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Sample records for electron temperature ionic

  1. Photodetachment, electron cooling, and recombination, in a series of neat aliphatic room temperature ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins i Domenech, Francesc; Healy, Andrew T; Blank, David A

    2015-08-14

    Transient absorption following photodetachment of a series of neat methyl-alkyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amides at 6.20 eV was measured with sub-picosecond time resolution in the visible and near-IR portions of the spectrum. This series spans the onset of structuring in the liquids in the form of polarity alternation. Excitation promotes the electron into a delocalized state with a very large reactive radius. Strong transient absorption is observed in the visible spectrum with a ∼700 fs lifetime, and much weaker, long-lived absorption is observed in the near-IR spectrum. Absorption in the visible is shown to be consistent with the hole, and absorption in the near-IR is assigned to the free solvated electron. Yield of free electrons is estimated at ∼4%, is insensitive to the size of the cation, and is determined in less than 1 ps. Solvation of free electrons depends strongly on the size of the cation and correlates well with the viscosity of the liquid. In addition to radiolytic stability of the aliphatic cations, ultrafast, efficient recombination of separated charge in NTf2 (-) based ionic liquids following photo-excitation near the band-gap may prevent subsequent reactive damage associated with anions.

  2. Polarization versus Temperature in Pyridinium Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, V. V.; Prezhdo, O. V.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic polarization and charge transfer effects play a crucial role in thermodynamic, structural, and transport properties of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). These nonadditive interactions constitute a useful tool for tuning physical chemical behavior of RTILs. Polarization and charge...... interactions changes negligibly between 300 and 900 K, while the average dipole moment increases due to thermal fluctuations of geometries. Our results contribute to the fundamental understanding of electronic effects in the condensed phase of ionic systems and foster progress in physical chemistry...

  3. Ionic and electronic conductivity in lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boukamp, Bernard A.; Pham thi ngoc mai, P.T.N.M.; Blank, David H.A.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate impedance measurements on differently sized samples of lead–zirconate–titanate (PbZr0.53Ti0.47O3, PZT) have been analyzed with a CNLS procedure, resulting in the separation of the ionic and electronic conductivities over a temperature range from f150 to 630 jC. At 603 jC the electronic

  4. Combination of the ionic-to-atomic line intensity ratios from two test elements for the diagnostic of plasma temperature and electron number density in Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tognoni, E. [Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Area della Ricerca del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: tognoni@ipcf.cnr.it; Hidalgo, M.; Canals, A. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia. Universidad de Alicante. Apdo. 99, 03080, Alicante (Spain); Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Salvetti, A.; Palleschi, V. [Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Area della Ricerca del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    In Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) spectrochemical analysis, the MgII(280.270 nm)/MgI(285.213 nm) ionic to atomic line intensity ratio is commonly used as a monitor of the robustness of operating conditions. This approach is based on the univocal relationship existing between intensity ratio and plasma temperature, for a pure argon atmospheric ICP in thermodynamic equilibrium. In a multi-elemental plasma in the lower temperature range, the measurement of the intensity ratio may not be sufficient to characterize temperature and electron density. In such a range, the correct relationship between intensity ratio and plasma temperature can be calculated only when the complete plasma composition is known. We propose the combination of the line intensity ratios of two test elements (double ratio) as an effective diagnostic tool for a multi-elemental low temperature LTE plasma of unknown composition. In particular, the variation of the double ratio allows us discriminating changes in the plasma temperature from changes in the electron density. Thus, the effects on plasma excitation and ionization possibly caused by introduction of different samples and matrices in non-robust conditions can be more accurately interpreted. The method is illustrated by the measurement of plasma temperature and electron density in a specific analytic case.

  5. Enhanced Mixed Electronic-Ionic Conductors through Cation Ordering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Allan J. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Morgan, Dane [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Grey, Clare [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2014-08-31

    The performance of many energy conversion and storage devices depend on the properties of mixed ionic-electronic conducting (miec) materials. Mixed or ambipolar conductors simultaneously transport ions and electrons and provide the critical interface between chemical and electrical energy in devices such as fuel cells, ion transport membranes, and batteries. Enhancements in storage capacity, reversibility, power density and device lifetime all require new materials and a better understanding of the fundamentals of ambipolar conductivity and surface reactivity.The high temperature properties of the ordered perovksites AA’B2O5+x, where A = rare earth ion, Y and B = Ba, Sr were studied. The work was motivated by the high oxygen transport and surface exchange rates observed for members of this class of mixed ionic and electronic conductors. A combined experimental and computational approach, including structural, electrochemical, and transport characterization and modeling was used. The approach attacks the problem simultaneously at global (e.g., neutron diffraction and impedance spectroscopy), local (e.g., pair distribution function, nuclear magnetic resonance) and molecular (ab initio thermokinetic modeling) length scales. The objectives of the work were to understand how the cation and associated anion order lead to exceptional ionic and electronic transport properties and surface reactivity in AA’B2O5+x perovskites. A variety of compounds were studied by X-ray and neutron diffraction, measurements of thermodynamics and transport and theoretically. These included PrBaCo2O5+x and NdBaCo2O5+x, PrBaCo2-xFexO6- δ (x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2) and LnBaCoFeO6- δ (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd), Sr3YCo4O10.5, YBaMn2O5+x. A0.5A’0.5BO3 (where A=Y, Sc, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm; A’= Sr

  6. Improvement of SOFC electrodes using mixed ionic-electronic conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzaki, Y.; Hishinuma, M. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Since the electrode reaction of SOFC is limited to the proximity of a triple phase boundary (TPB), the local current density at the electrode and electrolyte interface is larger than mean current density, which causes large ohmic and electrode polarization. This paper describes an application of mixed ionic-electronic conductors to reduce such polarization by means of (1) enhancing ionic conductivity of the electrolyte surface layer by coating a high ionic conductors, and (2) reducing the local current density by increasing the electrochemically active sites.

  7. Room temperature electrodeposition of actinides from ionic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatchett, David W.; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.; Droessler, Janelle; Kinyanjui, John

    2017-04-25

    Uranic and transuranic metals and metal oxides are first dissolved in ozone compositions. The resulting solution in ozone can be further dissolved in ionic liquids to form a second solution. The metals in the second solution are then electrochemically deposited from the second solutions as room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), tri-methyl-n-butyl ammonium n-bis(trifluoromethansulfonylimide) [Me.sub.3N.sup.nBu][TFSI] providing an alternative non-aqueous system for the extraction and reclamation of actinides from reprocessed fuel materials. Deposition of U metal is achieved using TFSI complexes of U(III) and U(IV) containing the anion common to the RTIL. TFSI complexes of uranium were produced to ensure solubility of the species in the ionic liquid. The methods provide a first measure of the thermodynamic properties of U metal deposition using Uranium complexes with different oxidation states from RTIL solution at room temperature.

  8. Electron-Ionic Model of Ball Lightening

    OpenAIRE

    Fedosin, Sergey G.; Kim, Anatolii S.

    2001-01-01

    The model of ball lightning is presented where outside electron envelope is kept by inside volume of positive charges. The moving of electron in outside envelope is a reason of strong magnetic field, which controls the state of hot ionized air inside of ball lightning. The conditions of origins of ball lightning are investigated and the values of parameters for ball lightning of maximum power are calculated.

  9. Synthesis of 1-alkyl triazolium triflate room temperature ionic liquids ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sci. Vol. 127, No. 9, September 2015, pp. 1539–1545. c Indian Academy of Sciences. DOI 10.1007/s12039-015-0919-6. Synthesis of 1-alkyl triazolium triflate room temperature ionic liquids and their catalytic studies in multi-component Biginelli reaction. SANKARANARAYANAN NAGARAJAN, TANVEER M SHAIKH and.

  10. Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids for Electrochemical Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fireman, Heather; Yowell, Leonard; Moloney, Padraig G.; Arepalli, Sivaram; Nikolaev, P.; Huffman, C.; Ready, Jud; Higgins, C.D.; Turano, S. P.; Kohl, P.A.; hide

    2009-01-01

    A document discusses room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) used as electrolytes in carbon-nanotube-based, electrochemical, double-layer capacitors. Unlike the previous electrolyte (EtNB4 in acetonitrile), the RTIL used here does not produce cyanide upon thermal decomposition and does not have a moisture sensitivity.

  11. Hydrodynamic model of temperature change in open ionic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D P; Eisenberg, R S; Jerome, J W; Shu, C W

    1995-12-01

    Most theories of open ionic channels ignore heat generated by current flow, but that heat is known to be significant when analogous currents flow in semiconductors, so a generalization of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck theory of channels, called the hydrodynamic model, is needed. The hydrodynamic theory is a combination of the Poisson and Euler field equations of electrostatics and fluid dynamics, conservation laws that describe diffusive and convective flow of mass, heat, and charge (i.e., current), and their coupling. That is to say, it is a kinetic theory of solute and solvent flow, allowing heat and current flow as well, taking into account density changes, temperature changes, and electrical potential gradients. We integrate the equations with an essentially nonoscillatory shock-capturing numerical scheme previously shown to be stable and accurate. Our calculations show that 1) a significant amount of electrical energy is exchanged with the permeating ions; 2) the local temperature of the ions rises some tens of degrees, and this temperature rise significantly alters for ionic flux in a channel 25 A long, such as gramicidin-A; and 3) a critical parameter, called the saturation velocity, determines whether ionic motion is overdamped (Poisson-Nernst-Planck theory), is an intermediate regime (called the adiabatic approximation in semiconductor theory), or is altogether unrestricted (requiring the full hydrodynamic model). It seems that significant temperature changes are likely to accompany current flow in the open ionic channel.

  12. Extraction of organic compounds with room temperature ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Colin F; Poole, Salwa K

    2010-04-16

    Room temperature ionic liquids are novel solvents with a rather specific blend of physical and solution properties that makes them of interest for applications in separation science. They are good solvents for a wide range of compounds in which they behave as polar solvents. Their physical properties of note that distinguish them from conventional organic solvents are a negligible vapor pressure, high thermal stability, and relatively high viscosity. They can form biphasic systems with water or low polarity organic solvents and gases suitable for use in liquid-liquid and gas-liquid partition systems. An analysis of partition coefficients for varied compounds in these systems allows characterization of solvent selectivity using the solvation parameter model, which together with spectroscopic studies of solvent effects on probe substances, results in a detailed picture of solvent behavior. These studies indicate that the solution properties of ionic liquids are similar to those of polar organic solvents. Practical applications of ionic liquids in sample preparation include extractive distillation, aqueous biphasic systems, liquid-liquid extraction, liquid-phase microextraction, supported liquid membrane extraction, matrix solvents for headspace analysis, and micellar extraction. The specific advantages and limitations of ionic liquids in these studies is discussed with a view to defining future uses and the need not to neglect the identification of new room temperature ionic liquids with physical and solution properties tailored to the needs of specific sample preparation techniques. The defining feature of the special nature of ionic liquids is not their solution or physical properties viewed separately but their unique combinations when taken together compared with traditional organic solvents. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Electronic and Ionic Transport in Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-31

    shown to be an effective tool for studying ion exchange in doped conjugated polymers. Electochemical studies of anion exchange in free standing...are are in progress to collect more accurate transition temperature and thermodynamic data. In addition, synthesis of deuterated polymers is underway...Chloroacrylonitrile," Macromolecules, in press. Martinez, M.; Reynolds, J.R.; Basak, S.; Black, D.A.; Marynick, D.S.; Pomerantz, M. "Electrochemical Synthesis

  14. Structural investigation of room-temperature ionic liquids and high-temperature ionic melts using triplet correlation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhabal, Debdas; Gupta, Aditya; Kashyap, Hemant K.

    2017-03-01

    We use means of molecular dynamics simulation to understand the local structural arrangements in three trihexyltetradecylphosphonium (P6,6,6 ,14 +) based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) by using triplet correlation functions (TCFs) along with pair correlation functions (PCFs) and X-ray scattering structure functions (S(q)s). The anions in these RTILs are either spherically symmetric but with different effective sizes (bromide (Br-) and tetrafluoroborate (BF4-)) or angular such as dicyanamide (DCA-). The simulated PCFs, S(q)s, and TCFs of the three RTILs have been compared with three high-temperature ionic melts (HTIMs); NaBr, NaCl, and NaF. In general, the pair correlation function gives angle-averaged probability as a function of inter-particle distance whereas the TCFs associated with equilateral and isosceles triangle configurations can be used to delineate angle-resolved information of liquids structure within nearest solvation shells. For the three ionic liquids studied, a very careful examination of co-ionic and counter-ionic TCFs associated with the equilateral triangular configuration within the nearest solvation shells of the ions reveals that co-ions (cat-cat-cat and an-an-an) favor close-packed local arrangement, but with lower probability for the DCA- RTIL. Co-ionic and counter-ionic TCFs obtained for HTIMs are found to be similar to that of RTILs with spherical anions. The TCFs associated with the isosceles triangle configuration signify that the ionic liquid with Br- anions tends to exhibit larger anion-cation-anion angle than that in the other two RTILs. Moreover, diffused counter-ionic angular correlations are observed in the DCA- system. We also observed angle-dependent charge ordering in all the three RTILs although its extent is enhanced for RTILs with spherical anions, very similar to what we find for NaBr, NaCl, and NaF melts. This study suggests that the presence of charge ordering is a generic feature of both the RTILs and HTIMs.

  15. Ionic Conductivity of the Perovskites, NaMgF3MgF3 and KZnF3 at High Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, N. H.; Kjems, Jørgen; Hayes, W.

    1985-01-01

    We have carried out a study of the ionic conductivity of NaMgF3, KMgF3 and KZnF3 up to temperatures close to the melting point. Our results, in contrast to previous reports in the literature, show no abnormal ionic conductivity at high temperatures. Care in interpretation of results is required...... because of surface electronic conduction....

  16. Solitary waves in a degenerate relativistic plasma with ionic pressure anisotropy and electron trapping effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, M.; Ali, S.; Mirza, Arshad M.

    2017-05-01

    The dynamics of obliquely propagating ion-acoustic (IA) waves in the presence of ionic pressure anisotropy and electron trapping effects is studied in a dense magnetoplasma, containing degenerate relativistic trapped electrons and dynamical (classical) ions. By using the plane wave solution, a modified linear dispersion relation for IA waves is derived and analyzed with different limiting cases and various plasma parameters both analytically and numerically. For nonlinear analysis, a reductive perturbation technique is employed to obtain a Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation involving the weakly nonlinear IA excitations. It is shown that the electron thermal correction and ionic pressure anisotropy strongly modify the wave amplitudes and width attributed to weakly nonlinear IA waves. The stability criterion for stable/unstable solitary pulses is also discussed with variations of angle (β) and temperature ratio (σ). A reduction and domain splitting of unstable excitations into sub-domains with stable and unstable potential pulses are pointed out for electron temperature ratio in the range of 0.01 understanding the nonlinear dynamics and propagation characteristics of waves in superdense plasmas, in the environments of white dwarfs and neutron stars, where the electron thermal and ionic pressure anisotropy effects cannot be ignored.

  17. Ionic liquid electrolyte for supercapacitor with high temperature compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Mazharul; Li, Qi; Kuzmenko, Volodymyr; Smith, Anderson D.; Enoksson, Peter

    2017-11-01

    This work describes the electrochemical investigation of two ionic liquids (ILs), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM Ac) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIM Cl), as electrolytes in supercapacitors (SC). A comprehensive study on high temperature (HT) endurance that is required for system integration in microelectronics has also been carried out. It has been found that EMIM Ac containing SC performs better than a BMIM Cl containing SC, and HT treatment improves the capacitive performance.

  18. Electronic structure and ionicity of actinide oxides from first principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petit, Leon; Svane, Axel; Szotek, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The ground-state electronic structures of the actinide oxides AO, A2O3, and AO2 (A=U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, and Cf) are determined from first-principles calculations, using the self-interaction corrected local spin-density approximation. Emphasis is put on the degree of f-electron localization, which...... for AO2 and A2O3 is found to follow the stoichiometry, namely, corresponding to A4+ ions in the dioxide and A3+ ions in the sesquioxides. In contrast, the A2+ ionic configuration is not favorable in the monoxides, which therefore become metallic. The energetics of the oxidation and reduction...

  19. Highly Confined Electronic and Ionic Conduction in Oxide Heterostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini

    2015-01-01

    The conductance confined at the interface of complex oxide heterostructures provides new opportunities to explore nanoelectronic as well as nanoionic devices. In this talk I will present our recent results both on ionic and electronic conductivity at different heterostructures systems. In the first...... unattainable for Bi2O3-based materials, is achieved[1]. These confined heterostructures provide a playground not only for new high ionic conductivity phenomena that are sufficiently stable but also uncover a large variety of possible technological perspectives. At the second part, I will discuss and show our...... recent results of high mobile samples realized by, interface confined redox reactions[2], strain induced polarization[3]and modulation doping at complex oxide interfaces. This collection of samples offers unique opportunities for a wide range of rich world of mesoscopic physics. [1] S. Sanne et al...

  20. Synthesis and characterization of ionic polymer networks in a room-temperature ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzione, Joseph F; Jensen, Robert E; Costanzo, Philip J; Palmese, Giuseppe R

    2012-11-01

    Ionic liquid gels (ILGs) for potential use in ion transport and separation applications were generated via a free radical copolymerization of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) and N,N'-methylene(bis)acrylamide (MBA) using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate (IL) as a room temperature ionic liquid solvent medium. The AMPS and MBA monomer solubility window in the IL in the temperature range of 25 to 65 °C was determined. In situ ATR-FTIR showed near complete conversion of monomers to a cross-linked polymer network. ILGs with glass transition temperatures (T(g)s) near -50 °C were generated with T(g) decreasing with increasing IL content. The elastic moduli in compression (200 to 6600 kPa) decreased with increasing IL content and increasing AMPS content while the conductivities (0.35 to 2.14 mS cm⁻¹) increased with increasing IL content and decreasing MBA content. The polymer-IL interaction parameter (χ) (0.48 to 0.55) was determined via a modified version of the Bray and Merrill equation.

  1. Study of nanostructural organization of ionic liquids by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merunka, Dalibor; Peric, Mirna; Peric, Miroslav

    2015-02-19

    The X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) of a stable, spherical nitroxide spin probe, perdeuterated 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidine-1-oxyl (pDTO) has been used to study the nanostructural organization of a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquids (ILs) with alkyl chain lengths from two to eight carbons. By employing nonlinear least-squares fitting of the EPR spectra, we have obtained values of the rotational correlation time and hyperfine coupling splitting of pDTO to high precision. The rotational correlation time of pDTO in ILs and squalane, a viscous alkane, can be fit very well to a power law functionality with a singular temperature, which often describes a number of physical quantities measured in supercooled liquids. The viscosity of the ILs and squalane, taken from the literature, can also be fit to the same power law expression, which means that the rotational correlation times and the ionic liquid viscosities have similar functional dependence on temperature. The apparent activation energy of both the rotational correlation time of pDTO and the viscous flow of ILs and squalane increases with decreasing temperature; in other words, they exhibit strong non-Arrhenius behavior. The rotational correlation time of pDTO as a function of η/T, where η is the shear viscosity and T is the temperature, is well described by the Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) law, while the hydrodynamic probe radii are solvent dependent and are smaller than the geometric radius of the probe. The temperature dependence of hyperfine coupling splitting is the same in all four ionic liquids. The value of the hyperfine coupling splitting starts decreasing with increasing alkyl chain length in the ionic liquids in which the number of carbons in the alkyl chain is greater than four. This decrease together with the decrease in the hydrodynamic radius of the probe indicates a possible existence of nonpolar nanodomains.

  2. Average-atom model for two-temperature states and ionic transport properties of aluminum in the warm dense matter regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yong; Fu, Yongsheng; Bredow, Richard; Kang, Dongdong; Redmer, Ronald; Yuan, Jianmin

    2017-03-01

    The average-atom model combined with the hyper-netted chain approximation is an efficient tool for electronic and ionic structure calculations for warm dense matter. Here we generalize this method in order to describe non-equilibrium states with different electron and ion temperature as produced in laser-matter interactions on ultra-short time scales. In particular, the electron-ion and ion-ion correlation effects are considered when calculating the electron structure. We derive an effective ion-ion pair-potential using the electron densities in the framework of temperature-depended density functional theory. Using this ion-ion potential we perform molecular dynamics simulations in order to determine the ionic transport properties such as the ionic diffusion coefficient and the shear viscosity through the ionic velocity autocorrelation functions.

  3. Infiltration of ionic-, electronic- and mixed-conducting nano particles into La0.75Sr0.25MnO3–Y0.16Zr0.84O2 cathodes – A comparative study of performance enhancement and stability at different temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiebach, Wolff-Ragnar; Knöfel, Christina; Bozza, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    The microstructure and electrochemical performance of LSM–YSZ composite electrodes infiltrated with La0.8Sr0.2MnO3−δ (LSM) as an electronic conductor, LaCo0.6Ni0.4O3−δ (LCN) as a mixed conductor and Ce0.8Gd0.2O2−δ (CGO) as an ionic conductor, were compared in the temperature range 550–800 °C. All...

  4. ECE imaging of electron temperature and electron temperature fluctuations (invited)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, B.H.; Domier, C.W.; N C Luhmann Jr.,; Brower, D.L.; Cima, G.; Donne, A. J. H.; Oyevaar, T.; van de Pol, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    Electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECE imaging or ECEI) is a novel plasma diagnostic technique for the study of electron temperature profiles and fluctuations in magnetic fusion plasma devices. Instead of a single receiver located in the tokamak midplane as in conventional ECE radiometers, ECEI

  5. Electronic and Ionic Conductors from Ordered Microporous Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dincă, Mircea [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-10-30

    The proposed work aimed to establish metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as new classes of high-surface area microporous electronic and ionic conductors. MOFs are crystalline materials with pore sizes ranging from 0.2 to ~ 2 nm (or larger for the latter) defined by inorganic or organic building blocks connected by rigid organic linkers. Myriad applications have been found or proposed for these materials, yet those that require electron transport or conductivity in combination with permanent porosity still lag behind because the vast majority of known frameworks are electrical insulators. Prior to our proposal and subsequent work, there were virtually no studies exploring the possibility of electronic delocalization in these materials. Therefore, our primary goal was to understand and control, at a fundamental level, the electron and ion transport properties of this class of materials, with no specific application proposed, although myriad applications could be envisioned for high surface area conductors. Our goals directly addressed one of the DOE-identified Grand Challenges for Basic Energy Sciences: designing perfect atom- and energy-efficient syntheses of revolutionary new forms of matter with tailored properties. Indeed, the proposed work is entirely synthetic in nature; owing to the molecular nature of the building blocks in MOFs, there is the possibility of unprecedented control over the structure and properties of solid crystalline matter. The goals also tangentially addressed the Grand Challenge of controlling materials processes at the level of electrons: the scope of our program is to create new materials where charges (electrons and/or ions) move according to predefined pathways.

  6. Actinide, lanthanide and fission product speciation and electrochemistry in high and low temperature ionic melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Anand I.; Kinoshita, Hajime; Koster, Anne L.; May, Iain; Sharrad, Clint A.; Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Fox, O. Danny; Jones, Chris J.; Lewin, Bob G.; Charnock, John M.; Hennig, Christoph

    2004-07-01

    There is currently a great deal of research interest in the development of molten salt technology, both classical high temperature melts and low temperature ionic liquids, for the electrochemical separation of the actinides from spent nuclear fuel. We are interested in gaining a better understanding of actinide and key fission product speciation and electrochemical properties in a range of melts. Our studies in high temperature alkali metal melts (including LiCl and LiCl-KCl and CsCl-NaCl eutectics) have focussed on in-situ species of U, Th, Tc and Ru using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS, both EXAFS and XANES) and electronic absorption spectroscopy (EAS). We report unusual actinide speciation in high temperature melts and an evaluation of the likelihood of Ru or Tc volatilization during plant operation. Our studies in lower temperature melts (ionic liquids) have focussed on salts containing tertiary alkyl group 15 cations and the bis(tri-fluor-methyl)sulfonyl)imide anion, melts which we have shown to have exceptionally wide electrochemical windows. We report Ln, Th, U and Np speciation (XAS, EAS and vibrational spectroscopy) and electrochemistry in these melts and relate the solution studies to crystallographic characterised benchmark species. (authors)

  7. Ionic current devices-Recent progress in the merging of electronic, microfluidic, and biomimetic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyung-Jun; Velev, Orlin D

    2013-05-09

    We review the recent progress in the emerging area of devices and circuits operating on the basis of ionic currents. These devices operate at the intersection of electrochemistry, electronics, and microfluidics, and their potential applications are inspired by essential biological processes such as neural transmission. Ionic current rectification has been demonstrated in diode-like devices containing electrolyte solutions, hydrogel, or hydrated nanofilms. More complex functions have been realized in ionic current based transistors, solar cells, and switching memory devices. Microfluidic channels and networks-an intrinsic component of the ionic devices-could play the role of wires and circuits in conventional electronics.

  8. Ionic fragmentation channels in electron collisions of small molecular ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Jens

    2009-01-28

    Dissociative Recombination (DR) is one of the most important loss processes of molecular ions in the interstellar medium (IM). Ion storage rings allow to investigate these processes under realistic conditions. At the Heidelberg test storage ring TSR a new detector system was installed within the present work in order to study the DR sub-process of ion pair formation (IPF). The new detector expands the existing electron target setup by the possibility to measure strongly deflected negative ionic fragments. At the TSR such measurements can be performed with a uniquely high energy resolution by independently merging two electron beams with the ion beam. In this work IPF of HD{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +} and HF{sup +} has been studied. In the case of HD{sup +} the result of the high resolution experiment shows quantum interferences. Analysis of the quantum oscillations leads to a new understanding of the reaction dynamics. For H{sub 3}{sup +} it was for the first time possible to distinguish different IPF channels and to detect quantum interferences in the data. Finally the IPF of HF{sup +} was investigated in an energy range, where in previous experiments no conclusive results could be obtained. (orig.)

  9. Ionic and electronic transport properties in dense plasmas by orbital-free density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjostrom, Travis; Daligault, Jérôme

    2015-12-01

    We validate the application of our recent orbital-free density functional theory (DFT) approach [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 155006 (2014);] for the calculation of ionic and electronic transport properties of dense plasmas. To this end, we calculate the self-diffusion coefficient, the viscosity coefficient, the electrical and thermal conductivities, and the reflectivity coefficient of hydrogen and aluminum plasmas. Very good agreement is found with orbital-based Kohn-Sham DFT calculations at lower temperatures. Because the computational costs of the method do not increase with temperature, we can produce results at much higher temperatures than is accessible by the Kohn-Sham method. Our results for warm dense aluminum at solid density are inconsistent with the recent experimental results reported by Sperling et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 115001 (2015)].

  10. On-Demand Reconfiguration of Nanomaterials: When Electronics Meets Ionics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihang; Lu, Wei D

    2018-01-01

    Rapid advances in the semiconductor industry, driven largely by device scaling, are now approaching fundamental physical limits and face severe power, performance, and cost constraints. Multifunctional materials and devices may lead to a paradigm shift toward new, intelligent, and efficient computing systems, and are being extensively studied. Herein examines how, by controlling the internal ion distribution in a solid-state film, a material's chemical composition and physical properties can be reversibly reconfigured using an applied electric field, at room temperature and after device fabrication. Reconfigurability is observed in a wide range of materials, including commonly used dielectric films, and has led to the development of new device concepts such as resistive random-access memory. Physical reconfigurability further allows memory and logic operations to be merged in the same device for efficient in-memory computing and neuromorphic computing systems. By directly changing the chemical composition of the material, coupled electrical, optical, and magnetic effects can also be obtained. A survey of recent fundamental material and device studies that reveal the dynamic ionic processes is included, along with discussions on systematic modeling efforts, device and material challenges, and future research directions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Self-segregated nanostructure in room temperature ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontoni, Diego; Haddad, Julia; Di Michiel, Marco; Deutsch, Moshe

    2017-10-04

    The nanosegregated bulk structure, and its evolution with the cation's alkyl length n, are studied by X-ray scattering for an unprecedentedly broad homologous series of a model room-temperature ionic liquid, [CnMIM][NTf2] (n = 4-22). A tri-periodic local structure is found, with the lateral periodicities, dII and dIII independent of n, and a longitudinal one, dI, linearly increasing with n. The results are consistent with a local structure comprising alternating layers of polar headgroups and apolar, interdigitated, partly overlapping, cations' alkyl tails, of an average macroscopic mass density close to that of liquid alkanes. A slope decrease in the linear dI(n) suggests a change from a lower to a higher rate of increase with n of chain overlap for n ≥ 12. The order decay lengths of the layering, and of the lateral chain packing, increase with n, as expected from the increasing van der Waals interaction's domination of the structure. The headgroups' lateral packing decay length decreases with n, due to increasing frustration between the longer lateral periodicity preferred by the headgroups, and the shorter lateral periodicity preferred by the chains. A comparison of the bulk and surface structures highlights the surface's ordering effect, which, however, does not induce here a surface phase different from the bulk, as it does in liquid crystals and liquid alkanes.

  12. Proactive aquatic ecotoxicological assessment of room-temperature ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulacki, K.J.; Chaloner, D.T.; Larson, J.H.; Costello, D.M.; Evans-White, M. A.; Docherty, K.M.; Bernot, R.J.; Brueseke, M.A.; Kulpa, C.F.; Lamberti, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic environments are being contaminated with a myriad of anthropogenic chemicals, a problem likely to continue due to both unintentional and intentional releases. To protect valuable natural resources, novel chemicals should be shown to be environmentally safe prior to use and potential release into the environment. Such proactive assessment is currently being applied to room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs). Because most ILs are water-soluble, their effects are likely to manifest in aquatic ecosystems. Information on the impacts of ILs on numerous aquatic organisms, focused primarily on acute LC50 and EC50 endpoints, is now available, and trends in toxicity are emerging. Cation structure tends to influence IL toxicity more so than anion structure, and within a cation class, the length of alkyl chain substituents is positively correlated with toxicity. While the effects of ILs on several aquatic organisms have been studied, the challenge for aquatic toxicology is now to predict the effects of ILs in complex natural environments that often include diverse mixtures of organisms, abiotic conditions, and additional stressors. To make robust predictions about ILs will require coupling of ecologically realistic laboratory and field experiments with standard toxicity bioassays and models. Such assessments would likely discourage the development of especially toxic ILs while shifting focus to those that are more environmentally benign. Understanding the broader ecological effects of emerging chemicals, incorporating that information into predictive models, and conveying the conclusions to those who develop, regulate, and use those chemicals, should help avoid future environmental degradation. ?? 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

  13. SPECTROSCOPIC DIAGNOSIS IN ELECTRONIC TEMPERATURE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. In this work, we are interested in the diagnostics in electronic temperature of a plasma purely photoionized, based on the intensity ration of lines emitted by ions helium-like, which have an atomic number Z relatively small. We considered the three lines corresponding to the transitions starting from the excited ...

  14. DNA hairpins as temperature switches, thermometers and ionic detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonstrup, Anette Thyssen; Fredsøe, Jacob Christian; Andersen, Anni Hangaard

    2013-01-01

    Temperature is of major importance in most branches of science and technology as well as in everyday life, and with the miniaturization of electronic devices and the increasing ability to make research into small-scale systems, a specific need for very small thermostats and thermometers has been ...... temperature switches and thermometers, which can be built into electronic systems. DNA based sensors are at the same time applicable as ion detectors to monitor the chemical environment of a specific system.......Temperature is of major importance in most branches of science and technology as well as in everyday life, and with the miniaturization of electronic devices and the increasing ability to make research into small-scale systems, a specific need for very small thermostats and thermometers has been...... created. Here we describe how DNA molecules can be used as nanoscale sensors to meet these requirements. We illustrate how the hybridization kinetics between bases in DNA molecules combined with conformational changes of the DNA backbone can be exploited in the construction of simple but versatile...

  15. Atomistic Simulation and Electronic Structure of Lithium Doped Ionic Liquids: Structure, Transport, and Electrochemical Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Justin B.; Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Lawson, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Zero-temperature density functional theory (DFT), density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD), and classical molecular dynamics using polarizable force fields (PFF-MD) are employed to evaluate the influence of Lithium ion on the structure, transport, and electrochemical stability of three potential ionic liquid electrolytes: N--methyl-N-butylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([pyr14][TFSI]), N--methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide ([pyr13][FSI]), and 1-ethyl-3--methylimidazolium boron tetrafluoride ([EMIM][BF4]). We characterize the Lithium ion solvation shell through zero-temperature DFT simulations of [Li(Anion)sub n](exp n-1) -clusters, DFT-MD simulations of isolated lithium ions in small ionic liquid systems, and PFF-MD simulations with high Li-doping levels in large ionic liquid systems. At low levels of Li-salt doping, highly stable solvation shells having 2-3 anions are seen in both [pyr14][TFSI] and [pyr13][FSI], while solvation shells with 4 anions dominate in [EMIM][BF sub 4]. At higher levels of doping, we find the formation of complex Li-network structures that increase the frequency of 4 anion-coordinated solvation shells. A comparison of computational and experimental Raman spectra for a wide range of [Li(Anion) sub n](exp n -1) - clusters shows that our proposed structures are consistent with experiment. We estimate the ion diffusion coefficients and quantify both size and simulation time effects. We find estimates of lithium ion diffusion are a reasonable order of magnitude and can be corrected for simulation time effects. Simulation size, on the other hand, is also important, with diffusion coefficients from long PFF-MD simulations of small cells having 20-40% error compared to large-cell values. Finally, we compute the electrochemical window using differences in electronic energy levels of both isolated cation/anion pairs and small ionic liquid systems with Li-salt doping. The single pair and liquid

  16. Aluminium Electrodeposition from Ionic Liquid: Effect of Deposition Temperature and Sonication †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretti, Enrico; Giaccherini, Andrea; Martinuzzi, Stefano M.; Innocenti, Massimo; Schubert, Thomas J.S.; Stiemke, Frank M.; Caporali, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery, ionic liquids (ILs) have attracted a wide interest for their potential use as a medium for many chemical processes, in particular electrochemistry. As electrochemical media they allow the electrodeposition of elements that are impossible to reduce in aqueous media. We have investigated the electrodeposition of aluminium from 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride ((Bmim)Cl)/AlCl3 (40/60 mol %) as concerns the effect of deposition parameters on the quality of the deposits. Thick (20 μm) aluminium coatings were electrodeposited on brass substrates at different temperatures and mixing conditions (mechanical stirring and sonication). These coatings were investigated by means of scanning electron microscope, roughness measurements, and X-ray diffraction to assess the morphology and the phase composition. Finally, electrochemical corrosion tests were carried out with the intent to correlate the deposition parameters to the anti-corrosion properties. PMID:28773839

  17. Aluminium Electrodeposition from Ionic Liquid: Effect of Deposition Temperature and Sonication †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Berretti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery, ionic liquids (ILs have attracted a wide interest for their potential use as a medium for many chemical processes, in particular electrochemistry. As electrochemical media they allow the electrodeposition of elements that are impossible to reduce in aqueous media. We have investigated the electrodeposition of aluminium from 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride ((BmimCl/AlCl3 (40/60 mol % as concerns the effect of deposition parameters on the quality of the deposits. Thick (20 μm aluminium coatings were electrodeposited on brass substrates at different temperatures and mixing conditions (mechanical stirring and sonication. These coatings were investigated by means of scanning electron microscope, roughness measurements, and X-ray diffraction to assess the morphology and the phase composition. Finally, electrochemical corrosion tests were carried out with the intent to correlate the deposition parameters to the anti-corrosion properties.

