01-01

    The study of the Linear Theory microwave propagation and absorption in the the frequency range of electron cyclotron resonance, in a magnetized plasma, is developed. This study is particularized to the flexible heliac TJ-II, whose main characteristics are dsetailed in a memory chapter, as an interesting case example for its peculiar magnetic configuration. As a preliminary phase, a cold plasma model is useds to analyze the resonance accessibility and the approximated density limits which will be obtainable in each electron cyclotron resonance harmonic. This analysis was used to find the suitable positions for the microwave injection in TJ-II. An analytical weakly relativistic model for the dielectric tensor is developed, valid for oblique propagation, that takes account of the effect of superthermal electrons. Second order Larmor radius effects are included, so that the Quasi-Electrostatic branch of X mode can be studied. A numerical study is then presented on the absorption properties of TJ-II. Since the TJ-II geometry is complex and its magnetic field distribution is very different from that of a tokamak, ray tracing calculations are necessary to consider refraction effects. The ray tracing codse RAYS, developed in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (U.S.A.), was take and adapted to the helical magnetic configuration of the TJ-II. The absorption model described above was then included in RAYS. For completeness, an introduction to the Quasi Linear Theory, natural prolongation of this work, is included at the end of the memory, ands the effects of taking into account the quasi linear evolution of the distribution function are described. (Author)

  15. 3D-full wave and kinetics numerical modelling of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources plasma: steps towards self-consistency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascali, D.; Neri, L.; Castro, G.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Torrisi, G.; Sorbello, G.

    2015-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion Sources are the most performing machines for the production of intense beams of multi-charged ions in fundamental science, applied physics and industry. Investigation of plasma dynamics in ECRIS still remains a challenge. A better comprehension of electron heating, ionization and diffusion processes, ion confinement and ion beam formation is mandatory in order to increase ECRIS performances both in terms of output beams currents, charge states, beam quality (emittance minimization, beam halos suppression, etc.). Numerical solution of Vlasov equation via kinetic codes coupled to FEM solvers is ongoing at INFN-LNS, based on a PIC strategy. Preliminary results of the modeling will be shown about wave-plasma interaction and electron-ion confinement: the obtained results are very helpful to better understand the influence of the different parameters (especially RF frequency and power) on the ion beam formation mechanism. The most important clues coming out from the simulations are that although vacuum field RF field distribution (that is a cavity, modal field distribution) is perturbed by the plasma medium, the non-uniformity in the electric field amplitude still persists in the plasma filled cavity. This non-uniformity can be correlated with non-uniform plasma distribution, explaining a number of experimental observations

  16. High excitation of the species in nitrogen–aluminum plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance microwave discharge of N2 gas and pulsed laser ablation of Al target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Peipei; Li, Yanli; Cai, Hua; You, Qinghu; Yang, Xu; Huang, Feiling; Sun, Jian; Xu, Ning; Wu, Jiada

    2014-01-01

    A reactive nitrogen–aluminum plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave discharge of N 2 gas and pulsed laser ablation of an Al target is characterized spectroscopically by time-integrated and time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The vibrational and rotational temperatures of N 2 species are determined by spectral simulation. The generated plasma strongly emits radiation from a variety of excited species including ambient nitrogen and ablated aluminum and exhibits unique features in optical emission and temperature evolution compared with the plasmas generated by a pure ECR discharge or by the expansion of the ablation plume. The working N 2 gas is first excited by ECR discharge and the excitation of nitrogen is further enhanced due to the fast expansion of the aluminum plume induced by target ablation, while the excitation of the ablated aluminum is prolonged during the plume expansion in the ECR nitrogen plasma, resulting in the formation of strongly reactive nitrogen–aluminum plasma which contains highly excited species with high vibrational and rotational temperatures. The enhanced intensities and the prolonged duration of the optical emissions of the combined plasma would provide an improved analytical capability for spectrochemical analysis. - Highlights: • ECR discharge and pulsed laser ablation generate highly excited ECR–PLA plasma. • The expansion of PLA plasma results in excitation enhancement of ECR plasma species. • The ECR plasma leads to excitation prolongation of PLA plasma species. • The ECR–PLA plasma emits strong emissions from a variety of excited species. • The ECR–PLA plasma maintains high vibrational–rotational temperatures for a long time

  17. Epitaxial growth of Si1−xGex alloys and Ge on Si(100) by electron-cyclotron-resonance Ar plasma chemical vapor deposition without substrate heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Naofumi; Sakuraba, Masao; Murota, Junichi; Sato, Shigeo

    2014-01-01

    By using electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) Ar-plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) without substrate heating, the epitaxial growth process of Si 1−x Ge x alloy and Ge films deposited directly on dilute-HF-treated Si(100) was investigated. From the reflection high energy electron diffraction patterns of the deposited Si 1−x Ge x alloy (x = 0.50, 0.75) and Ge films on Si(100), it is confirmed that epitaxial growth can be realized without substrate heating, and that crystallinity degradation at larger film thickness is observed. The X-ray diffraction peak of the epitaxial films reveals the existence of large compressive strain, which is induced by lattice matching with the Si(100) substrate at smaller film thicknesses, as well as strain relaxation behavior at larger film thicknesses. The Ge fraction of Si 1−x Ge x thin film is in good agreement with the normalized GeH 4 partial pressure. The Si 1−x Ge x deposition rate increases with an increase of GeH 4 partial pressure. The GeH 4 partial pressure dependence of partial deposition rates [(Si or Ge fraction) × (Si 1−x Ge x thickness) / (deposition time)] shows that the Si partial deposition rate is slightly enhanced by the existence of Ge. From these results, it is proposed that the ECR-plasma CVD process can be utilized for Ge fraction control in highly-strained heterostructure formation of group IV semiconductors. - Highlights: • Si 1−x Ge x alloy and Ge were epitaxially grown on Si(100) without substrate heating. • Large strain and its relaxation behavior can be observed by X-ray diffraction. • Ge fraction of Si 1−x Ge x is equal to normalized GeH 4 partial pressure. • Si partial deposition rate is slightly enhanced by existence of Ge

  18. Surface morphology changes to tungsten under exposure to He ions from an electron cyclotron resonance plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, David; Maan, Anurag; Duran, Jonah; Buchenauer, Dean; Whaley, Josh

    2015-11-01

    Exposure of tungsten to low energy (ALMT ITER grade tungsten samples. A similar He plasma exposure stage has now been developed at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville with an improved compact ECR plasma source. Status of the new UTK exposure stage will be discussed as well as planned experiments and new material characterization techniques (EBSD, GIXRD). Work supported by US DOE Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000 and the PSI Science Center.

  19. Correlation of III/V semiconductor etch results with physical parameters of high-density reactive plasmas excited by electron cyclotron resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, FRANZ; Ralf, MEYER; Markus-Christian, AMANN

    2017-12-01

    Reactive ion etching is the interaction of reactive plasmas with surfaces. To obtain a detailed understanding of this process, significant properties of reactive composite low-pressure plasmas driven by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) were investigated and compared with the radial uniformity of the etch rate. The determination of the electronic properties of chlorine- and hydrogen-containing plasmas enabled the understanding of the pressure-dependent behavior of the plasma density and provided better insights into the electronic parameters of reactive etch gases. From the electrical evaluation of I(V) characteristics obtained using a Langmuir probe, plasmas of different compositions were investigated. The standard method of Druyvesteyn to derive the electron energy distribution functions by the second derivative of the I(V) characteristics was replaced by a mathematical model which has been evolved to be more robust against noise, mainly, because the first derivative of the I(V) characteristics is used. Special attention was given to the power of the energy dependence in the exponent. In particular, for plasmas that are generated by ECR with EM modes, the existence of Maxwellian distribution functions is not to be taken as a self-evident fact, but the bi-Maxwellian distribution was proven for Ar- and Kr-stabilized plasmas. In addition to the electron temperature, the global uniform discharge model has been shown to be useful for calculating the neutral gas temperature. To what extent the invasive method of using a Langmuir probe could be replaced with the non-invasive optical method of emission spectroscopy, particularly actinometry, was investigated, and the resulting data exhibited the same relative behavior as the Langmuir data. The correlation with etchrate data reveals the large chemical part of the removal process—most striking when the data is compared with etching in pure argon. Although the relative amount of the radial variation of plasma density and

  20. A ray-tracing study of electron cyclotron resonance heating in Tokamak plasmas with a superthermal electron tail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, A.; Dendy, R.O.

    1987-09-01

    We consider a Tokamak plasma in which the distribution of electron velocities in the direction parallel to the magnetic field has a monotonically decreasing superthermal tail. A fully three-dimensional ray-tracing code, which includes a realistic antenna pattern, toroidal effects, and refaction, is used to calculate the absorption of the extraordinary mode in the nonrelativistic limit away from perpendicular incidence. The ray-tracing approach extends results previously obtained in slab geometry (3-8) to a more realistic configuration; it is also essential in dealing with strong refraction in high-density plasmas. Our analytical model for the tail makes available a wide range of tail shapes and parameters. At low densities small tails (tail fraction [pt

  1. Characterization of surface hardening in a nitrated chromium steel by microwave plasma type ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La O C, G. de.

    1995-01-01

    With this work it is demonstrated the possibility of performing the nitriding process by using a CVD-ECR source, based on the results obtained after treating several samples of AISI H-12 steel. Also, the main operating parameters (time of treatment, sample temperatures and gas mixture) are determined during nitriding of this steel with the mentioned source. Samples used before nitriding were quenched and tempered at 580 Centigrade degrees. Several experiments were done by using a pure nitrogen plasma with exposure times of the samples of 20 minutes at temperatures from 450 to 550 Centigrade degrees, and by using a N 2 - H 2 plasma with exposure times of the samples of 20, 30 and 40 minutes at temperatures from 350 to 550 Centigrade degrees. Metallography, microhardness, EDS and Auger analysis were done to observe changes suffered for the samples after treatment. (Author)

  2. Energy and composition of the ion flux in microwave electron cyclotron resonance/radio frequency methan plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mišina, Martin; Pokorný, Petr

    173-174, - (2003), s. 914-917 ISSN 0257-8972. [International Conference on Plasma Surface Engineering/11./. Garmisch-Partenkirchen, 09.09.2002-13.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 455; GA ČR GA106/99/D086 Grant - others:NATO(XX) SfP974354 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : mass spectrometry * ion energy * methane * PE CVD Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.410, year: 2003

  3. Backscattering of gyrotron radiation and short-wavelength turbulence during electron cyclotron resonance plasma heating in the L-2M stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batanov, G. M.; Borzosekov, V. D., E-mail: tinborz@gmail.com; Kovrizhnykh, L. M.; Kolik, L. V.; Konchekov, E. M.; Malakhov, D. V.; Petrov, A. E.; Sarksyan, K. A.; Skvortsova, N. N.; Stepakhin, V. D.; Kharchev, N. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-15

    Backscattering of gyrotron radiation ({theta} = {pi}) by short-wavelength density fluctuations (k{sub Up-Tack} = 30 cm{sup -1}) in the plasma of the L-2M stellarator was studied under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma heating at the second harmonic of the electron gyrofrequency (75 GHz). The scattering of the O-wave emerging due to the splitting of the linearly polarized gyrotron radiation into the X- and O-waves was analyzed. The signal obtained after homodyne detection of scattered radiation is a result of interference of the reference signal, the quasi-steady component, and the fast oscillating component. The coefficients of reflection of the quasi-steady component, R{sub =}{sup 2}(Y), and fast oscillating component, R{sub {approx}}{sup 2}(Y), of scattered radiation are estimated. The growth of the R{sub {approx}}{sup 2}(Y) coefficient from 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} to 5.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} with increasing ECR heating power from 190 to 430 kW is found to correlate with the decrease in the energy lifetime from 1.9 to 1.46 ms. The relative density of short-wavelength fluctuations is estimated to be Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket n{sub {approx}}{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket / Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket n{sub e}{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket = 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}. It is shown that the frequencies of short-wavelength fluctuations are in the range 10-150 kHz. The recorded short-wavelength fluctuations can be interpreted as structural turbulence, the energy of which comprises {approx}10% of the total fluctuations energy. Simulations of transport processes show that neoclassical heat fluxes are much smaller than anomalous ones. It is suggested that short-wavelength turbulence plays a decisive role in the anomalous heat transport.

  4. Wave propagation through an electron cyclotron resonance layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerhof, E.

    1997-01-01

    The propagation of a wave beam through an electron cyclotron resonance layer is analysed in two-dimensional slab geometry in order to assess the deviation from cold plasma propagation due to resonant, warm plasma changes in wave dispersion. For quasi-perpendicular propagation, N ' 'parallel to'' ≅ v t /c, an O-mode beam is shown to exhibit a strong wiggle in the trajectory of the centre of the beam when passing through the fundamental electron cyclotron resonance. The effects are largest for low temperatures and close to perpendicular propagation. Predictions from standard dielectric wave energy fluxes are inconsistent with the trajectory of the beam. Qualitatively identical results are obtained for the X-mode second harmonic. In contrast, the X-mode at the fundamental resonance shows significant deviations form cold plasma propagation only for strongly oblique propagation and/or high temperatures. On the basis of the obtained results a practical suggestion is made for ray tracing near electron cyclotron resonance. (Author)

  5. Electron cyclotron resonance microwave ion sources for thin film processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, L.A.; Gorbatkin, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    Plasmas created by microwave absorption at the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) are increasingly used for a variety of plasma processes, including both etching and deposition. ECR sources efficiently couple energy to electrons and use magnetic confinement to maximize the probability of an electron creating an ion or free radical in pressure regimes where the mean free path for ionization is comparable to the ECR source dimensions. The general operating principles of ECR sources are discussed with special emphasis on their use for thin film etching. Data on source performance during Cl base etching of Si using an ECR system are presented. 32 refs., 5 figs

  6. Influences of residual oxygen impurities, cubic indium oxide grains and indium oxy-nitride alloy grains in hexagonal InN crystalline films grown on Si(111) substrates by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yodo, T.; Nakamura, T.; Kouyama, T.; Harada, Y.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the influences of residual oxygen (O) impurities, cubic indium oxide (β-In 2 O 3 ) grains and indium oxy-nitride (InON) alloy grains in 200 nm-thick hexagonal (α)-InN crystalline films grown on Si(111) substrates by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Although β-In 2 O 3 grains with wide band-gap energy were formed in In film by N 2 annealing, they were not easily formed in N 2 -annealed InN films. Even if they were not detected in N 2 -annealed InN films, the as-grown films still contained residual O impurities with concentrations of less than 0.5% ([O]≤0.5%). Although [O]∝1% could be estimated by investigating In 2 O 3 grains formed in N 2 -annealed InN films, [O]≤0.5% could not be measured by it. However, we found that they can be qualitatively measured by investigating In 2 O 3 grains formed by H 2 annealing with higher reactivity with InN and O 2 , using X-ray diffraction and PL spectroscopy. In this paper, we discuss the formation mechanism of InON alloy grains in InN films. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. KEKCB electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder at TRIAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, N.; Jeong, S. C.; Oyaizu, M.; Arai, S.; Fuchi, Y.; Hirayama, Y.; Ishiyama, H.; Miyatake, H.; Tanaka, M. H.; Okada, M.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Ichikawa, S.; Kabumoto, H.; Osa, A.; Otokawa, Y.; Sato, T. K.

    2008-01-01

    The KEKCB is an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source for converting singly charged ions to multicharged ones at Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex. By using the KEKCB, singly charged gaseous and nongaseous ions were converted to multicharged ones of A/q≅7 with efficiencies of 7% and 2%, respectively. The conversion efficiency was found to be independent of the lifetime of the radioactive nuclei having lifetimes of the order of one second. Three collimators located at the entrance and the exit of the KEKCB defined the beam axis and facilitated beam injection. Grinding and washing the surfaces of aluminum electrode and plasma chamber dramatically reduced impurities originating from the ECR plasma of the KEKCB

  8. The Electron Cyclotron Resonance Light Source Assembly of PTB - ELISA

    CERN Document Server

    Gruebling, P; Ulm, G

    1999-01-01

    In the radiometry laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische,Bundesanstalt at the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY I, radiation sources for radiometric applications in industry and basic research in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral range are developed, characterized and calibrated. Established sources such as deuterium lamps, Penning and hollow cathode discharge sources have limited spectral ranges and in particular their stability and life time suffers from the erosion of the cathode material. To overcome these limitations we have developed a radiation source based on the principle of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source. ELISA is a 10 GHz monomode source with a compact design featuring a tunable cavity and axially positionable permanent magnets. The radiation emission of the source can be detected simultaneously in the VUV and X-ray spectral range via a toroidal grating monochromator and a Si(Li)-detector. The special design of the source allows spectroscopic investigations of the plasma in dep...

  9. Numerical model of electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mironov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Important features of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS operation are accurately reproduced with a numerical code. The code uses the particle-in-cell technique to model the dynamics of ions in ECRIS plasma. It is shown that a gas dynamical ion confinement mechanism is sufficient to provide the ion production rates in ECRIS close to the experimentally observed values. Extracted ion currents are calculated and compared to the experiment for a few sources. Changes in the simulated extracted ion currents are obtained with varying the gas flow into the source chamber and the microwave power. Empirical scaling laws for ECRIS design are studied and the underlying physical effects are discussed.

  10. Stochasticity of the energy absorption in the electron cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Hernandez A, O.

    1998-01-01

    The energy absorption mechanism in cyclotron resonance of the electrons is a present problem, since it could be considered from the stochastic point of view or this related with a non-homogeneous but periodical of plasma spatial structure. In this work using the Bogoliubov average method for a multi periodical system in presence of resonances, the drift equations were obtained in presence of a RF field for the case of electron cyclotron resonance until first order terms with respect to inverse of its cyclotron frequency. The absorbed energy equation is obtained on part of electrons in a simple model and by drift method. It is showed the stochastic character of the energy absorption. (Author)

  11. Modification of anisotropic plasma diffusion via auxiliary electrons emitted by a carbon nanotubes-based electron gun in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malferrari, L; Odorici, F; Veronese, G P; Rizzoli, R; Mascali, D; Celona, L; Gammino, S; Castro, G; Miracoli, R; Serafino, T

    2012-02-01

    The diffusion mechanism in magnetized plasmas is a largely debated issue. A short circuit model was proposed by Simon, assuming fluxes of lost particles along the axial (electrons) and radial (ions) directions which can be compensated, to preserve the quasi-neutrality, by currents flowing throughout the conducting plasma chamber walls. We hereby propose a new method to modify Simon's currents via electrons injected by a carbon nanotubes-based electron gun. We found this improves the source performances, increasing the output current for several charge states. The method is especially sensitive to the pumping frequency. Output currents for given charge states, at different auxiliary electron currents, will be reported in the paper and the influence of the frequency tuning on the compensation mechanism will be discussed.

  12. Influence of Wall-Current-Compensation and Secondary-Electron-Emission on the Plasma Parameters and on the Performance of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schachter, L.; Dobrescu, S.; Stiebing, K.E.

    2005-01-01

    Axial and radial diffusion processes determine the confinement time in an ECRIS. It has been demonstrated that a biased disk redirects the ion- and electron currents in the source in such a way that the source performance is improved. This effect is due to a partial cancellation of the compensating currents in the conductive walls of the plasma chamber.In this contribution we present an experiment, where these currents were effectively suppressed by using a metal-dielectric (MD) disk instead of the standard metallic disk in the Frankfurt 14-GHz-ECRIS. Lower values of the plasma potential and higher average charge states in the presence of the MD disk as compared to the case of the standard disk indicate that, due to the insulating properties of its dielectric layer the MD disk obviously blocks compensating wall currents better than applying bias to the metallic standard disk.A comparison with results from experiments with a MD liner in the source, covering essentially the complete radial walls of the plasma chamber, clearly demonstrates that the beneficial effect of the liner on the performance of the ECRIS is much stronger than that observed with the MD-disk. In accord with our earlier interpretation, it has to be concluded that the 'liner-effect' is not just the effect of blocking the compensating wall currents but rather has to be ascribed to the unique property of the thin MD liner as a strong secondary electron emitter under bombardment by charged particles

  13. Self-consistent modeling of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, A.; Hitz, D.; Melin, G.; Serebrennikov, K.; Lecot, C.

    2004-01-01

    In order to predict the performances of electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS), it is necessary to perfectly model the different parts of these sources: (i) magnetic configuration; (ii) plasma characteristics; (iii) extraction system. The magnetic configuration is easily calculated via commercial codes; different codes also simulate the ion extraction, either in two dimension, or even in three dimension (to take into account the shape of the plasma at the extraction influenced by the hexapole). However the characteristics of the plasma are not always mastered. This article describes the self-consistent modeling of ECRIS: we have developed a code which takes into account the most important construction parameters: the size of the plasma (length, diameter), the mirror ratio and axial magnetic profile, whether a biased probe is installed or not. These input parameters are used to feed a self-consistent code, which calculates the characteristics of the plasma: electron density and energy, charge state distribution, plasma potential. The code is briefly described, and some of its most interesting results are presented. Comparisons are made between the calculations and the results obtained experimentally

  14. Self-consistent modeling of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, A.; Hitz, D.; Melin, G.; Serebrennikov, K.; Lécot, C.

    2004-05-01

    In order to predict the performances of electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS), it is necessary to perfectly model the different parts of these sources: (i) magnetic configuration; (ii) plasma characteristics; (iii) extraction system. The magnetic configuration is easily calculated via commercial codes; different codes also simulate the ion extraction, either in two dimension, or even in three dimension (to take into account the shape of the plasma at the extraction influenced by the hexapole). However the characteristics of the plasma are not always mastered. This article describes the self-consistent modeling of ECRIS: we have developed a code which takes into account the most important construction parameters: the size of the plasma (length, diameter), the mirror ratio and axial magnetic profile, whether a biased probe is installed or not. These input parameters are used to feed a self-consistent code, which calculates the characteristics of the plasma: electron density and energy, charge state distribution, plasma potential. The code is briefly described, and some of its most interesting results are presented. Comparisons are made between the calculations and the results obtained experimentally.

  15. ATLAS 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source upgrade project

    CERN Document Server

    Moehs, D P; Pardo, R C; Xie, D

    2000-01-01

    A major upgrade of the first ATLAS 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, which began operations in 1987, is in the planning and procurement phase. The new design will convert the old two-stage source into a single-stage source with an electron donor disk and high gradient magnetic field that preserves radial access for solid material feeds and pumping of the plasma chamber. The new magnetic-field profile allows for the possibility of a second ECR zone at a frequency of 14 GHz. An open hexapole configuration, using a high-energy-product Nd-Fe-B magnet material, having an inner diameter of 8.8 cm and pole gaps of 2.4 cm, has been adopted. Models indicate that the field strengths at the chamber wall, 4 cm in radius, will be 9.3 kG along the magnet poles and 5.6 kG along the pole gaps. The individual magnet bars will be housed in austenitic stainless steel, allowing the magnet housing within the aluminum plasma chamber to be used as a water channel for direct cooling of the magnets. Eight solenoid...

  16. Three-wave interaction during electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Hansen, Søren Kjer

    2016-01-01

    Non-linear wave-wave interactions in fusion plasmas, such as the parametric decay instability (PDI) of gyrotron radiation, can potentially hamper the use of microwave diagnostics. Here we report on anomalous scattering in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak during electron cyclotron resonance heating...... experiments. The observations can be linked to parametric decay of the gyrotron radiation at the second harmonic upper hybrid resonance layer....

  17. Modified multipole structure for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suominen, P.

    2006-07-01

    Highly-charged heavy-ion beams are usually produced with Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) where the microwave heated plasma is confined in a strong magnetic field. The magnetic field is divided into an axial part (produced by solenoid magnets) and to a radial part (produced by multipole magnet). Experiments have shown that the radial magnetic field component plays a crucial role in the production of highly-charged ions. However, in several modern ECRIS the radial magnetic field strength is below the optimum value, mainly due to the limits in permanent magnet technology. Unfortunately, methods to increase the radial magnetic field strength while still using permanent magnets are often limited. In this thesis work new techniques to improve the radial magnetic field have been studied by simulations and experiments. Due to the computer simulations performed a remarkable radial magnetic field improvement was reached with a relatively simple and cost-effective idea called the Modified MultiPole Structure (MMPS). The MMPS differs strongly from former studies as here the magnetic field is increased only locally without affecting the plasma size. It was not known how this would affect the properties of the plasma and production of highly-charged heavy ions. Consequently, the idea had to be studied experimentally and a new MMPS plasma chamber prototype was designed and constructed for the JYFL 6.4 GHz ECRIS. The new construction is versatile and made it possible to perform several new types of measurements. These showed that the MMPS works well and is especially applicable to increase very high charge-state ion production. Typically the ion current increases by a factor of 2 - 3 in the case of highly charged ions such as Ar16+. (orig.)

  18. Modified multipole structure for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suominen, P.

    2006-01-01

    Highly-charged heavy-ion beams are usually produced with Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) where the microwave heated plasma is confined in a strong magnetic field. The magnetic field is divided into an axial part (produced by solenoid magnets) and to a radial part (produced by multipole magnet). Experiments have shown that the radial magnetic field component plays a crucial role in the production of highly-charged ions. However, in several modern ECRIS the radial magnetic field strength is below the optimum value, mainly due to the limits in permanent magnet technology. Unfortunately, methods to increase the radial magnetic field strength while still using permanent magnets are often limited. In this thesis work new techniques to improve the radial magnetic field have been studied by simulations and experiments. Due to the computer simulations performed a remarkable radial magnetic field improvement was reached with a relatively simple and cost-effective idea called the Modified MultiPole Structure (MMPS). The MMPS differs strongly from former studies as here the magnetic field is increased only locally without affecting the plasma size. It was not known how this would affect the properties of the plasma and production of highly-charged heavy ions. Consequently, the idea had to be studied experimentally and a new MMPS plasma chamber prototype was designed and constructed for the JYFL 6.4 GHz ECRIS. The new construction is versatile and made it possible to perform several new types of measurements. These showed that the MMPS works well and is especially applicable to increase very high charge-state ion production. Typically the ion current increases by a factor of 2 - 3 in the case of highly charged ions such as Ar 16+ . (orig.)

  19. Electron-cyclotron-resonant-heated electron distribution functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Nevins, W.M.; Cohen, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Recent studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) with a bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck code indicate that the energetic electron tail formed by electron-cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) at the second harmonic is not Maxwellian. We present the results of our bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck code along with some simple analytic models of hot-electron distribution functions

  20. A numerical model of the mirror electron cyclotron resonance MECR source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellblom, G.

    1986-03-01

    Results from numerical modeling of a new type of ion source are presented. The plasma in this source is produced by electron cyclotron resonance in a strong conversion magnetic field. Experiments have shown that a well-defined plasma column, extended along the magnetic field (z-axis) can be produced. The electron temperature and the densities of the various plasma particles have been found to have a strong z-position dependence. With the numerical model, a simulation of the evolution of the composition of the plasma as a function of z is made. A qualitative agreement with experimental data can be obtained for certain parameter regimes. (author)

  1. The Quadrumafios electron cyclotron resonance ion source: presentation and analysis of the results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, A.; Briand, P.; Gaudart, G.; Klein, J.P.; Bourg, F.; Debernardi, J.; Mathonnet, J.M.; Melin, G.; Su, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The Quadrumafios electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been especially designed to permit physical studies of the plasma; this paper describes the source itself (which has been operated at 10 GHz in a first step), its preliminary performances, and the different diagnostics involved, which mainly concern the electron population (ECE, X rays, diamagnetism, microwave interferometer, and electron analyser). The results are presented and discussed: there is of course a close relationship between the parameters of the plasma and the performances of the source; this point will be discussed in the article. (authors). 5 refs., 9 figs

  2. Calculating method for confinement time and charge distribution of ions in electron cyclotron resonance sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougar-Jabon, V.D.; Umnov, A.M.; Kutner, V.B.

    1996-01-01

    It is common knowledge that the electrostatic pit in a core plasma of electron cyclotron resonance sources exerts strict control over generation of ions in high charge states. This work is aimed at finding a dependence of the lifetime of ions on their charge states in the core region and to elaborate a numerical model of ion charge dispersion not only for the core plasmas but for extracted beams as well. The calculated data are in good agreement with the experimental results on charge distributions and magnitudes for currents of beams extracted from the 14 GHz DECRIS source. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  3. Microwave power coupling with electron cyclotron resonance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    600 W microwave power with an average electron density of ∼ 6 × 1011 cm. −3 ... the angular frequency of the cyclotron motion, e is the electron charge, m is the mass of .... is also suitable for ECR plasma-based applications like high-quality ...

  4. Electron-cyclotron-resonance ion sources (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovanivskii, K.S.; Dougar-Jabon, V.D.

    1992-01-01

    The physical principles are described and a brief survey of the present state is given of ion sources based on electron-cyclotron heating of plasma in a mirror trap. The characteristics of ECR sources of positive and negative ions used chiefly in accelerator technology are presented. 20 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heefner, J.W.; Williams, C.W.; Lauze, R.R.; Karsner, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    The ECRH Control System was installed on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) in 1980. The system provides approximately 1 MW of 28 GHz microwave power to the TMX-U plasma. The subsystems of ECRH that must be controlled include high-voltage charging supplies, series pass tubes, and magnet supplies. In addition to the devices that must be controlled, many interlocks must be continuously monitored. The previous control system used relay logic and analog controls to operate the system. This approach has many drawbacks such as lack of system flexibility and maintainability. In order to address these problems, it was decided to go with a CAMAC and Modicon based system that uses a Hewlett-Packard 9836C personal computer to replace the previous analog controls. 2 figs

  6. Circular waveguide systems for electron-cyclotron-resonant heating of the tandem mirror experiment-upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felker, B.; Calderon, M.O.; Chargin, A.K.

    1983-01-01

    Extensive use of electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) in the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) requires continuous development of components to improve efficiency, increase reliability, and deliver power to new locations with respect to the plasma. We have used rectangular waveguide components on the experiment and have developed, tested, and installed circular waveguide components. We replaced the rectangular with the circular components because of the greater transmission efficiency and power-handling capability of the circular ones. Design, fabrication, and testing of all components are complete for all systems. In this paper we describe the design criteria for the system

  7. Suppression of cyclotron instability in Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion sources by two-frequency heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalyga, V.; Izotov, I.; Mansfeld, D.; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Laulainen, J.; Tarvainen, O.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple frequency heating is one of the most effective techniques to improve the performance of Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources. The method increases the beam current and average charge state of the extracted ions and enhances the temporal stability of the ion beams. It is demonstrated in this paper that the stabilizing effect of two-frequency heating is connected with the suppression of electron cyclotron instability. Experimental data show that the interaction between the secondary microwave radiation and the hot electron component of ECR ion source plasmas plays a crucial role in mitigation of the instabilities

  8. Tearing modes induced by perpendicular electron cyclotron resonance heating in the KSTAR tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. H.; Lee, S. G.; Seol, J.; Aydemir, A. Y.; Bae, C.; Yoo, J. W.; Na, Y. S.; Kim, H. S.; Woo, M. H.; Kim, J.; Joung, M.; You, K. I.; Park, B. H.

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports on experimental evidence that shows perpendicular electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) can trigger classical tearing modes when deposited near a rational flux surface. The complex evolution of an m = 2 island is followed during current ramp-up in KSTAR plasmas, from its initial onset as the rational surface enters the ECRH resonance layer to its eventual lock on the wall after the rational surface leaves the layer. Stability analysis coupled to a transport calculation of the current profile with ECRH shows that the perpendicular ECRH may play a significant role in triggering and destabilizing classical m = 2 tearing modes, in agreement with our experimental observation.

  9. Development of DRAGON electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Institute of Modern Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, W.; Lin, S. H.; Xie, D. Z.; Zhang, X. Z.; Sha, S.; Zhang, W. H.; Cao, Y.; Guo, J. W.; Fang, X.; Guo, X. H.; Li, X. X.; Ma, H. Y.; Wu, Q.; Zhao, H. Y.; Ma, B. H.; Wang, H.; Zhu, Y. H.; Feng, Y. C.; Li, J. Y.; Li, J. Q.

    2012-01-01

    A new room temperature electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, DRAGON, is under construction at IMP. DRAGON is designed to operate at microwaves of frequencies of 14.5-18 GHz. Its axial solenoid coils are cooled with evaporative medium to provide an axial magnetic mirror field of 2.5 T at the injection and 1.4 T at the extraction, respectively. In comparison to other conventional room temperature ECR ion sources, DRAGON has so far the largest bore plasma chamber of inner diameter of 126 mm with maximum radial fields of 1.4-1.5 T produced by a non-Halbach permanent sextupole magnet.

  10. ECR [electron cyclotron resonance] discharges maintained by radiation in the millimeter wavelength range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, Yu.V.; Golubev, S.V.; Eremeev, A.G.; Zorin, V.G.

    1990-01-01

    It is well known that plasmas formed by microwave breakdown of gases under electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) conditions can serve as an efficient source for ion beams. The major disadvantage of this type of source is relatively low ion beam currents which generally do not exceed 1 A (for an electron density of ∼10 12 cm -3 in the discharge). Raising the current density in the ion beams requires a higher plasma density, which can be obtained by using higher frequencies. Thus, a study has recently been made of the parameters of the plasma formed by ECR breakdown in a linear confinement system employing pulsed radiation at a frequency of 60 GHz. The maximum electron densities obtained in the experiment were 2·10 13 cm -3 at a gas pressure of 3·10 -4 torr. In this paper the authors describe some experiments on the creation of plasmas by means of quasi-cw electromagnetic radiation at a frequency of 100 GHz under electron cyclotron resonance conditions

  11. Electron cyclotron emission measurements during 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance heating in Wendelstein WVII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartfuss, H.J.; Gasparino, U.; Tutter, M.; Brakel, R.; Cattanei, G.; Dorst, D.; Elsner, A.; Engelhardt, K.; Erckmann, V.; Grieger, G.; Grigull, P.; Hacker, H.; Jaeckel, H.; Jaenicke, R.; Junker, J.; Kick, M.; Kroiss, H.; Kuehner, G.; Maassberg, H.; Mahn, C.; Mueller, G.; Ohlendorf, W.; Rau, F.; Renner, H.; Ringler, H.; Sardei, F.; Weller, A.; Wobig, H.; Wuersching, E.; Zippe, M.; Kasparek, W.; Mueller, G.A.; Raeuchle, E.; Schueller, P.G.; Schwoerer, K.; Thumm, M.

    1987-11-01

    Electron cyclotron emission measurements have been carried out on electron cyclotron resonance heated plasmas in the WENDELSTEIN VII-A Stellarator. Blackbody radiation from the thermalized plasma main body as well as radiation from a small amount of weakly relativistic suprathermal electrons has been detected. In addition sideband emission has been observed near the second harmonic of the heating line source. Harmonic generation and parametric wave decay at the upper hybrid layer may be a reasonable explanation. (orig.)

  12. Enhanced Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Ion-Implanted Titanium Using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Hegedűs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface properties of metallic implants play an important role in their clinical success. Improving upon the inherent shortcomings of Ti implants, such as poor bioactivity, is imperative for achieving clinical use. In this study, we have developed a Ti implant modified with Ca or dual Ca + Si ions on the surface using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS. The physicochemical and biological properties of ion-implanted Ti surfaces were analyzed using various analytical techniques, such as surface analyses, potentiodynamic polarization and cell culture. Experimental results indicated that a rough morphology was observed on the Ti substrate surface modified by ECRIS plasma ions. The in vitro electrochemical measurement results also indicated that the Ca + Si ion-implanted surface had a more beneficial and desired behavior than the pristine Ti substrate. Compared to the pristine Ti substrate, all ion-implanted samples had a lower hemolysis ratio. MG63 cells cultured on the high Ca and dual Ca + Si ion-implanted surfaces revealed significantly greater cell viability in comparison to the pristine Ti substrate. In conclusion, surface modification by electron cyclotron resonance Ca and Si ion sources could be an effective method for Ti implants.

  13. Two-chamber configuration of Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source for fullerene modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, T., E-mail: uchida-t@toyo.jp [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan); Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan); Rácz, R.; Biri, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research (Atomki), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem tér 18/C, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan); Faculty of Science and Engineering, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    We report on the modification of fullerenes with iron and chlorine using two individually controllable plasmas in the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). One of the plasmas is composed of fullerene and the other one is composed of iron and chlorine. The online ion beam analysis allows one to investigate the rate of the vapor-phase collisional modification process in the ECRIS, while the offline analyses (e.g., liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) of the materials deposited on the plasma chamber can give information on the surface-type process. Both analytical methods show the presence of modified fullerenes such as fullerene-chlorine, fullerene-iron, and fullerene-chlorine-iron.

  14. Introduction to ECR [electron cyclotron resonance] sources in electrostatic machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source technology has developed rapidly since the original pioneering work of R. Geller and his group at Grenoble in the early 1970s. These ion sources are capable of producing intense beams of highly charged positive ions and are used extensively for cyclotron injection, linac injection, and atomic physics research. In this paper, the possible use of ECR heavy-ion sources in the terminals of electrostatic machines is discussed. The basic concepts of ECR sources are reviewed in the next section using the ORNL source as a model. The possible advantages of ECR sources over conventional negative ion injection and foil stripping are discussed in Section III. The last section describes the possible installation of an ECR source in a large machine such as the HHIRF 25-MV Pelletron. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. Multiaperture ion beam extraction from gas-dynamic electron cyclotron resonance source of multicharged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, A.; Dorf, M.; Zorin, V.; Bokhanov, A.; Izotov, I.; Razin, S.; Skalyga, V.; Rossbach, J.; Spaedtke, P.; Balabaev, A.

    2008-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion source with quasi-gas-dynamic regime of plasma confinement (ReGIS), constructed at the Institute of Applied Physics, Russia, provides opportunities for extracting intense and high-brightness multicharged ion beams. Despite the short plasma lifetime in a magnetic trap of a ReGIS, the degree of multiple ionization may be significantly enhanced by the increase in power and frequency of the applied microwave radiation. The present work is focused on studying the intense beam quality of this source by the pepper-pot method. A single beamlet emittance measured by the pepper-pot method was found to be ∼70 π mm mrad, and the total extracted beam current obtained at 14 kV extraction voltage was ∼25 mA. The results of the numerical simulations of ion beam extraction are found to be in good agreement with experimental data

  16. Enhancement of Ar sup 8 sup + ion beam intensity from RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source by optimizing the magnetic field configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Higurashi, Y; Kidera, M; Kase, M; Yano, Y; Aihara, T

    2003-01-01

    We successfully produced a 1.55 emA Ar sup 8 sup + ion beam using the RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source at a microwave power of 700 W. To produce such an intense beam, we optimized the minimum magnetic field of mirror magnetic field and plasma electrode position. (author)

  17. ECRH [electron-cyclotron resonance heating]-heated distributions in thermal-barrier tandem mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.; LoDestro, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution function is calculated for electrons subjected to strong electron-cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) at the plug and barrier in a tandem-mirror thermal-barrier cell. When ECRH diffusion locally dominates over collisions and a boundary condition (associated with electrons passing to the center cell) imposes variations on the distribution function rapid compared to the variation of the ECRH and collisional diffusion coefficients, the kinetic equation can be reduced approximately to Laplace's equation. For the typical case where velocity space is divided into distinct regions in which plug and barrier ECRH dominate, the solution in each region can be expressed in terms of the plasma dispersion function or exponential integrals, according to whether the passing electrons are dominated by collisions or ECRH, respectively. The analytic results agree well with Fokker-Planck code results, in terms of both velocity-space structure and values of moments. 10 refs., 4 figs

  18. Manufacturing of a superconducting magnet system for 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source at KBSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B S; Choi, S; Yoon, J H; Park, J Y; Won, M S

    2012-02-01

    A magnet system for a 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source is being developed by the Korea Basic Science Institute. The configuration of the magnet system consists of 3 solenoid coils for a mirror magnetic field and 6 racetrack coils for a hexapole magnetic field. They can generate axial magnetic fields of 3.6 T at the beam injection part and 2.2 T at the extraction part. A radial magnetic field of 2.1 T is achievable at the plasma chamber wall. A step type winding process was employed in fabricating the hexapole coil. The winding technique was confirmed through repeated cooling tests. Superconducting magnets and a cryostat system are currently being manufactured.

  19. Tearing modes induced by perpendicular electron cyclotron resonance heating in the KSTAR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.H.; Lee, S.G.; Seol, J.; Aydemir, A.Y.; Bae, C.; Woo, M.H.; Kim, J.; Joung, M.; You, K.I.; Park, B.H.; Yoo, J.W.; Na, Y.S.; Kim, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on experimental evidence that shows perpendicular electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) can trigger classical tearing modes when deposited near a rational flux surface. The complex evolution of an m = 2 island is followed during current ramp-up in KSTAR plasmas, from its initial onset as the rational surface enters the ECRH resonance layer to its eventual lock on the wall after the rational surface leaves the layer. Stability analysis coupled to a transport calculation of the current profile with ECRH shows that the perpendicular ECRH may play a significant role in triggering and destabilizing classical m = 2 tearing modes, in agreement with our experimental observation. (paper)

  20. Operational upgrades to the DIII-D 60 GHz electron cyclotron resonant heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, T.E.; Cary, W.P.

    1993-10-01

    One of the primary components of the DIII-D radio frequency (rf) program over the past seven years has been the 60 GHz electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) system. The system now consists of eight units capable of operating and controlling eight Varian VGE-8006 60 GHz, 200 kW gyrotrons along with their associated waveguide components. This paper will discuss the operational upgrades and the overall system performance. Many modifications were instituted to enhance the system operation and performance. Modifications discussed in this paper include an improved gyrotron tube-fault response network, a computer controlled pulse-timing and sequencing system, and an improved high-voltage power supply control interface. The discussion on overall system performance will include operating techniques used to improve system operations and reliability. The techniques discussed apply to system start-up procedures, operating the system in a conditioning mode, and operating the system during DIII-D plasma operations

  1. Review of highly charged heavy ion production with electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, T.

    2014-01-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plays an important role in the advancement of heavy ion accelerators and other ion beam applications worldwide, thanks to its remarkable ability to produce a great variety of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. Great efforts over the past decade have led to significant ECRIS performance improvements in both the beam intensity and quality. A number of high-performance ECRISs have been built and are in daily operation or are under construction to meet the continuously increasing demand. In addition, comprehension of the detailed and complex physical processes in high-charge-state ECR plasmas has been enhanced experimentally and theoretically. This review covers and discusses the key components, leading-edge developments, and enhanced ECRIS performance in the production of highly charged heavy ion beams

  2. Spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitzsch, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    The experimental determination of the spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) defines the focus of this thesis. The spatial distributions of different ion species were obtained in the object plane of the bending magnet (∼45 cm downstream from the plasma electrode) and in the plane of the plasma electrode itself, both in high spatial resolution. The results show that each of the different ion species forms a bloated, triangular structure in the aperture of the plasma electrode. The geometry and the orientation of these structures are defined by the superposition of the radial and axial magnetic fields. The radial extent of each structure is defined by the charge of the ion. Higher charge states occupy smaller, more concentrated structures. The total current density increases towards the center of the plasma electrode. The circular and star-like structures that can be observed in the beam profiles of strongly focused, extracted ion beams are each dominated by ions of a single charge state. In addition, the spatially resolved current density distribution of charged particles in the plasma chamber that impinge on the plasma electrode was determined, differentiating between ions and electrons. The experimental results of this work show that the electrons of the plasma are strongly connected to the magnetic field lines in the source and thus spatially well confined in a triangular-like structure. The intensity of the electrons increases towards the center of the plasma electrode and the plasma chamber, as well. These electrons are surrounded by a spatially far less confined and less intense ion population. All the findings mentioned above were already predicted in parts by simulations of different groups. However, the results presented within this thesis represent the first (and by now only) direct experimental verification of those predictions and are qualitatively transferable to other

  3. Spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources. Experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panitzsch, Lauri

    2013-02-08

    The experimental determination of the spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) defines the focus of this thesis. The spatial distributions of different ion species were obtained in the object plane of the bending magnet ({approx}45 cm downstream from the plasma electrode) and in the plane of the plasma electrode itself, both in high spatial resolution. The results show that each of the different ion species forms a bloated, triangular structure in the aperture of the plasma electrode. The geometry and the orientation of these structures are defined by the superposition of the radial and axial magnetic fields. The radial extent of each structure is defined by the charge of the ion. Higher charge states occupy smaller, more concentrated structures. The total current density increases towards the center of the plasma electrode. The circular and star-like structures that can be observed in the beam profiles of strongly focused, extracted ion beams are each dominated by ions of a single charge state. In addition, the spatially resolved current density distribution of charged particles in the plasma chamber that impinge on the plasma electrode was determined, differentiating between ions and electrons. The experimental results of this work show that the electrons of the plasma are strongly connected to the magnetic field lines in the source and thus spatially well confined in a triangular-like structure. The intensity of the electrons increases towards the center of the plasma electrode and the plasma chamber, as well. These electrons are surrounded by a spatially far less confined and less intense ion population. All the findings mentioned above were already predicted in parts by simulations of different groups. However, the results presented within this thesis represent the first (and by now only) direct experimental verification of those predictions and are qualitatively transferable to

  4. Characterization of surface hardening in a nitrated chromium steel by microwave plasma type ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance); Caracterizacion del endurecimiento superficial del acero H-12 nitrurado con plasma de microondas tipo ECR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La O C, G de

    1996-12-31

    With this work it is demonstrated the possibility of performing the nitriding process by using a CVD-ECR source, based on the results obtained after treating several samples of AISI H-12 steel. Also, the main operating parameters (time of treatment, sample temperatures and gas mixture) are determined during nitriding of this steel with the mentioned source. Samples used before nitriding were quenched and tempered at 580 Centigrade degrees. Several experiments were done by using a pure nitrogen plasma with exposure times of the samples of 20 minutes at temperatures from 450 to 550 Centigrade degrees, and by using a N{sub 2} - H{sub 2} plasma with exposure times of the samples of 20, 30 and 40 minutes at temperatures from 350 to 550 Centigrade degrees. Metallography, microhardness, EDS and Auger analysis were done to observe changes suffered for the samples after treatment. (Author).

  5. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. W. Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24–28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of ^{40}Ar^{12+} and ^{129}Xe^{26+} have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL, China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24+18  GHz heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  6. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Guo, J. W.; Lu, W.; Xie, D. Z.; Hitz, D.; Zhang, X. Z.; Yang, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24-28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of 40Ar+ and 129Xe26+ have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24 +18 GHz ) heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  7. Emittance study of a 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the Rare Isotope Science Project superconducting linear accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bum-Sik; Hong, In-Seok; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jin, Hyunchang; Choi, Sukjin; Kim, Yonghwan

    2016-02-01

    A 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is being developed for use as an injector for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project. Beam extraction from the ECR ion source has been simulated using the KOBRA3-INP software. The simulation software can calculate charged particle trajectories in three dimensional complex magnetic field structures, which in this case are formed by the arrangement of five superconducting magnets. In this study, the beam emittance is simulated to understand the effects of plasma potential, mass-to-charge ratio, and spatial distribution. The results of these simulations and their comparison to experimental results are presented in this paper.

  8. Third harmonic X-mode electron cyclotron resonance heating on TCV using top launch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porte, L.; Alberti, S.; Arnoux, G.; Martin, Y.; Hogge, J.P.; Goodman, T.P.; Henderson, M.A.; Nelson-Melby, E.; Pochelon, A.; Tran, M.Q.

    2003-01-01

    A third harmonic electron cyclotron resonance heating system (X3) has been installed, commissioned and brought into service on the Tokamak a Configuration Variable (TCV). It comprises three 118 GHz, 0.5 MW gyrotrons designed to produce pulses up to 2 seconds long. In the present configuration, 1.0MW is launched vertically from the top of the vessel into the plasma and the remaining 0.5MW is launched horizontally from the low field side. X3 has been used to heat plasmas at density exceeding the 2 nd harmonic cut-off significantly extending the operational space of additionally heated TCV plasmas. Studies have been performed to determine the optimal plasma/launcher configuration for X3 absorption for various plasma conditions and to find methods for real time feedback control of the X3 launcher. First experiments have been performed aimed at heating H-mode plasmas on TCV. First results show that the ELMs in TCV ohmic H-mode plasmas exhibit all characteristics of Type III ELMs. If, at moderate X3 power ( 0.45MW) the Type III ELMs disappear and the H-mode discharge exhibits different MHD phenomena eventually disrupting. (author)

  9. Electron cyclotron resonance discharge as a source for hydrogen and deuterium ions production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon Velasco, A.J. [Universidad de Pamplona, Pamplona (Colombia); Dougar-Jabon, V.D. [Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2004-07-01

    In this report, we describe characteristics of a ring-structure hydrogen plasma heated in electron cyclotron resonance conditions and confined in a mirror magnetic trap and discuss the relative efficiency of secondary electrons and thermo-electrons in negative hydrogen and deuterium ion production. The obtained data and calculations of the balance equations for possible reactions demonstrate that the negative ion production is realized in two stages. First, the hydrogen and deuterium molecules are excited in collisions with the plasma electrons to high-laying Rydberg or vibrational levels in the plasma volume. The second stage leads to the negative ion production through the process of dissociative attachment of low energy electrons. The low energy electrons are originated due to a bombardment of the plasma electrode by ions of one of the driven rings and thermo-emission from heated tungsten filaments. Experiments seem to indicate that the negative ion generation occurs predominantly in the limited volume filled with thermo-electrons. Estimation of the negative ion generation rate shows that the main channel of H{sup -} and D{sup -} ion production involves the process of high Rydberg state excitation. (authors)

  10. Electron cyclotron resonance discharge as a source for hydrogen and deuterium ions production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon Velasco, A.J.; Dougar-Jabon, V.D.

    2004-01-01

    In this report, we describe characteristics of a ring-structure hydrogen plasma heated in electron cyclotron resonance conditions and confined in a mirror magnetic trap and discuss the relative efficiency of secondary electrons and thermo-electrons in negative hydrogen and deuterium ion production. The obtained data and calculations of the balance equations for possible reactions demonstrate that the negative ion production is realized in two stages. First, the hydrogen and deuterium molecules are excited in collisions with the plasma electrons to high-laying Rydberg or vibrational levels in the plasma volume. The second stage leads to the negative ion production through the process of dissociative attachment of low energy electrons. The low energy electrons are originated due to a bombardment of the plasma electrode by ions of one of the driven rings and thermo-emission from heated tungsten filaments. Experiments seem to indicate that the negative ion generation occurs predominantly in the limited volume filled with thermo-electrons. Estimation of the negative ion generation rate shows that the main channel of H - and D - ion production involves the process of high Rydberg state excitation. (authors)

  11. First results with the yin-yang type electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suominen, P.; Ropponen, T.; Koivisto, H.

    2007-01-01

    Highly charged heavy-ion beams are often produced with Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS). The so-called conventional minimum-B ECRIS design includes two solenoid magnets and a multipole magnet (usually a hexapole). A minimum-B configuration can also be formed with 'yin-yang' ('baseball') type coils. Such a magnetic field configuration has been extensively tested in magnetic fusion experiments but not for the production of highly charged heavy ions. The application of the afore-mentioned coil structure to the production of multiply charged ion beams was studied. In this paper we present a design of a yin-yang type ion source known as the ARC-ECRIS and some preliminary experimental results. As a result of this work it was found that the ARC-ECRIS plasma is stable and capable of producing multiply charged ions. Many compromises were made in order to keep the costs of the prototype low. As a consequence, significant improvement can be expected in performance if the plasma size is increased and magnetic confinement is improved. At the end of this article an evolution model of the ARC-ECRIS and some future prospects are presented

  12. First results from the new RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, T; Higurashi, Y; Ohnishi, J; Aihara, T; Tamura, M; Uchiyama, A; Okuno, H; Kusaka, K; Kidera, M; Ikezawa, E; Fujimaki, M; Sato, Y; Watanabe, Y; Komiyama, M; Kase, M; Goto, A; Kamigaito, O; Yano, Y

    2010-02-01

    The next generation heavy ion accelerator facility, such as the RIKEN radio isotope (RI) beam factory, requires an intense beam of high charged heavy ions. In the past decade, performance of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources has been dramatically improved with increasing the magnetic field and rf frequency to enhance the density and confinement time of plasma. Furthermore, the effects of the key parameters (magnetic field configuration, gas pressure, etc.) on the ECR plasma have been revealed. Such basic studies give us how to optimize the ion source structure. Based on these studies and modern superconducting (SC) technology, we successfully constructed the new 28 GHz SC-ECRIS, which has a flexible magnetic field configuration to enlarge the ECR zone and to optimize the field gradient at ECR point. Using it, we investigated the effect of ECR zone size, magnetic field configuration, and biased disk on the beam intensity of the highly charged heavy ions with 18 GHz microwaves. In this article, we present the structure of the ion source and first experimental results with 18 GHz microwave in detail.

  13. Electron cyclotron resonance breakdown studies in a linear plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microwave power in the experimental system is delivered by a magnetron at 2.45 ... required for ECR in the system is such that the fundamental ECR surface ( ... The operating parameters such as working gas pressure (1 × 10-5 -1 × 10-2 ...

  14. Electron cyclotron resonance breakdown studies in a linear plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    linear cylindrical system with four different gases – hydrogen, helium, argon and ... The axial magnetic field required for ECR in the system is such that the fundamental .... p being the operating pressure in mbar. λe for various gases at different ...

  15. Ray-tracing analysis of electron-cyclotron-resonance heating in straight stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, K.