  18. Shifts in the temperature of maximum density (TMD) of ionic liquid aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, M; Esperança, J M S S; Soromenho, M R C; Rebelo, L P N; Lopes, J N Canongia

    2013-07-14

    This work investigates for the first time shifts in the temperature of maximum density (TMD) of water caused by ionic liquid solutes. A vast amount of high-precision volumetric data--more than 6000 equilibrated (static) high-precision density determination corresponding to ∼90 distinct ionic liquid aqueous solutions of 28 different types of ionic liquid--allowed us to analyze the TMD shifts for different homologous series or similar sets of ionic solutes and explain the overall effects in terms of hydrophobic, electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding contributions. The differences between the observed TMD shifts in the -2 liquids and are consistent with previous results that established hydrophobic and hydrophilic scales for ionic liquid ions based on their specific interactions with water and other probe molecules.

  19. Heats of vaporization of room temperature ionic liquids by tunable vacuum ultraviolet photoionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambreau, Steven D.; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.; To, Albert; Koh, Christine; Strasser, Daniel; Kostko, Oleg; Leone, Stephen R.

    2009-11-25

    The heats of vaporization of the room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bistrifluorosulfonylimide, N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide are determined using a heated effusive vapor source in conjunction with single photon ionization by a tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron source. The relative gas phase ionic liquid vapor densities in the effusive beam are monitored by clearly distinguished dissociative photoionization processes via a time-of-flight mass spectrometer at a tunable vacuum ultraviolet beamline 9.0.2.3 (Chemical Dynamics Beamline) at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron facility. Resulting in relatively few assumptions, through the analysis of both parent cations and fragment cations, the heat of vaporization of N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bistrifluorosulfonylimide is determined to be Delta Hvap(298.15 K) = 195+-19 kJ mol-1. The observed heats of vaporization of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (Delta Hvap(298.15 K) = 174+-12 kJ mol-1) and N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide (Delta Hvap(298.15 K) = 171+-12 kJ mol-1) are consistent with reported experimental values using electron impact ionization. The tunable vacuum ultraviolet source has enabled accurate measurement of photoion appearance energies. These appearance energies are in good agreement with MP2 calculations for dissociative photoionization of the ion pair. These experimental heats of vaporization, photoion appearance energies, and ab initio calculations corroborate vaporization of these RTILs as intact cation-anion ion pairs.

  20. Soft Elastomers with Ionic Liquid-Filled Cavities as Strain Isolating Substrates for Wearable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yinji; Pharr, Matt; Wang, Liang; Kim, Jeonghyun; Liu, Yuhao; Xue, Yeguang; Ning, Rui; Wang, Xiufeng; Chung, Ha Uk; Feng, Xue; Rogers, John A; Huang, Yonggang

    2017-03-01

    Managing the mechanical mismatch between hard semiconductor components and soft biological tissues represents a key challenge in the development of advanced forms of wearable electronic devices. An ultralow modulus material or a liquid that surrounds the electronics and resides in a thin elastomeric shell provides a strain-isolation effect that enhances not only the wearability but also the range of stretchability in suitably designed devices. The results presented here build on these concepts by (1) replacing traditional liquids explored in the past, which have some nonnegligible vapor pressure and finite permeability through the encapsulating elastomers, with ionic liquids to eliminate any possibility for leakage or evaporation, and (2) positioning the liquid between the electronics and the skin, within an enclosed, elastomeric microfluidic space, but not in direct contact with the active elements of the system, to avoid any negative consequences on electronic performance. Combined experimental and theoretical results establish the strain-isolating effects of this system, and the considerations that dictate mechanical collapse of the fluid-filled cavity. Examples in skin-mounted wearable include wireless sensors for measuring temperature and wired systems for recording mechano-acoustic responses. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Tunable Mixed Ionic/Electronic Conductivity and Permittivity of Graphene Oxide Paper for Electrochemical Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Thomas; Bishop, Sean R; Perry, Nicola H; Sasaki, Kazunari; Lyth, Stephen M

    2016-05-11

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a two-dimensional graphitic carbon material functionalized with oxygen-containing surface functional groups. The material is of interest in energy conversion, sensing, chemical processing, gas barrier, and electronics applications. Multilayer GO paper has recently been applied as a new proton conducting membrane in low temperature fuel cells. However, a detailed understanding of the electrical/dielectric properties, including separation of the ionic vs electronic contributions under relevant operating conditions, has so far been lacking. Here, the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of GO paper are investigated in situ from 30 to 120 °C, and from 0 to 100% relative humidity (RH) using impedance spectroscopy. These are related to the water content, measured by thermogravimetric analysis. With the aid of electron blocking measurements, GO is demonstrated to be a mixed electronic-protonic conductor, and the ion transference number is derived for the first time. For RH > 40%, conductivity is dominated by proton transport (with a maximum of 0.5 mS/cm at 90 °C and 100% RH). For RH permittivity of GO paper increases with decreasing humidity, from ∼10 at 100% RH to several 1000 at 10% RH. These results underline the potential of GO for application not only as a proton conducting electrolyte but also as a mixed conducting electrode material under appropriate conditions. Such materials are highly applicable in electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices such as fuel cells and electrolyzers.

  2. Are Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids Dilute Electrolytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alpha A; Vella, Dominic; Perkin, Susan; Goriely, Alain

    2015-01-02

    An important question in understanding the structure of ionic liquids is whether ions are truly "free" and mobile, which would correspond to a concentrated ionic melt, or are rather "bound" in ion pairs, that is, a liquid of ion pairs with a small concentration of free ions. Recent surface force balance experiments from different groups have given conflicting answers to this question. We propose a simple model for the thermodynamics and kinetics of ion pairing in ionic liquids. Our model takes into account screened ion-ion, dipole-dipole, and dipole-ion interactions in the mean-field limit. The results of this model suggest that almost two-thirds of the ions are free at any instant, and ion pairs have a short lifetime comparable to the characteristic time scale for diffusion. These results suggest that there is no particular thermodynamic or kinetic preference for ions to reside in pairs. We therefore conclude that ionic liquids are concentrated, rather than dilute, electrolytes.

  3. Ionic liquids and ionic liquid acids with high temperature stability for fuel cell and other high temperature applications, method of making and cell employing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, C Austen [Mesa, AZ; Xu, Wu [Broadview Heights, OH; Belieres, Jean-Philippe [Chandler, AZ; Yoshizawa, Masahiro [Tokyo, JP

    2011-01-11

    Disclosed are developments in high temperature fuel cells including ionic liquids with high temperature stability and the storage of inorganic acids as di-anion salts of low volatility. The formation of ionically conducting liquids of this type having conductivities of unprecedented magnitude for non-aqueous systems is described. The stability of the di-anion configuration is shown to play a role in the high performance of the non-corrosive proton-transfer ionic liquids as high temperature fuel cell electrolytes. Performance of simple H.sub.2(g) electrolyte/O.sub.2(g) fuel cells with the new electrolytes is described. Superior performance both at ambient temperature and temperatures up to and above 200.degree. C. are achieved. Both neutral proton transfer salts and the acid salts with HSO.sup.-.sub.4 anions, give good results, the bisulphate case being particularly good at low temperatures and very high temperatures. The performance of all electrolytes is improved by the addition of a small amount of involatile base of pK.sub.a value intermediate between those of the acid and base that make the bulk electrolyte. The preferred case is the imidazole-doped ethylammonium hydrogensulfate which yields behavior superior in all respects to that of the industry standard phosphoric acid electrolyte.

  4. Bimolecular electron transfer in ionic liquids: are reaction rates anomalously high?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Min; Kaintz, Anne; Baker, Gary A; Maroncelli, Mark

    2012-02-02

    Steady-state and picosecond time-resolved emission spectroscopy are used to monitor the bimolecular electron transfer reaction between the electron acceptor 9,10-dicyanoanthracene in its S(1) state and the donor N,N-dimethylaniline in a variety of ionic liquids and several conventional solvents. Detailed study of this quenching reaction was undertaken in order to better understand why rates reported for similar diffusion-limited reactions in ionic liquids sometimes appear much higher than expected given the viscous nature of these liquids. Consistent with previous studies, Stern-Volmer analyses of steady-state and lifetime data provide effective quenching rate constants k(q), which are often 10-100-fold larger than simple predictions for diffusion-limited rate constants k(D) in ionic liquids. Similar departures from k(D) are also observed in conventional organic solvents having comparably high viscosities, indicating that this behavior is not unique to ionic liquids. A more complete analysis of the quenching data using a model combining approximate solution of the spherically symmetric diffusion equation with a Marcus-type description of electron transfer reveals the reasons for frequent observation of k(q) ≫ k(D). The primary cause is that the high viscosities typical of ionic liquids emphasize the transient component of diffusion-limited reactions, which renders the interpretation of rate constants derived from Stern-Volmer analyses ambiguous. Using a more appropriate description of the quenching process enables satisfactory fits of data in both ionic liquid and conventional solvents using a single set of physically reasonable electron transfer parameters. Doing so requires diffusion coefficients in ionic liquids to exceed hydrodynamic predictions by significant factors, typically in the range of 3-10. Direct, NMR measurements of solute diffusion confirm this enhanced diffusion in ionic liquids.

  5. Determination of electron temperature and electron density in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The electron temperatures and electron densities of air and argon have been measured at various pds (pressure times distance). The electron temperatures have been computed using the Johnson-Malter double-probe method. The electron densities have been computed using the total positive ion current and the ...

  6. Moisture Stable Ambient Temperature Ionic Liquids: Solvents for the New Millennium. 1. The Heck Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Dallas

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report examples of the Heck reaction in the new moisture stable ambient temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim]PF6. We have found that the yield of product is comparable with Heck reactions carried out in DMF, the conventional solvent for this reaction, and that the ionic liquid/catalyst mixture can be recycled several times.

  7. Ruthenium(III Chloride Catalyzed Acylation of Alcohols, Phenols, and Thiols in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhong Cai

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ruthenium(III chloride-catalyzed acylation of a variety of alcohols, phenols, and thiols was achieved in high yields under mild conditions (room temperature in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]. The ionic liquid and ruthenium catalyst can be recycled at least 10 times. Our system not only solves the basic problem of ruthenium catalyst reuse, but also avoids the use of volatile acetonitrile as solvent.

  8. Extraction of aromatic compounds using ionic liquids and low transition temperature mixtures as separation agents

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez Requejo, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is the evaluation of the feasibility of two types of designer solvents, ionic liquids (ILs) and low transition temperature mixtures (LTTMs), as extraction agents to improve the efficiency and/or sustainability of the separation of aromatic hydrocarbons from their mixtures with aliphatic hydrocarbons. The research about the applicability of the ionic liquids as entrainers for the separation of aromatic/aliphatic mixtures was developed through the experimental ...

  9. Electrons and Phonons in High Temperature Superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The defect-induced anharmonic phonon-electron problem in high-temperature superconductors has been investigated with the help of double time thermodynamic electron and phonon Green’s function theory using a comprehensive Hamiltonian which includes the contribution due to unperturbed electrons and phonons, anharmonic phonons, impurities, and interactions of electrons and phonons. This formulation enables one to resolve the problem of electronic heat transport and equilibrium phenomenon in high-temperature superconductors in an amicable way. The problem of electronic heat capacity and electron-phonon problem has been taken up with special reference to the anharmonicity, defect concentration electron-phonon coupling, and temperature dependence.

  10. Population of metastable ionic states in electron-capture collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seim, W.; Mueller, A.; Salzborn, E.

    1981-07-01

    The population of metastable states of singly and doubly charged rare-gas ions created by electron capture in keV ion-atom collisions is investigated by means of a subsequent electron stripping or capture collision.

  11. Effect of room temperature ionic liquid structure on the enzymatic acylation of flavonoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lue, Bena-Marie; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2010-01-01

    Enzymatic acylation reactions of flavonoids (rutin, esculin) with long chain fatty acids (palmitic, oleic acids) were carried out in 14 different ionic liquid media containing a range of cation and anion structures. Classification of RTILs according to flavonoid solubility (using COSMO...... must be struck that maximized flavonoid solubility with minimum negative impact on lipase activity. The process also benefitted from an increased reaction temperature which may have helped to reduced mass transfer limitations. Keywords: Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs); Biosynthesis; Acylation......; Flavonoids; Lipase; Long chain fatty acids...

  12. Electronic phase diagram in the half-filled ionic Hubbard model with site-dependent interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Anh-Tuan; Nguyen, Thi-Hai-Yen; Le, Duc-Anh

    2018-02-01

    The ionic Hubbard model with spatially alternating interactions, which may be realized by cold atoms in optical lattices, is studied by mean of the coherent potential approximation. The paramagnetic phase diagram for the half-filled model at zero temperature is obtained. The possibility of enlarging an intermediate metallic region in the parameter space is addressed.

  13. Quantitative structure—property relationship for thermal decomposition temperature of ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharagheizi, Farhad; Sattari, Mehdi; Ilani-Kashkouli, Poorandokht

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a wide literature survey has been conducted to gather an extensive set of thermal decomposition temperature (Td) data for ionic liquids (ILs). A data set consisting of Td data for 586 ILs was collated from 71 different literature sources. Using this data set, a reliable quantitative...

  14. How do polymerized room-temperature ionic liquid membranes plasticize during high pressure CO2 permeation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons-Fischbein, K.; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.; Bara, J.B.; Noble, R.D.; Wessling, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are a class of organic solvents that have been explored as novel media for CO2 separations. Polymerized RTILs (poly(RTILs)) can be synthesized from RTIL monomers to form dense, solid gas selective membranes. It is of interest to understand the permeation

  15. Probing Ionic Liquid Aqueous Solutions Using Temperature of Maximum Density Isotope Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tariq

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is a new development of an extensive research program that is investigating for the first time shifts in the temperature of maximum density (TMD of aqueous solutions caused by ionic liquid solutes. In the present case we have compared the shifts caused by three ionic liquid solutes with a common cation—1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium coupled with acetate, ethylsulfate and tetracyanoborate anions—in normal and deuterated water solutions. The observed differences are discussed in terms of the nature of the corresponding anion-water interactions.

  16. Communication: Anomalous temperature dependence of the intermediate range order in phosphonium ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hettige, Jeevapani J.; Kashyap, Hemant K.; Margulis, Claudio J., E-mail: claudio-margulis@uiowa.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2014-03-21

    In a recent article by the Castner and Margulis groups [Faraday Discuss. 154, 133 (2012)], we described in detail the structure of the tetradecyltrihexylphosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-amide ionic liquid as a function of temperature using X-ray scattering, and theoretical partitions of the computationally derived structure function. Interestingly, and as opposed to the case in most other ionic-liquids, the first sharp diffraction peak or prepeak appears to increase in intensity as temperature is increased. This phenomenon is counter intuitive as one would expect that intermediate range order fades as temperature increases. This Communication shows that a loss of hydrophobic tail organization at higher temperatures is counterbalanced by better organization of polar components giving rise to the increase in intensity of the prepeak.

  17. Nanoscale capillary freezing of ionic liquids confined between metallic interfaces and the role of electronic screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comtet, Jean; Niguès, Antoine; Kaiser, Vojtech; Coasne, Benoit; Bocquet, Lydéric; Siria, Alessandro

    2017-06-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are new materials with fundamental importance for energy storage and active lubrication. They are unusual liquids, which challenge the classical frameworks of electrolytes, whose behaviour at electrified interfaces remains elusive, with exotic responses relevant to their electrochemical activity. Using tuning-fork-based atomic force microscope nanorheological measurements, we explore here the properties of confined RTILs, unveiling a dramatic change of the RTIL towards a solid-like phase below a threshold thickness, pointing to capillary freezing in confinement. This threshold is related to the metallic nature of the confining materials, with more metallic surfaces facilitating freezing. This behaviour is interpreted in terms of the shift of the freezing transition, taking into account the influence of the electronic screening on RTIL wetting of the confining surfaces. Our findings provide fresh views on the properties of confined RTIL with implications for their properties inside nanoporous metallic structures, and suggests applications to tune nanoscale lubrication with phase-changing RTILs, by varying the nature and patterning of the substrate, and application of active polarization.

  18. Nanoscale capillary freezing of ionic liquids confined between metallic interfaces and the role of electronic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comtet, Jean; Niguès, Antoine; Kaiser, Vojtech; Coasne, Benoit; Bocquet, Lydéric; Siria, Alessandro

    2017-06-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are new materials with fundamental importance for energy storage and active lubrication. They are unusual liquids, which challenge the classical frameworks of electrolytes, whose behaviour at electrified interfaces remains elusive, with exotic responses relevant to their electrochemical activity. Using tuning-fork-based atomic force microscope nanorheological measurements, we explore here the properties of confined RTILs, unveiling a dramatic change of the RTIL towards a solid-like phase below a threshold thickness, pointing to capillary freezing in confinement. This threshold is related to the metallic nature of the confining materials, with more metallic surfaces facilitating freezing. This behaviour is interpreted in terms of the shift of the freezing transition, taking into account the influence of the electronic screening on RTIL wetting of the confining surfaces. Our findings provide fresh views on the properties of confined RTIL with implications for their properties inside nanoporous metallic structures, and suggests applications to tune nanoscale lubrication with phase-changing RTILs, by varying the nature and patterning of the substrate, and application of active polarization.

  19. Ionic liquids influence on the surface properties of electron beam irradiated wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croitoru, Catalin [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Product Design and Environment Department, 29 Eroilor Str., 500036, Brasov (Romania); Patachia, Silvia, E-mail: st.patachia@unitbv.ro [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Product Design and Environment Department, 29 Eroilor Str., 500036, Brasov (Romania); Doroftei, Florica; Parparita, Elena; Vasile, Cornelia [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Physical Chemistry of Polymers Department, 41A Gr. Ghica Voda Alley, Iasi (Romania)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Wood veneers impregnated with three imidazolium-based ionic liquids and irradiated with electron beam were studied by FTIR-ATR, SEM/EDX, AFM, contact angle and image analysis. • ILs preserve the surface properties of the wood (surface energy, roughness, color) upon irradiation, in comparison with the reference wood, but the surface composition is changed by treatment with IL-s, mainly with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate. • Under electron beam irradiation covalent bonding of the imidazolium moiety to wood determines a higher resistance to water penetration and spreading on the surface. - Abstract: In this paper, the influence of three imidazolium-based ionic liquids (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) on the structure and surface properties of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) veneers submitted to electron beam irradiation with a dose of 50 kGy has been studied by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, as well as image, scanning electron microscopy/SEM/EDX, atomic force microscopy and contact angle analysis. The experimental results have proven that the studied ionic liquids determine a better preservation of the structural features of wood (cellulose crystallinity index and lignin concentration on the surface) as well as some of surface properties such as surface energy, roughness, color upon irradiation with electron beam, in comparison with the reference wood, but surface composition is changed by treatment with imidazolium-based ionic liquids mainly with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate. Also, under electron beam irradiation covalent bonding of the imidazolium moiety to wood determines a higher resistance to water penetration and spreading on the surface.

  20. Application of room-temperature ionic liquids in preparation of highly porous polymer membranes and microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Hoi [Dept. of Chemistry, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Jae Won; Shin, Ueon Sang [Dept. of Nanobiomedical Science and BK21 PlUS NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) devices with diverse morphologies, such as particulate structure, porous structures, and microspheres, were prepared using imidazolium- or ammonium-based room-temperature ionic liquids [bmim]X or [toma]X (X = NTf{sub 2} , PF{sub 6} , OTf, BF{sub 4} , Cl). Their morphological transformations could be induced by diverse approaches, including the changes of polymer type, the cationic or counter-anionic change of ionic liquid, the concentration change of ionic liquid, as well as the type and the quantity change of organic solvent. The results are likely to provide useful information for the production of diverse devices (or scaffolds) with particulate or porous structure and beads with various sizes and surface morphologies in fields such as biomedical tissue engineering, drug delivery, gas storage and separation, heterogeneous catalysis, and polymer gel electrolytes.

  1. An Unexpected Reaction between 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids at High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongbao K. Zhao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A new compound was detected during the production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF from glucose and cellulose in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl at high temperatures. Further experiments found that it was derived from the reaction of HMF with [Bmim]Cl. The structure of new compound was established as 1-butyl-2-(5’-methyl-2’-furoylimidazole (BMI based on nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry analysis, and a possible mechanism for its formation was proposed. Reactions of HMF with other imidazolium-based ionic liquids were performed to check the formation of BMI. Our results provided new insights in terms of side reactions between HMF and imidazolium-based ionic liquids, which should be valuable for designing better processes for the production of furans using biomass and related materials.

  2. Ion transport and structural dynamics in homologous ammonium and phosphonium-based room temperature ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Philip J., E-mail: pgrif@seas.upenn.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Holt, Adam P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Tsunashima, Katsuhiko [Department of Materials Science, National Institute of Technology, Wakayama College, 77 Noshima, Nada-cho, Gobo, Wakayama 644-0023 (Japan); Sangoro, Joshua R. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Kremer, Friedrich [Institute of Experimental Physics I, University of Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Sokolov, Alexei P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Lab, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States)

    2015-02-28

    Charge transport and structural dynamics in a homologous pair of ammonium and phosphonium based room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) have been characterized over a wide temperature range using broadband dielectric spectroscopy and quasi-elastic light scattering spectroscopy. We have found that the ionic conductivity of the phosphonium based IL is significantly enhanced relative to the ammonium homolog, and this increase is primarily a result of a lower glass transition temperature and higher ion mobility. Additionally, these ILs exhibit pronounced secondary relaxations which are strongly influenced by the atomic identity of the cation charge center. While the secondary relaxation in the phosphonium IL has the expected Arrhenius temperature dependence characteristic of local beta relaxations, the corresponding relaxation process in the ammonium IL was found to exhibit a mildly non-Arrhenius temperature dependence in the measured temperature range—indicative of molecular cooperativity. These differences in both local and long-range molecular dynamics are a direct reflection of the subtly different inter-ionic interactions and mesoscale structures found in these homologous ILs.

  3. Green synthesis of mesoporous molecular sieve incorporated monoliths using room temperature ionic liquid and deep eutectic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Shun; Zhao, Qing-Li; Li, Xin-Xin; Li, Xi-Xi; Huang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Zhao-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    A hybrid monolith incorporated with mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-41 of uniform pore structure and high surface area was prepared with binary green porogens in the first time. With a mixture of room temperature ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents as porogens, MCM-41 was modified with 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (γ-MPS) and the resulting MCM-41-MPS was incorporated into poly (BMA-co-EDMA) monoliths covalently. Because of good dispersibility of MCM-41-MPS in the green solvent-based polymerization system, high permeability and homogeneity for the resultant hybrid monolithic columns was achieved. The MCM-41-MPS grafted monolith was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer area scanning, transmission electron microscopy, FT-IR spectra and nitrogen adsorption tests. Chromatographic performance of MCM-41-MPS grafted monolith was characterized by separating small molecules in capillary electrochromatography, including phenol series, naphthyl substitutes, aniline series and alkyl benzenes. The maximum column efficiency of MCM-41-MPS grafted monolith reached 209,000 plates/m, which was twice higher than the corresponding MCM-41-MPS free monolith. Moreover, successful separation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons demonstrated the capacity in broad-spectrum application of the MCM-41-MPS incorporated monolith. The results indicated that green synthesis using room temperature ionic liquid and deep eutectic solvents is an effective method to prepare molecular sieve-incorporated monolithic column. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Engineering Mixed Ionic Electronic Conduction in La 0.8 Sr 0.2 MnO 3+ δ Nanostructures through Fast Grain Boundary Oxygen Diffusivity

    KAUST Repository

    Saranya, Aruppukottai M.

    2015-04-09

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Nanoionics has become an increasingly promising field for the future development of advanced energy conversion and storage devices, such as batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors. Particularly, nanostructured materials offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. However, the enhancement of the mass transport properties at the nanoscale has often been found to be difficult to implement in nanostructures. Here, an artificial mixed ionic electronic conducting oxide is fabricated by grain boundary (GB) engineering thin films of La0.8Sr0.2MnO3+δ. This electronic conductor is converted into a good mixed ionic electronic conductor by synthesizing a nanostructure with high density of vertically aligned GBs with high concentration of strain-induced defects. Since this type of GBs present a remarkable enhancement of their oxide-ion mass transport properties (of up to six orders of magnitude at 773 K), it is possible to tailor the electrical nature of the whole material by nanoengineering, especially at low temperatures. The presented results lead to fundamental insights into oxygen diffusion along GBs and to the application of these engineered nanomaterials in new advanced solid state ionics devices such are micro-solid oxide fuel cells or resistive switching memories. An electronic conductor such as La0.8Sr0.2MnO3+δ is converted into a good mixed ionic electronic conductor by synthesizing a nanostructure with excellent electronic and oxygen mass transport properties. Oxygen diffusion highways are created by promoting a high concentration of strain-induced defects in the grain boundary region. This novel strategy opens the way for synthesizing new families of artificial mixed ionic-electronic conductors by design.

  5. Structural and electronic phase transitions of MoTe2 induced by Li ionic gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jeongwoon; Zhang, Chenxi; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2017-12-01

    Monolayer MoTe2 has semiconducting and semimetallic phases with small energy difference, and the relative stability is readily reversed by gating. By first-principles calculations, we investigate the changes in atomic structure, electronic structure, and relative stability of two phases induced by Li ionic gating. To model Li ionic gating, we employ two approaches; one is direct adsorption of Li on MoTe2 and the other is introducing non-contacting Li plate over MoTe2. We show phonon instability in H-phase of MoTe2 with increasing the amount of charge transfer from Li, which implies a large electron-phonon coupling in the system resulting in a charge density wave state. Structural distortion is also observed in highly doped T d phase. The transition energy barrier from distorted H phase to distorted T d phase is reduced considerably compared to that of pristine MoTe2.

  6. The electrochemical reduction of the purines guanine and adenine at platinum electrodes in several room temperature ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin, E-mail: boldrinv@iq.unesp.br [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Sao Paulo State, Araraquara, R. Prof. Francisco Degni, CP 355, 14801-970, SP (Brazil); Rogers, Emma I. [Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom); Hardacre, Christopher, E-mail: c.hardacre@qub.ac.uk [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering/QUILL, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Compton, Richard G., E-mail: richard.compton@chem.ox.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-05

    The reduction of guanine was studied by microelectrode voltammetry in the room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) N-hexyltriethylammonium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide [N{sub 6,2,2,2}][N(Tf){sub 2}], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorosphosphate [C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}], N-butyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [C{sub 4}mpyrr][N(Tf){sub 2}], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [C{sub 4}mim][N(Tf){sub 2}], N-butyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium dicyanamide [C{sub 4}mpyrr][N(NC){sub 2}] and tris(P-hexyl)-tetradecylphosphonium trifluorotris(pentafluoroethyl)phosphate [P{sub 14,6,6,6}][FAP] on a platinum microelectrode. In [N{sub 6,2,2,2}][NTf{sub 2}] and [P{sub 14,6,6,6}][FAP], but not in the other ionic liquids studied, guanine reduction involves a one-electron, diffusion-controlled process at very negative potential to produce an unstable radical anion, which is thought to undergo a dimerization reaction, probably after proton abstraction from the cation of the ionic liquid. The rate of this subsequent reaction depends on the nature of the ionic liquid, and it is faster in the ionic liquid [P{sub 14,6,6,6}][FAP], in which the formation of the resulting dimer can be voltammetrically monitored at less negative potentials than required for the reduction of the parent molecule. Adenine showed similar behaviour to guanine but the pyrimidines thymine and cytosine did not; thymine was not reduced at potentials less negative than required for solvent (RTIL) decomposition while only a poorly defined wave was seen for cytosine. The possibility for proton abstraction from the cation in [N{sub 6,2,2,2}][NTf{sub 2}] and [P{sub 14,6,6,6}][FAP] is noted and this is thought to aid the electrochemical dimerization process. The resulting rapid reaction is thought to shift the reduction potentials for guanine and adenine to lower values than observed in RTILs where the scope for proton abstraction is not present. Such shifts are

  7. Is the boundary layer of an ionic liquid equally lubricating at higher temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjalmarsson, Nicklas; Atkin, Rob; Rutland, Mark W

    2016-04-07

    Atomic force microscopy has been used to study the effect of temperature on normal forces and friction for the room temperature ionic liquid (IL) ethylammonium nitrate (EAN), confined between mica and a silica colloid probe at 25 °C, 50 °C, and 80 °C. Force curves revealed a strong fluid dynamic influence at room temperature, which was greatly reduced at elevated temperatures due to the reduced liquid viscosity. A fluid dynamic analysis reveals that bulk viscosity is manifested at large separation but that EAN displays a nonzero slip, indicating a region of different viscosity near the surface. At high temperatures, the reduction in fluid dynamic force reveals step-like force curves, similar to those found at room temperature using much lower scan rates. The ionic liquid boundary layer remains adsorbed to the solid surface even at high temperature, which provides a mechanism for lubrication when fluid dynamic lubrication is strongly reduced. The friction data reveals a decrease in absolute friction force with increasing temperature, which is associated with increased thermal motion and reduced viscosity of the near surface layers but, consistent with the normal force data, boundary layer lubrication was unaffected. The implications for ILs as lubricants are discussed in terms of the behaviour of this well characterised system.

  8. Volatilization and Thermal Decomposition Mechanisms of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids (PRE-PRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-07

    Date: 20 Nov 2008. 14. ABSTRACT Recent interest in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) was based initially on the replacement of volatile...indicated that volatilization of these species occurs as a single ion pair. Recent ALS studies on the photoionization of other 1- alkyl-3...methylimidazolium based RTILs, show these systems can be more complex, with possible dissociative photoionization occurring at even the lowest detectable reservoir

  9. Tuning the electronic environment of the anion by using binary ionic liquid mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Shuang; Licence, Peter

    2017-08-01

    The electronic environment of the anion is tuned by using binary ionic liquid mixtures employing a common anion and two cations with large difference in acidity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to monitor the change of the electronic environment of the anion by measuring the binding energy of elements present in the anion. It is found that due to the large difference in acidity of the two cations, noticeable shifts can be observed for all anion-based components, no matter how basic the anion is.

  10. Simultaneous electronic and ionic conduction in a block copolymer: application in lithium battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier, Anna E; Patel, Shrayesh N; Hallinan, Daniel T; Srinivasan, Venkat; Balsara, Nitash P

    2011-10-10

    Charging ahead: separate values for the simultaneous electronic and ionic conductivity of a conjugated polymer containing poly(3-hexylthiophene) and poly(ethylene oxide) (P3HT-PEO) were determined by using ac impedance and dc techniques. P3HT-PEO was used as binder, and transporter of electronic charge and Li(+) ions in a LiFePO(4) cathode, which was incorporated into solid-state lithium batteries. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Passive electronic identification with temperature monitoring. [Temperature monitor for cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, D.M.; Bobbett, R.E.; Koelle, A.R.; Landt, J.A.; Sanders, W.M.; Depp, S.W.; Seawright, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) have been supporting an electronic identification and temperature monitoring project at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) since early 1973. The development, so far, indicates that a subdermally-implanted, electronic transponder (having no batteries) can be remotely activated and transmit temperature and identification information back to a receiver in a few tenths of a second. If this electronic identification and temperature monitoring system is developed into a commercially available product line, and is widely accepted by the cattle industry, it will enable them to carry out more extensive management practices. Better management can result in greater efficiency and productivity. The system will also enable regulatory agencies to trace the movements of diseased animals through commerce, and thus assist in disease control measures. Work so far has been concentrated primarily on determining the technical feasibility of the electronic concepts. (auth)

  12. Parametric dependencies of JET electron temperature profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunke, B. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Imre, K.; Riedel, K. [New York Univ., NY (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The JET Ohmic, L-Mode and H-Mode electron temperature profiles obtained from the LIDAR Thomson Scattering Diagnostic are parameterized in terms of the normalized flux parameter and a set of the engineering parameters like plasma current, toroidal field, line averages electron density... It is shown that the electron temperature profiles fit a log-additive model well. It is intended to use the same model to predict the profile shape for D-T discharges in JET and in ITER. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Deep Trek High Temperature Electronics Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Ohme

    2007-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative research agreement between Honeywell and U.S. Department of Energy to develop high-temperature electronics. Objects of this development included Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) wafer process development for high temperature, supporting design tools and libraries, and high temperature integrated circuit component development including FPGA, EEPROM, high-resolution A-to-D converter, and a precision amplifier.

  14. Salting-out effects in aqueous ionic liquid solutions: cloud-point temperature shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Joana R; Visak, Zoran P; Blesic, Marijana; Marrucho, Isabel M; Coutinho, João A P; Lopes, José N Canongia; Rebelo, Luis P N

    2007-05-10

    The effects of the addition of three inorganic salts, namely, NaCl, Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)PO(4), on the liquid-liquid (L-L) phase diagram of aqueous solutions containing the model ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [bmim][BF(4)], were investigated. All three inorganic salts trigger salting-out effects, leading to significant upward shifts of the L-L demixing temperatures of the systems. The magnitude of the shifts depends on both the water-structuring nature of the salt and its concentration; that is, the effects are correlated with the ionic strength of the solution and the Gibbs free energy of hydration of the inorganic salt. The pH effect and the occurrence of salt precipitation in concentrated solutions are also discussed.