    1983-05-01

    A ray-tracing computer code is developed and implemented to simulate electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in stellarators. A straight stellarator model is developed to simulate the confinement geometry. Following a review of ECRH, a cold plasma model is used to define the dispersion relation. To calculate the wave power deposition, a finite temperature damping approximation is used. 3-D ray equations in cylindrical coordinates are derived and put into suitable forms for computation. The three computer codes, MAC, HERA, and GROUT, developed for this research, are described next. ECRH simulation is then carried out for three models including Heliotron E and Wendelstein VII A. Investigated aspects include launching position and mode scan, frequency detuning, helical effects, start-up, and toroidal effects. Results indicate: (1) an elliptical waveguide radiation pattern, with its long axis oriented half-way between the toroidal axis and the saddle point line, is more efficient than a circular one; and (2) mid-plane, high field side launch is favored for both O- and X-waves

  16. Production of highly charged ion beams from electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1998-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) development has progressed with multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields, and better technique to provide extra cold electrons. Such techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions from ECRISs. So far at continuous wave (CW) mode operation, up to 300 eμA of O 7+ and 1.15 emA of O 6+ , more than 100 eμA of intermediate heavy ions for charge states up to Ar 13+ , Ca 13+ , Fe 13+ , Co 14+ , and Kr 18+ , and tens of eμA of heavy ions with charge states to Kr 26+ , Xe 28+ , Au 35+ , Bi 34+ , and U 34+ were produced from ECRISs. At an intensity of at least 1 eμA, the maximum charge state available for the heavy ions are Xe 36+ , Au 46+ , Bi 47+ , and U 48+ . An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I≥60enA) were also achieved. This article will review the ECR ion source progress and discuss key requirement for ECRISs to produce the highly charged ion beams. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  17. Numerical simulations of gas mixing effect in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mironov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisions code nam-ecris is used to simulate the electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS plasma sustained in a mixture of Kr with O_{2}, N_{2}, Ar, Ne, and He. The model assumes that ions are electrostatically confined in the ECR zone by a dip in the plasma potential. A gain in the extracted krypton ion currents is seen for the highest charge states; the gain is maximized when oxygen is used as a mixing gas. The special feature of oxygen is that most of the singly charged oxygen ions are produced after the dissociative ionization of oxygen molecules with a large kinetic energy release of around 5 eV per ion. The increased loss rate of energetic lowly charged ions of the mixing element requires a building up of the retarding potential barrier close to the ECR surface to equilibrate electron and ion losses out of the plasma. In the mixed plasmas, the barrier value is large (∼1  V compared to pure Kr plasma (∼0.01  V, with longer confinement times of krypton ions and with much higher ion temperatures. The temperature of the krypton ions is increased because of extra heating by the energetic oxygen ions and a longer time of ion confinement. In calculations, a drop of the highly charged ion currents of lighter elements is observed when adding small fluxes of krypton into the source. This drop is caused by the accumulation of the krypton ions inside plasma, which decreases the electron and ion confinement times.

  18. Status of the PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder at ISOLDE, CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Charles; Cederkall, Joakim; Delahaye, Pierre; Kester, Oliver; Lamy, Thierry; Marie-Jeanne, Mélanie

    2008-02-01

    We report here on the last progresses made with the PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder test bench at ISOLDE. Recently, an experiment was performed to test the trapping of (61)Fe daughter nuclides from the decay of (61)Mn nuclides. Preliminary results are given.

  19. Techniques and mechanisms applied in electron cyclotron resonance sources for highly charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drentje, AG

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are delivering beams of highly charged ions for a wide range of applications in many laboratories. For more than two decades, the development of these ion sources has been to a large extent an intuitive and experimental enterprise. Much effort has been spent

  20. Status of the PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder at ISOLDE, CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, Charles; Cederkall, Joakim; Delahaye, Pierre; Kester, Oliver; Lamy, Thierry; Marie-Jeanne, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    We report here on the last progresses made with the PHOENIX electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder test bench at ISOLDE. Recently, an experiment was performed to test the trapping of 61 Fe daughter nuclides from the decay of 61 Mn nuclides. Preliminary results are given

  1. Superconducting magnet performance for 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Yong; Choi, Seyong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Ok, Jung-Woo; Kim, Byoung Chul; Shin, Chang Seouk; Ahn, Jung Keun; Won, Mi-Sook

    2014-02-01

    A superconducting magnet for use in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source was developed at the Korea Basic Science Institute. The superconducting magnet is comprised of three solenoids and a hexapole magnet. According to the design value, the solenoid magnets can generate a mirror field, resulting in axial magnetic fields of 3.6 T at the injection area and 2.2 T at the extraction region. A radial field strength of 2.1 T can also be achieved by hexapole magnet on the plasma chamber wall. NbTi superconducting wire was used in the winding process following appropriate techniques for magnet structure. The final assembly of the each magnet involved it being vertically inserted into the cryostat to cool down the temperature using liquid helium. The performance of each solenoid and hexapole magnet was separately verified experimentally. The construction of the superconducting coil, the entire magnet assembly for performance testing and experimental results are reported herein.

  2. Studies on a Q/A selector for the SECRAL electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Sun, L T; Feng, Y C; Fang, X; Lu, W; Zhang, W H; Cao, Y; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2014-08-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are widely used in heavy ion accelerators in the world because they are capable of producing high current beams of highly charged ions. However, the design of the Q/A selector system for these devices is challenging, because it must have a sufficient ion resolution while controlling the beam emittance growth. Moreover, this system has to be matched for a wide range of ion beam species with different intensities. In this paper, research on the Q/A selector system at the SECRAL (Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) platform both in experiment and simulation is presented. Based on this study, a new Q/A selector system has been designed for SECRAL II. The features of the new design including beam simulations are also presented.

  3. Results of RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with 28 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higurashi, Y; Ohnishi, J; Nakagawa, T; Haba, H; Tamura, M; Aihara, T; Fujimaki, M; Komiyama, M; Uchiyama, A; Kamigaito, O

    2012-02-01

    We measured the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions and x-ray heat load for RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with 28 GHz microwaves under the various conditions. The beam intensity of Xe(20+) became maximum at B(min) ∼ 0.65 T, which was ∼65% of the magnetic field strength of electron cyclotron resonance (B(ECR)) for 28 GHz microwaves. We observed that the heat load of x-ray increased with decreasing gas pressure and field gradient at resonance zone. It seems that the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions with 28 GHz is higher than that with 18 GHz at same RF power.

  4. Ultracompact/ultralow power electron cyclotron resonance ion source for multipurpose applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sortais, P.; Lamy, T.; Medard, J.; Angot, J.; Latrasse, L.; Thuillier, T.

    2010-01-01

    In order to drastically reduce the power consumption of a microwave ion source, we have studied some specific discharge cavity geometries in order to reduce the operating point below 1 W of microwave power (at 2.45 GHz). We show that it is possible to drive an electron cyclotron resonance ion source with a transmitter technology similar to those used for cellular phones. By the reduction in the size and of the required microwave power, we have developed a new type of ultralow cost ion sources. This microwave discharge system (called COMIC, for COmpact MIcrowave and Coaxial) can be used as a source of light, plasma or ions. We will show geometries of conductive cavities where it is possible, in a 20 mm diameter chamber, to reduce the ignition of the plasma below 100 mW and define typical operating points around 5 W. Inside a simple vacuum chamber it is easy to place the source and its extraction system anywhere and fully under vacuum. In that case, current densities from 0.1 to 10 mA/cm 2 (Ar, extraction 4 mm, 1 mAe, 20 kV) have been observed. Preliminary measurements and calculations show the possibility, with a two electrodes system, to extract beams within a low emittance. The first application for these ion sources is the ion injection for charge breeding, surface analyzing system and surface treatment. For this purpose, a very small extraction hole is used (typically 3/10 mm for a 3 μA extracted current with 2 W of HF power). Mass spectrum and emittance measurements will be presented. In these conditions, values down to 1 π mm mrad at 15 kV (1σ) are observed, thus very close to the ones currently observed for a surface ionization source. A major interest of this approach is the possibility to connect together several COMIC devices. We will introduce some new on-going developments such as sources for high voltage implantation platforms, fully quartz radioactive ion source at ISOLDE or large plasma generators for plasma immersion, broad or ribbon beams

  5. Ultracompact/ultralow power electron cyclotron resonance ion source for multipurpose applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sortais, P.; Lamy, T.; Medard, J.; Angot, J.; Latrasse, L.; Thuillier, T. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie de Grenoble, UJF-CNRS/IN2P3 - INPG, 53, rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2010-02-15

    In order to drastically reduce the power consumption of a microwave ion source, we have studied some specific discharge cavity geometries in order to reduce the operating point below 1 W of microwave power (at 2.45 GHz). We show that it is possible to drive an electron cyclotron resonance ion source with a transmitter technology similar to those used for cellular phones. By the reduction in the size and of the required microwave power, we have developed a new type of ultralow cost ion sources. This microwave discharge system (called COMIC, for COmpact MIcrowave and Coaxial) can be used as a source of light, plasma or ions. We will show geometries of conductive cavities where it is possible, in a 20 mm diameter chamber, to reduce the ignition of the plasma below 100 mW and define typical operating points around 5 W. Inside a simple vacuum chamber it is easy to place the source and its extraction system anywhere and fully under vacuum. In that case, current densities from 0.1 to 10 mA/cm{sup 2} (Ar, extraction 4 mm, 1 mAe, 20 kV) have been observed. Preliminary measurements and calculations show the possibility, with a two electrodes system, to extract beams within a low emittance. The first application for these ion sources is the ion injection for charge breeding, surface analyzing system and surface treatment. For this purpose, a very small extraction hole is used (typically 3/10 mm for a 3 {mu}A extracted current with 2 W of HF power). Mass spectrum and emittance measurements will be presented. In these conditions, values down to 1 {pi} mm mrad at 15 kV (1{sigma}) are observed, thus very close to the ones currently observed for a surface ionization source. A major interest of this approach is the possibility to connect together several COMIC devices. We will introduce some new on-going developments such as sources for high voltage implantation platforms, fully quartz radioactive ion source at ISOLDE or large plasma generators for plasma immersion, broad or ribbon

  6. Adiabatic theory of nonlinear electron cyclotron resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotel'nikov, I.A.; Stupakov, G.V.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma heating at electron frequency by an ordinary wave propagating at right angle to unidirectional magnetic field is treated. Injected microwave power is assumed to be so large that relativistic change of electron gyrofrequency during one flight thorugh the wave beam is much greater than inverse time of flight. The electron motion in the wave field is described using Hamiltonian formalism in adiabatic approximation. It is shown that energy coupling from the wave to electrons is due to a bifurcation of electron trajectory which results in a jumpm of the adiabatic invariant. The probability of bifurcational transition from one trajectory to another is calculated analytically and is used for the estimation of the beam power absorbed in plasma. 6 refs.; 2 figs

  7. Energy transport in mirror machine LISA at electron cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha Rapozo, C. da; Serbeto, A.; Torres-Silva, H.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that a classical transport calculation is adequate to predict the steady state temperature of the RF produced plasma in LISA machine for both large and small resonant volumes. Temperature anisotropy ranging from 55 to 305 was found which was larger for small resonant volume, and the temperature relaxation was larger at large resonant one. This agrees with the fact that there is a Coulomb relaxation ν c which is proportional to T e -3/2 . It is also shown that the fitting parameter alpha is larger for large resonant volume than for small resonant one. (L.C.J.A.)

  8. Superconducting magnets for the RAON electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S; Kim, Y; Hong, I S; Jeon, D

    2014-02-01

    The RAON linear accelerator of Rare Isotope Science Project has been developed since 2011, and the superconducting magnet for ECRIS was designed. The RAON ECR ion source was considered as a 3rd generation source. The fully superconducting magnet has been designed for operating using 28 GHz radio frequency. The RAON ECRIS operates in a minimum B field configuration which means that a magnetic sextupole field for radial confinement is superimposed with a magnetic mirror field for axial confinement. The highest field strength reaches 3.5 T on axis and 2 T at the plasma chamber wall for operating frequency up to 28 GHz. In this paper, the design results are presented of optimized superconducting magnet consisting of four solenoids and sextupole. The prototype magnet for ECRIS was fabricated and tested to verify the feasibility of the design. On the basis of test results, a fully superconducting magnet will be fabricated and tested.

  9. Nb3Sn superconducting magnets for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracin, P; Caspi, S; Felice, H; Leitner, D; Lyneis, C M; Prestemon, S; Sabbi, G L; Todd, D S

    2010-02-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are an essential component of heavy-ion accelerators. Over the past few decades advances in magnet technology and an improved understanding of the ECR ion source plasma physics have led to remarkable performance improvements of ECR ion sources. Currently third generation high field superconducting ECR ion sources operating at frequencies around 28 GHz are the state of the art ion injectors and several devices are either under commissioning or under design around the world. At the same time, the demand for increased intensities of highly charged heavy ions continues to grow, which makes the development of even higher performance ECR ion sources a necessity. To extend ECR ion sources to frequencies well above 28 GHz, new magnet technology will be needed in order to operate at higher field and force levels. The superconducting magnet program at LBNL has been developing high field superconducting magnets for particle accelerators based on Nb(3)Sn superconducting technology for several years. At the moment, Nb(3)Sn is the only practical conductor capable of operating at the 15 T field level in the relevant configurations. Recent design studies have been focused on the possibility of using Nb(3)Sn in the next generation of ECR ion sources. In the past, LBNL has worked on the VENUS ECR, a 28 GHz source with solenoids and a sextupole made with NbTi operating at fields of 6-7 T. VENUS has now been operating since 2004. We present in this paper the design of a Nb(3)Sn ECR ion source optimized to operate at an rf frequency of 56 GHz with conductor peak fields of 13-15 T. Because of the brittleness and strain sensitivity of Nb(3)Sn, particular care is required in the design of the magnet support structure, which must be capable of providing support to the coils without overstressing the conductor. In this paper, we present the main features of the support structure, featuring an external aluminum shell pretensioned with water

  10. A mode converter to generate a Gaussian-like mode for injection into the VENUS electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyneis, C., E-mail: CMLyneis@lbl.gov; Benitez, J.; Hodgkinson, A.; Strohmeier, M.; Todd, D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Plaum, B. [Institut für Grenzflächenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie (IGVP), Stuttgart (Germany); Thuillier, T. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, 53 rue des martyrs 38026 Grenoble cedex (France)

    2014-02-15

    A number of superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources use gyrotrons at either 24 or 28 GHz for ECR heating. In these systems, the microwave power is launched into the plasma using the TE{sub 01} circular waveguide mode. This is fundamentally different and may be less efficient than the typical rectangular, linearly polarized TE{sub 10} mode used for launching waves at lower frequencies. To improve the 28 GHz microwave coupling in VENUS, a TE{sub 01}-HE{sub 11} mode conversion system has been built to test launching HE{sub 11} microwave power into the plasma chamber. The HE{sub 11} mode is a quasi-Gaussian, linearly polarized mode, which should couple strongly to the plasma electrons. The mode conversion is done in two steps. First, a 0.66 m long “snake” converts the TE{sub 01} mode to the TE{sub 11} mode. Second, a corrugated circular waveguide excites the HE{sub 11} mode, which is launched directly into the plasma chamber. The design concept draws on the development of similar devices used in tokamaks and stellerators. The first tests of the new coupling system are described below.

  11. High temperature electron cyclotron resonance etching of GaN, InN, and AlN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shul, R.J.; Kilcoyne, S.P.; Hagerott Crawford, M.; Parmeter, J.E.; Vartuli, C.B.; Abernathy, C.R.; Pearton, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance etch rates for GaN, InN, and AlN are reported as a function of temperature for Cl 2 /H 2 /CH 4 /Ar and Cl 2 /H 2 /Ar plasmas. Using Cl 2 /H 2 /CH 4 /Ar plasma chemistry, GaN etch rates remain relatively constant from 30 to 125 degree C and then increase to a maximum of 2340 A/min at 170 degree C. The InN etch rate decreases monotonically from 30 to 150 degree C and then rapidly increases to a maximum of 2300 A/min at 170 degree C. This is the highest etch rate reported for this material. The AlN etch rate decreases throughout the temperature range studied with a maximum of 960 A/min at 30 degree C. When CH 4 is removed from the plasma chemistry, the GaN and InN etch rates are slightly lower, with less dramatic changes with temperature. The surface composition of the III--V nitrides remains unchanged after exposure to the Cl 2 /H 2 /CH 4 /Ar plasma over the temperatures studied

  12. Development of an 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at RCNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, Tetsuhiko; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kibayashi, Mitsuru; Morinobu, Shunpei; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Tamii, Atsushi

    2008-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source has recently been developed and installed in order to extend the variety and the intensity of ions at the RCNP coupled cyclotron facility. Production of several ions such as O, N, Ar, Kr, etc., is now under development and some of them have already been used for user experiments. For example, highly charged heavy ion beams like (86)Kr(21+,23+) and intense (16)O(5+,6+) and (15)N(6+) ion beams have been provided for experiments. The metal ion from volatile compounds method for boron ions has been developed as well.

  13. Proceedings of eighth joint workshop on electron cyclotron emission and electron cyclotron resonance heating. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The theory of electron cyclotron resonance phenomena is highly developed. The main theoretical tools are well established, generally accepted and able to give a satisfactory description of the main results obtained in electron cyclotron emission, absorption and current drive experiments. In this workshop some advanced theoretical and numerical tools have been presented (e.g., 3-D Fokker-Planck codes, treatment of the r.f. beam as a whole, description of non-linear and finite-beam effects) together with the proposal for new scenarios for ECE and ECA measurements (e.g., for diagnosing suprathermal populations and their radial transport). (orig.)

  14. Status of the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Toyo University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, T., E-mail: uchida-t@toyo.jp [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan); Minezaki, H.; Ishihara, S. [Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan); Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Drentje, A. G. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Rácz, R.; Biri, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Asaji, T. [Oshima National College of Maritime Technology, Yamaguchi 742-2193 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, Kawagoe 350-8585 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    In the paper, the material science experiments, carried out recently using the Bio-Nano electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) at Toyo University, are reported. We have investigated several methods to synthesize endohedral C{sub 60} using ion-ion and ion-molecule collision reaction in the ECRIS. Because of the simplicity of the configuration, we can install a large choice of additional equipment in the ECRIS. The Bio-Nano ECRIS is suitable not only to test the materials production but also to test technical developments to improve or understand the performance of an ECRIS.

  15. Bio-Nano ECRIS: An electron cyclotron resonance ion source for new materials production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, T. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Minezaki, H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Tanaka, K.; Asaji, T. [Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., 30 Shimonoban, Toyama, Toyama 930-1305 (Japan); Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Biri, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem Ter 18/c (Hungary); Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    We developed an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for new materials production on nanoscale. Our main target is the endohedral fullerenes, which have potential in medical care, biotechnology, and nanotechnology. In particular, iron-encapsulated fullerene can be applied as a contrast material for magnetic resonance imaging or microwave heat therapy. Thus, our new ECRIS is named the Bio-Nano ECRIS. In this article, the recent progress of the development of the Bio-Nano ECRIS is reported: (i) iron ion beam production using induction heating oven and (ii) optimization of singly charged C{sub 60} ion beam production.

  16. Proceedings of eighth joint workshop on electron cyclotron emission and electron cyclotron resonance heating. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The theory of electron cyclotron resonance phenomena is highly developed. The main theoretical tools are well established, generally accepted and able to give a satisfactory description of the main results obtained in electron cyclotron emission, absorption and current drive experiments. In this workshop some advanced theoretical and numerical tools have been presented (e.g., 3-D Fokker-Planck codes, treatment of the r.f. beam as a whole, description of non-linear and finite-beam effects) together with the proposal for new scenarios for ECE and ECA measurements (e.g., for diagnosing suprathermal populations and their radial transport). (orig.)

  17. Extension of high T{sub e} regime with upgraded electron cyclotron resonance heating system in the Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, H., E-mail: takahashi.hiromi@LHD.nifs.ac.jp; Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Ito, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Mutoh, T.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Yamada, I.; Nakano, H.; Yokoyama, M.; Ido, T.; Shimizu, A.; Seki, R.; Ida, K.; Yoshinuma, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); and others

    2014-06-15

    Enhancement of the output power per gyrotron has been planned in the Large Helical Device (LHD). Three 77-GHz gyrotrons with an output power of more than 1 MW have been operated. In addition, a high power gyrotron with the frequency of 154 GHz (1 MW/5 s, 0.5 MW/CW) was newly installed in 2012, and the total injection power of Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) reached 4.6 MW. The operational regime of ECRH plasma on the LHD has been extended due to the upgraded ECRH system such as the central electron temperature of 13.5 keV with the line-averaged electron density n{sub e-fir} = 1 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}. The electron thermal confinement clearly improved inside the electron internal transport barrier, and the electron thermal diffusivity reached neoclassical level. The global energy confinement time increased with increase of n{sub e-fir}. The plasma stored energy of 530 kJ with n{sub e-fir} = 3.2 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}, which is 1.7 times larger than the previous record in the ECRH plasma in the LHD, has been successfully achieved.

  18. Production of highly charged heavy ions by 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance at Research Center for Nuclear Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, Tetsuhiko; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kibayashi, Mitsuru; Morinobu, Shunpei; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Tamii, Atsushi

    2010-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been installed as a subject of the azimuthally varying field cyclotron upgrade project (K. Hatanaka et al., in Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications, Tokyo, Japan, 18-22 October 2004, pp. 115-117), in order to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions. The production development of several ions has been performed since 2006 and some of them have already been used for user experiments [T. Yorita et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008)]. Further optimizations for each component such as the material of plasma electrode, material, and shape of bias probe and mirror field have been continued and more intense ion beams have been obtained for O, N, and Ar. For the purpose of obtaining highly charged Xe with several microamperes, the optimization of position and shape of plasma electrode and bias disk has also been done and highly charged Xe(32+) beam has been obtained successfully.

  19. New operational spaces for the electron cyclotron resonance heating at ASDEX upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehnle, Hendrik Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, new electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) scenarios were developed for an extension of the operational space at the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade in view of ITER compatibility. In the last years, the first wall material at ASDEX Upgrade was changed from graphite to tungsten, and the ECRH is needed to control the tungsten concentration in the plasma core. But, in ITER-like plasma discharges at ASDEX Upgrade, the usage of the ECRH in the typically used second harmonic extraordinary polarised mode (X2 mode) is limited. In these ITER-scenarios a small safety factor should be achieved, which implements an increase of the plasma current at ASDEX Upgrade. A higher plasma current and a high confinement lead to a raised density and for the ITER scenario to an electron density above the cutoff of the X2 mode at ASDEX Upgrade. Therefore, the X2 mode is reflected at the cutoff layer and cannot be used for central heating and the control of the tungsten concentration. One possibility to overcome this problem is to apply the third harmonic mode at reduced magnetic field. Here the cutoff is increased by 33% due to the dependence on the magnetic field. However, at the reachable plasma parameters at the reduced field the absorption of the X3 mode is incomplete (60-70 %) and the shine-trough power can destroy microwave sensitive components in ASDEX Upgrade. To solve this problem the magnetic field has to be optimized. A slightly increased magnetic field from 1.7 T to 1.8 T moves the second harmonic resonance in the region of confined plasma with high temperatures and density, so that this resonance can act as beam dump. The deposition in the plasma core is still central enough for the tungsten control ability of the ECRH. The benefit of the beam dump was verified in experiments with two different magnetic fields (1.7 T and 1.8 T). In case of the higher magnetic field, the stray radiation was reduced; simultaneously the electron temperature was increased. In addition

  20. Performance test of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources for the Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, K.; Sawada, J.; Sakata, T.; Uno, K.; Okanishi, K.; Harada, H.; Itano, A.; Higashi, A.; Akagi, T.; Yamada, S.; Noda, K.; Torikoshi, M.; Kitagawa, A.

    2000-02-01

    Two electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources were manufactured for the accelerator facility at the Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center. H2+, He2+, and C4+ were chosen as the accelerating ions because they have the highest charge to mass ratio among ion states which satisfy the required intensity and quality. The sources have the same structure as the 10 GHz ECR source at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba except for a few improvements in the magnetic structure. Their performance was investigated at the Sumitomo Heavy Industries factory before shipment. The maximum intensity was 1500 μA for H2+, 1320 μA for He2+, and 580 μA for C4+ at the end of the ion source beam transport line. These are several times higher than required. Sufficient performance was also observed in the flatness and long-term stability of the pulsed beams. These test results satisfy the requirements for medical use.

  1. Developing laser ablation in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source for actinide detection with AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauder, W. [Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division, 9600 S. Cass Ave, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); University of Notre Dame, Nuclear Science Laboratory, 124 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Pardo, R.C.; Kondev, F.G.; Kondrashev, S.; Nair, C.; Nusair, O. [Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division, 9600 S. Cass Ave, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Palchan, T. [Hebrew University, Racah Institute of Physics, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Scott, R.; Seweryniak, D.; Vondrasek, R. [Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division, 9600 S. Cass Ave, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Collon, P. [University of Notre Dame, Nuclear Science Laboratory, 124 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Paul, M. [Hebrew University, Racah Institute of Physics, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2015-10-15

    A laser ablation material injection system has been developed at the ATLAS electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source for use in accelerator mass spectrometry experiments. Beam production with laser ablation initially suffered from instabilities due to fluctuations in laser energy and cratering on the sample surface by the laser. However, these instabilities were rectified by applying feedback correction for the laser energy and rastering the laser across the sample surface. An initial experiment successfully produced and accelerated low intensity actinide beams with up to 1000 counts per second. With continued development, laser ablation shows promise as an alternative material injection scheme for ECR ion sources and may help substantially reduce cross talk in the source.

  2. Influence of Bernstein modes on the efficiency of electron cyclotron resonance x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, V. V.; Nikitin, G.V.; Savanovich, V.Yu.; Umnov, A.M.; Elizarov, L.I.; Serebrennikov, K.S.; Vostrikova, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    The article considers the factors influencing the temperature of hot electron component in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) x-ray source. In such sources the electron heating occurs often due to extraordinary electromagnetic wave propagating perpendicularly to the magnetic field. In this case the possibility of the absorption of Bernstein modes is regarded as an additional mechanism of electron heating. The Bernstein modes in an ECR x-ray source can arise due to either linear transformation or parametric instability of external transversal wave. The article briefly reviews also the further experiments which will be carried out to study the influence of Bernstein modes on the increase of hot electron temperature and consequently of x-ray emission

  3. Status report on electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba

    CERN Document Server

    Kitagawa, A; Sekiguchi, M; Yamada, S; Jincho, K; Okada, T; Yamamoto, M; Hattori, T G; Biri, S; Baskaran, R; Sakata, T; Sawada, K; Uno, K

    2000-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) is not only dedicated to cancer therapy, it is also utilized with various ion species for basic experiments of biomedical science, physics, chemistry, etc. Two electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are installed for production of gaseous ions. One of them, the NIRS-ECR, is a 10 GHz ECR ion source, and is mainly operated to produce C/sup 4+/ ions for daily clinical treatment. This source realizes good reproducibility and reliability and it is easily operated. The other source, the NIRS-HEC, is an 18 GHz ECR ion source that is expected to produce heavier ion species. The output ion currents of the NIRS-ECR and the NIRS-HEC are 430e mu A for C/sup 4+/ and 1.1e mA for Ar/sup 8+/, respectively. (14 refs).

  4. Electron cyclotron resonance ion stream etching of tantalum for x-ray mask absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Masatoshi; Ozawa, Akira; Yoshihara, Hideo

    1993-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion stream etching of Ta film was investigated for preparing x-ray mask absorber patterns. Ta is etched by the system at a high rate and with high selectivity. Using Cl 2 as etching gas, the etch rate decreases rapidly with decreasing pattern width below 0.5 μm and large undercutting is observed. The problems are reduced by adding Ar or O 2 gas to the Cl 2 . Etching with a mixture of Cl 2 and O 2 produces highly accurate Ta absorber patterns for x-ray masks. The pattern width dependence of the etch rate and the undercutting were simulated with a model that takes account of the angular distribution of active species incident on the sample. The experimental results agree well with those calculated assuming that the incidence angles are distributed between -36 degrees and 36 degrees. The addition of O 2 or Ar enhances ion assisted etching. 16 refs., 16 figs

  5. Simulations of peeling-ballooning modes with electron cyclotron resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.; Tang, C. J.; Chen, S. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the deposited power and deposited position of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) on Peeling-Ballooning (P-B) modes are simulated using BOUT++ code in this paper. The simulation results show that as the deposited position moves from the top to the bottom of the pedestal, the edge localized mode (ELM) size decreases first and then increases, finally decreases again. For ECRH with different deposited power, the effects on P-B modes are similar if they have the same peak value of the power deposition profile. These results show that the effects of ECRH on P-B modes are primarily determined by the change in pressure profile caused by ECRH. As long as ECRH can lead to large enough change in pressure profile, ECRH can efficiently affect the dynamics of P-B modes.

  6. Simulations of peeling-ballooning modes with electron cyclotron resonance heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.; Tang, C. J. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Chen, S. Y., E-mail: sychen531@163.com [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2016-05-15

    The effects of the deposited power and deposited position of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) on Peeling-Ballooning (P-B) modes are simulated using BOUT++ code in this paper. The simulation results show that as the deposited position moves from the top to the bottom of the pedestal, the edge localized mode (ELM) size decreases first and then increases, finally decreases again. For ECRH with different deposited power, the effects on P-B modes are similar if they have the same peak value of the power deposition profile. These results show that the effects of ECRH on P-B modes are primarily determined by the change in pressure profile caused by ECRH. As long as ECRH can lead to large enough change in pressure profile, ECRH can efficiently affect the dynamics of P-B modes.

  7. A line-of-sight electron cyclotron emission receiver for electron cyclotron resonance heating feedback control of tearing modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oosterbeek, J.W.; Bürger, A.; Westerhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    An electron cyclotron emission (ECE) receiver inside the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) transmission line has been brought into operation. The ECE is extracted by placing a quartz plate acting as a Fabry-Perot interferometer under an angle inside the electron cyclotron wave (ECW) bea...

  8. Dependence of ion beam current on position of mobile plate tuner in multi-frequencies microwaves electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurisu, Yosuke; Kiriyama, Ryutaro; Takenaka, Tomoya; Nozaki, Dai; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    We are constructing a tandem-type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The first stage of this can supply 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz microwaves to plasma chamber individually and simultaneously. We optimize the beam current I FC by the mobile plate tuner. The I FC is affected by the position of the mobile plate tuner in the chamber as like a circular cavity resonator. We aim to clarify the relation between the I FC and the ion saturation current in the ECRIS against the position of the mobile plate tuner. We obtained the result that the variation of the plasma density contributes largely to the variation of the I FC when we change the position of the mobile plate tuner.

  9. Effect of the gas mixing technique on the production efficiency of ion beams extracted from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, O.; Suominen, P.; Koivisto, H.

    2004-01-01

    In this work the effect of gas mixing on the production efficiency of ion beams extracted from an ECR ion source has been studied with the JYFL 6.4 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). It was found that the gas mixing affects strongly the confinement of ions in the plasma of the ECRIS. The information obtained can be used to minimize the consumption of expensive materials or isotopes and to reduce contamination of the plasma chamber. It was observed that the carbon contamination, which is built up when the MIVOC method is used could be decreased with the aid of the gas mixing technique. The best mixing gas for this purpose was found to be oxygen

  10. Development of portable mass spectrometer with electron cyclotron resonance ion source for detection of chemical warfare agents in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urabe, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Kazuya; Kitagawa, Michiko; Sato, Takafumi; Kondo, Tomohide; Enomoto, Shuichi; Kidera, Masanori; Seto, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    A portable mass spectrometer with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (miniECRIS-MS) was developed. It was used for in situ monitoring of trace amounts of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in atmospheric air. Instrumental construction and parameters were optimized to realize a fast response, high sensitivity, and a small body size. Three types of CWAs, i.e., phosgene, mustard gas, and hydrogen cyanide were examined to check if the mass spectrometer was able to detect characteristic elements and atomic groups. From the results, it was found that CWAs were effectively ionized in the miniECRIS-MS, and their specific signals could be discerned over the background signals of air. In phosgene, the signals of the 35Cl+ and 37Cl+ ions were clearly observed with high dose-response relationships in the parts-per-billion level, which could lead to the quantitative on-site analysis of CWAs. A parts-per-million level of mustard gas, which was far lower than its lethal dosage (LCt50), was successfully detected with a high signal-stability of the plasma ion source. It was also found that the chemical forms of CWAs ionized in the plasma, i.e., monoatomic ions, fragment ions, and molecular ions, could be detected, thereby enabling the effective identification of the target CWAs. Despite the disadvantages associated with miniaturization, the overall performance (sensitivity and response time) of the miniECRIS-MS in detecting CWAs exceeded those of sector-type ECRIS-MS, showing its potential for on-site detection in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Stochasticity of the energy absorption in the electron cyclotron resonance; Estocasticidad de la absorcion de energia en la resonancia electron-ciclotronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez T, C. [Departamento de Fisica, ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Hernandez A, O

    1998-07-01

    The energy absorption mechanism in cyclotron resonance of the electrons is a present problem, since it could be considered from the stochastic point of view or this related with a non-homogeneous but periodical of plasma spatial structure. In this work using the Bogoliubov average method for a multi periodical system in presence of resonances, the drift equations were obtained in presence of a RF field for the case of electron cyclotron resonance until first order terms with respect to inverse of its cyclotron frequency. The absorbed energy equation is obtained on part of electrons in a simple model and by drift method. It is showed the stochastic character of the energy absorption. (Author)

  12. Intense beam production of highly charged heavy ions by the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Guo, X H; Cao, Y; Lu, W; Zhang, Z M; Yuan, P; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Jin, T; Shang, Y; Zhan, W L; Wei, B W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    There has been increasing demand to provide higher beam intensity and high enough beam energy for heavy ion accelerator and some other applications, which has driven electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to produce higher charge state ions with higher beam intensity. One of development trends for highly charged ECR ion source is to build new generation ECR sources by utilization of superconducting magnet technology. SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) was successfully built to produce intense beams of highly charged ion for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The ion source has been optimized to be operated at 28 GHz for its maximum performance. The superconducting magnet confinement configuration of the ion source consists of three axial solenoid coils and six sextupole coils with a cold iron structure as field booster and clamping. An innovative design of SECRAL is that the three axial solenoid coils are located inside of the sextupole bore in order to reduce the interaction forces between the sextupole coils and the solenoid coils. For 28 GHz operation, the magnet assembly can produce peak mirror fields on axis of 3.6 T at injection, 2.2 T at extraction, and a radial sextupole field of 2.0 T at plasma chamber wall. During the commissioning phase at 18 GHz with a stainless steel chamber, tests with various gases and some metals have been conducted with microwave power less than 3.5 kW by two 18 GHz rf generators. It demonstrates the performance is very promising. Some record ion beam intensities have been produced, for instance, 810 e microA of O(7+), 505 e microA of Xe(20+), 306 e microA of Xe(27+), and so on. The effect of the magnetic field configuration on the ion source performance has been studied experimentally. SECRAL has been put into operation to provide highly charged ion beams for HIRFL facility since May 2007.

  13. New development of advanced superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Guo, X. H.; Zhao, H. Y.; Feng, Y. C.; Li, J. Y.; Ma, H. Y.; Ma, B. H.; Wang, H.; Li, X. X.; Xie, D. Z.; Lu, W.; Cao, Y.; Shang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advance design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an 18-28 GHz fully superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source dedicated for highly charged heavy ion beam production. SECRAL, with an innovative superconducting magnet structure of solenoid-inside-sextupole and at lower frequency and lower rf power operation, may open a new way for developing compact and reliable high performance superconducting ECR ion source. One of the recent highlights achieved at SECRAL is that some new record beam currents for very high charge states were produced by 18 GHz or 18+14.5 GHz double frequency heating, such as 1 e μA of 129 Xe 43+ , 22 e μA of 209 Bi 41+ , and 1.5 e μA of 209 Bi 50+ . To further enhance the performance of SECRAL, a 24 GHz/7 kW gyrotron microwave generator was installed and SECRAL was tested at 24 GHz. Some promising and exciting results at 24 GHz with new record highly charged ion beam intensities were produced, such as 455 e μA of 129 Xe 27+ and 152 e μA of 129 Xe 30+ , although the commissioning time was limited within 3-4 weeks and rf power only 3-4 kW. Bremsstrahlung measurements at 24 GHz show that x-ray is much stronger with higher rf frequency, higher rf power. and higher minimum mirror magnetic field (minimum B). Preliminary emittance measurements indicate that SECRAL emittance at 24 GHz is slightly higher that at 18 GHz. SECRAL has been put into routine operation at 18 GHz for heavy ion research facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) accelerator complex since May 2007. The total operation beam time from SECRAL for HIRFL accelerator has been more than 2000 h, and 129 Xe 27+ , 78 Kr 19+ , 209 Bi 31+ , and 58 Ni 19+ beams were delivered. All of these new developments, the latest results, and long-term operation for the accelerator have again demonstrated that SECRAL is one of the best in the performance of ECR ion source for highly charged heavy ion beam production. Finally the future development

  14. An all permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for heavy ion therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yun; Li, Jia Qing; Sun, Liang Ting; Zhang, Xue Zhen; Feng, Yu Cheng; Wang, Hui; Ma, Bao Hua; Li, Xi Xia

    2014-02-01

    A high charge state all permanent Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source no. 3-LAPECR3, has been successfully built at IMP in 2012, which will serve as the ion injector of the Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) project. As a commercial device, LAPECR3 features a compact structure, small size, and low cost. According to HIMM scenario more than 100 eμA of C(5+) ion beam should be extracted from the ion source, and the beam emittance better than 75 π*mm*mrad. In recent commissioning, about 120 eμA of C(5+) ion beam was got when work gas was CH4 while about 262 eμA of C(5+) ion beam was obtained when work gas was C2H2 gas. The design and construction of the ion source and its low-energy transportation beam line, and the preliminary commissioning results will be presented in detail in this paper.

  15. An all permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source for heavy ion therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Yun, E-mail: caoyun@impcas.ac.cn; Li, Jia Qing; Sun, Liang Ting; Zhang, Xue Zhen; Feng, Yu Cheng; Wang, Hui; Ma, Bao Hua; Li, Xi Xia [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-02-15

    A high charge state all permanent Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source no. 3-LAPECR3, has been successfully built at IMP in 2012, which will serve as the ion injector of the Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) project. As a commercial device, LAPECR3 features a compact structure, small size, and low cost. According to HIMM scenario more than 100 eμA of C{sup 5+} ion beam should be extracted from the ion source, and the beam emittance better than 75 π*mm*mrad. In recent commissioning, about 120 eμA of C{sup 5+} ion beam was got when work gas was CH{sub 4} while about 262 eμA of C{sup 5+} ion beam was obtained when work gas was C{sub 2}H{sub 2} gas. The design and construction of the ion source and its low-energy transportation beam line, and the preliminary commissioning results will be presented in detail in this paper.

  16. An electron cyclotron resonance ion source based low energy ion beam platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L. T.; Shang, Y.; Ma, B. H.; Zhang, X. Z.; Feng, Y. C.; Li, X. X.; Wang, H.; Guo, X. H.; Song, M. T.; Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Z. M.; Zhao, H. W.; Xie, D. Z.

    2008-01-01

    To satisfy the requirements of surface and atomic physics study in the field of low energy multiple charge state ion incident experiments, a low energy (10 eV/q-20 keV/q) ion beam platform is under design at IMP. A simple test bench has been set up to test the ion beam deceleration systems. Considering virtues such as structure simplicity, easy handling, compactness, cost saving, etc., an all-permanent magnet ECRIS LAPECR1 [Lanzhou all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source No. 1] working at 14.5 GHz has been adopted to produce intense medium and low charge state ion beams. LAPECR1 source has already been ignited. Some intense low charge state ion beams have been produced on it, but the first test also reveals that many problems are existing on the ion beam transmission line. The ion beam transmission mismatches result in the depressed performance of LAPECR1, which will be discussed in this paper. To obtain ultralow energy ion beam, after being analyzed by a double-focusing analyzer magnet, the selected ion beam will be further decelerated by two afocal deceleration lens systems, which is still under design. This design has taken into consideration both ions slowing down and also ion beam focusing. In this paper, the conceptual design of deceleration system will be discussed

  17. An electron cyclotron resonance ion source based low energy ion beam platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L T; Shang, Y; Ma, B H; Zhang, X Z; Feng, Y C; Li, X X; Wang, H; Guo, X H; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Zhang, Z M; Zhao, H W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    To satisfy the requirements of surface and atomic physics study in the field of low energy multiple charge state ion incident experiments, a low energy (10 eV/q-20 keV/q) ion beam platform is under design at IMP. A simple test bench has been set up to test the ion beam deceleration systems. Considering virtues such as structure simplicity, easy handling, compactness, cost saving, etc., an all-permanent magnet ECRIS LAPECR1 [Lanzhou all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source No. 1] working at 14.5 GHz has been adopted to produce intense medium and low charge state ion beams. LAPECR1 source has already been ignited. Some intense low charge state ion beams have been produced on it, but the first test also reveals that many problems are existing on the ion beam transmission line. The ion beam transmission mismatches result in the depressed performance of LAPECR1, which will be discussed in this paper. To obtain ultralow energy ion beam, after being analyzed by a double-focusing analyzer magnet, the selected ion beam will be further decelerated by two afocal deceleration lens systems, which is still under design. This design has taken into consideration both ions slowing down and also ion beam focusing. In this paper, the conceptual design of deceleration system will be discussed.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of electron behavior in an electron cyclotron resonance microwave discharge sustained by circular TM11 mode fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, S.C.; Kuo, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    Electron behavior in an electron cyclotron resonance microwave discharge sustained by TM 11 mode fields of a cylindrical waveguide has been investigated via a Monte Carlo simulation. The time averaged, spatially dependent electron energy distribution is computed self-consistently. At low pressures (∼0.5 mTorr), the temperature of the tail portion of the electron energy distribution exceeds 40 eV, and the sheath potential is about -250 V. These results, which are about twice as high as the previous results for TM 01 mode fields [S. C. Kuo, E. E. Kunhardt, and S. P. Kuo, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 4197 (1993)], suggest that TM 11 mode fields have a stronger electron cyclotron resonance effect than TM 01 mode fields in a cylindrical waveguide. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  19. Reconstruction of high temporal resolution Thomson scattering data during a modulated electron cyclotron resonance heating using conditional averaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Yoshinuma, M.; Ohdachi, S.; Ida, K.; Itoh, K.; Moon, C.; Yamada, I.; Funaba, H.; Yasuhara, R.; Tsuchiya, H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Tsujimura, T. I.; Inagaki, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a software application of the sampling scope concept for fusion research. The time evolution of Thomson scattering data is reconstructed with a high temporal resolution during a modulated electron cyclotron resonance heating (MECH) phase. The amplitude profile and the delay time profile of the heat pulse propagation are obtained from the reconstructed signal for discharges having on-axis and off-axis MECH depositions. The results are found to be consistent with the MECH deposition.

  20. Reconstruction of high temporal resolution Thomson scattering data during a modulated electron cyclotron resonance heating using conditional averaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, T., E-mail: kobayashi.tatsuya@LHD.nifs.ac.jp; Yoshinuma, M.; Ohdachi, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Ida, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Research Center for Plasma Turbulence, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Itoh, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Research Center for Plasma Turbulence, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Moon, C.; Yamada, I.; Funaba, H.; Yasuhara, R.; Tsuchiya, H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Tsujimura, T. I. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Inagaki, S. [Research Center for Plasma Turbulence, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    This paper provides a software application of the sampling scope concept for fusion research. The time evolution of Thomson scattering data is reconstructed with a high temporal resolution during a modulated electron cyclotron resonance heating (MECH) phase. The amplitude profile and the delay time profile of the heat pulse propagation are obtained from the reconstructed signal for discharges having on-axis and off-axis MECH depositions. The results are found to be consistent with the MECH deposition.

  1. Hydrogen Recovery by ECR Plasma Pyrolysis of Methane, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a microgravity and hypogravity compatible Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Plasma Methane Pyrolysis Reactor is proposed to recover hydrogen which is...

  2. Enhanced production of electron cyclotron resonance plasma by exciting selective microwave mode on a large-bore electron cyclotron resonance ion source with permanent magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Daiju; Kurisu, Yosuke; Nozaki, Dai; Yano, Keisuke; Imai, Youta; Kumakura, Sho; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2014-02-01

    We are constructing a tandem type ECRIS. The first stage is large-bore with cylindrically comb-shaped magnet. We optimize the ion beam current and ion saturation current by a mobile plate tuner. They change by the position of the plate tuner for 2.45 GHz, 11-13 GHz, and multi-frequencies. The peak positions of them are close to the position where the microwave mode forms standing wave between the plate tuner and the extractor. The absorbed powers are estimated for each mode. We show a new guiding principle, which the number of efficient microwave mode should be selected to fit to that of multipole of the comb-shaped magnets. We obtained the excitation of the selective modes using new mobile plate tuner to enhance ECR efficiency.

  3. Enhanced production of electron cyclotron resonance plasma by exciting selective microwave mode on a large-bore electron cyclotron resonance ion source with permanent magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Daiju, E-mail: kimura@nf.eie.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kurisu, Yosuke; Nozaki, Dai; Yano, Keisuke; Imai, Youta; Kumakura, Sho; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi; Iida, Toshiyuki [Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    We are constructing a tandem type ECRIS. The first stage is large-bore with cylindrically comb-shaped magnet. We optimize the ion beam current and ion saturation current by a mobile plate tuner. They change by the position of the plate tuner for 2.45 GHz, 11–13 GHz, and multi-frequencies. The peak positions of them are close to the position where the microwave mode forms standing wave between the plate tuner and the extractor. The absorbed powers are estimated for each mode. We show a new guiding principle, which the number of efficient microwave mode should be selected to fit to that of multipole of the comb-shaped magnets. We obtained the excitation of the selective modes using new mobile plate tuner to enhance ECR efficiency.

  4. The effect of magnetic field strength on the time evolution of high energy bremsstrahlung radiation created by an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropponen, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland)], E-mail: tommi.ropponen@phys.jyu.fi; Tarvainen, O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Jones, P.; Peura, P.; Kalvas, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland); Suominen, P. [Prizztech Ltd/Magnet Technology Centre, Tiedepuisto 4, FI-28600 Pori (Finland); Koivisto, H.; Arje, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland)

    2009-03-11

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is one of the most used ion source types for high charge state heavy ion production. In ECR plasma the electrons are heated by radio frequency microwaves in order to provide ionization of neutral gases. As a consequence, ECR heating also generates very high electron energies (up to MeV region) which can produce a vast amount of bremsstrahlung radiation causing problems with radiation shielding and heating superconducting cryostat of an ECR ion source. To gain information about the time evolution of the electron energies in ECR plasma radial bremsstrahlung measurements were performed. JYFL 14 GHz ECR ion source was operated in pulsed mode and time evolution measurements were done with different axial magnetic field strengths with oxygen and argon plasmas. Bremsstrahlung data were analyzed with a time interval of 2 ms yielding information at unprecedented detail about the time evolution of high energy bremsstrahlung radiation from an ECR ion source. It was observed, for example, that reaching the steady state phase of the plasma bremsstrahlung requires several hundred milliseconds and the steady state time can be different with different gases.

  5. Operation of Lanzhou all permanent electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 2 on 320 kV platform with highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W; Li, J Y; Kang, L; Liu, H P; Li, H; Li, J D; Sun, L T; Ma, X W

    2014-02-01

    The 320 kV platform for multi-discipline research with highly charged ions is a heavy ion beam acceleration instrument developed by Institute of Modern Physics, which is dedicated to basic scientific researches such as plasma, atom, material physics, and astrophysics, etc. The platform has delivered ion beams of 400 species for 36,000 h. The average operation time is around 5000 h/year. With the beams provided by the platform, lots of outstanding progresses were made in various research fields. The ion source of the platform is an all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source, LAPECR2 (Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source No. 2). The maximum axial magnetic fields are 1.28 T at injection and 1.07 T at extraction, and the radial magnetic field is up to 1.21 T at the inner wall of the plasma chamber. The ion source is capable to produce low, medium, and high charge state gaseous and metallic ion beams, such as H(+), (40)Ar(8+), (129)Xe(30+), (209)Bi(33+), etc. This paper will present the latest result of LAPECR2 and the routine operation status for the high voltage platform.

  6. Studies of extraction and transport system for highly charged ion beam of 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Research Center for Nuclear Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, T; Hatanaka, K; Fukuda, M; Ueda, H; Yasuda, Y; Morinobu, S; Tamii, A; Kamakura, K

    2014-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source is installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by cyclotrons of Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The beam production developments of several ions from B to Xe have been already done [T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008) and T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02A332 (2010)] and the further studies for those beam extraction and its transport have been done in order to increase the beam current more. The plasma electrode, extraction electrode, and einzel lens are modified. Especially extraction electrode can be applied minus voltage for the beam extraction and it works well to improve the extracted beam current. The extraction voltage dependences of transmission and emittance also have been studied for beam current improvement which is injected into azimuthally varying field cyclotron at RCNP.

  7. A near infra-red video system as a protective diagnostic for electron cyclotron resonance heating operation in the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preynas, M.; Laqua, H. P.; Marsen, S.; Reintrog, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Corre, Y.; Moncada, V.; Travere, J.-M. [IRFM, CEA-Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-11-15

    The Wendelstein 7-X stellarator is a large nuclear fusion device based at Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik in Greifswald in Germany. The main plasma heating system for steady state operation in W7-X is electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). During operation, part of plama facing components will be directly heated by the non-absorbed power of 1 MW rf beams of ECRH. In order to avoid damages of such components made of graphite tiles during the first operational phase, a near infra-red video system has been developed as a protective diagnostic for safe and secure ECRH operation. Both the mechanical design housing the camera and the optical system are very flexible and respect the requirements of steady state operation. The full system including data acquisition and control system has been successfully tested in the vacuum vessel, including on-line visualization and data storage of the four cameras equipping the ECRH equatorial launchers of W7-X.

  8. Investigation of the role of electron cyclotron resonance heating and magnetic configuration on the suprathermal ion population in the stellarator TJ-II using a luminescent probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M.; Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.; Jiménez-Rey, D.; Tribaldos, V.

    2018-02-01

    Numerous observation exist of a population of high energetic ions with energies well above the corresponding thermal values in plasmas generated by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating in TJ-II stellarator and in other magnetically confined plasmas devices. In this work we study the impact of ECR heating different conditions (positions and powers) on fast ions escaping from plasmas in the TJ-II stellarator. For this study, an ion luminescent probe operated in counting mode is used to measure the energy distribution of suprathermal ions, in the range from 1 to 30 keV. It is observed that some suprathermal ions characteristics (such as temperature, particle and energy fluxes) are related directly with the gyrotron power and focus position of the heating beam in the plasma. Moreover, it is found that suprathermal ion characteristics vary during a magnetic configuration scan (performed along a single discharge). By investigating the suprathermal ions escaping from plasmas generated using two gyrotrons, one with fixed power and the other modulated (on/off) at low frequency (10 Hz), the de-confinement time of the suprathermal ions can be measured, which is of the order of a few milliseconds (power balance is used to understand the de-confinement times in terms of the interaction of suprathermal ions and plasma components. This model also can be used to interpret experimental results of energy loss due to suprathermal ions. Finally, observations of increases (peaks) in the population of escaping suprathermal ions, which are well localized at discrete energies, is documented, these peaks being observed in the energy distributions along a discharge.

  9. Studies of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, V; Küchler, D

    2016-02-01

    The 14.5 GHz GTS-LHC Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) provides multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The GTS-LHC beam formation has been studied extensively with lead, argon, and xenon beams with varied beam extraction conditions using the ion optical code IBSimu. The simulation model predicts self-consistently the formation of triangular and hollow beam structures which are often associated with ECRIS ion beams, as well as beam loss patterns which match the observed beam induced markings in the extraction region. These studies provide a better understanding of the properties of the extracted beams and a way to diagnose the extraction system performance and limitations, which is otherwise challenging due to the lack of direct diagnostics in this region and the limited availability of the ion source for development work.

  10. Summary of EC-17: the 17th Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (Deurne, The Netherlands, 7-10 May 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.; Austin, M. E.; Kubo, S.; Lin-Liu, Y. R.; Plaum, B.

    2013-01-01

    An overview is given of the papers presented at the 17th Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH). The meeting covered all aspects of the research field ranging from theory to enabling technologies. From the workshop, advanced control by

  11. Optical and structural properties of SiOxNyHz films deposited by electron cyclotron resonance and their correlation with composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, A. del; San Andres, E.; Martil, I.; Gonzalez-Diaz, G.; Bravo, D.; Lopez, F. J.; Bohne, W.; Roehrich, J.; Selle, B.; Martinez, F. L.

    2003-01-01

    SiO x N y H z films were deposited from O 2 , N 2 , and SiH 4 gas mixtures at room temperature using the electron cyclotron resonance plasma method. The absolute concentrations of all the species present in the films (Si, O, N, and H) were measured with high precision by heavy-ion elastic recoil detection analysis. The composition of the films was controlled over the whole composition range by adjusting the precursor gases flow ratio during deposition. The relative incorporation of O and N is determined by the ratio Q=φ(O 2 )/φ(SiH 4 ) and the relative content of Si is determined by R=[φ(O 2 )+φ(N 2 )]/φ(SiH 4 ) where φ(SiH 4 ), φ(O 2 ), and φ(N 2 ) are the SiH 4 , O 2 , and N 2 gas flows, respectively. The optical properties (infrared absorption and refractive index) and the density of paramagnetic defects were analyzed in dependence on the film composition. Single-phase homogeneous films were obtained at low SiH 4 partial pressure during deposition; while those samples deposited at high SiH 4 partial pressure show evidence of separation of two phases. The refractive index was controlled over the whole range between silicon nitride and silicon oxide, with values slightly lower than in stoichiometric films due to the incorporation of H, which results in a lower density of the films. The most important paramagnetic defects detected in the films were the K center and the E ' center. Defects related to N were also detected in some samples. The total density of defects in SiO x N y H z films was higher than in SiO 2 and lower than in silicon nitride films

  12. Plasma cleaning and analysis of archeological artefacts from Sipan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saettone, E A O [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, CEP 05508-900 (Brazil); Matta, J A S da [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, CEP 05508-900 (Brazil); Alva, W [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, CEP 05508-900 (Brazil); Chubaci, J F O [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, CEP 05508-900 (Brazil); Fantini, M C A [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, CEP 05508-900 (Brazil); Galvao, R M O [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, CEP 05508-900 (Brazil); Kiyohara, P [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, CEP 05508-900 (Brazil); Tabacniks, M H [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, CEP 05508-900 (Brazil)

    2003-04-07

    A novel procedure using plasma sputtering in an electron-cyclotron-resonance device has been applied to clean archeological MOCHE artefacts, unearthed at the Royal Tombs of Sipan. After successful cleaning, the pieces were analysed by a variety of complementary techniques, namely proton-induced x-ray emission, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. With these techniques, it has been possible to not only determine the profiles of the gold and silver surface layers, but also to detect elements that may be relevant to explain the gilding techniques skillfully developed by the metal smiths of the MOCHE culture.