  15. Temperature regulated Brønsted acidic ionic liquid-catalyze esterification of oleic acid for biodiesel application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Ezzat; Mirnezami, Fakhrosadat

    2017-02-01

    By combining phosphotungstic acid (PW) and SO3H- functioned zwitterion, heteropoly anion-based Brønsted acidic ionic liquids (HPA-ILs) were successfully obtained. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were provided the morphology and composition of the prepared material. Catalytic performance and reusability of the catalysts were evaluated through an esterification reaction between oleic acid and methanol for production of biodiesel. Relationship between catalytic activities and acidity of the catalysts have been discussed by potentiometric titration. The results showed that HPA-ILs had good activity and reusability. HPA-ILs dissolved in the reaction mixture during the reaction process and could be precipitated and separated from products at lower temperature.

  16. MIEC (mixed-ionic-electronic-conduction)-based access devices for non-volatile crossbar memory arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Rohit S.; Burr, Geoffrey W.; Virwani, Kumar; Jackson, Bryan; Padilla, Alvaro; Narayanan, Pritish; Rettner, Charles T.; Shelby, Robert M.; Bethune, Donald S.; Raman, Karthik V.; BrightSky, Matthew; Joseph, Eric; Rice, Philip M.; Topuria, Teya; Kellock, Andrew J.; Kurdi, Bülent; Gopalakrishnan, Kailash

    2014-10-01

    Several attractive applications call for the organization of memristive devices (or other resistive non-volatile memory (NVM)) into large, densely-packed crossbar arrays. While resistive-NVM devices frequently possess some degree of inherent nonlinearity (typically 3-30× contrast), the operation of large (\\gt 1000×1000 device) arrays at low power tends to require quite large (\\gt 1e7) ON-to-OFF ratios (between the currents passed at high and at low voltages). One path to such large nonlinearities is the inclusion of a distinct access device (AD) together with each of the state-bearing resistive-NVM elements. While such an AD need not store data, its list of requirements is almost as challenging as the specifications demanded of the memory device. Several candidate ADs have been proposed, but obtaining high performance without requiring single-crystal silicon and/or the high processing temperatures of the front-end-of-the-line—which would eliminate any opportunity for 3D stacking—has been difficult. We review our work at IBM Research—Almaden on high-performance ADs based on Cu-containing mixed-ionic-electronic conduction (MIEC) materials [1-7]. These devices require only the low processing temperatures of the back-end-of-the-line, making them highly suitable for implementing multi-layer cross-bar arrays. MIEC-based ADs offer large ON/OFF ratios (\\gt 1e7), a significant voltage margin {{V}m} (over which current \\lt 10 nA), and ultra-low leakage (\\lt 10 pA), while also offering the high current densities needed for phase-change memory and the fully bipolar operation needed for high-performance RRAM. Scalability to critical lateral dimensions \\lt 30 nm and thicknesses \\lt 15 nm, tight distributions and 100% yield in large (512 kBit) arrays, long-term stability of the ultra-low leakage states, and sub-50 ns turn-ON times have all been demonstrated. Numerical modeling of these MIEC-based ADs shows that their operation depends on C{{u}+} mediated hole

  17. Ionic and electronic behaviors of earth-abundant semiconductor materials and their applications toward solar energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Matthew T.

    Semiconductor devices offer promise for efficient conversion of sunlight into other useful forms of energy, in either photovoltaic or photoelectrochemical cell configurations to produce electrical power or chemical energy, respectively. This dissertation examines ionic and electronic phenomena in some candidate semiconductors and seeks to understand their implications toward solar energy conversion applications. First, copper sulfide (Cu2S) was examined as a candidate photovoltaic material. It was discovered that its unique property of cation diffusion allows the room-temperature synthesis of vertically-aligned nanowire arrays, a morphology which facilitates study of the diffusion processes. This diffusivity was found to induce hysteresis in the electronic behavior, leading to the phenomena of resistive switching and negative differential resistance. The Cu2S were then demonstrated as morphological templates for solid-state conversion into different types of heterostructures, including segmented and rod-in-tube morphologies. Near-complete conversion to ZnS, enabled by the out-diffusion of Cu back into the substrate, was also achieved. While the ion diffusion property likely hinders the reliability of Cu 2S in photovoltaic applications, it was shown to enable useful electronic and ionic behaviors. Secondly, iron oxide (Fe2O3, hematite) was examined as a photoanode for photoelectrochemical water splitting. Its energetic limitations toward the water electrolysis reactions were addressed using two approaches aimed at achieving greater photovoltages and thereby improved water splitting efficiencies. In the first, a built-in n-p junction produced an internal field to drive charge separation and generate photovoltage. In the second, Fe 2O3 was deposited onto a smaller band gap material, silicon, to form a device capable of producing enhanced total photovoltage by a dual-absorber Z-scheme mechanism. Both approaches resulted in a cathodic shift of the photocurrent onset

  18. Method for calculating ionic and electronic defect concentrations in y-stabilised zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, F.W. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Research Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-10-01

    A numerical (trial and error) method for calculation of concentration of ions, vacancies and ionic and electronic defects in solids (Brouwer-type diagrams) is presented. No approximations or truncations of the set of equations describing the chemistry for the various defect regions are used. Doped zirconia and doped thoria with simultaneous presence of protonic and electronic defects are taken as examples: 7 concentrations as function of oxygen partial pressure and/or water vapour partial pressure are determined. Realistic values for the equilibrium constants for equilibration with oxygen gas and water vapour, as well as for the internal equilibrium between holes and electrons were taken from the literature. The present mathematical method is versatile - it has also been employed by the author to treat more complex systems, such as perovskite structure oxides with over- and under-stoichiometry in oxygen, cation vacancies and simultaneous presence of protons. (au) 6 refs.

  19. Ionic Diffusion and Electronic Transport in Eldfellite NaxFe (SO4)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chol-Jun; Choe, Song-Hyok; Ri, Gum-Chol; Kim, Sung-Chol; Ryo, Hyok-Su; Kim, Yong-Jin

    2017-08-01

    Discovering new electrodes for the sodium-ion battery requires a clear understanding of the material process during battery operation. Using first-principles calculations, we identify mechanisms of ionic diffusion and electronic transfer in newly developed cathode material, eldfellite NaxFe (SO4)2 , reproducing the electrochemical properties in good agreement with experiment. The inserted sodium atom is suggested to diffuse along the two-dimensional pathway with preceding movement of the host sodium atom, and the activation energy is calculated to be reasonable for fast insertion. We calculate the electronic properties, showing the band insulating at a low composition of inserted sodium, for which the electron polaron formation and hopping are also suggested. Our results may contribute to opening an alternative way of developing innovative cathode materials based on iron and sulfate ion.

  20. Ionic thermoelectric gating organic transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dan; Fabiano, Simone; Berggren, Magnus; Crispin, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Temperature is one of the most important environmental stimuli to record and amplify. While traditional thermoelectric materials are attractive for temperature/heat flow sensing applications, their sensitivity is limited by their low Seebeck coefficient (∼100 μV K−1). Here we take advantage of the large ionic thermoelectric Seebeck coefficient found in polymer electrolytes (∼10,000 μV K−1) to introduce the concept of ionic thermoelectric gating a low-voltage organic transistor. The temperature sensing amplification of such ionic thermoelectric-gated devices is thousands of times superior to that of a single thermoelectric leg in traditional thermopiles. This suggests that ionic thermoelectric sensors offer a way to go beyond the limitations of traditional thermopiles and pyroelectric detectors. These findings pave the way for new infrared-gated electronic circuits with potential applications in photonics, thermography and electronic-skins. PMID:28139738

  1. Ionic and electronic transport across interfaces in thin electrolyte film, anode supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyung-Tae

    In transport studies in oxygen ion conductors, oxygen chemical potential (muO2) has been usually assumed to be equilibrated across gas/solid electrolyte interfaces. However, since the interfaces exhibit different properties from the bulk, they must have their own ionic and electronic properties. In this study, Pt reference electrodes were embedded within the electrolyte (gadolinia-doped ceria; GDC) in an anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell to measure the electrochemical potential of electrons (ϕ) through the bulk electrolyte and its interfaces under fuel cell operating condition. Based on local equilibrium assumption, which leads to relations between electrochemical potentials of charged species and chemical potential of neutral species, the corresponding mu O2 was estimated. When the GDC is protected by a thin layer of a predominantly ionic conductor from reducing atmosphere, the muO2 varied monotonically through the GDC layer, exhibiting a relatively small change across the cathode interface region. By contrast, when the GDC was exposed to hydrogen, it was significantly reduced, resulting in higher electron concentration. The corresponding mu O2 was small through the GDC layer, exhibiting an abrupt change across the cathode interface region. This difference in the muO2 variation depending upon the relative electronic conduction in the electrolyte resulted in a large difference in the cathode overpotential. The direction of ionic/electronic current and the corresponding internal muO2 through the electrolyte can have a profound effect on its stability. If cell imbalance exists in a series-connected fuel cell stack, a "bad" cell characterized by a higher resistance can be operated under a negative voltage. To investigate the SOFC stack failure by simulating abnormal behavior in a single cell test, yttira stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte cells were tested with an applied DC bias. When operating under a negative voltage, rapid degradation occurred

  2. Electron density and temperature measurements in a laser produced carbon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harilal, S.S.; Bindhu, C.V.; Issac, R.C.; Nampoori, V.P.; Vallabhan, C.P. [Laser Division, International School of Photonics, Cochin University of Science Technology, Cochin 682 022 (India)

    1997-09-01

    Plasma generated by fundamental radiation from a Nd:YAG laser focused onto a graphite target is studied spectroscopically. Measured line profiles of several ionic species were used to infer electron temperature and density at several sections located in front of the target surface. Line intensities of successive ionization states of carbon were used for electron temperature calculations. Stark broadened profiles of singly ionized species have been utilized for electron density measurements. Electron density as well as electron temperature were studied as functions of laser irradiance and time elapsed after the incidence of laser pulse. The validity of the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium is discussed in light of the results obtained. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Room Temperature Ionic Liquids as Green Solvent Alternatives in the Metathesis of Oleochemical Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya A. Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important areas of green chemistry is the application of environmentally friendly solvents in catalysis and synthesis. Conventional organic solvents pose a threat to the environment due to the volatility, highly flammability, toxicity and carcinogenic properties they exhibit. The recently emerged room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs are promising green solvent alternatives to the volatile organic solvents due to their ease of reuse, non-volatility, thermal stability and ability to dissolve a variety of organic and organometallic compounds. This review explores the use of RTILs as green solvent media in olefin metathesis for applications in the oleochemical industry.

  4. Liquid-liquid miscibility and volumetric properties of aqueous solutions of ionic liquids as a function of temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Silu; Jacquemin, Johan; Husson, Pascale; Hardacre, Christpher; Costa Gomes, Margarita F.

    2009-01-01

    The volumetric properties of seven {water + ionic liquid} binary mixtures have been studied as a function of temperature from (293 to 343) K. The phase behaviour of the systems was first investigated using a nephelometric method and excess molar volumes were calculated from densities measured using an Anton Paar densimeter and fitted using a Redlich-Kister type equation. Two ionic liquids fully miscible with water (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([CCIm][BF]) and 1-ethyl-3-methy...

  5. Electron Density and Temperature Measurements, and Abundance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using spectra obtained from the SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation) spectrograph on the spacecraft SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory), we investigate the height dependence of electron density, temperature and abundance anomalies in the solar atmosphere. In particular, we present ...

  6. Tokamak Plasmas: Electron temperature $(T_ {e}) $ measurements ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thomson scattering technique based on high power laser has already proved its superoirity in measuring the electron temperature (e) and density (e) in fusion plasma devices like tokamaks. The method is a direct and unambiguous one, widely used for the localised and simultaneous measurements of the above ...

  7. Spectroscopic diagnosis in electronic temperature of photoionise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, we are interested in the diagnostics in electronic temperature of a plasma purely photoionized, based on the intensity ration of lines emitted by ions helium-like, which have an atomic number Z relatively small. We considered the three lines corresponding to the transitions starting from the excited levels 1s2l ...

  8. Diamond switches for high temperature electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, R.R.; Rondeau, G.; Qi, Niansheng [Alameda Applied Sciences Corp., San Leandro, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-25

    Diamond switches are well suited for use in high temperature electronics. Laboratory feasibility of diamond switching at 1 kV and 18 A was demonstrated. DC blocking voltages up to 1 kV were demonstrated. A 50 {Omega} load line was switched using a diamond switch, with switch on-state resistivity {approx}7 {Omega}-cm. An electron beam, {approx}150 keV energy, {approx}2 {mu}s full width at half maximum was used to control the 5 mm x 5 mm x 100 {mu}m thick diamond switch. The conduction current temporal history mimics that of the electron beam. These data were taken at room temperature.

  9. Differential solubility of ethylene and acetylene in room-temperature ionic liquids: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Xing, Huabin; Yang, Qiwei; Li, Rulong; Su, Baogen; Bao, Zongbi; Yang, Yiwen; Ren, Qilong

    2012-04-05

    The room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have potential in realizing the ethylene (C(2)H(4)) and acetylene (C(2)H(2)) separation and avoiding solvent loss and environmental pollution compared with traditional solvents. The interaction mechanisms between gases and RTILs are important for the exploration of new RTILs for gas separation; thus, they were studied by quantum chemical calculation and molecular dynamics simulation in this work. The optimized geometries were obtained for the complexes of C(2)H(4)/C(2)H(2) with anions (Tf(2)N(-), BF(4)(-), and OAc(-)), cation (bmim(+)), and their ion pairs, and the analysis for geometry, interaction energy, natural bond orbital (NBO), and atoms in molecules (AIM) was performed. The quantum chemical calculation results show that the hydrogen-bonding interaction between the gas molecule and anion is the dominant factor in determining the solubility of C(2)H(2) in RTILs. However, the hydrogen-bonding interaction, the p-π interaction in C(2)H(4)-anion, and the π-π interaction in C(2)H(4)-cation are weak and comparable, which all affect the solubility of C(2)H(4) in RTILs with comparable contribution. The calculated results for the distance of H(gas)···X (X = O or F in anions), the BSSE-corrected interaction energy, the electron density of H(gas)···X at the bond critical point (ρ(BCP)), and the relative second-order perturbation stabilization energy (E(2)) are consistent with the experimental data that C(2)H(2) is more soluble than C(2)H(4) in the same RTILs and the solubility of C(2)H(4) in RTILs has the following order: [bmim][Tf(2)N] > [bmim][OAc] > [bmim][BF(4)]. The calculated results also agree with the order of C(2)H(2) solubility in different RTILs that [bmim][OAc] > [bmim][BF(4)] > [bmim][Tf(2)N]. Furthermore, the calculation results indicate that there is strong C(2)H(2)-RTIL interaction, which cannot be negligible compared to the RTIL-RTIL interaction; thus, the regular solution theory is probably not

  10. Molar conductivity behavior of ionic liquid compare to inorganic salt in electrolyte solution at ambien temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanibah, H.; Hashim, N. Z. Nor; Shamsudin, I. J.

    2017-09-01

    Molar Conductivity (Λ) behaviour of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (Bmin) acetate and Bmin chloride (Bmin Cl) ionic liquids compared to lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) has been studied in aqueous and acetonitrile (ACN) solution at ambient temperature. The limiting molar conductivity (Λ0) was obtained using the Kohlrausch's and Ostwald's equation for the investigated systems. The results show that the Λ0 value for LiClO4 in both aqueous or acetonitrile (ACN) electrolyte system with a highest value as compare to ionic liquid electrolyte systems. This might as a result of ions association of LiClO4 in aqueous medium as the concentration of the solute increases in the solvent. In addition, the partial dissociation behaviour of LiClO4 in less polar solvent such as ACN also significantly affects the Λ0 value for this electrolyte system. However, for Bmin acetate and Bmin Cl in the aqueous or ACN medium show a much lower Λ0 value as compare to LiClO4 electrolyte system, 45.64, 74.63 and 107.32 S cm2 mol-1 respectively. This as a result of the nature behaviour of ionic liquid itself that present as free moving ions at room temperature before any dissolution into the solvent. In addition, a vice versa trend of Λ0 value is noted for Bmin acetate and Bmin Cl, 21.34 and 14.56 S cm2 mol-1 respectively in ACN electrolyte system. This indicated the solvent and the size of the anion play an important role in the estimation of limiting molar conductivity values which significantly affect the present of total free moving ions in an electrolyte system.

  11. Bulk transport and oxygen surface exchange of the mixed ionic electronic conductor Ce1-xTbxO2-δ (x= 1⁄4, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balaguer Ramirez, M.; Yoo, C.-Y.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.; Serra, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Bulk ionic and electronic transport properties and the rate of oxygen surface exchange of Tb-doped ceria have been evaluated as a function of Tb concentration, aiming to assess the potential use of the materials as high-temperature oxygen-transport membranes and oxygen reduction catalysts. The

  12. Electrochemically oxidized electronic and ionic conducting nanostructured block copolymers for lithium battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shrayesh N; Javier, Anna E; Balsara, Nitash P

    2013-07-23

    Block copolymers that can simultaneously conduct electronic and ionic charges on the nanometer length scale can serve as innovative conductive binder material for solid-state battery electrodes. The purpose of this work is to study the electronic charge transport of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (P3HT-PEO) copolymers electrochemically oxidized with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) salt in the context of a lithium battery charge/discharge cycle. We use a solid-state three-terminal electrochemical cell that enables simultaneous conductivity measurements and control over electrochemical doping of P3HT. At low oxidation levels (ratio of moles of electrons removed to moles of 3-hexylthiophene moieties in the electrode), the electronic conductivity (σe,ox) increases from 10(-7) S/cm to 10(-4) S/cm. At high oxidation levels, σe,ox approaches 10(-2) S/cm. When P3HT-PEO is used as a conductive binder in a positive electrode with LiFePO4 active material, P3HT is electrochemically active within the voltage window of a charge/discharge cycle. The electronic conductivity of the P3HT-PEO binder is in the 10(-4) to 10(-2) S/cm range over most of the potential window of the charge/discharge cycle. This allows for efficient electronic conduction, and observed charge/discharge capacities approach the theoretical limit of LiFePO4. However, at the end of the discharge cycle, the electronic conductivity decreases sharply to 10(-7) S/cm, which means the "conductive" binder is now electronically insulating. The ability of our conductive binder to switch between electronically conducting and insulating states in the positive electrode provides an unprecedented route for automatic overdischarge protection in rechargeable batteries.

  13. Ionic Hamiltonians for transition metal atoms: effective exchange coupling and Kondo temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, F.; Goldberg, E. C.

    2017-02-01

    An ionic Hamiltonian for describing the interaction between a metal and a d-shell transition metal atom having an orbital singlet state is introduced and its properties analyzed using the Schrieffer-Wolf transformation (exchange coupling) and the poor man’s scaling method (Kondo temperature). We find that the effective exchange coupling between the metal and the atom has an antiferromagnetic or a ferromagnetic interaction depending on the kind of atomic fluctuations, either S\\to S-1/2 or S\\to S+1/2 , associated with the metal-atom coupling. We present a general scheme for all those processes and calculate, for the antiferromagnetic interaction, the corresponding Kondo-temperature.

  14. Low-Temperature Carrier Transport in Ionic-Liquid-Gated Hydrogen-Terminated Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasama, Yosuke; Yamaguchi, Takahide; Tanaka, Masashi; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2017-11-01

    We fabricated ionic-liquid-gated field-effect transistors on the hydrogen-terminated (111)-oriented surface of undoped silicon. Ion implantation underneath electrodes leads to good ohmic contacts, which persist at low temperatures down to 1.4 K. The sheet resistance of the channel decreases by more than five orders of magnitude as the gate voltage is changed from 0 to -1.6 V at 220 K. This is caused by the accumulation of hole carriers. The sheet resistance shows thermally activated behavior at temperatures below 10 K, which is attributed to hopping transport of the carriers. The activation energy decreases towards zero with increasing carrier density, suggesting the approach to an insulator-metal transition. We also report the variation of device characteristics induced by repeated sweeps of the gate voltage.

  15. Intermediate temperature ionic conductivity of Sm1.92Ca0.08Ti2O7–δ pyrochlore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eurenius, Karinh E. J.; Bentzer, Henrik Karnøe; Bonanos, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    The results of concentration cell electromotive force methods (EMF) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements on the pyrochlore system Sm1.92Ca0.08Ti2O7–δ are presented. The data have been used to estimate total and partial conductivities and determine transport numbers for protons...... and oxide ions under various conditions. The EMF techniques employed include corrections for electrode polarisation resistance. The measurements were performed using wet and dry atmospheres in a wide range using mixtures of H2, N2, O2, and H2O in the temperature region where proton conductivity was expected...... (500–300 °C). The impedance measurements revealed the conductivity to be mainly ionic under all conditions, with the highest total conductivity measured being 0.045 S/m under wet oxygen at 500 °C. Both bulk and grain boundary conductivity was predominantly ionic, but electronic conductivity appeared...

  16. A Simple Prediction Method for the Surface Tension of Ionic Liquids as a Function of Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Thomas M.; Steininger, Corina; Rausch, Michael H.; Fröba, Andreas P.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, a simple prediction method for the surface tension of ionic liquids (ILs) as a function of temperature is developed. Based on a database of experimental surface tension values collected from the literature, first a prediction scheme for the surface tension at a reference temperature of 298.15 K using only information on the density, molar mass, and anion type of the IL is suggested. By combination of this approach with the temperature dependence of the density, an extended prediction scheme describing the temperature dependence of the surface tension of ILs is recommended. The optimized prediction model for the surface tension allows for the prediction of about 3500 temperature-dependent experimental surface tension data of 226 different ILs with a standard deviation of about 7 %. In comparison with fluid-specific prediction methods found in the literature, the developed simple empirical prediction model requires only easily accessible parameters and can be applied for ILs with arbitrary cation and anion combinations. Thus, the proposed prediction method seems to be a valuable engineering tool for the quantitative estimation of the surface tension of ILs.

  17. Structure and electronic properties of ion pairs accompanying cyclic morpholinium cation and alkylphosphite anion based ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Prakash L.; Singh, Priti; Gejji, Shridhar P.

    2017-07-01

    Molecular insights for the formation of ion pairs accompanying the cyclic ammonium cation based room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) composed of alkyl substituted N-methylmorpholinium (RMMor) and alkylphosphite [(Rsbnd O)2PHdbnd O] (Rdbnd ethyl, butyl, hexyl, octyl) anion have been derived from the M06-2x level of theory. Electronic structures, binding energies, and spectral characteristics of the ion pairs underlying these RTILs have been characterized. The ion pair formation is largely governed by Csbnd H⋯O and other intermolecular interactions. Calculated binding energies increase with the increasing alkyl chain on either cation or alkylphosphite anion. The cation-anion binding reveals signature in the frequency down-(red) shift of the characteristic anionic Pdbnd O stretching whereas the Psbnd H stretching exhibits a shift in the opposite direction in vibrational spectra which has further been rationalized through molecular electron density topography. Correlations of measured electrochemical stability with the separation of frontier orbital energies and binding energies in the ion pairs have further been established.

  18. Fission-Product Separation Based on Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Huimin; Hussey, Charles L.

    2005-09-30

    The objectives of this project are (a) to synthesize new ionic liquids tailored for the extractive separation of Cs + and Sr 2+; (b) to select optimum macrocyclic extractants through studies of complexation of fission products with macrocyclic extractants and transport in new extraction systems based on ionic liquids; (c) to develop efficient processes to recycle ionic liquids and crown ethers; and (d) to investigate chemical stabilities of ionic liquids under strong acid, strong base, and high-level-radiation conditions.

  19. Fission-Product Separation Based on Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Huimin

    2006-11-15

    The objectives of this project are (a) to synthesize new ionic liquids tailored for the extractive separation of Cs + and Sr 2+; (b) to select optimum macrocyclic extractants through studies of complexation of fission products with macrocyclic extractants and transport in new extraction systems based on ionic liquids; (c) to develop efficient processes to recycle ionic liquids and crown ethers; and (d) to investigate chemical stabilities of ionic liquids under strong acid, strong base, and high-level-radiation conditions.

  20. Towards Understanding the Solvent-Dynamic Control of the Transport and Heterogeneous Electron-Transfer Processes in Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Mohsin Ahmad; Ingole, Pravin P; Randriamahazaka, Hyacinthe

    2017-02-17

    The impact of temperature-induced changes in solvent dynamics on the diffusion coefficient and standard rate constant k(0) for heterogeneous electron transfer (ET) of ethylferrocene (EFc) in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM][PF6 ]) is investigated. The results are analysed to understand the impact of solvent-dynamic control, solute-solvent interactions and solvent friction on the transport of redox probes and k(0) . Concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficient of EFc in [BMIM][PF6 ] is observed. This is attributed to the solute-induced enhancement of the structural organisation of the ionic liquid (IL), which is supported by the concentration-dependent UV/Vis absorption and photoluminescence responses of EFc/[BMIM][PF6 ] solutions. Similar values of the activation energies for mass transport and ET and a linear relationship between the diffusion coefficient and the heterogeneous ET rate is observed. The ratio between the diffusion coefficient and the heterogeneous rate constant allows a characteristic length Ld , which is temperature-independent, to be introduced. The presented results clearly establish that mass transport and heterogeneous ET of redox probes are strongly correlated in ILs. It is proposed that the apparent kinetics of heterogeneous ET reactions in ILs can be explained in terms of their impact on thermal equilibration, energy dissipation and thermal excitation of redox-active probes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Substitution of conventional high-temperature syntheses of inorganic compounds by near-room-temperature syntheses in ionic liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Groh, Matthias Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    The high-temperature syntheses of the low-valent halogenides P2I4, Te2Br, α-Te4I4, Te4(Al2Cl7)2, Te4(Bi6Cl20), Te8(Bi4Cl14),Bi8(AlCl4)2, Bi6Cl7,and Bi6Br7, as well as of WSCl4 andWOCl4 have been replaced by resource-efficient low-temperature syntheses in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). The simple one-pot syntheses generally do not require elaborate equipment such as twozone furnaces or evacuated silica ampoules. Compared to the published conventional approaches, reduction of reaction time (up to 80%) and temperature (up to 500 K) and, simultaneously, an increase in yield were achieved. In the majority of cases, the solid products were phase-pure. X-Ray diffraction on single crystals (redetermination of 11 crystal structures) has demonstrated that the quality of the crystals from RTILs is comparable to that of products obtained by chemical transport reactions. © 2013 Verlag der Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, Tübingen.

  2. Electron beam damage in high temperature polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. (Dayton Univ., OH (USA). Research Inst.); Adams, W.W. (Air Force Materials Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Electron microscopic studies of polymers are limited due to beam damage. Two concerns are the damage mechanism in a particular material, and the maximum dose for a material before damage effects are observed. From the knowledge of the dose required for damage to the polymer structure, optimum parameters for electron microscopy imaging can be determined. In the present study, electron beam damage of polymers has been quantified by monitoring changes in the diffraction intensity as a function of electron dose. The beam damage characteristics of the following polymers were studied: poly(p-phenylene benzobisthiazole) (PBZT); poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) (PBO); poly(benzoxazole) (ABPBO); poly(benzimidazole) (ABPBI); poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA); and poly(aryl ether ether ketone) (PEEK). Previously published literature results on polyethylene (PE), polyoxymethylene (POM), nylon-6, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), PBZT, PPTA, PPX, iPS, poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), and poly(phenylene sulphide) (PPS) were reviewed. This study demonstrates the strong dependence of the electron beam resistivity of a polymer on its thermal stability/melt temperature. (author).

  3. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy of Ag nanoparticles grown on an ionic liquid substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Anjum, Dalaver H.

    2010-07-01

    We report a novel method of growing silver nanostructures by cathodic sputtering onto an ionic liquid (IL) and our visualization by transmission cryo-electron microscopy to avoid beam-induced motion of the nanoparticles. By freezing the IL suspension and controlling electron dose, we can assess properties of particle size, morphology, crystallinity, and aggregation in situ and at high detail. We observed round silver nanoparticles with a well-defined diameter of 7.0 ± 1.5 nm that are faceted with crystalline cubic structures and ∼80% of the particles have multiply twinned faults. We also applied cryo-electron tomography to investigate the structure of the nanoparticles and to directly visualize the IL wetting around them. In addition to particles, we observed nanorods that appear to have assembled from individual nanoparticles. Reexamination of the samples after 4-5 days from initial preparation showed significant changes in morphology, and potential mechanisms for this are discussed. © 2010 Materials Research Society.

  4. Measurement and modelling of the defect chemistry and transport properties of ceramic oxide mixed ionic and electronic conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is ceramic mixed ionic and electronic conductors (MIECs). MIECs have potential uses, such as solid oxygen permeation membranes, as catalysts, and as components in fuel cells. The MIECs examined in this thesis are all oxide ion conducting materials. This thesis describes...

  5. Excitation and ionic fragmentation of gas-phase biomolecules using electrons and synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, G G B de [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21949-900 (Brazil); Coutinho, L H [Centro Universitario Estadual da Zona Oeste, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 23070-200 (Brazil); Nunez, C [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, INPA, Manaus, AM, 69083-000 (Brazil); Bernini, R [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21949-900 (Brazil); Castilho, R B [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21949-900 (Brazil); Lago, A F [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz SIncrotron (LNLS), Box 6192, Campinas, SP, 13084-971 (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    An experimental study of the electronic excitation and ionic dissociation of two important classes of biomolecules-natural products (biogenic volatile organic compounds, VOCs, and volatile components of essential oils) and DNA and RNA constituents (aminoacids and bases) is here exemplified with recent results on the fragmentation of thymine and isoprene as induced by synchrotron radiation and fast electrons. Fragmentation of the thymine molecule was seen to dramatically increase as the photon energy increased from 21 to 300 eV and 450 eV. At the highest photon energy, simply and doubly charged N and O atoms were observed. The parent ion (m/z = 126) could be observed at all photon energies. The fragmentation pattern observed in the 1.0 keV electron impact mass spectrum of thymine resembled more closely the fragmentation observed with 21 eV photons. In isoprene, the dominant fragments observed at 21 eV and 310 eV photon energy as well as in the 1.0 keV electron impact mass spectrum were C{sub 5}H{sub 7}{sup +}(m/z = 67), C{sub 4}H{sub 5}{sup +}(m/z = 53), C{sub 3}H{sub 3}{sup +}(m/z = 39) and C{sub 2}H{sub 3}{sup +}(m/z = 27). Previously unreported fragments, namely H{sup +}, C{sup +}, CH{sup +}, CH{sub 2}{sup +}, and CH{sub 3}{sup +} were observed at the high photon energies and at the electron impact mass spectrum.

  6. Study of effect of composition, irradiation and quenching on ionic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Co γ-rays to an accumulated dose of 10 kGy to study the effect on ionic conductivity. The electrolyte samples are also quenched at liquid nitrogen temperature and conductivity measurements are carried out. The ionic conductivity at room temperature exhibits a characteristic peak for the composition, x = 46. Electron beam ...

  7. Enhancing oxygen transport through Mixed-Ionic-and-Electronic-Conducting ceramic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anthony S.

    Ceramic membranes based on Mixed-Ionic-and-Electronic-Conducting (MIEC) oxides are capable of separating oxygen from air in the presence of an oxygen partial-pressure gradient. These MIEC membranes show great promise for oxygen consuming industrial processes, such as the production of syngas from steam reforming of natural gas (SRM), as well as for electricity generation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). For both applications, the overall performance is dictated by the rate of oxygen transport across the membrane. Oxygen transport across MIEC membranes is composed of a bulk oxygen-ion diffusion process and surface processes, such as surface reactions and adsorption/desorption of gaseous reactants/products. The main goal of this thesis was to determine which process is rate-limiting in order to significantly enhance the overall rate of oxygen transport in MIEC membrane systems. The rate-limiting step was determined by evaluating the total resistance to oxygen transfer, Rtot. Rtot is the sum of a bulk diffusion resistance in the membrane itself, Rb, and interfacial loss components, Rs. Rb is a function of the membrane's ionic conductivity and thickness, while Rs arises primarily from slow surface-exchange kinetics that cause the P(O2) at the surfaces of the membrane to differ from the P(O 2) in the adjacent gas phases. Rtot can be calculated from the Nernst potential across the membrane and the measured oxygen flux. The rate-limiting process can be determined by evaluating the relative contributions of the various losses, Rs and Rb, to Rtot. Using this method, this thesis demonstrates that for most membrane systems, Rs is the dominating factor. In the development of membrane systems with high oxygen transport rates, thin membranes with high ionic conductivities are required to achieve fast bulk oxygen-ion diffusion. However, as membrane thickness is decreased, surface reaction kinetics become more important in determining the overall transport rate. The two

  8. Wide Temperature Cycling Tolerant Electronic Packaging Substrates Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Planetary exploration missions require electronics packaging that can withstand extreme temperatures and numerous temperature cycles (-230C to +350C). The present...

  9. Protein remains stable at unusually high temperatures when solvated in aqueous mixtures of amino acid based ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chevrot, Guillaume; Fileti, Eudes Eterno; Chaban, Vitaly V.

    2016-01-01

    [EMIM][TRP] (5 mol% in water). Upon analyzing the radius of gyration, the solvent-accessible surface area, root-mean-squared deviations, and inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds, we found that the mini-protein remains stable at 30–40 K higher temperatures in aqueous amino acid based ionic liquids...