  13. Upgrade of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, V; Bellodi, G; Dimov, V; Küchler, D; Lombardi, A M; Maintrot, M

    2016-02-01

    Linac3 is the first accelerator in the heavy ion injector chain of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), providing multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The ion beams are produced with GTS-LHC, a 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, operated in afterglow mode. Improvement of the GTS-LHC beam formation and beam transport along Linac3 is part of the upgrade program of the injector chain in preparation for the future high luminosity LHC. A mismatch between the ion beam properties in the ion source extraction region and the acceptance of the following Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) section has been identified as one of the factors limiting the Linac3 performance. The installation of a new focusing element, an einzel lens, into the GTS-LHC extraction region is foreseen as a part of the Linac3 upgrade, as well as a redesign of the first section of the LEBT. Details of the upgrade and results of a beam dynamics study of the extraction region and LEBT modifications will be presented.

  14. Design and fabrication of circular and rectangular components for electron-cyclotron-resonant heating of tandem mirror experiment-upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felker, B.; Calderon, M.O.; Chargin, A.K.

    1983-01-01

    The electron-cyclotron-resonant heating (ECRH) systems of rectangular waveguides on Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) operated with a overall efficiency of 50%, each system using a 28-GHz, 200-kW pulsed gyrotron. We designed and built four circular-waveguide systems with greater efficiency and greater power-handling capabilities to replace the rectangular waveguides. Two of these circular systems, at the 5-kG second-harmonic heating locations, have a total transmission efficiency of >90%. The two systems at the 10-kG fundamental heating locations have a total transmission efficiency of 80%. The difference in efficiency is due to the additional components required to launch the microwaves in the desired orientation and polarization with respect to magnetic-field lines at the 10-kG points. These systems handle the total power available from each gyrotron but do not have the arcing limitation problem of the rectangular waveguide. Each system requires several complex components. The overall physical layout and the design considerations for the rectangular and circular waveguide components are described here

  15. Design and investigations of the superconducting magnet system for the multipurpose superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinschert, K; Lang, R; Mäder, J; Rossbach, J; Spädtke, P; Komorowski, P; Meyer-Reumers, M; Krischel, D; Fischer, B; Ciavola, G; Gammino, S; Celona, L

    2012-02-01

    The production of intense beams of heavy ions with electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) is an important request at many accelerators. According to the ECR condition and considering semi-empirical scaling laws, it is essential to increase the microwave frequency together with the magnetic flux density of the ECRIS magnet system. A useful frequency of 28 GHz, therefore, requires magnetic flux densities above 2.2 T implying the use of superconducting magnets. A cooperation of European institutions initiated a project to build a multipurpose superconducting ECRIS (MS-ECRIS) in order to achieve an increase of the performances in the order of a factor of ten. After a first design of the superconducting magnet system for the MS-ECRIS, the respective cold testing of the built magnet system reveals a lack of mechanical performance due to the strong interaction of the magnetic field of the three solenoids with the sextupole field and the magnetization of the magnetic iron collar. Comprehensive structural analysis, magnetic field calculations, and calculations of the force pattern confirm thereafter these strong interactions, especially of the iron collar with the solenoidal fields. The investigations on the structural analysis as well as suggestions for a possible mechanical design solution are given.

  16. Design and fabrication of circular and rectangular components for electron-cyclotron-resonant heating of tandem mirror experiment-upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, B.; Calderon, M.O.; Chargin, A.K.; Coffield, F.E.; Lang, D.D.; Rubert, R.R.; Pedrotti, L.R.; Stallard, B.W.; Gallagher, N.C. Jr.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1983-11-18

    The electron-cyclotron-resonant heating (ECRH) systems of rectangular waveguides on Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) operated with a overall efficiency of 50%, each system using a 28-GHz, 200-kW pulsed gyrotron. We designed and built four circular-waveguide systems with greater efficiency and greater power-handling capabilities to replace the rectangular waveguides. Two of these circular systems, at the 5-kG second-harmonic heating locations, have a total transmission efficiency of >90%. The two systems at the 10-kG fundamental heating locations have a total transmission efficiency of 80%. The difference in efficiency is due to the additional components required to launch the microwaves in the desired orientation and polarization with respect to magnetic-field lines at the 10-kG points. These systems handle the total power available from each gyrotron but do not have the arcing limitation problem of the rectangular waveguide. Each system requires several complex components. The overall physical layout and the design considerations for the rectangular and circular waveguide components are described here.

  17. Development of 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byung-Hoon, Oh; Sang-Ryul, In; Kwang-Won, Lee; Chang Seog, Seo; Jung-Tae, Jin; Dae-Sik, Chang; Seong Ho, Jeong; Chul-Kew Hwang

    2012-01-01

    A 14.5 GHz ECRIS has been designed and fabricated at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) to produce multi-charged ion beam (especially for C 6+ ion beam) for medical application. The magnet system has copper conductor solenoid coils and a permanent magnet hexapole. A welded tube with aluminium and stainless steel is used for an ECR plasma chamber to improve the production of secondary electron. A klystron supplies microwave energy to the plasma. A movable beam extractor with 8 mm aperture covers different species and different charge numbers of the beam. Fabrication and initial experimental results on ECR plasma are discussed in this paper. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  18. Electron cyclotron resonance heating on the W VII A-stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, R.; Erckmann, V.; Janzen, G.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma build-up and heating of OH-current free plasmas by ECR-wave irradiation were investigated on the WENDELSTEIN VII-A stellarator using three kinds of wave launching: direct irradiation of the gyrotron modes from the low field side, or advanced wave launching in 0-mode polarization from the low field side, the nonabsorbed fraction being reflected back to the plasma from the high field side in X-mode polarization. An increase of the central electron temperature from 0.7 keV (TE 02 mode) to 1.2 keV (TE 11 , HE 11 mode) was observed which is explained by the narrow and well centred power deposition profiles for TE 11 , HE 11 modes. However, there is only a slight increase of the heating efficiency from 40% to 50%. The reflected X-mode fraction does not contribute to bulk plasma heating via Bernstein wave conversion and absorption as expected. The reason seems to be local absorption of the arising electron Bernstein waves due to a macroscopically turbulent structure around the upper hybrid resonance layer. Correlated with X-mode irradiation direct ion heating was observed (500 eV ion tail), possibly due to low frequency decay waves. In all ECRH experiments a toroidal plasma current was generated due to asymmetrically confined fast electrons. Optimum confinement in the shearless l=2 configuration was achieved at most irrational values of the rotational transform with small toroidal net current. It can be concluded from a numerical 1D-transport analysis that neoclassical electron confinement seems to be dominant in the hot central plasma core

  19. A double-layer based model of ion confinement in electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascali, D., E-mail: davidmascali@lns.infn.it; Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Castro, G.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Torrisi, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell’Energia Sostenibile, Via Graziella, I-89100 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Sorbello, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica ed Informatica, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    The paper proposes a new model of ion confinement in ECRIS, which can be easily generalized to any magnetic configuration characterized by closed magnetic surfaces. Traditionally, ion confinement in B-min configurations is ascribed to a negative potential dip due to superhot electrons, adiabatically confined by the magneto-static field. However, kinetic simulations including RF heating affected by cavity modes structures indicate that high energy electrons populate just a thin slab overlapping the ECR layer, while their density drops down of more than one order of magnitude outside. Ions, instead, diffuse across the electron layer due to their high collisionality. This is the proper physical condition to establish a double-layer (DL) configuration which self-consistently originates a potential barrier; this “barrier” confines the ions inside the plasma core surrounded by the ECR surface. The paper will describe a simplified ion confinement model based on plasma density non-homogeneity and DL formation.

  20. The preliminary tests of the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source DECRIS-SC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, A; Bekhterev, V; Bogomolov, S; Drobin, V; Loginov, V; Lebedev, A; Yazvitsky, N; Yakovlev, B

    2012-02-01

    A new compact version of the "liquid He-free" superconducting ECR ion source, to be used as an injector of highly charged heavy ions for the MC-400 cyclotron, is designed and built at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions in collaboration with the Laboratory of High Energy Physics of JINR. The axial magnetic field of the source is created by the superconducting magnet and the NdFeB hexapole is used for the radial plasma confinement. The microwave frequency of 14 GHz is used for ECR plasma heating. During the first tests, the source shows a good enough performance for the production of medium charge state ions. In this paper, we will present the design parameters and the preliminary results with gaseous ions.

  1. Nearly perpendicular wave propagation at the fundamental electron-cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imre, K.; Weitzner, H.

    1985-01-01

    Waves propagating nearly perpendicular to the equilibrium magnetic field across the fundamental cyclotron resonance layer are studied by a boundary layer analysis for a weakly relativistic, inhomogeneous Vlasov plasma. The plasma is assumed to be perpendicularly stratified. It is found that the wave energy associated with the ordinary mode transmitted through the layer is independent of the relativistic corrections and is given by a geometrical optics formula. It is also found that there is no reflected energy associated with this mode when it is incident from the high-field side. These results are the same as the nonrelativistic case with purely perpendicular propagation. Relativistic effects produce a significant reduction of the reflection coefficient for low-field side incidence from the nonrelativistic value. Correspondingly, for this mode there is a considerable increase in the absorption rate for sufficiently high, but moderate, electron density and temperature

  2. Electron cyclotron resonance (E.C.R.) multiply charged ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, R.

    1978-01-01

    High charge state ions can be produced by electron bombardment inside targets when the target electron density n (cm -3 ) multiplied by the ion transit time through the target tau (sec) is: n tau > 5.10 9 cm -3 sec. The relative velocity between electrons and ions determines the balance between stripping and capture i.e. the final ion charge state. (In a stripper foil fast ions interact with slow electrons involving typically n approximately 10 24 cm -3 , tau approximately 10 -14 sec). In the E.C.R. source a cold ion plasma created in a first stage diffuses slowly through a second stage containing a hot E.C.R. plasma with n > 3.10 11 cm -3 and tau > 10 -2 sec. Continuous beams of several μA of C 6+ N 7+ Ne 9+ A 11+ are extracted from the second stage with normalized emittances of approximately 0.5 π mm mrad. The absence of cathodes and plasma arcs makes the source very robust, reliable and well-fitted for cyclotron injection. A super conducting source is under development

  3. Simulation study on ion extraction from electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, S.; Kitagawa, A.; Yamada, S.

    1994-04-01

    In order to study beam optics of NIRS-ECR ion source used in the HIMAC project, the EGUN code has been modified to make it capable of modeling ion extraction from a plasma. Two versions of the modified code are worked out with two different methods in which 1D and 2D sheath theories are used, respectively. Convergence problem of the strong nonlinear self-consistent equations is investigated. Simulations on NIRS-ECR ion source and HYPER-ECR ion source are presented in this paper, exhibiting an agreement with the experiment results.

  4. Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Ion Source Development at the Holified Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilheux, Hassina; Liu, Yuan; Alton, Gerald; Cole, John; Williams, Cecil; Reed, Charles

    2004-11-01

    Performance of ECR ion sources can be significantly enhanced by increasing the physical size of their ECR zones in relation to the size of their plasma volumes (spatial and frequency domain methods).^3-5 A 6 GHz, all-permanent magnet ECR ion source with a large resonant plasma volume has been tested at ORNL.^6 The magnetic circuit can be configured for creating both flat-β (volume) and conventional minimum-β (surface) resonance conditions. Direct comparisons of the performance of the two source types can be made under similar operating conditions. In this paper, we clearly demonstrate that the flat-β source outperforms its minimum-β counterpart in terms of charge state distribution and intensity within a particular charge state. ^1bilheuxhn@ornl.gov ^2Managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. ^3G.D. Alton, D.N. Smithe, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65 (1994) 775. ^4G.D. Alton et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69 (1998) 2305. ^5Z.Q. Xie, C.M. Lyneis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66 (1995) 4218. ^6Y. Liu et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69 (1998) 1311.

  5. Analysis of low energy neutral hydrogen fluxes using an electron cyclotron resonance heated discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    This dissertation describes the design, construction, and proof-of-principle verification of a neutral hydrogen flux detection system, based on an ECRH discharge as the neutral flux ionizer. The significant features of the ionizer are its small size and simultaneous excitation of the ECRH mode using a 30 MHz RF driver and relatively small static magnetic fields. Demonstrated is the ability of the ECRH ionizer to ionize ∼ 900 eV neutral hydrogen fluxes with subsequent detection in a high resolution energy analyzer. A versatile calibration technique is applied to determine the ionizer efficiency, which additionally gives a variety of elastic scattering and charge exchange cross section results. Also described are the details of a new low energy beam-target interaction research facility, along with the basic techniques required to calibrate many of the system components. The facility has potential applications in areas such as fundamental cross section measurement, plasma diagnostics, beam-plasma interactions, and further beam-target research. 111 refs., 82 figs

  6. Molecular and negative ion production by a standard electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, R. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Bem ter 18/c, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4010 Debrecen (Hungary); Biri, S.; Juhasz, Z.; Sulik, B. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Bem ter 18/c, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Palinkas, J. [University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4010 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2012-02-15

    Molecular and negative ion beams, usually produced in special ion sources, play an increasingly important role in fundamental and applied atomic physics. The ATOMKI-ECRIS is a standard ECR ion source, designed to provide highly charged ion (HCI) plasmas and beams. In the present work, H{sup -}, O{sup -}, OH{sup -}, O{sub 2}{sup -}, C{sup -}, C{sub 60}{sup -} negative ions and H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +}, OH{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, H{sub 3}O{sup +}, O{sub 2}{sup +} positive molecular ions were generated in this HCI-ECRIS. Without any major modification in the source and without any commonly applied tricks (such as usage of cesium or magnetic filter), negative ion beams of several {mu}A and positive molecular ion beams in the mA range were successfully obtained.

  7. Plasma cleaning and analysis of archeological artefacts from Sipán

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saettone, E. A. O.; da Matta, J. A. S.; Alva, W.; Chubaci, J. F. O.; Fantini, M. C. A.; Galvão, R. M. O.; Kiyohara, P.; Tabacniks, M. H.

    2003-04-01

    A novel procedure using plasma sputtering in an electron-cyclotron-resonance device has been applied to clean archeological MOCHE artefacts, unearthed at the Royal Tombs of Sipán. After successful cleaning, the pieces were analysed by a variety of complementary techniques, namely proton-induced x-ray emission, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. With these techniques, it has been possible to not only determine the profiles of the gold and silver surface layers, but also to detect elements that may be relevant to explain the gilding techniques skillfully developed by the metal smiths of the MOCHE culture.

  8. Development status of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS). Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakhary, S G [Ion Sources and Accelerators Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The present review provides a very brief introduction of the historical development of this recent trend type of ion sources. There are two main types of this source which use the microwave power (2.45 up to 20 GHz). ECR ion sources that can generate substantial currents of very high charge state ions ( for example ions of U with charge state +39, with intensities of a few hundred nano amperes for injection directly into cyclotrons or synchrotrons), and the microwave sources that can generate currents (100-500 mA) for ion implanters and accelerator injectors. In this work, the theory of the microwave discharge and influence of resonance on increasing the power density consumed by the discharge are studied. The power density consumed by the discharge is found to increase with increase of number of electrons in the discharge, and decreases with increase of discharge pressure. The description of the main components and factors affecting the design of the source are declared. Also the factors enhancing source performance such as: plasma cooling by the addition of light ions which absorb energy from the heavy ions thereby increasing the lifetime of the heavy ions, and increasing the extent of highly charged ions. Injection of electrons into the discharge increases the extracted ion current, and the decrease of the magnetic field in the extraction region decreases the beam emittance. 12 figs.

  9. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source(ECRIS) at ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    Lindroos, M

    2002-01-01

    The development of an efficient charge breeding scheme for the next generation of RIB facilities will have a strong impact on the post-accelerator for several Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) projects at European large scale facilities. At ISOLDE/CERN there will be the unique possibility to carry out experiments with the two possible charge breeding set-ups with a large variety of radioactive isotopes using identical injection conditions. One charge breeding set-up is the Penning trap/EBIS combination which feeds the REX-ISOLDE linear accelerator and which is in commissioning now. The second charge breeder is a new ECRIS PHOENIX developed at the ISN ion source laboratory at Grenoble. This ECRIS is now under investigation with a 14 GHz amplifier to characterize its performance. The experiments are accompanied by theoretical studies in computer simulations in order to optimize the capture of the ions in the ECRIS plasma. A second identical PHOENIX ECRIS which is under investigation at the Daresbury Laboratory is avai...

  10. Computer simulations of upper-hybrid and electron cyclotron resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, A.T.; Lin, C.C.

    1983-01-01

    A 2 1/2 -dimensional relativistic electromagnetic particle code is used to investigate the dynamic behavior of electron heating around the electron cyclotron and upper-hybrid layers when an extraordinary wave is obliquely launched from the high-field side into a magnetized plasma. With a large angle of incidence most of the radiation wave energy converts into electrostatic electron Bernstein waves at the upper-hybrid layer. These mode-converted waves propagate back to the cyclotron layer and deposit their energy in the electrons through resonant interactions dominated first by the Doppler broadening and later by the relativistic mass correction. The line shape for both mechanisms has been observed in the simulations. At a later stage, the relativistic resonance effects shift the peak of the temperature profile to the high-field side. The heating ultimately causes the extraordinary wave to be substantially absorbed by the high-energy electrons. The steep temperature gradient created by the electron cyclotron heating eventually reflects a substantial part of the incident wave energy. The diamagnetic effects due to the gradient of the mode-converted Bernstein wave pressure enhance the spreading of the electron heating from the original electron cyclotron layer

  11. Performance and operation of advanced superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL at 24 GHza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. W.; Lu, W.; Zhang, X. Z.; Feng, Y. C.; Guo, J. W.; Cao, Y.; Li, J. Y.; Guo, X. H.; Sha, S.; Sun, L. T.; Xie, D. Z.

    2012-02-01

    SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) ion source has been in routine operation for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) accelerator complex since May 2007. To further enhance the SECRAL performance in order to satisfy the increasing demand for intensive highly charged ion beams, 3-5 kW high power 24 GHz single frequency and 24 GHz +18 GHz double frequency with an aluminum plasma chamber were tested, and some exciting results were produced with quite a few new record highly charged ion beam intensities, such as 129Xe35+ of 64 eμA, 129Xe42+ of 3 eμA, 209Bi41+ of 50 eμA, 209Bi50+ of 4.3 eμA and 209Bi54+ of 0.2 eμA. In most cases SECRAL is operated at 18 GHz to deliver highly charged heavy ion beams for the HIRFL accelerator, only for those very high charge states and very heavy ion beams such as 209Bi36+ and 209Bi41+, SECRAL has been operated at 24 GHz. The total operation beam time provided by SECRAL up to July 2011 has exceeded 7720 hours. In this paper, the latest performance, development, and operation status of SECRAL ion source are presented. The latest results and reliable long-term operation for the HIRFL accelerator have demonstrated that SECRAL performance for production of highly charged heavy ion beams remains improving at higher RF power with optimized tuning.

  12. Performance and operation of advanced superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source SECRAL at 24 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H. W.; Zhang, X. Z.; Feng, Y. C.; Guo, J. W.; Li, J. Y.; Guo, X. H.; Sha, S.; Sun, L. T.; Xie, D. Z.; Lu, W.; Cao, Y.

    2012-01-01

    SECRAL (superconducting ECR ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou) ion source has been in routine operation for Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) accelerator complex since May 2007. To further enhance the SECRAL performance in order to satisfy the increasing demand for intensive highly charged ion beams, 3-5 kW high power 24 GHz single frequency and 24 GHz +18 GHz double frequency with an aluminum plasma chamber were tested, and some exciting results were produced with quite a few new record highly charged ion beam intensities, such as 129 Xe 35+ of 64 eμA, 129 Xe 42+ of 3 eμA, 209 Bi 41+ of 50 eμA, 209 Bi 50+ of 4.3 eμA and 209 Bi 54+ of 0.2 eμA. In most cases SECRAL is operated at 18 GHz to deliver highly charged heavy ion beams for the HIRFL accelerator, only for those very high charge states and very heavy ion beams such as 209 Bi 36+ and 209 Bi 41+ , SECRAL has been operated at 24 GHz. The total operation beam time provided by SECRAL up to July 2011 has exceeded 7720 hours. In this paper, the latest performance, development, and operation status of SECRAL ion source are presented. The latest results and reliable long-term operation for the HIRFL accelerator have demonstrated that SECRAL performance for production of highly charged heavy ion beams remains improving at higher RF power with optimized tuning.

  13. Influence of Microwave Power on the Properties of Hydrogenated Diamond-Like Carbon Films Prepared by ECR Plasma Enhanced DC Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ru Lili; Huang Jianjun; Gao Liang; Qi Bing

    2010-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma was applied to enhance the direct current magnetron sputtering to prepare hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (H-DLC) films. For different microwave powers, both argon and hydrogen gas are introduced separately as the ECR working gas to investigate the influence of microwave power on the microstructure and electrical property of the H-DLC films deposited on P-type silicon substrates. A series of characterization methods including the Raman spectrum and atomic force microscopy are used. Results show that, within a certain range, the increase in microwave power affects the properties of the thin films, namely the sp 3 ratio, the hardness, the nanoparticle size and the resistivity all increase while the roughness decreases with the increase in microwave power. The maximum of resistivity amounts to 1.1 x 10 9 Ω · cm. At the same time it is found that the influence of microwave power on the properties of H-DLC films is more pronounced when argon gas is applied as the ECR working gas, compared to hydrogen gas.

  14. Novel magnetic controlled plasma sputtering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelevich, A.; Rabinovich, E.; Golan, G.

    1996-01-01

    A novel method to improve thin film vacuum sputtering is presented. This method is capable of controlling the sputtering plasma via an external set of magnets, in a similar fashion to the tetrode sputtering method. The main advantage of the Magnetic Controlled Plasma Sputtering (MCPS) is its ability to independently control all deposition parameters without any interference or cross-talk. Deposition rate, using the MCPS, is found to be almost twice the rate of triode and tetrode sputtering techniques. Experimental results using the MCPS to deposit Ni layers are described. It was demonstrated that using the MCPS method the ion beam intensity at the target is a result of the interaction of a homogeneous external magnetic field and the controlling magnetic fields. The MCPS method was therefore found to be beneficial for the production of pure stoichiometric thin solid films with high reproducibility. This method could be used for the production of compound thin films as well. (authors)

  15. Microwave measurement test results of circular waveguide components for electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) of the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.W.; Rubert, R.R.; Coffield, F.E.; Felker, B.; Stallard, B.W.; Taska, J.

    1983-01-01

    Development of high-power components for electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) applications requires extensive testing. In this paper we describe the high-power testing of various circular waveguide components designed for application on the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U). These include a 2.5-in. vacuum valve, polarizing reflectors, directional couplers, mode converters, and flexible waveguides. All of these components were tested to 200 kW power level with 40-ms pulses. Cold tests were used to determine field distribution. The techniques used in these tests are illustrated. The new high-power test facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described and test procedures are discussed. We discuss the following test results: efficiency at high power of mode converters, comparison of high power vs low power for waveguide components, and full power tests of the waveguide system. We also explain the reasons behind selection of these systems for use on TMX-U

  16. Characterization and modelling of microwave multi dipole plasmas. Application to multi dipolar plasma assisted sputtering; Caracterization et modelisation des plasmas micro-onde multi-dipolaires. Application a la pulverisation assistee par plasma multi-dipolaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Tan Vinh [Universite Joseph Fourier/CNRS-IN2P3, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    The scaling up of plasma processes in the low pressure range remains a question to be solved for their rise at the industrial level. One solution is the uniform distribution of elementary plasma sources where the plasma is produced via electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) coupling. These elementary plasma sources are made up of a cylindrical permanent magnet (magnetic dipole) set at the end of a coaxial microwave line. Although of simple concept, the optimisation of these dipolar plasma sources is in fact a complex problem. It requires the knowledge, on one hand, of the configurations of static magnetic fields and microwave electric fields, and, on the other hand, of the mechanisms of plasma production in the region of high intensity magnetic field (ECR condition), and of plasma diffusion. Therefore, the experimental characterisation of the operating ranges and plasma parameters has been performed by Langmuir probes and optical emission spectroscopy on different configurations of dipolar sources. At the same time, in a first analytical approach, calculations have been made on simple magnetic field configurations, motion and trajectory of electrons in these magnetic fields, and the acceleration of electrons by ECR coupling. Then, the results have been used for the validation of the numerical modelling of the electron trajectories by using a hybrid PIC (particle-in-cell) / MC (Monte Carlo) method. The experimental study has evidenced large operating domains, between 15 and 200 W of microwave power, and from 0.5 to 15 mTorr argon pressure. The analysis of plasma parameters has shown that the region of ECR coupling is localised near the equatorial plane of the magnet and dependent on magnet geometry. These characterizations, applied to a cylindrical reactor using 48 sources, have shown that densities between 10{sup 11} and 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} could be achieved in the central part of the volume at a few mTorr argon pressures. The modelling of electron trajectories near

  17. Cold plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.

    1990-01-01

    This textbook discusses the following topics: Phenomenological description of a direct current glow discharge; the plasma (temperature distribution and measurement, potential variation, electron energy distribution function, charge neutralization, wall potentials, plasma oscillations); Production of charge carriers (ions, electrons, ionization in the cathode zone, negative glowing zone, Faraday dark space, positive column, anode zone, hollow cathode discharges); RF-discharges (charge carrier production, RF-Shields, scattering mechanisms); Sputtering (ion-surface interaction, kinetics, sputtering yield and energy distribution, systems and conditions, film formation and stresses, contamination, bias techniques, multicomponent film deposition, cohesion, magnetrons, triode systems, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition); Dry etching (sputter etching, reactive etching, topography, process control, quantitative investigations); Etching mechanisms (etching of Si and SiO 2 with CF 4 , of III/V-compound-semiconductors, combination of isotrope and anisotrope etching methods, surface cleaning); ion beam systems (applications, etching); Dyclotron-resonance-systems (electron cyclotron resonance systems, whistler-sources and 'resonant inductive plasma etching'); Appendix (electron energy distribution functions, Bohm's transition zone, plasma oscillations, scattering cross sections and mean free path, metastable states, Child-Langmuir-Schottky equation, loss mechanisms, charge carrier distribution in the positive column, breakdown at high frequencies, motion in a magnetic field, skin depth of an electric field for a HF-discharge, whistler waves, dispersion relations for plane wave propagation). (orig.) With 138 figs

  18. Low Temperature (180°C Growth of Smooth Surface Germanium Epilayers on Silicon Substrates Using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng-Hsiang Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new method to grow thin germanium (Ge epilayers (40 nm on c-Si substrates at a low growth temperature of 180°C using electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECR-CVD process. The full width at half maximum (FWHM of the Ge (004 in X-ray diffraction pattern and the compressive stain in a Ge epilayer of 683 arcsec and 0.12% can be achieved. Moreover, the Ge/Si interface is observed by transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate the epitaxial growth of Ge on Si and the surface roughness is 0.342 nm. The thin-thickness and smooth surface of Ge epilayer grown on Si in this study is suitable to be a virtual substrate for developing the low cost and high efficiency III-V/Si tandem solar cells in our opinion. Furthermore, the low temperature process can not only decrease costs but can also reduce the restriction of high temperature processes on device manufacturing.

  19. Optimizing C4+ and C5+ beams of the Kei2 electron cyclotron resonance ion source using a special gas-mixing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drentje, A.G.; Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.

    2006-01-01

    With the prototype electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the next carbon therapy facility in Japan a series of measurements has been performed in order (a) to find the best condition for producing high beam currents of C 4+ ions, and (b) to study the effect of 'special' gas mixing by using a chemical compound as a feed gas. The effect would then appear as an increase in high charge state production in this case of C 5+ ions. In 'regular' gas-mixing experiments it is well known that an isotopic phenomenon occurs: a heavier isotope of the mixing gas is increasing the production of high charge states of the beam gas ions. A similar isotopic effect has been found in the present experiment: with deuterated methane (CD 4 gas) the C 5+ beam currents are about 10% higher than with regular methane (CH 4 gas). The 'mixing-gas' ratio D (or H) to C can be decreased by choosing, e.g., butane gas; in this case the isotopic effect for C 5+ production is even stronger (>15%). For production of C 4+ ions the isotopic effect appears to be absent. Clearly this is related to the much easier production. It turns out that the relative amount of carbon is much more important: butane gives about 10% higher C 4+ -ion currents than methane

  20. Strong band edge luminescence from InN films grown on Si substrates by electron cyclotron resonance-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yodo, Tokuo; Yona, Hiroaki; Ando, Hironori; Nosei, Daiki; Harada, Yoshiyuki

    2002-01-01

    We observed strong band edge luminescence at 8.5-200 K from 200-880 nm thick InN films grown on 10 nm thick InN buffer layers on Si(001) and Si(111) substrates by electron cyclotron resonance-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The InN film on the Si(001) substrate exhibited strong band edge photoluminescence (PL) emission at 1.814 eV at 8.5 K, tentatively assigned as donor to acceptor pair [DAP (α-InN)] emission from wurtzite-InN (α-InN) crystal grains, while those on Si(111) showed other stronger band edge PL emissions at 1.880, 2.081 and 2.156 eV, tentatively assigned as donor bound exciton [D 0 X(α-InN)] from α-InN grains, DAP (β-InN) and D 0 X (β-InN) emissions from zinc blende-InN (β-InN) grains, respectively

  1. Effect of electrode for producing the highly charged heavy ions from RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Tetsuro; Nakagawa, Takahide; Kidera, Masanori

    1999-01-01

    We successfully produced the intense beam of highly charged Kr ions using an electrode. Under the pulsed mode operation, we found that the depth of the plasma potential dip strongly depends on the duration of the microwave and takes about 40 ms to reach the equilibrium state. Taking these results into account, we compared the beam intensities of highly charged Kr ions with and without the use of an electrode under the pulsed mode operation. We observed that the density of highly charged Kr ions and ion confinement time increase with increasing mirror magnetic field strength. The plasma potential dip becomes shallower with insertion of the electrode. Consequently, when we increase the mirror magnetic field strength and insert the electrode into the plasma, the beam intensities of highly charged ions increase. (author)

  2. Experimental study and simulation of the extraction conditions of a multicharged ion beam from an electron cyclotron resonance source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandin, J.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis concerns the beam extraction studies of ECR Ion Sources for the SPIRAL project at GANIL (France). The optical properties (i.e. the emittances) of the radioactive ion beam production source is a crucial point in this project. We performed emittance measurements with a very high transport efficiency and developed a computer code for simulating the extraction and transport conditions. This simulation takes into account all the parameters acting on the extraction process: the characteristics of the ions and electrons emitted by the plasma, their space and energy distributions, the space charge, the magnetic filed of the source and the accelerating electric field. We explained the evolution of the emittances for two different types of ECR Ion Source. The simulation-experiment comparison showed us that the magnetic field and the intrinsic energy of the ions seem to be the most important parameters for explaining the overall emittance behaviour of the ECRIS. We precise their values and comment them. (author)

  3. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source for high currents of mono- and multicharged ion and general purpose unlimited lifetime application on implantation devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieth, C.; Bouly, J. L.; Curdy, J. C.; Kantas, S.; Sortais, P.; Sole, P.; Vieux-Rochaz, J. L.

    2000-02-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources were originally developed for high energy physic applications. They are used as injectors on linear accelerators and cyclotrons to further increase the particle energy via high charge state ions. This ECR technology is well suited for sources placed on a high voltage platform where ac power available is limited by insulated transformers. The PANTECHNIK family of ion source with its wide range of ion beam (various charge states with various beam currents) offers new possibilities and perspectives in the field of ion implantation. In addition to all these possibilities, the PANTECHNIK ion sources have many other advantages like: a very long lifetime without maintenance expense, good stability, efficiency of ionization close to 100% (this improves the lifetime of the pumping system and other equipment), the possibility of producing ion beams with different energies, and a very good reproducibility. The main characteristics of sources like Nanogan or SuperNanogan will be recalled. We will especially present the results obtained with the new Microgan 10 GHz source that can be optimized for the production of high currents of monocharged ion, including reactive gas like BF3 (2 mA e of B+) or medium currents of low charge state like 0.5 mA e of Ar4+. The latest results obtained with Microgan 10 GHz show that it is possible to drive the source up to 30 mA e of total current, with an emittance of 150 π mm mrad at 40 kV and also to maintain the production of multicharged ions like Ar8+.

  4. Advanced light ion source extraction system for a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source geometry at Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delferriere, O.; Gobin, R.; Harrault, F.; Nyckees, S.; Sauce, Y.; Tuske, O. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU, 91191 Gif/Yvette (France)

    2012-02-15

    One of the main goal of intense light ion injector projects such as IPHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2, is to produce high current beams while keeping transverse emittance as low as possible. To prevent emittance growth induced in a dual solenoid low energy transfer line, its length has to be minimized. This can be performed with the advanced light ion source extraction system concept that we are developing: a new ECR 2.45 GHz type ion source based on the use of an additional low energy beam transport (LEBT) short length solenoid close to the extraction aperture to create the resonance in the plasma chamber. The geometry of the source has been considerably modified to allow easy maintenance of each component and to save space in front of the extraction. The source aims to be very flexible and to be able to extract high current ion beams at energy up to 100 kV. A specific experimental setup for this source is under installation on the BETSI test bench, to compare its performances with sources developed up to now in the laboratory, such as SILHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2 ECR sources. This original extraction source concept is presented, as well as electromagnetic simulations with OPERA-2D code. Ion beam extraction in space charge compensation regime with AXCEL, and beam dynamics simulation with SOLMAXP codes show the beam quality improvement at the end of the LEBT.

  5. Effect of minimum strength of mirror magnetic field (Bmin) on production of highly charged heavy ions from RIKEN liquid-He-free super conducting electron-cyclotron resonance ion source (RAMSES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Hideyuki; Imanaka, Masashi; Lee, S.-M.Sang-Moo; Higurashi, Yoshihide; Nakagawa, Takahide; Kidera, Masanori; Kageyama, Tadashi; Kase, Masayuki; Yano, Yasushige; Aihara, Toshimitsu

    2002-01-01

    We measured the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions (O, Ar and Kr ions) as a function of the minimum strength of mirror magnetic field (B min ) of the RIKEN liquid-He-free super conducting electron-cyclotron resonance ion source. In this experiment, we found that the optimum value of B min exists to maximize the beam intensity of highly charged heavy ions and the value was almost the same (∼0.49 T) for various charge state heavy ions

  6. Determination of electromagnetic modes in oversized corrugated waveguides on the electron cyclotron resonance heating installation at the tokamak Tore Supra; Determination de modes electromagnetiques de guides d'ondes corrugues surdimensionnes sur l'installation de chauffage des electrons de tokamak Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, L

    2001-03-09

    Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in the Tore Supra tokamak constitutes an important step in the research aimed at obtaining thermonuclear fusion reactions. Electron heating is achieved by transmitting an electromagnetic wave from the oscillators (gyrotrons) to the plasma via the fundamental mode, propagating in oversized corrugated waveguides. Maximizing the proportion of the gyrotron power coupled to the fundamental waveguide mode is essential for the good functioning of the transmission line and for maximizing the effect on the plasma. This thesis gives all necessary tools for finding the proportion of the fundamental mode and all other modes present in passive components and at the output of the gyrotron as installed in the Tore Supra ECRH plant. This characterisation is based on obtaining amplitude and phase diagrams of the electric field on a plane transverse to the propagation axis. The most difficult part of obtaining these diagrams is measuring the phase which, despite the very short wavelength, is measured directly at low power levels. At high power levels the phase is numerically reconstructed from amplitude measurements for gyrotron characterisation. A complete theoretical study of the phase reconstruction code is given including its validation with theoretical diagrams. This study allows the realisation of a modal characterisation unit electromagnetic for measurement of radiated beams and usable in each part of the ECRH installation. At the end, the complete modal characterisation is given at low level for a mode converter and also at high level for the first series gyrotron installed at TORE SUPRA. (author)

  7. Biomimetic architectures by plasma processing fabrication and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chattopadhyay, Surojit

    2014-01-01

    Photonic structures in the animal kingdom: valuable inspirations for bio-mimetic applications. Moth eye-type anti-reflecting nanostructures by an electron cyclotron resonance plasma. Plasma-processed biomimetic nano/microstructures. Wetting properties of natural and plasma processed biomimetic surfaces. Biomimetic superhydrophobic surface by plasma processing. Biomimetic interfaces of plasma modified titanium alloy.

  8. Dust cloud evolution in sub-stellar atmospheres via plasma deposition and plasma sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, C. R.; Diver, D. A.

    2018-04-01

    Context. In contemporary sub-stellar model atmospheres, dust growth occurs through neutral gas-phase surface chemistry. Recently, there has been a growing body of theoretical and observational evidence suggesting that ionisation processes can also occur. As a result, atmospheres are populated by regions composed of plasma, gas and dust, and the consequent influence of plasma processes on dust evolution is enhanced. Aim. This paper aims to introduce a new model of dust growth and destruction in sub-stellar atmospheres via plasma deposition and plasma sputtering. Methods: Using example sub-stellar atmospheres from DRIFT-PHOENIX, we have compared plasma deposition and sputtering timescales to those from neutral gas-phase surface chemistry to ascertain their regimes of influence. We calculated the plasma sputtering yield and discuss the circumstances where plasma sputtering dominates over deposition. Results: Within the highest dust density cloud regions, plasma deposition and sputtering dominates over neutral gas-phase surface chemistry if the degree of ionisation is ≳10-4. Loosely bound grains with surface binding energies of the order of 0.1-1 eV are susceptible to destruction through plasma sputtering for feasible degrees of ionisation and electron temperatures; whereas, strong crystalline grains with binding energies of the order 10 eV are resistant to sputtering. Conclusions: The mathematical framework outlined sets the foundation for the inclusion of plasma deposition and plasma sputtering in global dust cloud formation models of sub-stellar atmospheres.

  9. The compressional Alfven instability in ECRH plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Nadi, A.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that the hot electron component present in an electron cyclotron resonance heated plasma can destabilize the compressional Alfven wave if β of the background plasma exceeds a certain limit. The relevance of the result to the Elmo Bumpy Torus experiment is discussed. (author)

  10. Spatiotemporal synchronization of drift waves in a magnetron sputtering plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martines, E.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Adámek, Jiří; Antoni, V.; Serianni, G.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 10 (2014), s. 102309-102309 ISSN 1070-664X Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Drift waves * Magnetron sputtering plasma * Spatiotemporal synchronization Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.142, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4898693

  11. Plasma diagnostics during magnetron sputtering of aluminum doped zinc oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Crovetto, Andrea; Sanna, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Plasma parameters during magnetron sputtering of aluminum-doped zinc oxide are investigated with optical emission spectroscopy, electrostatic probes and mass spectrometry with the aim of understanding the role of negative ions of oxygen during the film growth and improving the uniformity of the f......Plasma parameters during magnetron sputtering of aluminum-doped zinc oxide are investigated with optical emission spectroscopy, electrostatic probes and mass spectrometry with the aim of understanding the role of negative ions of oxygen during the film growth and improving the uniformity...

  12. Dependence of plasma characteristics on dc magnetron sputter parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.Z.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma discharge characteristics of a dc magnetron system were measured by a single Langmuir probe at the center axis of the dual-side process chamber. Plasma potential, floating potential, electron and ion densities, and electron temperature were extracted with varying dc power and gas pressure during sputter deposition of a metal target; strong correlations were shown between these plasma parameters and the sputter parameters. The electron density was controlled mostly by secondary electron generation in constant power mode, while plasma potential reflects the confinement space variation due to change of discharge voltage. When discharge pressure was varied, plasma density increases with the increased amount of free stock molecules, while electron temperature inversely decreased, due to energy-loss collision events. In low-pressure discharges, the electron energy distribution function measurements show more distinctive bi-Maxwellian distribution, with the fast electron temperature gradually decreases with increased gas pressure

  13. Plasma properties of RF magnetron sputtering system using Zn target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafarizal, N.; Andreas Albert, A. R.; Sharifah Amirah, A. S.; Salwa, O.; Riyaz Ahmad, M. A. [Microelectronic and Nanotechnology - Shamsuddin Research Centre (MiNT-SRC), Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2012-06-29

    In the present work, we investigate the fundamental properties of magnetron sputtering plasma using Zn target and its deposited Zn thin film. The magnetron sputtering plasma was produced using radio frequency (RF) power supply and Argon (Ar) as ambient gas. A Langmuir probe was used to collect the current from the plasma and from the current intensity, we calculate the electron density and electron temperature. The properties of Zn sputtering plasma at various discharge conditions were studied. At the RF power ranging from 20 to 100 W and gas pressure 5 mTorr, we found that the electron temperature was almost unchanged between 2-2.5 eV. On the other hand, the electron temperature increased drastically from 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} to 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm{sup -3} when the discharge gas pressure increased from 5 to 10 mTorr. The electron microscope images show that the grain size of Zn thin film increase when the discharge power is increased. This may be due to the enhancement of plasma density and sputtered Zn density.

  14. Low pressure plasmas and microstructuring technology

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    A monograph that presents a perspective of gas discharge physics and its applications to various industries. It presents an overview of the different types to generate plasmas by DC discharges, capacitive and inductive radiofrequency coupling, helicon waves including electron cyclotron resonance, and ion beams.

  15. Characterization of atomic oxygen from an ECR plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M; Bhoraskar, V N; Mandale, A B; Sainkar, S R; Bhoraskar, S V

    2002-01-01

    A low-power microwave-assisted electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma system is shown to be a powerful and effective source of atomic oxygen (AO) useful in material processing. A 2.45 GHz microwave source with maximum power of 600 W was launched into the cavity to generate the ECR plasma. A catalytic nickel probe was used to determine the density of AO. The density of AO is studied as a function of pressure and axial position of the probe in the plasma chamber. It was found to vary from ∼1x10 20 to ∼10x10 20 atom m -3 as the plasma pressure was varied from 0.8 to 10 mTorr. The effect of AO in oxidation of silver is investigated by gravimetric analysis. The stoichiometric properties of the oxide are studied using the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as well as energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The degradation of the silver surface due to sputtering effect was viewed by scanning electron spectroscopy. The sputtering yield of oxygen ions in the plasma is calculated using the TRIM code. The effects of plasma pressure and the distance from the ECR zone on the AO density were also investigated. The density of AO measured by oxidation of silver is in good agreement with results obtained from the catalytic nickel probe

  16. Characterization of atomic oxygen from an ECR plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, M.; Bhoraskar, V. N.; Mandale, A. B.; Sainkar, S. R.; Bhoraskar, S. V.

    2002-11-01

    A low-power microwave-assisted electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma system is shown to be a powerful and effective source of atomic oxygen (AO) useful in material processing. A 2.45 GHz microwave source with maximum power of 600 W was launched into the cavity to generate the ECR plasma. A catalytic nickel probe was used to determine the density of AO. The density of AO is studied as a function of pressure and axial position of the probe in the plasma chamber. It was found to vary from ~1×1020 to ~10×1020 atom m-3 as the plasma pressure was varied from 0.8 to 10 mTorr. The effect of AO in oxidation of silver is investigated by gravimetric analysis. The stoichiometric properties of the oxide are studied using the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as well as energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The degradation of the silver surface due to sputtering effect was viewed by scanning electron spectroscopy. The sputtering yield of oxygen ions in the plasma is calculated using the TRIM code. The effects of plasma pressure and the distance from the ECR zone on the AO density were also investigated. The density of AO measured by oxidation of silver is in good agreement with results obtained from the catalytic nickel probe.

  17. Characterization of atomic oxygen from an ECR plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naddaf, M [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Solid State Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Bhoraskar, V N [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Solid State Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Mandale, A B [National Chemical Laboratory, Pashan, Pune 411008 (India); Sainkar, S R [National Chemical Laboratory, Pashan, Pune 411008 (India); Bhoraskar, S V [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Solid State Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2002-11-01

    A low-power microwave-assisted electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma system is shown to be a powerful and effective source of atomic oxygen (AO) useful in material processing. A 2.45 GHz microwave source with maximum power of 600 W was launched into the cavity to generate the ECR plasma. A catalytic nickel probe was used to determine the density of AO. The density of AO is studied as a function of pressure and axial position of the probe in the plasma chamber. It was found to vary from {approx}1x10{sup 20} to {approx}10x10{sup 20} atom m{sup -3} as the plasma pressure was varied from 0.8 to 10 mTorr. The effect of AO in oxidation of silver is investigated by gravimetric analysis. The stoichiometric properties of the oxide are studied using the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as well as energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The degradation of the silver surface due to sputtering effect was viewed by scanning electron spectroscopy. The sputtering yield of oxygen ions in the plasma is calculated using the TRIM code. The effects of plasma pressure and the distance from the ECR zone on the AO density were also investigated. The density of AO measured by oxidation of silver is in good agreement with results obtained from the catalytic nickel probe.

  18. Biopolymer nanostructures induced by plasma irradiation and metal sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slepička, P., E-mail: petr.slepicka@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Juřík, P. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Malinský, P.; Macková, A. [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rez, Prague 25068 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Science, J.E. Purkyně University, Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Kasálková, N. Slepičková; Švorčík, V. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-01

    Modification based on polymer surface exposure to plasma treatment exhibits an easy and cheap technique for polymer surface nanostructuring. The influence of argon plasma treatment on biopolymer poly(L-lactide acid (PLLA) will be presented in this paper. The combination of Ar{sup +} ion irradiation, consequent sputter metallization (platinum) and thermal annealing of polymer surface will be summarized. The surface morphology was studied using atomic force microscopy. The Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy were used as analytical methods. The combination of plasma treatment with consequent thermal annealing and/or metal sputtering led to the change of surface morphology and its elemental ratio. The surface roughness and composition has been strongly influenced by the modification parameters and metal layer thickness. By plasma treatment of polymer surface combined with consequent annealing or metal deposition can be prepared materials applicable both in tissue engineering as cell carriers, but also in integrated circuit manufacturing.

  19. Arc generation from sputtering plasma-dielectric inclusion interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickersham, C.E. Jr.; Poole, J.E.; Fan, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Arcing during sputter deposition and etching is a significant cause of particle defect generation during device fabrication. In this article we report on the effect of aluminum oxide inclusion size, shape, and orientation on the propensity for arcing during sputtering of aluminum targets. The size, shape, and orientation of a dielectric inclusion plays a major role in determining the propensity for arcing and macroparticle emission. In previous studies we found that there is a critical inclusion size required for arcing to occur. In this article we used high-speed videos, electric arc detection, and measurements of particle defect density on wafers to study the effect of Al 2 O 3 inclusion size, shape, and orientation on arc rate, intensity, and silicon wafer particle defect density. We found that the cross-sectional area of the inclusion exposed to the sputtering plasma is the critical parameter that determines the arc rate and rate of macroparticle emission. Analysis of the arc rate, particle defect density, and the intensity of the optical emission from the arcing plasma indicates that the critical aluminum oxide inclusion area for arcing is 0.22±0.1 mm2 when the sputtering plasma sheath dark-space λ d , is 0.51 mm. Inclusions with areas greater than this critical value readily induce arcing and macroparticle ejection during sputtering. Inclusions below this critical size do not cause arcing or macroparticle ejection. When the inclusion major axis is longer than 2λ d and lies perpendicular to the sputter erosion track tangent, the arcing activity increases significantly over the case where the inclusion major axis lies parallel to the erosion track tangent

  20. A Plasma Lens for Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Andre; Brown, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    A plasma lens, consisting of a solenoid and potential-defining ring electrodes, has been placed between a magnetron and substrates to be coated. Photography reveals qualitative information on excitation, ionization, and the transport of plasma to the substrate.

  1. Measurements of sputtering yields for low-energy plasma ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, M.; Yamada, M.; Suckewer, S.; Rosengaus, E.

    1979-04-01

    Sputtering yields of various wall/limiter materials of fusion devices have been extensively measured in the relevant plasma environment for low-energy light ions (E 14 cm -3 and electron temperature up to 10eV. Target materials used were C (graphite), Ti, Mo, Ta, W, and Fe (stainless steel). In order to study the dependence of the sputtering yields on the incident energy of ions, the target samples were held at negative bias voltage up to 300V. The sputtering yields were determined by a weight-loss method and by spectral line intensity measurements. The data obtained in the present experiment agree well with those previously obtained at the higher energies (E greater than or equal to 200eV) by other authors using different schemes; the present data also extend to substantially lower energies (E approx. > 30eV) than hitherto

  2. Wall conditioning of the TBR-1 Tokamak by plasma generated by microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizondo, J.I.

    1986-01-01

    A new system of vaccum chamber wall conditioning in the TBR-1 Tokamak, using electron cyclotron resonance plasma of hydrogen for the discharge cleaning process is presented. The construction and performance of equipments are described, and the cleaning process to otimize the conditioning efficiency by chase of plasma parameters. (author) [pt

  3. Major results from the first plasma campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, R.C.; Ali, A.; Alonso, A.; Baldzuhn, J.; Beidler, C.; Beurskens, M.; Biedermann, C.; Bosch, H.S.; Bozhenkov, S.; Brakel, R.; Dinklage, A.; Feng, Y.; Fuchert, G.; Geiger, J.; Grulke, O.; Helander, P.; Hirsch, M.; Höfel, U.; Jakubowski, M.; Knauer, J.; Kocsis, G.; König, R.; Kornejew, P.; Kràmer-Flecken, A.; Krychowiak, M.; Landreman, M.; Langenberg, A.; Laqua, H. P.; Lazerson, S.; Maaßberg, H.; Marsen, S.; Marushchenko, M.; Moseev, D.; Niemann, H.; Pablant, N.; Pasch, E.; Rahbarnia, K.; Schlisio, G.; Stange, T.; Sunn Pedersen, T.; Svensson, J.; Szepesi, T.; Trimino Mora, H.; Turkin, Y.; Wauters, T.; Weir, G.; Wenzel, U.; Windisch, T.; Wurden, G.; Zhang, D.; Abramovic, I.; Äkàslompolo, S.; Aleynikov, P.; Aleynikova, K.; Alzbutas, R.; Anda, G.; Andreeva, T.; Ascasibar, E.; Assmann, J.; Baek, S. G.; Banduch, M.; Barbui, T.; Barlak, M.; Baumann, K.; Behr, W.; Benndorf, A.; Bertuch, O.; Biel, W.; Birus, D.; Blackwell, B.; Blanco, E.; Blatzheim, M.; Bluhm, T.; Böckenhoff, D.; Bolgert, P.; Borchardt, M.; Borsuk, V.; Boscary, J.; Böttger, L. G.; Brand, H.; Brandt, Ch; Bràuer, T.; Braune, H.; Brezinsek, S.; Brunner, K. J.; Brünner, B.; Burhenn, R.; Buttenschön, B.; Bykov, V.; Calvo, I.; Cannas, B.; Cappa, A.; Carls, A.; Carraro, L.; Carvalho, B.; Castejon, F.; Charl, A.; Chernyshev, F.; Cianciosa, M.; Citarella, R.; Ciupiński,; Claps, G.; Cole, M.; Cole, M. J.; Cordella, F.; Cseh, G.; Czarnecka, A.; Czermak, A.; Czerski, K.; Czerwinski, M.; Czymek, G.; Da Molin, A.; Da Silva, A.; Dammertz, G.; Danielson, J.; De La Pena, A.; Degenkolbe, S.; Denner, P.; Dhard, D. P.; Dostal, M.; Drevlak, M.; Drewelow, P.; Drews, Ph; Dudek, A.; Dundulis, G.; Durodie, F.; Van Eeten, P.; Effenberg, F.; Ehrke, G.; Endler, M.; Ennis, D.; Erckmann, E.; Esteban, H.; Estrada, T.; Fahrenkamp, N.; Feist, J. H.; Fellinger, J.; Fernandes, H.; Fietz, W. H.; Figacz, W.; Fontdecaba, J.; Ford, O.; Fornal, T.; Frerichs, H.; Freund, A.; Führer, M.; Funaba, T.; Galkowski, A.; Gantenbein, G.; Gao, Y.; García Regaña, J.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Gates, D.; Gawlik, G.; Geiger, B.; Giannella, V.; Gierse, N.; Gogoleva, A.; Goncalves, B.; Goriaev, A.; Gradic, D.; Grahl, M.; Green, J.; Grosman, A.; Grote, H.; Gruca, M.; Guerard, C.; Haiduk, L.; Han, X.; Harberts, F.; Harris, J. H.; Hartfuß, H. J.; Hartmann, D.; Hathiramani, D.; Hein, B.; Heinemann, B.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Henneberg, S.; Hennig, C.; Hernandez Sanchez, J.; Hidalgo, C.; Hölbe, H.; Hollfeld, K. P.; Hölting, A.; Höschen, D.; Houry, M.; Howard, J.; Huang, X.; Huber, M.; Huber, V.; Hunger, H.; Ida, K.; Ilkei, T.; Illy, S.; Israeli, B.; Ivanov, A.; Jablonski, S.; Jagielski, J.; Jelonnek, J.; Jenzsch, H.; Junghans, P.; Kacmarczyk, J.; Kaliatka, T.; Kallmeyer, J. P.; Kamionka, U.; Karalevicius, R.; Kasahara, H.; Kasparek, W.; Kenmochi, N.; Keunecke, M.; Khilchenko, A.; Kinna, D.; Kleiber, R.; Klinger, T.; Knaup, M.; Kobarg, Th; Köchl, F.; Kolesnichenko, Y.; Könies, A.; Köppen, M.; Koshurinov, J.; Koslowski, R.; Köster, F.; Koziol, R.; Krämer, M.; Krampitz, R.; Kraszewsk, P.; Krawczyk, N.; Kremeyer, T.; Krings, Th; Krom, J.; Krzesinski, G.; Ksiazek, I.; Kubkowska, M.; Kühner, G.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Kwak, S.; Lang, R.; Langish, S.; Laube, R.; Lechte, C.; Lennartz, M.; Leonhardt, W.; Lewerentz, L.; Liang, Y.; Linsmeier, Ch; Liu, S.; Lobsien, J. F.; Loesser, D.; Loizu Cisquella, J.; Lore, J.; Lorenz, A.; Losert, M.; Lubyako, L.; Lücke, A.; Lumsdaine, A.; Lutsenko, V.; Majano-Brown, J.; Marchuk, O.; Mardenfeld, M.; Marek, P.; Massidda, S.; Masuzaki, S.; Maurer, D.; McCarthy, K.; McNeely, P.; Meier, A.; Mellein, D.; Mendelevitch, B.; Mertens, Ph; Mikkelsen, D.; Mishchenko, O.; Missal, B.; Mittelstaedt, J.; Mizuuchi, T.; Mollen, A.; Moncada, V.; Mönnich, T.; Morizaki, T.; Munk, R.; Murakami, S.; Musielok, F.; Náfrádi, G.; Nagel, M.; Naujoks, D.; Neilson, H.; Neubauer, O.; Neuner, U.; Ngo, T.; Nocentini, R.; Nührenberg, C.; Nührenberg, J.; Obermayer, S.; Offermanns, G.; Ogawa, K.; Ongena, J.; Oosterbeek, J. W.; Orozco, G.; Otte, M.; Pacios Rodriguez, L.; Pan, W.; Panadero, N.; Panadero Alvarez, N.; Panin, A.; Papenfuß, D.; Paqay, S.; Pavone, A.; Pawelec, E.; Pelka, G.; Peng, X.; Perseo, V.; Peterson, B.; Pieper, A.; Pilopp, D.; Pingel, S.; Pisano, F.; Plaum, B.; Plunk, G.; Povilaitis, M.; Preinhaelter, J.; Proll, J.; Puiatti, M. E.; Puig Sitjes, A.; Purps, F.; Rack, M.; Récsei, S.; Reiman, A.; Reiter, D.; Remppel, F.; Renard, S.; Riedl, R.; Riemann, J.; Rimkevicius, S.; Riße, K.; Rodatos, A.; Röhlinger, H.; Romé, M.; Rong, P.; Roscher, H. J.; Roth, B.; Rudischhauser, L.; Rummel, K.; Rummel, T.; Runov, A.; Rust, N.; Ryc, L.; Ryosuke, S.; Sakamoto, R.; Samartsev, A.; Sanchez, M.; Sano, F.; Satake, S.; Satheeswaran, G.; Schacht, J.; Schauer, F.; Scherer, T.; Schlaich, A.; Schlüter, K. H.; Schmitt, J.; Schmitz, H.; Schmitz, O.; Schmuck, S.; Schneider, M.; Schneider, W.; Scholz, M.; Scholz, P.; Schrittwieser, R.; Schröder, M.; Schröder, T.; Schroeder, R.; Schumacher, H.; Schweer, B.; Shanahan, B.; Shikhovtsev, I. V.; Sibilia, M.; Sinha, P.; Siplià, S.; Skodzik, J.; Slaby, C.; Smith, H.; Spiess, W.; Spong, D. A.; Spring, A.; Stadler, R.; Standley, B.; Stephey, L.; Stoneking, M.; Stridde, U.; Sulek, Z.; Surko, C.; Suzuki, Y.; Szabó, V.; Szabolics, T.; Szökefalvi-Nagy, Z.; Tamura, N.; Terra, A.; Terry, J.; Thomas, J.; Thomsen, H.; Thumm, M.; Von Thun, C. P.; Timmermann, D.; Titus, P.; Toi, K.; Travere, J. M.; Traverso, P.; Tretter, J.; Tsuchiya, H.; Tsujimura, T.; Tulipán, S.; Turnyanskiy, M.; Unterberg, B.; Urban, J.; Urbonavicius, E.; Vakulchyk, I.; Valet, S.; Van Millingen, B.; Vela, L.; Velasco, J. L.; Vergote, M.; Vervier, M.; Vianello, N.; Viebke, H.; Vilbrandt, R.; Vorkörper, A.; Wadle, S.; Wagner, F.; Wang, E.; Wang, N.; Warmer, F.; Wegener, L.; Weggen, J.; Wei, Y.; Wendorf, J.; Werner, A.; Wiegel, B.; Wilde, F.; Winkler, E.; Winters, V.; Wolf, S.; Wolowski, J.; Wright, A.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Yamada, H.; Yamada, I.; Yasuhara, R.; Yokoyama, M.; Zajac, J.; Zarnstorff, M.; Zeitler, A.; Zhang, H.; Zhu, J.; Zilker, M.; Zimbal, A.; Zocco, A.; Zoletnik, S.; Zuin, M.

    2017-01-01

    After completing the main construction phase of Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and successfully commissioning the device, first plasma operation started at the end of 2015. Integral commissioning of plasma start-up and operation using electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and an extensive set of

  4. Heating in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canobbio, E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports on the 2nd Joint Grenoble-Varenna International Symposium on Heating in Toroidal Plasmas, held at Como, Italy, from the 3-12 September 1980. Important problems in relation to the different existing processes of heating. The plasma were identified and discussed. Among others, the main processes discussed were: a) neutral beam heating, b) ion-(electron)-cyclotron resonance heating, c) hybrid resonance and low frequency heating

  5. Effects of plasma and vacuum-ultraviolet exposure on the mechanical properties of low-k porous organosilicate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    X. Guo; J.E. Jakes; S. Banna; Y. Nishi; J.L. Shohet

    2014-01-01

    The effects of plasma exposure and vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation on the mechanical properties of low-k porous organosilicate glass (SiCOH) dielectric films were investigated. Nanoindentation measurements were made on SiCOH films before and after exposure to an electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma or a monochromatic synchrotron VUV beam, to determine the changes...

  6. 3rd harmonic electron cyclotron resonant heating absorption enhancement by 2nd harmonic heating at the same frequency in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnesin, S; Coda, S; Goodman, T P; Decker, J; Peysson, Y; Mazon, D

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental mechanisms responsible for the interplay and synergy between the absorption dynamics of extraordinary-mode electron cyclotron waves at two different harmonic resonances (the 2nd and 3rd) are investigated in the TCV tokamak. An enhanced 3rd harmonic absorption in the presence of suprathermal electrons generated by 2nd harmonic heating is predicted by Fokker–Planck simulations, subject to complex alignment requirements in both physical space and momentum space. The experimental signature for the 2nd/3rd harmonic synergy is sought through the suprathermal bremsstrahlung emission in the hard x-ray range of photon energy. Using a synthetic diagnostic, the emission variation due to synergy is calculated as a function of the injected power and of the radial transport of suprathermal electrons. It is concluded that in the present experimental setup a synergy signature has not been unambiguously detected. The detectability of the synergy is then discussed with respect to variations and uncertainties in the plasma density and effective charge in view of future optimized experiments. (paper)

  7. Design and fabrication of a superconducting magnet for an 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion∕photon source NFRI-ECRIPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, H-J; Jang, S-W; Jung, Y-H; Lho, T-H; Lee, S-J

    2012-02-01

    A superconducting magnet was designed and fabricated for an 18 GHz ECR ion∕photon source, which will be installed at National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) in South Korea. The magnetic system consists of a set of four superconducting coils for axial mirror field and 36 pieces of permanent magnets for hexapolar field. The superconducting coils with a cryocooler (1.5 W @ 4.2 K) allow one to reach peak mirror fields of 2.2 T in the injection and those of 1.5 T in the extraction regions on the source axis, and the resultant hexapolar field gives 1.35 T on the plasma chamber wall. The unbalanced magnetic force between the coils and surrounding yoke has been minimized to 16 ton by a coil arrangement and their electrical connection, and then was successfully suspended by 12 strong thermal insulating supports made of large numbers of carbon fibers. In order to block radiative thermal losses, multilayer thermal insulations are covered on the coil windings as well as 40-K aluminum thermal shield. Also new schemes of quench detection and safety system (coil divisions, quench detection coils, and heaters) were employed. For impregnation of the windings a special epoxy has been selected and treated to have a higher breaking strength and a higher thermal conductivity, which enables the superconductors to be uniformly and rapidly cooled down or heated during a quench.

  8. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, G; Becker, R; Hamm, R W; Baskaran, R; Kanjilal, D; Roy, A

    2014-02-01

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged (238)U(40+) (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  9. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, G., E-mail: gerosro@gmail.com; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi (India); Becker, R. [Institut fur Angewandte Physik der Universitaet, D-60054 Frankfurt/M (Germany); Hamm, R. W. [R and M Technical Enterprises, Inc., 4725 Arlene Place, Pleasanton, California 94566 (United States); Baskaran, R. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-02-15

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged {sup 238}U{sup 40+} (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  10. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, G.; Becker, R.; Hamm, R. W.; Baskaran, R.; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A.

    2014-02-01

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged 238U40+ (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  11. Spatiotemporal synchronization of drift waves in a magnetron sputtering plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martines, E.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Antoni, V.; Serianni, G.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Adámek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-10-15

    A feedforward scheme is applied for drift waves control in a magnetized magnetron sputtering plasma. A system of driven electrodes collecting electron current in a limited region of the explored plasma is used to interact with unstable drift waves. Drift waves actually appear as electrostatic modes characterized by discrete wavelengths of the order of few centimeters and frequencies of about 100 kHz. The effect of external quasi-periodic, both in time and space, travelling perturbations is studied. Particular emphasis is given to the role played by the phase relation between the natural and the imposed fluctuations. It is observed that it is possible by means of localized electrodes, collecting currents which are negligible with respect to those flowing in the plasma, to transfer energy to one single mode and to reduce that associated to the others. Due to the weakness of the external action, only partial control has been achieved.

  12. Spatiotemporal synchronization of drift waves in a magnetron sputtering plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martines, E.; Zuin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Antoni, V.; Serianni, G.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N.; Adámek, J.

    2014-01-01

    A feedforward scheme is applied for drift waves control in a magnetized magnetron sputtering plasma. A system of driven electrodes collecting electron current in a limited region of the explored plasma is used to interact with unstable drift waves. Drift waves actually appear as electrostatic modes characterized by discrete wavelengths of the order of few centimeters and frequencies of about 100 kHz. The effect of external quasi-periodic, both in time and space, travelling perturbations is studied. Particular emphasis is given to the role played by the phase relation between the natural and the imposed fluctuations. It is observed that it is possible by means of localized electrodes, collecting currents which are negligible with respect to those flowing in the plasma, to transfer energy to one single mode and to reduce that associated to the others. Due to the weakness of the external action, only partial control has been achieved

  13. Arc generation from sputtering plasma-dielectric inclusion interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Wickersham, C E J; Fan, J S

    2002-01-01

    Arcing during sputter deposition and etching is a significant cause of particle defect generation during device fabrication. In this article we report on the effect of aluminum oxide inclusion size, shape, and orientation on the propensity for arcing during sputtering of aluminum targets. The size, shape, and orientation of a dielectric inclusion plays a major role in determining the propensity for arcing and macroparticle emission. In previous studies we found that there is a critical inclusion size required for arcing to occur. In this article we used high-speed videos, electric arc detection, and measurements of particle defect density on wafers to study the effect of Al sub 2 O sub 3 inclusion size, shape, and orientation on arc rate, intensity, and silicon wafer particle defect density. We found that the cross-sectional area of the inclusion exposed to the sputtering plasma is the critical parameter that determines the arc rate and rate of macroparticle emission. Analysis of the arc rate, particle defect...

  14. Carbon dust formation in a cold plasma from cathode sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnas, C.; Mouberi, A.; Hassouni, K.; Michau, A.; Lombardi, G.; Bonnin, X.; Benedic, F.; Pegourie, B.

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles are produced in argon glow plasmas where carbon is introduced by sputtering of a graphite cathode. A scaling law of growth is reported on as a function of the discharge time. Two successive stages of growth of concomitant agglomeration and carbon deposition are observed, followed by a final stage of growth by carbon deposition. A model of formation of molecular precursors by coagulation of neutral clusters on the one hand and of neutral-negative clusters on the other hand is presented, based on formation enthalpy and cluster geometry.

  15. Carbon dust formation in a cold plasma from cathode sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnas, C.; Mouberi, A.; Hassouni, K.; Michau, A.; Lombardi, G.; Bonnin, X.; Bénédic, F.; Pégourié, B.

    2009-06-01

    Nanoparticles are produced in argon glow plasmas where carbon is introduced by sputtering of a graphite cathode. A scaling law of growth is reported on as a function of the discharge time. Two successive stages of growth of concomitant agglomeration and carbon deposition are observed, followed by a final stage of growth by carbon deposition. A model of formation of molecular precursors by coagulation of neutral clusters on the one hand and of neutral-negative clusters on the other hand is presented, based on formation enthalpy and cluster geometry.

  16. Electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidone, I.; Castejon, F.

    1992-07-01

    A brief summary of the theory and experiments on electron- cyclotron heating and current drive is presented. The general relativistic formulation of wave propagation and linear absorption is considered in some detail. The O-mode and the X-mode for normal and oblique propagation are investigated and illustrated by several examples. The experimental verification of the theory in T-10 and D- III-D is briefly discussed. Quasilinear evolution of the momentum distribution and related applications as, for instance, non linear wave, damping and current drive, are also considered for special cases of wave frequencies, polarization and propagation. In the concluding section we present the general formulation of the wave damping and current drive in the absence of electron trapping for arbitrary values of the wave frequency. (Author) 13 refs.

  17. Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongen, Y.

    1984-05-01

    Starting with the pioneering work of R. Geller and his group in Grenoble (France), at least 14 ECR sources have been built and tested during the last five years. Most of those sources have been extremely successful, providing intense, stable and reliable beams of highly charged ions for cyclotron injection or atomic physics research. However, some of the operational features of those sources disagreed with commonly accepted theories on ECR source operation. To explain the observed behavior of actual sources, it was found necessary to refine some of the crude ideas we had about ECR sources. Some of those new propositions are explained, and used to make some extrapolations on the possible future developments in ECR sources

  18. Electron - cyclotron resonance heating and current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidone, I.; Castejon, F.

    1992-01-01

    A brief summary of the theory and experiments on electron- cyclotron heating and current drive is presented. The general relativistic formulation of wave propagation and linear absorption is considered in some detail. The O-mode and the X-mode for normal and oblique propagation are investigated and illustrated by several examples. The experimental verification of the theory in T-10 and D- III-D is briefly discussed. Quasilinear evolution of the momentum distribution and related applications as, for instance, non linear wave, damping and current drive, are also considered for special cases of wave frequencies, polarization and propagation. In the concluding section we present the general formulation of the wave damping and current drive in the absence of electron trapping for arbitrary values of the wave frequency. (Author) 13 refs

  19. Electron Cyclotron Resonances in Electron Cloud Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, Christine; Celata, C.M.; Furman, Miguel A.; Vay, J.-L.; Yu, Jennifer W.

    2008-01-01

    We report a previously unknown resonance for electron cloud dynamics. The 2D simulation code 'POSINST' was used to study the electron cloud buildup at different z positions in the International Linear Collider positron damping ring wiggler. An electron equilibrium density enhancement of up to a factor of 3 was found at magnetic field values for which the bunch frequency is an integral multiple of the electron cyclotron frequency. At low magnetic fields the effects of the resonance are prominent, but when B exceeds ∼(2 pi mec/(elb)), with lb = bunch length, effects of the resonance disappear. Thus short bunches and low B fields are required for observing the effect. The reason for the B field dependence, an explanation of the dynamics, and the results of the 2D simulations and of a single-particle tracking code used to elucidate details of the dynamics are discussed

  20. Plasma properties during magnetron sputtering of lithium phosphorous oxynitride thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ane Sælland; Stamate, Eugen; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2015-01-01

    The nitrogen dissociation and plasma parameters during radio frequency sputtering of lithium phosphorus oxynitride thin films in nitrogen gas are investigated by mass appearance spectrometry, electrostatic probes and optical emission spectroscopy, and the results are correlated with electrochemical...... properties and microstructure of the films. Low pressure and moderate power are associated with lower plasma density, higher electron temperature, higher plasma potential and larger diffusion length for sputtered particles. This combination of parameters favors the presence of more atomic nitrogen, a fact...

  1. First plasmas in the TJ-II flexible Heliac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejaldre, C.; Alonso, J.; Almoguera, L.

    1999-01-01

    First plasmas have been successfully achieved in the TJ-II stellarator using electron cyclotron resonance heating (f = 53.2 GHz, P ECRH = 250 kW). Initial experiments have explored the TJ-II flexibility in a wide range of plasma volumes, different rotational transform and magnetic well values. In this paper, the main results of this campaign are presented and, in particular, the influence of plasma wall interaction phenomena on TJ-II operation is discussed briefly. (author)

  2. Formation of ECR Plasma in a Dielectric Plasma Guide under Self-Excitation of a Standing Ion-Acoustic Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmashnov, A. A.; Kalashnikov, A. V.; Kalashnikov, V. V.; Stepina, S. P.; Umnov, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    The formation of a spatially localized plasma with a high brightness has been experimentally observed in a dielectric plasma guide under the electron cyclotron resonance discharge at the excitation of a standing ion-acoustic wave. The results obtained show the possibility of designing compact high-intensity radiation sources with a spectrum determined by the working gas or gas mixture type, high-intensity chemically active particle flow sources, and plasma thrusters for correcting orbits of light spacecraft.

  3. Nanoscale morphogenesis of nylon-sputtered plasma polymer particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukourov, Andrei; Shelemin, Artem; Pleskunov, Pavel; Nikitin, Daniil; Khalakhan, Ivan; Hanuš, Jan

    2018-05-01

    Sub-micron polymer particles are highly important in various fields including astrophysics, thermonuclear fusion and nanomedicine. Plasma polymerization offers the possibility to produce particles with tailor-made size, crosslink density and chemical composition to meet the requirements of a particular application. However, the mechanism of nucleation and growth of plasma polymer particles as well as diversity of their morphology remain far from being clear. Here, we prepared nitrogen-containing plasma polymer particles by rf magnetron sputtering of nylon in a gas aggregation cluster source with variable length. The method allowed the production of particles with roughly constant chemical composition and number density but with the mean size changing from 80 to 320 nm. Atomic Force Microscopy with super-sharp probes was applied to study the evolution of the particle surface topography as they grow in size. Height–height correlation and power spectral density functions were obtained to quantify the roughness exponent α  =  0.78, the growth exponent β  =  0.35, and the dynamic exponent 1/z  =  0.50. The set of critical exponents indicates that the particle surface evolves in a self-affine mode and the overall particle growth is caused by the accretion of polymer-forming species from the gas phase and not by coagulation. Redistribution of the incoming material over the surface coupled with the inhomogeneous distribution of inner stress is suggested as the main factor that determines the morphogenesis of the plasma polymer particles.

  4. Recent progress in thin film processing by magnetron sputtering with plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jeon G

    2009-01-01

    The precise control of the structure and related properties becomes crucial for sophisticated applications of thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering in emerging industries including the flat panel display, digital electronics and nano- and bio-industries. The film structure is closely related to the total energy delivered to the substrate surface for nucleation and growth during all kinds of thin film processes, including magnetron sputtering. Therefore, the energy delivered to the surface for nucleation and growth during magnetron sputtering should be measured and analysed by integrated diagnostics of the plasma parameters which are closely associated with the process parameters and other external process conditions. This paper reviews the background of thin film nucleation and growth, the status of magnetron sputtering technology and the progress of plasma diagnostics for plasma processing. The evolution of the microstructure during magnetron sputtering is then discussed with respect to the change in the process variables in terms of the plasma parameters along with empirical data of the integrated plasma diagnostics for various magnetron sputtering conditions with conventional dc, pulsed dc and high power pulsed dc sputtering modes. Among the major energy terms to be discussed are the temperature change in the top surface region and the energies of ions and neutral species. (topical review)

  5. Effect of magnetic field gradient on power absorption in compact microwave plasma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Indranuj; Shamim, Md.; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2006-01-01

    We study the effect of the change in magnetic field gradient at the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) point, on the generated plasma for two different cylindrical minimum B-field configurations, viz. the hexapole and the octupole. The plasma parameters such as the electron and ion density, electron temperature including the wave field characteristics (B-field and E-field) in the plasma will be measured and compared for the two configurations. (author)

  6. Targets on the basis of ferrites and high-temperature superconductors for ion-plasma sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepeshev, A.A.; Saunin, V.N.; Telegin, S.V.; Polyakova, K.P.; Seredkin, V.A.; Pol'skij, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    Paper describes a method to produce targets for ion-plasma sputtering using plasma splaying of the appropriate powders on a cooled metal basis. Application of the plasma process was demonstrated to enable to produce complex shaped targets under the controlled atmosphere on the basis of ceramic materials ensuring their high composition homogeneity, as well as, reliable mechanical and thermal contact of the resultant coating with the base. One carried out experiments in ion-plasma sputtering of targets to prepare ferrite polycrystalline films to be used in magnetooptics and to prepare high-temperature superconductor epitaxial films [ru

  7. Characterization and modeling of multi-dipolar microwave plasmas: application to multi-dipolar plasma assisted sputtering; Caracterisation et modelisation des plasmas micro-onde multi-dipolaires: application a la pulverisation assistee par plasma multi-dipolaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, T.V

    2006-12-15

    The scaling up of plasma processes in the low pressure range remains a question to be solved for their rise at the industrial level. One solution is the uniform distribution of elementary plasma sources where the plasma is produced via electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) coupling. These elementary plasma sources are made up of a cylindrical permanent magnet (magnetic dipole) set at the end of a coaxial microwave line. Although of simple concept, the optimisation of these dipolar plasma sources is in fact a complex problem. It requires the knowledge, on one hand, of the configurations of static magnetic fields and microwave electric fields, and, on the other hand, of the mechanisms of plasma production in the region of high intensity magnetic field (ECR condition), and of plasma diffusion. Therefore, the experimental characterisation of the operating ranges and plasma parameters has been performed by Langmuir probes and optical emission spectroscopy on different configurations of dipolar sources. At the same time, in a first analytical approach, calculations have been made on simple magnetic field configurations, motion and trajectory of electrons in these magnetic fields, and the acceleration of electrons by ECR coupling. Then, the results have been used for the validation of the numerical modelling of the electron trajectories by using a hybrid PIC (particle-in-cell) / MC (Monte Carlo) method. The experimental study has evidenced large operating domains, between 15 and 200 W of microwave power, and from 0.5 to 15 mtorr argon pressure. The analysis of plasma parameters has shown that the region of ECR coupling is localised near the equatorial plane of the magnet and dependent on magnet geometry. These characterizations, applied to a cylindrical reactor using 48 sources, have shown that densities between 10{sup 11} and 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} could be achieved in the central part of the volume at a few mtorr argon pressures. The modelling of electron trajectories near

  8. Sputter deposition of tantalum-nitride films on copper using an rf-plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, K.C.; Fetherston, R.P.; Sridharan, K.; Chen, A.; Shamim, M.M.; Conrad, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    A tantalum-nitride film was successfully deposited at ambient temperature on copper with a modified ion-assisted-deposition (IAD) technique. The process uses an argon and nitrogen plasma to sputter deposit from a tantalum rf-cathode and ion implant the deposited film simultaneously. Both argon and nitrogen ions are used for sputtering and ion implantation. Auger spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to characterize the resulting film

  9. Investigations into the Anti-Felting Properties of Sputtered Wool Using Plasma Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghei, S. M.; Shahidi, S.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Abdolahi, Z.

    2013-01-01

    In this research the effects of mordant and plasma sputtering treatments on the crystallinity and morphological properties of wool fabrics were investigated. The felting behavior of the treated samples was also studied. We used madder as a natural dye and copper sulfate as a metal mordant. We also used copper as the electrode material in a DC magnetron plasma sputtering device. The anti-felting properties of the wool samples before and after dying was studied, and it was shown that the shrink resistance and anti-felting behavior of the wool had been significantly improved by the plasma sputtering treatment. In addition, the percentage of crystallinity and the size of the crystals were investigated using an X-ray diffractometer, and a scanning electron microscope was used for morphological analysis. The amount of copper particles on the surface of the mordanted and sputtered fabrics was studied using the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) method, and the hydrophobic properties of the samples were examined using the water drop test. The results show that with plasma sputtering treatment, the hydrophobic properties of the surface of wool become super hydrophobic.

  10. Main-ion temperature and plasma rotation measurements based on scattering of electron cyclotron heating waves in ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Stejner; Rasmussen, Jesper; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate measurements of spectra of O-mode electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) waves scattered collectively from microscopic plasma fluctuations in ASDEX Upgrade discharges with an ITER-like ECRH scenario. The measured spectra are shown to allow determination of the main ion...... temperature and plasma rotation velocity. This demonstrates that ECRH systems can be exploited for diagnostic purposes alongside their primary heating purpose in a reactor relevant scenario....

  11. Comparisons of physical and chemical sputtering in high density divertor plasmas with the Monte Carlo Impurity (MCI) transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.E.; Loh, Y.S.; West, W.P.; Finkenthal, D.F.

    1997-11-01

    The MCI transport model was used to compare chemical and physical sputtering for a DIII-D divertor plasma near detachment. With physical sputtering alone the integrated carbon influx was 8.4 x 10 19 neutral/s while physical plus chemical sputtering produced an integrated carbon influx of 1.7 x 10 21 neutrals/s. The average carbon concentration in the computational volume increased from 0.012% with only physical sputtering to 0.182% with both chemical and physical sputtering. This increase in the carbon inventory produced more radiated power which is in better agreement with experimental measurements

  12. Preparation of Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 Thin Films by Plasma-Assisted Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hioki, Tsuyoshi; Akiyama, Masahiko; Ueda, Tomomasa; Onozuka, Yutaka; Suzuki, Kouji

    1999-09-01

    A novel plasma-assisted RF magnetron sputtering system with an immersed coil antenna between a target and a substrate was applied for preparing Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films. The antenna enabled the generation of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) independently of the target RF source. The plasma assisted by the antenna resulted in the changes of ion fluxes and these energy distributions irradiating to the substrate. The crystalline phase of the deposited PZT thin films was occupied by the perovskite phase depending on the antenna power. In addition, a high deposition rate, modified uniformity of film thickness, and a dense film structure with large columnar grains were obtained as a result of effects of the assisted plasma. The application of the plasma-assisted sputtering method may enable the preparation of PZT thin films that haveexcellent properties.

  13. Wake-Field Wave Resonant Excitation in Magnetized Plasmas by Electromagnetic Pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milant'ev, V.P.; Turikov, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the space charge wave excitation process at electromagnetic pulse propagation along external magnetic field in vicinity of electron cyclotron resonance. In hydrodynamic approach it is obtained an equation for plasma density under ponderomotive force action. With help of this equation we investigated a wake-field wave amplitude dependence from resonance detuning. The numerical simulation using a PIC method electromagnetic pulse propagation process in the resonant conditions was done

  14. Ion beams: from plasma physics to applications in analysis and irradiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodja, Hicham

    2012-01-01

    In this HDR (Accreditation to supervise research) report, the author proposes an overview of his research activities. A first part comments a research which aimed at determining the distribution of ion populations in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma. Then, after a brief recall of the principles and techniques of analysis based on ion beams, he presents some characteristics of the CEA/Saclay nuclear microprobe. He reports various works related to material science and to biology, and discusses the associated perspectives [fr

  15. Experimental study of the discharge in the low pressure plasma jet sputtering system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusoň, J.; Kudrna, P.; Kolpaková, A.; Picková, I.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Tichý, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2013), s. 10-15 ISSN 0863-1042 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hollow cathode * plasma jet sputtering system * Langmuir probe Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.983, year: 2013

  16. A condition for scrape-off plasmas in self-sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengoku, Seio; Azumi, Masahumi; Matsumoto, Yasuo; Maeda, Hikosuke; Shimomura, Yasuo

    1978-10-01

    Behavior of self-sputtered impurities from limiters or divertor neutralizer plates was investigated. The upper limit of boundary plasma temperature determined under the condition that the impurities of wall materials was not on increase is shown to be low. (author)

  17. Hydrophobization of track membrane surface by ion-plasma sputtering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklin, I. E.; Khlebnikov, N. A.; Barashev, N. R.; Serkov, K. V.; Polyakov, E. V.; Zdorovets, M. V.; Borgekov, D. B.; Zhidkov, I. S.; Cholakh, S. O.; Kozlovskiy, A. L.

    2017-09-01

    This article reviews the possibility of applying inorganic coatings of metal compounds on PTM by ion-plasma sputtering. The main aim of this research is to increase the contact angle of PTM surfaces and to impart the properties of a hydrophobic material to it. After the modification, the initial contact angle increased from 70° to 120°.

  18. Plasma-Materials Interactions Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.

    1986-11-01

    The Plasma-Materials Interactions Test Facility (PMITF), recently designed and constructed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is an electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma system with densities around 10 11 cm -3 and electron temperatures of 10-20 eV. The device consists of a mirror cell with high-field-side microwave injection and a heating power of up to 0.8 kW(cw) at 2.45 GHz. The facility will be used for studies of plasma-materials interactions and of particle physics in pump limiters and for development and testing of plasma edge diagnostics

  19. Nano-structuring of PTFE surface by plasma treatment, etching, and sputtering with gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznickova, Alena; Kolska, Zdenka; Hnatowicz, Vladimir; Svorcik, Vaclav

    2011-01-01

    Properties of pristine, plasma modified, and etched (by water and methanol) polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were studied. Gold nanolayers sputtered on this modified PTFE have been also investigated. Contact angle, measured by goniometry, was studied as a function of plasma exposure and post-exposure aging times. Degradation of polymer chains was examined by etching of plasma modified PTFE in water or methanol. The amount of ablated and etched layer was measured by gravimetry. In the next step the pristine, plasma modified, and etched PTFE was sputtered with gold. Changes in surface morphology were observed using atomic force microscopy. Chemical structure of modified polymers was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Surface chemistry of the samples was investigated by electrokinetic analysis. Sheet resistance of the gold layers was measured by two-point technique. The contact angle of the plasma modified PTFE decreases with increasing exposure time. The PTFE amount, ablated by the plasma treatment, increases with the plasma exposure time. XPS measurements proved that during the plasma treatment the PTFE macromolecular chains are degraded and oxidized and new –C–O–C–, –C=O, and –O–C=O groups are created in modified surface layer. Surface of the plasma modified PTFE is weakly soluble in methanol and intensively soluble in water. Zeta potential and XPS shown dramatic changes in PTFE surface chemistry after the plasma exposure, water etching, and gold deposition. When continuous gold layer is formed a rapid decrease of the sheet resistance of the gold layer is observed.

  20. Quasi-steady carbon plasma source for neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon plasma is successfully sustained during 1000 s without any carrier gas in the bucket type ionization chamber with cusp magnetic field. Every several seconds, seed plasmas having ∼3 ms duration time are injected into the ionization chamber by a shunting arch plasma gun. The weakly ionized carbon plasma ejected from the shunting arch is also ionized by 2.45 GHz microwave at the electron cyclotron resonance surface and the plasma can be sustained even in the interval of gun discharges. Control of the gun discharge interval allows to keep high pressure and to sustain the plasma for long duration

  1. Quasi-steady carbon plasma source for neutral beam injector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2014-02-01

    Carbon plasma is successfully sustained during 1000 s without any carrier gas in the bucket type ionization chamber with cusp magnetic field. Every several seconds, seed plasmas having ∼3 ms duration time are injected into the ionization chamber by a shunting arch plasma gun. The weakly ionized carbon plasma ejected from the shunting arch is also ionized by 2.45 GHz microwave at the electron cyclotron resonance surface and the plasma can be sustained even in the interval of gun discharges. Control of the gun discharge interval allows to keep high pressure and to sustain the plasma for long duration.

  2. Room temperature synthesis of porous SiO2 thin films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Barranco Quero, Ángel; Cotrino Bautista, José; Yubero Valencia, Francisco; Espinós, J. P.; Rodríguez González-Elipe, Agustín

    2004-01-01

    Synthesis of porous SiO2 thin films in room temperature was carried out using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in an electron cyclotron resonance microwave reactor with a downstream configuration.The gas adsorption properties and the type of porosity of the SiO2 thin films were assessed by adsorption isotherms of toluene at room temperature.The method could also permit the tailoring synthesis of thin films when both composition and porosity can be simultaneously and independent...

  3. Simulation calculations of physical sputtering and reflection coefficient of plasma-irradiated carbon surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, T.; Ono, T.; Yamamura, Y.

    1994-08-01

    Physical sputtering yields from the carbon surface irradiated by the boundary plasma are obtained with the use of a Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT. The yields are calculated for many random initial energy and angle values of incident protons or deuterons with a Maxwellian velocity distribution, and then averaged. Here the temperature of the boundary plasma, the sheath potential and the angle δ between the magnetic field line and the surface normal are taken into account. A new fitting formula for an arrangement of the numerical data of sputtering yield is introduced, in which six fitting parameters are determined from the numerical results and listed. These results provide a way to estimate the erosion of carbon materials irradiated by boundary plasma. The particle reflection coefficients for deuterons and their neutrals from a carbon surface are also calculated by the same code and presented together with, for comparison, that for the case of monoenergetic normal incidence. (author)

  4. Plasma ``anti-assistance'' and ``self-assistance'' to high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, André; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.

    2009-04-01

    A plasma assistance system was investigated with the goal to operate high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) at lower pressure than usual, thereby to enhance the utilization of the ballistic atoms and ions with high kinetic energy in the film growth process. Gas plasma flow from a constricted plasma source was aimed at the magnetron target. Contrary to initial expectations, such plasma assistance turned out to be contraproductive because it led to the extinction of the magnetron discharge. The effect can be explained by gas rarefaction. A better method of reducing the necessary gas pressure is operation at relatively high pulse repetition rates where the afterglow plasma of one pulse assists in the development of the next pulse. Here we show that this method, known from medium-frequency (MF) pulsed sputtering, is also very important at the much lower pulse repetition rates of HiPIMS. A minimum in the possible operational pressure is found in the frequency region between HiPIMS and MF pulsed sputtering.

  5. Plasma 'anti-assistance' and 'self-assistance' to high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Andre; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.

    2009-01-01

    A plasma assistance system was investigated with the goal to operate high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) at lower pressure than usual, thereby to enhance the utilization of the ballistic atoms and ions with high kinetic energy in the film growth process. Gas plasma flow from a constricted plasma source was aimed at the magnetron target. Contrary to initial expectations, such plasma assistance turned out to be contraproductive because it led to the extinction of the magnetron discharge. The effect can be explained by gas rarefaction. A better method of reducing the necessary gas pressure is operation at relatively high pulse repetition rates where the afterglow plasma of one pulse assists in the development of the next pulse. Here we show that this method, known from medium-frequency (MF) pulsed sputtering, is also very important at the much lower pulse repetition rates of HiPIMS. A minimum in the possible operational pressure is found in the frequency region between HiPIMS and MF pulsed sputtering

  6. One-dimensional analysis of the rate of plasma-assisted sputter deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmero, A.; Rudolph, H.; Habraken, F. H. P. M.

    2007-01-01

    In this article a recently developed model [A. Palmero, H. Rudolph, and F. H. P. M. Habraken, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211501 (2006)] is applied to analyze the transport of sputtered material from the cathode toward the growing film when using a plasma-assisted sputtering deposition technique. The argon pressure dependence of the deposition rate of aluminum, silicon, vanadium, chromium, germanium, tantalum, and tungsten under several different experimental conditions has been analyzed by fitting experimental results from the literature to the above-mentioned theory. Good fits are obtained. Three quantities are deduced from the fit: the temperature of the cathode and of the growing film, and the value of the effective cross section for thermalization due to elastic scattering of a sputtered particle on background gas atoms. The values derived from the fits for the growing film and cathode temperature are very similar to those experimentally determined and reported in the literature. The effective cross sections have been found to be approximately the corresponding geometrical cross section divided by the average number of collisions required for the thermalization, implying that the real and effective thermalization lengths have a similar value. Finally, the values of the throw distance appearing in the Keller-Simmons model, as well as its dependence on the deposition conditions have been understood invoking the values of the cathode and film temperature, as well as of the value of the effective cross section. The analysis shows the overall validity of this model for the transport of sputtered particles in sputter deposition

  7. Study of Au- production in a plasma-sputter type negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabe, Yushirou.

    1991-10-01

    A negative ion source of plasma-sputter type has been constructed for the purpose of studying physical processes which take place in the ion source. Negative ions of gold are produced on the gold target which is immersed in an argon discharge plasma and biased negatively with respect to the plasma. The work function of the target surface was lowered by the deposition of Cs on the target. An in-situ method has been developed to determine the work function of the target surface in the ion source under discharge conditions. The observed minimum work function of a cesiated gold surface in an argon plasma was 1.3 eV, when the negative ion production rate took the maximum value. The production rate increased monotonically and saturated when the surface work function was reduced from 1.9 eV to 1.3 eV. The dependence of Au - production rate on the incident ion energy and on the number of the incident ion was studied. From the experimental results, it is shown that the sputtering process is an important physical process for the negative ion production in the plasma-sputter type negative ion source. The energy distribution function was also measured. When the bias voltage was smaller than 280 V, the high energy component in the distribution decreased as the target voltage was decreased. Therefore, the energy spread ΔE, of the observed negative ion energy distribution also decreased. This tendency is also seen in the energy spectrum of Cu atoms sputtered in normal direction by Ar + ions. (J.P.N.)

  8. ECR plasma photographs as a plasma diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, R; Biri, S; Palinkas, J [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary)

    2011-04-15

    Low, medium or highly charged ions delivered by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources all are produced in the ECR plasma. In order to study such plasmas, high-resolution visible light plasma photographs were taken at the ATOMKI ECR ion source. An 8 megapixel digital camera was used to photograph plasmas made from He, methane, N, O, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe gases and from their mixtures. The analysis of the photo series gave many qualitative and some valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas. A comparison was made between the plasma photos and computer simulations, and conclusions were drawn regarding the cold electron component of the plasma. The warm electron component of similar simulation was compared with x-ray photos emitted by plasma ions. While the simulations are in good agreement with the photos, a significant difference was found between the spatial distribution of the cold and warm electrons.

  9. The experimental investigation on the properties of the plasma heated by waves in the mirror machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuyun, Duan; Shiqing, Cheng; Xuemeng, Chen; Qing, Pan; Zhigang, Yang [Southwest Inst. of Physics, Leshan, SC (China)

    1995-06-01

    The application of ICRH (Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating) in the MM-2U simple mirror plasma which is created and heated by ECRH (Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating) can result in the increase of plasma temperature and density. The confinement performance of plasma also can be improved. The ion and electron temperatures and the plasma density are measured in detail by using the ISP (Ion Sensitive Probe). The plasma floating potential profile are measured in both the radial and the axial direction. The experimental results show that ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Radio Field) can be used for stabilizing ECRH plasma and for improving the confinement performance of plasma.

  10. Remote plasma sputtering of indium tin oxide thin films for large area flexible electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeadon, A.D.; Wakeham, S.J.; Brown, H.L.; Thwaites, M.J.; Whiting, M.J.; Baker, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films with a specific resistivity of 3.5 × 10 −4 Ω cm and average visible light transmission (VLT) of 90% have been reactively sputtered onto A4 Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), glass and silicon substrates using a remote plasma sputtering system. This system offers independent control of the plasma density and the target power enabling the effect of the plasma on ITO properties to be studied. Characterization of ITO on glass and silicon has shown that increasing the plasma density gives rise to a decrease in the specific resistivity and an increase in the optical band gap of the ITO films. Samples deposited at plasma powers of 1.5 kW, 2.0 kW and 2.5 kW and optimized oxygen flow rates exhibited specific resistivity values of 3.8 × 10 −4 Ω cm, 3.7 × 10 −4 Ω cm and 3.5 × 10 −4 Ω cm and optical gaps of 3.48 eV, 3.51 eV and 3.78 eV respectively. The increase in plasma density also influenced the crystalline texture and the VLT increased from 70 to 95%, indicating that more oxygen is being incorporated into the growing film. It has been shown that the remote plasma sputter technique can be used in an in-line process to produce uniform ITO coatings on PET with specific resistivities of between 3.5 × 10 −4 and 4.5 × 10 −4 Ω cm and optical transmission of greater than 85% over substrate widths of up to 30 cm.

  11. WO.sub.3./sub. thin films prepared by sedimentation and plasma sputtering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olejníček, Jiří; Brunclíková, Michaela; Kment, Š.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Kmentová, N.; Kšírová, Petra; Čada, Martin; Zlámal, M.; Krýsa, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 318, Jun (2017), s. 281-288 ISSN 1385-8947 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TF01000084; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-00863S; GA TA ČR TA03010743; GA ČR GAP108/12/2104 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : WO 3 * thin films * water splitting * pulsed magnetron sputtering * sedimentation * photo-electro-chemistry Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 6.216, year: 2016

  12. ERO modeling of Cr sputtering in the linear plasma device PSI-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eksaeva, A.; Borodin, D.; Kreter, A.; Nishijima, D.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Schlummer, T.; Ertmer, S.; Terra, A.; Unterberg, B.; Kirschner, A.; Romazanov, J.; Brezinsek, S.; Rasinski, M.; Henderson, S.; O'Mullane, M.; Summers, H.; Bluteau, M.; Marenkov, E.

    2017-12-01

    The prediction of the first wall deterioration and possible plasma contamination by impurities is a high priority task for ITER. 3D Monte-Carlo code ERO is a tool for modeling of eroded impurity transport and spectroscopy in plasma devices useful for experiment interpretation. Chromium (Cr) is a fusion-relevant reactor wall element (e.g. component of RAFM steels expected for use in DEMO). Linear plasma devices including PSI-2 are effective tools for investigations of plasma-surface interaction effects, allowing continuous plasma operation and good control over irradiation parameters. Experiments on Cr sputtering were conducted at PSI-2. In these experiments the Cr erosion was measured by three techniques: mass loss of the sample, quartz micro-balance of deposited impurities at a distance from it and optical emission spectroscopy. Experiments were modeled with the 3D Monte-Carlo code ERO, previously validated by application to similar experiments with tungsten (W). The simulations are demonstrated to reproduce the main experimental outcomes proving the quality of the sputtering data used. A significant focuses of the paper is the usage and validation of atomic data (resent metastable-resolved dataset from ADAS) for interpretation of Cr spectroscopy. Initial population of quasi-metastable state was fitted by matching the modeling with the experimental line intensity profiles.

  13. Effect of Wall Material on H– Production in a Plasma Sputter-Type Ion Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. M. Ponce

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of wall material on negative hydrogen ion (H– production was investigated in a multicusp plasma sputter-type ion source (PSTIS. Steady-state cesium-seeded hydrogen plasma was generated by a tungsten filament, while H– was produced through surface production using a molybdenum sputter target. Plasma parameters and H– yields were determined from Langmuir probe and Faraday cup measurements, respectively. At an input hydrogen pressure of 1.2 mTorr and optimum plasma discharge parameters Vd = –90 V and Id = –2.25 A, the plasma parameters ne was highest and T–e was lowest as determined from Langmuir probe measurements. At these conditions, aluminum generates the highest ion current density of 0.01697 mA/cm2, which is 64% more than the 0.01085 mA/cm2 that stainless steel produces. The yield of copper, meanwhile, falls between the two materials at 0.01164 mA/cm2. The beam is maximum at Vt = –125 V. Focusing is achieved at VL = –70 V for stainless steel, Vt = –60 V for aluminum, and Vt = –50 V for copper. The results demonstrate that proper selection of wall material can greatly enhance the H– production of the PSTIS.

  14. Biopolymer nanostructures induced by plasma irradiation and metal sputtering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slepička, P.; Juřík, P.; Malinský, Petr; Macková, Anna; Kasálková-Slepičková, N.; Švorčík, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 332, 7-10 (2014), s. 7-10 ISSN 0168-583X. [21st International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA). Seattle, 23.06.2013-28.06.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR ga13-06609S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/10/1106 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Biopolymer * plasma * surface morphology * RBS * Ripple pattern Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2014

  15. Composite materials obtained by the ion-plasma sputtering of metal compound coatings on polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlebnikov, Nikolai; Polyakov, Evgenii; Borisov, Sergei; Barashev, Nikolai; Biramov, Emir; Maltceva, Anastasia; Vereshchagin, Artem; Khartov, Stas; Voronin, Anton

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the principle and examples composite materials obtained by deposition of metal compound coatings on polymer film substrates by the ion-plasma sputtering method are presented. A synergistic effect is to obtain the materials with structural properties of the polymer substrate and the surface properties of the metal deposited coatings. The technology of sputtering of TiN coatings of various thicknesses on polyethylene terephthalate films is discussed. The obtained composites are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is shown. The examples of application of this method, such as receiving nanocomposite track membranes and flexible transparent electrodes, are considered.

  16. Hydrogen and helium trapping in tungsten deposition layers formed by RF plasma sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazunari Katayama; Kazumi Imaoka; Takayuki Okamura; Masabumi Nishikawa

    2006-01-01

    Understanding of tritium behavior in plasma facing materials is an important issue for fusion reactor from viewpoints of fuel control and radiation safety. Tungsten is used as a plasma facing material in the divertor region of ITER. However, investigation of hydrogen isotope behavior in tungsten deposition layer is not sufficient so far. It is also necessary to evaluate an effect of helium on a formation of deposition layer and an accumulation of hydrogen isotopes because helium generated by fusion reaction exists in fusion plasma. In this study, tungsten deposition layers were formed by sputtering method using hydrogen and helium RF plasma. An erosion rate and a deposition rate of tungsten were estimated by weight measurement. Hydrogen and helium retention were investigated by thermal desorption method. Tungsten deposition was performed using a capacitively-coupled RF plasma device equipped with parallel-plate electrodes. A tungsten target was mounted on one electrode which is supplied with RF power at 200 W. Tungsten substrates were mounted on the other electrode which is at ground potential. The plasma discharge was continued for 120 hours where pressure of hydrogen or helium was controlled to be 10 Pa. The amounts of hydrogen and helium released from deposition layers was quantified by a gas chromatograph. The erosion rate of target tungsten under helium plasma was estimated to be 1.8 times larger than that under hydrogen plasma. The deposition rate on tungsten substrate under helium plasma was estimated to be 4.1 times larger than that under hydrogen plasma. Atomic ratio of hydrogen to tungsten in a deposition layer formed by hydrogen plasma was estimated to be 0.17 by heating to 600 o C. From a deposition layer formed by helium plasma, not only helium but also hydrogen was released by heating to 500 o C. Atomic ratios of helium and hydrogen to tungsten were estimated to be 0.080 and 0.075, respectively. The trapped hydrogen is probably impurity hydrogen

  17. Study on re-sputtering during CN{sub x} film deposition through spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Peipei; Yang, Xu; Li, Hui; Cai, Hua [Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Sun, Jian; Xu, Ning [Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Ultra-Precision Optical Manufacturing, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wu, Jiada, E-mail: jdwu@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Ultra-Precision Optical Manufacturing, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Engineering Research Center of Advanced Lighting Technology, Ministry of Education, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2015-10-15

    A nitrogen-carbon plasma was generated during the deposition of carbon nitride (CN{sub x}) thin films by pulsed laser ablation of a graphite target in a discharge nitrogen plasma, and the optical emission of the generated nitrogen-carbon plasma was measured for the diagnostics of the plasma and the characterization of the process of CN{sub x} film deposition. The nitrogen-carbon plasma was recognized to contain various species including nitrogen molecules and molecular ions excited in the ambient N{sub 2} gas, carbon atoms and atomic ions ablated from the graphite target and CN radicals. The temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the CN emission and their dependence on the substrate bias voltage show two groups of CN radicals flying in opposite directions. One represents the CN radicals formed as the products of the reactions occurring in the nitrogen-carbon plasma, revealing the reactive deposition of CN{sub x} film due to the reactive expansion of the ablation carbon plasma in the discharge nitrogen plasma and the effective formation of gaseous CN radicals as precursors for CN{sub x} film growth. The other one represents the CN radicals re-sputtered from the growing CN{sub x} film by energetic plasma species, evidencing the re-sputtering of the growing film accompanying film growth. And, the re-sputtering presents ion-induced sputtering features.

  18. Pilot-scale electron cyclotron resonance-metal organic chemical vapor deposition system for the preparation of large-area fluorine-doped SnO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Bup Ju [Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Shinhan University, 233-1, Sangpae-dong, Dongducheon, Gyeonggi-do 483-777 (Korea, Republic of); Hudaya, Chairul [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus Baru UI, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Center for Energy Convergence, Green City Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14 gil 5, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, 176 Gajungro Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joong Kee, E-mail: leejk@kist.re.kr [Center for Energy Convergence, Green City Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14 gil 5, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, 176 Gajungro Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The authors report the surface morphology, optical, electrical, thermal and humidity impacts, and electromagnetic interference properties of fluorine-doped tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}:F or “FTO”) thin films on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate fabricated by a pilot-scale electron cyclotron resonance–metal organic chemical vapor deposition (PS ECR-MOCVD). The characteristics of large area FTO thin films were compared with a commercially available transparent conductive electrode made of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), prepared with an identical film and PET thickness of 125 nm and 188 μm, respectively. The results revealed that the as-prepared FTO thin films exhibited comparable performances with the incumbent ITO films, including a high optical transmittance of 97% (substrate-subtracted), low electrical resistivity of about 5 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm, improved electrical and optical performances due to the external thermal and humidity impact, and an excellent shielding effectiveness of electromagnetic interference of nearly 2.3 dB. These excellent performances of the FTO thin films were strongly attributed to the design of the PS ECR-MOCVD, which enabled a uniform plasma environment resulting from a proper mixture of electromagnetic profiles and microwave power.

  19. Deposition of nanostructured fluorocarbon plasma polymer films by RF magnetron sputtering of polytetrafluoroethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylian, Ondrej, E-mail: ondrej.kylian@gmail.com; Drabik, Martin; Polonskyi, Oleksandr; Cechvala, Juraj; Artemenko, Anna; Gordeev, Ivan; Choukourov, Andrei; Matolinova, Iva; Slavinska, Danka; Biederman, Hynek, E-mail: bieder@kmf.troja.mff.cuni.cz

    2011-07-29

    The RF magnetron sputtering of polytetrafluoroethylene target is studied with the aim to find out conditions leading to the deposition of super-hydrophobic thin films. It is shown that such coatings can be prepared at elevated pressures and a longer distance between the sputtered target and the substrate. This is explained by an increase in the density of longer C{sub x}F{sub y} molecules that reach the substrate and a lower flux of ions and CF{sub 2} radicals on the surface of growing film under such deposition conditions, as observed by optical emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Such changes in plasma composition result in a deposition of rough films having F/C ratio close to 2 as observed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. These findings clearly distinguish our results from the previous investigations of polytetrafluoroethylene sputtering performed at shorter distances from the target, where either low F/C ratio or low roughness of the deposited films did not allow reaching super-hydrophobic character of the coatings.

  20. Simulation of the electric potential and plasma generation coupling in magnetron sputtering discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieschmann, Jan; Krueger, Dennis; Schmidt, Frederik; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter; Mussenbrock, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Magnetron sputtering typically operated at low pressures below 1 Pa is a widely applied deposition technique. For both, high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) as well as direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS) the phenomenon of rotating ionization zones (also referred to as spokes) has been observed. A distinct spatial profile of the electric potential has been associated with the latter, giving rise to low, mid, and high energy groups of ions observed at the substrate. The adherent question of which mechanism drives this process is still not fully understood. This query is approached using Monte Carlo simulations of the heavy particle (i.e., ions and neutrals) transport consistently coupled to a pre-specified electron density profile via the intrinsic electric field. The coupling between the plasma generation and the electric potential, which establishes correspondingly, is investigated. While the system is observed to strive towards quasi-neutrality, distinct mechanisms governing the shape of the electric potential profile are identified. This work is supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) in the frame of the transregional collaborative research centre TRR 87.