  10. Thermodynamics for proton binding of phytate in KNO{sub 3(aq)} at different temperatures and ionic strengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretti, Clemente; De Stefano, Concetta, E-mail: cdestefano@unime.it; Lando, Gabriele; Sammartano, Silvio

    2013-08-20

    Highlights: • Protonation data were modeled in a wide range of temperatures and ionic strengths. • Protonation values decrease with increasing ionic strength and temperature. • In KNO{sub 3} proton binding process is slightly exothermic, but less than in NaCl. • The major contribution for the proton association is entropic in nature. • Results are in agreement with previous findings for KCl and NaCl. - Abstract: Potentiometric measurements were performed in KNO{sub 3(aq)}, to determine the apparent protonation constants of phytate at different temperatures (278.15 ≤ T (K) ≤ 323.15) and ionic strengths (0.25 ≤ I (mol) dm{sup −3} ≤ 3.0) values. In general, the protonation constants decrease with increasing both temperature and ionic strength. The data reported were critically compared with previous results obtained in KCl and the values are in a good agreement, considering the experimental errors and slight differences between the activity coefficients of the various species in KCl and KNO{sub 3}. Experimental data were then modeled as a function of temperature and ionic strength using, with comparable results, two approaches: the extended Debye–Hückel equation and the specific ion interaction theory (SIT). The single specific ion interaction coefficients, ε, were also determined. The corresponding values are higher than those in Na{sup +} media. The protonation constants were also analyzed considering a simplified weak interaction model using an empirical equation that contains an additional term which takes into account the formation of weak complexes. The results obtained for the modeling of the protonation constants are in agreement with the literature findings. Thermodynamic protonation parameters were also obtained at different temperatures and ionic strengths. The proton association process is slightly exothermic and the enthalpic contribution is less negative than that in NaCl solution. As observed in other cases for phytate anion, the

  11. Percolation Theory in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Composite Electrodes with a Mixed Electronic and Ionic Conductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Ni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Percolation theory is generalized to predict the effective properties of specific solid oxide fuel cell composite electrodes, which consist of a pure ion conducting material (e.g., YSZ or GDC and a mixed electron and ion conducting material (e.g., LSCF, LSCM or CeO2. The investigated properties include the probabilities of an LSCF particle belonging to the electron and ion conducting paths, percolated three-phase-boundary electrochemical reaction sites, which are based on different assumptions, the exposed LSCF surface electrochemical reaction sites and the revised expressions for the inter-particle ionic conductivities among LSCF and YSZ materials. The effects of the microstructure parameters, such as the volume fraction of the LSCF material, the particle size distributions of both the LSCF and YSZ materials (i.e., the mean particle radii and the non-dimensional standard deviations, which represent the particle size distributions and the porosity are studied. Finally, all of the calculated results are presented in non-dimensional forms to provide generality for practical application. Based on these results, the relevant properties can be easily evaluated, and the microstructure parameters and intrinsic properties of each material are specified.

  12. Extraction of plutonium(IV) by diglycolamide extractants in room temperature ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhu, Dattaprasad R.; Raut, Dhaval R.; Murali, Mallekav S.; Mohapatra, Prasanta K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiochemistry Div.

    2017-06-01

    Extraction of Pu(IV) was investigated using solutions of two diglycolamide extractants viz., N,N,N{sup '},N{sup '}-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide (TODGA) and its branched homolog, N,N,N{sup '},N{sup '}-tetra(2-ethylhexyl) diglycolamide (T2EHDGA), dissolved in two imidazolium based room temperature ionic liquids viz., 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulphonyl) imide ([C{sub 4}mim][NTf{sub 2}]) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulphonyl) imide ([C{sub 8}mim][NTf{sub 2}]) from aqueous nitric acid medium. The extraction kinetics was found to be extremely slow which is reported for the first time for analogous extraction systems and took as long as 30 h to attain equilibrium D{sub Pu} values. In general, TODGA based solvents showed better extraction of Pu(IV) than the T2EHDGA based solvents, one order of magnitude higher, and though both the ionic liquids ultimately yielded comparable D{sub Pu} values, attainment of equilibrium was slower with [C{sub 4}mim][NTf{sub 2}]. The extracted species conformed to 1:1 for TODGA in both the ionic liquids while a mixture of 1:1 and 1:2 species was observed for T2EHDGA at 1 M HNO{sub 3} which changed to 1:1 species at 4 M HNO{sub 3}. The extracted species is proposed to be (Pu(L){sub x}{sup 4+}){sub IL} (where, L is the extractant and x=1 or 2) at lower acidities suggesting a cation exchange mechanism which changes over to (Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} .L){sub IL} at 4 M HNO{sub 3} conforming to a solvation mechanism for all the systems except for T2EHDGA-[C{sub 8}mim][NTf{sub 2}]. UV-VIS spectroscopic studies were carried out to throw light on the nature of the extracted species.

  13. An experimental study of perovskite-structured mixed ionic- electronic conducting oxides and membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Pingying

    In recent decades, ceramic membranes based on mixed ionic and electronic conducting (MIEC) perovskite-structured oxides have received many attentions for their applications for air separation, or as a membrane reactor for methane oxidation. While numerous perovskite oxide materials have been explored over the past two decades; there are hardly any materials with sufficient practical economic value and performance for large scale applications, which justifies continuing the search for new materials. The main purposes of this thesis study are: (1) develop several novel SrCoO3-delta based MIEC oxides, SrCoCo1-xMxO3-delta, based on which membranes exhibit excellent oxygen permeability; (2) investigate the significant effects of the species and concentration of the dopants M (metal ions with fixed valences) on the various properties of these membranes; (3) investigate the significant effects of sintering temperature on the microstructures and performance of oxygen permeation membranes; and (4) study the performance of oxygen permeation membranes as a membrane reactor for methane combustion. To stabilize the cubic phase structure of the SrCoO3-delta oxide, various amounts of scandium was doped into the B-site of SrCoO 3-delta to form a series of new perovskite oxides, SrScxCoCo 1-xO3-delta (SSCx, x = 0-0.7). The significant effects of scandium-doping concentration on the phase structure, electrical conductivity, sintering performance, thermal and structural stability, cathode performance, and oxygen permeation performance of the SSCx membranes, were systematically studied. Also for a more in-depth understanding, the rate determination steps for the oxygen transport process through the membranes were clarified by theoretical and experimental investigation. It was found that only a minor amount of scandium (5 mol%) doping into the B-site of SrCoO3-delta can effectively stabilize the cubic phase structure, and thus significantly improve the electrical conductivity and

  14. Changes of electrochemical properties of polypyrrole when synthesized in a room-temperature ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmolin, Carla, E-mail: carla.dalmolin@udesc.br; Biaggio, Sonia R.; Bocchi, Nerilso; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C.

    2014-09-15

    The room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, BMIM BF{sub 4}, was employed as electrolyte in the electrosynthesis of thin polypyrrole (PPy) films on a Pt substrate, and the resulting PPy electrodes were electrochemically characterized. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to comparatively investigate the electric behavior of PPy produced in the RTIL and the one produced in a traditional acetonitrile/lithium salt system, and charge–discharge curves in the range 2.0–4.0 V (vs. Li/Li{sup +}) were obtained in a 1.0 M LiBF{sub 4} propylene carbonate solution. Although a reduction of the specific capacity for the PPy obtained in the RTIL was observed, compared to that of the PPy film synthesized in the acetonitrilic electrolyte, its chronopotentiometric profile presented a plateau in the 2.7 V region. This is a remarkable result, considering that a linear decrease in this profile is usually observed for the majority of conducting polymer cathodes. PPy films obtained in BMIM BF{sub 4} presented globular morphology, with a special arrangement of nanoparticles constituting the globules; the EIS results indicated that this nanoscale structure may be contributing to a better definition of the redox characteristics during the PPy charge–discharge processes, as it happens for the well-organized structure of some metal oxides. - Highlights: • PPy was produced in an ionic liquid medium as active material for battery electrodes. • Discharge curves present a plateau not usual for conducting polymer electrodes. • RTIL used as synthesis electrolyte produced PPy with surface nanograins. • Morphological features explain the improved redox properties of PPy electrode. • Electrical properties of PPy grown in RTIL were accessed by impedance measurements.

  15. Molecular Simulations of Anion and Temperature Dependence on Structure and Dynamics of 1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, K R; Kumar, Praveen; Venkatnathan, Arun

    2015-11-19

    In this study, we examine the effect of various anions and temperature on structure and dynamics of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) from molecular dynamics simulations. The structural properties show that ILs containing smaller anions like Cl(-) and Br(-) are relatively higher cation-anion interactions, compared to ILs containing larger anions like OTf(-) and NTf2(-). In all ILs, the spatial distribution of anions is closer to the acidic hydrogen atom of the cation compared to the two nonacidic hydrogen atoms of the cation. The diffusion coefficients of cations and anions (ionic conductivity) increase with anionic size. At each temperature, the cationic and anionic diffusions and ionic conductivity are lowest in ILs containing anions like Cl(-) and Br(-) and highest in ILs containing anions like BF4(-), OTf(-), and NTf2(-). Consistent with experiments, simulations predict that ILs with an intermediate size BF4(-) anion show the highest cationic and anionic diffusion (and ionic conductivity). At each temperature, the interactions between ion pairs of each IL show that a decrease in ion-pair lifetimes is directly related to the increase in diffusion coefficients and conductivity in ILs, suggesting that characterization of ion-pair lifetimes is sufficient to validate the trends seen in dynamical properties of ILs.

  16. Effects of temperature, pH, and ionic strength on the Henry's law constant of triethylamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Chun-Bo; Roberts, Jason E.; Zeng, Guang; Zhang, Yun-Hong; Liu, Yong

    2015-05-01

    The Henry's law constants (KH) of triethylamine (TEA) in pure water and in 1-octanol were measured for the temperatures pertinent to the lower troposphere (278-298 K) using a bubble column system coupled to a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The KH values of TEA in water and 1-octanol at 298 K are 5.75 ± 0.86 mol L-1 atm-1 and 115.62 ± 5.78 mol L-1 atm-1. The KH values display strong dependence on temperature, pH, and ionic strength. The characteristic times for TEA to establish an equilibrium between gas and droplet with a size of 5.6 µm are ~33 s (298 K, pH = 5.6); ~8.9 × 102 s (278 K, pH = 5.6); ~1.3 × 103 s (298 K, pH = 4.0); and 3.6 × 104 s (278 K, pH = 4.0). The evaluation of TEA partitioning between gas phase and condensed phase implies that TEA predominantly resides in rainwater, and TEA loss to organic aerosol is negligible.

  17. Structural phase transitions in ionic conductor Bi2O3 by temperature dependent XPD and XAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingcai; An, Pengfei; Yu, Meijuan; Marcelli, Augusto; Liu, Yong; Hu, Tiandou; Xu, Wei

    2016-05-01

    The superionic behavior of cubic δ-phase Bi2O3, a metastable phase at high temperature, is of great interests from both scientific and technological perspectives. With the highest ionic conductivity among all known compounds, the δ-phase Bi2O3 possesses promising applications in solid-oxide fuel cells. Previous investigations pointed out the α to δ- phase transition occurs during the heating process, as supported by the X-ray and Neutron diffraction experiments. Through in situ measurements of the long-range order structure and the local structure by X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we investigated the evolution of the structures under different temperatures. Both techniques provided ample evidence that the existence of meta-stable β-phase are crucial for forming the defective fluorite cubic δ phase. Our finding suggested that the phase transition from tetragonal β-phase to δ-phase is an influencing factor for the generation of the oxygen-ion pathways.

  18. Orientational dynamics of room temperature ionic liquid/water mixtures: water-induced structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturlaugson, Adam L; Fruchey, Kendall S; Fayer, Michael D

    2012-02-16

    Optical heterodyne detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE) measurements on a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) as a function of chain length and water concentration are presented. The pure RTIL reorientational dynamics are identical in form to those of other molecular liquids studied previously by OHD-OKE (two power laws followed by a single exponential decay at long times), but are much slower at room temperature. In contrast, the addition of water to the longer alkyl chain RTILs causes the emergence of a long time biexponential orientational anisotropy decay. Such distinctly biexponential decays have not been seen previously in OHD-OKE experiments on any type of liquid and are analyzed here using a wobbling-in-a-cone model. The slow component for the longer chain RTILs does not obey the Debye-Stokes-Einstein (DSE) equation across the range of solutions, and thus we attribute it to slow cation reorientational diffusion caused by a stiffening of cation alkyl tail-tail associations. The fast component of the decay is assigned to the motions (wobbling) of the tethered imidazolium head groups. The wobbling-in-a-cone analysis provides estimates of the range of angles sampled by the imidazolium head group prior to the long time scale complete orientational randomization. The heterogeneous dynamics and non-DSE behavior observed here should have a significant effect on reaction rates in RTIL/water cosolvent mixtures.

  19. Ionic liquid gating on atomic layer deposition passivated GaN: Ultra-high electron density induced high drain current and low contact resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hong; Du, Yuchen; Ye, Peide D., E-mail: yep@purdue.edu [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2016-05-16

    Herein, we report on achieving ultra-high electron density (exceeding 10{sup 14 }cm{sup −2}) in a GaN bulk material device by ionic liquid gating, through the application of atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to passivate the GaN surface. Output characteristics demonstrate a maximum drain current of 1.47 A/mm, the highest reported among all bulk GaN field-effect transistors, with an on/off ratio of 10{sup 5} at room temperature. An ultra-high electron density exceeding 10{sup 14 }cm{sup −2} accumulated at the surface is confirmed via Hall-effect measurement and transfer length measurement. In addition to the ultra-high electron density, we also observe a reduction of the contact resistance due to the narrowing of the Schottky barrier width on the contacts. Taking advantage of the ALD surface passivation and ionic liquid gating technique, this work provides a route to study the field-effect and carrier transport properties of conventional semiconductors in unprecedented ultra-high charge density regions.

  20. Highly efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells based on hexylimidazolium iodide ionic polymer electrolyte prepared by in situ low-temperature polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiqiang; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Juan; Hou, Shuo; Zhang, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are fabricated using a novel ionic polymer electrolyte containing hexylimidazolium iodide (HII) ionic polymer prepared by in situ polymerization of N,N‧-bis(imidazolyl) hexane and 1,6-diiodohexane without an initiator at low temperature (40 °C). The as-prepared HII ionic polymer has a similar structure to alkylimidazolium iodide ionic liquid, and the imidazolium cations are contained in the polymer main chain; so, it can act simultaneously as the redox mediator in the electrolyte. By incorporating an appropriate amount of 1,3-dimethylimidazolium iodide (DMII) in HII ionic polymer (DMII/HII ionic polymer = 0.7:1, weight ratio), the conductivity of the ionic polymer electrolyte is greatly improved due to the formation of Grotthuss bond exchange. In addition, in situ synthesis of ionic polymer electrolyte guarantees a good pore-filling of the electrolyte in the TiO2 photoanode. As a result, the solid-state DSC based on the ionic polymer electrolyte containing HII ionic polymer and DMII without iodine achieves a conversion efficiency of 6.55% under the illumination of 100 mW cm-2 (AM 1.5), which also exhibits a good at-rest stability at room temperature.

  1. Determination of water in room temperature ionic liquids by cathodic stripping voltammetry at a gold electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuan; Bond, Alan M; Lu, Xunyu

    2012-03-20

    An electrochemical method based on cathodic stripping voltammetry at a gold electrode has been developed for the determination of water in ionic liquids. The technique has been applied to two aprotic ionic liquids, (1-butyl-3-ethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate), and two protic ionic liquids, (bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium acetate and triethylammonium acetate). When water is present in an ionic liquid, electrooxidation of a gold electrode forms gold oxides. Thus, application of an anodic potential scan or holding the potential of the electrode at a very positive value leads to accumulation of an oxide film. On applying a cathodic potential scan, a sensitive stripping peak is produced as a result of the reduction of gold oxide back to gold. The magnitude of the peak current generated from the stripping process is a function of the water concentration in an ionic liquid. The method requires no addition of reagents and can be used for the sensitive and in situ determination of water present in small volumes of ionic liquids. Importantly, the method allows the determination of water in the carboxylic acid-based ionic liquids, such as acetate-based protic ionic liquids, where the widely used Karl Fischer titration method suffering from an esterification side reaction which generates water as a side product.

  2. Metal-air cell comprising an electrolyte with a room temperature ionic liquid and hygroscopic additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Cody A.; Krishnan, Ramkumar; Tang, Toni; Wolfe, Derek

    2014-08-19

    An electrochemical cell comprising an electrolyte comprising water and a hydrophobic ionic liquid comprising positive ions and negative ions. The electrochemical cell also includes an air electrode configured to absorb and reduce oxygen. A hydrophilic or hygroscopic additive modulates the hydrophobicity of the ionic liquid to maintain a concentration of the water in the electrolyte is between 0.001 mol % and 25 mol %.

  3. Synthesis of Ionic Liquid Based Electrolytes, Assembly of Li-ion Batteries, and Measurements of Performance at High Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xinrong; Chapman Varela, Jennifer; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2016-12-20

    The chemical instability of the traditional electrolyte remains a safety issue in widely used energy storage devices such as Li-ion batteries. Li-ion batteries for use in devices operating at elevated temperatures require thermally stable and non-flammable electrolytes. Ionic liquids (ILs), which are non-flammable, non-volatile, thermally stable molten salts, are an ideal replacement for flammable and low boiling point organic solvent electrolytes currently used today. We herein describe the procedures to: 1) synthesize mono- and di-phosphonium ionic liquids paired with chloride or bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (TFSI) anions; 2) measure the thermal properties and stability of these ionic liquids by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA); 3) measure the electrochemical properties of the ionic liquids by cyclic voltammetry (CV); 4) prepare electrolytes containing lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide; 5) measure the conductivity of the electrolytes as a function of temperature; 6) assemble a coin cell battery with two of the electrolytes along with a Li metal anode and LiCoO2 cathode; and 7) evaluate battery performance at 100 °C. We additionally describe the challenges in execution as well as the insights gained from performing these experiments.

  4. Correlation between hydrogen bond basicity and acetylene solubility in room temperature ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palgunadi, Jelliarko; Hong, Sung Yun; Lee, Jin Kyu; Lee, Hyunjoo; Lee, Sang Deuk; Cheong, Minserk; Kim, Hoon Sik

    2011-02-10

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are proposed as the alternative solvents for the acetylene separation in ethylene generated from the naphtha cracking process. The solubility behavior of acetylene in RTILs was examined using a linear solvation energy relationship based on Kamlet-Taft solvent parameters including the hydrogen-bond acidity or donor ability (α), the hydrogen-bond basicity or acceptor ability (β), and the polarity/polarizability (π*). It is found that the solubility of acetylene linearly correlates with β value and is almost independent of α or π*. The solubility of acetylene in RTILs increases with increasing hydrogen-bond acceptor (HBA) ability of the anion, but is little affected by the nature of the cation. Quantum mechanical calculations demonstrate that the acidic proton of acetylene specifically forms hydrogen bond with a basic oxygen atom on the anion of a RTIL. On the other hand, although C-H···π interaction is plausible, all optimized structures indicate that the acidic protons on the cation do not specifically associate with the π cloud of acetylene. Thermodynamic analysis agrees well with the proposed correlation: the higher the β value of a RTIL is, the more negative the enthalpy of acetylene absorption in the RTIL is.

  5. Temperature dependence of multilayering at the free surface of ionic liquids probed by X-ray reflectivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Naoya; Uruga, Tomoya; Tanida, Hajime; Kakiuchi, Takashi

    2011-06-21

    The effect of the temperature on the surface layering of ionic liquids has been studied for two ionic liquids, trioctylmethylammonium bis(nonafluorobutanesulfonyl)amide([TOMA(+)][C(4)C(4)N(-)]) and trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(nonafluorobutanesulfonyl)amide ([THTDP(+)][C(4)C(4)N(-)]), using X-ray reflectivity measurements at 285, 300, and 315 K. Both [TOMA(+)][C(4)C(4)N(-)] and [THTDP(+)][C(4)C(4)N(-)] develop multilayers at the surface. The structure of the multilayers at the [TOMA(+)][C(4)C(4)N(-)] surface shows little temperature-dependent change, whereas that at the [THTDP(+)][C(4)C(4)N(-)] surface clearly becomes diffused with increasing temperature. The different temperature dependence seems to be related to the difference in the recently reported ultraslow dynamics of the interfacial structure of [TOMA(+)][C(4)C(4)N(-)] and [THTDP(+)][C(4)C(4)N(-)] at the ionic liquid|water interface. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  6. Effects of emitted electron temperature on the plasma sheath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheehan, J. P., E-mail: sheehanj@umich.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Kaganovich, I. D.; Wang, H.; Raitses, Y. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Sydorenko, D. [Physics Department, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9 (Canada); Hershkowitz, N. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    It has long been known that electron emission from a surface significantly affects the sheath surrounding that surface. Typical fluid theory of a planar sheath with emitted electrons assumes that the plasma electrons follow the Boltzmann relation and the emitted electrons are emitted with zero energy and predicts a potential drop of 1.03T{sub e}/e across the sheath in the floating condition. By considering the modified velocity distribution function caused by plasma electrons lost to the wall and the half-Maxwellian distribution of the emitted electrons, it is shown that ratio of plasma electron temperature to emitted electron temperature significantly affects the sheath potential when the plasma electron temperature is within an order of magnitude of the emitted electron temperature. When the plasma electron temperature equals the emitted electron temperature the emissive sheath potential goes to zero. One dimensional particle-in-cell simulations corroborate the predictions made by this theory. The effects of the addition of a monoenergetic electron beam to the Maxwellian plasma electrons were explored, showing that the emissive sheath potential is close to the beam energy only when the emitted electron flux is less than the beam flux.

  7. Packaging Technology for SiC High Temperature Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.; Nakley, Leah M.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2017-01-01

    High-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics are required for long-term exploration of Venus and distributed control of next generation aeronautical engines. Various silicon carbide (SiC) high temperature sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at and above 500 C. A compatible packaging system is essential for long-term testing and application of high temperature electronics and sensors in relevant environments. This talk will discuss a ceramic packaging system developed for high temperature electronics, and related testing results of SiC integrated circuits at 500 C facilitated by this high temperature packaging system, including the most recent progress.

  8. Scanning photocurrent microscopy reveals electron-hole asymmetry in ionic liquid-gated WS{sub 2} transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubrig, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.ubrig@unige.ch; Kuzmenko, Alexey B., E-mail: Alexey.Kuzmenko@unige.ch [DPMC, Université de Genève, 24 quai Ernest Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Jo, Sanghyun; Morpurgo, Alberto F. [DPMC, Université de Genève, 24 quai Ernest Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); GAP, Université de Genève, 24 quai Ernest Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Berger, Helmuth [Institut de Physique de la Matière Condendée, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-04-28

    We perform scanning photocurrent microscopy on WS{sub 2} ionic liquid-gated field effect transistors exhibiting high-quality ambipolar transport. By properly biasing the gate electrode, we can invert the sign of the photocurrent showing that the minority photocarriers are either electrons or holes. Both in the electron- and hole-doping regimes the photocurrent decays exponentially as a function of the distance between the illumination spot and the nearest contact, in agreement with a two-terminal Schottky-barrier device model. This allows us to compare the value and the doping dependence of the diffusion length of the minority electrons and holes on a same sample. Interestingly, the diffusion length of the minority carriers is several times larger in the hole accumulation regime than in the electron accumulation regime, pointing out an electron-hole asymmetry in WS{sub 2}.

  9. 81929 - Fission-Product Separation Based on Room - Temperature Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin D. Rogers

    2004-12-09

    This project has demonstrated that Sr2+ and Cs+ can be selectively extracted from aqueous solutions into ionic liquids using crown ethers and that unprecedented large distribution coefficients can be achieved for these fission products. The volume of secondary wastes can be significantly minimized with this new separation technology. Through the current EMSP funding, the solvent extraction technology based on ionic liquids has been shown to be viable and can potentially provide the most efficient separation of problematic fission products from high level wastes. The key results from the current funding period are the development of highly selective extraction process for cesium ions based on crown ethers and calixarenes, optimization of selectivities of extractants via systematic change of ionic liquids, and investigation of task-specific ionic liquids incorporating both complexant and solvent characteristics.

  10. Electronic phase separation and high temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivelson, S.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Emery, V.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-01-11

    The authors review the extensive evidence from model calculations that neutral holes in an antiferromagnet separate into hole-rich and hole-poor phases. All known solvable limits of models of holes in a Heisenberg antiferromagnet exhibit this behavior. The authors show that when the phase separation is frustrated by the introduction of long-range Coulomb interactions, the typical consequence is either a modulated (charge density wave) state or a superconducting phase. The authors then review some of the strong experimental evidence supporting an electronically-driven phase separation of the holes in the cuprate superconductors and the related Ni oxides. Finally, the authors argue that frustrated phase separation in these materials can account for many of the anomalous normal state properties of the high temperature superconductors and provide the mechanism of superconductivity. In particular, it is shown that the T-linear resistivity of the normal state is a paraconductivity associated with a novel composite pairing, although the ordered superconducting state is more conventional.

  11. Competition between ionic adsorption and desorption on electrochemical double layer capacitor electrodes in acetonitrile solutions at different currents and temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sieun; Kang, Seok-Won; Kim, Ketack

    2017-12-01

    The operation of electrochemical double layer capacitors at high currents and viscosities and at low temperatures is difficult. Under these conditions, ion transport is limited, and some of the electrode area is unavailable for adsorption, which results in a low capacitance. Increasing the temperature helps to increase the ionic movement, leading to enhanced adsorption and increased capacitance. In contrast, ion desorption (self-discharge) surpasses the capacitance improvement when ions gain a high amount of energy with increasing temperature. For example, temperatures as high as 70 °C cause a very high rate of ionic desorption in acetonitrile solutions in which the individual properties of the two electrolytes-tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEA BF4) and ethylmethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMI BF4)-are not distinguishable. The capacitance improvement and self-discharge are balanced, resulting in a capacitance peak at mid-range temperatures, i.e., 35-45 °C, in the more viscous electrolyte, i.e., TEA BF4. The less viscous electrolyte, i.e., EMI BF4 has a wider capacitance peak from 25 to 45 °C and higher capacitance than that of TEA BF4. Because the maximum power is obtained in the mid-temperature range (35-45 °C), it is necessary to control the viscosity and temperature to obtain the maximum power in a given device.

  12. Ratiometric Optical Temperature Sensor Using Two Fluorescent Dyes Dissolved in an Ionic Liquid Encapsulated by Parylene Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Shimoyama

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A temperature sensor that uses temperature-sensitive fluorescent dyes is developed. The droplet sensor has a diameter of 40 µm and uses 1 g/L of Rhodamine B (RhB and 0.5 g/L of Rhodamine 110 (Rh110, which are fluorescent dyes that are dissolved in an ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate to function as temperature indicators. This ionic liquid is encapsulated using vacuum Parylene film deposition (which is known as the Parylene-on-liquid-deposition (PoLD method. The droplet is sealed by the chemically stable and impermeable Parylene film, which prevents the dye from interacting with the molecules in the solution and keeps the volume and concentration of the fluorescent material fixed. The two fluorescent dyes enable the temperature to be measured ratiometrically such that the droplet sensor can be used in various applications, such as the wireless temperature measurement of microregions. The sensor can measure the temperature of such microregions with an accuracy of 1.9 °C, a precision of 3.7 °C, and a fluorescence intensity change sensitivity of 1.0%/K. The sensor can measure temperatures at different sensor depths in water, ranging from 0 to 850 µm. The droplet sensor is fabricated using microelectromechanical system (MEMS technology and is highly applicable to lab-on-a-chip devices.

  13. Surface structure determinations of crystalline ionic thin films grown on transition metal single crystal surfaces by low energy electron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Joel Glenn [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    The surface structures of NaCl(100), LiF(100) and alpha-MgCl2(0001) adsorbed on various metal single crystals have been determined by low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Thin films of these salts were grown on metal substrates by exposing the heated metal surface to a molecular flux of salt emitted from a Knudsen cell. This method of investigating thin films of insulators (ionic salts) on a conducting substrate (metal) circumvents surface charging problems that plagued bulk studies, thereby allowing the use of electron-based techniques to characterize the surface.

  14. Study of reversible electrode reaction and mixed ionic and electronic conduction of lithium phosphate electrolyte for an electrochemical CO2 gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chong-Hoon

    higher sensor operating temperatures (T > 500°C), the sensitivity deviated even further from the Nernstian value. Therefore, the temperature dependence of the current sensor clearly indicates that the non-Nernstian behavior is not just due to non-reversible electrode reaction. More significant effect on the non-Nernstain behavior is due to mixed ionic and electronic conduction of Li3PO4 electrolyte. Based on the EMF measurement and a modified Nernst equation, the transference number was estimated and the conduction domain boundary separating the n-type from the ionic conduction was constructed. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  15. Structure and dynamics of POPC bilayers in water solutions of room temperature ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedetto, Antonio [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Bingham, Richard J. [York Centre for Complex Systems Analysis, University of York, York YO10 5GE (United Kingdom); Ballone, Pietro [Center for Life Nano Science @Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), 00185 Roma (Italy); Department of Physics, Università di Roma “La Sapienza,” 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2015-03-28

    Molecular dynamics simulations in the NPT ensemble have been carried out to investigate the effect of two room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), on stacks of phospholipid bilayers in water. We consider RTIL compounds consisting of chloride ([bmim][Cl]) and hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF{sub 6}]) salts of the 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium ([bmim]{sup +}) cation, while the phospholipid bilayer is made of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC). Our investigations focus on structural and dynamical properties of phospholipid and water molecules that could be probed by inelastic and quasi-elastic neutron scattering measurements. The results confirm the fast incorporation of [bmim]{sup +} into the lipid phase already observed in previous simulations, driven by the Coulomb attraction of the cation for the most electronegative oxygens in the POPC head group and by sizeable dispersion forces binding the neutral hydrocarbon tails of [bmim]{sup +} and of POPC. The [bmim]{sup +} absorption into the bilayer favours the penetration of water into POPC, causes a slight but systematic thinning of the bilayer, and further stabilises hydrogen bonds at the lipid/water interface that already in pure samples (no RTIL) display a lifetime much longer than in bulk water. On the other hand, the effect of RTILs on the diffusion constant of POPC (D{sub POPC}) does not reveal a clearly identifiable trend, since D{sub POPC} increases upon addition of [bmim][Cl] and decreases in the [bmim][PF{sub 6}] case. Moreover, because of screening, the electrostatic signature of each bilayer is only moderately affected by the addition of RTIL ions in solution. The analysis of long wavelength fluctuations of the bilayers shows that RTIL sorption causes a general decrease of the lipid/water interfacial tension and bending rigidity, pointing to the destabilizing effect of RTILs on lipid bilayers.

  16. Temperature and ionic strength effects on the chlorosome light-harvesting antenna complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kuo-Hsiang; Zhu, Liying; Urban, Volker S; Collins, Aaron M; Biswas, Pratim; Blankenship, Robert E

    2011-04-19

    Chlorosomes, the peripheral light-harvesting antenna complex from green photosynthetic bacteria, are the largest and one of the most efficient light-harvesting antenna complexes found in nature. In contrast to other light-harvesting antennas, chlorosomes are constructed from more than 150,000 self-assembled bacteriochlorophylls (BChls) and contain relatively few proteins that play secondary roles. These unique properties have led to chlorosomes as an attractive candidate for developing biohybrid solar cell devices. In this article, we investigate the temperature and ionic strength effects on the viability of chlorosomes from the photosynthetic green bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus using small-angle neutron scattering and dynamic light scattering. Our studies indicate that chlorosomes remain intact up to 75 °C and that salt induces the formation of large aggregates of chlorosomes. No internal structural changes are observed for the aggregates. The salt-induced aggregation, which is a reversible process, is more efficient with divalent metal ions than with monovalent metal ions. Moreover, with treatment at 98 °C for 2 min, the bulk of the chlorosome pigments are undamaged, while the baseplate is destroyed. Chlorosomes without the baseplate remain rodlike in shape and are 30-40% smaller than with the baseplate attached. Further, chlorosomes are stable from pH 5.5 to 11.0. Together, this is the first time such a range of characterization tools have been used for chlorosomes, and this has enabled elucidation of properties that are not only important to understanding their functionality but also may be useful in biohybrid devices for effective light harvesting. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. Temperature and Ionic Strength Effects on the Chlorosome Light-Harvesting Antenna Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Kuo-Hsiang [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Zhu, Liying [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Urban, Volker S [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Collins, Aaron M. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Biswas, Pratim [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Blankenship, R. E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Chlorosomes, the peripheral light-harvesting antenna complex from green photosynthetic bacteria, are the largest and one of the most efficient light-harvesting antenna complexes found in nature. In contrast to other light-harvesting antennas, chlorosomes are constructed from more than 150,000 self-assembled bacteriochlorophylls (BChls) and contain relatively few proteins that play secondary roles. These unique properties have led to chlorosomes as an attractive candidate for developing biohybrid solar cell devices. In this article, we investigate the temperature and ionic strength effects on the viability of chlorosomes from the photosynthetic green bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus using small-angle neutron scattering and dynamic light scattering. Our studies indicate that chlorosomes remain intact up to 75 °C and that salt induces the formation of large aggregates of chlorosomes. No internal structural changes are observed for the aggregates. The salt-induced aggregation, which is a reversible process, is more efficient with divalent metal ions than with monovalent metal ions. Moreover, with treatment at 98 °C for 2 min, the bulk of the chlorosome pigments are undamaged, while the baseplate is destroyed. Chlorosomes without the baseplate remain rodlike in shape and are 30-40% smaller than with the baseplate attached. Further, chlorosomes are stable from pH 5.5 to 11.0. Together, this is the first time such a range of characterization tools have been used for chlorosomes, and this has enabled elucidation of properties that are not only important to understanding their functionality but also may be useful in biohybrid devices for effective light harvesting.

  18. Temperature and Ionic Strength Effects on the Chlorosome Light-Harvesting Antenna Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Kuo-Hsiang [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Biology and Dept. of Chemistry; Zhu, Liying [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Aerosol and Air Quality Research Lab., Dept. of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering; Urban, Volker S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Structural Molecular Biology (CSMB); Collins, Aaron M. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Biology and Dept. of Chemistry; Biswas, Pratim [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Aerosol and Air Quality Research Lab., Dept. of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering; Blankenship, Robert E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Biology and Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-03-15

    Chlorosomes, the peripheral light-harvesting antenna complex from green photosynthetic bacteria, are the largest and one of the most efficient light-harvesting antenna complexes found in nature. In contrast to other light-harvesting antennas, chlorosomes are constructed from more than 150,000 self-assembled bacteriochlorophylls (BChls) and contain relatively few proteins that play secondary roles. These unique properties have led to chlorosomes as an attractive candidate for developing biohybrid solar cell devices. In this article, we investigate the temperature and ionic strength effects on the viability of chlorosomes from the photosynthetic green bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus using small-angle neutron scattering and dynamic light scattering. Our studies indicate that chlorosomes remain intact up to 75 °C and that salt induces the formation of large aggregates of chlorosomes. No internal structural changes are observed for the aggregates. The salt-induced aggregation, which is a reversible process, is more efficient with divalent metal ions than with monovalent metal ions. Moreover, with treatment at 98 °C for 2 min, the bulk of the chlorosome pigments are undamaged, while the baseplate is destroyed. Chlorosomes without the baseplate remain rodlike in shape and are 30-40% smaller than with the baseplate attached. Further, chlorosomes are stable from pH 5.5 to 11.0. In conclusion, together, this is the first time such a range of characterization tools have been used for chlorosomes, and this has enabled elucidation of properties that are not only important to understanding their functionality but also may be useful in biohybrid devices for effective light harvesting.