  1. Plasma polymer films rf sputtered from PTFE under various argon pressures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stelmashuk, Vitaliy; Biederman, H.; Slavinská, D.; Zemek, Josef; Trchová, Miroslava

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 2 (2005), s. 131-137 ISSN 0042-207X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC 527.10; GA MŠk(CZ) OC 527.90 Grant - others:EUREKAΣ2080(XE) OE57 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : RF sputtering * PTFE * fluorcarbon plasma polymers * thin film * teflon * deposition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.909, year: 2005

  2. Spectroscopic imaging of self-organization in high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Joakim; Ni, Pavel; Anders, André

    2013-01-01

    Excitation and ionization conditions in traveling ionization zones of high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasmas were investigated using fast camera imaging through interference filters. The images, taken in end-on and side-on views using light of selected gas and target atom and ion spectral lines, suggest that ionization zones are regions of enhanced densities of electrons, and excited atoms and ions. Excited atoms and ions of the target material (Al) are strongly concentrated near the target surface. Images from the highest excitation energies exhibit the most localized regions, suggesting localized Ohmic heating consistent with double layer formation

  3. Production of a large diameter ECR plasma with low electron temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Mayuko; Hishikawa, Yasuhiro; Tsuchiya, Hayato; Kawai, Yoshinobu

    2006-01-01

    A large diameter plasma over 300 mm in diameter is produced by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharges using a cylindrical vacuum chamber of 400 mm in inner diameter. It is found that the plasma uniformity is improved by adding the nitrogen gas to pure Ar plasma. The electron temperature is decreased by adding the nitrogen gas. It is considered that the electron energy is absorbed in the vibrational energy of nitrogen molecules and the electron temperature decreases. Therefore, the adjunction of the nitrogen gas is considered to be effective for producing uniform and low electron temperature plasma

  4. Tailoring of materials by atomic oxygen from ECR plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, Munzer; Bhoraskar, S.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: An intense source of oxygen finds important applications in many areas of science, technology and industry. It has been successfully used for surface activation and cleaning in the electronic, chemical and automotive industries. Atomic oxygen and interaction with materials have also a significant importance in space science and technology. This paper describes the detailed studies related to the surface modification and processing of different materials, which include metals and polymers by atomic oxygen produced in microwave assisted electron cyclotron resonance plasma. The energy distribution of ions was measured as a function of plasma parameters and density measurements were supplemented by catalytic probe using nickel and oxidation of silver surface

  5. Observation of high-temperature bubbles in an ECR plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaka, K.; Yoshimura, S.; Tanaka, M. Y.

    2018-05-01

    Creation and annihilation of high-temperature bubbles have been observed in an electron cyclotron resonance plasma. The electron temperature in the bubble core is three times higher than that in the ambient region, and the size perpendicular to the magnetic field is much smaller than the plasma diameter. Formation of a bubble accompanies large negative spikes in the floating potential of a Langmuir probe, and the spatiotemporal behavior of the bubble has been visualized with a high-impedance wire grid detector. It is found that the bubble is in a prolate spheroidal shape with the axis along the magnetic field and occurs randomly in time and independently in space.

  6. Time evolution of plasma potential in pulsed operation of ECRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, O.; Koivisto, H.; Ropponen, T.; Toivanen, V.; Higurashi, Y.; Nakagawa, T.

    2012-01-01

    The time evolution of plasma potential has been measured with a retarding field analyzer in pulsed operation mode with electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at JYFL and RIKEN. Three different ion sources with microwave frequencies ranging from 6.4 to 18 GHz were employed for the experiments. The plasma potential was observed to increase 10-75 % during the Pre-glow and 10-30 % during the afterglow compared to steady state. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  7. First plasmas in the TJ-II flexible Heliac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejaldre, C.; Alonso, J.; Almoguera, L.; Ascasibar, E.; Baciero, A.; Balbin, R.; Blaumoser, M.; Botija, J.; Branas, B.; Cal, E. de la; Cappa, A.; Carrasco, R.; Castejon, F.; Cepero, J.R.; Cremy, C.; Doncel, J.; Dulya, C.; Estrada, T.; Fernandez, A.; Frances, M.; Fuentes, C.; Garcia, A.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Guasp, J.; Herranz, J.; Hidalgo, C.; Jimenez, J.A.; Kirpitchev, I.; Krivenski, V.; Labrador, I.; Lapayese, F.; Likin, K.; Liniers, M.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Lopez-Sanchez, A.; Luna, E. de la; Martin, R.; Martinez, A.; Medrano, M.; Mendez, P.; McCarthy, K.; Medina, F.; Milligen, B. van; Ochando, M.; Pacios, L.; Pastor, I.; Pedrosa, M.A.; Pena, A. de la; Portas, A.; Qin, J.; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, L.; Salas, A.; Sanchez, E.; Sanchez, J.; Tabares, F.; Tafalla, D.; Tribaldos, V.; Vega, J.; Zurro, B.; Akulina, D.; Fedyanin, O.I.; Grebenshchicov, S.; Kharchev, N.; Meshcheryakov, A.; Barth, R.; Dijk, G. van; Meiden, H. van der; Petrov, S.

    1999-01-01

    The first experimental campaign of the TJ-II stellarator has been conducted using electron cyclotron resonance heating (f=53.2 GHz, P ECRH approx. 250 kW) with a pulse length of Δt approx. (80-200) ms. The flexibility of the device has been used to study five different configurations varying plasma volume and rotational transform. In this paper, the main results of this campaign are presented and, in particular, the influence of plasma-wall interaction phenomena on TJ-II confinement is briefly discussed. (author)

  8. Dependence of Au- production upon the target work function in a plasma-sputter-type negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabe, Yushirou; Sasao, Mamiko; Fujita, Junji; Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Wada, Motoi.

    1991-01-01

    A method to measure the work function of the target surface in a plasma-sputter-type negative ion source has been developed. The method can determine the work function by measuring the photoelectric current induced by two lasers (He-Ne, Ar + laser). The dependence of Au - production upon the work function of the target surface in the ion source was studied using this method. The time variation of the target work function and Au - production rate were measured during the cesium coverage decrease due to the plasma ion sputtering. The observed minimum work function of a cesiated gold surface in an Ar plasma was 1.3 eV. At the same time, the negative ion production rate (Au - current/target current) took the maximum value. The negative ion production rate indicated the same dependence on the incident ion energy as that of the sputtering rate when the work function was constant. (author)

  9. Thin TiO2 films deposited by implantation and sputtering in RF inductively coupled plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia-Alvarado, R; López-Callejas, R; Barocio, S R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Muñoz-Castro, A E; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G; De la Piedad-Beneitez, A; De la Rosa-Vázquez, J M

    2012-01-01

    The achievement of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films in the rutile crystalline phase is reported. The samples result from the implantation of oxygen ions of Ti in argon/oxygen plasma generated by inductively coupled RF at a commercial 13.56 MHz frequency. Simultaneously, a sputtering process is conducted on the titanium target in order to produce TiO 2 thin films in the anatase phase over silicon and glass substrates. Both implantation and sputtering processes shared the same 500 W plasma with the target, polarized between 0 and -3 kV. The substrates were placed between 2 and 3 cm from the target, this distance being found to be determinant of the TiO 2 deposition rate. The rutile phase in the target was obtained at temperatures in the order of 680 degrees C and the anatase (unbiased) one at about 300 degrees C without any auxiliary heating. The crystalline phases were characterized by x ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The morphology and average roughness were established by means of scanning electronic and atomic force microscopy, whereas the reaction products generated during the oxidation process were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Finally, the stoichiometric composition was measured by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  10. Study of microwave components for an electron cyclotron resonance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The working .... high voltage isolation, and low microwave radiation leakage to environment. ... material as air to see the real effects under actual environment. ..... chamber was in safe operation towards the permissible limit of microwave ...

  11. MFTF electron cyclotron resonance heating conceptual design study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report presents conceptual designs, discusses research and development requirements, and provides schedule requirements and rough order of magnitude cost estimates for the ECRH system. Requirements for the basic equipment needed to implement the ECRH power generators and distribute the power have been developed. Conceptual approaches to the development and fabrication of such a system have been generated

  12. Electron-cyclotron resonance heating and current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filone, I.

    1992-01-01

    A brief summary of the theory and experiments on electron-cyclotron heating and current drive is presented. the general relativistic formulation of wave propagation and linear absorption is considered in some detail. The O-mode and the X-mode for normal and oblique propagation are investigated and illustrated by several examples. The experimental verification of the theory in T-10 and D-III-D is briefly discussed. Quasilinear evolution of the momentum distribution and related applications as, for instance, non linear wave damping and current drive, are also considered for special cases of wave frequencies, polarization and propagation. In the concluding section we present the general formulation of the wave damping and current drive in the absence of electron trapping for arbitrary values of the wave frequency. (author) 8 fig. 13 ref

  13. Feasibility of arc-discharge and plasma-sputtering methods in cleaning plasma-facing and diagnostics components of fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakola, Antti, E-mail: antti.hakola@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland); Likonen, Jari [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland); Karhunen, Juuso; Korhonen, Juuso T. [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University (Finland); Aints, Märt; Laan, Matti; Paris, Peeter [Department of Physics, University of Tartu (Estonia); Kolehmainen, Jukka; Koskinen, Mika; Tervakangas, Sanna [DIARC-Technology Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Feasibility of the arc-discharge and plasma-sputtering techniques in removing deposited layers from ITER-relevant samples demonstrated. • Samples with the size of an A4 paper can be cleaned from 1-μm thick deposited layers in 10–20 minutes by the arc-discharge method. • The plasma-sputtering method is 5–10 times slower but the resulting surfaces are very smooth. • Arc-discharge method could be used for rapid cleaning of plasma-facing components during maintenance shutdowns of ITER, plasma sputtering is preferred for diagnostics mirrors. - Abstract: We have studied the feasibility of arc-discharge and plasma-sputtering methods in removing deposited layers from ITER-relevant test samples. Prototype devices have been designed and constructed for the experiments and the cleaning process is monitored by a spectral detection system. The present version of the arc-discharge device is capable of removing 1-μm thick layers from 350-mm{sup 2} areas in 4–8 s, but due to the increased roughness of the cleaned surfaces and signs of local melting, mirror-like surfaces cannot be treated by this technique. The plasma-sputtering approach, for its part, is some 5–10 times slower in removing the deposited layers but no changes in surface roughness or morphology of the samples could be observed after the cleaning phase. The arc-discharge technique could therefore be used for rapid cleaning of plasma-facing components during maintenance shutdowns of ITER while in the case of diagnostics mirrors plasma sputtering is preferred.

  14. Surface modification of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) by argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hengjun; Pei Yanan; Xie Dong; Deng Xingrui; Leng, Y.X.; Jin Yong; Huang Nan

    2010-01-01

    In this work, argon (Ar) plasma generated by microwave electron cyclotron resonance (MWECR) has been used to modify the UHMWPE in order to increase the wear resistance. The results showed that the wettability, anti-scratch and wear resistance of UHMWPE treated by the Ar plasma had been improved, comparing with native UHMWPE. The FTIR and XPS spectra indicated the improvement of wettability should come from the oxygen based functional groups generated on the surface of UHMWPE. The improvement of anti-scratch and wear resistance may come from the enhancement of crosslinking of UHMWPE by Ar plasma treatment.

  15. Hydrogen and deuterium pellet injection into ohmically and additionally ECR-heated TFR plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drawin, H.W.

    1987-01-01

    The ablation clouds of hydrogen and deuterium pellets injected into ohmically and electron cyclotron resonance heated (ECRH) plasmas of the Fontenay-aux-Roses tokamak TFR have been photographed, their emission has been measured photoelectrically. Without ECRH the pellets penetrate deeply into the plasma, the clouds are striated. Injection during ECRH leads to ablation in the outer plasma region. The position of the ECR layer has no influence on the penetration depth which is only a few centimeters. The ablation clouds show no particular structure when ECRH is applied

  16. Hydrogen gas driven permeation through tungsten deposition layer formed by hydrogen plasma sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Keiichiro; Katayama, Kazunari; Date, Hiroyuki; Fukada, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • H permeation tests for W layer formed by H plasma sputtering are performed. • H permeation flux through W layer is larger than that through W bulk. • H diffusivity in W layer is smaller than that in W bulk. • The equilibrium H concentration in W layer is larger than that in W bulk. - Abstract: It is important to evaluate the influence of deposition layers formed on plasma facing wall on tritium permeation and tritium retention in the vessel of a fusion reactor from a viewpoint of safety. In this work, tungsten deposition layers having different thickness and porosity were formed on circular nickel plates by hydrogen RF plasma sputtering. Hydrogen permeation experiment was carried out at the temperature range from 250 °C to 500 °C and at hydrogen pressure range from 1013 Pa to 101,300 Pa. The hydrogen permeation flux through the nickel plate with tungsten deposition layer was significantly smaller than that through a bare nickel plate. This indicates that a rate-controlling step in hydrogen permeation was not permeation through the nickel plate but permeation though the deposition layer. The pressure dependence on the permeation flux differed by temperature. Hydrogen permeation flux through tungsten deposition layer is larger than that through tungsten bulk. From analysis of the permeation curves, it was indicated that hydrogen diffusivity in tungsten deposition layer is smaller than that in tungsten bulk and the equilibrium hydrogen concentration in tungsten deposition layer is enormously larger than that in tungsten bulk at same hydrogen pressure.

  17. Spatial survey of a magnetron plasma sputtering system using a Langmuir probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, D.J.; Dew, S.K.; Burrell, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    A two-dimensional spatial survey is conducted for a magnetron sputtering plasma at two pressures (40 and 5 mTorr) using a Langmuir probe. The plasma density is found to be highest (up to 6.0x10 10 cm -3 ) above the etch region of the cathode, near the magnetic trap. The density drops between the etch regions, near the edges of the cathode and also at distances farther away from the cathode. The floating potential was found to be most negative (down to -12 V) in regions where the highest electron temperatures were observed (up to almost 4 eV) and became less negative (near 0 V) in regions where the electron temperature was lowest (less than 0.5 eV). This complementary trend was consistent in all spatial locations and at both pressures. The plasma potential was found to have very weak dependence, if any, on spatial location and pressure. The relationship between electron transport processes, collision processes and electron temperatures is discussed. Electron energy distribution functions were found to be either Maxwellian or bi-Maxwellian in nature, depending on pressure and spatial location. Maxwellian distributions were found near the magnetic trap or source of the plasma. Bi-Maxwellian distributions were found further away from the source, and it appears they result from Maxwellian distributions bifurcating as they diffuse away from the source. The suitability of the popular models for this bifurcation is discussed

  18. Plasma analysis of inductively coupled impulse sputtering of Cu, Ti and Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, D. A. L.; Aranda Gonzalvo, Y.; Ehiasarian, A. P.

    2017-06-01

    Inductively coupled impulse sputtering (ICIS) is a new development in the field of highly ionised pulsed PVD processes. For ICIS the plasma is generated by an internal inductive coil, replacing the need for a magnetron. To understand the plasma properties, measurements of the current and voltage waveforms at the cathode were conducted. The ion energy distribution functions (IEDFs) were measured by energy resolved MS and plasma chemistry was analysed by OES and then compared to a model. The target was operated in pulsed DC mode and the coil was energised by pulsed RF power, with a duty cycle of 7.5%. At a constant pressure (14 Pa) the set peak RF power was varied from 1000-4000 W. The DC voltage to the target was kept constant at 1900 V. OES measurements have shown a monotonic increase in intensity with increasing power. Excitation and ionisation processes were single step for ICIS of Ti and Ni and multi-step for Cu. The latter exhibited an unexpectedly steep rise in ionisation efficiency with power. The IEDFs measured by MS show the material- and time-dependant plasma potential in the range of 10-30 eV, ideal for increased surface mobility without inducing lattice defects. A lower intensity peak, of high energetic ions, is visible at 170 eV during the pulse.

  19. Production of Au clusters by plasma gas condensation and their incorporation in oxide matrixes by sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, N. M.; Serra, R.; Manninen, N. K.; Cavaleiro, A.

    2018-05-01

    Gold clusters were produced by plasma gas condensation method and studied in great detail for the first time. The influence of argon flow, discharge power applied to the Au target and aggregation chamber length on the size distribution and deposition rate of Au clusters was evaluated. Au clusters with sizes between 5 and 65 nm were deposited with varying deposition rates and size dispersion curves. Nanocomposite Au-TiO2 and Au-Al2O3 coatings were then deposited by alternating sputtering. These coatings were hydrophobic and showed strong colorations due to the surface plasmon resonance effect. By simulating the optical properties of the nanocomposites it was possible to identify each individual contribution to the overall surface plasmon resonance signal. These coatings show great potential to be used as high performance localized surface plasmon resonance sensors or as robust self-cleaning decorative protective layers. The hybrid method used for depositing the nanocomposites offers several advantages over co-sputtering or thermal evaporation processes, since a broader range of particle sizes can be obtained (up to tens of nanometers) without the application of any thermal annealing treatments and the properties of clusters and matrix can be controlled separately.

  20. Comparative study of nanocomposites prepared by pulsed and dc sputtering combined with plasma polymerization suitable for photovoltaic device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Amreen A. [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati, Assam (India); Pal, Arup R., E-mail: arpal@iasst.gov.in [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati, Assam (India); Kar, Rajib [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Bailung, Heremba; Chutia, Joyanti [Physical Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati, Assam (India); Patil, Dinkar S. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2014-12-15

    Plasma processing, a single step method for production of large area composite films, is employed to deposit plasma polymerized aniline-Titanium dioxide (PPani-TiO{sub 2}) nanocomposite thin films. The deposition of PPani-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films are made using reactive magnetron sputtering and plasma polymerization combined process. This study focuses on the direct comparison between continuous and pulsed dc magnetron sputtering techniques of titanium in combination with rf plasma polymerization of aniline. The deposited PPani-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films are characterized and discussed in terms of structural, morphological and optical properties. A self powered hybrid photodetector has been developed by plasma based process. The proposed method provides a new route where the self-assembly of molecules, that is, the spontaneous association of atomic or molecular building blocks under plasma environment, emerge as a successful strategy to form well-defined structural and morphological units of nanometer dimensions. - Highlights: • PPani-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite by pulsed and dc sputtering with rf plasma polymerization. • In-situ and Ex-situ H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} doping in PPani-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite. • PPani-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite based self-powered-hybrid photodetector.

  1. Comparative study of nanocomposites prepared by pulsed and dc sputtering combined with plasma polymerization suitable for photovoltaic device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Amreen A.; Pal, Arup R.; Kar, Rajib; Bailung, Heremba; Chutia, Joyanti; Patil, Dinkar S.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma processing, a single step method for production of large area composite films, is employed to deposit plasma polymerized aniline-Titanium dioxide (PPani-TiO 2 ) nanocomposite thin films. The deposition of PPani-TiO 2 nanocomposite films are made using reactive magnetron sputtering and plasma polymerization combined process. This study focuses on the direct comparison between continuous and pulsed dc magnetron sputtering techniques of titanium in combination with rf plasma polymerization of aniline. The deposited PPani-TiO 2 nanocomposite films are characterized and discussed in terms of structural, morphological and optical properties. A self powered hybrid photodetector has been developed by plasma based process. The proposed method provides a new route where the self-assembly of molecules, that is, the spontaneous association of atomic or molecular building blocks under plasma environment, emerge as a successful strategy to form well-defined structural and morphological units of nanometer dimensions. - Highlights: • PPani-TiO 2 nanocomposite by pulsed and dc sputtering with rf plasma polymerization. • In-situ and Ex-situ H 2 SO 4 doping in PPani-TiO 2 nanocomposite. • PPani-TiO 2 nanocomposite based self-powered-hybrid photodetector

  2. Composite SiOx/hydrocarbon plasma polymer films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering of SiO2 and polyimide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drabik, M.; Kousal, J.; Pinosh, Y.; Choukourov, A.; Biederman, H.; Slavínská, D.; Macková, Anna; Boldyryeva, Hanna; Pešička, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 7 (2007), s. 920-927 ISSN 0042-207X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : composite films * magnetron * sputtering * polyimide * SiO2 Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.881, year: 2007

  3. Structural, optical and electrical peculiarities of r.f. plasma sputtered indium tin oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boycheva, Sylvia; Sytchkova, Anna Krasilnikova; Grilli, Maria Luisa; Piegari, Angela

    2007-01-01

    In this work the influence of the deposition conditions on the structural, electrical and optical properties of the ITO films was studied. Films were deposited by r.f. plasma sputtering technique in Ar and varying Ar + O 2 gas mixtures, with and without substrate heating. Transmittance and reflectance of the films were measured in the range 350-2500 nm; the refractive index (n) and the extinction coefficient (k) were calculated by the spectral data simulation. The sheet resistance of the films was measured by four-point probe method. X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to study the texture of the films. Threshold behaviour was observed in the optical and electrical properties of ITO films deposited in Ar + O 2 atmosphere at a certain oxygen concentration determined by a fix combination of all other deposition conditions. A schematic diagram for the change of the film properties versus composition was suggested, which explains the obtained results

  4. Peculiarities in film growth of ferroelectric complex oxides in ion-plasma sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhortov, V.M.; Golovko, Yu.I.; Mukhortov, Vl.M.; Dudkevich, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental investigation into the process of complex oxide film growth (using BaTiO 3 and (Ba,Sr)TiO 3 as an example) during ion-plasma sputtering has been carried out. It is shown that neutral excited atoms are knocked out of a ceramic target during its ion bombardment. Removing from the target they loss energy at the expence of collisions and at some distance hsub(cr) the oxidation reaction (BaO, TiO, TiO 2 , SrO) becomes possible. So the ''construction'' material comes in either in the form of atoms or in the form of molecules of simple oxides depending on a distance between cathode and substrate. Two mechanisms of synthesis and crystallization distinguished with dependences of growth rate, elementary cell parameters and other structure characteristics on precipitation temperature correspond to two precipitation mechanisms. Part of re-evaporation and reduction processes is discussed [ru

  5. Titanium dioxide (TIO2) thin film and plasma properties in RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Riyaz Ahmad Mohamed; Nayan, Nafarizal

    2013-01-01

    Lately, titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) films with anatase crystalline property received numerous attentions as unique material properties. There are wide applications of TiO 2 thin film such as for photocatalytic application in solar cell. In the present study, radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique has been used to produce high dense, homogeneously controllable film layer at low deposition temperature using titanium (Ti) target. The diameter of the Ti target is 3 inch with fixed discharge power of 400W. Magnetron sputtering plasma has been produced in high purity 99.99% Argon (Ar) and 99.99% Oxygen (O 2 ) environment pressure ranging from 5 to 20 mTorr. The TiO2 were growth on silicon and glass substrates. Substrate temperature during deposition was kept constant at 400°C. The distance between target and substrate holder was maintain at 14 cm with rotation of 10 rotation-per-minutes. Our X-ray diffraction result, shows anatase crystalline successfully formed with characterization peaks of plane (101) at 2θ = 25.28°, plane (202) at 2θ = 48.05° and plane (211) at 2θ = 55.06°. In addition, it is our interest to study the plasma properties and optical spectrum of Ti, Ti+ , O- , ArM and Ar+ in the chamber during the deposition process. Result of emission line intensities, electron density and temperature from optical spectroscope and Langmuir probe will be discuss further during the workshop. This works were supported by Graduate Incentive Scheme of Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) and Fundamental Research Grant Scheme of Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. (author)

  6. GYRO-INTERACTION OF MICROWAVES IN MAGNETO PLASMAS IN ATMOSPHERIC GASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasinga Rao, K. V.; Goldstein, L.

    1963-05-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance absorption of microwave energy by the electron gas in decaying magneto plasmas of oxygen and nitrogen gases is investigated. The technique of interaction of microwaves of diffent frequencies is utilized to measure the enhancement in electronic energy caused by resonance absorption. The results of these experiments show that the inelastic collisions of low energy electrons introduce a barrier for rapid heating of the electron gas. The implication of these results to the control of the ionospheric plasma parameters by radio frequency EM waves is discussed. (auth)

  7. Heating of polymer substrate by discharge plasma in radiofrequency magnetron sputtering deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirghi, Lucel; Popa, Gheorghe; Hatanaka, Yoshinori

    2006-01-01

    The substrate used for the thin film deposition in a radiofrequency magnetron sputtering deposition system is heated by the deposition plasma. This may change drastically the surface properties of the polymer substrates. Deposition of titanium dioxide thin films on polymethyl methacrylate and polycarbonate substrates resulted in buckling of the substrate surfaces. This effect was evaluated by analysis of atomic force microscopy topography images of the deposited films. The amount of energy received by the substrate surface during the film deposition was determined by a thermal probe. Then, the results of the thermal probe measurements were used to compute the surface temperature of the polymer substrate. The computation revealed that the substrate surface temperature depends on the substrate thickness, discharge power and substrate holder temperature. For the case of the TiO 2 film depositions in the radiofrequency magnetron plasma, the computation indicated substrate surface temperature values under the polymer melting temperature. Therefore, the buckling of polymer substrate surface in the deposition plasma may not be regarded as a temperature driven surface instability, but more as an effect of argon ion bombardment

  8. A High-Intensity, RF Plasma-Sputter Negative Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Bao, Y.; Cui, B.; Lohwasser, R.; Reed, C.A.; Zhang, T.

    1999-01-01

    A high-intensity, plasma-sputter negative-ion source based on the use of RF power for plasma generation has been developed that can be operated in either pulsed or dc modes. The source utilizes a high-Q, self-igniting, inductively coupled antenna system, operating at 80 MHz that has been optimized to generate Cs-seeded plasmas at low pressures (typically, - (610 microA); F - (100 microA); Si - (500 microA); S - (500 microA); P - (125 microA); Cl - (200 microA); Ni - (150 microA); Cu - (230 microA); Ge - (125 microA); As - (100 microA); Se - (200 microA); Ag - (70 microA); Pt - (125 microA); Au - (250 microA). The normalized emittance var e psilon n of the source at the 80% contour is: var e psilon n = 7.5 mm.mrad.(MeV) 1/2 . The design principles of the source, operational parameters, ion optics, emittance and intensities for a number of negative-ion species will be presented in this report

  9. Effect of plasma immersion on crystallinity of V2O5 film grown by dc reactive sputtering at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Hee; Kim, Joosun; Yoon, Young Soo

    2005-01-01

    Vanadium oxide thin films were grown at room temperature by direct current reactive sputtering. To investigate the effect of plasma immersion on the crystallinity of as-grown film, we immersed samples in plasma during the deposition process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements show that as-deposited thin films immersed in plasma are crystalline, whereas those not immersed in the plasma are amorphous. Images taken with scanning electron microscopy show that the surface of films exposed to plasma have a different morphology to the surface of films not exposed to plasma. The Li-intercalation feature of as-deposited films immersed in plasma shows the typical behavior of crystalline vanadium oxide; such behavior is unsuitable for the cathode of thin film batteries (TFBs). These results indicate that direct current plasma promotes the growth of crystalline vanadium oxide films

  10. An economic analysis of the deposition of electrochromic WO3 via sputtering or plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, D.; Henderson, P.B.; Hollingsworth, R.E.; Jensen, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    The costs of manufacturing electrochromic WO 3 thin films deposited by either radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or DC reactive magnetron sputtering of metal targets were modeled. Both inline systems for large area glass substrates and roll-to-roll systems for flexible webs were compared. Costs of capital, depreciation, raw materials, labor, power, and other miscellaneous items were accounted for in the model. The results predict that on similar sized systems, PECVD can produce electrochromic WO 3 for as little as one-third the cost, and have more than 10 times the annual production capacity of sputtering. While PECVD cost is dominated by raw materials, primarily WF 6 , sputtering cost is dominated by labor and depreciation

  11. An economic analysis of the deposition of electrochromic WO{sub 3} via sputtering or plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, D. [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., 7201 Hamilton Blvd., Allentown, PA 18195-7201 (United States); Henderson, P.B. [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., 7201 Hamilton Blvd., Allentown, PA 18195-7201 (United States)]. E-mail: henderpb@airproducts.co; Hollingsworth, R.E. [ITN Energy Systems Inc., 8130 Shaffer Pkwy, Littleton, CO 80127 (United States); Jensen, D.G. [ITN Energy Systems Inc., 8130 Shaffer Pkwy, Littleton, CO 80127 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    The costs of manufacturing electrochromic WO{sub 3} thin films deposited by either radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or DC reactive magnetron sputtering of metal targets were modeled. Both inline systems for large area glass substrates and roll-to-roll systems for flexible webs were compared. Costs of capital, depreciation, raw materials, labor, power, and other miscellaneous items were accounted for in the model. The results predict that on similar sized systems, PECVD can produce electrochromic WO{sub 3} for as little as one-third the cost, and have more than 10 times the annual production capacity of sputtering. While PECVD cost is dominated by raw materials, primarily WF{sub 6}, sputtering cost is dominated by labor and depreciation.

  12. Microwave Excitation In ECRIS plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciavola, G.; Celona, L.; Consoli, F.; Gammino, S.; Maimone, F.; Barbarino, S.; Catalano, R. S.; Mascali, D.; Tumino, L.

    2007-01-01

    A number of phenomena related to the electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) has been better understood recently by means of the improvement of comprehension of the coupling mechanism between microwave generators and ECR plasma. In particular, the two frequency heating and the frequency tuning effect, that permit a remarkable increase of the current for the highest charge states ions, can be explained in terms of modes excitation in the cylindrical cavity of the plasma chamber. Calculations based on this theoretical approach have been performed, and the major results will be presented. It will be shown that the electric field pattern completely changes for a few MHz frequency variations and the changes in ECRIS performances can be correlated to the efficiency of the power transfer between electromagnetic field and plasma

  13. Optical emission and mass spectroscopy of plasma processes in reactive DC pulsed magnetron sputtering of aluminium oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Michal; Bulíř, Jiří; Pokorný, Petr; Bočan, Jiří; Fitl, Přemysl; Lančok, Ján; Musil, Jindřich

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2010), 697-700 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100718; GA AV ČR KAN400100653; GA ČR GP202/09/P324 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : reactive magnetron sputtering * alumina * plasma spectroscopy * mass spectroscopy * optical emission spectroscopy Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.412, year: 2010

  14. Deuterium trapping in tungsten deposition layers formed by deuterium plasma sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimov, V.Kh.; Roth, J.; Shu, W.M.; Komarov, D.A.; Isobe, K.; Yamanishi, T.

    2010-01-01

    A study of the influence of the deposition conditions on the surface morphology and deuterium (D) concentration in tungsten (W) deposition layers formed by magnetron sputtering and in the linear plasma generator has been carried out. Thick W layers (≥0.4 μm) deposited onto copper substrates demonstrate areas of pilling and, after post-deposition heating to 1300 K, flaking-off and fracturing. For thin W layers (≤80 nm) deposited onto stainless steel (SS) and W substrates, no areas of flaking-off and fracturing exist both after deposition and after post-deposition heating to 673 K for the SS substrate and to 1300 K for the W substrate. The concentration of deuterium in the W layers was found to decrease with increasing substrate temperature and with increasing tungsten deposition rate. For layers with relatively high concentration of oxygen (0.20-0.60 O/W), a decrease of the D concentration with increasing substrate temperature is more pronounced than that for layers deposited in good vacuum conditions. To describe the evolution of the D/W ratio with the substrate temperature and the tungsten deposition rate, an empirical equation proposed by De Temmerman and Doerner [J. Nucl. Mater. 389 (2009) 479] but with alternative parameters has been used.

  15. Characteristics of growth of complex ferroelectric oxide films by plasma-ion sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhortov, V. M.; Golovko, Yu. I.; Mukhortov, Vl. M.; Dudkevich, V. P.

    1981-02-01

    An experimental investigation was made of the process of growth of a complex oxide film, such as BaTiO3 or (Ba, Sr)TiO3, by plasma-ion sputtering. It was found that ion bombardment of a ceramic target knocked out neutral excited atoms. These atoms lost energy away from the target by collisions and at a certain critical distance hcr they were capable of oxidation to produce BaO, TiO, TiO2, and SrO. Therefore, depending on the distance between the cathode and the substrate, the “construction” material arrived in the form of atoms or molecules of simple oxides. These two (atomic and molecular) deposition mechanisms corresponded to two mechanisms of synthesis and crystallization differing in respect of the dependences of the growth rate, unit cell parameters, and other structural properties on the deposition temperature. The role of re-evaporation and of oxidation-reduction processes was analyzed.

  16. A high-intensity plasma-sputter heavy negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Mori, Y.; Takagi, A.; Ueno, A.; Fukumoto, S.

    1989-01-01

    A multicusp magnetic field plasma surface ion source, normally used for H/sup /minus//ion beam formation, has been modified for the generation of high-intensity, pulsed, heavy negative ion beams suitable for a variety of uses. To date, the source has been utilized to produce mA intensity pulsed beams of more than 24 species. A brief description of the source, and basic pulsed-mode operational data, (e.g., intensity versus cesium oven temperature, sputter probe voltage, and discharge pressure), are given. In addition, illustrative examples of intensity versus time and the mass distributions of ion beams extracted from a number of samples along with emittance data, are also presented. Preliminary results obtained during dc operation of the source under low discharge power conditions suggest that sources of this type may also be used to produce high-intensity (mA) dc beams. The results of these investigations are given, as well, and the technical issues that must be addressed for this mode of operation are discussed. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Cluster ion formation during sputtering processes: a complementary investigation by ToF-SIMS and plasma ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welzel, T; Ellmer, K; Mändl, S

    2014-01-01

    Plasma ion mass spectrometry using a plasma process monitor (PPM) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) have been complementarily employed to investigate the sputtering and ion formation processes of Al-doped zinc oxide. By comparing the mass spectra, insights on ion formation and relative cross-sections have been obtained: positive ions as measured during magnetron sputtering by PPM are originating from the plasma while those in SIMS start at the surface leading to large differences in the mass spectra. In contrast, negative ions originating at the surface will be accelerated through the plasma sheath. They arrive at the PPM after traversing the plasma nearly collisionless as seen from the rather similar spectra. Hence, it is possible to combine the high mass resolution of ToF-SIMS to obtain insight for separating cluster ions, e.g. Zn x and ZnO y , and the energy resolution of PPM to find fragmentation patterns for negative ions. While the ion formation processes during both experiments can be assumed to be similar, differences may arise due to the lower volume probed by SIMS. In the latter case, there is a chance of small target inhomogeneities being able to be enhanced and lower surface temperatures leading to less outgassing and, thus, retention of volatile compounds. (paper)

  18. The O-X-B mode conversion scheme for ECRH of a high-density Tokamak plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, F. R.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul

    1985-01-01

    A method to apply electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) to a Tokamak plasma with central density higher than the critical density for cut-off of the ordinary mode (O-mode) has been investigated. This method involves two mode conversions, from an O-mode via an extraordinary mode (X......-mode) into an electron Bernstein mode (B-mode). Radial profiles for the power deposition and the wave-drive current due to the B-waves are calculated for realistic antenna radiation patterns with parameters corresponding to the Danish DANTE Tokamak and to Princeton's PLT....

  19. Sputtering yields and surface chemical modification of tin-doped indium oxide in hydrocarbon-based plasma etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hu; Karahashi, Kazuhiro; Hamaguchi, Satoshi, E-mail: hamaguch@ppl.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Fukasawa, Masanaga; Nagahata, Kazunori; Tatsumi, Tetsuya [Device and Material R& D Group, RDS Platform, Sony Corporation, Kanagawa 243-0014 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Sputtering yields and surface chemical compositions of tin-doped indium oxide (or indium tin oxide, ITO) by CH{sup +}, CH{sub 3}{sup +}, and inert-gas ion (He{sup +}, Ne{sup +}, and Ar{sup +}) incidence have been obtained experimentally with the use of a mass-selected ion beam system and in-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been found that etching of ITO is chemically enhanced by energetic incidence of hydrocarbon (CH{sub x}{sup +}) ions. At high incident energy incidence, it appears that carbon of incident ions predominantly reduce indium (In) of ITO and the ITO sputtering yields by CH{sup +} and CH{sub 3}{sup +} ions are found to be essentially equal. At lower incident energy (less than 500 eV or so), however, a hydrogen effect on ITO reduction is more pronounced and the ITO surface is more reduced by CH{sub 3}{sup +} ions than CH{sup +} ions. Although the surface is covered more with metallic In by low-energy incident CH{sub 3}{sup +} ions than CH{sup +} ions and metallic In is in general less resistant against physical sputtering than its oxide, the ITO sputtering yield by incident CH{sub 3}{sup +} ions is found to be lower than that by incident CH{sup +} ions in this energy range. A postulation to account for the relation between the observed sputtering yield and reduction of the ITO surface is also presented. The results presented here offer a better understanding of elementary surface reactions observed in reactive ion etching processes of ITO by hydrocarbon plasmas.

  20. Improved GAMMA 10 tandem mirror confinement in high density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsu, K.; Cho, T.; Higaki, H.; Hirata, M.; Hojo, H.; Ichimura, M.; Ishii, K.; Ishimoto, Y.; Itakura, A.; Katanuma, I.; Kohagura, J.; Minami, R.; Nakashima, Y.; Numakura, T.; Saito, T.; Saosaki, S.; Takemura, Y.; Tatematsu, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshikawa, M.

    2003-01-01

    GAMMA 10 experiments have advanced in high density experiments after the last IAEA fusion energy conference in 2000 where we reported the production of the high density plasma through use of ion cyclotron range of frequency heating at a high harmonic frequency and neutral beam injection in the anchor cells. However, the diamagnetic signal of the plasma decreased when electron cyclotron resonance heating was applied for the potential formation. Recently a high density plasma has been obtained without degradation of the diamagnetic signal and with much improved reproducibility than before. The high density plasma was attained through adjustment of the spacing of the conducting plates installed in the anchor transition regions. The potential confinement of the plasma has been extensively studied. Dependences of the ion confinement time, ion-energy confinement time and plasma confining potential on plasma density were obtained for the first time in the high density region up to a density of 4x10 18 m -3 . (author)

  1. A study of the plasma electronegativity in an argon-oxygen pulsed-dc sputter magnetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, S D; Dodd, R; Edwards, A; Bradley, J W

    2010-01-01

    Using Langmuir probe-assisted laser photodetachment, the temporal evolution of the O - density was determined in the bulk plasma of a unipolar pulsed-dc magnetron. The source was operated in reactive mode, at a fixed nominal on-time power of 100 W, sputtering Ti in argon-oxygen atmospheres at 1.3 Pa pressure, but over a variation of duty cycles from 5% to 50% and oxygen partial pressures of 10% and 50% of the total pressure. In the plasma on-time, for all duty cycles the negative ion density (n - ) rises marginally reaching values typically less than 2 x 10 15 m -3 with negative ion-to-electron density ratios, α - falls by about 20-30% as fast O - species created at the cathode exit the system. This is followed by a rapid rise in n - to values at least 2 or 3 times that in the on-time. The rate of rise of n - and its maximum value both increase with decreasing duty cycle. In the off-time, the electron density falls rapidly (initial decay rates of several tens of μs), and therefore the afterglow plasma becomes highly electronegative, with α reaching 4.6 and 14.4 for 10% and 50% oxygen partial pressure, respectively. The rapid rise in n - in the afterglow (in which the electron temperature falls from about 5 to 0.5 eV) is attributed to the dissociative attachment of highly excited oxygen metastables, which themselves are created in the pulse on-time. At the lowest duty of 5%, the long-term O - decay times are several hundred μs. Langmuir probe characteristics show the clear signature that negative ions dominate over the electrons in the off-time. From the ion and electron saturation current ratios, α has been estimated in some chosen cases and found to agree within a factor between 2 and 10 with those obtained more directly from the photodetachment method.

  2. Properties of Erbium Doped Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Layers Fabricated by Sputtering and Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Prajzler

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report about properties of carbon layers doped with Er3+ ions fabricated by Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition (PACVD and by sputtering on silicon or glass substrates. The structure of the samples was characterized by X-ray diffraction and their composition was determined by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy and Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis. The Absorbance spectrum was taken in the spectral range from 400 nm to 600 nm. Photoluminescence spectra were obtained using two types of Ar laser (λex=514.5 nm, lex=488 nm and also using a semiconductor laser (λex=980 nm. Samples fabricated by magnetron sputtering exhibited typical emission at 1530 nm when pumped at 514.5 nm. 

  3. Fabrication and characterization of He-charged ODS-FeCrNi films deposited by a radio-frequency plasma magnetron sputtering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liang; Wang, Xianping; Wang, Le; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Wang; Jiang, Weibing; Zhang, Tao; Fang, Qianfeng; Liu, Changsong

    2017-04-01

    He-charged oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrNi films were prepared by a radio-frequency (RF) plasma magnetron sputtering method in a He and Ar mixed atmosphere at 150 °C. As a comparison, He-charged FeCrNi films were also fabricated at the same conditions through direct current (DC) plasma magnetron sputtering. The doping of He atoms and Y2O3 in the FeCrNi films was realized by the high backscattered rate of He ions and Y2O3/FeCrNi composite target sputtering method, respectively. Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the existence of Y2O3 in FeCrNi films, and Y2O3 content hardly changed with sputtering He/Ar ratio. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the FeCrNi films were composed of dense columnar nanocrystallines and the thickness of the films was obviously dependent on He/Ar ratio. Nanoindentation measurements revealed that the FeCrNi films fabricated through DC/RF plasma magnetron sputtering methods exhibited similar hardness values at each He/Ar ratio, while the dispersion of Y2O3 apparently increased the hardness of the films. Elastic recoil detection (ERD) showed that DC/RF magnetron sputtered FeCrNi films contained similar He amounts (˜17 at.%). Compared with the minimal change of He level with depth in DC-sputtered films, the He amount decreases gradually in depth in the RF-sputtered films. The Y2O3-doped FeCrNi films were shown to exhibit much smaller amounts of He owing to the lower backscattering possibility of Y2O3 and the inhibition effect of nano-sized Y2O3 particles on the He element.

  4. Plasma heating due to X-B mode conversion in a cylindrical ECR plasma system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, V.K.; Bora, D. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2004-07-01

    Extra Ordinary (X) mode conversion to Bernstein wave near Upper Hybrid Resonance (UHR) layer plays an important role in plasma heating through cyclotron resonance. Wave generation at UHR and parametric decay at high power has been observed during Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heating experiments in toroidal magnetic fusion devices. A small linear system with ECR and UHR layer within the system has been used to conduct experiments on X-B conversion and parametric decay process as a function of system parameters. Direct probing in situ is conducted and plasma heating is evidenced by soft x-ray emission measurement. Experiments are performed with hydrogen plasma produced with 160-800 W microwave power at 2.45 GHz of operating frequency at 10{sup -3} mbar pressure. The axial magnetic field required for ECR is such that the resonant surface (B = 875 G) is situated at the geometrical axis of the plasma system. Experimental results will be presented in the paper. (authors)

  5. Distribution of Fe atom density in a dc magnetron sputtering plasma source measured by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibagaki, K.; Nafarizal, N.; Sasaki, K.; Toyoda, H.; Iwata, S.; Kato, T.; Tsunashima, S.; Sugai, H.

    2003-10-01

    Magnetron sputtering discharge is widely used as an efficient method for thin film fabrication. In order to achieve the optimized fabrication, understanding of the kinetics in plasmas is essential. In the present work, we measured the density distribution of sputtered Fe atoms using laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy. A dc magnetron plasma source with a Fe target was used. An area of 20 × 2 mm in front of the target was irradiated by a tunable laser beam having a planar shape. The picture of laser-induced fluorescence on the laser beam was taken using an ICCD camera. In this way, we obtained the two-dimensional image of the Fe atom density. As a result, it has been found that the Fe atom density observed at a distance of several centimeters from the target is higher than that adjacent to the target, when the Ar gas pressure was relatively high. It is suggested from this result that some gas-phase production processes of Fe atoms are available in the plasma. This work has been performed under the 21st Century COE Program by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan.

  6. Electron current extraction from a permanent magnet waveguide plasma cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weatherford, B. R.; Foster, J. E. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Kamhawi, H. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio 44135 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    An electron cyclotron resonance plasma produced in a cylindrical waveguide with external permanent magnets was investigated as a possible plasma cathode electron source. The configuration is desirable in that it eliminates the need for a physical antenna inserted into the plasma, the erosion of which limits operating lifetime. Plasma bulk density was found to be overdense in the source. Extraction currents over 4 A were achieved with the device. Measurements of extracted electron currents were similar to calculated currents, which were estimated using Langmuir probe measurements at the plasma cathode orifice and along the length of the external plume. The influence of facility effects and trace ionization in the anode-cathode gap are also discussed.

  7. Surface interaction of polyimide with oxygen ECR plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M.; Balasubramanian, C.; Alegaonkar, P.S.; Bhoraskar, V.N.; Mandle, A.B.; Ganeshan, V.; Bhoraskar, S.V.

    2004-01-01

    Polyimide (Kapton-H), was subjected to atomic oxygen from an electron cyclotron resonance plasma. An optical emission spectrometer was used to characterize the atomic oxygen produced in the reactor chamber. The energy of the ions was measured using a retarding field analyzer, placed near the substrate. The density of atomic oxygen in the plasma was estimated using a nickel catalytic probe. The surface wettability of the polyimide samples monitored by contact angle measurements showed considerable improvement when treated with plasma. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies showed that the atomic oxygen in the plasma is the main specie affecting the surface chemistry and adhesion properties of polyimide. The improvement in the surface wettability is attributed to the high degree of cross-linking and large concentration of polar groups generated in the surface region of polyimide, after plasma treatment. The changes in the surface region of polyimide were observed by atomic force microscopic analysis

  8. Surface interaction of polyimide with oxygen ECR plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, M.; Balasubramanian, C.; Alegaonkar, P. S.; Bhoraskar, V. N.; Mandle, A. B.; Ganeshan, V.; Bhoraskar, S. V.

    2004-07-01

    Polyimide (Kapton-H), was subjected to atomic oxygen from an electron cyclotron resonance plasma. An optical emission spectrometer was used to characterize the atomic oxygen produced in the reactor chamber. The energy of the ions was measured using a retarding field analyzer, placed near the substrate. The density of atomic oxygen in the plasma was estimated using a nickel catalytic probe. The surface wettability of the polyimide samples monitored by contact angle measurements showed considerable improvement when treated with plasma. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies showed that the atomic oxygen in the plasma is the main specie affecting the surface chemistry and adhesion properties of polyimide. The improvement in the surface wettability is attributed to the high degree of cross-linking and large concentration of polar groups generated in the surface region of polyimide, after plasma treatment. The changes in the surface region of polyimide were observed by atomic force microscopic analysis.

  9. Modification of the electronic properties of As2Se3 films by erbium using ion-plasma sputtering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prikhodko, O.Yu.; Sarsembinov, Sh.Sh.; Ryaguzov, A.P.; Maksimova, S.Ya.; Chuprynin, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    At present one of the vital problems of semiconductor materials studies is production of new light emitting materials for fiber optics, namely for light-emitting diode, emitting at room temperature in the range of minimum absorption of quartz optic fiber. It is well-known that heterostructures based on amorphous semiconductors, containing large concentrations of rare-earth elements have such properties. The method of ion-plasma co-sputtering (IPCM) of the original and doping materials allows us to obtain amorphous semiconductor films with large impurity concentration. This method was used to produce amorphous films of chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors (ChVS), doped with impurities of different chemical nature. But the capability of IPCM for ChVS doping with rare-earth elements has not been studied well yet. Therefore it is interesting to obtain amorphous films of arsenic selenide doped with erbium using IPCM and study its electronic properties. The films were produced using high frequency (13.56 MHz) ion-plasma co-sputtering of combined target of vitreous As 2 Se 3 and a metal. The sputtering of the target was conducted in argon atmosphere. Er concentration in the films varied between 0 and 4 atomic percent. Amorphism of the structure of the obtained films was monitored using X-ray diffraction methods. Electrical and optical properties of Er-doped As 2 Se 3 films and the charge carrier transportation processes were studied. It was determined that doped films significantly differ from the pure ones in the values of main electronic parameters: conductivity, energy activation of conductivity, optical band-gap, drift mobility of electrons and holes and mobility activation energy. Note that common rules of change of electronic parameters of As 2 Se 3 films affected by Er doping agree with the rules, established during modification of As 2 Se 3 films with dopes of transition metals with incomplete 3d-shell (Fe, Ni). Analysis of the obtained results showed that doing

  10. Spectroscopic ellipsometry on Si/SiO2/graphene tri-layer system exposed to downstream hydrogen plasma: Effects of hydrogenation and chemical sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eren, Baran; Fu, Wangyang; Marot, Laurent; Calame, Michel; Steiner, Roland; Meyer, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the optical response of graphene to hydrogen plasma treatment is investigated with spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Although the electronic transport properties and Raman spectrum of graphene change after plasma hydrogenation, ellipsometric parameters of the Si/SiO2/graphene tri-layer system do not change. This is attributed to plasma hydrogenated graphene still being electrically conductive, since the light absorption of conducting 2D materials does not depend on the electronic band structure. A change in the light transmission can only be observed when higher energy hydrogen ions (30 eV) are employed, which chemically sputter the graphene layer. An optical contrast is still apparent after sputtering due to the remaining traces of graphene and hydrocarbons on the surface. In brief, plasma treatment does not change the light transmission of graphene; and when it does, this is actually due to plasma damage rather than plasma hydrogenation

  11. Spectroscopic ellipsometry on Si/SiO{sub 2}/graphene tri-layer system exposed to downstream hydrogen plasma: Effects of hydrogenation and chemical sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eren, Baran [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Fu, Wangyang; Marot, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.marot@unibas.ch; Calame, Michel; Steiner, Roland; Meyer, Ernst [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-01-05

    In this work, the optical response of graphene to hydrogen plasma treatment is investigated with spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Although the electronic transport properties and Raman spectrum of graphene change after plasma hydrogenation, ellipsometric parameters of the Si/SiO2/graphene tri-layer system do not change. This is attributed to plasma hydrogenated graphene still being electrically conductive, since the light absorption of conducting 2D materials does not depend on the electronic band structure. A change in the light transmission can only be observed when higher energy hydrogen ions (30 eV) are employed, which chemically sputter the graphene layer. An optical contrast is still apparent after sputtering due to the remaining traces of graphene and hydrocarbons on the surface. In brief, plasma treatment does not change the light transmission of graphene; and when it does, this is actually due to plasma damage rather than plasma hydrogenation.

  12. Copper deposition on fabrics by rf plasma sputtering for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura, G; Guzmán, P; Barrantes, Y; Navarro, G; Asenjo, J; Guadamuz, S; Vargas, VI; Zuñiga, P; Chaves, S; Chaves, J

    2015-01-01

    The present work is about preparation and characterization of RF sputtered Cu films on cotton by the usage of a Magnetron Sputter Source and 99.995% purity Cu target at room temperature. Cotton fabric samples of 1, 2 and 4 min of sputtering time at discharge pressure of 1×10 −2 Torr and distance between target and sample of 8 cm were used. The main goal was to qualitatively test the antimicrobial action of copper on fabrics. For that purpose, a reference strain of Escherichia Coli ATCC 35218 that were grown in TSA plates was implemented. Results indicated a decrease in the growth of bacteria by contact with Cu; for fabric samples with longer sputtering presented lower development of E. coli colonies. The scope of this research focused on using these new textiles in health field, for example socks can be made with this textile for the treatment of athlete's foot and the use in pajamas, sheets, pillow covers and robes in hospital setting for reducing the spread of microorganisms. (paper)

  13. Thin films of thermoelectric compound Mg2Sn deposited by co-sputtering assisted by multi-dipolar microwave plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le-Quoc, H.; Lacoste, A.; Hlil, E.K.; Bes, A.; Vinh, T. Tan; Fruchart, D.; Skryabina, N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Mg 2 Sn thin films deposited by plasma co-sputtering, on silicon and glass substrates. → Formation of nano-grained polycrystalline films on substrates at room temperature. → Structural properties vary with target biasing and target-substrate distance. → Formation of the hexagonal phase of Mg 2 Sn in certain deposition conditions. → Power factor ∼5.0 x 10 -3 W K -2 m -1 for stoichiometric Mg 2 Sn films doped with ∼1 at.% Ag. - Abstract: Magnesium stannide (Mg 2 Sn) thin films doped with Ag intended for thermoelectric applications are deposited on both silicon and glass substrates at room temperature by plasma assisted co-sputtering. Characterization by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction confirms the formation of fine-grained polycrystalline thin films with thickness of 1-3 μm. Stoichiometry, microstructure and crystal structure of thin films are found to vary with target biasing and the distance from targets to substrate. Measurements of electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient at room temperature show the maximum power factor of ∼5.0 x 10 -3 W K -2 m -1 for stoichiometric Mg 2 Sn thin films doped with ∼1 at.% Ag.

  14. Impact of Plasma Electron Flux on Plasma Damage-Free Sputtering of Ultrathin Tin-Doped Indium Oxide Contact Layer on p-GaN for InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kwang Jeong; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Cha, Yu-Jung; Oh, Seung Kyu; You, Shin-Jae; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Kwak, Joon Seop

    2018-02-01

    The origin of plasma-induced damage on a p -type wide-bandgap layer during the sputtering of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) contact layers by using radiofrequency-superimposed direct current (DC) sputtering and its effects on the forward voltage and light output power (LOP) of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with sputtered ITO transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) is systematically studied. Changing the DC power voltage from negative to positive bias reduces the forward voltages and enhances the LOP of the LEDs. The positive DC power drastically decreases the electron flux in the plasma obtained by plasma diagnostics using a cutoff probe and a Langmuir probe, suggesting that the repulsion of plasma electrons from the p -GaN surface can reduce plasma-induced damage to the p -GaN. Furthermore, electron-beam irradiation on p -GaN prior to ITO deposition significantly increases the forward voltages, showing that the plasma electrons play an important role in plasma-induced damage to the p -GaN. The plasma electrons can increase the effective barrier height at the ITO/deep-level defect (DLD) band of p -GaN by compensating DLDs, resulting in the deterioration of the forward voltage and LOP. Finally, the plasma damage-free sputtered-ITO TCE enhances the LOP of the LEDs by 20% with a low forward voltage of 2.9 V at 20 mA compared to LEDs with conventional e-beam-evaporated ITO TCE.

  15. Hysteresis behaviour of silver sputtered in different plasma atmospheres at constant flow rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizk, A.; Makar, L.N.; Rizk, N.S.; Shinoda, R.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of ion bombardment on sputtering behaviour of pure silver targets in inert and active gas atmospheres were investigated, using a dc planar magnetron sputtering system. The obtained current-voltage characteristics showed the formation of hysteresis loops without noticeable sharp transitions. Redeposited layers of silver nitride or silver oxide on the target surface when using nitrogen or oxygen in the glow discharge, residual ionization when using dry argon atmosphere were considered the main reasons for the occurrence of these loops. The results indicate that films of AgN x and AgO x can be deposited with controlled x in the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 using voltage control at constant gas flow rates. (author)

  16. Microwave plasma for materials treatment; Plasmas de microondas para tratamiento de materiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camps, E.; Garcia, J.L.; Muhl, S.; Alvarez F, O.; Chavez C, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The microwave discharges of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance (Ecr) type are capable to generate plasma with relatively high ionization coefficients which can vary between 1 and 10 % also they are realized in low pressures at 10 {sup -4} Torr. order generating at this time high concentrations of neutral excited chemical species which result in that the chemical processes can be realized with much greater velocity as in another systems. In this work it was studied and characterized a microwave discharge type Ecr using for this electric probes and optical emission spectroscopy. The characterization was carried out with the purpose of optimizing the plasma parameters and to establish a control over the same one doing so that the experiments have a greater reproducibility and a major work efficiency. (Author)

  17. Flow structure formation in an ion-unmagnetized plasma: The HYPER-II experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaka, K.; Tanaka, M. Y.; Yoshimura, S.; Aramaki, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kawazu, F.; Furuta, K.; Takatsuka, N.; Masuda, M.; Nakano, R.

    2015-01-01

    The HYPER-II device has been constructed in Kyushu University to investigate the flow structure formation in an ion-unmagnetized plasma, which is an intermediate state of plasma and consists of unmagnetized ions and magnetized electrons. High density plasmas are produced by electron cyclotron resonance heating, and the flow field structure in an inhomogeneous magnetic field is investigated with a directional Langmuir probe method and a laser-induced fluorescence method. The experimental setup has been completed and the diagnostic systems have been installed to start the experiments. A set of coaxial electrodes will be introduced to control the azimuthal plasma rotation, and the effect of plasma rotation to generation of rectilinear flow structure will be studied. The HYPER-II experiments will clarify the overall flow structure in the inhomogeneous magnetic field and contribute to understanding characteristic feature of the intermediate state of plasma.

  18. Nucleation of ultrathin silver layer by magnetron sputtering in Ar/N2 plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bulíř, Jiří; Novotný, Michal; Lančok, Ján; Fekete, Ladislav; Drahokoupil, Jan; Musil, Jindřich

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 228, č. 1 (2013), S86-S90 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1298; GA ČR GP202/09/P324 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ultrathin silver * magnetron sputtering * spectral ellipsometry * in-situ monitoring Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.199, year: 2013

  19. Far-and mid-infrared properties of carbon layers elaborated by plasma sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, Benoit, E-mail: benoit.rousseau@univ-nantes.fr [Université de Nantes, CNRS, LTN UMR6607, La Chantrerie, Rue Christian Pauc, B.P. 50609, F-44306 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Ammar, Mohamed Ramzi; Bormann, Denis; Simon, Patrick [CNRS, CEMHTI UPR3079, Université d' Orléans, F-55071 (France); Rabat, Hervé; Brault, Pascal [Université d' Orléans, CNRS, GREMI UMR7344, BP 6744, F-45067 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Magnetron sputtering deposition of columnar, disordered carbon films. • Sputtered carbon films infrared properties are dependent on the local order. • Film texture at the micro-nanoscale explains difference of optical properties. - Abstract: The far-and mid-infrared reflectivity spectra of two carbon layers deposited on pure (100) silicon substrates by DC magnetron sputtering were investigated at room temperature in the 10–5000 cm{sup −1} wavenumber range. Their structural and textural features were also studied by combining Raman spectroscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS). The set of results was used to discuss afterwards the influence of the texture on the infrared properties at varying length scale. Thereby, the two layers were found to be heterogeneous as assessed by RBS, XRR and FESEM and their thicknesses had been measured by XRR and FESEM. The information on the structural organization and “crystallite” size was given by Raman spectroscopy. The influence of both the textural and structural parameters on the measured infrared reflectivity spectra was discussed. Finally, a methodology was proposed to recover the intrinsic index of refraction and the intrinsic index of absorption of each layer.

  20. FDTD simulation of radar cross section reduction by a collisional inhomogeneous magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan, V.; Azarmanesh, M. N.; Foroutan, G.

    2018-02-01

    The recursive convolution finite difference time domain method is addressed in the scattered field formulation and employed to investigate the bistatic radar cross-section (RCS) of a square conductive plate covered by a collisional inhomogeneous magnetized plasma. The RCS is calculated for two different configurations of the magnetic field, i.e., parallel and perpendicular to the plate. The results of numerical simulations show that, for a perpendicularly applied magnetic field, the backscattered RCS is significantly reduced when the magnetic field intensity coincides with the value corresponding to the electron cyclotron resonance. By increasing the collision frequency, the resonant absorption is suppressed, but due to enhanced wave penetration and bending, the reduction in the bistatic RCS is improved. At very high collision frequencies, the external magnetic field has no significant impact on the bistatic RCS reduction. Application of a parallel magnetic field has an adverse effect near the electron cyclotron resonance and results in a large and asymmetric RCS profile. But, the problem is resolved by increasing the magnetic field and/or the collision frequency. By choosing proper values of the collision frequency and the magnetic field intensity, a perpendicular magnetic field can be effectively used to reduce the bistatic RCS of a conductive plate.

  1. Temperature dependence of InN film deposition by an RF plasma-assisted reactive ion beam sputtering deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Hiroyuki; Mutsukura, Nobuki

    2005-01-01

    Indium nitride (InN) films were deposited on Si(100) substrates using a radiofrequency (RF) plasma-assisted reactive ion beam sputtering deposition technique at various substrate temperatures. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the InN films suggest that the InN films deposited at substrate temperatures up to 370 deg C were cubic crystalline InN; and at 500 deg C, the InN film was hexagonal crystalline InN. In a scanning electron microscope image of the InN film surface, facets of cubic single-crystalline InN grains were clearly observed on the InN film deposited at 370 deg C. The inclusion of metallic indium appeared on the InN film deposited at 500 deg C

  2. Evolution of transverse instability in a hollow cylindrical weakly-ionized plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuedyan, H.M.

    1978-01-01

    Having observed formation of plasma striations in an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) device, we have studied the conditions under which the hollow cylindrical plasma columns would develop into striations. We first present the observed conditions of the hollow cylindrical plasma which would develop into plasma striations, the measured characteristics of the transverse oscillations and a simple small signal model for a transverse instability in a weakly-ionized hollow cylindrical plasma. This linearized model, which assumes flowing cold ion fluid (T/sub i/ approximately < 0.1 eV) in warm electron fluid (T/sub e/ approximately 1 eV) and background neutrals, reveals a transverse flute-type electrostatic instability whose characteristics are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the measured values of the oscillations in our experiment

  3. Valency and type conversion in CuInSe2 with H2 plasma exposure: A photoemission investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, A.J.; Frigo, S.P.; Rosenberg, R.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of H 2 plasma exposure on CuInSe 2 was studied by synchrotron radiation soft-x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The low-power H 2 plasma was generated with a commercial electron cyclotron resonance plasma source using pure H 2 with the plasma exposure being performed at 200 degree C. In situ photoemission measurements were acquired after each plasma exposure in order to observe changes in the valence-band electronic structure as well as changes in the In 4d and Se 3d core lines. The results were correlated in order to relate changes in surface chemistry to the electronic structure. These measurements indicate that the H 2 plasma exposure type converts the CuInSe 2 surface to an n-type surface as well as converting the In +3 valency state to an In +1 valency state

  4. Influence of plasma pressure on the growth characteristics and ferroelectric properties of sputter-deposited PZT thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, A.; Maity, T.; Bysakh, S.; Seal, A.; Sen, Suchitra

    2010-01-01

    PZT thin films of thickness (320-1040) nm were synthesized on Si/SiO 2 /Ti/Pt multilayered substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The influence of plasma pressure in the range of (0.24-4.9) Pa, during deposition, on the structural, electrical and ferroelectric properties of the PZT films was systematically studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) were employed for structural study. Nano-probe Energy Dispersive (EDX) line scanning was employed to investigate the elemental distribution across the film-bottom electrode interface. I-V characteristics and polarization-electric field (P-E) hysteresis loop of the films were measured. The study reveals that the plasma pressure has a strong influence on the evolution and texture of the ferroelectric perovskite phase and microstructure of the films. At an optimum plasma pressure of 4.1 Pa, PZT films are grown with 93% perovskite phase with (1 1 1) preferred orientation and uniform granular microstructure. These films show a saturation polarization of 67 μC/cm 2 , remnant polarization of 30 μC/cm 2 and coercive field of 28 kV/cm which, according to the literature, seem to be suitable for device applications. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study shows that at a plasma pressure of 4.1 Pa, the PZT/bottom Pt interface is sharp and no amorphous interlayer is formed at the interface. At a higher plasma pressure of 4.9 Pa, poor I-V and P-E hysteresis loop are observed which are interpreted as due to an amorphous interlayer at the film-bottom electrode interface which is possibly enriched in Pb, Zr, O and Pt.

  5. Modelling RF-plasma interaction in ECR ion sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascali David

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes three-dimensional self-consistent numerical simulations of wave propagation in magnetoplasmas of Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS. Numerical results can give useful information on the distribution of the absorbed RF power and/or efficiency of RF heating, especially in the case of alternative schemes such as mode-conversion based heating scenarios. Ray-tracing approximation is allowed only for small wavelength compared to the system scale lengths: as a consequence, full-wave solutions of Maxwell-Vlasov equation must be taken into account in compact and strongly inhomogeneous ECRIS plasmas. This contribution presents a multi-scale temporal domains approach for simultaneously including RF dynamics and plasma kinetics in a “cold-plasma”, and some perspectives for “hot-plasma” implementation. The presented results rely with the attempt to establish a modal-conversion scenario of OXB-type in double frequency heating inside an ECRIS testbench.

  6. An RF heated tandem mirror plasma propulsion study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T. F.; Yao, X.; Peng, S.; Krueger, W. A.; Chang-Diaz, F. R.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental results on a tandem mirror hybrid plume rocket involving a three-stage system of plasma injection, heating, and subsequent injection through a magnetic nozzle are presented. In the experiments, a plasma is created by breaking down the gas with electron cyclotron resonance heating at 2 kW in the central cell, and the ion species is then heated to high temperatures with ion cyclotron resonance heating at 10 kW in the end cell. A Langmuir probe measured an electron density of 2.5 x 10 to the 16th/cu m and a temperature of 100 eV in the central cell and an ion density of 1.25 x 10 to the 17th/cu m and a temperature of 500 eV in the end cell.

  7. Studies of plasma breakdown and electron heating on a 14 GHz ECR ion source through measurement of plasma bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropponen, T; Machicoane, G; Leitner, D [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, MSU, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Tarvainen, O; Toivanen, V; Koivisto, H; Kalvas, T; Peura, P; Jones, P [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, PO Box 35 (YFL), 40500 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Izotov, I; Skalyga, V; Zorin, V [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ulyanov St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Noland, J, E-mail: tommi.ropponen@gmail.com, E-mail: olli.tarvainen@jyu.fi [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Temporal evolution of plasma bremsstrahlung emitted by a 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) operated in pulsed mode is presented in the energy range 1.5-400 keV with 100 {mu}s resolution. Such a high temporal resolution together with this energy range has never been measured before with an ECRIS. Data are presented as a function of microwave power, neutral gas pressure, magnetic field configuration and seed electron density. The saturation time of the bremsstrahlung count rate is almost independent of the photon energy up to 100 keV and exhibits similar characteristics with the neutral gas balance. The average photon energy during the plasma breakdown is significantly higher than that during the steady state and depends strongly on the density of seed electrons. The results are consistent with a theoretical model describing the evolution of the electron energy distribution function during the preglow transient.

  8. Microwave frequency sweep interferometer for plasma density measurements in ECR ion sources: Design and preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, Giuseppe [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria (Italy); Mascali, David; Neri, Lorenzo; Leonardi, Ornella; Celona, Luigi; Castro, Giuseppe; Agnello, Riccardo; Caruso, Antonio; Passarello, Santi; Longhitano, Alberto; Gammino, Santo [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Sorbello, Gino [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); University of Catania, Catania, Italy and INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy); Isernia, Tommaso [University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    The Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRISs) development is strictly related to the availability of new diagnostic tools, as the existing ones are not adequate to such compact machines and to their plasma characteristics. Microwave interferometry is a non-invasive method for plasma diagnostics and represents the best candidate for plasma density measurement in hostile environment. Interferometry in ECRISs is a challenging task mainly due to their compact size. The typical density of ECR plasmas is in the range 10{sup 11}–10{sup 13} cm{sup −3} and it needs a probing beam wavelength of the order of few centimetres, comparable to the chamber radius. The paper describes the design of a microwave interferometer developed at the LNS-INFN laboratories based on the so-called “frequency sweep” method to filter out the multipath contribution in the detected signals. The measurement technique and the preliminary results (calibration) obtained during the experimental tests will be presented.

  9. Investigation of edge plasmas in the anchor cell region of GAMMA 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Khairul; Nakashima, Yousuke; Yatsu, Kiyoshi

    2000-01-01

    The first results of Langmuir probe measurements at the outer transition region of the anchor cell of GAMMA 10 are given. A probe current asymmetry in vertical direction is found in this region. It is also found that the asymmetry of probe current increases in outward direction and the direction of the asymmetry is independent on movable limiter position. A relation of the plasma asymmetry with the main magnetic field configuration is investigated. Plasma flow through the non-asymmetric magnetic field configuration region is thought to be the source of plasma asymmetry in this region, i.e., ∇B and curvature drifts are responsible for the asymmetry. Possibility of cold plasma formation in the anchor cell region is obtained during plug electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and can be explained with the desorption of particles due to the collision of the drifted out particles with the wall. (author)

  10. Comparison of gate dielectric plasma damage from plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited and magnetron sputtered TiN metal gates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, Christopher J.; Neumann, Christopher M.; Vitale, Steven A., E-mail: steven.vitale@ll.mit.edu [Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lexington, Massachusetts 02420 (United States)

    2015-07-28

    Fully depleted silicon-on-insulator transistors were fabricated using two different metal gate deposition mechanisms to compare plasma damage effects on gate oxide quality. Devices fabricated with both plasma-enhanced atomic-layer-deposited (PE-ALD) TiN gates and magnetron plasma sputtered TiN gates showed very good electrostatics and short-channel characteristics. However, the gate oxide quality was markedly better for PE-ALD TiN. A significant reduction in interface state density was inferred from capacitance-voltage measurements as well as a 1200× reduction in gate leakage current. A high-power magnetron plasma source produces a much higher energetic ion and vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) photon flux to the wafer compared to a low-power inductively coupled PE-ALD source. The ion and VUV photons produce defect states in the bulk of the gate oxide as well as at the oxide-silicon interface, causing higher leakage and potential reliability degradation.

  11. Structural and optical properties of titanium dioxide films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in pure oxygen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asanuma, T.; Matsutani, T.; Liu, C.; Mihara, T.; Kiuchi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films were deposited on unheated quartz (SiO 2 ) substrates in 'pure oxygen' plasma by reactive radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering. The structural and optical properties of deposited films were systematically studied by changing the deposition parameters, and it was very recently found that crystalline TiO 2 films grew effectively in pure O 2 atmosphere. For TiO 2 films deposited at a rf power P rf of 200 W, x-ray diffraction patterns show the following features: (a) no diffraction peak was observed at a total sputtering pressure p tot of 1.3 Pa; (b) rutile (110) diffraction was observed at 4.0 Pa, (c) the dominant diffraction was from anatase (101) planes, with additional diffraction from (200), under p tot between 6.7 and 13 Pa. For the deposition at 140 W, however, crystalline films with mixed phases were observed only between 4.0 and 6.7 Pa. The peaks of both the deposition rate and the anatase weight ratio for the films produced at 140 W were found at p tot of approximately 6.7 Pa. This suggests that the nucleation and growth of TiO 2 films were affected by the composition, density, and kinetic energy of the particles impinging on the substrate surface. The optical absorption edge analysis showed that the optical band gap E g and the constant B could sensitively detect the film growth behavior, and determine the film structure and optical absorption. The change in the shape of the fundamental absorption edge is considered to reflect the variation of density and the short-range structural modifications

  12. Atomic and plasma-material interaction data for fusion. V. 7, part B. Particle induced erosion of Be, C and W in fusion plasmas. Part B: Physical sputtering and radiation-enhanced sublimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckstein, W.; Stephens, J.A.; Clark, R.E.H.; Davis, J.W.; Haasz, A.A.; Vietzke, E.; Hirooka, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The present volume of Atomic and Plasma-Material Interaction Data for Fusion is devoted to a critical review of the physical sputtering and radiation enhanced sublimation (RES) behaviour of fusion plasma-facing materials, in particular carbon, beryllium and tungsten. The present volume is intended to provide fusion reactor designers a detailed survey and parameterization of existing, critically assessed data for the chemical erosion of plasma-facing materials by particle impact. The survey and data compilation is presented for a variety of materials containing the elements C, Be and W (including dopants in carbon materials) and impacting plasma species. The dependencies of physical sputtering and RES yields on the material temperature, incident projectile energy, and incident flux are considered. The main data compilation is presented as separate data sheets indicating the material, impacting plasma species, experimental conditions, and parameterizations in terms of analytic functions

  13. ECR plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik; Grisham, Larry; Kolchin, Pavel; Davidson, Ronald C.; Yu, Simon; Logan, B. Grant

    2003-01-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being considered as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus beyond the space-charge limit. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1 100 times the ion beam density and at a length [similar]0.1 2 m would be suitable for achieving a high level of charge neutralization. An Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) source has been built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) to support a joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization with plasma. The ECR source operates at 13.6 MHz and with solenoid magnetic fields of 1 10 gauss. The goal is to operate the source at pressures [similar]10[minus sign]6 Torr at full ionization. The initial operation of the source has been at pressures of 10[minus sign]4 10[minus sign]1 Torr. Electron densities in the range of 108 to 1011 cm[minus sign]3 have been achieved. Low-pressure operation is important to reduce ion beam ionization. A cusp magnetic field has been installed to improve radial confinement and reduce the field strength on the beam axis. In addition, axial confinement is believed to be important to achieve lower-pressure operation. To further improve breakdown at low pressure, a weak electron source will be placed near the end of the ECR source. This article also describes the wave damping mechanisms. At moderate pressures (> 1 mTorr), the wave damping is collisional, and at low pressures (< 1 mTorr) there is a distinct electron cyclotron resonance.

  14. 13. TOPICAL CONFERENCE ON HIGH TEMPERATURE PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.

    2000-01-01

    Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) has been employed as a standard electron temperature profile diagnostic on many tokamaks and stellarators, but most magnetically confined plasma devices cannot take advantage of standard ECE diagnostics to measure temperature. They are either overdense, operating at high density relative to the magnetic field (e.g. ω pe >> (Omega) ce in a spherical torus) or they have insufficient density and temperature to reach the blackbody condition (τ > 2). Electron Bernstein waves (EBWs) are electrostatic waves which can propagate in overdense plasmas and have a high optical thickness at the electron cyclotron resonance layers, as a result of their large K i . This talk reports on measurements of EBW emission on the CDX-U spherical torus, where B 0 ∼ 2 kG, e > ∼ 10 13 cm -3 and T e ∼ 10 - 200 eV. Results will be presented for both direct detection of EBWs and for mode-converted EBW emission. The EBW emission was absolutely calibrated and compared to the electron temperature profile measured by a multi-point Thomson scattering diagnostic. Depending on the plasma conditions, the mode-converted EBW radiation temperature was found to be ≤ T e and the emission source was determined to be radially localized at the electron cyclotron resonance layer. A Langmuir triple probe was employed to measure changes in edge density profile in the vicinity of the upper hybrid resonance where the mode conversion of the EBWs is expected to occur. Changes in the mode conversion efficiency may explain the observation of mode-converted EBW radiation temperatures below T e . Initial results suggest EBW emission and EBW heating are viable concepts for plasmas where ω pe >> (Omega) ce

  15. Preparation of Ag-containing diamond-like carbon films on the interior surface of tubes by a combined method of plasma source ion implantation and DC sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatada, R.; Flege, S.; Bobrich, A.; Ensinger, W.; Dietz, C.; Baba, K.; Sawase, T.; Watamoto, T.; Matsutani, T.

    2014-08-01

    Adhesive diamond-like carbon (DLC) films can be prepared by plasma source ion implantation (PSII), which is also suitable for the treatment of the inner surface of a tube. Incorporation of a metal into the DLC film provides a possibility to change the characteristics of the DLC film. One source for the metal is DC sputtering. In this study PSII and DC sputtering were combined to prepare DLC films containing low concentrations of Ag on the interior surfaces of stainless steel tubes. A DLC film was deposited using a C2H4 plasma with the help of an auxiliary electrode inside of the tube. This electrode was then used as a target for the DC sputtering. A mixture of the gases Ar and C2H4 was used to sputter the silver. By changing the gas flow ratios and process time, the resulting Ag content of the films could be varied. Sample characterizations were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, a ball-on-disk test was performed to investigate the tribological properties of the films. The antibacterial activity was determined using Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

  16. Measurement and modeling of plasma parameters in reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of Ti in Ar/O.sub.2./sub. mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čada, Martin; Lundin, D.; Hubička, Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 17 (2017), s. 1-7, č. článku 171913. ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-00863S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 608800 - HIPPOCAMP Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : reactive sputtering * HiPIMS * Langmuir probe * R-IRM model * plasma density * electron temperature Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.068, year: 2016

  17. Study of sterilization-treatment in pure and N- doped carbon thin films synthesized by inductively coupled plasma assisted pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javid, Amjed [Center for Advanced Plasma Surface Technology (CAPST), NU-SKKU Joint Institute for Plasma Nano-Materials (IPNM), Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Textile Processing, National Textile University, Faisalabad 37610 (Pakistan); Kumar, Manish, E-mail: manishk@skku.edu [Center for Advanced Plasma Surface Technology (CAPST), NU-SKKU Joint Institute for Plasma Nano-Materials (IPNM), Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jeon Geon, E-mail: hanjg@skku.edu [Center for Advanced Plasma Surface Technology (CAPST), NU-SKKU Joint Institute for Plasma Nano-Materials (IPNM), Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Pure and N-doped nanocrystallie carbon films are synthesized by ICP assisted pulsed DC plasma process. • ICP power induces the increase in average graphitic crystallite size from 4.86 nm to 6.42 nm. • Beneficial role of ICP source assistance to achieve high sputtering throughput (deposition rate ∼55 nm/min). • Post-sterilization electron-transport study shows N-doped carbon films having promising stability. - Abstract: Electrically-conductive nanocrystalline carbon films, having non-toxic and non-immunogenic characteristics, are promising candidates for reusable medical devices. Here, the pure and N- doped nanocrystalline carbon films are deposited by the assistance of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) in an unbalanced facing target pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering process. Through the optical emission spectroscopy study, the role of ICP assistance and N-doping on the reactive components/radicals during the synthesis is presented. The N-doping enhances the three fold bonding configurations by increasing the ionization and energies of the plasma species. Whereas, the ICP addition increases the plasma density to control the deposition rate and film structure. As a result, sputtering-throughput (deposition rate: 31–55 nm/min), electrical resistivity (4–72 Ωcm) and water contact angle (45.12°–54°) are significantly tailored. Electric transport study across the surface microchannel confirms the superiority of N-doped carbon films for sterilization stability over the undoped carbon films.

  18. Geometric considerations in magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The recent development of high performance magnetron type discharge sources has greatly enhaced the range of coating applications where sputtering is a viable deposition process. Magnetron sources can provide high current densities and sputtering rates, even at low pressures. They have much reduced substrate heating rates and can be scaled to large sizes. Magnetron sputter coating apparatuses can have a variety of geometric and plasma configurations. The target geometry affects the emission directions of both the sputtered atoms and the energetic ions which are neutralized and reflected at the cathode. This fact, coupled with the long mean free particle paths which are prevalent at low pressures, can make the coating properties very dependent on the apparatus geometry. This paper reviews the physics of magnetron operation and discusses the influences of apparatus geometry on the use of magnetrons for rf sputtering and reactive sputtering, as well as on the microstructure and internal stresses in sputtered metallic coatings. (author) [pt

  19. Cross effects on electron-cyclotron and lower-hybrid current drive in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidone, I.; Giruzzi, G.; Krivenski, V.; Mazzucato, E.; Ziebell, L.F.

    1986-11-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance current drive in a tokamak plasma in the presence of a lower hybrid tail is investigated using a 2D Fokker-Planck code. For an extraordinary mode at oblique propagation and down-shifted frequency it is shown that the efficiency of electron cyclotron current drive becomes, i) substantially greater than the corresponding efficiency of a Maxwellian plasma at the same bulk temperature, ii) equal or greater than that of the lower hybrid waves, iii) comparable with the efficiency of a Maxwellian plasma at much higher temperature. This enhancement results from a beneficial cross-effect of the two waves on the formation of the current carrying electron tail. (5 fig; 17 refs)

  20. Niobium thin film coating on a 500-MHz copper cavity by plasma deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haipeng Wang; Genfa Wu; H. Phillips; Robert Rimmer; Anne-Marie Valente; Andy Wu

    2005-05-16

    A system using an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasma source for the deposition of a thin niobium film inside a copper cavity for superconducting accelerator applications has been designed and is being constructed. The system uses a 500-MHz copper cavity as both substrate and vacuum chamber. The ECR plasma will be created to produce direct niobium ion deposition. The central cylindrical grid is DC biased to control the deposition energy. This paper describes the design of several subcomponents including the vacuum chamber, RF supply, biasing grid and magnet coils. Operational parameters are compared between an operating sample deposition system and this system. Engineering work progress toward the first plasma creation will be reported here.

  1. Pressure profiles of plasmas confined in the field of a magnetic dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Matthew S; Mauel, M E; Garnier, Darren T; Kesner, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Equilibrium pressure profiles of plasmas confined in the field of a dipole magnet are reconstructed using magnetic and x-ray measurements on the levitated dipole experiment (LDX). LDX operates in two distinct modes: with the dipole mechanically supported and with the dipole magnetically levitated. When the dipole is mechanically supported, thermal particles are lost along the field to the supports, and the plasma pressure is highly peaked and consists of energetic, mirror-trapped electrons that are created by electron cyclotron resonance heating. By contrast, when the dipole is magnetically levitated losses to the supports are eliminated and particles are lost via slower cross-field transport that results in broader, but still peaked, plasma pressure profiles. (paper)

  2. Fast transient transport phenomena measured by soft X-ray emission in TCV tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furno, I. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2001-08-01

    Energy and particle transport during sawtooth activity in TCV plasmas has been studied in this thesis with high temporal resolution many chord diagnostics. We indicated the influence of sawteeth on plasma profiles in ohmic conditions and in the presence of auxiliary electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive. A 2-dimensional model for heat transport, including localised heat source and a magnetic island, has been used to interpret the experimental observations. These results provided a new interpretation of a coupled heat and transport phenomenon which is potentially important for plasma confinement. The observations validate the applicability and show the possibility of improvement of a 2-dimensional theoretic a1 model for the study of heat transport in the presence of localised heat source and a magnetic island. Furthermore, the TCV results showed a new possibility for the interpretation of a coupled heat and particle transport phenomenon previously understood only in stellarators. (author)

  3. A global plasma model for reactive deposition of compound films by modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, B. C.; Wu, Z. L.; Wu, B.; Li, Y. G.; Lei, M. K.

    2017-05-01

    A spatially averaged, time-dependent global plasma model has been developed to describe the reactive deposition of a TiAlSiN thin film by modulated pulsed power magnetron sputtering (MPPMS) discharges in Ar/N2 mixture gas, based on the particle balance and the energy balance in the ionization region, and considering the formation and erosion of the compound at the target surface. The modeling results show that, with increasing the N2 partial pressure from 0% to 40% at a constant working pressure of 0.3 Pa, the electron temperature during the strongly ionized period increases from 4 to 7 eV and the effective power transfer coefficient, which represents the power fraction that effectively heats the electrons and maintains the discharge, increases from about 4% to 7%; with increasing the working pressure from 0.1 to 0.7 Pa at a constant N2 partial pressure of 25%, the electron temperature decreases from 10 to 4 eV and the effective power transfer coefficient decreases from 8% to 5%. Using the modeled plasma parameters to evaluate the kinetic energy of arriving ions, the ion-to-neutral flux ratio of deposited species, and the substrate heating, the variations of process parameters that increase these values lead to an enhanced adatom mobility at the target surface and an increased input energy to the substrate, corresponding to the experimental observation of surface roughness reduction, the microstructure transition from the columnar structure to the dense featureless structure, and the enhancement of phase separation. At higher N2 partial pressure or lower working pressure, the modeling results demonstrate an increase in electron temperature, which shifts the discharge balance of Ti species from Ti+ to Ti2+ and results in a higher return fraction of Ti species, corresponding to the higher Al/Ti ratio of deposited films at these conditions. The modeling results are well correlated with the experimental observation of the composition variation and the microstructure

  4. Composite SiO.sub.x./sub./hydrocarbon plasma polymer films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering of SiO.sub.2./sub. and polyethylene or polypropylene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pihosh, Y.; Biederman, H.; Slavínská, D.; Kousal, J.; Choukourov, A.; Trchová, Miroslava; Macková, Anna; Boldyryeva, Hanna

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 81, 1-4 (2006), s. 32-37 ISSN 0042-207X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05ME754 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : composite films * magnetron * sputtering Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.834, year: 2006

  5. Composite SiOx/fluorocarbon plasma polymer films prepared by r.f. magnetron sputtering of SiO2 and PTFE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pihosh, Y.; Biederman, H.; Slavínská, D.; Kousal, J.; Choukourov, A.; Trchová, Miroslava; Macková, Anna; Boldyryeva, Hanna

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 81, 1-4 (2006), s. 38-44 ISSN 0042-207X R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 527.10; GA MŠk ME 553 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : composite films * magnetron * sputtering Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.834, year: 2006

  6. Modification of sensing properties of metallophthalocyanine by an ECR plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M.; Chakane, S.; Jain, S.; Bhoraskar, S.V.; Mandale, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    Lead Phthalocyanine (PC) tetracarboxylic acid prepared by chemical reaction from phthalic anhydride and urea was used as sensor element for sensing humidity and alcohol vapors. The surface was treated with electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma consisting of 25% H 2 and 75% N 2 . Remarkable improvement in the selectivity with respect to ethyl alcohol and reduction in the sensitivity for humidity was observed after this treatment. The response and recovery time for resistive sensing were of the order of 50 and 30 s respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transformation infra red studies showed that the increased cross-linking of PC is responsible for the creation of new functional groups which have imparted the sensing of alcohol vapor through extrinsic doping

  7. Modification of sensing properties of metallophthalocyanine by an ECR plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, M.; Chakane, S.; Jain, S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mandale, A. B.

    2002-07-01

    Lead Phthalocyanine (PC) tetracarboxylic acid prepared by chemical reaction from phthalic anhydride and urea was used as sensor element for sensing humidity and alcohol vapors. The surface was treated with electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma consisting of 25% H 2 and 75% N 2. Remarkable improvement in the selectivity with respect to ethyl alcohol and reduction in the sensitivity for humidity was observed after this treatment. The response and recovery time for resistive sensing were of the order of 50 and 30 s respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transformation infra red studies showed that the increased cross-linking of PC is responsible for the creation of new functional groups which have imparted the sensing of alcohol vapor through extrinsic doping.

  8. Modification of sensing properties of metallophthalocyanine by an ECR plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naddaf, M.; Chakane, S.; Jain, S.; Bhoraskar, S.V. E-mail: svb@physics.unipune.ernet.in; Mandale, A.B

    2002-07-01

    Lead Phthalocyanine (PC) tetracarboxylic acid prepared by chemical reaction from phthalic anhydride and urea was used as sensor element for sensing humidity and alcohol vapors. The surface was treated with electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma consisting of 25% H{sub 2} and 75% N{sub 2}. Remarkable improvement in the selectivity with respect to ethyl alcohol and reduction in the sensitivity for humidity was observed after this treatment. The response and recovery time for resistive sensing were of the order of 50 and 30 s respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transformation infra red studies showed that the increased cross-linking of PC is responsible for the creation of new functional groups which have imparted the sensing of alcohol vapor through extrinsic doping.

  9. Modification of sensing properties of metallophthalocyanine by an Ecr plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M.; Chakane, S.; Jain, S.; Bhoraskar, S.V.; Mandale, A.B

    2004-01-01

    Lead Phthalocyanine (PC) tetracarboxylic acid prepared by chemical reaction from phthalic anhydride and urea was used as sensor element for sensing humidity and alcohol vapors. The surface was treated with electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma consisting of 25% H 2 and 75% N 2 . Remarkable improvement in the selectivity with respect to ethyl alcohol and reduction in the sensitivity for humidity was observed after this treatment. The response and recovery time for resistive sensing were of the order of 50 and 30 s respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transformation infra red studies showed that the increased cross-linking of PC is responsible for the creation of new functional groups which have imparted the sensing of alcohol vapor through extrinsic doping. (author)

  10. Deposition of coatings on Ti by sputtering of tableted carbonate-hydroxylapatite in HF discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamchukov, Y.D.; Klubovich, V.; Potapenko, I.

    2001-01-01

    The coatings of carbonate-hydroxyapatite (CHA) on materials suitable for implants must have, because of their shielding functions, sufficiently large thickness and good adhesion. For these reasons, the production of these coatings is a technological task whose solution may be obtained on the basis of the application of different ion-plasma technologies. Examination of the properties of the CHA coatings on the substrate of titanium and the effect on the materials of the coating and the substrate of ion-plasma technology with the application of high-frequency discharge was the aim of this investigation

  11. Ionization of sputtered Ti, Al, and C coupled with plasma characterization in HiPIMS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lundin, D.; Čada, Martin; Hubička, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2015), s. 035018 ISSN 0963-0252 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12043 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 608800 - HIPPOCAMP Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : IPVD * HiPIMS * HPPMS * Langmuir probe * ion meter Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.808, year: 2015

  12. Properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) deposited using a microwave Ecr plasma; Propiedades del a-Si:H depositado utilizando un plasma de microondas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia H, J A

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films have been widely applied to semiconductor devices, such as thin film transistors, solar cells and photosensitive devices. In this work, the first Si-H-Cl alloys (obtained at the National Institute for Nuclear Research of Mexico) were formed by a microwave electron cyclotron resonance (Ecr) plasma CVD method. Gaseous mixtures of silicon tetrachloride (Si Cl{sub 4}), hydrogen and argon were used. The Ecr plasma was generated by microwaves at 2.45 GHz and a magnetic field of 670 G was applied to maintain the discharge after resonance condition (occurring at 875 G). Si and Cl contents were analyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). It was found that, increasing proportion of Si Cl{sub 4} in the mixture or decreasing pressure, the silicon and chlorine percentages decrease. Optical gaps were obtained by spectrophotometry. Decreasing temperature, optical gap values increase from 1.4 to 1.5 eV. (Author).

  13. Relationship between plasma parameters and film microstructure in radio frequency magnetron sputter deposition of barium strontium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, B.; Dhar, A.; Nigam, G. D.; Bhattacharya, D.; Ray, S. K.

    1998-01-01

    Radio frequency magnetron sputtered Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 thin films have been deposited on silicon and Si/SiO2/SiN/Pt substrates. The analysis of plasma discharge has been carried out using the Langmuir probe technique. Both the pressure and power have been found to influence the ion density and self-bias of the target. Introduction of oxygen into the discharge effectively decreases the ion density. The structural and electrical properties have been investigated using x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy of deposited films and capacitance-voltage, conductance-voltage, and current density-electric field characteristics of fabricated capacitors. The growth and orientation of the films have been found to depend upon the type of substrates and deposition temperatures. The texture in the film is promoted at a pressure 0.25 Torr with a moderately high value of ion density and low ion bombardment energy. Films deposited on Si/SiO2/SiN/Pt substrate have shown higher dielectric constant (191) and lower leakage current density (2.8×10-6 A/cm2 at 100 kV/cm) compared to that on silicon.

  14. A hybrid heterojunction with reverse rectifying characteristics fabricated by magnetron sputtered TiOx and plasma polymerized aniline structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, Bimal K; Pal, Arup R; Bailung, Heremba; Chutia, Joyanti

    2012-01-01

    A TiO x film produced by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering without substrate heating or post-deposition annealing and a plasma polymerized aniline (PPA) structure deposited in the same reactor by a radio-frequency glow discharge without the assistance of a carrier gas are used for the fabrication of a heterojunction. The gas phase discharge is investigated by a Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy. The individual layers and the heterojunction are characterized for structural and optoelectronic properties. PPA has polymer-like structure and texture and is characterized by saturated-unsaturated, branched and crosslinked networks. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals a slightly reduced TiO x surface, which exhibits near band edge luminescence. The free radicals trapped in PPA readily react with oxygen when exposed to atmosphere. The heterojunction shows reverse rectifying characteristics under dark and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The energy levels of TiO x and PPA might exhibit reverse band bending and electrons and holes are accumulated on both sides of the heterojunction. The charge accumulation phenomena at the interface may play a key role in the device performance of a hybrid heterojunction. The current-voltage characteristic of the heterojunction is sensitive to UV light, so the structure may be used for photo-sensing applications. (paper)

  15. Vehicle exhaust gas clearance by low temperature plasma-driven nano-titanium dioxide film prepared by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Yu

    Full Text Available A novel plasma-driven catalysis (PDC reactor with special structure was proposed to remove vehicle exhaust gas. The PDC reactor which consisted of three quartz tubes and two copper electrodes was a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD reactor. The inner and outer electrodes firmly surrounded the outer surface of the corresponding dielectric barrier layer in a spiral way, respectively. Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2 film prepared by radiofrequency (RF magnetron sputtering was coated on the outer wall of the middle quartz tube, separating the catalyst from the high voltage electrode. The spiral electrodes were designed to avoid overheating of microdischarges inside the PDC reactor. Continuous operation tests indicated that stable performance without deterioration of catalytic activity could last for more than 25 h. To verify the effectiveness of the PDC reactor, a non-thermal plasma(NTP reactor was employed, which has the same structure as the PDC reactor but without the catalyst. The real vehicle exhaust gas was introduced into the PDC reactor and NTP reactor, respectively. After the treatment, compared with the result from NTP, the concentration of HC in the vehicle exhaust gas treated by PDC reactor reduced far more obviously while that of NO decreased only a little. Moreover, this result was explained through optical emission spectrum. The O emission lines can be observed between 870 nm and 960 nm for wavelength in PDC reactor. Together with previous studies, it could be hypothesized that O derived from catalytically O3 destruction by catalyst might make a significant contribution to the much higher HC removal efficiency by PDC reactor. A series of complex chemical reactions caused by the multi-components mixture in real vehicle exhaust reduced NO removal efficiency. A controllable system with a real-time feedback module for the PDC reactor was proposed to further improve the ability of removing real vehicle exhaust gas.

  16. Electron cyclotron heating (ECH) of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Katsumichi

    1990-01-01

    Electron cyclotron heating (ECH) is one of the intense methods of plasma heating, and which utilizes the collisionless electron-cyclotron-resonance-interaction between the launched electromagnetic waves (called electron cyclotron waves) and electrons which are one of the constituents of the high temperature plasmas. Another constituent, namely the ions which are subject to nuclear fusion, are heated indirectly but strongly and instantly (in about 0.1 s) by the collisions with the ECH-heated electrons in the fusion plasmas. The recent progress on the development of high-power and high-frequency millimeter-wave-source enabled the ECH experiments in the middle size tokamaks such as JFT-2M (Japan), Doublet III (USA), T-10 (USSR) etc., and ECH has been demonstrated to be the sure and intense plasma heating method. The ECH attracts much attention for its remarkable capabilities; to produce plasmas (pre-ionization), to heat plasmas, to drive plasma current for the plasma confinement, and recently especially by the localization and the spatial controllability of its heating zone, which is beneficial for the fine controls of the profiles of plasma parameters (temperature, current density etc.), for the control of the magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, or for the optimization/improvement of the plasma confinement characteristics. Here, the present status of the ECH studies on tokamak plasmas are reviewed. (author)

  17. Plasma Diagnostics in High Density Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daltrini, A. M.; Moshkalyov, S.; Monteiro, M. J. R.; Machida, M.; Kostryukov, A.; Besseler, E.; Biasotto, C.; Diniz, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Langmuir electric probes and optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics were developed for applications in high density plasmas. These diagnostics were employed in two plasma sources: an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma and an RF driven inductively coupled plasma (ICP) plasma. Langmuir probes were tested using a number of probing dimensions, probe tip materials, circuits for probe bias and filters. Then, the results were compared with the optical spectroscopy measurements. With these diagnostics, analyses of various plasma processes were performed in both reactors. For example, it has been shown that species like NH radicals generated in gas phase can have critical impact on films deposited by ECR plasmas. In the ICP source, plasmas in atomic and molecular gases were shown to have different spatial distributions, likely due to nonlocal electron heating. The low-to-high density transitions in the ICP plasma were also studied. The role of metastables is shown to be significant in Ar plasmas, in contrast to plasmas with additions of molecular gases

  18. Nano-structuring of PTFE surface by plasma treatment, etching, and sputtering with gold

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reznickova, A.; Kolská, Z.; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Svorcik, V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 7 (2011), s. 2929-2938 ISSN 1388-0764 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/09/0125; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : ARGON PLASMA * POLYMER-FILMS * POLYETHYLENE * DISCHARGE * POLYETHYLENETEREPHTHALATE Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.287, year: 2011

  19. Measurement of toroidal plasma current in RF heated helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besshou, Sakae

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the measurement of toroidal plasma current by a semiflexible Rogowski coil in a helical vacuum chamber. A Rogowski coil measures the toroidal plasma current with a resolution of 0.1 kA, frequency range of up to 1 kHz and sensitivity of 6.5 x 10 -9 V · s/A. We measured the spontaneous toroidal plasma current (from -1.2 to +1.2 kA) under electron cyclotron resonance heating at 0.94 T toroidal field in the Heliotron-E device. We found that the measured direction of toroidal plasma current changes its sign as in the predicted behavior of a neoclassical diffusion-driven bootstrap current, depending on the horizontal position of the plasma column. We explain the observed plasma currents in terms of the compound phenomenon of an ohmic current and a neoclassical diffusion-driven current. The magnitude of the neoclassical current component is smaller than the value predicted by a collisionless neoclassical theory. (author)

  20. Spectroscopic and probe measurements of the electron temperature in the plasma of a pulse-periodic microwave discharge in argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, V. V., E-mail: vvandreev@mail.ru; Vasileska, I., E-mail: ivonavasileska@yahoo.com; Korneeva, M. A., E-mail: korneevama@mail.ru [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    A pulse-periodic 2.45-GHz electron-cyclotron resonance plasma source on the basis of a permanent- magnet mirror trap has been constructed and tested. Variations in the discharge parameters and the electron temperature of argon plasma have been investigated in the argon pressure range of 1 × 10{sup –4} to 4 × 10{sup –3} Torr at a net pulsed input microwave power of up to 600 W. The plasma electron temperature in the above ranges of gas pressures and input powers has been measured by a Langmuir probe and determined using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) from the intensity ratios of spectral lines. The OES results agree qualitatively and quantitatively with the data obtained using the double probe.

  1. Development of the plasma operational regime in the large helical device by the various wall conditioning methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, K.; Ashikawa, N.; Masuzaki, S.; Miyazawa, J.; Sagara, A.; Goto, M.; Peterson, B.J.; Komori, A.; Noda, N.; Ida, K.; Kaneko, O.; Kawahata, K.; Kobuchi, T.; Kubo, S.; Morita, S.; Osakabe, M.; Sakakibara, S.; Sakamoto, R.; Sato, K.; Shimozuma, T.; Takeiri, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Motojima, O.

    2005-01-01

    Experiments in the large helical device have been developing since the first discharge in 1998. Baking at 95 deg C, electron cyclotron resonance discharge cleaning, glow discharge cleaning, titanium gettering and boronization were attempted for wall conditioning. Using these conditioning techniques, the partial pressures of the oxidized gases, such as H 2 O, CO and CO 2 , were reduced gradually and the plasma operational regime enlarged. The glow discharge cleaning with the various working gases, such as hydrogen, helium, neon and argon, was effective in increasing the plasma purity. By this method, we obtained a central ion temperature of 10 keV. Boronization, which was started from FY2001, was also effective in reducing the radiation losses from impurities and in enlarging the density operational regime. We obtained a plasma stored energy of 1.31 MJ and an electron density of 2.4 x 10 20 m -3

  2. Synthesis and characterization of Al2O3 and SiO2 films with fluoropolymer content using rf-plasma magnetron sputtering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Mohammad; Inal, Osman T.

    2008-01-01

    Pure and molecularly mixed inorganic films for protection against atomic oxygen in lower earth orbit were prepared using radio-frequency (rf) plasma magnetron sputtering technique. Alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) and silica (SiO 2 ) films with average grain size in the range of 30-80 nm and fully dense or dense columnar structure were synthesized under different conditions of pressure and power. Simultaneous oxide sputtering and plasma polymerization (PP) of hexafluoropropylene (HFP) led to the formation of molecularly mixed films with fluoropolymer content. The degree of plasma polymerization was strongly influenced by total chamber pressure and the argon to HFP molar ratio (n Ar /n M ). An order of magnitude increase in pressure due to argon during codeposition changed the plasma-polymerization mechanism from radical-chain- to radical-radical-type processes. Subsequently, a shift from linear CH 2 group based chain polymerization to highly disordered fluoropolymer content with branching and cross-linking was observed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed chemical interaction between depositing SiO 2 and PP-HFP through appearance of absorption bands characteristic of Si-F stretching and expansion of SiO 2 network. The relative amount and composition of plasma-polymerized fluoropolymer in such films can be controlled by changing argon to HFP flow ratio, total chamber pressure, and applied power. These films offer great potential for use as protective coatings in aerospace applications

  3. MM-wave cyclotron auto-resonance maser for plasma heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccuzzi, S.; Dattoli, G.; Di Palma, E.; Doria, A.; Gallerano, G. P.; Giovenale, E.; Mirizzi, F.; Spassovsky, I.; Ravera, G. L.; Surrenti, V.; Tuccillo, A. A.

    2014-02-01

    Heating and Current Drive systems are of outstanding relevance in fusion plasmas, magnetically confined in tokamak devices, as they provide the tools to reach, sustain and control burning conditions. Heating systems based on the electron cyclotron resonance (ECRH) have been extensively exploited on past and present machines DEMO, and the future reactor will require high frequencies. Therefore, high power (≥1MW) RF sources with output frequency in the 200 - 300 GHz range would be necessary. A promising source is the so called Cyclotron Auto-Resonance Maser (CARM). Preliminary results of the conceptual design of a CARM device for plasma heating, carried out at ENEA-Frascati will be presented together with the planned R&D development.

  4. The acceleration of a gaseous plasma by intense microwave fields in a constant inhomogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourier, Georges

    1971-01-01

    A gaseous plasma excited by a powerful microwave source (up to 300 kW) was studied theoretically and experimentally. The large amplitude electric field excites, in a constant inhomogeneous magnetic field, a plasma near to the electron cyclotron resonance. These particles are accelerated to energies of between 100 and 10000 eV and subsequently drift to the regions of lower magnetic field. The ions are accelerated by the resulting electrostatic forces. Ion and electron currents of some tens of milli-amperes to a few amperes are obtained. The energy of the electrons is limited by their relativistic mass; a three-dimensional of space charge model is set up to describe the particle flow. (author) [fr

  5. Sheath formation of a plasma containing multiply charged ions, cold and hot electrons, and emitted electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    It is quite well known that ion confinement is an important factor in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) as it is closely related to the plasma potential. A model of sheath formation was extended to a plasma containing multiply charged ions (MCIs), cold and hot electrons, and secondary electrons emitted either by MCIs or hot electrons. In the model, a modification of the 'Bohm criterion' was given, the sheath potential drop and the critical emission condition were also analyzed. It appears that the presence of hot electrons and emitted electrons strongly affects the sheath formation so that smaller hot electrons and larger emission current result in reduced sheath potential (or floating potential). However the sheath potential was found to become independent of the emission current J when J > J c , (where J c is the critical emission current. The paper is followed by the associated poster

  6. Properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) deposited using a microwave Ecr plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia H, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films have been widely applied to semiconductor devices, such as thin film transistors, solar cells and photosensitive devices. In this work, the first Si-H-Cl alloys (obtained at the National Institute for Nuclear Research of Mexico) were formed by a microwave electron cyclotron resonance (Ecr) plasma CVD method. Gaseous mixtures of silicon tetrachloride (Si Cl 4 ), hydrogen and argon were used. The Ecr plasma was generated by microwaves at 2.45 GHz and a magnetic field of 670 G was applied to maintain the discharge after resonance condition (occurring at 875 G). Si and Cl contents were analyzed by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). It was found that, increasing proportion of Si Cl 4 in the mixture or decreasing pressure, the silicon and chlorine percentages decrease. Optical gaps were obtained by spectrophotometry. Decreasing temperature, optical gap values increase from 1.4 to 1.5 eV. (Author)

  7. Nanostructured plasma etched, magnetron sputtered nanolaminar Cr2AlC MAX phase thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieseler, Rolf; Hähnlein, Bernd; Stubenrauch, Mike; Kups, Thomas; Wilke, Marcus; Hopfeld, Marcus; Pezoldt, Jörg; Schaaf, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge of the mechanical properties of new materials determines essentially their usability and functionality when used in micro- and nanostructures. MAX phases are new and highly interesting materials due to their unique combination of materials properties. In this article a new method for producing the Cr 2 AlC MAX phase is presented. Thin film elemental multilayer deposition and subsequent rapid thermal annealing forms the MAX phase within seconds. Additionally, free standing microstructures (beams and cantilevers) based on this MAX phase films are prepared by plasma etching. The mechanical properties of these MAX phase microstructures are investigated

  8. Sputtered catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyerman, W.J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for preparing a supported catalyst by a sputtering process. A material that is catalytic, or which is a component of a catalytic system, is sputtered on to the surface of refractory oxide particles that are compatible with the sputtered material and the sputtered particles are consolidated into aggregate form. The oxide particles before sputtering should have a diameter in the range 1000A to 50μ and a porosity less than 0.4 ml/g, and may comprise MgO, Al 2 O 3 or SiO 2 or mixtures of these oxides, including hydraulic cement. The particles may possess catalytic activity by themselves or in combination with the catalytic material deposited on them. Sputtering may be effected epitaxially and consolidation may be effected by compaction pelleting, extrusion or spray drying of a slurry. Examples of the use of such catalysts are given. (U.K.)

  9. 13th TOPICAL CONFERENCE ON HIGH TEMPERATURE PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. BARNES

    2000-07-01

    Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) has been employed as a standard electron temperature profile diagnostic on many tokamaks and stellarators, but most magnetically confined plasma devices cannot take advantage of standard ECE diagnostics to measure temperature. They are either overdense, operating at high density relative to the magnetic field (e.g. {omega}{sub pe} >> {Omega}{sub ce} in a spherical torus) or they have insufficient density and temperature to reach the blackbody condition ({tau} > 2). Electron Bernstein waves (EBWs) are electrostatic waves which can propagate in overdense plasmas and have a high optical thickness at the electron cyclotron resonance layers, as a result of their large K{sub i}. This talk reports on measurements of EBW emission on the CDX-U spherical torus, where B{sub 0} {approx} 2 kG, {approx} 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} and T{sub e} {approx} 10 - 200 eV. Results will be presented for both direct detection of EBWs and for mode-converted EBW emission. The EBW emission was absolutely calibrated and compared to the electron temperature profile measured by a multi-point Thomson scattering diagnostic. Depending on the plasma conditions, the mode-converted EBW radiation temperature was found to be {le} T{sub e} and the emission source was determined to be radially localized at the electron cyclotron resonance layer. A Langmuir triple probe was employed to measure changes in edge density profile in the vicinity of the upper hybrid resonance where the mode conversion of the EBWs is expected to occur. Changes in the mode conversion efficiency may explain the observation of mode-converted EBW radiation temperatures below T{sub e}. Initial results suggest EBW emission and EBW heating are viable concepts for plasmas where {omega}{sub pe} >> {Omega}{sub ce}.

  10. Plasma Sputtering Robotic Device for In-Situ Thick Coatings of Long, Small Diameter Vacuum Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2014-10-01

    A novel robotic plasma magnetron mole with a 50 cm long cathode was designed fabricated & operated. Reason for this endeavor is to alleviate the problems of unacceptable ohmic heating of stainless steel vacuum tubes and of electron clouds, due to high secondary electron yield (SEY), in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The magnetron mole was successfully operated to copper coat an assembly containing a full-size, stainless steel, cold bore, RHIC magnet tubing connected to two types of RHIC bellows, to which two additional pipes made of RHIC tubing were connected. To increase cathode lifetime, movable magnet package was developed, and thickest possible cathode was made, with a rather challenging target to substrate (de facto anode) distance of less than 1.5 cm. Achieving reliable steady state magnetron discharges at such a short cathode to anode gap was rather challenging, when compared to commercial coating equipment, where the target to substrate distance is 10's cm; 6.3 cm is the lowest experimental target to substrate distance found in the literature. Additionally, the magnetron developed during this project provides unique omni-directional uniform coating. The magnetron is mounted on a carriage with spring loaded wheels that successfully crossed bellows and adjusted for variations in vacuum tube diameter, while keeping the magnetron centered. Electrical power and cooling water were fed through a cable bundle. The umbilical cabling system is driven by a motorized spool. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Measurements indicated that well-scrubbed copper coating reduced SEY to 1, i.e., the problem of electron clouds can be eliminated. Room temperature RF resistivity measurement indicated that 10 μm Cu coated stainless steel RHIC tube has conductivity close to that of pure copper tubing. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Device detail and experimental results will be presented. Work supported by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under

  11. Plasma sputtering robotic device for in-situ thick coatings of long, small diameter vacuum tubesa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, A.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Custer, A.; Dingus, A.; Erickson, M.; Fischer, W.; Jamshidi, N.; Laping, R.; Liaw, C.-J.; Meng, W.; Poole, H. J.; Todd, R.