  19. Spectroscopic Study of Solvation Properties of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids and Solvent Effect on Bimolecular Fluorescence Quenching Reaction at High Pressures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KOMETANI, Noritsugu; MINAMIKAWA, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

      The solvation properties of some room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and the solvent effect on bimolecular fluorescence quenching reaction have been examined at high pressures ranging from 0.1 to 300 MPa...

  20. Zwitter-Ionic Polymer Applied as Electron Transportation Layer for Improving the Performance of Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoyun Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A zwitter-ionic polymer poly (sulfobetaine methacrylate (denoted by PSBMA was employed as an electron transportation layer (ETL in polymer solar cells (PSCs based on poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT:[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM. PSBMA is highly soluble in trifluoroethanol, showing an orthogonal solubility to the solvent of the active layer in the preparation of multilayered PSCs. Upon introduction of PSBMA, the short circuit current and as a consequence the power conversion efficiency of the corresponding PSCs are dramatically improved, which can be because of the relatively high polarity of PSBMA compared with the other ETLs. This study demonstrated that zwitter-ionic polymer should be a competitive potential candidate of ETLs in PSCs.

  1. Electronic structure and positron annihilation in alkali metals: isolation of ionic core contribution and valence high-momentum components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sob, M. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Brno. Ustav Fyzikalni Metalurgie)

    1985-01-01

    Momentum densities of annihilation pairs from valence as well as from ionic core electrons in alkali metals are calculated ab initio and compared with the experimental results. It is shown that the valence high-momentum components constitute a great deal (23-34% in Na-Cs and probably even more in Li) of the Gaussian part of the angular correlation curves. The average core enhancement factor ..gamma..sub(c) ranges from 1.5 (Li) to 7.1 (Cs) and may be well expressed by a logarithmic function of ionic core polarizability. The presented values of ..gamma..sub(c) are much higher than the core enhancement factors in the high-momentum (> approx. 15 mrad) region which, according to the recent theory of Bonderup, Andersen and Lowy, should not be very different from unity.

  2. High Power Electric Double-Layer Capacitors based on Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids and Nanostructured Carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Carlos R.

    The efficient storage of electrical energy constitutes both a fundamental challenge for 21st century science and an urgent requirement for the sustainability of our technological civilization. The push for cleaner renewable forms of energy production, such as solar and wind power, strongly depends on a concomitant development of suitable storage methods to pair with these intermittent sources, as well as for mobile applications, such as vehicles and personal electronics. In this regard, Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors (supercapacitors) represent a vibrant area of research due to their environmental friendliness, long lifetimes, high power capability, and relative underdevelopment when compared to electrochemical batteries. Currently supercapacitors have gravimetric energies one order of magnitude lower than similarly advanced batteries, while conversly enjoying a similar advantage over them in terms of power. The challenge is to increase the gravimentric energies and conserve the high power. On the material side, research focuses on highly porous supports and electrolytes, the critical components of supercapacitors. Through the use of electrolyte systems with a wider electrochemical stability window, as well as properly tailored carbon nanomaterials as electrodes, significant improvements in performance are possible. Room Temperature Ionic Liquids and Carbide-Derived Carbons are promising electrolytes and electrodes, respectively. RTILs have been shown to be stable at up to twice the voltage of organic solvent-salt systems currently employed in supercapacitors, and CDCs are tunable in pore structure, show good electrical conductivity, and superior demonstrated capability as electrode material. This work aims to better understand the interplay of electrode and electrolyte parameters, such as pore structure and ion size, in the ultimate performance of RTIL-based supercapacitors in terms of power, energy, and temperature of operation. For this purpose, carbon

  3. Dioctahedral smectite reactions at elevated temperatures: Effects of K-availability, Na/K ratio and ionic strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, G.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrothermal experiments were conducted to measure the effects of K availability, Na/K ratio and ionic strength in chloride solutions on the rate and extent of the reaction of smectite to interstratified illite/smectite. The effect of K-content on reaction progress is dramatic at low (0.33 eq.) K concentrations, but diminishes above a concentration of 0.66 equivalents. The effect of K-content is also more important at lower temperatures than at higher temperatures. Addition of K above that required to satisfy the cation exchange capacity of the smectite reduced the amount of chlorite byproduct and produced authigenic K-feldspar at the highest K-concentration. Similar experiments were run using Na/K equivalent ratios of 0 to 25 and total solution molalities of 0 to 3.75 molal. Because these experiments were small fixed-volume experiments, it was necessary to vary two of the three key variables (K-content, Na/K ratio, ionic strength simultaneously. The data suggest, however, that K-content has a much stronger effect than either Na/K ratio or ionic strength on illitization reaction progress. ?? 1992.

  4. Free radical (co)polymerization of methyl methacrylate and styrene in room temperature ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongwei

    Conventional free radical polymerizations were carried out in a variety of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). Generally, methyl methacrylate (MMA) and styrene (St) were used as typical monomers to compare the polymerization behavior both in RTILs and in common volatile organic compound solvents (VOCs). In most cases, it was observed that both yields and molecular weights are enhanced in the RTIL. While we believe the "diffusion-controlled termination" mechanism makes the termination of the radical propagating chains difficult due to the highly viscous nature of RTIL, other researchers have suggested that the rapid polymerization rates are due to the high polarity of these reaction media. By employing more than a dozen RTILs with a wide range of anions and cations, we attempted to correlate the viscosity and polarity of the RTILs with the molecular weights and polymerization rates. This correlation was not successful, suggesting that other parameters may also play a role in affecting the polymerization behavior. Other kinds of polymerizations have also been attempted including nitroxide-mediated living radical polymerizations of St and MMA in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM]PF6), and redox initiation system initiated polymerization of MMA through redox pair formed by cation of trihexyl-tetradecyl-phosphonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinate ([H3TDP] [(PM3) 2P]) and BPO. The formation of PSt-b-PMMA by sequential monomer addition through the standard free radical polymerization mechanism, using BPO as initiator, can be realized in [BMIM]PF6 due to the insolubility of polymerized first block---PSt in [BMIM]PF6. The macroradicals wrapped inside the chain coils have prolonged lifetimes because of the diminished termination, which allow some of these radicals to initiate polymerization of MMA at room temperature to form diblock copolymer. Solvents effects on reactivity ratios for free radical statistical copolymerization have been

  5. Iron carbide nanoparticles growth in room temperature ionic liquids [C{sub n}-MIM][BF{sub 4}] (n = 12, 16)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lartigue, Lenaiec; Long, Jerome; Dumail, Xavier [Universite Montpellier II, Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier, UMR5253, Chimie Moleculaire et Organisation du Solide (France); Nikitenko, Sergey I.; Cau, Camille [Institut de Chimie Separative de Marcoule, UMR 5257, Centre de Marcoule (France); Guari, Yannick, E-mail: yannick.guari@um2.fr [Universite Montpellier II, Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier, UMR5253, Chimie Moleculaire et Organisation du Solide (France); Stievano, Lorenzo; Sougrati, Moulay T. [Universite Montpellier II, Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier, UMR 5253, Agregats, Interfaces et Materiaux pour l' Energie (France); Guerin, Christian [Universite Montpellier II, Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier, UMR5253, Chimie Moleculaire et Organisation du Solide (France); Sangregorio, Claudio [CNR-ISTM (Italy); Larionova, Joulia [Universite Montpellier II, Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier, UMR5253, Chimie Moleculaire et Organisation du Solide (France)

    2013-04-15

    The thermal decomposition of Fe{sub x}(CO){sub y} precursors for the synthesis of nanoparticles of iron carbides and their superstructures with sizes ranging from 2.8 to 15.1 nm is developed using imidazolium-based ionic liquids as solvents, stabilizers, and carbon source. A study of the influence of some synthesis parameters such as the heating temperature, nature, and concentration of the iron carbonyl precursor and chain length of the N-alkyl substituent on the imidazolium ring on the size and organization of the iron carbide nanoparticles is presented. These iron carbides nano-objects were characterized by infra-red spectroscopy, transmission electronic microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, Mossbauer spectroscopy, and magnetic analyses.

  6. Effect of different RE site ionic radii on the electronic structures and elastic properties of Ba2RENbO6: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lifei; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Lianli; Du, Huiling

    2017-09-01

    RE site ionic radius has a critical influence on the properties of double perovskite oxide Ba2RENbO6. In this paper, the electronic structures and elastic properties of Ba2RENbO6 (RE = Ho, Er, Yb) have been calculated by using the plane-wave pseudopotential density functional theory, and the effect of the different RE site ions on the structures and properties of Ba2RENbO6 is discussed. Results indicate that Ba2RENbO6 (RE = Ho, Er, Yb) are all direct bandgap semiconductors with a bandgap of 0.95 eV, 1.26 eV and 2.36 eV, respectively. With the decrease of the RE site ionic radius of Ba2RENbO6 (RE = Ho, Er, Yb), RE-O and Nb-O covalent bonds are enhanced, and the elastic constants (c11, c12, c44), elastic modulus (B, G, Y), B/G, Poisson’s ratio (σ), the Debye temperature Θ, Gruneisen parameters ζ all show a trend of increase. The elastic and thermodynamic properties are all improved with the decreasing radius of RE site ion.

  7. Studies on Ionic Conduction in Ce{sub 0.95}Eu{sub 0.05}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} at Intermediate Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongtao; Sun, Lin; Luo, Chunhua; Fan, Suhua [Fuyang Teachers College, Fuyang (China)

    2014-05-15

    In this study, an intermediate temperature ionic conductor, Ce{sub 0.95}Eu{sub 0.05}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}, was prepared by solid state reaction. The variation of conductivities with the pressure pH{sub 2}O or time were studied. The highest conductivity of Ce{sub 0.95}Eu{sub 0.05}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} sample was observed in dry air atmosphere at 300 .deg. C to be 1.1 Χ 10{sup -4} S·cm{sup -1} and in wet air atmosphere (pH{sub 2}O = 7.4 Χ 10{sup 3} Pa) at 100 .deg. C to be 1.4 Χ 10{sup -3} S·cm{sup -1}, respectively. The log σ ∼ log (pO{sub 2}) plot result indicated that Ce{sub 0.95}Eu{sub 0.05}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} was almost a pure ionic conductor under high oxygen partial pressure and a mixed conductor of ion and electron under low oxygen partial pressure.

  8. Effective Energy Transfer via Plasmon-Activated High-Energy Water Promotes Its Fundamental Activities of Solubility, Ionic Conductivity, and Extraction at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Ping; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Ho, Chia-Wen; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Water is a ubiquitous solvent in biological, physical, and chemical processes. Unique properties of water result from water’s tetrahedral hydrogen-bonded (HB) network (THBN). The original THBN is destroyed when water is confined in a nanosized environment or localized at interfaces, resulting in corresponding changes in HB-dependent properties. In this work, we present an innovative idea to validate the reserve energy of high-energy water and applications of high-energy water to promote water’s fundamental activities of solubility, ionic conductivity, and extraction at room temperature. High-energy water with reduced HBs was created by utilizing hot electrons with energies from the decay of surface plasmon excited at gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs). Compared to conventional deionized (DI) water, solubilities of alkali metal-chloride salts in high-energy water were significantly increased, especially for salts that release heat when dissolved. The ionic conductivity of NaCl in high-energy water was also markedly higher, especially when the electrolyte’s concentration was extremely low. In addition, antioxidative components, such as polyphenols and 2,3,5,4’-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-d-glucoside (THSG) from teas, and Polygonum multiflorum (PM), could more effectively be extracted using high-energy water. These results demonstrate that high-energy water has emerged as a promising innovative solvent for promoting water’s fundamental activities via effective energy transfer.

  9. Modeling of Electron Temperature in H- Ion Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Takatoshi; Ogasawara, Masatada; Hatayama, Akiyoshi

    2000-05-01

    The equation of electron temperature is included in a two point numerical code for a high power hydrogen negative ion source. The calculated results of the electron temperature are in good agreement with Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI)’s experimental results. The scaling law of electron temperature is estimated as a function of input power and gas pressure. Energy input by arc discharge, energy loss by ionization, dissociation and loss on the wall are considered in the electron energy equation. The leak width on the wall at the cusp magnet is also calculated numerically. Energy loss on the wall is dominant, and is larger than the ionization loss. In a similarly enlarged JAERI’s Kamaboko source, electron density increases and electron temperature decreases under a constant energy input per unit volume. In this situation, H- extraction current increases despite the decrease in H- density because of the enlargement of the H- extraction area.

  10. Microfluidic room temperature ionic liquid droplet generation depending on the hydrophobicity and interfacial tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jung Wook; Chang, Woo-Jin [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee (United States); Choi, Joo Hyung; Koo, Yoon Mo [Department of Biological Engineering, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bum Joon; Lee, Gyu Do; Lee, Sang Woo [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    We have characterized micro-droplet generation using water immiscible hexafluorophosphate ([PF{sub 6}])- and bis(trifluoro methylsulfonyl)imide ([Tf{sub 2}N])-based room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). The interfacial tension between total 7 RTILs and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was measured using a tensiometer for the first time. PBS is one of the most commonly used buffer solutions in cell-related researches. The measured interfacial tension ranges from 8.51 to 11.62 and from 9.56 to 13.19 for [Tf{sub 2}N]- and [PF{sub 6}]-based RTILs, respectively. The RTILs micro-droplets were generated in a microfluidic device. The micro-droplet size and generation frequency were determined based on continuous monitoring of light transmittance at the interface in microchannel. The size of RTIL micro-droplets was inversely proportional to the increase of PBS solution flow rate and RTILs hydrophobicity, while droplet generation frequency was proportional to those changes. The measured size of RTILs droplets ranged from 0.6 to 10.5 nl, and from 1.0 to 17.1 nl for [Tf{sub 2}N]- and [PF{sub 6}]-based RTILs, respectively. The measured frequency of generated RTILs droplets ranged from 2.3 to 37.2 droplet/min, and from 2.7 to 17.1 droplet/min for [Tf{sub 2}N]- and [PF{sub 6}]-based RTILs, respectively. The capillary numbers were calculated depending on the RTILs, and ranged from 0.51x10{sup -3} to 1.06x10{sup -3} and from 5.00x10{sup -3} to 8.65x10{sup -3}, for [Tf{sub 2}N]- and [PF{sub 6}]-based RTILs, respectively. The interfacial tension between RTILs and PBS will contribute to developing bioprocesses using immiscible RTILs. Also, the RTILs micro-droplets will enable the high-throughput monitoring of various biological and chemical reactions using RTILs as new reaction media.

  11. Electrolytic conductivity and molar heat capacity of two aqueous solutions of ionic liquids at room-temperature: Measurements and correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Peiyin [R and D Center for Membrane Technology and Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Soriano, Allan N. [R and D Center for Membrane Technology and Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China); School of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Mapua Institute of Technology, Manila 1002 (Philippines); Leron, Rhoda B. [R and D Center for Membrane Technology and Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Li Menghui, E-mail: mhli@cycu.edu.t [R and D Center for Membrane Technology and Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2010-08-15

    As part of our systematic study on physicochemical characterization of ionic liquids, in this work, we report new measurements of electrolytic conductivity and molar heat capacity for aqueous solutions of two 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids, namely: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethylsulfate, at normal atmospheric condition and for temperatures up to 353.2 K. The electrolytic conductivity and molar heat capacity were measured by a commercial conductivity meter and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), respectively. The estimated experimental uncertainties for the electrolytic conductivity and molar heat capacity measurements were {+-}1% and {+-}2%, respectively. The property data are reported as functions of temperature and composition. A modified empirical equation from another researcher was used to correlate the temperature and composition dependence of the our electrolytic conductivity results. An excess molar heat capacity expression derived using a Redlich-Kister type equation was used to represent the temperature and composition dependence of the measured molar heat capacity and calculated excess molar heat capacity of the solvent systems considered. The correlations applied represent the our measurements satisfactorily as shown by an acceptable overall average deviation of 6.4% and 0.1%, respectively, for electrolytic conductivity and molar heat capacity.

  12. Probing the electronic environment of binary and ternary ionic liquid mixtures by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Shuang; Licence, Peter

    2017-10-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to probe the electronic environment of cations and anions for three binary and one ternary chlorostannate ionic liquid mixtures. The impact of the weighting of Cl- on the electronic environment of the cation-based nitrogen atom is revealed in detail. With the increasing of the concentration of Cl-, the N 1s binding energy is decreased. The electronic environment of the anion-based component is also compared based upon Sn 3d5/2 and Cl 2p3/2 binding energies. It is found that with the increasing of the weighting of Cl-, binding energies of Sn 3d5/2 and Cl 2p3/2 both decrease.

  13. DETERMINATION OF HENRY'S LAW CONSTANTS FOR VOCS IN ROOM TEMPERATURE IONIC LIQUIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been shown to be a newer medium for a wide variety of chemical reactions and are considered as the potential replacements for traditional volatile organic solvents. However, the separation and recovery of organic compounds from ILs has not been systematic...

  14. What Can we learn from Raman spectroscopy and model calculations on room temperature ionic liquids?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally ionic liquids involve inorganic hygroscopic substances that need to be contained under protective atmospheres, e.g. in sealed ampoules. Experimental methods to study the chemistry inside closed ampoules are limited, and one popular technique has been and still is Raman scattering be...

  15. NOVEL FISSION PRODUCT SEPARATION BASED ON ROOM-TEMPERATURE IONIC LIQUIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussey, Charles L.

    2004-06-01

    The DoE/NE underground storage tanks at Hanford, SRS, and INEEL contain liquid wastes with high concentrations of radioactive species, mainly 137Cs and 90Sr. Because the other components of the liquid waste are mainly sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide, most of this tank waste can be treated inexpensively as low-level waste if 137Cs and 90Sr can be selectively removed. Many ionophores (crown ether and calixarene compounds) have been synthesized for the purpose of selectively extracting Cs+ and Sr2+ from an aqueous phase into an immiscible organic phase. Recent studies conducted at ORNL1,2 reveal that hydrophobic ionic liquids might be better solvents for extracting metal ions from aqueous solutions with these ionophores than conventional immiscible organic solvents, such as benzene, toluene, and dichloromethane, because both Cs+ and Sr2+ exhibit larger distribution coefficients in the ionic liquids. In addition, the vapor pressures of these ionic liquids are insignificant. Thus, there is little or no vaporization loss of these solvents. Most of the ionic liquids under investigation are relatively nontoxic compared to the hydrocarbon solvents that they replace, classifying them as ''green'' solvents.

  16. NOvel Fission Product Separation Based on Room-Temperature Ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussey, Charles L.

    2005-11-13

    The effective extraction of Cs+ and Sr2+ into a relatively new and heretofore untested hydrophobic ionic liquid, tri-n-butylmethylammonium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide was demonstrated with calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) and dicyclohexano-18-crown-6, respectively. The coordinated Cs+ and Sr2+ were subsequently removed from the ionic liquid extraction solvent by an electrochemical reduction process carried out at mercury electrodes. This process is non-destructive, permitting the ionic liquid and ionophores to be recycled. Although the process is based on mercury electrodes, this is a benefit rather than a detriment because the liquid mercury containing the Cs and Sr can be easily transported to another electrochemical cell where the Cs and Sr could be electrochemically recovered from the mercury amalgam and concentrated into a minimum volume of water or some other inexpensive solvent. This should facilitate the development of a suitable waste form for the extracted Cs+ and Sr2+. Thus, the feasibility of the proposed ionic liquid-based extraction cycle for the removal of 137Cs+ and 90Sr2+ from simulated aqueous tank waste was demonstrated.

  17. Enhanced Esterification Conversion in a Room Temperature Ionic Liquid by Integrated Water Removal with Pervaporation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Izák, Pavel; Mateus, N.M.M.; Afonso, C. A. M.; Crespo, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 2 (2005), s. 141-145 ISSN 1383-5866 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : pervaporation * ionic liquids * esterification reaction Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.752, year: 2005

  18. Observation of isotropic electron temperature in the turbulent E region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saito

    Full Text Available Using EISCAT radar data, we find that electrons are strongly heated in the magnetic field-line direction during high electric field events. The remote site data show that the electron temperature increases in almost the same way in the field-perpendicular direction; electron heating by E region plasma turbulence is isotropic. We discuss the implications of our observation for the "plasmon"-electron as well as the wave Joule heating models of the anomalous electron heating in the E region.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; plasma temperature and density; plasma waves and instabilities

  19. Holy Grails in Chemistry: Investigating and Understanding Fast Electron/Cation Coupled Transport within Inorganic Ionic Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul F; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Esther S

    2017-03-21

    Typically, power and energy are competing concepts in electrochemical energy storage, where one can be optimized only at the expense of the other. However, the specialized and diverse needs of new applications exceed the functional boundaries of existing battery chemistries, where both high power and high energy content are critical. The needed battery paradigms may not be realized by optimization of previous electrochemical energy storage technologies but rather require new basic science breakthroughs involving new materials chemistry. Here we propose that fundamental understanding of electron/cation coupled transport within inorganic ionic matrices is a holy grail that can potentially transform the energy storage landscape.

  20. Dissociative electron attachment to HBr: A temperature effect

    OpenAIRE

    Fedor, Juraj; Cingel, M.; Skalný, J. D.; Scheier, P.; Märk, T.D.; Čížek, M.; Kolorenč, P.; Horáček, J

    2007-01-01

    The effects of rovibrational temperature on dissociative electron attachment to hydrogen bromide has been investigated from the experimental and theoretical point of view. Theoretical calculations based on the nonlocal resonance model predict a strong temperature effect on the Br⁻ fragment ion yield due to population of higher vibrational and rotational states. A crossed beam experimental setup consisting of a temperature controlled effusive molecular beam and a trochoidal electron monochroma...

  1. First high-temperature electronics products survey 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normann, Randy Allen

    2006-04-01

    On April 4-5, 2005, a High-Temperature Electronics Products Workshop was held. This workshop engaged a number of governmental and private industry organizations sharing a common interest in the development of commercially available, high-temperature electronics. One of the outcomes of this meeting was an agreement to conduct an industry survey of high-temperature applications. This report covers the basic results of this survey.

  2. Effects of ionic strength and temperature on the aggregation and deposition of multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixin; Yang, Xuezhi; Wang, Qi; Zeng, Yuxuan; Ding, Lei; Jiang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The aggregation and deposition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) determines their transport and fate in natural waters. Therefore, the aggregation kinetics of humic-acid treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (HA-MWCNTs) was investigated by time-resolved dynamic light scattering in NaCl and CaCl2 electrolyte solutions. Increased ionic strength induced HA-MWCNT aggregation due to the less negative zeta potential and the reduced electrostatic repulsion. The critical coagulation concentration (CCC) values of HA-MWCNTs were 80mmol/L in NaCl and 1.3mmol/L in CaCl2 electrolyte, showing that Ca(2+) causes more serious aggregation than Na(+). The aggregation behavior of HA-MWCNTs was consistent with Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory. The deposition kinetics of HA-MWCNTs was measured by the optical absorbance at 800nm. The critical deposition concentrations for HA-MWCNT in NaCl and CaCl2 solutions were close to the CCC values, therefore the rate of deposition cannot be increased by changing the ionic strength in the diffusion-limited aggregation regime. The deposition process was correlated to the aggregation since larger aggregates increased gravitational deposition and decreased random Brownian diffusion. HA-MWCNTs hydrodynamic diameters were evaluated at 5, 15 and 25°C. Higher temperature caused faster aggregation due to the reduced electrostatic repulsion and increased random Brownian motion and collision frequency. HA-MWCNTs aggregate faster at higher temperature in either NaCl or CaCl2 electrolyte due to the decreased electrostatic repulsion and increased random Brownian motion. Our results suggest that CNT aggregation and deposition are two correlated processes governed by the electrolyte, and CNT transport is favored at low ionic strength and low temperature. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Direct evidence of stacking disorder in the mixed ionic-electronic conductor Sr4Fe6O12+δ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossell, Marta D; Abakumov, Artem M; Ramasse, Quentin M; Erni, Rolf

    2013-04-23

    Determining the structure-to-property relationship of materials becomes particularly challenging when the material under investigation is dominated by defects and structural disorder. Knowledge on the exact atomic arrangement at the defective structure is required to understand its influence on the functional properties. However, standard diffraction techniques deliver structural information that is averaged over many unit cells. In particular, information about defects and order-disorder phenomena is contained in the coherent diffuse scattering intensity which often is difficult to uniquely interpret. Thus, the examination of the local disorder in materials requires a direct method to study their structure on the atomic level with chemical sensitivity. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy in combination with atomic-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy, we show that the controversial structural arrangement of the Fe2O2+δ layers in the mixed ionic-electronic conducting Sr4Fe6O12+δ perovskite can be unambiguously resolved. Our results provide direct experimental evidence for the presence of a nanomixture of "ordered" and "disordered" domains in an epitaxial Sr4Fe6O12+δ thin film. The most favorable arrangement is the disordered structure and is interpreted as a randomly occurring but well-defined local shift of the Fe-O chains in the Fe2O2+δ layers. By analyzing the electron energy-loss near-edge structure of the different building blocks in the Sr4Fe6O12+δ unit cell we find that the mobile holes in this mixed ionic-electronic conducting oxide are highly localized in the Fe2O2+δ layers, which are responsible for the oxide-ion conductivity. A possible link between disorder and oxygen-ion transport along the Fe2O2+δ layers is proposed by arguing that the disorder can effectively break the oxygen diffusion pathways.

  4. A novel electronic current-blocked stable mixed ionic conductor for solid oxide fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Wenping; Jiang, Yinzhu; Wang, Yanfei; Fang, S.; Zhu, Zhiwen; Liu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    A novel ionic conductor, BaCe0.8Sm0.2O3−δ–Ce0.8Sm0.2O2−δ (BCS–SDC, weight ratio 1:1), is reported as an electrolyte material for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Homogeneous BCS–SDC composite powders are synthesized via a one-step gel combustion method. The BCS and SDC crystalline grains play a role

  5. A novel electronic current-blocked stable mixed ionic conductor for solid oxide fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Wenping; Jiang, Yinzhu; Wang, Yanfei; Fang, S.; Zhu, Zhiwen; Liu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    A novel ionic conductor, BaCe0.8Sm0.2O3¿¿¿Ce0.8Sm0.2O2¿¿ (BCS¿SDC, weight ratio 1:1), is reported as an electrolyte material for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Homogeneous BCS¿SDC composite powders are synthesized via a one-step gel combustion method. The BCS and SDC crystalline grains play a role

  6. Effect of temperature and cationic chain length on the physical properties of ammonium nitrate-based protic ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelo, S Bouzón; Méndez-Morales, T; Carrete, J; López Lago, E; Vila, J; Cabeza, O; Rodríguez, J R; Turmine, M; Varela, L M

    2012-09-13

    We report a systematic study of the effect of the cationic chain length and degree of hydrogen bonding on several equilibrium and transport properties of the first members of the alkylammonium nitrate protic ionic liquids (PILs) family (ethylammonium, propylammonium, and butylammonium nitrate) in the temperature range between 10 and 40 °C. These properties were observed by means of several experimental techniques, including density, surface tension, refractometry, viscosimetry, and conductimetry. The dilatation coefficients and compressibilities, as well as the Rao coefficients, were calculated, and an increase of these magnitudes with alkyl chain length was detected. Moreover, the surface entropies and enthalpies of the studied PILs were analyzed, and the temperature dependence of the surface tension was observed to be describable by means of a harmonic oscillator model with surface energies and critical temperatures that are increasing functions of the cationic chain length. Moreover, the refractive indexes were measured and the thermo-optic coefficient and Abbe numbers were calculated, and the contribution of the electrostrictive part seemed to dominate the temperature dependence of the electric polarization. The electric conductivity and the viscosity were measured and the influence of the degree of hydrogen bonding in the supercooled liquid region analyzed. Hysteresis loops were detected in freezing-melting cycles and the effect of the length of the alkyl chain of the cation on the size of the loop analyzed, showing that longer chains lead to a narrowing of the supercooled region. The temperature dependence of the conductivity was studied in the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) framework and the fragility indices, the effective activation energies, and the Vogel temperatures obtained. A high-temperature Arrhenius analysis was also performed, and the activation energies of conductivity and viscosity were calculated, showing that these transport processes are

  7. Role of Solvent and Effect of Substituent on Azobenzene Isomerization by Using Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids as Reaction Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Guido; Canilho, Nadia; Emo, Mélanie; Kingsley, Molly; Gasbarri, Carla

    2015-08-07

    The effects of a para substituent, as the electron-donating -OCH3 and -OtBu groups and the electron-withdrawing -Br and -F atoms, on azobenzene isomerization have been investigated in a series of imidazolium ionic liquids (BMIM PF6, BMIM BF4, BMIM Tf2N, EMIM Tf2N, BM2IM Tf2N, and HMIM Tf2N). The thermal cis-trans conversion tends to be improved in the presence of the substituent, as pointed out by the first-order rate constants measured at 25 °C. Both the rotation and the inversion mechanisms occur in BMIM Tf2N, EMIM Tf2N, and HMIM Tf2N, as highlighted by typical V-shape Hammett plots, but only rotation takes place in BMIM PF6, BMIM BF4, and BM2IM Tf2N. The possible interactions between the cation and the anion of the solvent and both the isomers of the azobenzene derivatives have been studied by small-wide-angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS). The calculated cis population in the photostationary state and the hardness parameter η of the trans isomer show that azobenzene and F-azobenzene are the less reactive molecules for the trans-cis conversion in all the investigated ionic liquids.

  8. Structure and dynamics of room temperature ionic liquids with bromide anion: results from 81Br NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Takatsugu; Imanari, Mamoru; Hidaka, Yuki; Seki, Hiroko; Nishikawa, Keiko; Sen, Sabyasachi

    2015-05-01

    We report the results of a comprehensive (81)Br NMR spectroscopic study of the structure and dynamics of two room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C(4)mim]Br) and 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bromide ([C(4)C(1)mim]Br), in both liquid and crystalline states. NMR parameters in the gas phase are also simulated for stable ion pairs using quantum chemical calculations. The combination of (81)Br spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation measurements in the motionally narrowed region of the stable liquid state provides information on the correlation time of the translational motion of the cation. (81) Br quadrupolar coupling constants (C(Q)) of the two RTILs were estimated to be 6.22 and 6.52 MHz in the crystalline state which were reduced by nearly 50% in the liquid state, although in the gas phase, the values are higher and span the range of 7-53 MHz depending on ion pair structure. The C(Q) can be correlated with the distance between the cation-anion pairs in all the three states. The (81)Br C(Q) values of the bromide anion in the liquid state indicate the presence of some structural order in these RTILs, the degree of which decreases with increasing temperature. On the other hand, the ionicity of these RTILs is estimated from the combined knowledge of the isotropic chemical shift and the appropriate mean energy of the excited state. [C(4)C(1)mim]Br has higher ionicity than [C(4)mim]Br in the gas phase, while the situation is reverse for the liquid and the crystalline states. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. High temperature electronics and instrumentation seminar proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veneruso, A.F.; Arnold, C.; Simpson, R.S. (eds.)

    1980-05-01

    This seminar was tailored to address the needs of the borehole logging industry and to stimulate the development and application of this technology, for logging geothermal, hot oil and gas, and steam injection wells. The technical sessions covered the following topics: hybrid circuits, electronic devices, transducers, cables and connectors, materials, mechanical tools and thermal protection. Thirty-eight papers are included. Separate entries were prepared for each one. (MHR)

  10. Influence of temperature on the structure and dynamics of the [BMIM][PF(6)] ionic liquid/graphite interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislenko, Sergey A; Amirov, Ravil H; Samoylov, Igor S

    2010-10-07

    The influence of temperature on the structure and dynamics of the [BMIM][PF(6)] ionic liquid/graphite interface has been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The performed simulations cover a 100 K wide temperature interval, ranging from 300 K to 400 K. It was shown that the magnitudes of density peaks of anions in the vicinity of the surface decrease with increasing temperature while in the case of cations anomalous temperature behaviour of the density profile is observed: the magnitude of the second peak of cations increases with the increase of temperature. To characterize interface dynamics the local self-diffusion coefficients D(x) of ions in the normal direction to the surface and the residence time of ions in the first and second interfacial layer have been estimated. It was shown that the local self-diffusion coefficients in the vicinity of the surface correlate with the local ion density; the maxima of the function D(x)(x) for the cations (anions) coincide with the regions of reduced cation (anion) density and vice versa. Finally, the influence of temperature on the screening potential in the vicinity of a charged graphite surface has been studied. It was shown that the increase of temperature from 300 K to 400 K induces the decrease of the potential drop across the interface that implies the increase of the capacitance of the electrical double layer.

  11. Influence of ionic force and temperature on solvent extraction of perrhenate associates of tris-1. 10-phenanthroline iron(2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyartman, A.K.; Udovenko, A.G.; Karmanova, E.G.; Belousov, E.A. (Leningradskij Tekhnologicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1984-07-01

    Extraction of perrhenate associates of tris-1.10-phenanthroline iron (2) by chloroform at 298 K and constant ionic forces (..mu..) 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 (Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) is studied. Additional investigations are performed at 283, 288 and 293 K and ..mu..=0.50. Values of equilibrium constants of perrhenate associates formation are determined: (Fephensub(3))ReOsub(4aq)sup(+) (..beta../sub 1/) and associate extraction (Fephen/sub 3/) (ReOsub(4))sub(2)(K'sub(ex)). It is established that the increase of ionic force of the solution created by sodium sulfate brings about ..beta../sub 1/ reduction, but practically does not affect K'sub(ex). Temperature reduction from 298 to 283 K increases ..beta../sub 1/ and Ksub(ex)' values. At (ReO/sub 4//sup -/) approximately constant the increase of sodium sulfate concentration and temperature decrease contribute to eXtraction of perrhenate associates of tris-1.10-phenanthroline iron (2).

  12. Electronic Modeling and Design for Extreme Temperatures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are developing CAD tools, models and methodologies for electronics design for circuit operation in extreme environments with focus on very low temperatures...

  13. Electronic Modeling and Design for Extreme Temperatures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop electronics for operation at temperatures that range from -230oC to +130oC. This new technology will minimize the requirements for external...

  14. Pressure-volume-temperature measurements of phosphonium-based ionic liquids and analysis with simple equations of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, F.A.M.M.; Costa, C.S.M.F.; Ferreira, C.E.; Bernardo, J.C.S. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra, Polo II, Rua Silvio Lima, 3030-790 Coimbra (Portugal); Johnson, I. [Centre for Nano Science and Applied Thermodynamics, Department of Physics, St. Joseph' s college, Trichy 620 002 (India); Fonseca, I.M.A. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra, Polo II, Rua Silvio Lima, 3030-790 Coimbra (Portugal); Ferreira, A.G.M., E-mail: abel@eq.uc.p [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra, Polo II, Rua Silvio Lima, 3030-790 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: Density for trihexyltetradecylphosphonium ionic liquids with {+-} 0.5 kg.m{sup -3}. Goharshadi-Morsali-Abbaspour EoS gives good correlation and extrapolation of data. Sanchez-Lacombe EoS gives good correlation and reliable free volumes. The calculated thermomechanical coefficients are consistent with literature data. - Abstract: In spite of the great importance of the (P, V, T) data of phosphonium-based ionic liquids, only limited information on these data seems to be available in the open literature. In this work, we present the results for the density measurements of the trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride, [(C{sub 6}H{sub 13}){sub 3}P(C{sub 14}H{sub 29})][Cl] and trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dicyanamide, [(C{sub 6}H{sub 13}){sub 3}P(C{sub 14}H{sub 29})][N(CN{sub 2})] with an estimated uncertainty of {+-}0.5 kg . m{sup -3}. The ranges of temperature and pressure are T = (273.15 to 318.15) K and p = (0.1 to 25) MPa for [(C{sub 6}H{sub 13}){sub 3}P(C{sub 14}H{sub 29})][Cl] and T = (273.15 to 318.15) K and p = (0.1 to 35) MPa for [(C{sub 6}H{sub 13}){sub 3}P(C{sub 14}H{sub 29})][N(CN{sub 2})]. The high consistency of our data for [(C{sub 6}H{sub 13}){sub 3}P(C{sub 14}H{sub 29})][Cl] compared with those measured by other authors allowed all the experimental data for this IL to be combined and correlated using the Goharshadi-Morsali-Abbaspour equation of state over a wide range of temperature and pressure. From this equation, thermomechanical coefficients as the isothermal compressibility, thermal expansivity, thermal pressure, and internal pressure were calculated for the two ILs. The Sanchez-Lacombe equation of state was used also for (P, V, T) correlation and the estimation of the free volume in these phosphonium ionic liquids. Finally ionic volumes for trihexyltetradecylphosphonium cation and several anions available in the literature made possible the calculation of the free (hole) volume.

  15. TiO2 coated Si nanowire electrodes for electrochemical double layer capacitors in room temperature ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, F.; Shougee, A.; Albrecht, T.; Fobelets, K.

    2017-10-01

    Three TiO2 deposition processes are used to coat the surface of Si nanowire array electrodes for electrochemical double layer capacitors in room temperature ionic liquid [Bmim][NTF2]. The fabrication processes are based on wet chemistry only and temperature treatments are kept below 450 °C. Successful TiO2 coatings are found to be those that are carried out at low pressure and with low TiO2 coverage to avoid nanowires breakage. The best TiO2 coated Si nanowire array electrode in [Bmim][NTF2] showed energy densities of 0.9 Wh·kg-1 and power densities of 2.2 kW·kg-1 with a nanowire length of ~10 µm.

  16. Structural disorder and electron transport in graphene at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobenko, N. G.; Egorushkin, V. E.; Melnikova, N. V.; Ponomarev, A. N.; Belosludtseva, A. A.; Barkalov, L. D.

    2017-12-01

    A theoretical study of electron transport characteristics of metalized epitaxial graphene with impurities and structural inhomogeneous of the short-range order type was performed. The electron relaxation time, mean free path, and diffusion coefficient were calculated and shown to be of the same order of magnitude as the corresponding values for phonon characteristics. It means that electron scattering on the short-range ordered domains has to be taken into account, especially at low temperatures when it may dominate phonon scattering.

  17. Electrochemical measurements of mass transfer in RTILs (Room Temperature Ionic Liquids) medium under low frequency ultrasound irradiation; Mesures electrochimiques de transfert de matiere en milieu RTIL's (Room Temperature Ionic Liquids) sous irradiation ultrasonore basse frequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, C.; Hihn, J.Y.; Rebetez, M.; Doche, M.L. [Universite de Franche Comte - IUT Dept. Chimie, Institut UTINAM-UMR CNRS 6213, 25 - Montbeliard (France); Costa, C.; Bisel, I. [CEA Valrho, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN/DRCP/SCPS/LPCP), 30 - Marcoule (France); Moisy, Ph. [CEA Valrho, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN/DRCP/SCPS/LCA), 30 - Marcoule (France)

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work is to measure the influence of ultrasounds on the mass transfer at the electrode. The electro diffusional method which consists to measure the limit diffusion current on the polarization curve i=f(E) of a reversible couple in diluted solution in the electrolyte. The used couple changes with the electrolytic medium: potassium ferro/ferricyanide in water, ferrocene/ferricinium for acetonitrile and for the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(tri-fluoro-methyl-sulfonyl)imide [BuMIm][CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}N]). The limit diffusion currents are converted into mass transfer coefficients and then into a dimensional Sherwood numbers to allow an easier comparison of the results between the different research teams participating to this study. Recent tests, carried out in partner laboratories (LCMI-UFC, LPCP-CEA and LCA-CEA) have demonstrated the interest of the use of power ultrasounds in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids (RTILs) but revealed too a lot of experimental difficulties. Nevertheless, it appears that the ultrasounds are an aging mode particularly adapted to the RTILs because the mass transfer to the electrode is there 5 times more efficient than in presence of an electrode turning at 4500 tr.min{sup -1}, while limiting their re-hydration. (O.M.)

  18. Electronic Components and Circuits for Extreme Temperature Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad; Dickman, John E.; Gerber, Scott

    2003-01-01

    Planetary exploration missions and deep space probes require electrical power management and control systems that are capable of efficient and reliable operation in very low temperature environments. Presently, spacecraft operating in the cold environment of deep space carry a large number of radioisotope heating units in order to maintain the surrounding temperature of the on-board electronics at approximately 20 C. Electronics capable of operation at cryogenic temperatures will not only tolerate the hostile environment of deep space but also reduce system size and weight by eliminating or reducing the radioisotope heating units and their associate structures; thereby reducing system development as well as launch costs. In addition, power electronic circuits designed for operation at low temperatures are expected to result in more efficient systems than those at room temperature. This improvement results from better behavior and tolerance in the electrical and thermal properties of semiconductor and dielectric materials at low temperatures. The Low Temperature Electronics Program at the NASA Glenn Research Center focuses on research and development of electrical components, circuits, and systems suitable for applications in the aerospace environment and deep space exploration missions. Research is being conducted on devices and systems for reliable use down to cryogenic temperatures. Some of the commercial-off-the-shelf as well as developed components that are being characterized include switching devices, resistors, magnetics, and capacitors. Semiconductor devices and integrated circuits including digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters, DC/DC converters, operational amplifiers, and oscillators are also being investigated for potential use in low temperature applications. An overview of the NASA Glenn Research Center Low Temperature Electronic Program will be presented in this paper. A description of the low temperature test facilities along with

  19. Adsorption of divalent lead ions by zeolites and activated carbon: effects of pH, temperature, and ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Kelly B; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M

    2004-01-01

    Lead alloy bullets used at the 2600 military small arm ranges and 9000 nonmilitary outdoor shooting ranges in the United States are a source of mobilized lead ions under conditions of low pH, significant changes in ionic strength, changes in the reduction oxidation potential (redox), and through binding metal ions to soil organic matter. Once mobile, these lead ions can contaminate adjacent soil and water. Batch adsorption kinetic and isotherm studies were conducted to compare and evaluate different types of adsorbents for lead ion removal from aqueous media. The effects on lead ion absorption from pH changes, competing ions, and temperature increases were also investigated. Adsorbent materials such as activated carbon and naturally occurring zeolites (clinoptilolite and chabazite) were selected because of their relative low cost and because the zeolites are potential point-of-use materials for mitigating wastewater runoff. Molecular sieves, Faujasite (13X) and Linde type A (5A) were selected because they provide a basis for comparison with previous studies and represent well-characterized materials. The relative rate for lead ion adsorption was: 13X > chabazite > clinoptilolite > 5A > activated carbon. Modeling lead ion adsorption by these adsorbents using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm expressions determined the adsorbents' capacity for lead ion removal from aqueous media. 13X, 5A, and activated carbon best fit the Langmuir isotherm expression; chabazite and clinoptilolite best fit the Freundlich isotherm. Applications of chabazite would require pH values between 4 and 11, clinoptilolite between 3 and 11, while activated carbon would operate at a pH above 7. Ionic competition reduced lead ion removal by the zeolites, but enhanced activated carbon performance. Increasing temperature improved adsorption performance for the zeolites; activated carbon lead ion adsorption was temperature independent.

  20. The effect of temperature and chitosan concentration during storage on the growth of chitosan nanoparticle produced by ionic gelation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handani, Wenny Rinda; Sediawan, Wahyudi Budi; Tawfiequrrahman, Ahmad; Wiratni, Kusumastuti, Yuni

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this research was to get the mechanism of nano size chitosan particle growth during storage by observing the effect of temperature and initial concentration of chitosan. The products were analyzed using PSA to have the average of particle radius. Nanochitosan solution was prepared by ionic gelation method. This method is described as an electrostatic interaction between positively charged amine with negatively charged polyanion, such as tripolyphosphate (TPP). Chitosan was dissolved in 1% acetic acid and was stirred for 30 minutes. Tween 80 was added to avoid agglomeration. TPP was prepared by dissolving 0.336 g into distilled water. The nano size chitosan was obtained by mixing TPP and chitosan solution dropwise while stirring for 30 minutes. This step was done at 15°C and ambient temperature (about 30°C) and chitosan concentration 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6%. The results show that temperature during ionic gelation process (15°C and 30°C) does not affect the initial size of the nanoparticles produced as well as the growth of the nanoparticles during storage. On the other hand, initial chitosan concentration strongly affects initial size of the nanoparticles produced and the growth of the nanoparticles during storage. The concentration of chitosan at 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6% gave initial size of nanoparticle chitosan of 175.3 nm, 337.9 nm, 643.3 nm respectively. On the other hand, the growth mechanism of chitosan nanoparticle depended on its radius(R). At R500 nm, it is controlled by diffusion in the liquid film around the particles.

  1. Temperature-Controlled Direct Imprinting of Ag Ionic Ink: Flexible Metal Grid Transparent Conductors with Enhanced Electromechanical Durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yong Suk; Choi, Hyesun; Lee, Jaeho; Lee, Hyunwoo; Choi, Dong Yun; Lee, Sung-Uk; Yun, Kyeong-Soo; Yoo, Seunghyup; Kim, Taek-Soo; Park, Inkyu; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2017-09-11

    Next-generation transparent conductors (TCs) require excellent electromechanical durability under mechanical deformations as well as high electrical conductivity and transparency. Here we introduce a method for the fabrication of highly conductive, low-porosity, flexible metal grid TCs via temperature-controlled direct imprinting (TCDI) of Ag ionic ink. The TCDI technique based on two-step heating is capable of not only stably capturing the Ag ionic ink, but also reducing the porosity of thermally decomposed Ag nanoparticle structures by eliminating large amounts of organic complexes. The porosity reduction of metal grid TCs on a glass substrate leads to a significant decrease of the sheet resistance from 21.5 to 5.5 Ω sq-1 with an optical transmittance of 91% at λ = 550 nm. The low-porosity metal grid TCs are effectively embedded to uniform, thin and transparent polymer films with negligible resistance changes from the glass substrate having strong interfacial fracture energy (~8.2 J m-2). Finally, as the porosity decreases, the flexible metal grid TCs show a significantly enhanced electromechanical durability under bending stresses. Organic light-emitting diodes based on the flexible metal grid TCs as anode electrodes are demonstrated.

  2. Highly efficient extraction of phenolic compounds by use of magnetic room temperature ionic liquids for environmental remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Ning [School of Chemical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui Province 230009 (China); Li, Min; Zhao, Lijie; Lu, Chengfei; Rooy, Sergio L. de [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Warner, Isiah M., E-mail: iwarner@lsu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Novel separation technique based on the use of magnetic extraction. {yields} Using a magnetic room temperature ionic liquid for removal of hazardous phenols from contaminated soil samples. {yields} Inherently safer and cleaner technique demonstrated highest extraction capacity as compared with previous regular non-magnetic RTILs. {yields} Successfully remove highly hazardous pentachlorophenol from superfund site contaminated soil samples with extremely high extraction capacity. {yields} Contributions of our work focus primarily on remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. - Abstract: A hydrophobic magnetic room temperature ionic liquid (MRTIL), trihexyltetradecylphosphonium tetrachloroferrate(III) ([3C{sub 6}PC{sub 14}][FeCl{sub 4}]), was synthesized from trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride and FeCl{sub 3}.6H{sub 2}O. This MRTIL was investigated as a possible separation agent for solvent extraction of phenolic compounds from aqueous solution. Due to its strong paramagnetism, [3C{sub 6}PC{sub 14}][FeCl{sub 4}] responds to an external neodymium magnet, which was employed in the design of a novel magnetic extraction technique. The conditions for extraction, including extraction time, volume ratio between MRTIL and aqueous phase, pH of aqueous solution, and structures of phenolic compounds were investigated and optimized. The magnetic extraction of phenols achieved equilibrium in 20 min and the phenolic compounds were found to have higher distribution ratios under acidic conditions. In addition, it was observed that phenols containing a greater number of chlorine or nitro substituents exhibited higher distribution ratios. For example, the distribution ratio of phenol (D{sub Ph}) was 107. In contrast, 3,5-dichlorophenol distribution ratio (D{sub 3,5-DCP}) had a much higher value of 6372 under identical extraction conditions. When compared with four selected traditional non-magnetic room temperature ionic liquids, our [3C{sub 6}PC{sub 14

  3. Low-temperature fuel cells using a composite of redox-stable perovskite oxide La0.7Sr0.3Cr0.5Fe0.5O3-δ and ionic conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yuanjing; Mi, Youquan; Xu, Fuzhan; Wang, Xunying; Xia, Chen; Dong, Wenjing; Ji, Yuan; Zhu, Bin

    2017-10-01

    A novel solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) incorporating the semiconductor with the ionic conductor to replace the traditional electrolyte layer with improved performance has been recently reported. In the present work, we found that the redox stable electrode material La0.7Sr0.3Cr0.5Fe0.5O3-δ (LSCrF) can be considered as a good candidate for such configuration, electrolyte layer-free fuel cells (EFFCs), due to its high ionic and electronic conductivities, excellent catalytic activity and good chemical stability. EFFCs based on the composite of perovskite oxide LSCrF and ionic conductor Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ (SDC) offered promising performances, i.e., 1059 mW cm-2 at 550 °C without any electronic short circuiting problem. It even exhibited a highly promising result of 553 mW cm-2 at 470 °C in further low-temperature operation. These high performances can be attributed to the improved conductivity, more triple-phase boundaries (TPB) and accelerated oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) of LSCrF-SDC composite. The influence of the weight ratio between LSCrF and SDC on the EFFC electrochemical performance was investigated. This new discovery indicates a great potential for exploring multifunctional perovskites for the new SOFC technologies.

  4. Ab Initio Simulations and Electronic Structure of Lithium-Doped Ionic Liquids: Structure, Transport, and Electrochemical Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Justin B; Bauschlicher, Charles W; Lawson, John W

    2015-11-19

    Density functional theory (DFT), density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD), and classical molecular dynamics using polarizable force fields (PFF-MD) are employed to evaluate the influence of Li(+) on the structure, transport, and electrochemical stability of three potential ionic liquid electrolytes: N-methyl-N-butylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([pyr14][TFSI]), N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide ([pyr13][FSI]), and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium boron tetrafluoride ([EMIM][BF4]). We characterize the Li(+) solvation shell through DFT computations of [Li(Anion)n]((n-1)-) clusters, DFT-MD simulations of isolated Li(+) in small ionic liquid systems, and PFF-MD simulations with high Li-doping levels in large ionic liquid systems. At low levels of Li-salt doping, highly stable solvation shells having two to three anions are seen in both [pyr14][TFSI] and [pyr13][FSI], whereas solvation shells with four anions dominate in [EMIM][BF4]. At higher levels of doping, we find the formation of complex Li-network structures that increase the frequency of four anion-coordinated solvation shells. A comparison of computational and experimental Raman spectra for a wide range of [Li(Anion)n]((n-1)-) clusters shows that our proposed structures are consistent with experiment. We then compute the ion diffusion coefficients and find measures from small-cell DFT-MD simulations to be the correct order of magnitude, but influenced by small system size and short simulation length. Correcting for these errors with complementary PFF-MD simulations, we find DFT-MD measures to be in close agreement with experiment. Finally, we compute electrochemical windows from DFT computations on isolated ions, interacting cation/anion pairs, and liquid-phase systems with Li-doping. For the molecular-level computations, we generally find the difference between ionization energy and electron affinity from isolated ions and interacting cation/anion pairs to

  5. Novel method of room temperature ionic liquid assisted Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocubes and nanoflakes synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalakshmi, M. [Sustainable Energy and Smart Materials Lab., Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 002, Tamilnadu (India); Department of Industrial Chemistry, Alagappa University, Karaikudi India (India); Shakkthivel, P., E-mail: apsakthivel@yahoo.com [Sustainable Energy and Smart Materials Lab., Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 002, Tamilnadu (India); Sundrarajan, M. [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Alagappa University, Karaikudi India (India); Chen, S.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • First time [Bmim][TfO] IL is used for the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticle synthesis. • Novel method tunes Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocubes and nanoflakes forms influenced by the base and IL. • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} oxidized topotactically into γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles by annealing and base. • Uniform morphology with average size of 33 nm negligible superstructure are formed. • Ms values are characterized by thin layer of γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the nanoparticle surface. - Abstract: For the first time, the nanomagnetite superparamagnetic particles are successfully synthesized by precipitation method using 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethane sulfonate [Bmim][TfO] ionic liquid medium/surfactant. The obtained Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles are nanocubes and nanoflakes and this formation is influenced by the base concentration and anisotropic circumstances produced by the ionic liquid and their size varies from 20 nm to 150 × 300 nm (width × length). The synthesized magnetite nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) studies. The results show that the core of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles is surrounded by a thin layer of γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by topotactical partial oxidation, which is remarkably proceed with the subsequent calcination. The magnetite nanocubes have high saturation magnetization value and exhibit superparamagnetic hysteresis loop.

  6. Ionic liquid for high temperature headspace liquid-phase microextraction of chlorinated anilines in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jin-feng; Liu, Jing-fu; Jiang, Gui-bin; Tai, Chao; Huang, Min-jia

    2005-04-22

    Based on the non-volatility of room temperature ionic liquids (IL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C4MIM][PF6]) IL was employed as an advantageous extraction solvent for high temperature headspace liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) of chloroanilines in environmental water samples. At high temperature of 90 degrees C, 4-chloroaniline, 2-chloroaniline, 3,4-dichloroaniline, and 2,4-dichloroaniline were extracted into a 10 microl drop of [C4MIM][PF6] suspended on the needle of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) microsyringe held at the headspace of the samples. Then, the IL was injected directly into the HPLC system for determination. Parameters related to LPME were optimized, and high selectivity and low detection limits of the four chlorinated anilines were obtained because the extraction was performed at high temperature in headspace mode and the very high affinity between IL and chlorinated anilines. The proposed procedure was applied for the analysis of the real samples including tap water, river water and wastewater samples from a petrochemical plant and a printworks, and only 3,4-dichloroaniline was detected in the printworks wastewater at 88.2 microg l(-1) level. The recoveries for the four chlorinated anilines in the four samples were all in the range of 81.9-99.6% at 25 microg l(-1) spiked level.

  7. Recovery of valuable metals from electronic scraps by clays and organo-clays: Study on bi-ionic model solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannicelli-Zubiani, Elena Maria; Cristiani, Cinzia; Dotelli, Giovanni; Gallo Stampino, Paola

    2017-02-01

    The demand of valuable metals, as precious metals and rare earths, is constantly increasing in the global market, as many and different technological applications exploit these materials because of their unique properties. Since natural resources are located just in focused areas, an interesting possibility could be the recovery of metals from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). The aim of this work is to evaluate the recovery potentialities of clays and organo-clay based systems towards the metals contained in the solutions of electronic scraps dissolved in strong acid, by preliminary tests on bi-ionic model solutions. Lanthanum has been chosen as representative of the rare earths while copper has been considered since it is by far the most used metal in electric and electronic equipment. The considered sorbents are a montmorillonitic clay and two polyamine based organo-clays. Uptake and release processes have been carried out in order to assess the performances of these solids and to evaluate the uptake and release mechanisms. The results showed that the cationic exchange is the prevailing mechanism in the case of pristine clay, while both coordinating effect due to amino groups and cationic exchange occur in the case of modified clays, respectively accounting for copper and lanthanum uptake. Furthermore the pH was found having a great influence in both the adsorption and desorption phenomena. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrochemistry of room temperature protic ionic liquids: a critical assessment for use as electrolytes in electrochemical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xunyu; Burrell, Geoff; Separovic, Frances; Zhao, Chuan

    2012-08-02

    Ten room temperature protic ionic liquids (RTPILs) have been prepared from low-molecular-weight Brønsted acids and amines with high purity and minimal water content, and their electrochemical characteristics determined using cyclic, microelectrode, and rotating disk electrode voltammetries. Potential windows of the 10 RTPILs were established at glassy carbon, gold, and platinum electrodes, where the largest potential window is generally observed with glassy carbon electrodes. The two IUPAC recommended internal potential reference systems, ferrocene/ferrocenium and cobaltocenium/cobaltocene, were determined for the 10 RTPILs, and their merits as well as limitations are discussed. Other electrochemical properties such as mass transport and double layer capacitances were also investigated. The potential applications of these RTPILs as electrolytes for electrochemical energy devices were discussed, and two novel applications using PILs for metal deposition and water electrolysis were demonstrated.

  9. Charge effect on the diffusion coefficient and the bimolecular reaction rate of diiodide anion radical in room temperature ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Yoshio; Terazima, Masahide; Kimura, Yoshifumi

    2009-04-16

    The diffusion coefficients of diiodide anion radical, I(2)(-), in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) were determined by the transient grating (TG) method using the photochemical reaction of iodide. The diffusion coefficients we obtained were larger in RTILs than the theoretical predictions by the Stokes-Einstein relation, whereas both values are similar in conventional solvents. By comparison with the diffusion coefficients of neutral molecules, it was suggested that the Coulomb interaction between I(2)(-) and constituent ions of RTILs strongly affects the diffusion coefficients. The bimolecular reaction rates between I(2)(-) were calculated by the Debye-Smoluchowski equation using the experimentally determined diffusion coefficients. These calculated reaction rate were much smaller than the experimentally determined rates (Takahashi, K.; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2007, 111, 4807), indicating the charge screening effect of RTILs.

  10. Steric, electronic, and secondary effects on the coordination chemistry of ionic phosphine ligands and the catalytic behavior of their metal complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelders, D.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836257; van Koten, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073839191; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/166032646

    2011-01-01

    The effects of introducing ionic functionalities in phosphine ligands on the coordination chemistry of these ligands and the catalytic behavior of the corresponding metal complexes are reviewed. The steric and electronic consequences of such functionalizations are discussed. Apart from these steric

  11. Temperature-Dependent Electron-Electron Interaction in Graphene on SrTiO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hyejin; Hwang, Jinwoong; Wang, Debin; Disa, Ankit S; Denlinger, Jonathan; Zhang, Yuegang; Mo, Sung-Kwan; Hwang, Choongyu; Lanzara, Alessandra

    2017-10-11

    The electron band structure of graphene on SrTiO3 substrate has been investigated as a function of temperature. The high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission study reveals that the spectral width at Fermi energy and the Fermi velocity of graphene on SrTiO3 are comparable to those of graphene on a BN substrate. Near the charge neutrality, the energy-momentum dispersion of graphene exhibits a strong deviation from the well-known linearity, which is magnified as temperature decreases. Such modification resembles the characteristics of enhanced electron-electron interaction. Our results not only suggest that SrTiO3 can be a plausible candidate as a substrate material for applications in graphene-based electronics but also provide a possible route toward the realization of a new type of strongly correlated electron phases in the prototypical two-dimensional system via the manipulation of temperature and a proper choice of dielectric substrates.

  12. Signature of electron-phonon interaction in high temperature superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Ashokan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The theory of thermal conductivity of high temperature superconductors (HTS based on electron and phonon line width (life times formulation is developed with Quantum dynamical approach of Green's function. The frequency line width is observed as an extremely sensitive quantity in the transport phenomena of HTS as a collection of large number of scattering processes. The role of resonance scattering and electron-phonon interaction processes is found to be most prominent near critical temperature. The theory successfully explains the spectacular behaviour of high Tc superconductors in the vicinity of transition temperature. A successful agreement between theory and experiment has been obtained by analyzing the thermal conductivity data for the sample La1.8Sr0.2CuO4 in the temperature range 0 − 200K. The theory is equally and successfully applicable to all other high Tc superconductors.

  13. Ionic Polymer-Based Removable and Charge-Dissipative Coatings for Space Electronic Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Protection of critical electronic systems in spacecraft and satellites is imperative for NASA's future missions to high-energy, outer-planet environments. The...

  14. Development of an Analytical Method Based on Temperature Controlled Solid-Liquid Extraction Using an Ionic Liquid as Solid Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwei Pan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At the present paper, an analytical method based on temperature controlled solid-liquid extraction (TC-SLE utilizing a synthesized ionic liquid, (N-butylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate, [BPy]PF6, as solid solvent and phenanthroline (PT as an extractant was developed to determine micro levels of Fe2+ in tea by PT spectrophotometry. TC-SLE was carried out in two continuous steps: Fe2+ can be completely extracted by PT-[BPy]PF6 or back-extracted at 80 °C and the two phases were separated automatically by cooling to room temperature. Fe2+, after back-extraction, needs 2 mol/L HNO3 as stripping agent and the whole process was determined by PT spectrophotometry at room temperature. The extracted species was neutral Fe(PTmCl2 (m = 1 according to slope analysis in the Fe2+-[BPy]PF6-PT TC-SLE system. The calibration curve was Y = 0.20856X − 0.000775 (correlation coefficient = 0.99991. The linear calibration range was 0.10–4.50 μg/mL and the limit of detection for Fe2+ is 7.0 × 10−2 μg/mL. In this method, the contents of Fe2+ in Tieguanyin tea were determined with RSDs (n = 5 3.05% and recoveries in range of 90.6%–108.6%.

  15. Vibrational energy relaxation of a diatomic molecule in a room-temperature ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Youngseon; Kim, Hyung J

    2006-07-14

    Vibrational energy relaxation (VER) dynamics of a diatomic solute in ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (EMI(+)PF(6) (-)) are studied via equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The time scale for VER is found to decrease markedly with the increasing solute dipole moment, consonant with many previous studies in polar solvents. A detailed analysis of nonequilibrium results shows that for a dipolar solute, dissipation of an excess solute vibrational energy occurs almost exclusively via the Lennard-Jones interactions between the solute and solvent, while an oscillatory energy exchange between the two is mainly controlled by their electrostatic interactions. Regardless of the anharmonicity of the solute vibrational potential, VER becomes accelerated as the initial vibrational energy increases. This is attributed primarily to the enhancement in variations of the solvent force on the solute bond, induced by large-amplitude solute vibrations. One interesting finding is that if a time variable scaled with the initial excitation energy is employed, dissipation dynamics of the excess vibrational energy of the dipolar solute tend to show a universal behavior irrespective of its initial vibrational state. Comparison with water and acetonitrile shows that overall characteristics of VER in EMI(+)PF(6) (-) are similar to those in acetonitrile, while relaxation in water is much faster than the two. It is also found that the Landau-Teller theory predictions for VER time scale obtained via equilibrium simulations of the solvent force autocorrelation function are in reasonable agreement with the nonequilibrium results.

  16. Diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arenes showing unusual complexation of actinide ions in room temperature ionic liquids: role of ligand structure, raiolytic stability, emission spectroscopy, and thermodynamic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohapatra, Prasanta K.; Sengupta, A.; Iqbal, M.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Verboom, Willem

    2013-01-01

    Diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arenes (C4DGAs) with varying structural modifications were evaluated for actinide complexation from their extraction behavior toward actinide ions such as UO22+, Pu4+, PuO22+, and Am3+ in the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-n-octyl-3-methylimidazolium

  17. Tuning the electronic environment of zinc ions with a ligand for dendrite-free zinc deposition in an ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Li, Guozhu; Cui, Tong; Lahiri, Abhishek; Borodin, Andriy; Endres, Frank

    2017-10-04

    In this work, we report on the influence of an organic ligand on the electrodeposition of Zn from an ionic liquid (IL) electrolyte. Zinc oxide was first dissolved in a protic IL. By introducing a 2-methylimidazole (2-MIm) ligand, the electronic environment of zinc ions, Zn(ii) complexes and the structure of the IL are considerably altered, as verified by both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. Due to the electron donation effect of the ligand, the zinc ions become less positively charged and exhibit a lower binding energy by -0.5 eV, compared to its absence. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) results show that a higher push-through force is required to rupture the interfacial layers in the presence of the ligand compared to its absence. The ligand can interact with both the cation and the anion of the IL via hydrogen bonds, forming compact layers on the surface, which also has a strong influence on the electrochemical performance. The cyclic voltammograms show reduction peaks at -1.4 V in all cases, but the current density decreases as the concentration of 2-MIm increases. Dendritic zinc deposits were obtained in 1.5 mol L(-1) ZnO/[EIm]TfO, while dendrite-free zinc structures were obtained in the presence of 1.5 mol L(-1) 2-MIm.

  18. Mixing of Proton and Electron Scales - Effects of Proton Temperature Anisotropy on the Electron Firehose Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneva, Y. G.; Lazar, M.; Vinas, A. F.; Poedts, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    We perform kinetic linear theory instability analysis in a non-drifting anisotropic electron-proton plasma to study the effects of proton temperature anisotropies on the electron firehose instability in the collisionless solar wind. We solve the Vlasov linear theory dispersion relation for hot highly anisotropic electron-proton plasma in high-beta regime to study the behavior of the solar wind plasma close to the instability thresholds as observed by different spacecraft at 1 AU. We consider temperature and anisotropy regimes for which the electrons and the protons can interact via the excited electromagnetic fluctuations. For the selected parameters simultaneous electron and proton firehose instabilities can be observed with the growth rate of the electron firehose instability extending towards the proton scales. The co-existance of the proton and the electron firehose and the mixing of scales for the electromagnetic fluctuations excited by the two instabilities depends on the initial temperatures, anisotropies and angle of propagation. In the case of parallel wave propagation both left and right-hand polarized waves are simultaneously excited. As we increase the angle of propagation the electron firehose starts to dominate with excitation of large-amplitude aperiodic fluctuations over a large range of wave-numbers, starting at the protons scales and extending up to the smaller electron scales. We calculate the maximum growth rate of the oblique electron firehose as a function of the proton temperature anisotropy and discuss the implications of the electron-proton scale mixing for the observed plasma properties and instability thresholds in the undisturbed solar wind.

  19. Electron Temperatures in W51 Complex from High Resolution, Low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2001-03-09

    Mar 9, 2001 ... All the RRL results quoted above have been derived under the LTE approximation. The electron temperature is one of the most important parameters in understanding the physical properties of thermal HII regions. Low frequency continuum observations in the optically thick regime offer a direct estimate of ...

  20. Printed circuit board metal powder filters for low electron temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, F.; Mueller, Filipp; Schouten, Raymond N.; Brauns, M.; Gang, T.; Lim, Wee Han; Lai, Nai Shyan; Dzurak, Andrew S.; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; Zwanenburg, Floris Arnoud

    2013-01-01

    We report the characterisation of printed circuit boards (PCB) metal powder filters and their influence on the effective electron temperature which is as low as 22 mK for a quantum dot in a silicon MOSFET structure in a dilution refrigerator. We investigate the attenuation behaviour (10 MHz–20 GHz)

  1. Electronic and Magnetic Properties of High Temperature Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements are reported on the electrical conductance in the Cs-CsCl and Rb- RbCl molten systems as a function of composition and temperature. The...in salt are evaluated from freezing point data, and are large and positive for the Cs-CsCl and Rb- RbCl systems. Electron spin resonance has been

  2. Electronically induced nuclear transitions - temperature dependence and Rabi oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Niez, J J

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with a nucleus electromagnetically coupled with the bound states of its electronic surroundings. It describes the temperature dependence of its dynamics and the onset of potential Rabi oscillations by means of a Master Equation. The latter is generalized in order to account for possible strong resonances. Throughout the paper the approximation schemes are discussed and tested. (authors)

  3. Measurements of plasma temperature and electron density in laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nique to provide remote, in-situ, rapid and multi-elemental analysis of bulk and trace sample in any phase (solid, liquid and gas) with no or minimal sample prepa- ration [2–4]. The characterization of LIPs by determining their temperature and electron den- sity is essential and has gained considerable interest in recent years ...

  4. Measurements of plasma temperature and electron density in laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Plasma produced by a 355 nm pulsed Nd:YAG laser with a pulse duration of 6 ns focussed onto a copper solid sample in air at atmospheric pressure is studied spectroscopically. The temperature and electron density characterizing the plasma are measured by time-resolved spectroscopy of neutral atom and ion ...

  5. Approximation of Engine Casing Temperature Constraints for Casing Mounted Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Jonathan L.; Culley, Dennis E.; Chapman, Jeffryes W.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of propulsion engine systems is sensitive to weight and volume considerations. This can severely constrain the configuration and complexity of the control system hardware. Distributed Engine Control technology is a response to these concerns by providing more flexibility in designing the control system, and by extension, more functionality leading to higher performing engine systems. Consequently, there can be a weight benefit to mounting modular electronic hardware on the engine core casing in a high temperature environment. This paper attempts to quantify the in-flight temperature constraints for engine casing mounted electronics. In addition, an attempt is made at studying heat soak back effects. The Commercial Modular Aero Propulsion System Simulation 40k (C-MAPSS40k) software is leveraged with real flight data as the inputs to the simulation. A two-dimensional (2-D) heat transfer model is integrated with the engine simulation to approximate the temperature along the length of the engine casing. This modification to the existing C-MAPSS40k software will provide tools and methodologies to develop a better understanding of the requirements for the embedded electronics hardware in future engine systems. Results of the simulations are presented and their implications on temperature constraints for engine casing mounted electronics is discussed.