    2015-05-01

    A novel robotic plasma magnetron mole with a 50 cm long cathode was designed, fabricated, and operated. The reason for this endeavor is to alleviate the problems of unacceptable resistive heating of stainless steel vacuum tubes in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The magnetron mole was successfully operated to copper coat an assembly containing a full-size, stainless steel, cold bore, RHIC magnet tubing connected to two types of RHIC bellows, to which two additional pipes made of RHIC tubing were connected. To increase the cathode lifetime, a movable magnet package was developed, and the thickest possible cathode was made, with a rather challenging target to substrate (de facto anode) distance of less than 1.5 cm. Achieving reliable steady state magnetron discharges at such a short cathode to anode gap was rather challenging, when compared to commercial coating equipment, where the target to substrate distance is 10's cm; 6.3 cm is the lowest experimental target to substrate distance found in the literature. Additionally, the magnetron developed during this project provides unique omni-directional uniform coating. The magnetron is mounted on a carriage with spring loaded wheels that successfully crossed bellows and adjusted for variations in vacuum tube diameter, while keeping the magnetron centered. Electrical power and cooling water were fed through a cable bundle. The umbilical cabling system is driven by a motorized spool. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Measurements indicated that well-scrubbed copper coating reduced secondary electron yield to 1, i.e., the problem of electron clouds can be eliminated. Room temperature RF resistivity measurement indicated that a 10 μm copper coated stainless steel RHIC tube has a conductivity close to that of pure copper tubing. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. The device details and experimental results are described.

  12. Plasma sputtering robotic device for in-situ thick coatings of long, small diameter vacuum tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch, A., E-mail: hershcovitch@bnl.gov; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brennan, J. M.; Fischer, W.; Liaw, C.-J.; Meng, W.; Todd, R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Custer, A.; Dingus, A.; Erickson, M.; Jamshidi, N.; Laping, R.; Poole, H. J. [PVI, Oxnard, California 93031 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    A novel robotic plasma magnetron mole with a 50 cm long cathode was designed, fabricated, and operated. The reason for this endeavor is to alleviate the problems of unacceptable resistive heating of stainless steel vacuum tubes in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The magnetron mole was successfully operated to copper coat an assembly containing a full-size, stainless steel, cold bore, RHIC magnet tubing connected to two types of RHIC bellows, to which two additional pipes made of RHIC tubing were connected. To increase the cathode lifetime, a movable magnet package was developed, and the thickest possible cathode was made, with a rather challenging target to substrate (de facto anode) distance of less than 1.5 cm. Achieving reliable steady state magnetron discharges at such a short cathode to anode gap was rather challenging, when compared to commercial coating equipment, where the target to substrate distance is 10's cm; 6.3 cm is the lowest experimental target to substrate distance found in the literature. Additionally, the magnetron developed during this project provides unique omni-directional uniform coating. The magnetron is mounted on a carriage with spring loaded wheels that successfully crossed bellows and adjusted for variations in vacuum tube diameter, while keeping the magnetron centered. Electrical power and cooling water were fed through a cable bundle. The umbilical cabling system is driven by a motorized spool. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. Measurements indicated that well-scrubbed copper coating reduced secondary electron yield to 1, i.e., the problem of electron clouds can be eliminated. Room temperature RF resistivity measurement indicated that a 10 μm copper coated stainless steel RHIC tube has a conductivity close to that of pure copper tubing. Excellent coating adhesion was achieved. The device details and experimental results are described.

  13. An Impurity Emission Survey in the near UV and Visible Spectral Ranges of Electron Cyclotron Heated (ECH) Plasma in the TJ-II Stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, K. J.; Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.

    2001-01-01

    We report on a near-ultraviolet and visible spectroscopic survey (220-600 nm) of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heated plasmas created in the TJ-II stellarator, with central electron temperatures up to 2 keV and central electron densities up to 1.7 x 10 ''19 m''-3. Approximately 1200 lines from thirteen elements have been identified. The purpose of the work is to identify the principal impurities and spectral lines present in TJ-II plasmas, as well as their possible origin to search for transitions from highly ionised ions. This work will act as a base for identifying suitable transitions for following the evolution of impurities under different operating regimens and multiplet systems for line polarisation studies. It is intended to use the database creates as a spectral line reference for comparing spectra under different operating and plasma heating regimes. (Author)

  14. Spatially resolved electron density and electron energy distribution function in Ar magnetron plasmas used for sputter-deposition of ZnO-based thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maaloul, L.; Gangwar, R. K.; Morel, S.; Stafford, L., E-mail: luc.stafford@umontreal.ca [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    Langmuir probe and trace rare gases optical emission spectroscopy were used to analyze the spatial structure of the electron density and electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in a cylindrical Ar magnetron plasma reactor used for sputter-deposition of ZnO-based thin films. While a typical Bessel (zero order) diffusion profile was observed along the radial direction for the number density of charged particles at 21 cm from the ZnO target, a significant rise of these populations with respect to the Bessel function was seen in the center of the reactor at 4 cm from the magnetron surface. As for the EEDF, it was found to transform from a more or less Maxwellian far from the target to a two-temperature Maxwellian with a depletion of high-energy electrons where magnetic field confinement effects become important. No significant change in the behavior of the electron density and EEDF across a wide range of pressures (5–100 mTorr) and self-bias voltages (115–300 V) was observed during magnetron sputtering of Zn, ZnO, and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} targets. This indicates that sputtering of Zn, In, and O atoms do not play a very significant role on the electron particle balance and electron heating dynamics, at least over the range of experimental conditions investigated.

  15. Niobium-based catalysts prepared by reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering and arc plasma methods as non-noble metal cathode catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Ryohji; Katayama, Masao; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari

    2010-01-01

    Two vacuum methods, reactive radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and arc plasma deposition, were used to prepare niobium-based catalysts for an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as non-noble metal cathodes for polymer electrode fuel cells (PEFCs). Thin films with various N and O contents, denoted as NbO x and Nb-O-N, were prepared on glassy carbon plates by RF magnetron sputtering with controlled partial pressures of oxygen and nitrogen. Electrochemical measurements indicated that the introduction of the nitrogen species into the thin film resulted in improved ORR activity compared to the oxide-only film. Using an arc plasma method, niobium was deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrates, and the sub-nanoscale surface morphology of the deposited particles was investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). To prepare practical cathode catalysts, niobium was deposited on carbon black (CB) powders by arc plasma method. STM and transmission electron microscopy observations of samples on HOPG and CB indicated that the prepared catalysts were highly dispersed at the atomic level. The onset potential of oxygen reduction on Nb-O-N/CB was 0.86 V vs. a reversible hydrogen electrode, and the apparent current density was drastically improved by the introduction of nitrogen.

  16. Low temperature metal free growth of graphene on insulating substrates by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, R.; Munuera, C.; Martínez, J. I.; Azpeitia, J.; Gómez-Aleixandre, C.; García-Hernández, M.

    2017-03-01

    Direct growth of graphene films on dielectric substrates (quartz and silica) is reported, by means of remote electron cyclotron resonance plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition r-(ECR-CVD) at low temperature (650 °C). Using a two step deposition process- nucleation and growth- by changing the partial pressure of the gas precursors at constant temperature, mostly monolayer continuous films, with grain sizes up to 500 nm are grown, exhibiting transmittance larger than 92% and sheet resistance as low as 900 Ω sq-1. The grain size and nucleation density of the resulting graphene sheets can be controlled varying the deposition time and pressure. In additon, first-principles DFT-based calculations have been carried out in order to rationalize the oxygen reduction in the quartz surface experimentally observed. This method is easily scalable and avoids damaging and expensive transfer steps of graphene films, improving compatibility with current fabrication technologies.

  17. Anisotropic electron velocity distribution in an ECR helium plasma as determined from polarization of emission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, A; Sato, T; Horimoto, Y; Inoue, K; Fujimoto, T; Uchida, M; Maekawa, T

    2005-01-01

    A helium plasma is produced by electron-cyclotron resonance heating in a cusp-configuration magnetic field. Several neutral helium lines are found polarized in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field; the maximum polarization degree exceeds 10%. The polarization degree and intensity of the emission lines yield, respectively, the alignment and population of the upper levels. The population-alignment collisional-radiative model is developed, and the experimental result is interpreted in terms of an anisotropic electron velocity distribution; it is of a Saturn-type with the central thermal component of 14 eV and the 'ring' component displaced by 9.2 eV from the central component. The relative number of 'ring' electrons is 40%. (letter to the editor)

  18. Cathode and ion-luminescence of Eu:ZnO thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering and plasma decomposition of non-volatile precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil-Rostra, Jorge [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC, Univ. Sevilla, C/Américo Vespucio 49, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Ferrer, Francisco J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, CSIC, Univ. Sevilla, Av. Thomas A. Edison 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Martín, Inocencio R. [Departamento de Física Fundamental y Experimental, Electrónica y Sistemas, U. La Laguna, C/Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez s/n, E-38206 La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); González-Elipe, Agustín R.; Yubero, Francisco [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC, Univ. Sevilla, C/Américo Vespucio 49, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    This paper reports the luminescent behavior of Eu:ZnO thin films prepared by an one-step procedure that combines reactive magnetron sputtering deposition of ZnO with the plasma activated decomposition of a non-volatile acetylacetonate precursor of Eu sublimated in an effusion cell. Chemical composition and microstructure of the Eu:ZnO thin films have been characterized by several methods and their photo-, cathode- and ion-luminescent properties studied as a function of Eu concentration. The high transparency and well controlled optical properties of the films have demonstrated to be ideal for the development of cathode- and ion- luminescence sensors.

  19. Electrical characteristics of thermal CVD B-doped Si films on highly strained Si epitaxially grown on Ge(100) by plasma CVD without substrate heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Katsutoshi; Sakuraba, Masao; Murota, Junichi

    2010-01-01

    Using an 84% relaxed Ge(100) buffer layer formed on Si(100) by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD), influence of strain upon electrical characteristics of B-doped Si film epitaxially grown on the Ge buffer have been investigated. For the thinner B-doped Si film, surface strain amount is larger than that of the thicker film, for example, strain amount reaches 2.0% for the thickness of 2.2 nm. It is found that the hole mobility is enhanced by the introduction of strain to Si, and the maximum enhancement of about 3 is obtained. This value is higher than that of the usually reported mobility enhancement by strain using Si 1 -x Ge x buffer. Therefore, introduction of strain using relaxed Ge film formed by ECR plasma enhanced CVD is useful to improve future Si-based device performance.

  20. Oceans circulation and electron cyclotron resonance sources: Measurement of the AR-39 isotopic ratio in Seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaelens, M.; Loiselet, M.; Ryckewaert, G.; Pardo, R.C.; Scott, R.H.; Vondrasek, R.; Collon, Ph.; Kutchera, W.

    2004-01-01

    The radionuclide 39 Ar is produced in the atmosphere by cosmic rays and has an isotopic abundance of 8.1x10 -16 . Because its half life (T 1/2 =269 years) is well matched to the time periods involved in the oceanic currents around the Earth, the measurement of the 39 Ar isotopic ratio is an ideal tool to date ocean water from different depths. It would complement the information gained by the 14 C measurements (T 1/2 =5730 years). However, the measurement of the isotopic ratio 39 Ar/ 40 Ar is a technical challenge: 1 L of modern ocean water contains ∼6500 atoms of 39 Ar, and produces ∼17 decays per year. Although it has been possible to detect the 39 Ar decays in large volumes of sea water by using the low level counting technique, the possibility of measuring the number of 39 Ar atoms faster and in smaller samples using the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) technique would be a major breakthrough for this type of measurement. The development of a viable AMS method for 39 Ar has been underway for several years at Argonne National Laboratory, and is presently hampered by the presence of stable 39 K ions coming from the ion source. Although the intensity of this isobaric contaminant is low (∼pA extracted from the source), it has to be compared with the 39 Ar beam intensity (atoms per minutes). In order to separate these two beams (whose mass difference is only 1.6x10 -5 ), the intensity of the 39 K beam coming from the ion source has to be reduced by several orders of magnitude. This reduction has been investigated both at Argonne National Laboratory and at Louvain-la-Neuve. Two techniques have been tried out. In the first, a quartz liner is used to provide a clean surface, while in the second these impurities are buried in a SiO 2 layer formed in situ by running the source with a mixture of silane and oxygen. The 39 K background has been reduced by a factor of 100 with these treatments. These techniques and their results obtained both at Argonne and Louvain-la-Neuve will be presented. The ion source specific requirements for this type of application will also be discussed

  1. Optimization of electron-cyclotron-resonance charge-breeder ions : Final CRADA Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, R.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of 1+ beam properties and associated performance of ECR Charge Breeder source determined by total efficiency measurement and charge state distributions from the ECR Charge Breeder. These results were communicated to Far-Tech personnel who used them to benchmark the newly developed programs that model ion capture and charge breeding in the ECR Charge Breeder Source. Providing the basic data described above and in the discussion below to Far-Tech allowed them to improve and refine their calculational tools for ECR ion sources. These new tools will be offered for sale to industry and will also provide important guidance to other research labs developing Charge Breeding ion sources for radioactive beam physics research.

  2. Beam experiments with the Grenoble test electron cyclotron resonance ion source at iThemba LABS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomae, R., E-mail: rthomae@tlabs.ac.za; Conradie, J.; Fourie, D.; Mira, J.; Nemulodi, F. [iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7130 (South Africa); Kuechler, D.; Toivanen, V. [CERN, BE/ABP/HSL, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-02-15

    At iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences (iThemba LABS) an electron cyclotron ion source was installed and commissioned. This source is a copy of the Grenoble Test Source (GTS) for the production of highly charged ions. The source is similar to the GTS-LHC at CERN and named GTS2. A collaboration between the Accelerators and Beam Physics Group of CERN and the Accelerator and Engineering Department of iThemba LABS was proposed in which the development of high intensity argon and xenon beams is envisaged. In this paper, we present beam experiments with the GTS2 at iThemba LABS, in which the results of continuous wave and afterglow operation of xenon ion beams with oxygen as supporting gases are presented.

  3. Atomic physics at the Argonne PII ECR [electron cyclotron resonance] Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, R.W.; Berry, H.G.; Billquist, P.J.; Pardo, R.C.; Zabransky, B.J.; Bakke, E.; Groeneveld, K.O.; Hass, M.; Raphaelian, M.L.A.

    1987-01-01

    An atomic physics beam line has been set up at the Argonne PII ECR Ion Source. The source is on a 350-kV high-voltage platform which is a unique feature of particular interest in work on atomic collisions. We describe our planned experimental program which includes: measurement of state-selective electron-capture cross sections, studies of doubly-excited states, precision spectroscopy of few-electron ions, tests of quantum electrodynamics, and studies of polarization transfer using optically pumped polarized alkali targets. The first experiments will be measurements of cross sections for electron capture into specific nl subshells in ion-atom collisions. Our method is to observe the characteristic radiation emitted after capture using a VUV spectrometer. Initial data from these experiments are presented. 12 refs., 4 figs

  4. Collective Thomson scattering of a high power electron cyclotron resonance heating beam in LHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubo, S.; Nishiura, M.; Tanaka, K.

    2010-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) system has been constructed at LHD making use of the high power ECRH system in LHD. The necessary features for CTS, high power probing beams and receiving beams, both with well defined Gaussian profile and with the fine controllability, are endowed in the ECRH ...

  5. Modeling of electron cyclotron resonance acceleration in a stationary inhomogeneous magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri D. Dougar-Jabon

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the cyclotron autoresonance acceleration of electrons in a stationary inhomogeneous magnetic field is studied. The trajectory and energy of electrons are found through a numerical solution of the relativistic Newton-Lorentz equation by a finite difference method. The electrons move along a TE_{112} cylinder cavity in a steady-state magnetic field whose axis coincides with the cavity axis. The magnetic field profile is such that it keeps the phase difference between the electric microwave field and the electron velocity vector within the acceleration phase band. The microwaves amplitude of 6  kV/cm is used for numerical calculations. It is shown that an electron with an initial longitudinal energy of 8 keV can be accelerated up to 260 keV by 2.45 GHz microwaves at a distance of 17 cm.

  6. ECRH-assisted plasma start-up with toroidally inclined launch: multi-machine comparison and perspectives for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stober, J.; Hobirk, J.; Lunt, T.; Jackson, G.L.; Hyatt, A.W.; Luce, T.; Ascasibar, E.; Cappa, A.; Bae, Y.-S.; Joung, M.; Bucalossi, J.; Casper, T.; Gribov, Y.; Cho, M.-H.; Jeong, J.-H.; Namkung, W.; Park, S.-I.; Granucci, G.; Hanada, K.; Ide, S.

    2011-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH)-assisted plasma breakdown is foreseen with full and half magnetic field in ITER. As reported earlier, the corresponding O1- and X2-schemes have been successfully used to assist pre-ionization and breakdown in present-day devices. This contribution reports on common experiments studying the effect of toroidal inclination of the ECR beam, which is ≥20 0 in ITER. All devices could demonstrate successful breakdown assistance for this case also, although in some experiments the necessary power was almost a factor of 2 higher compared with perpendicular launch. Differences between the devices with regard to the required power and vertical field are discussed and analysed. In contrast to most of these experiments, ITER will build up loop voltage prior to the formation of the field null due to the strong shielding by the vessel. Possible consequences of this difference are discussed.

  7. Deposition of low stress, high transmittance SiC as an x-ray mask membrane using ECR plasma CVD

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, S Y; Lim, S T; Ahn, J H

    1998-01-01

    SiC for x-ray mask membrane is deposited by Electron Cyclotron Resonance plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition from SiH sub 4 /CH sub 4 Ar mixtures. Stoichiometric SiC is deposited at SiH sub 4 /CH sub 4 ratio of 0.4, deposition temperature of 600.deg.C and microwave power of 500 W with +- 5% thickness uniformity, As-deposited film has compressive residual stress, very smooth surface (31 A rms) and high optical transmittance of 90% at 633 nm wavelength. The microstructure of this film consists of the nanocrystalline particle (100 A approx 200A) embedded in amorphous matrix. Residual stress can be turned to tensile stress via Rapid Thermal Annealing in N sub 2 atmosphere, while suppressing structural change during annealing, As a result, smooth (37 A rms) SiC film with moderate tensile stress and high optical transmittance (85% at 633 nm wavelength) is obtained.

  8. Millimetre waves and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, G.F.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: This talk is a review of the plasma-related presentations at the 23rd International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves held at the University of Essex, Colchester, UK 7-11 September 1998. Of most relevance to fusion is the development of high-power sources for electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive. The requirements for ITER are a total of 50 MW at 170 GHz. The state of the art is illustrated by (a) high-power gyrotrons that deliver 1 MW for 1 s at 170 GHz, and (b) a free-electron maser that has generated millimetre waves for the first time, 730 kW at 200 GHz. A number of papers describe new technologies that allow high powers to be achieved; internal mode converters to convert the whispering-gallery mode generated in the gyrotron cavity into a gaussian beam, depressed collectors to raise the efficiency from 1/3 to better than 1/2, CVD diamond output windows and coaxial gyrotrons with improved mode purity. Other papers describe transmission lines and steerable mirrors. Several papers deal with millimetre-wave plasma diagnostics for fusion such as electron cyclotron emission measurements and reflectometry. (author)

  9. Enhanced Plasma Confinement in a Magnetic Well by Whistler Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balmashnov, A. A.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1981-01-01

    The propagation of whistler waves in a magnetic field of mirror configuration is investigated experimentally. The strong interaction between waves and particles at the electron-cyclotron resonance leads to enhanced confinement in the magnetic well.......The propagation of whistler waves in a magnetic field of mirror configuration is investigated experimentally. The strong interaction between waves and particles at the electron-cyclotron resonance leads to enhanced confinement in the magnetic well....

  10. The reactor plasma physics of tandem mirror startup and fractional power operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantrowitz, F.D.; Firestone, M.A.; Guebel, D.M.; Mau, T.K.

    1984-01-01

    Plasma behavior and the performance of plasma technologies are studied during the startup and fractional power operation of tandem mirrors. Five phases of machine operation are identified, some of which require plasma. The plasma phases include plasma initiation and heating, a standby phase with plasma at the density and temperature characteristics of full design performance in reactors, a deuterium-tritium fractional power operating phase in which the fusion plasma undergoes staged power increases to full power, and rated power operating phase. Plasma initiation and heating uses electron cyclotron resonance heating preionization of background gas in the plug and ion cyclotron resonance heating in the central cell. Operation of the radio-frequency systems, the neutral beams, and the direct converter are studied to determine constraints affecting plasma operation. Studies of fractional power operation, carried out using a quasi-steady-state analysis, show that the plasma Q value can be made remarkably insensitive to the level of fusion power by controlling the plasma radius. Copper insert coils used to increase the maximum choke field require considerable power and cause the recirculating power fraction to increase sharply as the fusion power is reduced. Moreover, when an efficient drift pumping scheme is used, achieved improvements in plasma Q by using high-field choke coils must be weighed against their power consumption and other technological difficulties

  11. The first experiment of MPD Jet injection into GAMMA 10 plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimura, Kazuya; Nakashima, Yousuke; Takeda, Hisato

    2014-01-01

    Results of the first experiment of short pulse plasma injection by MPD (magneto plasma dynamic) Jet into GAMMA 10/PDX's longer pulse plasma are reported. In the experiment, a new method for plasma start-up without using plasma guns was applied. In this method, the main plasma of GAMMA 10/PDX was produced by ECRH (electron cyclotron resonance heating) and ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequency). Then, MPD Jet plasma was injected into the main plasma along magnetic field line. As a result, density of the main plasma was increased and the end-loss flux was doubled. Flow velocity of the plasmoid injected by the MPD Jet was evaluated from the change of plasma density in each cell of the tandem mirror. The result indicated that the flow speed is several km/s. It is found that the plasmoid worked as strong fueling device which dramatically raises the density of plasma. Therefore injection of MPD Jet plasma into tandem mirror can be a useful tool to study physical phenomena of divertor and PWI. (author)

  12. ECR Plasma Photos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, R.; Biri, S.; Palinkas, J.

    2009-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from He, methane, N, O, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe gases and from their mixtures. The effects of the main external setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, microwave power, microwave frequency) were studied to the shape, color and structure of the plasma. The double frequency mode (9+14 GHz) was also realized and photos of this special 'star-in-star' shape plasma were recorded. A study was performed to analyze and understand the color of the ECR plasmas. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas. To our best knowledge our work is the first systematic study of ECR plasmas in the visible light region. When looking in the plasma chamber of an ECRIS we can see an axial image of the plasma (figure 1) in conformity with experimental setup. Most of the quantitative information was obtained through the summarised values of the Analogue Digital Unit (ADU) of pixels. By decreasing the strength of the magnetic trap we clearly observed that the brightness of the central part of the plasma gradually decreases, i.e. the plasma becomes more and more 'empty'. Figure 2 shows a photo series of ECR plasma at decreasing axial magnetic field. The radial size of the plasma increased because of the ascendant resonant zone. By increasing the power of the injected microwave an optimum (or at least saturation) was found in the brightness of the plasma. We found correlation between the gas dosing rates and plasma intensities. When sweeping the frequency of the microwave in a wide region

  13. Electronic sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Electronic sputtering covers a range of phenomena from electron and photon stimulated desorption from multilayers to fast heavy ion-induced desorption (sputtering) of biomolecules. In this talk the author attempted. Therefore, to connect the detailed studies of argon ejection from solid argon by MeV ions and keV electrons to the sputtering of low temperatures molecular ices by MeV ions then to biomolecule ejection from organic solids. These are related via changing (dE/dx) e , molecular size, and transport processes occurring in materials. In this regard three distinct regions of (dE/dx) e have been identified. Since the talk this picture has been made explicit using a simple spike model for individual impulsive events in which spike interactions are combined linearly. Since that time also the molecular dynamics programs (at Virginia and Uppsala) have quantified both single atom and dimer processes in solid Ar and the momentum transport in large biomolecule sputtering. 5 refs

  14. TiO2 thin and thick films grown on Si/glass by sputtering of titanium targets in an RF inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia-Alvarado, R; López-Callejas, R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Muñoz-Castro, A E; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G; De la Piedad-Beneitez, A; De la Rosa-Vázquez, J M

    2015-01-01

    TiO 2 thin and thick films were deposited on silicon/glass substrates using RF inductive plasma in continuous wave. The films thickness, as well as phases control, is achieved with a gradual increase in temperature substrates varying supplied RF power or working gas pressure besides deposition time as well. The deposition conditions were: argon 80%/oxygen 20% carefully calibrated mixture of 2 to 7×10 −2 mbar as working gas pressure range. Deposition time 0.5 to 5 hours, 500 or 600 W RF power at 13.56 MHz frequency and 242-345 °C substrates temperature range. The titanium dioxide deposited on the substrates is grown by sputtering of a titanium target negatively polarized at 3-5 kV DC situated 14 mm in front of such substrates. The plasma reactor is a simple Pyrex-like glass cylindrical vessel of 50 cm long and 20 cm in diameter. Using the before describe plasma parameters we obtained films only anatase and both anatase/rutile phases with stoichiometric different. The films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), stylus profilometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. (paper)

  15. Synthesis of ZnO nanorods-Au nanoparticles hybrids via in-situ plasma sputtering-assisted method for simultaneous electrochemical sensing of ascorbic acid and uric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Chao [College of Life Information Science & Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Liu, Hongying, E-mail: liuhongying@hdu.edu.cn [College of Life Information Science & Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Dan; Yang, Chi [Department of Pharmacy, Nantong University, Nantong 226001 (China); Zhang, Mingzhen [College of Life Information Science & Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2016-05-05

    In this study, ZnO nanorods-Au nanoparticles (ZnO NRs-Au NPs) hybrids were prepared using an in-situ plasma sputtering-assisted method without any template. Characterization results from scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that Au NPs are highly dispersed and tightly anchored on the surface of ZnO NRs. The size and surface coverage of Au NPs were well controlled by plasma sputtering time. Moreover, the hybrids exhibited excellent electrocatalytic properties towards oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) due to large surface area of Au NPs and ZnO NRs, and thus can be used as electrochemical sensors. Differential pulse voltammetry results showed that AA and UA could be detected simultaneously by ZnO NRs-Au NPs hybrids modified glassy carbon electrode. The linear ranges for AA and UA are 0.1 to 4 mM and 0.01 to 0.4 mM, respectively. The results suggest promising future applications in clinical diagnosis. - Highlights: • ZnO nanorods-Au nanoparticles were synthesized by in-situ plasma sputtering method. • Influence of sputtering time on the formation of Au nanoparticles was studied. • It exhibited a strong electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of ascorbic acid and uric acid. • A portable and cheap approach for simultaneous detection of ascorbic acid and uric acid was developed.

  16. Synthesis of ZnO nanorods-Au nanoparticles hybrids via in-situ plasma sputtering-assisted method for simultaneous electrochemical sensing of ascorbic acid and uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Chao; Liu, Hongying; Zhang, Dan; Yang, Chi; Zhang, Mingzhen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, ZnO nanorods-Au nanoparticles (ZnO NRs-Au NPs) hybrids were prepared using an in-situ plasma sputtering-assisted method without any template. Characterization results from scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that Au NPs are highly dispersed and tightly anchored on the surface of ZnO NRs. The size and surface coverage of Au NPs were well controlled by plasma sputtering time. Moreover, the hybrids exhibited excellent electrocatalytic properties towards oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) due to large surface area of Au NPs and ZnO NRs, and thus can be used as electrochemical sensors. Differential pulse voltammetry results showed that AA and UA could be detected simultaneously by ZnO NRs-Au NPs hybrids modified glassy carbon electrode. The linear ranges for AA and UA are 0.1 to 4 mM and 0.01 to 0.4 mM, respectively. The results suggest promising future applications in clinical diagnosis. - Highlights: • ZnO nanorods-Au nanoparticles were synthesized by in-situ plasma sputtering method. • Influence of sputtering time on the formation of Au nanoparticles was studied. • It exhibited a strong electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of ascorbic acid and uric acid. • A portable and cheap approach for simultaneous detection of ascorbic acid and uric acid was developed.

  17. Plasmas in compact traps: From ion sources to multidisciplinary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascali, D.; Musumarra, A.; Leone, F.; Galatà, A.; Romano, F. P.; Gammino, S.

    2017-09-01

    In linear (minimum-B) magneto-static traps dense and hot plasmas are heated by electromagnetic radiation in the GHz domain via the Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR). The values of plasma density, temperature and confinement times ( n_eτ_i>10^{13} cm ^{-3} s; T_e>10 keV) are similar to the ones of thermonuclear plasmas. The research in this field -devoted to heating and confinement optimization- has been supported by numerical modeling and advanced diagnostics, for probing the plasma especially in a non-invasive way. ECR-based systems are nowadays able to produce extremely intense (tens or hundreds of mA) beams of light ions (p, d, He), and relevant currents of heavier elements (C, O, N) up to heavy ions like Xe, Pb, U. Such beams can be extracted from the trap by a proper electrostatic system. The above-mentioned properties make these plasmas very attractive for interdisciplinary researches also, such as i) nuclear decays rates measurements in stellar-like conditions, ii) energy conversion studies, being exceptional sources of short-wavelength electromagnetic radiation (EUV, X-rays, hard X-rays and gammas, useful in material science and archaeometry), iii) environments allowing precise spectroscopical measurements as benchmarks for magnetized astrophysical plasmas. The talk will give an overview about the state-of-the-art in the field of intense ion sources, and some new perspectives for interdisciplinary research, with a special attention to the developments based at INFN-LNS.

  18. Annual review of Plasma Physics Laboratory, Kyoto University, April, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    The devices for additionally heating joul-heated plasma in the Heliotron E, such as electron cyclotron resonance heating and neutral beam injection, were in operation in 1982. In the ECRH experiment, the microwaves of 200 kW at 28 GHz were generated by a gyrotron, but the pulse width was extended from 10 ms to 40 ms this year. By this, a currentless plasma of Te-1 keV was achieved. In the NB1 experiment, the neutral beam of about 1.5 MW was injected into joule-heated plasma, and the plasma of Ti(O)-950 eV, Te(O)-800 eV and Ne = 3 x 10 19 /m 3 was attained. The first experiment to inject neutral beam into ECRH currentless plasma was carried out. By this method, the density of the plasma increased as well as the ion temperature and electron temperature. As to the theory, a critical beta was calculated by using stellarator expansion, which should be 3 to 7 % in the Heliotron E. Two gyrotrons of 200 kW at 53 GHz each and an ion cyclotron resonance heating equipment of 1.5 MW at 26.7 MHz are prepared. As to the reactor study, the design of Heliotron H in the first phase was completed. The location of impurity sources in NB1 ion sources and beam lines was found. (Kako, I.)

  19. Enhancement of Ti-containing hydrogenated carbon (Ti-C:H) films by high-power plasma-sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwo, Jyh; Chu, Chun-Lin; Tsai, Ming-Jui; Lee, Shyong

    2012-01-01

    Ti-containing amorphous hydrogenated carbon (Ti-C:H) thin films were deposited on stainless steel SS304 substrates by high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) in an atmosphere of mixed Ar and C 2 H 2 gases using titanium metal as the cathodic material. The multilayer structure of the deposited film had a Ti-TiC-DLC gradient to improve adhesion and reduce residual stress. This study investigates the effects of substrate bias and target-to-substrate distance on the mechanical properties of Ti-C:H films. Film properties, including composition, morphology, microstructure, mechanical, and tribology, were examined by glow discharge spectroscopy (GDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and a nanoindenter and a pin-on-disk tribometer. Experiments revealed impressive results.

  20. Enhancement of Ti-containing hydrogenated carbon (Tisbnd C:H) films by high-power plasma-sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwo, Jyh; Chu, Chun-Lin; Tsai, Ming-Jui; Lee, Shyong

    2012-02-01

    Ti-containing amorphous hydrogenated carbon (Tisbnd C:H) thin films were deposited on stainless steel SS304 substrates by high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) in an atmosphere of mixed Ar and C2H2 gases using titanium metal as the cathodic material. The multilayer structure of the deposited film had a Tisbnd TiCsbnd DLC gradient to improve adhesion and reduce residual stress. This study investigates the effects of substrate bias and target-to-substrate distance on the mechanical properties of Tisbnd C:H films. Film properties, including composition, morphology, microstructure, mechanical, and tribology, were examined by glow discharge spectroscopy (GDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and a nanoindenter and a pin-on-disk tribometer. Experiments revealed impressive results.

  1. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for Zeeman Spectra of Ti I in Plasma Using a Facing Target Sputtering System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Nishimiya, Nobuo; Suzuki, Masao

    2017-10-01

    The saturated absorption lines of neutral titanium were measured in the region of 9950-14380 cm-1 using a Ti:sapphire ring laser. A facing target sputtering system was used to obtain the gaseous state of a Ti I atom. The Zeeman splitting of 38 transitions was observed under the condition that the electric field component of a linearly polarized laser beam was parallel to the magnetic field. The gJ factors of the odd parity states were determined for 28 states belonging to 3d24s4p and 3d34p using those of the even parity states reported by Stachowska in 1997. The gJ factors of z5P1,2,3 levels were newly determined. gJ of y3F2, y3D2, z3P2, and z5S2 levels were refined.

  2. Influence of substrate pre-treatments by Xe{sup +} ion bombardment and plasma nitriding on the behavior of TiN coatings deposited by plasma reactive sputtering on 100Cr6 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vales, S., E-mail: sandra.vales@usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos, Av. Trabalhador São Carlense 400, São Carlos, SP CEP 13566-590 (Brazil); Brito, P., E-mail: ppbrito@gmail.com [Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais (PUC-MG), Av. Dom José Gaspar 500, 30535-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Pineda, F.A.G., E-mail: pipe8219@gmail.com [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos, Av. Trabalhador São Carlense 400, São Carlos, SP CEP 13566-590 (Brazil); Ochoa, E.A., E-mail: abigail_ochoa@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campus Universitário Zeferino Vaz, Barão Geraldo, Campinas, SP CEP 13083-970 (Brazil); Droppa, R., E-mail: roosevelt.droppa@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Av. dos Estados, 5001, Santo André, SP CEP 09210-580 (Brazil); Garcia, J., E-mail: jose.garcia@sandvik.com [Sandvik Coromant R& D, Lerkrogsvägen 19, SE-12680, Stockholm (Sweden); Morales, M., E-mail: monieriz@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campus Universitário Zeferino Vaz, Barão Geraldo, Campinas, SP CEP 13083-970 (Brazil); Alvarez, F., E-mail: alvarez@ifi.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campus Universitário Zeferino Vaz, Barão Geraldo, Campinas, SP CEP 13083-970 (Brazil); and others

    2016-07-01

    In this paper the influence of pre-treating a 100Cr6 steel surface by Xe{sup +} ion bombardment and plasma nitriding at low temperature (380 °C) on the roughness, wear resistance and residual stresses of thin TiN coatings deposited by reactive IBAD was investigated. The Xe{sup +} ion bombardment was carried out using a 1.0 keV kinetic energy by a broad ion beam assistance deposition (IBAD, Kaufman cell). The results showed that in the studied experimental conditions the ion bombardment intensifies nitrogen diffusion by creating lattice imperfections, stress, and increasing roughness. In case of the combined pre-treatment with Xe{sup +} ion bombardment and subsequent plasma nitriding, the samples evolved relatively high average roughness and the wear volume increased in comparison to the substrates exposed to only nitriding or ion bombardment. - Highlights: • Effect of Xe ion bombardment and plasma nitriding on TiN coatings was investigated. • Xe ion bombardment with 1.0 KeV increases nitrogen retention in plasma nitriding. • 1.0 KeV ion impact energy causes sputtering, thus increasing surface roughness. • TiN coating wear is minimum after plasma nitriding due to lowest roughness.

  3. Annual review of Plasma Physics Laboratory, Kyoto University, July, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The construction of the Heliotron E was completed in June, 1980. After the preliminary examination for two months and the improvement of the power supply, the Joule heating experiment was carried out from September, 1980, to January, 1981. The experiment of electron cyclotron resonance heating was also carried out in January, 1981. Then, experiment was stopped to install the neutral beam injection apparatus. The results obtained by both experiments are reported. The target may be attained by producing high density plasma with low plasma current, and heating the plasma by NBI additionally. In the ECRH experiment, plasma was produced and heated successfully without Joule heating current, by the Gyrotron with 200 kW power output. The favorable results of the confinement experiment with current-free plasma indicate the possibility of a stationary fusion reactor of Heliotron type. The Heliotron magnetic field configuration was proposed in 1959, and since then, the experiments of Heliotron A, B, C, D and DM were carried out in succession. Now, the purpose of the experiment to prove the principle is being achieved with Heliotron E. Hope is placed on the NBI experiment in preparation. (Kako, I.)

  4. Structure and optical band-gap energies of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films fabricated by RF magnetron plasma sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhimou; Suzuki, Masato; Yokoyama, Shin

    2005-01-01

    The structure and optical band-gap energies of Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 TiO 3 (BST0.5) thin films prepared on SiO 2 /Si and fused quartz substrates by RF magnetron plasma sputtering were studied in terms of deposition temperature and film thickness. Highly (100)-oriented BST0.5 thin films were successfully sputtered on a Si substrate with an approximately 1.0-μm-thick SiO 2 layer at a deposition temperature of above 450degC. The optical transmittance of BST0.5 thin films weakly depended on the magnitude of X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak intensity. This is very helpful for monolithic integration of BST0.5 films for electrooptical functions directly onto a SiO 2 /Si substrate. The band-gap energies showed a strong dependence on the deposition temperature and film thickness. It was mainly related to the quantum size effect and the influence of the crystallinity of thin films, such as grain boundaries, grain size, oriented growth, and the existence of an amorphous phase. The band-gap energy values, which were much larger than those of single crystals, decreased with the increase in the deposition temperature and the thickness of BST0.5 thin films. The band-gap energy of 311-nm-thick amorphous BST0.5 thin film was about 4.45 eV and that of (100)-oriented BST0.5 thin film with a thickness of 447 nm was about 3.89 eV. It is believed that the dependence of the band-gap energies of the thin films on the crystallinity for various values of deposition temperature and film thickness means that there could be application in integrated optical devices. (author)

  5. Modeling and analysis of surface roughness effects on sputtering, reflection, and sputtered particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.N.; Ruzic, D.N.

    1990-01-01

    The microstructure of the redeposited surface in tokamaks may affect sputtering and reflection properties and subsequent particle transport. This subject has been studied numerically using coupled models/codes for near-surface plasma particle kinetic transport (WBC code) and rough surface sputtering (fractal-TRIM). The coupled codes provide an overall Monte Carlo calculation of the sputtering cascade resulting from an initial flux of hydrogen ions. Beryllium, carbon, and tungsten surfaces are analyzed for typical high recycling, oblique magnetic field, divertor conditions. Significant variations in computed sputtering rates are found with surface roughness. Beryllium exhibits high D-T and self-sputtering coefficients for the plasma regime studied (T e = 30-75 eV). Carbon and tungsten sputtering is significantly lower. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  6. Plasma heating via electron Bernstein wave heating using ordinary and extraodinary mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Parvazian

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetically confined plasma can be heated with high power microwave sources. In spherical torus the electron plasma frequency exeeds the electron cyclotron frequency (EC and, as a consequence, electromagnetic waves at fundamental and low harmonic EC cannot propagate within the plasma. In contrast, electron Bernstein waves (EBWs readily propagate in spherical torus plasma and are absorbed strongly at the electron cyclotron resonances. In order to proagate EBWs beyond the upper hybrid resonance (UHR, that surrounds the plasma, the EBWs must convert via one of two processes to either ordinary (O-mode or extraordinary (X-mode electromagnetic waves. O-mode and X-mode electromagnetic waves lunched at the plasma edge can convert to the electron Bernstein waves (EBWs which can propagate without and cut-off into the core of the plasma and damp on electrons. Since the electron Bernstein wave (EBW has no cut-off limits, it is well suited to heat an over-dense plasma by resonant absorption. An important problem is to calculate mode conversion coefficient that is very sensitive to density. Mode conversion coefficient depends on Budden parameter ( ñ and density scale length (Ln in upper hybrid resonance (UHR. In Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST, the optimized conversion efficiency approached 72.5% when Ln was 4.94 cm and the magnetic field was 0.475 Tesla in the core of the plasma.

  7. Relation between the plasma characteristics and physical properties of functional zinc oxide thin film prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Che-Wei; Cheng, Tsung-Chieh; Huang, Wen-Hsien; Wu, Jong-Shinn; Cheng, Cheng-Chih; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Huang, Shih-Chiang

    2010-01-01

    The ZnO thin film was deposited on a glass substrate by a RF reactive magnetron sputtering method. Results showed that plasma density, electron temperature, deposition rate and estimated ion bombardment energy increase with increasing applied RF power. Three distinct power regimes were observed, which are strongly correlated with plasma properties. In the low-power regime, the largest grain size was observed due to slow deposition rate. In the medium-power regime, the smallest grain size was found, which is attributed to insufficient time for the adatoms to migrate on substrate surface. In the high-power regime, relatively larger grain size was found due to very large ion bombardment energy which enhances the thermal migration of adatoms. Regardless of pure ZnO thin film or ZnO on glass, high transmittance (> 80%) in the visible region can be generally observed. However, the film thickness plays a more important role for controlling optical properties, especially in the UV region, than the applied RF power. In general, with properly coated ZnO thin film, we can obtain a glass substrate which is highly transparent in the visible region, is of good anti-UV characteristics, and is highly hydrophobic, which is highly suitable for applications in the glass industry.

  8. ECR plasma cleaning for superconducting cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Suehiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-02-01

    A superconducting linac has been operating well as a heavy ion energy booster of the tandem accelerator at JAERI since 1994. Forty superconducting quarter wave resonators are used in the linac. They have high performances in average. Some of them are, however, suffering from 'Q-disease' that has been caused by hydrogen absorption into niobium during electro-polishing and the precipitation of niobium-hydrides on the surface at the vicinity of about 120K during precooling. A method of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma cleaning was applied to spare resonator in order to investigate if it is useful as a curing method of Q-disease. ECR plasma was excited in the resonator by 2.45 GHz microwave in a magnetic field of about 87.5 mT. In the first preliminary experiments, hydrogen, helium, water and oxigen gases were investigated. Every case was done at a pressure of about 3x10{sup -3} Pa. The results show that apparent recovery from Q-disease was found with helium and oxigen gases. (author)

  9. High beta capture and mirror confinement of laser produced plasmas. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haught, A.F.; Tomlinson, R.G.; Ard, W.B.; Boedeker, L.R.; Churchill, T.L.; Fader, W.J.; Jong, R.A.; Mensing, A.E.; Polk, D.H.; Stufflebeam, J.H.

    1977-12-01

    The LITE fusion plasma research program at UTRC has been investigating the stabilization and confinement physics of a mirror plasma created by energetic neutral beam heating of a confined target plasma. During the period covered by this report work has been concentrated on the investigation of hot ion losses in a warm target plasma, development of a cryocondensation pump for the LITE beam line neutralizer, theoretical studies of ECRH modification of the ambipolar potential in mirror plasmas, and analysis of the effects of localized cold plasma on DCLC stabilization. The results of these investigations are summarized below and detailed in four papers which comprise the body of this report. Measurements of the lifetime of hot ions in a mirror confined warm plasma have been carried out by observations of the hot ion buildup time obtained with energetic neutral beam injection. A cryocondensation pump of novel design has been constructed and incorporated in the neutralizer chamber of the LITE neutral beam line. Calculations have been carried out to evaluate the sizes and shapes of ambipolar potential modification produced by electron cyclotron resonance heated electrons and to determine the spatial distribution and densities of cold ions trapped in the potential wells. The effects of the spatial distribution of the cold ions on their effectiveness for stabilizing the drift cyclotron loss cone instability has been studied numerically using the formulation of Pearlstein in which the dispersion relation for the DCLC mode is solved for finite-size plasmas containing hot and cold components

  10. Major results from the first plasma campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R. C.; Ali, A.; Alonso, A.; Baldzuhn, J.; Beidler, C.; Beurskens, M.; Biedermann, C.; Bosch, H.-S.; Bozhenkov, S.; Brakel, R.; Dinklage, A.; Feng, Y.; Fuchert, G.; Geiger, J.; Grulke, O.; Helander, P.; Hirsch, M.; Höfel, U.; Jakubowski, M.; Knauer, J.; Kocsis, G.; König, R.; Kornejew, P.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Krychowiak, M.; Landreman, M.; Langenberg, A.; Laqua, H. P.; Lazerson, S.; Maaßberg, H.; Marsen, S.; Marushchenko, M.; Moseev, D.; Niemann, H.; Pablant, N.; Pasch, E.; Rahbarnia, K.; Schlisio, G.; Stange, T.; Pedersen, T. Sunn; Svensson, J.; Szepesi, T.; Trimino Mora, H.; Turkin, Y.; Wauters, T.; Weir, G.; Wenzel, U.; Windisch, T.; Wurden, G.; Zhang, D.; Abramovic, I.; Äkäslompolo, S.; Aleynikov, P.; Aleynikova, K.; Alzbutas, R.; Anda, G.; Andreeva, T.; Ascasibar, E.; Assmann, J.; Baek, S.-G.; Banduch, M.; Barbui, T.; Barlak, M.; Baumann, K.; Behr, W.; Benndorf, A.; Bertuch, O.; Biel, W.; Birus, D.; Blackwell, B.; Blanco, E.; Blatzheim, M.; Bluhm, T.; Böckenhoff, D.; Bolgert, P.; Borchardt, M.; Borsuk, V.; Boscary, J.; Böttger, L.-G.; Brand, H.; Brandt, Ch.; Bräuer, T.; Braune, H.; Brezinsek, S.; Brunner, K.-J.; Brünner, B.; Burhenn, R.; Buttenschön, B.; Bykov, V.; Calvo, I.; Cannas, B.; Cappa, A.; Carls, A.; Carraro, L.; Carvalho, B.; Castejon, F.; Charl, A.; Chernyshev, F.; Cianciosa, M.; Citarella, R.; Ciupiński, Ł.; Claps, G.; Cole, M.; Cole, M. J.; Cordella, F.; Cseh, G.; Czarnecka, A.; Czermak, A.; Czerski, K.; Czerwinski, M.; Czymek, G.; da Molin, A.; da Silva, A.; Dammertz, G.; Danielson, J.; de la Pena, A.; Degenkolbe, S.; Denner, P.; Dhard, D. P.; Dostal, M.; Drevlak, M.; Drewelow, P.; Drews, Ph.; Dudek, A.; Dundulis, G.; Durodie, F.; van Eeten, P.; Effenberg, F.; Ehrke, G.; Endler, M.; Ennis, D.; Erckmann, E.; Esteban, H.; Estrada, T.; Fahrenkamp, N.; Feist, J.-H.; Fellinger, J.; Fernandes, H.; Fietz, W. H.; Figacz, W.; Fontdecaba, J.; Ford, O.; Fornal, T.; Frerichs, H.; Freund, A.; Führer, M.; Funaba, T.; Galkowski, A.; Gantenbein, G.; Gao, Y.; García Regaña, J.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Gates, D.; Gawlik, G.; Geiger, B.; Giannella, V.; Gierse, N.; Gogoleva, A.; Goncalves, B.; Goriaev, A.; Gradic, D.; Grahl, M.; Green, J.; Grosman, A.; Grote, H.; Gruca, M.; Guerard, C.; Haiduk, L.; Han, X.; Harberts, F.; Harris, J. H.; Hartfuß, H.-J.; Hartmann, D.; Hathiramani, D.; Hein, B.; Heinemann, B.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Henneberg, S.; Hennig, C.; Hernandez Sanchez, J.; Hidalgo, C.; Hölbe, H.; Hollfeld, K. P.; Hölting, A.; Höschen, D.; Houry, M.; Howard, J.; Huang, X.; Huber, M.; Huber, V.; Hunger, H.; Ida, K.; Ilkei, T.; Illy, S.; Israeli, B.; Ivanov, A.; Jablonski, S.; Jagielski, J.; Jelonnek, J.; Jenzsch, H.; Junghans, P.; Kacmarczyk, J.; Kaliatka, T.; Kallmeyer, J.-P.; Kamionka, U.; Karalevicius, R.; Kasahara, H.; Kasparek, W.; Kenmochi, N.; Keunecke, M.; Khilchenko, A.; Kinna, D.; Kleiber, R.; Klinger, T.; Knaup, M.; Kobarg, Th.; Köchl, F.; Kolesnichenko, Y.; Könies, A.; Köppen, M.; Koshurinov, J.; Koslowski, R.; Köster, F.; Koziol, R.; Krämer, M.; Krampitz, R.; Kraszewsk, P.; Krawczyk, N.; Kremeyer, T.; Krings, Th.; Krom, J.; Krzesinski, G.; Ksiazek, I.; Kubkowska, M.; Kühner, G.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Kwak, S.; Lang, R.; Langish, S.; Laqua, H.; Laube, R.; Lechte, C.; Lennartz, M.; Leonhardt, W.; Lewerentz, L.; Liang, Y.; Linsmeier, Ch.; Liu, S.; Lobsien, J.-F.; Loesser, D.; Loizu Cisquella, J.; Lore, J.; Lorenz, A.; Losert, M.; Lubyako, L.; Lücke, A.; Lumsdaine, A.; Lutsenko, V.; Majano-Brown, J.; Marchuk, O.; Mardenfeld, M.; Marek, P.; Massidda, S.; Masuzaki, S.; Maurer, D.; McCarthy, K.; McNeely, P.; Meier, A.; Mellein, D.; Mendelevitch, B.; Mertens, Ph.; Mikkelsen, D.; Mishchenko, O.; Missal, B.; Mittelstaedt, J.; Mizuuchi, T.; Mollen, A.; Moncada, V.; Mönnich, T.; Morizaki, T.; Munk, R.; Murakami, S.; Musielok, F.; Náfrádi, G.; Nagel, M.; Naujoks, D.; Neilson, H.; Neubauer, O.; Neuner, U.; Ngo, T.; Nocentini, R.; Nührenberg, C.; Nührenberg, J.; Obermayer, S.; Offermanns, G.; Ogawa, K.; Ongena, J.; Oosterbeek, J. W.; Orozco, G.; Otte, M.; Pacios Rodriguez, L.; Pan, W.; Panadero, N.; Panadero Alvarez, N.; Panin, A.; Papenfuß, D.; Paqay, S.; Pavone, A.; Pawelec, E.; Pelka, G.; Peng, X.; Perseo, V.; Peterson, B.; Pieper, A.; Pilopp, D.; Pingel, S.; Pisano, F.; Plaum, B.; Plunk, G.; Povilaitis, M.; Preinhaelter, J.; Proll, J.; Puiatti, M.-E.; Sitjes, A. Puig; Purps, F.; Rack, M.; Récsei, S.; Reiman, A.; Reiter, D.; Remppel, F.; Renard, S.; Riedl, R.; Riemann, J.; Rimkevicius, S.; Riße, K.; Rodatos, A.; Röhlinger, H.; Romé, M.; Rong, P.; Roscher, H.-J.; Roth, B.; Rudischhauser, L.; Rummel, K.; Rummel, T.; Runov, A.; Rust, N.; Ryc, L.; Ryosuke, S.; Sakamoto, R.; Samartsev, A.; Sanchez, M.; Sano, F.; Satake, S.; Satheeswaran, G.; Schacht, J.; Schauer, F.; Scherer, T.; Schlaich, A.; Schlüter, K.-H.; Schmitt, J.; Schmitz, H.; Schmitz, O.; Schmuck, S.; Schneider, M.; Schneider, W.; Scholz, M.; Scholz, P.; Schrittwieser, R.; Schröder, M.; Schröder, T.; Schroeder, R.; Schumacher, H.; Schweer, B.; Shanahan, B.; Shikhovtsev, I. V.; Sibilia, M.; Sinha, P.; Sipliä, S.; Skodzik, J.; Slaby, C.; Smith, H.; Spiess, W.; Spong, D. A.; Spring, A.; Stadler, R.; Standley, B.; Stephey, L.; Stoneking, M.; Stridde, U.; Sulek, Z.; Surko, C.; Suzuki, Y.; Szabó, V.; Szabolics, T.; Szökefalvi-Nagy, Z.; Tamura, N.; Terra, A.; Terry, J.; Thomas, J.; Thomsen, H.; Thumm, M.; von Thun, C. P.; Timmermann, D.; Titus, P.; Toi, K.; Travere, J. M.; Traverso, P.; Tretter, J.; Tsuchiya, H.; Tsujimura, T.; Tulipán, S.; Turnyanskiy, M.; Unterberg, B.; Urban, J.; Urbonavicius, E.; Vakulchyk, I.; Valet, S.; van Millingen, B.; Vela, L.; Velasco, J.-L.; Vergote, M.; Vervier, M.; Vianello, N.; Viebke, H.; Vilbrandt, R.; Vorkörper, A.; Wadle, S.; Wagner, F.; Wang, E.; Wang, N.; Warmer, F.; Wegener, L.; Weggen, J.; Wei, Y.; Wendorf, J.; Werner, A.; Wiegel, B.; Wilde, F.; Winkler, E.; Winters, V.; Wolf, S.; Wolowski, J.; Wright, A.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Yamada, H.; Yamada, I.; Yasuhara, R.; Yokoyama, M.; Zajac, J.; Zarnstorff, M.; Zeitler, A.; Zhang, H.; Zhu, J.; Zilker, M.; Zimbal, A.; Zocco, A.; Zoletnik, S.; Zuin, M.