  6. The hydrated electron and its reactions at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hilbert; Sehested, Knud

    1986-01-01

    The spectrum of the hydrated electron was determined in the temperature range 5-300 "C by using strongly alkaline solutions and high hydrogen pressure. At temperatures up to about 150 "C the temperature coefficients of E, and AE1/2 are -2.8 X and 2 X lo4 eV K-', respectively. E,, is the energy....... The rate constant of the second-order decay (2k) is (1.00 f 0.05) X 1O'O dm3 mol-] s-I at 20 "C, independent of pH. The activation energy of the reaction is 23 f 1 kJ mol-] (5.4 f 0.2 kcal mol-') at temperatures up to 150 "C. The decay at temperatures above 150 "C becomes slower with increasing...... the electron spectrum, half-width, or em& to any significant degree at ambient and higher temperatures. -Th e simplest mechanism capable of describing the kinetic data at various temperatures is the equilibrium e,; + e,; F-? (e22-)aq H2 where the dissociation reaction has a higher activation energy than...

  7. Ionic Nanofluids in Tribology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Saurín

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This overview covers the most recent developments in the field of ionic nanofluid lubricants, defined as dispersions of nanoparticles with ionic liquids through the activation of nanophases. The nanophases range from metal nanoparticles and ceramic inorganic nanoparticles, to different carbon nanophases. The combinations with room-temperature ionic liquids can be in the form of mixtures, dispersions, surface-modified nanophases, or chemically-functionalized nanophases. The new ionic nanofluids can be used as base lubricants, as lubricant additives, or as anti-friction and wear-reducing additives in new nanocomposite materials.

  8. Multiple scattering in electron fluid and energy loss in multi-ionic targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, C., E-mail: claude.deutsch@u-psud.fr [LPGP, UParis-Sud, 91405-Orsay (France); Tahir, N.A. [GSI, 1Planck Str., 64291-Darmstadt (Germany); Barriga-Carrasco, M. [ETSII, UCastilla-la-Mancha, 13071 Ciudad-Real (Spain); Ceban, V. [LPGP, UParis-Sud, 91405-Orsay (France); Fromy, P. [CRI, UParis-Sud, 91405-Orsay (France); Gilles, D. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/IRFU/SAP, 91191-Gif-s-Yvette (France); Leger, D. [Laboratoire Monthouy, UValenciennes-Hainaut Cambresis (France); Maynard, G. [LPGP, UParis-Sud, 91405-Orsay (France); Tashev, B. [Department of Physics, KazNu, Tole Bi82, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Volpe, L. [Department of Physics, UMilano-Bicocca, Milano 20126 (Italy)

    2014-01-01

    Extensions of the standard stopping model (SSM) for ion projectiles interacting with dense targets of timely concern for ICF and WDM are reviewed. They include multiple scattering on partially degenerate electrons, low velocity ion slowing down in demixing H–He mixtures within Jovian planets core or multiionic target such as Kapton.

  9. Effects of Ambient Air and Temperature on Ionic Gel Gated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Thin-Film Transistor and Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaping; Zhou, Lili

    2015-10-21

    Single-walled carbon nanotube thin-film transistor (SWCNT TFT) and circuits were fabricated by fully inkjet printing gold nanoparticles as source/drain electrodes, semiconducting SWCNT thin films as channel materials, PS-PMMA-PS/EMIM TFSI composite gel as gate dielectrics, and PEDOT/PSS as gate electrodes. The ionic gel gated SWCNT TFT shows reversible conversion from p-type transistor behavior in air to ambipolar features under vacuum due to reversible oxygen doping in semiconducting SWCNT thin films. The threshold voltages of ionic gel gated SWCNT TFT and inverters are largely shifted to the low value (0.5 V for p-region and 1.0 V for n-region) by vacuum annealing at 140 °C to exhausively remove water that is incorporated in the ionic gel as floating gates. The vacuum annealed ionic gel gated SWCNT TFT shows linear temperature dependent transconductances and threshold voltages for both p- and n-regions. The strong temperature dependent transconductances (0.08 μS/K for p-region, 0.4 μS/K for n-region) indicate their potential application in thermal sensors. In the other hand, the weak temperature dependent threshold voltages (-1.5 mV/K for p-region, -1.1 mV/K for n-region) reflect their excellent thermal stability.

  10. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Electron-Ion Temperature Relaxation in Dense Hydrogen: Electronic Quantum Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qian; Dai, Jiayu; Zhao, Zengxiu

    2016-10-01

    The electron-ion temperature relaxation is an important non-equilibrium process in the generation of dense plasmas, particularly in Inertial Confinement Fusion. Classical molecular dynamics considers electrons as point charges, ignoring important quantum processes. We use an Electron Force Field (EFF) method to study the temperature relaxation processes, considering the nuclei as semi-classical point charges and assume electrons as Gaussian wave packets which includes the influences of the size and the radial motion of electrons. At the same time, a Pauli potential is used to describe the electronic exchange effect. At this stage, quantum effects such as exchange, tunneling can be included in this model. We compare the results from EFF and classical molecular dynamics, and find that the relaxation time is much longer with including quantum effects, which can be explained directly by the deference of collision cross sections between quantum particles and classical particles. Further, the final thermal temperature of electron and ion is different compared with classical results that the electron quantum effects cannot be neglected.

  11. Effect of water and temperature on absorption of CO2 by amine-functionalized anion-tethered ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Brett F; de la Fuente, Juan C; Gurkan, Burcu E; Lopez, Zulema K; Price, Erica A; Huang, Yong; Brennecke, Joan F

    2011-07-28

    Amine-functionalized anion-tethered ionic liquids (ILs) trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium asparaginate [P(66614)][Asn], glutaminate [P(66614)][Gln], lysinate [P(66614)][Lys], methioninate [P(66614)][Met], prolinate [P(66614)][Pro], taurinate [P(66614)][Tau], and threoninate [P(66614)][Thr] were synthesized and investigated as potential absorbents for CO(2) capture from postcombustion flue gas. Their physical properties, including density, viscosity, glass transition temperature, and thermal decomposition temperature were determined. Furthermore, the CO(2) absorption isotherms of [P(66614)][Lys], [P(66614)][Tau], [P(66614)][Pro], and [P(66614)][Met] were measured using a volumetric method, and the results were modeled with two different Langmuir-type absorption models. The most important result of this study is that the viscosity of [P(66614)][Pro] only increased by a factor of 2 when fully complexed with 1 bar of CO(2) at room temperature. This is in stark contrast to the other chemically reacted ILs investigated here and all other amino acid-based ILs reported in the literature, which dramatically increase in viscosity, typically by 2 orders of magnitude, when complexed with CO(2). The unique behavior of [P(66614)][Pro] is likely due to its ring structure, which limits the number and availability of hydrogen atoms that can participate in a hydrogen bonding network. We found that water can be used to further reduce the viscosity of the CO(2)-complexed IL, while only slightly decreasing the CO(2) capacity. Finally, from temperature-dependent isotherms, we estimate a heat of absorption of -63 kJ/mol of CO(2) for the 1:1 reaction of CO(2) with [P(66614)][Pro], when we use the two-reaction model. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  12. Testing Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid Solutions for Depot Repair of Aluminum Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    3AlCl4‾ o 100% plating efficiency at 4 amperes/decimeter2 (A/ dm2 ) has been claimed Overview: 1. Remove soils/corrosion products/plating from surfaces 2...room temperature (~90°C) improves activity • Mechanical agitation • Current density of 4 A/ dm2 (example) 4. Rinse and dry plating; Inspect the

  13. Low temperature electron microscopy and electron diffraction of the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayward, S.B.

    1978-09-01

    The structure of the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium was studied by high resolution electron microscopy and electron diffraction, primarily at low temperature. The handedness of the purple membrane diffraction pattern with respect to the cell membrane was determined by electron diffraction of purple membranes adsorbed to polylysine. A new method of preparing frozen specimens was used to preserve the high resolution order of the membranes in the electron microscope. High resolution imaging of glucose-embedded purple membranes at room temperature was used to relate the orientation of the diffraction pattern to the absolute orientation of the structure of the bacteriorhodopsin molecule. The purple membrane's critical dose for electron beam-induced damage was measured at room temperature and at -120/sup 0/C, and was found to be approximately five times greater at -120/sup 0/C. Because of this decrease in radiation sensitivity, imaging of the membrane at low temperature should result in an increased signal-to-noise ratio, and thus better statistical definition of the phases of weak reflections. Higher resolution phases may thus be extracted from images than can be determined by imaging at room temperature. To achieve this end, a high resolution, liquid nitrogen-cooled stage was built for the JEOL-100B. Once the appropriate technology for taking low dose images at very high resolution has been developed, this stage will hopefully be used to determine the high resolution structure of the purple membrane.

  14. Sourcebook on high-temperature electronics and instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veneruso, A.F. (ed.)

    1981-10-01

    This sourcebook summarizes the high-temperature characteristics of a number of commercially available electronic components and materials required in geothermal well-logging instruments that must operate to 275/sup 0/C. The sourcebook is written to provide a starting place for instrument designers, who need to know the high-temperature electronic products that are available and the design and performance limitations of these products. The electronic component information given includes the standard repertoire of passive devices such as resistors, capacitors, and magnetics; the active devices and integrated circuits sections emphasize silicon semiconductor JFETs and CMOS circuits; and, to complete the electronics, interconnections and packaging of hybrid microelectronics are described. Thermal insulation and refrigeration alternatives are also presented in the sourcebook. Finally, instrument housing materials and high-temperature cables and cablehead connectors are listed. This information was compiled as part of the Geothermal Logging Instrumentation Development Program that Sandia National Laboratories conducted for the US Department of Energy's Divison of Geothermal Energy from 1976 to 1981.

  15. SPECTROSCOPIC DIAGNOSIS IN ELECTRONIC TEMPERATURE OF PHOTOIONISE PLASMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Ferouani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we are interested in the diagnostics in electronic temperature of a plasma purely photoionized, based on the intensity ration of lines emitted by ions helium-like, which have an atomic number Z relatively small. We considered the three lines corresponding to the transitions starting from the excited levels 1s2l towards the fundamental level 1s2 1S0, like appropriate lines. More precisely, the line of resonance w due to the transition 1s2p 1P1 --- 1s2 1 S0, the line of intercombinaison (x,y 1s2p 3 P2,1 --- 1s2 1 S0  as well as prohibited line z due to the transition 1s2 3 S1 --- 1s2 1 S0. These lines appear clearly in the spectra of astrophysical plasmas. As helium-like ion, we chose two, the oxygen O6+ (Z=8 and neon Ne8+ (Z=10. We carried out calculations of the ration of lines intensity G=(z+x+y/w of O6+ and Ne8+  according to the electronic temperature in the range going from 105 to 107 K. We will see that, like it was shown by Gabriel and Jordan in 1969 [1], this intensity ration can be very sensitive to the temperature electronic and practically independent of the electronic density. Consequently, the ration G can be used to determine in a reliable way the electronic temperature of plasma observed [2].

  16. Evolution of the electronic and ionic structure of Mg clusters with increase in cluster size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyalin, Andrey G.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2003-01-01

    . We have systematically calculated the optimized geometries of neutral and singly charged magnesium clusters consisting of up to 21 atoms, electronic shell closures, binding energies per atom, ionization potentials, and the gap between the highest occupied and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals....... We have investigated the appearance of the elements of the hcp structure and metallic evolution of the magnesium clusters, as well as the stability of linear chains and rings of magnesium atoms. The results obtained are compared with the available experimental data and the results of other...

  17. Rigid-flexible coupling high ionic conductivity polymer electrolyte for an enhanced performance of LiMn2O4/graphite battery at elevated temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pu; Duan, Yulong; Hu, Deping; Qin, Bingsheng; Zhang, Jianjun; Wang, Qingfu; Liu, Zhihong; Cui, Guanglei; Chen, Liquan

    2015-03-04

    LiMn2O4-based batteries exhibit severe capacity fading during cycling or storage in LiPF6-based liquid electrolytes, especially at elevated temperatures. Herein, a novel rigid-flexible gel polymer electrolyte is introduced to enhance the cyclability of LiMn2O4/graphite battery at elevated temperature. The polymer electrolyte consists of a robust natural cellulose skeletal incorporated with soft segment poly(ethyl α-cyanoacrylate). The introduction of the cellulose effectively overcomes the drawback of poor mechanical integrity of the gel polymer electrolyte. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation demonstrates that the poly(ethyl α-cyanoacrylate) matrices effectively dissociate the lithium salt to facilitate ionic transport and thus has a higher ionic conductivity at room temperature. Ionic conductivity of the gel polymer electrolyte is 3.3 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at room temperature. The gel polymer electrolyte remarkably improves the cycling performance of LiMn2O4-based batteries, especially at elevated temperatures. The capacity retention after the 100th cycle is 82% at 55 °C, which is much higher than that of liquid electrolyte (1 M LiPF6 in carbonate solvents). The polymer electrolyte can significantly suppress the dissolution of Mn(2+) from surface of LiMn2O4 because of strong interaction energy of Mn(2+) with PECA, which was investigated by DFT calculation.

  18. Ionic Association and Electron Spin Relaxation Rates in Aquo Gadolinium(III) Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, Sandip K.; Bryant, Robert G.

    1996-05-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance linewidth of aquo gadolinium(III) ion changes with the counter-ion identity and concentration in aqueous solutions. The EPR linewidth of 2 mMgadolinium(III) chloride increases from 49.2 to 89.0 mT when carbonate ion is added and decreases to 17.3 mT when nitrite ion is added. These observations suggest association reactions between aquo gadolinium(III) ion and anions that change the electron spin relaxation rates of the aquo ion. The concentration dependence of the gadolinium(III) EPR linewidth is consistent with binding constants for nitrite and nitrate ion with the aquo gadolinium(III) ion of 37 ± 6 and 2.3 ± 0.3 L mol-1respectively. The decreases in the EPR linewidth factors with these association reactions are difficult to understand unless the anion reactions increase the symmetry of the metal center. Although first-coordination reactions may not be ruled out, the decrease in EPR linewidth is more consistent with an outer-sphere association reaction that also reduces the coordination number of the metal center from 9 to 8.

  19. Preliminary Low Temperature Electron Irradiation of Triple Junction Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Paul M.; Mueller, Robert L.; Scrivner, Roy L.; Helizon, Roger S.

    2007-01-01

    For many years extending solar power missions far from the sun has been a challenge not only due to the rapid falloff in solar intensity (intensity varies as inverse square of solar distance) but also because some of the solar cells in an array may exhibit a LILT (low intensity low temperature) degradation that reduces array performance. Recent LILT tests performed on commercial triple junction solar cells have shown that high performance can be obtained at solar distances as great as approx. 5 AU1. As a result, their use for missions going far from the sun has become very attractive. One additional question that remains is whether the radiation damage experienced by solar cells under low temperature conditions will be more severe than when measured during room temperature radiation tests where thermal annealing may take place. This is especially pertinent to missions such as the New Frontiers mission Juno, which will experience cell irradiation from the trapped electron environment at Jupiter. Recent testing2 has shown that low temperature proton irradiation (10 MeV) produces cell degradation results similar to room temperature irradiations and that thermal annealing does not play a factor. Although it is suggestive to propose the same would be observed for low temperature electron irradiations, this has not been verified. JPL has routinely performed radiation testing on commercial solar cells and has also performed LILT testing to characterize cell performance under far sun operating conditions. This research activity was intended to combine the features of both capabilities to investigate the possibility of any room temperature annealing that might influence the measured radiation damage. Although it was not possible to maintain the test cells at a constant low temperature between irradiation and electrical measurements, it was possible to obtain measurements with the cell temperature kept well below room temperature. A fluence of 1E15 1MeV electrons was

  20. Printed circuit board metal powder filters for low electron temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, F.; Mueller, Filipp; Schouten, Raymond N.; Brauns, M.; Gang, T.; Lim, Wee Han; Lai, Nai Shyan; Dzurak, Andrew S.; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; Zwanenburg, Floris Arnoud

    2013-01-01

    We report the characterisation of printed circuit boards (PCB) metal powder filters and their influence on the effective electron temperature which is as low as 22 mK for a quantum dot in a silicon MOSFET structure in a dilution refrigerator. We investigate the attenuation behaviour (10 MHz–20 GHz) of filter made of four metal powders with a grain size below 50 μm. The room-temperature attenuation of a stainless steel powder filter is more than 80 dB at frequencies above 1.5 GHz. In all metal...

  1. Electronic structure of ionic PbFCl-type compounds under pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Kanchana, V; Rajagopalan, M

    2003-01-01

    The electronic structures of alkaline-earth fluoro-halides - SrFBr, SrFI, and CaFBr, which crystallize in the PbFCl-type structure - have been studied using the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital method within the local density approximation. The total energies were calculated using the atomic sphere approximation and were used to determine the ground state properties of these systems. The calculated ground state properties agree fairly well with the experimental results. These systems were found to be direct band gap insulators. The pressure dependence of the band gap was also studied. The band gap closes at high pressures leading to band overlap. A possible reason for the metallization in these compounds is discussed.

  2. Temperature dependence of electron impact ionization coefficient in bulk silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mowfaq Jalil

    2017-09-01

    This work exhibits a modified procedure to compute the electron impact ionization coefficient of silicon for temperatures between 77 and 800K and electric fields ranging from 70 to 400 kV/cm. The ionization coefficients are computed from the electron momentum distribution function through solving the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE). The arrangement is acquired by joining Legendre polynomial extension with BTE. The resulting BTE is solved by differences-differential method using MATLAB®. Six (X) equivalent ellipsoidal and non-parabolic valleys of the conduction band of silicon are taken into account. Concerning the scattering mechanisms, the interval acoustic scattering, non-polar optical scattering and II scattering are taken into consideration. This investigation showed that the ionization coefficients decrease with increasing temperature. The overall results are in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical reported data predominantly at high electric fields.

  3. Decoherence Assisted Single Electron Trapping at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhalawany, Ahmed; Leuenberger, Michael

    2012-02-01

    In this work, we theoretically investigate electron transport in heterostructure semiconductor nanowire (NW). We develop a new mechanism to trap an electron in a quantum dot (QD) by means of decoherence. There are six QDs in the NW. Bias voltage (Vb) is applied across the NW and gate voltage (Vg) is applied to the auxiliary QD to control single charge tunneling. The single electron dynamics along the NW is calculated by means of the generalized master equation based on the tight binding model taking into account electron LO phonon interaction (ELOPI) and thermal broadening inside the QDs. It is shown that the decoherence, which is in the pico-second (ps) regime, speeds up the trapping of the electron in the central QD with probability of 70% in less than 2 ps. Our results can be used for the implementation of high temperature single photon source (SPS) or single electron transistor (SET). We acknowledge support from NSF (Grant No. ECCS-0725514), DARPA/MTO (Grant No. HR0011-08-1-0059), NSF (Grant No. ECCS-0901784), AFOSR (Grant No. FA9550-09-1-0450), and NSF (Grant No. ECCS-1128597).

  4. Positronium formation at low temperatures: The role of trapped electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirade, T.; Maurer, F.H.J.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard

    2000-01-01

    Measurements have been carried out of electron spin densities (by electron spin resonance technique) and positronium (Ps) formation probability as functions of Co-60 gamma-irradiation dose in poly(methyl methacrylate) and linear poly(ethylene) at 77 K. We observe a linear relationship between the...... as a reaction of free positrons with trapped electrons produced by the previously injected positrons. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......Measurements have been carried out of electron spin densities (by electron spin resonance technique) and positronium (Ps) formation probability as functions of Co-60 gamma-irradiation dose in poly(methyl methacrylate) and linear poly(ethylene) at 77 K. We observe a linear relationship between...... the enhancement of the Ps formation and the density of trapped electrons in both polymers. This clear correlation strongly supports the previous suggestion by the authors that the increase in Ps formation with time (that has been observed at low temperatures for a number of polymers) can be explained...

  5. Sensitive determination of cadmium in water samples by room temperature ionic liquid-based preconcentration and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinis, Estefania M. [Laboratory of Environmental Research and Services of Mendoza (LISAMEN), (CCT - CONICET - Mendoza), Av. Ruiz Leal S/N Parque General San Martin, C.C. 131, M 5502 IRA Mendoza (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Olsina, Roberto A. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina); Altamirano, Jorgelina C. [Laboratory of Environmental Research and Services of Mendoza (LISAMEN), (CCT - CONICET - Mendoza), Av. Ruiz Leal S/N Parque General San Martin, C.C. 131, M 5502 IRA Mendoza (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza (Argentina); Wuilloud, Rodolfo G. [Laboratory of Environmental Research and Services of Mendoza (LISAMEN), (CCT - CONICET - Mendoza), Av. Ruiz Leal S/N Parque General San Martin, C.C. 131, M 5502 IRA Mendoza (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza (Argentina)], E-mail: rwuilloud@mendoza-conicet.gov.ar

    2008-10-17

    A sensitive preconcentration methodology for Cd determination at trace levels in water samples was developed in this work. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C{sub 4}MIM][PF{sub 6}]) room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) was successfully used for Cd preconcentration, as cadmium-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol complex [Cd-5-Br-PADAP]. Subsequently, Cd was back-extracted from the RTIL phase with 500 {mu}L of 0.5 mol L{sup -1} nitric acid and determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). A preconcentration factor of 40 was achieved with 20 mL of sample. The limit of detection (LOD) obtained under optimum conditions was 3 ng L{sup -1} and the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for 10 replicates at 1 {mu}g L{sup -1} Cd{sup 2+} concentration level was 3.5%, calculated at peak heights. The calibration graph was linear from concentration levels near the detection limits up to at least 5 {mu}g L{sup -1}. A correlation coefficient of 0.9997 was achieved. Validation of the methodology was performed by standard addition method and analysis of certified reference material (CRM). The method was successfully applied to the determination of Cd in river and tap water samples.

  6. A study of chemical modifications of a Nafion membrane by incorporation of different room temperature ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez de Yuso, M.V.; Rodriguez-Castellon, E. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga (Spain); Neves, L.A.; Coelhoso, I.M.; Crespo, J.G. [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal); Benavente, J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Surface and bulk chemical changes in a Nafion membrane as a result of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) incorporation were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and elemental analysis, respectively. RTILs with different physicochemical properties were selected. Two imidazolium based RTIL-cations (1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) were used to detect the effect of cation size on membrane modification, while the effect of the RTIL hydrophilic/hydrophobic character was also considered by choosing different anions. Angle resolved XPS measurements (ARXPS) were carried out varying the angle of analysis between 15 and 75 to get elemental information on the Nafion/RTIL-modified membranes interactions for a deepness of around 10 nm. Moreover, changes in the RTIL-modified membranes associated to thermal effect were also considered by analyzing the samples after their heating at 120 C for 24 h. Agreement between both chemical techniques, bulk and destructive elemental analysis and surface and non-destructive XPS, were obtained. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. High Temperature Wireless Communication And Electronics For Harsh Environment Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Beheim, G. M.; Ponchak, G. E.; Chen, L.-Y

    2007-01-01

    In order for future aerospace propulsion systems to meet the increasing requirements for decreased maintenance, improved capability, and increased safety, the inclusion of intelligence into the propulsion system design and operation becomes necessary. These propulsion systems will have to incorporate technology that will monitor propulsion component conditions, analyze the incoming data, and modify operating parameters to optimize propulsion system operations. This implies the development of sensors, actuators, and electronics, with associated packaging, that will be able to operate under the harsh environments present in an engine. However, given the harsh environments inherent in propulsion systems, the development of engine-compatible electronics and sensors is not straightforward. The ability of a sensor system to operate in a given environment often depends as much on the technologies supporting the sensor element as the element itself. If the supporting technology cannot handle the application, then no matter how good the sensor is itself, the sensor system will fail. An example is high temperature environments where supporting technologies are often not capable of operation in engine conditions. Further, for every sensor going into an engine environment, i.e., for every new piece of hardware that improves the in-situ intelligence of the components, communication wires almost always must follow. The communication wires may be within or between parts, or from the engine to the controller. As more hardware is added, more wires, weight, complexity, and potential for unreliability is also introduced. Thus, wireless communication combined with in-situ processing of data would significantly improve the ability to include sensors into high temperature systems and thus lead toward more intelligent engine systems. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is presently leading the development of electronics, communication systems, and sensors capable of prolonged stable

  8. Electronic Structure of the Bismuth Family of High Temperature Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Lisa

    2002-03-07

    High temperature superconductivity remains the central intellectual problem in condensed matter physics fifteen years after its discovery. Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) directly probes the electronic structure, and has played an important role in the field of high temperature superconductors. With the recent advances in sample growth and the photoemission technique, we are able to study the electronic structure in great detail, and address regimes that were previously inaccessible. This thesis work contains systematic photoemission studies of the electronic structure of the Bi-family of high temperature superconductors, which include the single-layer system (Bi2201), the bi-layer system (Bi2212), and the tri-layer system (Bi2223). We show that, unlike conventional BCS superconductors, phase coherence information emerges in the single particle excitation spectrum of high temperature superconductors as the superconducting peak in Bi2212. The universality and various properties of this superconducting peak are studied in various systems. We argue that the origin of the superconducting peak may provide the key to understanding the mechanism of High-Tc superconductors. In addition, we identified a new experimental energy scale in the bilayer material, the anisotropic intra-bilayer coupling energy. For a long time, it was predicted that this energy scale would cause bilayer band splitting. We observe this phenomenon, for the first time, in heavily overdoped Bi2212. This new observation requires the revision of the previous picture of the electronic excitation in the Brillouin zone boundary. As the first ARPES study of a trilayer system, various detailed electronic proper- ties of Bi2223 are examined. We show that, comparing with Bi2212, both superconducting gap and relative superconducting peak intensity become larger in Bi2223, however, the strength of the interlayer coupling within each unit cell is possibly weaker. These results suggest that the

  9. Highly water-dispersible, mixed ionic-electronic conducting, polymer acid-doped polyanilines as ionomers for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Arun; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2011-06-28

    Highly water-dispersible polymer acid-doped polyanilines have been synthesized and evaluated as an alternative for expensive Nafion ionomers in the anode of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). These polymers as ionomers lead to higher performance in single cell DMFC compared to Nafion ionomers due to mixed ionic-electronic conduction, water dispersibility, and co-catalytic activity. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  10. Applications of Silicon Carbide for High Temperature Electronics and Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Virgil B.

    1995-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is a wide bandgap material that shows great promise in high-power and high temperature electronics applications because of its high thermal conductivity and high breakdown electrical field. The excellent physical and electronic properties of SiC allows the fabrication of devices that can operate at higher temperatures and power levels than devices produced from either silicon or GaAs. Although modern electronics depends primarily upon silicon based devices, this material is not capable of handling may special requirements. Devices which operate at high speeds, at high power levels and are to be used in extreme environments at high temperatures and high radiation levels need other materials with wider bandgaps than that of silicon. Many space and terrestrial applications also have a requirement for wide bandgap materials. SiC also has great potential for high power and frequency operation due to a high saturated drift velocity. The wide bandgap allows for unique optoelectronic applications, that include blue light emitting diodes and ultraviolet photodetectors. New areas involving gas sensing and telecommunications offer significant promise. Overall, the properties of SiC make it one of the best prospects for extending the capabilities and operational regimes of the current semiconductor device technology.

  11. Temperature dependences in electron-stimulated desorption of neutral europium

    CERN Document Server

    Ageev, V N; Madey, T E

    2003-01-01

    The electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) yield for neutral europium (Eu) atoms from Eu layers adsorbed on oxygen-covered tungsten surfaces has been measured as a function of electron energy, europium coverage and degree of oxidation of tungsten, with an emphasis on effects of substrate temperature. The measurements have been carried out using a time-of-flight method and surface ionization detector. We expand on an earlier report, and compare ESD of multivalent Eu with ESD of monovalent alkali atoms, studied previously. The Eu atom ESD is a complicated function of Eu coverage, electron energy and substrate temperature. In the coverage range 0.05-0.35 monolayer (ML), overlapping resonant-like Eu atom yield peaks are observed at electron energies E sub e of 36 and 41 eV that might be associated with Eu or W shallow core level excitations. Additional resonant-like peaks are seen at E sub e of 54 and 84 eV that are associated with W 5p and 5s level excitations. The Eu atom yield peaks at 36 and 41 eV are seen only...

  12. Influence of Hydroxyl Group Position and Temperature on Thermophysical Properties of Tetraalkylammonium Hydroxide Ionic Liquids with Alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attri, Pankaj; Baik, Ku Youn.; Venkatesu, Pannuru; Kim, In Tae; Choi, Eun Ha

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have explored the thermophysical properties of tetraalkylammonium hydroxide ionic liquids (ILs) such as tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAH) and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) with isomers of butanol (1-butanol, 2-butanol and 2-methyl-2-propanol) within the temperature range 293.15–313.15 K, with interval of 5 K and over the varied concentration range of ILs. The molecular interactions between ILs and butanol isomers are essential for understanding the function of ILs in related measures and excess functions are sensitive probe for the molecular interactions. Therefore, we calculated the excess molar volume (VE) and the deviation in isentropic compressibility (Δκs) using the experimental values such as densities (ρ) and ultrasonic sound velocities (u) that are measured over the whole compositions range at five different temperatures (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K) and atmospheric pressure. These excess functions were adequately correlated by using the Redlich–Kister polynomial equation. It was observed that for all studied systems, the VE and Δκs values are negative for the whole composition range at 293.15 K. And, the excess function follows the sequence: 2-butanol>1-butanol>2-methyl-2-propanol, which reveals that (primary or secondary or tertiary) position of hydroxyl group influence the magnitude of interactions with ILs. The negative values of excess functions are contributions from the ion-dipole interaction, hydrogen bonding and packing efficiency between the ILs and butanol isomers. Hence, the position of hydroxyl group plays an important role in the interactions with ILs. The hydrogen bonding features between ILs and alcohols were analysed using molecular modelling program by using HyperChem 7. PMID:24489741

  13. Temperature dependence of electron density and electron-electron interactions in monolayer epitaxial graphene grown on SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chieh-Wen; Chuang, Chiashain; Yang, Yanfei; Elmquist, Randolph E.; Ho, Yi-Ju; Lee, Hsin-Yen; Liang, Chi-Te

    2017-06-01

    We report carrier density measurements and electron-electron (e-e) interactions in monolayer epitaxial graphene grown on SiC. The temperature (T)-independent carrier density determined from the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations clearly demonstrates that the observed logarithmic temperature dependence of the Hall slope in our system must be due to e-e interactions. Since the electron density determined from conventional SdH measurements does not depend on e-e interactions based on Kohn’s theorem, SdH experiments appear to be more reliable compared with the classical Hall effect when one studies the T dependence of the carrier density in the low T regime. On the other hand, the logarithmic T dependence of the Hall slope δR xy /δB can be used to probe e-e interactions even when the conventional conductivity method is not applicable due to strong electron-phonon scattering.

  14. Ionic effects on the temperature-force phase diagram of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amnuanpol, Sitichoke

    2017-12-01

    Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) undergoes a structural transition to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in many biologically important processes such as replication and transcription. This strand separation arises in response either to thermal fluctuations or to external forces. The roles of ions are twofold, shortening the range of the interstrand potential and renormalizing the DNA elastic modulus. The dsDNA-to-ssDNA transition is studied on the basis that dsDNA is regarded as a bound state while ssDNA is regarded as an unbound state. The ground state energy of DNA is obtained by mapping the statistical mechanics problem to the imaginary time quantum mechanics problem. In the temperature-force phase diagram the critical force F c (T) increases logarithmically with the Na + concentration in the range from 32 to 110 mM. Discussing this logarithmic dependence of F c (T) within the framework of polyelectrolyte theory, it inevitably suggests a constraint on the difference between the interstrand separation and the length per unit charge during the dsDNA-to-ssDNA transition.

  15. Determination of gas temperature in the plasmatron channel according to the known distribution of electronic temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimov Alexander V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method to calculate the temperature distribution of heavy particles in the channel of the plasma torch on the known distribution of the electronic temperature has been proposed. The results can be useful for a number of model calculations in determining the most effective conditions of gas blowing through the plasma torch with the purpose of heating the heavy component. This approach allows us to understand full details about the heating of cold gas, inpouring the plasma, and to estimate correctly the distribution of the gas temperature inside the channel.

  16. Packaging Technologies for High Temperature Electronics and Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liangyu; Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews ceramic substrates and thick-film metallization based packaging technologies in development for 500degC silicon carbide (SiC) electronics and sensors. Prototype high temperature ceramic chip-level packages and printed circuit boards (PCBs) based on ceramic substrates of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum nitride (AlN) have been designed and fabricated. These ceramic substrate-based chiplevel packages with gold (Au) thick-film metallization have been electrically characterized at temperatures up to 550degC. A 96% alumina based edge connector for a PCB level subsystem interconnection has also been demonstrated recently. The 96% alumina packaging system composed of chip-level packages and PCBs has been tested with high temperature SiC devices at 500degC for over 10,000 hours. In addition to tests in a laboratory environment, a SiC JFET with a packaging system composed of a 96% alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board mounted on a data acquisition circuit board was launched as a part of the MISSE-7 suite to the International Space Station via a Shuttle mission. This packaged SiC transistor was successfully tested in orbit for eighteen months. A spark-plug type sensor package designed for high temperature SiC capacitive pressure sensors was developed. This sensor package combines the high temperature interconnection system with a commercial high temperature high pressure stainless steel seal gland (electrical feed-through). Test results of a packaged high temperature capacitive pressure sensor at 500degC are also discussed. In addition to the pressure sensor package, efforts for packaging high temperature SiC diode-based gas chemical sensors are in process.