    2017-10-01

    After completing the main construction phase of Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and successfully commissioning the device, first plasma operation started at the end of 2015. Integral commissioning of plasma start-up and operation using electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and an extensive set of plasma diagnostics have been completed, allowing initial physics studies during the first operational campaign. Both in helium and hydrogen, plasma breakdown was easily achieved. Gaining experience with plasma vessel conditioning, discharge lengths could be extended gradually. Eventually, discharges lasted up to 6 s, reaching an injected energy of 4 MJ, which is twice the limit originally agreed for the limiter configuration employed during the first operational campaign. At power levels of 4 MW central electron densities reached 3  ×  1019 m-3, central electron temperatures reached values of 7 keV and ion temperatures reached just above 2 keV. Important physics studies during this first operational phase include a first assessment of power balance and energy confinement, ECRH power deposition experiments, 2nd harmonic O-mode ECRH using multi-pass absorption, and current drive experiments using electron cyclotron current drive. As in many plasma discharges the electron temperature exceeds the ion temperature significantly, these plasmas are governed by core electron root confinement showing a strong positive electric field in the plasma centre.

  11. RF heating of currentless plasma in Heliotron E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iiyoshi, A.; Motojima, O.; Sato, M.

    1985-01-01

    Recent electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and ion cyclotron range frequency heating (ICRF) experiments performed with a current-free plasma in Heliotron E are described. Parametric studies of ECRH are in progress. For both fundamental and second-harmonic resonances, optimum heating is observed when the plasma density is near the cutoff density (for the ordinary wave, in the case of fundamental resonance and for the extraordinary wave, in the case of second-harmonic resonance) and when a resonance zone exists on the magnetic axis. The maximum heating efficiencies for the fundamental and second-harmonic resonances are 6.5 eV.kW -1 per 10 19 m -3 and 2.4 eV.kW -1 per 10 19 m -3 , respectively. The ray-tracing analysis agrees qualitatively well with the experimental results. The power dependences of the plasma parameters are also investigated. - The first ICRF experiment with fast-wave heating of a current-free plasma has been performed. The ICRF wave power and pulse length are 550 kW and 15 ms, respectively. The frequency is 26.7 MHz. Ions and electrons are heated effectively. The increase in ion temperature is only slightly changed by varying the hydrogen ratio of the gas puff. On the other hand, the electron temperature increase has a definite peak for a high proton ratio (approx. 15%). This agrees qualitatively with the mode conversion picture of minority heating. (author)

  12. Plasma Heating and Losses in Toroidal Multipole Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armentrout, C. J.; Barter, J. D.; Breun, R. A.; Cavallo, A. J.; Drake, J. R.; Etzweiler,; Greenwood, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The heating and loss of plasmas have been studied in three pulsed, toroidal multipole devices: a large levitated octupole, a small supported octupole and a very small supported quadrupole. Plasmas are produced by gun injection and heated by electron and ion cyclotron resonance heating and ohmic heating. Electron cyclotron heating rates have been measured over a wide range of parameters, and the results are in quantitative agreement with stochastic heating theory. Electron cyclotron resonance heating produces ions with energies larger than predicted by theory. With the addition of a toroidal field, ohmic heating gives densities as high as 10 13 cm -3 in the toroidal quadrupole and 10 12 cm -3 in the small octupole. Plasma losses for n=5 x 10 9 cm -3 plasmas are inferred from Langmuir probe and Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements, and measured with special striped collectors on the wall and rings. The loss to a levitated ring is measured using a modulated light beam telemeter. The confinement is better than Bohm but considerably worse than classical. Low frequency convective cells which are fixed in space are observed. These cells around the ring are diminished when a weak toroidal field is added, and loss collectors show a vastly reduced flux to the rings. Analysis of the spatial density profile shows features of B-independent diffusion. The confinement is sensitive to some kinds of dc field errors, but surprisingly insensitive to perturbations of the ac confining field

  13. Particle behavior in an ECR plasma etch tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, M.G.; Tipton, G.D.; Holber, W.M.; Westerfield, P.L.; Maxwell, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    Sources of particles in a close-coupled electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) polysilicon plasma etch source include flaking of films deposited on chamber surfaces, and shedding of material from electrostatic wafer chucks. A large, episodic increase in the number of particles added to a wafer in a clean system is observed more frequently for a plasma-on than for a gas-only source condition. For polymer forming process conditions, particles were added to wafers by a polymer film which was observed to fracture and flake away from chamber surfaces. The presence of a plasma, especially when rf bias is applied to the wafer, caused more particles to be ejected from the walls and added to wafers than the gas-only condition; however, no significant influence was observed with different microwave powers. A study of effect of electrode temperatures on particles added showed that thermophoretic forces are not significant for this ECR configuration. Particles originating from the electrostatic chuck were observed to be deposited on wafers in much larger numbers in the presence of the plasma as compared to gas-only conditions

  14. Determination of the oxidation mechanism to Cd Te obtained by rf reactive magnetron sputtering in a plasma of Ar-N{sub 2}O; Determinacion del mecanismo de oxigenacion del CdTe obtenido por rf sputtering reactivo con magnetron en un plasma de Ar-N{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero B, F.; Zapata N, A.; Bartolo P, P.; Castro R, R.; Zapata T, M.; Cauich, W.; Pena, J.L. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Centro deInvestigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Unidad Merida, Apartado postal 73, Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    In this work we did studies to determinate the oxidation site and incorporation mechanism of oxygen to Cd Te, when preparing Cd Te:O thin films by r f reactive magnetron sputtering, using a Cd Te target and a controlled plasma of Ar-N{sub 2}O. We study the influence in the oxygen content in films due to the variation of N{sub 2}O partial pressure, plasma power and substrate position. We monitored the process in situ by mass spectrometry to determinate the variation of present compounds when varying the N{sub 2}O partial pressure and plasma power. Thin films composition was determined by Auger electron spectroscopy and their structure by X-ray diffraction. We demonstrate that oxygen incorporation has place mainly in the substrate, forming an amorphous Cd Te:O film. We found that exists Cd Te oxidation without using nitrous oxide, may be due to residual atmosphere. We demonstrate that Cd Te oxidation depends on nitrous oxide partial pressure and plasma power. We found that deposition rate of Cd Te:O thin films depend on nitrous oxide interaction with Cd Te in the target and on the chamber walls. We propose a reaction mechanism to explain the oxygen incorporation to Cd Te. (Author)

  15. The effects of varying plasma parameters on silicon thin film growth by ECR plasma CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, S.; Reehal, H.S.; Shirkoohi, G.H.

    2001-01-01

    The technique of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) is increasingly being used in electronic and photonic device applications. ECR offers a number of advantages including improved control of the deposition process, less damage to the growing film and the possibility of high deposition rates. ECR occurs in a plasma under appropriate magnetic and electric field conditions. In most cases, as in our system, this is achieved with a combination of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation and a 0.0875 T magnetic field, due to the use of standardized microwave supplies. We have studied the effects on silicon film growth of changing the magnetic field configuration to produce one or more planes of ECR within the system, and of changing the positions of the plane(s) relative to the deposition substrate. The films were grown in silane-hydrogen discharges. The magnetic field in our system was provided by two electromagnets. It was measured experimentally for a number of operating current values and then a detailed profile achieved by modelling using a proprietary software package. A process condition discharge under identical magnetic field configurations to growth was analysed by the use of a Langmuir probe and the results correlated with film properties determined by Raman spectroscopy and Dektak profilometry. (author)

  16. Simulation and beam line experiments for the superconducting ECR ion source VENUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, Damon S.; Leitner, Daniela; Grote, David P.; Lyneis, ClaudeM.

    2007-01-01

    The particle-in-cell code Warp has been enhanced to incorporate both two- and three-dimensional sheath extraction models giving Warp the capability of simulating entire ion beam transport systems including the extraction of beams from plasma sources. In this article we describe a method of producing initial ion distributions for plasma extraction simulations in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources based on experimentally measured sputtering on the source biased disc. Using this initialization method, we present preliminary results for extraction and transport simulations of an oxygen beam and compare them with experimental beam imaging on a quartz viewing plate for the superconducting ECR ion source VENUS

  17. Potential formation and confinement in high density plasma on the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsu, K.

    2002-01-01

    After the attainment of doubling of the density due to the potential confinement, GAMMA 10 experiments have been directed to realization of a high density plasma and also to study dependence of the confining potential and confinement time on the plasma density. These problems are important to understand the physics of potential formation in tandem mirrors and also for the development of a tandem mirror reactor. We reported high density plasma production by using an ion cyclotron range of frequency heating at a high harmonic frequency in the last IAEA Conference. However, the diamagnetic signal of the high density plasma decreased when electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) was applied due to some instabilities. Recently, the high density plasma production was much improved by adjusting the spacing of the conducting plates installed in the anchor transition regions, which enabled us to produce a high density plasma without degradation of the diamagnetic signal with ECRH and also to study the density dependence. In this paper we report production of a high density plasma and dependence of the confining potential and the confinement time on the density. (author)

  18. Direct dynamic synthesis of nanodispersed phases of titanium oxides upon sputtering of electrodischarge titanium plasma into an air atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivkov, A. A.; Gerasimov, D. Yu.; Nikitin, D. S.

    2017-01-01

    Experimental investigations of the possibility of directly synthesizing nanodispersed crystalline phases of titanium dioxides with rutile and anatase structures in a hypervelocity jet of electroerosion plasma generated by a coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator with titanium electrodes are presented. A powder product containing nanosized polymorphic phases of titanium dioxide with a spherical shape of particles has been manufactured.

  19. Electrical resistivity change in Al:ZnO thin films dynamically deposited by bipolar pulsed direct-current sputtering and a remote plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wonkyun; Joo, Junghoon

    2010-01-01

    The Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films for a transparent conducting oxide in solar cell devices were deposited by bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering. This work was performed in an in-line type system and investigated AZO films in a static deposition mode and dynamic one, which is more important in the practical fields. Because of this dynamic deposition process, the zigzagged columnar structure was observed. This resulted in the decreasing electrical property, optical properties, and surface roughness. As a deposition in the dynamic mode, the resistivity increased from 1.64x10 -3 to 2.50x10 -3 Ω cm, as compared to that in the static mode, and the transmittance also decreased from 83.9% to 78.3%. To recover the disadvantage, a remote plasma source (RPS) was supported between the substrate and target for reducing zigzagged formation during the deposition. The deposition rate decreased by using RPS, but the electrical and optical properties of films got better than only dynamic mode. The resistivity and transmittance in the dynamic mode using RPS were 2.1x10 -3 Ω cm and 85.5%, respectively. In this study, the authors found the possibility to advance the electrical and optical properties of AZO thin films in the industry mode.

  20. High power RF heating and nonthermal distributions in tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeters, A.G.

    1994-12-13

    This thesis discusses the nonthermal effects in the electron population of a tokamak, that are generated by the inductive electric field and electron cyclotron resonant heating. The kinetic description of the plasma is given by a Boltzmann equation for the electron velocity distribution, in which the many small angle scattering Coulomb collisions that occur in the plasma are modelled by a Fokker-Planck collision term. These collisions drive the distribution towards the Maxwellian distribution of thermodynamic equilibrium. The energy absorption from the electron cyclotron waves and the acceleration by the toroidal electric field lead to deviations from the Maxwellian destribution. The interaction of the electron cyclotron waves with the plasma is treated within quasilinear theory. Resonant interaction occurs when the wave frequency matches one of the harmonics of the gyration frequency of the electrons in the static magnetic field. The waves generate a diffusion of resonant electrons in velocity space. The inductive electric field accelerates the electrons in the direction prallel to the magnetic field and leads to a convection in velocity space. The equilibrium that is reached between the driving forces of the electric field and the electron cyclotron waves and the restoring force of the collisions is studied in this thesis. The specific geometry of the tokamak is incorporated in the model through an average of the kinetic equation over the electron orbits. (orig./WL).

  1. High power RF heating and nonthermal distributions in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeters, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis discusses the nonthermal effects in the electron population of a tokamak, that are generated by the inductive electric field and electron cyclotron resonant heating. The kinetic description of the plasma is given by a Boltzmann equation for the electron velocity distribution, in which the many small angle scattering Coulomb collisions that occur in the plasma are modelled by a Fokker-Planck collision term. These collisions drive the distribution towards the Maxwellian distribution of thermodynamic equilibrium. The energy absorption from the electron cyclotron waves and the acceleration by the toroidal electric field lead to deviations from the Maxwellian destribution. The interaction of the electron cyclotron waves with the plasma is treated within quasilinear theory. Resonant interaction occurs when the wave frequency matches one of the harmonics of the gyration frequency of the electrons in the static magnetic field. The waves generate a diffusion of resonant electrons in velocity space. The inductive electric field accelerates the electrons in the direction prallel to the magnetic field and leads to a convection in velocity space. The equilibrium that is reached between the driving forces of the electric field and the electron cyclotron waves and the restoring force of the collisions is studied in this thesis. The specific geometry of the tokamak is incorporated in the model through an average of the kinetic equation over the electron orbits. (orig./WL)

  2. Isotope puzzle in sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Liping

    1998-01-01

    Mechanisms affecting multicomponent material sputtering are complex. Isotope sputtering is the simplest in the multicomponent materials sputtering. Although only mass effect plays a dominant role in the isotope sputtering, there is still an isotope puzzle in sputtering by ion bombardment. The major arguments are as follows: (1) At the zero fluence, is the isotope enrichment ejection-angle-independent or ejection-angle-dependent? (2) Is the isotope angular effect the primary or the secondary sputter effect? (3) How to understand the action of momentum asymmetry in collision cascade on the isotope sputtering?

  3. Influence of ECR-RF plasma modification on surface and thermal properties of polyester copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fray Miroslawa El

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report a study on influence of radio-frequency (RF plasma induced with electron cyclotron resonance (ECR on multiblock copolymer containing butylene terephthalate hard segments (PBT and butylene dilinoleate (BDLA soft segments. The changes in thermal properties were studied by DSC. The changes in wettability of PBT-BDLA surfaces were studied by water contact angle (WCA. We found that ECR-RF plasma surface treatment for 60 s led to decrease of WCA, while prolonged exposure of plasma led to increase of WCA after N2 and N2O2 treatment up to 70°–80°. The O2 reduced the WCA to 50°–56°. IR measurements confirmed that the N2O2 plasma led to formation of polar groups. SEM investigations showed that plasma treatment led to minor surfaces changes. Collectively, plasma treatment, especially O2, induced surface hydrophilicity what could be beneficial for increased cell adhesion in future biomedical applications of these materials.

  4. FAST Plasma Scenarios and Equilibrium Configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabro, G.; Crisanti, F.; Ramogida, G.; Cardinali, A.; Cucchiaro, A.; Maddaluno, G.; Pizzuto, A.; Pericoli Ridolfini, V.; Tuccillo, A.A.; Zonca, F.; Albanese, R.; Granucci, G.; Nowak, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the Fusion Advanced Studies Torus (FAST) plasma scenarios and equilibrium configurations, designed to reproduce the ITER ones (with scaled plasma current) and suitable to fulfil plasma conditions for integrated studies of burning plasma physics, Plasma Wall interaction, ITER relevant operation problems and Steady State scenarios. The attention is focused on FAST flexibility in terms of both performance and physics that can be investigated: operations are foreseen at a wide range of parameters from high performance H-Mode (toroidal field, B T , up to 8.5 T; plasma current, I P , up to 8 MA) to advanced tokamak (AT) operation (I P =3 MA) as well as full non inductive current scenario (I P =2 MA). The coupled heating power is provided with 30MW delivered by an Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) system (30-90MHz), 6 MW by a Lower Hybrid (LH) system (3.7 or 5 GHz) for the long pulse AT scenario, 4 MW by an Electron Cyclotron Resonant Heating (ECRH) system (170 GHz-B T =6T) for MHD and electron heating localized control and, eventually, with 10 MW by a Negative Ion Beam (NNBI), which the ports are designed to accommodate. In the reference H-mode scenario FAST preserves (with respect to ITER) fast ions induced as well as turbulence fluctuation spectra, thus, addressing the cross-scale couplings issue of micro- to meso-scale physics. The noninductive scenario at I P =2MA is obtained with 60-70 % of bootstrap and the remaining by LHCD. Predictive simulations of the H-mode scenarios described above have been performed by means of JETTO code, using a semi-empirical mixed Bohm/gyro-Bohm transport model. Plasma position and Shape Control studies are also presented for the reference scenario

  5. Full wave simulation of waves in ECRIS plasmas based on the finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, G. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123, Catania, Italy and Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell' Energia Sostenibile (DIIES), Via Graziella, I (Italy); Mascali, D.; Neri, L.; Castro, G.; Patti, G.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123, Catania (Italy); Di Donato, L. [Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica ed Informatica (DIEEI), Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Sorbello, G. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123, Catania, Italy and Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica ed Informatica (DIEEI), Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Isernia, T. [Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell' Energia Sostenibile (DIIES), Via Graziella, I-89100 Reggio Calabria (Italy)

    2014-02-12

    This paper describes the modeling and the full wave numerical simulation of electromagnetic waves propagation and absorption in an anisotropic magnetized plasma filling the resonant cavity of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The model assumes inhomogeneous, dispersive and tensorial constitutive relations. Maxwell's equations are solved by the finite element method (FEM), using the COMSOL Multiphysics{sup ®} suite. All the relevant details have been considered in the model, including the non uniform external magnetostatic field used for plasma confinement, the local electron density profile resulting in the full-3D non uniform magnetized plasma complex dielectric tensor. The more accurate plasma simulations clearly show the importance of cavity effect on wave propagation and the effects of a resonant surface. These studies are the pillars for an improved ECRIS plasma modeling, that is mandatory to optimize the ion source output (beam intensity distribution and charge state, especially). Any new project concerning the advanced ECRIS design will take benefit by an adequate modeling of self-consistent wave absorption simulations.

  6. Variables affecting simulated Be sputtering yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Björkas, C., E-mail: carolina.bjorkas@helsinki.fi; Nordlund, K.

    2013-08-15

    Since beryllium is a strong candidate for the main plasma-facing material in future fusion reactors, its sputtering behaviour plays an important role in predicting the reactor’s life-time. Consensus about the actual sputtering yields has not yet been achieved, as observations are influenced by experimental method and/or studied sample. In this work, the beryllium sputtering due to deuterium and beryllium self-bombardment is analyzed using molecular dynamics simulations. The main methodological aspects that influence the outcome, such as flux and fluence of the bombardment, are highlighted, and it is shown that the simulated yields also depend on the sample structure and deuterium content.

  7. Low-loss interference filter arrays made by plasma-assisted reactive magnetron sputtering (PARMS) for high-performance multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broßmann, Jan; Best, Thorsten; Bauer, Thomas; Jakobs, Stefan; Eisenhammer, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Optical remote sensing of the earth from air and space typically utilizes several channels in the visible and near infrared spectrum. Thin-film optical interference filters, mostly of narrow bandpass type, are applied to select these channels. The filters are arranged in filter wheels, arrays of discrete stripe filters mounted in frames, or patterned arrays on a monolithic substrate. Such multi-channel filter assemblies can be mounted close to the detector, which allows a compact and lightweight camera design. Recent progress in image resolution and sensor sensitivity requires improvements of the optical filter performance. Higher demands placed on blocking in the UV and NIR and in between the spectral channels, in-band transmission and filter edge steepness as well as scattering lead to more complex filter coatings with thicknesses in the range of 10 - 25μm. Technological limits of the conventionally used ion-assisted evaporation process (IAD) can be overcome only by more precise and higher-energetic coating technologies like plasma-assisted reactive magnetron sputtering (PARMS) in combination with optical broadband monitoring. Optics Balzers has developed a photolithographic patterning process for coating thicknesses up to 15μm that is fully compatible with the advanced PARMS coating technology. This provides the possibility of depositing multiple complex high-performance filters on a monolithic substrate. We present an overview of the performance of recently developed filters with improved spectral performance designed for both monolithic filter-arrays and stripe filters mounted in frames. The pros and cons as well as the resulting limits of the filter designs for both configurations are discussed.

  8. Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of ZnO:Sn thin films with various Sn composition deposited by remote-plasma reactive sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicek, Petr; Niang, Kham M.; Mistrik, Jan; Palka, Karel; Flewitt, Andrew J.

    2017-11-01

    ZnO:Sn thin films were deposited onto thermally oxidized silicon substrates using a remote plasma reactive sputtering. Their optical constants (refractive index n and extinction coefficient k) were determined from ellipsometric data recorded over a wide spectral range (0.05-6 eV). Parametrization of ZnO:Sn complex dielectric permittivity consists of a parameterized semiconductor oscillator function describing the short wavelength absorption edge, a Drude oscillator describing free carrier absorption in near-infrared part of spectra and a Lorentz oscillator describing the long wavelength absorption edge and intra-band absorption in the ultra-violet part of the spectra. Using a Mott-Davis model, the increase in local disorder with increasing Sn doping is quantified from the short wavelength absorption edge onset. Using the Wemple-DiDomenico single oscillator model for the transparent part of the optical constants spectra, an increase in the centroid distance of the valence and conduction bands with increasing Sn doping is shown and only slight increase in intensity of the inter-band optical transition due to Sn doping occurs. The Drude model applied in the near-infrared part of the spectra revealed the free carrier concentration and mobility of ZnO:Sn. Results show that the range of transparency of prepared ZnO:Sn layers is not dramatically affected by Sn doping whereas electrical conductivity could be controlled by Sn doping. Refractive index in the transparent part is comparable with amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide allowing utilization of prepared ZnO:Sn layers as an indium-free alternative.

  9. A table top experiment to investigate production and properties of a plasma confined by a dipole magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baitha, Anuj Ram; Kumar, Ashwani; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2018-02-01

    We report a table top experiment to investigate production and properties of a plasma confined by a dipole magnet. A water cooled, strong, cylindrical permanent magnet (NdFeB) magnetized along the axial direction and having a surface magnetic field of ∼0.5 T is employed to create a dipole magnetic field. The plasma is created by electron cyclotron resonance heating. Visual observations of the plasma indicate that radiation belts appear due to trapped particles, similar to the earth's magnetosphere. The electron temperature lies in the range 2-13 eV and is hotter near the magnets and in a downstream region. It is found that the plasma (ion) density reaches a value close to 2 × 10 11 cm -3 and peaks at a radial distance about 3 cm from the magnet. The plasma beta β (β = plasma pressure/magnetic pressure) increases radially outward, and the maximum β for the present experimental system is ∼2%. It is also found that the singly charged ions are dominant in the discharge.

  10. A table top experiment to investigate production and properties of a plasma confined by a dipole magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baitha, Anuj Ram; Kumar, Ashwani; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2018-02-01

    We report a table top experiment to investigate production and properties of a plasma confined by a dipole magnet. A water cooled, strong, cylindrical permanent magnet (NdFeB) magnetized along the axial direction and having a surface magnetic field of ˜0.5 T is employed to create a dipole magnetic field. The plasma is created by electron cyclotron resonance heating. Visual observations of the plasma indicate that radiation belts appear due to trapped particles, similar to the earth's magnetosphere. The electron temperature lies in the range 2-13 eV and is hotter near the magnets and in a downstream region. It is found that the plasma (ion) density reaches a value close to 2 × 1011 cm-3 and peaks at a radial distance about 3 cm from the magnet. The plasma beta β (β = plasma pressure/magnetic pressure) increases radially outward, and the maximum β for the present experimental system is ˜2%. It is also found that the singly charged ions are dominant in the discharge.

  11. Surface type conversion of CuInSe2 with H2S plasma exposure: A photoemission investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, A.J.; Frigo, S.P.; Rosenberg, R.

    1995-01-01

    Surface type conversion of CuInSe 2 by H 2 S plasma exposure was studied by synchrotron radiation soft x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The low power H 2 S plasma was generated with a commercial electron cyclotron resonance plasma source using pure H 2 S with the plasma exposure being performed at 400 degree C. In situ photoemission measurements were acquired after each plasma exposure in order to observe changes in the valence band electronic structure as well as changes in the In 4d and Se 3d core lines. The results were correlated in order to relate changes in surface chemistry to the electronic structure. These measurements indicate that the H 2 S plasma exposure type converts the n-type CuInSe 2 surface to a p-type surface at this elevated temperature and that the magnitude of the band bending is 0.5 eV, resulting in a homojunction interface. copyright 1995 American Vacuum Society

  12. Identification of S VIII through S XIV emission lines between 17.5 and 50 nm in a magnetically confined plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K. J.; Tamura, N.; Combs, S. K.; García, R.; Hernández Sánchez, J.; Navarro, M.; Panadero, N.; Pastor, I.; Soleto, A.; the TJ-II Team

    2018-03-01

    43 spectral emission lines from F-like to Li-like sulphur ions have been identified in the wavelength range from 17.5 to 50 nm in spectra obtained following tracer injection into plasmas created in a magnetically confined plasma device, the stellarator TJ-II. Plasmas created and maintained in this heliac device with electron cyclotron resonance heating achieve central electron temperatures and densities up to 1.5 keV and 8 × 1018 m-3, respectively. Tracer injections were performed with ≤6 × 1016 atoms of sulphur contained within ˜300 μm diameter polystyrene capsules, termed tracer encapsulated solid pellets, using a gas propulsion system to achieve velocities between 250 and 450 m s-1. Once ablation of the exterior polystyrene shell by plasma particles is completed, the sulphur is deposited in the plasma core where it is ionized up to S+13 and transported about the plasma. In order to aid line identification, which is made using a number of atomic line emission databases, spectra are collected before and after injection using a 1 m focal length normal incidence spectrometer equipped with a CCD camera. This work is motivated by the need to clearly identify sulphur emission lines in the vacuum ultraviolet range of magnetically confined plasmas, as sulphur x-ray emission lines are regularly observed in both tokamak and stellarator plasmas.

  13. Ion-induced sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Yasumichi; Shimizu, Ryuichi; Shimizu, Hazime; Ito, Noriaki.

    1983-01-01

    The research on ion-induced sputtering has been continued for a long time, since a hundred or more years ago. However, it was only in 1969 by Sigmund that the sputtering phenomena were theoretically arranged into the present form. The reason why the importance of sputtering phenomena have been given a new look recently is the application over wide range. This paper is a review centering around the mechanism of causing sputtering and its characteristics. Sputtering is such a phenomenon that the atoms in the vicinity of a solid surface are emitted into vacuum by receiving a part of ion energy, or in other words, it is a kind of irradiation damage in the vicinity of a solid surface. In this meaning, it can be considered that the sputtering based on the ions located on the clean surface of a single element metal is simple, and has already been basically understood. On the contrary, the phenomena can not be considered to be fully understood in the case of alloys and compounds, because these surface conditions under irradiation are not always clear due to segregation and others. In the paper, the physical of sputtering, single element sputtering, the sputtering in alloys and compounds, and the behaviour of emitted particles are explained. Finally, some recent topics of the sputtering measurement by laser resonant excitation, the sputtering by electron excitation, chemical sputtering, and the sputtering in nuclear fusion reactors are described. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  14. Investigation of EBW Thermal Emission and Mode Conversion Physics in H-Mode Plasmas on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diem, S.J.; Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P.C.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Phillips, C.K.; Caughman, J.B.; Wilgen, J.B.; Harvey, R.W.; Preinhaelter, J.; Urban, J.; Sabbagh, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    High β plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) operate in the overdense regime, allowing the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) to propagate and be strongly absorbed/emitted at the electron cyclotron resonances. As such, EBWs may provide local electron heating and current drive. For these applications, efficient coupling between the EBWs and electromagnetic waves outside the plasma is needed. Thermal EBW emission (EBE) measurements, via oblique B-X-O double mode conversion, have been used to determine the EBW transmission efficiency for a wide range of plasma conditions on NSTX. Initial EBE measurements in H-mode plasmas exhibited strong emission before the L-H transition, but the emission rapidly decayed after the transition. EBE simulations show that collisional damping of the EBW prior to the mode conversion (MC) layer can significantly reduce the measured EBE for T e < 20 eV, explaining the observations. Lithium evaporation was used to reduce EBE collisional damping near the MC layer. As a result, the measured B-X-O transmission efficiency increased from < 10% (no Li) to 60% (with Li), consistent with EBE simulations.

  15. Ion-induced crystal damage during plasma-assisted MBE growth of GaN layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, V.; Heinke, H.; Birkle, U.; Einfeldt, S.; Hommel, D.; Selke, H.; Ryder, P. L.

    1998-12-01

    Gallium nitride layers were grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on (0001)-oriented sapphire substrates using an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) and a radio frequency (rf) plasma source. An applied substrate bias was varied from -200 to +250 V, resulting in a change of the density and energy of nitrogen ions impinging the growth surface. The layers were investigated by high-resolution x-ray diffractometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Applying a negative bias during growth has a marked detrimental effect on the crystal perfection of the layers grown with an ECR plasma source. This is indicated by a change in shape and width of (0002) and (202¯5) reciprocal lattice points as monitored by triple axis x-ray measurements. In HRTEM images, isolated basal plane stacking faults were found, which probably result from precipitation of interstitial atoms. The crystal damage in layers grown with a highly negative substrate bias is comparable to that observed for ion implantation processes at orders of magnitude larger ion energies. This is attributed to the impact of ions on the growing surface. None of the described phenomena was observed for the samples grown with the rf plasma source.

  16. X-ray pinhole camera setups used in the Atomki ECR Laboratory for plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rácz, R., E-mail: rracz@atomki.hu; Biri, S.; Pálinkás, J. [Institute for Nuclear Research (Atomki), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem tér 18/C, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Caliri, C.; Gammino, S. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Romano, F. P. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CNR, Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Imaging of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas by using CCD camera in combination with a pinhole is a non-destructive diagnostics method to record the strongly inhomogeneous spatial density distribution of the X-ray emitted by the plasma and by the chamber walls. This method can provide information on the location of the collisions between warm electrons and multiple charged ions/atoms, opening the possibility to investigate the direct effect of the ion source tuning parameters to the plasma structure. The first successful experiment with a pinhole X-ray camera was carried out in the Atomki ECR Laboratory more than 10 years ago. The goal of that experiment was to make the first ECR X-ray photos and to carry out simple studies on the effect of some setting parameters (magnetic field, extraction, disc voltage, gas mixing, etc.). Recently, intensive efforts were taken to investigate now the effect of different RF resonant modes to the plasma structure. Comparing to the 2002 experiment, this campaign used wider instrumental stock: CCD camera with a lead pinhole was placed at the injection side allowing X-ray imaging and beam extraction simultaneously. Additionally, Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) and High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors were installed to characterize the volumetric X-ray emission rate caused by the warm and hot electron domains. In this paper, detailed comparison study on the two X-ray camera and detector setups and also on the technical and scientific goals of the experiments is presented.

  17. Characteristics of electron cyclotron waves creating field-aligned and transverse plasma-potential structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K; Kaneko, T; Hatakeyama, R; Fukuyama, A

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of electromagnetic waves of azimuthal mode number m = ±1 are investigated experimentally, analytically and numerically when the waves triggering the field-aligned and transverse plasma-potential structure modification near an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) point are injected into an inhomogeneously magnetized plasma with high-speed ion flow. The waves of m = +1 and -1 modes generate an electric double layer near the ECR point at the radially central and peripheral areas of the plasma column, respectively, and the transverse electric fields are consequently formed. At these areas the waves have a right-handed polarization and are absorbed through the ECR mechanism, where the experimental and analytical results do show the polarization reversal along the radial axis. The numerical results by plasma analysis by finite element method (FEM)/wave analysis by FEM (PAF/WF) code show that the wave-absorption area is localized at the radially central and peripheral areas for m = +1 and -1 mode waves, respectively, being consistent with the experimental and analytical ones.

  18. Electromagnetic diagnostics of ECR-Ion Sources plasmas: optical/X-ray imaging and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Altana, C.; Caliri, C.; Mazzaglia, M.; Romano, F. P.; Leone, F.; Musumarra, A.; Naselli, E.; Reitano, R.; Torrisi, G.; Celona, L.; Cosentino, L. G.; Giarrusso, M.; Gammino, S.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetoplasmas in ECR-Ion Sources are excited from gaseous elements or vapours by microwaves in the range 2.45-28 GHz via Electron Cyclotron Resonance. A B-minimum, magnetohydrodynamic stable configuration is used for trapping the plasma. The values of plasma density, temperature and confinement times are typically ne= 1011-1013 cm-3, 01 eVSilicon Drift detectors with high energy resolution of 125 eV at 5.9 keV have been used for the characterization of plasma emission at 02plasmas have been measured for different values of neutral pressure, microwave power and magnetic field profile (they are critical for high-power proton sources).

  19. X-ray pinhole camera setups used in the Atomki ECR Laboratory for plasma diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, R; Biri, S; Pálinkás, J; Mascali, D; Castro, G; Caliri, C; Romano, F P; Gammino, S

    2016-02-01

    Imaging of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas by using CCD camera in combination with a pinhole is a non-destructive diagnostics method to record the strongly inhomogeneous spatial density distribution of the X-ray emitted by the plasma and by the chamber walls. This method can provide information on the location of the collisions between warm electrons and multiple charged ions/atoms, opening the possibility to investigate the direct effect of the ion source tuning parameters to the plasma structure. The first successful experiment with a pinhole X-ray camera was carried out in the Atomki ECR Laboratory more than 10 years ago. The goal of that experiment was to make the first ECR X-ray photos and to carry out simple studies on the effect of some setting parameters (magnetic field, extraction, disc voltage, gas mixing, etc.). Recently, intensive efforts were taken to investigate now the effect of different RF resonant modes to the plasma structure. Comparing to the 2002 experiment, this campaign used wider instrumental stock: CCD camera with a lead pinhole was placed at the injection side allowing X-ray imaging and beam extraction simultaneously. Additionally, Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) and High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors were installed to characterize the volumetric X-ray emission rate caused by the warm and hot electron domains. In this paper, detailed comparison study on the two X-ray camera and detector setups and also on the technical and scientific goals of the experiments is presented.

  20. Sputtering of water ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baragiola, R.A.; Vidal, R.A.; Svendsen, W.; Schou, J.; Shi, M.; Bahr, D.A.; Atteberrry, C.L.

    2003-01-01

    We present results of a range of experiments of sputtering of water ice together with a guide to the literature. We studied how sputtering depends on the projectile energy and fluence, ice growth temperature, irradiation temperature and external electric fields. We observed luminescence from the decay of H(2p) atoms sputtered by heavy ion impact, but not bulk ice luminescence. Radiolyzed ice does not sputter under 3.7 eV laser irradiation

  1. Experimental study of parametric instabilities and anomalous heating in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batanov, G.M.; Rabinovich, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    Over the last few years the study of the dissipation of electromagnetic wave energy in a hot plasma has become perhaps one of the main problems of high-temperature plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear fusion. The focus of attention is on the processes by which electromagnetic energy is transformed into potential plasma waves and the processes involving relaxation of the latter. In this paper the authors summarize the experimental research into these processes conducted at the Lebedev Physics Institute over the 10 cm wave band. In the case of an isotropic plasma the authors recorded non-linear generation of Langmuir noise, the energy density of which was found to be comparable, in order of magnitude, with that of a pump wave. They detected the generation of fast-electron streams, the non-stationary character of the latter with respect to time, and non-linear transmissivity of the plasma layer. In the case of a magnetoactive plasma they studied the parametric excitation of oscillations at the upper hybrid frequency during its resonance with the first overtone of the pump wave. Excitation of plasma noise was found to be accompanied by a flux of fast-electrons, in the energy spectrum of which separate groups were detected. It was also found that the effective collision frequency increased by 1-3 orders, compared to the pari-collision frequency. In the region of magnetic waves close to the electron cyclotron resonance the authors observed forced Mandel'shtam-Brillouin scattering and kinetic instability of the plasma. It was found that the excitation of ionic Langmuir noise preceded ''anomalous absorption'' of waves and ''anomalous heating'' of electrons. The authors further consider the possibility of an experimental study of anomalous heating in plasma in the region of the lower hybrid frequencies, using the Institute's L-2 stellarator. (author)

  2. X-ray Imaging and preliminary studies of the X-ray self-emission from an innovative plasma-trap based on the Bernstein waves heating mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliri, C.; Romano, F. P.; Mascali, D.; Gammino, S.; Musumarra, A.; Castro, G.; Celona, L.; Neri, L.; Altana, C.

    2013-10-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) are based on ECR heated plasmas emitting high fluxes of X-rays. Here we illustrate a pilot study of the X-ray emission from a compact plasma-trap in which an off-resonance microwave-plasma interaction has been attempted, highlighting a possible Bernstein-Waves based heating mechanism. EBWs-heating is obtained via the inner plasma EM-to-ES wave conversion and enables to reach densities much larger than the cut-off ones. At LNS-INFN, an innovative diagnostic technique based on the design of a Pinhole Camera (PHC) coupled to a CCD device for X-ray Imaging of the plasma (XRI) has been developed, in order to integrate X-ray traditional diagnostics (XRS). The complementary use of electrostatic probes measurements and X-ray diagnostics enabled us to gain knowledge about the high energy electrons density and temperature and about the spatial structure of the source. The combination of the experimental data with appropriate modeling of the plasma-source allowed to estimate the X-ray emission intensity in different energy domains (ranging from EUV up to Hard X-rays). The use of ECRIS as X-ray source for multidisciplinary applications, is now a concrete perspective due to the intense fluxes produced by the new plasma heating mechanism.

  3. Formation of microchannels from low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon oxynitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzke, Carolyn M.; Ashby, Carol I. H.; Bridges, Monica M.; Manginell, Ronald P.

    2000-01-01

    A process for forming one or more fluid microchannels on a substrate is disclosed that is compatible with the formation of integrated circuitry on the substrate. The microchannels can be formed below an upper surface of the substrate, above the upper surface, or both. The microchannels are formed by depositing a covering layer of silicon oxynitride over a mold formed of a sacrificial material such as photoresist which can later be removed. The silicon oxynitride is deposited at a low temperature (.ltoreq.100.degree. C.) and preferably near room temperature using a high-density plasma (e.g. an electron-cyclotron resonance plasma or an inductively-coupled plasma). In some embodiments of the present invention, the microchannels can be completely lined with silicon oxynitride to present a uniform material composition to a fluid therein. The present invention has applications for forming microchannels for use in chromatography and electrophoresis. Additionally, the microchannels can be used for electrokinetic pumping, or for localized or global substrate cooling.

  4. Experiment on a large-diameter plasma-filled backward-wave oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, K.; Minami, K.; Kurashina, K.I.; Kim, W.; Watanabe, T.; Ishii, K.; Sugito, S.

    1995-01-01

    A large-diameter plasma-filled backward-wave oscillator (BWO) is investigated experimentally. The parameters of slow wave structure are chosen so that the oscillation frequency is about 20GHz at 60keV beam energy. Plasma is produced by the beam and has favorable effects for beam propagation and Cerenkov oscillations. The output power of the BWO with plasma is observed to be three to six times that of vacuum BWO. The power level is several kilowatts and the efficiency is about 0.01%. For Cerenkov oscillations of a large-diameter BWO, the beam energy mainly determines the starting conditions for oscillation. The output power is strongly enhanced when the guiding magnetic field approaches the fundamental electron cyclotron resonance. This mechanism is closely related to the anomalous Doppler cyclotron resonance. The maximum power of 480kW with an efficiency of 5% is achieved even for a relatively low beam energy of 60keV. ((orig.))

  5. Current ramp-up experiments in full current drive plasmas in TRIAM-1M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, K.; Nakamura, K.; Hasegawa, M.; Itoh, S.; Zushi, H.; Sakamoto, M.; Jotaki, E.; Iyomasa, A.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Yoshida, N.; Tokunaga, K.; Fujiwara, T.; Kulkarni, S.V.; Mitarai, O.

    2004-01-01

    Four types of plasma current ramp-up experiments in full non-inductively lower hybrid current driven (LHCD) plasmas were executed in TRIAM-1M: (1) current start-up by a combination of electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and LHCD, (2) tail heating by additional LHCD, (3) bulk heating by ECRH and (4) spontaneous ramp-up by a transition to enhanced current drive (ECD) mode. The time evolutions of plasma current during four types of ramp-up phase were adjusted by a simple model with two different time constants, which are a time defined by the total current diffusion time and a time constant for improving the current drive efficiency. In the case of (1) and (4), the latter time constant is significant during the current ramp-up phase. The improvement in the current drive efficiency in the ECD mode is likely to be caused by the increase in the effective refractive index along the magnetic field of the lower hybrid wave. (author)

  6. Performance and properties of the first plasmas of Wendelstein 7-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, T.; Alonso, A.; Bozhenkov, S.; Burhenn, R.; Dinklage, A.; Fuchert, G.; Geiger, J.; Grulke, O.; Langenberg, A.; Hirsch, M.; Kocsis, G.; Knauer, J.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Laqua, H.; Lazerson, S.; Landreman, M.; Maaßberg, H.; Marsen, S.; Otte, M.; Pablant, N.; Pasch, E.; Rahbarnia, K.; Stange, T.; Szepesi, T.; Thomsen, H.; Traverso, P.; Velasco, J. L.; Wauters, T.; Weir, G.; Windisch, T.; The Wendelstein 7-X Team

    2017-01-01

    The optimized, superconducting stellarator Wendelstein 7-X went into operation and delivered first measurement data after 15 years of construction and one year commissioning. Errors in the magnet assembly were confirmend to be small. Plasma operation was started with 5 MW electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) power and five inboard limiters. Core plasma values of {{T}\\text{e}}>8 keV, {{T}\\text{i}}>2 keV at line-integrated densities n≈ 3\\centerdot {{10}19}~{{\\text{m}}-2} were achieved, exceeding the original expectations by about a factor of two. Indications for a core-electron-root were found. The energy confinement times are in line with the international stellarator scaling, despite unfavourable wall conditions, i.e. large areas of metal surfaces and particle sources from the limiter close to the plasma volume. Well controlled shorter hydrogen discharges at higher power (4 MW ECRH power for 1 s) and longer discharges at lower power (0.7 MW ECRH power for 6 s) could be routinely established after proper wall conditioning. The fairly large set of diagnostic systems running in the end of the 10 weeks operation campaign provided first insights into expected and unexpected physics of optimized stellarators.

  7. Origins of Beta Tantalum in Sputtered Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mulligan, C

    2001-01-01

    .... Some of the most recent work has attempted to relate the energetics (i.e., atom/ion energy) of the plasma to the alpha right arrow beta transition. It has been shown that the energetics of the plasma can relate to the most crucial sputtering parameters. The most significant feature of the use of plasma energy to explain the alpha right arrow beta transition is that it relates the formation of beta-tantalum to a quantifiable measure.

  8. Annual progress report of the Grenoble Research Group. January 1 to December 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results obtained on: the theory of problems related to the heating of toroidal plasmas, the applications of plasma created through electron cyclotron resonance, and toroidal devices (Petula tokamak and Wega machine) are presented [fr

  9. Equipotential surfaces in the Proto-Cleo Torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trost, P.K.; Shohet, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Plasma potential measurements are made in electron cyclotron resonance plasmas in the Proto-Cleo Torsatron with an emissive probe. Plots of equipotential surfaces are presented and compared with the numerical calculated vacuum magnetic surfaces

  10. Heavy particle transport in sputtering systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieschmann, Jan

    2015-09-01

    This contribution aims to discuss the theoretical background of heavy particle transport in plasma sputtering systems such as direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS), high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), or multi frequency capacitively coupled plasmas (MFCCP). Due to inherently low process pressures below one Pa only kinetic simulation models are suitable. In this work a model appropriate for the description of the transport of film forming particles sputtered of a target material has been devised within the frame of the OpenFOAM software (specifically dsmcFoam). The three dimensional model comprises of ejection of sputtered particles into the reactor chamber, their collisional transport through the volume, as well as deposition of the latter onto the surrounding surfaces (i.e. substrates, walls). An angular dependent Thompson energy distribution fitted to results from Monte-Carlo simulations is assumed initially. Binary collisions are treated via the M1 collision model, a modified variable hard sphere (VHS) model. The dynamics of sputtered and background gas species can be resolved self-consistently following the direct simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) approach or, whenever possible, simplified based on the test particle method (TPM) with the assumption of a constant, non-stationary background at a given temperature. At the example of an MFCCP research reactor the transport of sputtered aluminum is specifically discussed. For the peculiar configuration and under typical process conditions with argon as process gas the transport of aluminum sputtered of a circular target is shown to be governed by a one dimensional interaction of the imposed and backscattered particle fluxes. The results are analyzed and discussed on the basis of the obtained velocity distribution functions (VDF). This work is supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) in the frame of the Collaborative Research Centre TRR 87.

  11. Effect of ECRH and resonant magnetic fields on formation of magnetic islands in the T-10 tokamak plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestakov, E. A.; Savrukhin, P. V.

    2017-10-01

    Experiments in the T-10 tokamak demonstrated possibility of controlling the plasma current during disruption instability using the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and the controlled operation of the ohmic current-holding system. Quasistable plasma discharge with repeating sawtooth oscillations can be restored after energy quench using auxiliary ECRH power when PEC / POH > 2-5. The external magnetic field generation system consisted of eight saddle coils that were arranged symmetrically relative to the equatorial plane of the torus outside of the vacuum vessel of the T-10 tokamak to study the possible resonant magnetic field effects on the rotation frequency of magnetic islands. The saddle coils power supply system is based on four thyristor converters with a total power of 300 kW. The power supply control system is based on Siemens S7 controllers. As shown by preliminary experiments, the interaction efficiency of external magnetic fields with plasma depends on the plasma magnetic configuration. Optimal conditions for slowing the rotation of magnetic islands were determined. Additionally, the direction of the error magnetic field in the T-10 tokamak was determined, and the threshold value of the external magnetic field was determined.

  12. The comparison of the optical spectra of carbon coatings prepared by magnetron sputtering and microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition measured by the photothermal deflection spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Remeš, Zdeněk; Pham, T.T.; Varga, Marián; Kromka, Alexander; Mao, H.B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2015), s. 321-324 ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12186 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * amorphous carbon * magnetron sputtering * CVD * optical spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  13. Diffusive and convective transport modelling from analysis of ECRH-stimulated electron heat wave propagation. [ECRH (Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erckmann, V; Gasparino, U; Giannone, L. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)) (and others)

    1992-01-01

    ECRH power modulation experiments in toroidal devices offer the chance to analyze the electron heat transport more conclusively: the electron heat wave propagation can be observed by ECE (or SX) leading to radial profiles of electron temperature modulation amplitude and time delay (phase shift). Taking also the stationary power balance into account, the local electron heat transport can be modelled by a combination of diffusive and convective transport terms. This method is applied to ECRH discharges in the W7-AS stellarator (B=2.5T, R=2m, a[<=]18 cm) where the ECRH power deposition is highly localized. In W7-AS, the T[sub e] modulation profiles measured by a high resolution ECE system are the basis for the local transport analysis. As experimental errors limit the separation of diffusive and convective terms in the electron heat transport for central power deposition, also ECRH power modulation experiments with off-axis deposition and inward heat wave propagation were performed (with 70 GHz o-mode as well as with 140 GHz x-mode for increased absorption). Because collisional electron-ion coupling and radiative losses are only small, low density ECRH discharges are best candidates for estimating the electron heat flux from power balance. (author) 2 refs., 3 figs.

  14. First commissioning results with the Grenoble test electron cyclotron resonance ion source at iThemba LABS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomae, R.; Conradie, J.; Delsink, H.; Du Plessis, H.; Fourie, D.; Klopp, M.; Kohler, I.; Lussi, C.; McAlister, R.; Ntshangase, S.; Sakildien, M. [iThemba LABS, P.O Box 722, Somerset West 7130 (South Africa); Hitz, D. [CEA/DRFMC, 17 Av. Des Martyrs, 38054, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Kuechler, D. [CERN, BE/ABP/HSL, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2012-02-15

    iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Science (iThemba LABS) is a multi-disciplinary accelerator facility. One of its main activities is the operation of a separated-sector cyclotron with a K-value of 200, which provides beams of various ion species. These beams are used for fundamental nuclear physics research in the intermediate energy region, radioisotope production, and medical physics applications. Due to the requirements of nuclear physics for new ion species and higher energies, the decision was made to install a copy of the so-called Grenoble test source (GTS) at iThemba LABS. In this paper, we will report on the experimental setup and the first results obtained with the GTS2 at iThemba LABS.

  15. First commissioning results with the Grenoble test electron cyclotron resonance ion source at iThemba LABS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomae, R.; Conradie, J.; Delsink, H.; Du Plessis, H.; Fourie, D.; Klopp, M.; Kohler, I.; Lussi, C.; McAlister, R.; Ntshangase, S.; Sakildien, M.; Hitz, D.; Kuechler, D.

    2012-01-01

    iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Science (iThemba LABS) is a multi-disciplinary accelerator facility. One of its main activities is the operation of a separated-sector cyclotron with a K-value of 200, which provides beams of various ion species. These beams are used for fundamental nuclear physics research in the intermediate energy region, radioisotope production, and medical physics applications. Due to the requirements of nuclear physics for new ion species and higher energies, the decision was made to install a copy of the so-called Grenoble test source (GTS) at iThemba LABS. In this paper, we will report on the experimental setup and the first results obtained with the GTS2 at iThemba LABS.

  16. Magnetic properties of Co-N films deposited by ECR nitrogen/argon plasma with DC negative-biased Co target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.; Zhang, Y.C.; Yang, K.; Liu, H.X.; Zhu, X.D., E-mail: xdzhu@ustc.edu.cn; Zhou, H.Y.

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • A new method of synthesizing Co-N films containing Co{sub 4}N phase. • Tunable magnetic properties achieved in ECR plasma CVD. • The change of magnetic properties is related to atoms mobility on substrate and the concentration of active species in plasma vapor. - Abstract: By introducing DC negative-biased Co target in the Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) nitrogen/argon plasma, the Co-N films containing Co{sub 4}N phase were synthesized on Si(100) substrate. Effects of processing parameters on magnetic properties of the films are investigated. It is found that magnetic properties of Co-N films vary with N{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio, substrate temperature, and target biasing voltage. The saturation magnetization M{sub s} decreased by increasing the N{sub 2}/Ar gas flow ratio or decreasing target biasing voltage, while the coercive field H{sub c} increased, which is ascribed to the variation of relative concentration for N or Co active species in plasma vapor. The magnetic properties present complex dependency with growth temperature, which is related to the atom mobility on the substrate affected by the growth temperature. This study exhibits a potential of ECR plasma chemical vapor deposition to synthesize the interstitial compounds and tune magnetic properties of films.

  17. Data compilation of angular distributions of sputtered atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Yasunori; Takiguchi, Takashi; Tawara, Hiro.

    1990-01-01

    Sputtering on a surface is generally caused by the collision cascade developed near the surface. The process is in principle the same as that causing radiation damage in the bulk of solids. Sputtering has long been regarded as an undesirable dirty effect which destroys the cathodes and grids in gas discharge tubes or ion sources and contaminates plasma and the surrounding walls. However, sputtering is used today for many applications such as sputter ion sources, mass spectrometers and the deposition of thin films. Plasma contamination and the surface erosion of first walls due to sputtering are still the major problems in fusion research. The angular distribution of the particles sputtered from solid surfaces can possibly provide the detailed information on the collision cascade in the interior of targets. This report presents a compilation of the angular distribution of sputtered atoms at normal incidence and oblique incidence in the various combinations of incident ions and target atoms. The angular distribution of sputtered atoms from monatomic solids at normal incidence and oblique incidence, and the compilation of the data on the angular distribution of sputtered atoms are reported. (K.I.)

  18. Tests of a new axial sputtering technique in an ECRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, R.; Pardo, R.; Vondrasek, R.

    2012-01-01

    Axial and radial sputtering techniques have been used over the years to create beams from an ECRIS at multiple accelerator facilities. Operational experience has shown greater beam production when using the radial sputtering method versus axial sputtering. At Argonne National Laboratory, previous work with radial sputtering has demonstrated that the position of the sputter sample relative to the plasma chamber wall influences sample drain current, beam production and charge state distribution. The possibility of the chamber wall acting as a ground plane which influences the sputtering of material has been considered, and an attempt has been made to mimic this possible ground plane effect with a coaxial sample introduced from the injection end. Results of these tests will be shown as well as comparisons of outputs using the two methods. The paper is followed by the associated poster. (authors)

  19. Nitridation of porous GaAs by an ECR ammonia plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M; Hullavarad, S S; Ganesan, V; Bhoraskar, S V

    2006-01-01

    The effect of surface porosity of GaAs on the nature of growth of GaN, by use of plasma nitridation of GaAs, has been investigated. Porous GaAs samples were prepared by anodic etching of n-type (110) GaAs wafers in HCl solution. Nitridation of porous GaAs samples were carried out by using an electron-cyclotron resonance-induced ammonia plasma. The formation of mixed phases of GaN was investigated using the grazing angle x-ray diffraction method. A remarkable improvement in the intensity of photoluminescence (PL) compared with that of GaN synthesized by direct nitriding of GaAs surface has been observed. The PL intensity of nitrided porous GaAs at the temperature of 380 deg. C was found to be about two orders of magnitude higher as compared with the directly nitrided GaAs at the temperature of 500 deg. C. The changes in the morphology of nitrided porous GaAs have been investigated using both scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy

  20. Nitridation of porous GaAs by an ECR ammonia plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naddaf, M [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Solid State Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Department of Physics, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, PO Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Hullavarad, S S [Center for Superconductivity Research, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Ganesan, V [Inter University Consortium, Indore (India); Bhoraskar, S V [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Solid State Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2006-02-15

    The effect of surface porosity of GaAs on the nature of growth of GaN, by use of plasma nitridation of GaAs, has been investigated. Porous GaAs samples were prepared by anodic etching of n-type (110) GaAs wafers in HCl solution. Nitridation of porous GaAs samples were carried out by using an electron-cyclotron resonance-induced ammonia plasma. The formation of mixed phases of GaN was investigated using the grazing angle x-ray diffraction method. A remarkable improvement in the intensity of photoluminescence (PL) compared with that of GaN synthesized by direct nitriding of GaAs surface has been observed. The PL intensity of nitrided porous GaAs at the temperature of 380 deg. C was found to be about two orders of magnitude higher as compared with the directly nitrided GaAs at the temperature of 500 deg. C. The changes in the morphology of nitrided porous GaAs have been investigated using both scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.