  17. Temperature dependence of the electronic structure of semiconductors and insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poncé, S., E-mail: samuel.pon@gmail.com; Gillet, Y.; Laflamme Janssen, J.; Gonze, X. [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility and Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences, Université catholique de Louvain, Chemin des étoiles 8, bte L07.03.01, B-1348 Louvain-la-neuve (Belgium); Marini, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Via Salaria Km 29.3, CP 10, 00016 Monterotondo Stazione (Italy); Verstraete, M. [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility and Physique des matériaux et nanostructures, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 Août 17, B-4000 Liège (Belgium)

    2015-09-14

    The renormalization of electronic eigenenergies due to electron-phonon coupling (temperature dependence and zero-point motion effect) is sizable in many materials with light atoms. This effect, often neglected in ab initio calculations, can be computed using the perturbation-based Allen-Heine-Cardona theory in the adiabatic or non-adiabatic harmonic approximation. After a short description of the recent progresses in this field and a brief overview of the theory, we focus on the issue of phonon wavevector sampling convergence, until now poorly understood. Indeed, the renormalization is obtained numerically through a slowly converging q-point integration. For non-zero Born effective charges, we show that a divergence appears in the electron-phonon matrix elements at q → Γ, leading to a divergence of the adiabatic renormalization at band extrema. This problem is exacerbated by the slow convergence of Born effective charges with electronic wavevector sampling, which leaves residual Born effective charges in ab initio calculations on materials that are physically devoid of such charges. Here, we propose a solution that improves this convergence. However, for materials where Born effective charges are physically non-zero, the divergence of the renormalization indicates a breakdown of the adiabatic harmonic approximation, which we assess here by switching to the non-adiabatic harmonic approximation. Also, we study the convergence behavior of the renormalization and develop reliable extrapolation schemes to obtain the converged results. Finally, the adiabatic and non-adiabatic theories, with corrections for the slow Born effective charge convergence problem (and the associated divergence) are applied to the study of five semiconductors and insulators: α-AlN, β-AlN, BN, diamond, and silicon. For these five materials, we present the zero-point renormalization, temperature dependence, phonon-induced lifetime broadening, and the renormalized electronic band structure.

  18. Heat Transport in Interacting Magnetized Electron Temperature Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydora, Richard; Karbashewski, Scott; van Compernolle, Bart; Poulos, Matt; Morales, George

    2017-10-01

    Results are presented from basic heat transport experiments and numerical simulations of multiple magnetized electron temperature filaments in close proximity. This arrangement samples cross-field transport from nonlinear drift-Alfven waves and large scale convective cells. Experiments are performed in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA. The setup consists of three biased CeB6 crystal cathodes that inject low energy electrons (below ionization energy) along a strong magnetic field into a pre-existing large and cold plasma forming 3 electron temperature filaments embedded in a colder plasma, and far from the machine walls. A triangular spatial pattern is chosen for the thermal sources and multiple axial and transverse probe measurements allow for determination of the cross-field mode patterns and axial filament length. We have characterized the spontaneous thermal waves and drift-Alfven waves that develop on an individual filament when a single source is activated. When the 3 sources are activated, and in close proximity, a complex wave pattern emerges due to interference of the various wave modes leading to enhanced cross-field transport and chaotic mixing. Steep thermal gradients develop in a periphery region of the filaments where higher azimuthal wavenumber drift-Alfven modes are excited. Detailed spectral analysis and comparison with nonlinear fluid and gyrokinetic simulations will be reported. Work Supported by NSERC, Canada and NSF-DOE, USA.

  19. Regulation of electron temperature gradient turbulence by zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asahi, Y., E-mail: y.asahi@nr.titech.ac.jp; Tsutsui, H.; Tsuji-Iio, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Ishizawa, A.; Watanabe, T.-H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2014-05-15

    Turbulent transport caused by electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes was investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulations. It was found that the ETG turbulence can be regulated by meso-scale zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes (TEMs), which are excited with much smaller growth rates than those of ETG modes. The zonal flows of which radial wavelengths are in between the ion and the electron banana widths are not shielded by trapped ions nor electrons, and hence they are effectively driven by the TEMs. It was also shown that an E × B shearing rate of the TEM-driven zonal flows is larger than or comparable to the growth rates of long-wavelength ETG modes and TEMs, which make a main contribution to the turbulent transport before excitation of the zonal flows.

  20. Electronic structure calculations and physicochemical experiments quantify the competitive liquid ion association and probe stabilisation effects for nitrobenzospiropyran in phosphonium-based ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Damien; Coleman, Simon; Diamond, Dermot; Byrne, Robert

    2011-04-07

    Liquid ion association in ionic liquids (ILs) has been examined using a comprehensive series of electronic structure calculations that measure the relative extents of ion association and probe stabilisation for the photochromic dye nitrobenzospiropyran (BSP) in a range of ILs featuring both long-tailed phosphonium cations and short-tailed imidazolium cations, paired with both chloride and NTf(2) anions. New physicochemical experiments measured the photochromic properties of BSP in the phosphonium-based room temperature ILs. Taken together, the computed complexation energies and measured spectroscopic properties support recent Walden plots of unusual conductivity-viscosity behaviour obtained for the same ILs and reveal some new features in the atom-scale structure and energetics of local, ion-ion and ion-molecule interactions. Calculations show inter-ion interactions strengthened by between 0.4 and 0.7 eV as stronger constituent ions are used, which contributes to the longer range rigidity of the Cl-based IL structure as reflected in the doubled |zwitterion → closed| probe relaxation time measured for Cl(-)vs. NTf(2)(-) in phosphonium-based ILs. Calculations further reveal a similar, approximately 0.6-0.7 eV maximum "residual" IL headgroup-mediated probe stabilisation potentially available for the anion-probe-cation complexes via the stabilising interaction that remains following the "quenching" interaction between the IL anion and cation. This potential stabilisation, however, is offset by both longer-range charge networks, beyond the scope of the current purely quantum mechanical simulations, and also energetic penalties for disruption of the highly-interdigitated alkyl tail networks in the phosphonium-based ILs which may be estimated from known diffusion data. Overall the electronic calculations of local, individual ion-ion and ion-molecule interactions serve to clarify some of the measured physicochemical properties and provide new data for the development of

  1. Using IDA to Understand Electron Temperature Structures in High Temperature Discharges in the Madison Symmetric Torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusch, L. M.; Galante, M. E.; den Hartog, D. J.; Franz, P.; Johnson, J. R.; McGarry, M. B.; Stephens, H. D.

    2014-10-01

    The Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) Reversed-Field Pinch is equipped with two independent electron temperature (Te) diagnostics: Thomson scattering (TS) and double-filter soft x-ray (SXR). Both diagnostics are able to measure Te at a rate up to 25 kHz and are in good qualitative agreement in the hot plasma core, where Te > 1 keV. We are able to combine information from both TS and SXR diagnostics along with prior physics knowledge using integrated data analysis techniques (IDA) [R. Fischer and A. Dinklage, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4237 (2004)] to improve the precision and utility of Te measurements on MST. Using IDA, there is a factor of 4 improvement in the uncertainty of all temperature measurements. We have also implemented a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis for analyzing the various temperature structures that MST is capable of sustaining. We have compared emissivity maps and flux surface reconstructions to the electron temperatures from several discharges to characterize the phenomenology of temperature structures in high temperature plasmas in MST. Work supported by US DOE and NSF.

  2. Screen-Printed Graphite Electrodes as Low-Cost Devices for Oxygen Gas Detection in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiao Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Screen-printed graphite electrodes (SPGEs have been used for the first time as platforms to detect oxygen gas in room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs. Up until now, carbon-based SPEs have shown inferior behaviour compared to platinum and gold SPEs for gas sensing with RTIL solvents. The electrochemical reduction of oxygen (O2 in a range of RTILs has therefore been explored on home-made SPGEs, and is compared to the behaviour on commercially-available carbon SPEs (C-SPEs. Six common RTILs are initially employed for O2 detection using cyclic voltammetry (CV, and two RTILs ([C2mim][NTf2] and [C4mim][PF6] chosen for further detailed analytical studies. Long-term chronoamperometry (LTCA was also performed to test the ability of the sensor surface for real-time gas monitoring. Both CV and LTCA gave linear calibration graphs—for CV in the 10–100% vol. range, and for LTCA in the 0.1–20% vol. range—on the SPGE. The responses on the SPGE were far superior to the commercial C-SPEs; more instability in the electrochemical responses were observed on the C-SPEs, together with some breaking-up or dissolution of the electrode surface materials. This study highlights that not all screen-printed ink formulations are compatible with RTIL solvents for longer-term electrochemical experiments, and that the choice of RTIL is also important. Overall, the low-cost SPGEs appear to be promising platforms for the detection of O2, particularly in [C4mim][PF6].

  3. Ultrafast relaxation and reaction of diiodide anion after photodissociation of triiodide in room-temperature ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Yoshio; Terazima, Masahide; Kimura, Yoshifumi

    2012-08-02

    Vibrational dephasing, vibrational relaxation, and rotational relaxation of diiodide (I(2)(-)) after photodissociation of triiodide (I(3)(-)) in room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) were investigated by ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. The vibrational energy relaxation (VER) rate of I(2)(-) produced by the photodissociation reaction of I(3)(-) was determined from the spectral profile of the transient absorption. The rates in RTILs were slightly slower than those in conventional liquids. On the other hand, the coherent vibration of I(2)(-) was not observed in RTILs, and the vibrational dephasing of the photoproduced I(2)(-) was accelerated. This was explained by the interaction between I(2)(-) and I consisting of a caged contact pair in RTILs. The orientational relaxation time of I(2)(-) determined by the transient absorption anisotropy was much longer in RTILs than in conventional liquids due to their high viscosities although the relaxation time was shorter than the prediction from the Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) theory. The deviation from the SED prediction was interpreted by the frequency dependence of the shear stress acting on the molecule. The dynamics of I(2)(-) in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide ([BMIm]I) were quite different from those in other conventional RTILs: the coherent vibration of I(2)(-) was observed for the time profile of the transient absorption and the initial value of the anisotropy was reduced to 0.31 from 0.36 in conventional RTILs. These results suggest that an ultrafast reaction between the photofragment I and the solvent I(-) may occur during the photodissociation process of I(3)(-). The anomaly in the ground state coherent vibration and steady state Raman spectrum of I(3)(-) also suggest the possibility that I(3)(-) and I(-) can be located in vicinity and interact strongly with each other in [BMIm]I.

  4. In situ direct observation of photocorrosion in ZnO crystals in ionic liquid using a laser-equipped high-voltage electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ishioka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ZnO photocatalysts in water react with environmental water molecules and corrode under illumination. ZnO nanorods in water can also grow because of water splitting induced by UV irradiation. To investigate their morphological behavior caused by crystal growth and corrosion, here we developed a new laser-equipped high-voltage electron microscope and observed crystal ZnO nanorods immersed in ionic liquid. Exposing the specimen holder to a laser with a wavelength of 325 nm, we observed the photocorrosion in situ at the atomic scale for the first time. This experiment revealed that Zn and O atoms near the interface between the ZnO nanorods and the ionic liquid tended to dissolve into the liquid. The polarity and facet of the nanorods were strongly related to photocorrosion and crystal growth.

  5. Low latitude electron temperature observed by the CHAMP satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolle, Claudia; Truhlik, V.; Richards, P.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years a growing number of satellite measurements in the ionosphere and thermosphere provide long and continuous data records which enable the investigation of climatological trends and the quantification of regular variations or isolated events. The CHAMP mission provides a valuable base...... Te morning overshoot (MO). Both, data and model revealed an anti-correlation between the equatorial MO amplitude and solar EUV flux at these altitudes. The CHAMP observations also reveal a post sunset electron temperature anomaly in analogy to the equatorial ionisation anomaly at altitudes below 400...

  6. High-Temperature Electronic Materials: Silicon Carbide and Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willander, Magnus; Friesel, Milan; Wahab, Qamar-Ul; Straumal, Boris

    The physical and chemical properties of wide-band-gap semiconductors make these materials an ideal choice for device fabrication for applications in many different areas, e.g. light emitters, high-temperature and high-power electronics, high-power microwave devices, micro-electromechanical system (MEM) technology, and substrates for semiconductor preparation. These semiconductors have been recognized for several decades as being suitable for these applications, but until recently the low material quality has not allowed the fabrication of high-quality devices. In this chapter, we review the wide-band-gap semiconductors, silicon carbide and diamond.

  7. Calculation of the high-temperature strength of complexly alloyed nickel alloys using equations of the system of nonpolarized ionic radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsepyan, S. V.; Lomberg, B. S.; Baburina, E. V.

    1995-06-01

    Modern complexly alloyed high-temperature nickel-base alloys contain up to 14 alloying elements. The complex composition ensures fulfillment of strict and often contradictory requirements imposed on the materials of critical parts of gas turbine engines (GTE). However, multi-component alloying creates considerable difficulties in the development of new compositions with specified characteristics or in the optimization of existing alloys. The present work is devoted to calculating the high-temperature strength of nickel alloys by means of the system of nonpolarized ionic radii (SNIR).

  8. Ultrasound-assisted temperature-controlled ionic liquid emulsification microextraction coupled with capillary electrophoresis for the determination of parabens in personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Teng; Li, Zheng; Jia, Qiong; Zhou, Weihong

    2016-07-01

    We developed a CE and ultrasound-assisted temperature-controlled ionic liquid emulsification microextraction method for the determination of four parabens (methyl paraben, ethyl paraben, propyl paraben, and butyl paraben) in personal care products including mouthwash and toning lotion. In the proposed extraction procedure, ionic liquid (IL, 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) was used as extraction solvent, moreover, no disperser solvent was needed. Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency including volume of IL, heating temperature, ultrasonic time, extraction time, sample pH, ionic strength, and centrifugation time were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the method was found to be linear over the range of 3-500 ng/mL with coefficient of determination (R(2) ) in the range of 0.9990-0.9998. The LODs and LOQs for the four parabens were 0.45-0.72 ng/mL and 1.50-2.40 ng/mL, respectively. Intraday and interday precisions (RSDs, n = 5) were in the range of 5.4-6.8% and 7.0-8.7%, respectively. The recoveries of parabens at different spiked levels ranged from 71.9 to 119.2% with RSDs less than 9.5%. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Structures of self-assembled amphiphilic peptide-heterodimers: effects of concentration, pH, temperature and ionic strength

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Zhongli

    2010-01-01

    The amphiphilic double-tail peptides AXG were studied regarding secondary structure and self-assembly in aqueous solution. The two tails A = Ala 6 and G = Gly6 are connected by a central pair X of hydrophilic residues, X being two aspartic acids in ADG, two lysines in AKG and two arginines in ARG. The peptide AD (Ala6Asp) served as a single-tail reference. The secondary structure of the four peptides was characterized by circular dichroism spectroscopy under a wide range of peptide concentrations (0.01-0.8 mM), temperatures (20-98 °C), pHs (4-9.5) and ionic strengths. In salt-free water both ADG and AD form a β-sheet type of structure at high concentration, low pH and low temperature, in a peptide-peptide driven assembly of individual peptides. The transition has a two-state character for ADG but not for AD, which indicates that the added tail in ADG makes the assembly more cooperative. By comparison the secondary structures of AKG and ARG are comparatively stable over the large range of conditions covered. According to dynamic light scattering the two-tail peptides form supra-molecular aggregates in water, but high-resolution AFM-imaging indicate that ordered (self-assembled) structures are only formed when salt (0.1 M NaCl) is added. Since the CD-studies indicate that the NaCl has only a minor effect on the peptide secondary structure we propose that the main role of the added salt is to screen the electrostatic repulsion between the peptide building blocks. According to the AFM images ADG and AKG support a correlation between nanofibers and a β-sheet or unordered secondary structure, whereas ARG forms fibers in spite of lacking β-sheet structure. Since the AKG and ARG double-tail peptides self-assemble into distinct nanostructures while their secondary structures are resistant to environment factors, these new peptides show potential as robust building blocks for nano-materials in various medical and nanobiotechnical applications. © 2010 The Royal Society

  10. Direct Synthesis of Dimethyl Carbonate from Carbon Dioxide and Methanol at Room Temperature Using Imidazolium Hydrogen Carbonate Ionic Liquid as a Recyclable Catalyst and Dehydrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianxiang; Hu, Xingbang; Wu, Dongsheng; Li, Rui; Yang, Guoqiang; Wu, Youting

    2017-05-09

    The direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from CO2 and CH3 OH was achieved at room temperature with 74 % CH3 OH conversion in the presence of an imidazolium hydrogen carbonate ionic liquid ([Cn Cm Im][HCO3 ]). Experimental and theoretical results reveal that [Cn Cm Im][HCO3 ] can transform quickly into a CO2 adduct, which serves as an effective catalyst and dehydrant. Its dehydration ability is reversible. The energy barrier of the rate-determining step for the DMC synthesis is only 21.7 kcal mol(-1) . The ionic liquid can be reused easily without a significant loss of its catalytic and dehydrating ability. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Ionic structures and transport properties of hot dense W and U plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yong; Yuan, Jianmin

    2016-10-01

    We have combined the average-atom model with the hyper-netted chain approximation (AAHNC) to describe the electronic and ionic structure of uranium and tungsten in the hot dense matter regime. When the electronic structure is described within the average-atom model, the effects of others ions on the electronic structure are considered by the correlation functions. And the ionic structure is calculated though using the hyper-netted chain (HNC) approximation. The ion-ion pair potential is calculated using the modified Gordon-Kim model based on the electronic density distribution in the temperature-depended density functional theory. And electronic and ionic structures are determined self-consistently. On the basis of the ion-ion pair potential, we perform the classical (CMD) and Langevin (LMD) molecular dynamics to simulate the ionic transport properties, such as ionic self-diffusion and shear viscosity coefficients, through the ionic velocity correlation functions. Due that the free electrons become more and more with increasing the plasma temperature, the influence of the electron-ion collisions on the transport properties become more and more important.

  12. Temperature and chain length dependence of ultrafast vibrational dynamics of thiocyanate in alkylimidazolium ionic liquids: A random walk on a rugged energy landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinzer, Thomas; Garrett-Roe, Sean

    2017-11-01

    Ultrafast two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy of a thiocyanate vibrational probe (SCN-) was used to investigate local dynamics in alkylimidazolium bis-[trifluoromethylsulfonyl]imide ionic liquids ([Imn,1][Tf2N], n = 2, 4, 6) at temperatures from 5 to 80 °C. The rate of frequency fluctuations reported by SCN- increases with increasing temperature and decreasing alkyl chain length. Temperature-dependent correlation times scale proportionally to temperature-dependent bulk viscosities of each ionic liquid studied. A multimode Brownian oscillator model demonstrates that very low frequency (modes primarily drive the observed spectral diffusion and that these modes broaden and blue shift on average with increasing temperature. An Arrhenius analysis shows activation barriers for local motions around the probe between 5.5 and 6.5 kcal/mol that are very similar to those for translational diffusion of ions. [Im6,1][Tf2N] shows an unexpected decrease in activation energy compared to [Im4,1][Tf2N] that may be related to mesoscopically ordered polar and nonpolar domains. A model of dynamics on a rugged potential energy landscape provides a unifying description of the observed Arrhenius behavior and the Brownian oscillator model of the low frequency modes.

  13. Effect of sintering temperature on the microstructure and ionic conductivity of Ce0.8Sm0.1Ba0.1O2-δ electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Anwar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of sintering temperature on the microstructure and ionic conductivity of codoped ceria electrolyte with barium and samarium as dopants. The electrolyte (Ce0.8Sm0.1Ba0.1O2-δ powder was synthesized using the citric acid-nitrate combustion method and calcined at 900 °C for 5 h. The calcined electrolyte exhibited a cubic fluorite crystal structure with some impurity phases. The calcined powder was then pressed into cylindrical pellets using uniaxial die-pressing. The pellets were sintered at three different temperatures, i.e., 1200, 1300 and 1400 °C for 5 h. Microstructural analysis of the pellets showed that the average grain size increased with the increase in sintering temperature. The sintered densities of the pellets were measured by Archimedes’ method, and the relative density values were within the range of 78 %TD to 87 %TD as the sintering temperature increased from 1200 to 1400 °C. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis showed that conductivity increased with the increase in sintering temperature, but no considerable change in conductivity was observed for the pellets sintered at 1300 and 1400 °C. The results revealed that the electrolyte pellet sintered at 1300 °C exhibited the ionic conductivity of 0.005 S/cm with lowest activation energy of 0.7275 eV.

  14. Electron attachment to POCl3: Measurement and theoretical analysis of rate constants and branching ratios as a function of gas pressure and temperature, electron temperature, and electron energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doren, Jane M.; Friedman, Jeffery F.; Miller, Thomas M.; Viggiano, A. A.; Denifl, S.; Scheier, P.; Märk, T. D.; Troe, J.

    2006-03-01

    Two experimental techniques, electron swarm and electron beam, have been applied to the problem of electron attachment to POCl3, with results indicating that there is a competition between dissociation of the resonant POCl3-* state and collisional stabilization of the parent anion. In the electron beam experiment at zero electron energy, the fragment ion POCl2- is the dominant ion product of attachment (96%), under single-collision conditions. Small amounts (˜2% each) of POCl3- and Cl - were observed. POCl3- and POCl2- ion products were observed only at zero electron energy, but higher-energy resonances were recorded for POCl-, Cl-, and Cl2- ion products. In the electron swarm experiment, which was carried out in 0.4-7Torr of He buffer gas, the parent anion branching ratio increased significantly with pressure and decreased with temperature. The electron attachment rate constant at 297K was measured to be (2.5±0.6)×10-7cm3s-1, with ion products POCl2- (71%) and POCl3- (29%) in 1Torr of He gas. The rate constant decreased as the electron temperature was increased above 1500K. Theory is developed for (a) the unimolecular dissociation of the nascent POCl3-* and (b) a stepladder collisional stabilization mechanism using the average energy transferred per collision as a parameter. These ideas were then used to model the experimental data. The modeling showed that D0o(Cl -POCl2-) and EA(POCl3) must be the same within ±0.03eV.

  15. Numerical simulation of transient moisture and temperature distribution in polycarbonate and aluminum electronic enclosures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shojaee Nasirabadi, Parizad; Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    The challenge of developing a reliable electronic product requires huge amounts of resources and knowledge. Temperature and thermal features directly affect the life of electronic products. Furthermore, moisture can be damaging for electronic components. Nowadays, computational fluid dynamics (CF...

  16. High lithium ionic conductivity in the lithium halide hydrates Li3-n(OHn)Cl (0.83 < or = n < or = 2) and Li3-n(OHn)Br (1 < or = n < or = 2) at ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwering, Georg; Hönnerscheid, Andreas; van Wüllen, Leo; Jansen, Martin

    2003-04-14

    Lithium ionic conductivity and phase transitions in a series of lithium halides hydrates and hydroxides with general formula Li3-n(OHn)X (0.83 antiperovskite structure or are closely related to this structure type. With the exception of LiCl. H2O, all compounds with integer lithium content exhibit good lithium ionic conductivity in their high temperature cubic phases above T = 33 degrees C. Lithium doping of samples LiX.H2O and Li2(OH)X leads to a suppression of the phase transition into the noncubic phases and the good ionic conductivity is extended down to lower temperatures (T < 0 degree C). Thus, lithium doping of the lithium halide hydrates provides a promising tool for tailoring the ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures to its optimum value.

  17. π-electron S = ½ quantum spin-liquid state in an ionic polyaromatic hydrocarbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabayashi, Yasuhiro; Menelaou, Melita; Tamura, Hiroyuki; Takemori, Nayuta; Koretsune, Takashi; Štefančič, Aleš; Klupp, Gyöngyi; Buurma, A Johan C; Nomura, Yusuke; Arita, Ryotaro; Arčon, Denis; Rosseinsky, Matthew J; Prassides, Kosmas

    2017-07-01

    Molecular solids with cooperative electronic properties based purely on π electrons from carbon atoms offer a fertile ground in the search for exotic states of matter, including unconventional superconductivity and quantum magnetism. The field was ignited by reports of high-temperature superconductivity in materials obtained by the reaction of alkali metals with polyaromatic hydrocarbons, such as phenanthrene and picene, but the composition and structure of any compound in this family remained unknown. Here we isolate the binary caesium salts of phenanthrene, Cs(C14H10) and Cs2(C14H10), to show that they are multiorbital strongly correlated Mott insulators. Whereas Cs2(C14H10) is diamagnetic because of orbital polarization, Cs(C14H10) is a Heisenberg antiferromagnet with a gapped spin-liquid state that emerges from the coupled highly frustrated Δ-chain magnetic topology of the alternating-exchange spiral tubes of S = ½ (C14H10)•- radical anions. The absence of long-range magnetic order down to 1.8 K (T/J ≈ 0.02; J is the dominant exchange constant) renders the compound an excellent candidate for a spin-½ quantum-spin liquid (QSL) that arises purely from carbon π electrons.

  18. π-electron S = ½ quantum spin-liquid state in an ionic polyaromatic hydrocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabayashi, Yasuhiro; Menelaou, Melita; Tamura, Hiroyuki; Takemori, Nayuta; Koretsune, Takashi; Štefančič, Aleš; Klupp, Gyöngyi; Buurma, A. Johan C.; Nomura, Yusuke; Arita, Ryotaro; Arčon, Denis; Rosseinsky, Matthew J.; Prassides, Kosmas

    2017-07-01

    Molecular solids with cooperative electronic properties based purely on π electrons from carbon atoms offer a fertile ground in the search for exotic states of matter, including unconventional superconductivity and quantum magnetism. The field was ignited by reports of high-temperature superconductivity in materials obtained by the reaction of alkali metals with polyaromatic hydrocarbons, such as phenanthrene and picene, but the composition and structure of any compound in this family remained unknown. Here we isolate the binary caesium salts of phenanthrene, Cs(C14H10) and Cs2(C14H10), to show that they are multiorbital strongly correlated Mott insulators. Whereas Cs2(C14H10) is diamagnetic because of orbital polarization, Cs(C14H10) is a Heisenberg antiferromagnet with a gapped spin-liquid state that emerges from the coupled highly frustrated Δ-chain magnetic topology of the alternating-exchange spiral tubes of S = ½ (C14H10)•- radical anions. The absence of long-range magnetic order down to 1.8 K (T/J ≈ 0.02 J is the dominant exchange constant) renders the compound an excellent candidate for a spin-½ quantum-spin liquid (QSL) that arises purely from carbon π electrons.

  19. Phonons, electronic charge response and electron-phonon interaction in the high-temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, Claus

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the complete phonon dispersion, the phonon induced electronic charge response and the corresponding self-consistent change of the crystal potential an electron feels as a direct measure of the electron-phonon interaction in the high-temperature superconductors within a microscopic model in the framework of linear response theory. Moreover, dielectric and infrared properties are calculated. The experimentally observed strong renormalization of the in-plane oxygen bond-stretching modes which appears upon doping in the high-temperature superconductors is discussed. It is shown that the characteristic softening, indicating a strong nonlocal electron-phonon interaction, is most likely a generic effect of the CuO plane and is driven by a nonlocal coupling of the displaced ions to the localized charge-fluctuations at the Cu and the Oxy ions. At hand of the oxygen bond-stretching modes it is illustrated how lattice-, charge- and spin-degrees of freedom may act synergetically for anisotropic pairing in the high-temperature superconductors. The different behaviour of these modes during the insulator-metal transition via the underdoped phase is calculated and from a comparison of these generic modes in the different phases conclusions about the electronic state are drawn. For the non-cuprate potassium doped high-temperature superconductor Ba-Bi-O also a very strong and anisotropic renormalization of the oxygen bond-stretching modes is predicted. In another investigation c-axis polarized infrared- and Raman-active modes of the HTSC's are calculated in terms of charge fluctuations and anisotropic dipole-fluctuations. Mode assignments discussed controversially in the literature are proposed. Finally, interlayer phonons propagating along the c-axis and their accompanying charge response are investigated. Depending on the strength of the interlayer coupling calculations are performed ranging from the static, adiabatic response regime to the non-adiabatic regime

  20. Room-temperature ionic liquids as electrolytes in electroanalytical determination of traces of 2-furaldehyde from oil and related wastewaters from refining processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Beigi, Ali Akbar Miran; Teymouri, Mohammad; Ghorbani, Yousefali; Irandoust, Mohsen; Mehdizadeh, Ali

    2010-04-15

    Three different ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [EMIM][BF(4)]; 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate, [BMIM][OTf]; and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [bmpyrr][NTf(2)] were studied as electrolytes in the electroanalytical quantification of 2-furaldehyde using square wave and differential pulse voltammetries. On applying a cathodic scan, a well-defined 2-electron wave was observed corresponding to the reduction of 2-furaldehyde to furfuryl alcohol. The electrochemical stability of the ionic liquids as electrolytes for analytical aspects and electrokinetic studies was investigated using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The measurements were carried out in a designed double-wall three-electrode cell, using two platinum wires as the quasi-reference and counter electrodes. Differential pulse voltammetry was found to be the most sensitive method at GCE. The detection limits of 1.4, 19.0 and 2.5 microg g(-1) were obtained for the determination of 2-furaldehyde in [EMIM][BF(4)], [BMIM][OTf] and [BMPyrr][NTf(2)], respectively. At a concentration of 50 microg g(-1), the maximum relative standard deviation (n=3) was 4.9%. The effect of water content of the ionic liquids on their potential windows and waveforms was also investigated. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of 2-furaldehyde in real samples, especially in oil matrices. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis, structure, physicochemical characterization and electronic structure of thio-lithium super ionic conductors, Li{sub 4}GeS{sub 4} and Li{sub 4}SnS{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacNeil, Joseph H. [Department of Chemistry, Chatham University, 1 Woodland Road, Pittsburgh, PA 15232 (United States); Massi, Danielle M.; Zhang, Jian-Han; Rosmus, Kimberly A.; Brunetta, Carl D.; Gentile, Taylor A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, 600 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); Aitken, Jennifer A., E-mail: aitkenj@duq.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, 600 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • The title compounds were prepared by a high-temperature, direct-combination route. • The room temperature structure of Li{sub 4}SnS{sub 4} is reported in space group Pnma. • The Li(2)S{sub 4} tetrahedra invert upon going from the RT to low temperature structure. • Electronic structure calculations indicate the Li–S bonding to be primarily ionic. • Li{sub 4}GeS{sub 4} and Li{sub 4}SnS{sub 4} have shown to be stable up to ∼850 and 950 °C respectively. -- Abstract: Li{sub 4}SnS{sub 4} and Li{sub 4}GeS{sub 4} were synthesized by single-step, high-temperature, solid-state methods. The room temperature (296 K) structures of both compounds were determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction, and were found to be isostructural. Both room temperature structures exhibit significant variations from a 100 K structure of Li{sub 4}SnS{sub 4} published recently by Kaib et al. (Chem. Mater. 24 (2012) 2211–2219). Differential thermal analysis (DTA) shows that in the absence of air, both Li{sub 4}SnS{sub 4} and Li{sub 4}GeS{sub 4} are thermally stable at least up to their melting points of 858 °C (Li{sub 4}GeS{sub 4}) and 958 °C (Li{sub 4}SnS{sub 4}). The band gaps for Li{sub 4}GeS{sub 4} and Li{sub 4}SnS{sub 4} are 4.13 eV and 3.54 eV respectively, measured using optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the UV/Vis/NIR regions. Electronic band structure calculations using density functional theory as implemented in CASTEP predict an indirect band gap for Li{sub 4}GeS{sub 4} and a direct band gap for Li{sub 4}SnS{sub 4}. The (Sn/Ge)–S bonds were determined to have significant covalent bonding character, while the Li–S bonds are primarily ionic in nature.

  2. Liquid-liquid extraction of Pu(IV), U(VI) and Am(III) using malonamide in room temperature ionic liquid as diluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Alok; Venkatesan, K A; Srinivasan, T G; Vasudeva Rao, P R

    2012-06-30

    The extraction behavior of U(VI), Pu(IV) and Am(III) from nitric acid medium by a solution of N,N-dimethyl-N,N-dioctyl-2-(2-hexyloxyethyl)malonamide (DMDOHEMA) in the room temperature ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (C(4)mimNTf(2)), was studied. The distribution ratio of these actinides in DMDOHEMA/C(4)mimNTf(2) was measured as a function of various parameters such as the concentration of nitric acid, DMDOHEMA, NTf(2)(-), alkyl chain length of ionic liquid. The extraction of actinides in the absence of DMDOHEMA was insignificant and the distribution ratio achieved in conjunction with C(4)mimNTf(2), was remarkable. The separation factor of U(VI) and Pu(IV) achieved with the use of DMDOHEMA, ionic liquid was compared with Am(III) and other fission products. The stoichiometry of the metal-solvate was determined to be 1:2 for U(VI) and Pu(IV) and 1:3 for Am(III). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantum state-resolved molecular scattering of NO (2Π1/2 at the gas-[Cnmim][Tf2N] room temperature ionic liquid interface: Dependence on alkyl chain length, collision energy, and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Zutz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs represent a promising class of chemically tunable, low vapor pressure solvents with myriad kinetic applications that depend sensitively on the nature of gas-molecule interactions at the liquid surface. This paper reports on rovibronically inelastic dynamics at the gas-RTIL interface, colliding supersonically cooled hyperthermal molecular beams of NO (Π1/22, N = 0 from 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide (or [Cnmim][Tf2N] and probing the scattered NO molecules via laser induced fluorescence (LIF from the A(2Σ state. Specifically, inelastic energy transfer into NO rovibrational and electronic degrees of freedom is explored as a function of RTIL alkyl chain length (n, incident collision energy (Einc and surface temperature (Ts. At low collision energies (Einc = 2.7(9 kcal/mol, the scattered NO molecules exhibit a rotational temperature (Trot systematically colder than Ts for all chain lengths, which signals the presence of non-equilibrium dynamics in the desorption channel. At high collision energies (Einc = 20(2 kcal/mol, microscopic branching into trapping/desorption (TD and impulsive scattering (IS pathways is clearly evident, with the TD fraction (α exhibiting a step-like increase between short (n = 2, 4 and long (n = 8, 12, 16 alkyl chains consistent with theoretical predictions. For all hydrocarbon chain lengths and RTIL temperature conditions, NO rotational excitation in the IS channel yields hyperthermal albeit Boltzmann-like distributions well described by a “temperature” (TIS = 900 -1200 K that decreases systematically with increasing n. Non-adiabatic, collision induced hopping between ground and excited spin-orbit states is found to be independent of RTIL alkyl chain length and yet increase with collision energy. The scattering data confirm previous experimental reports of an enhanced presence of the alkyl tail at the gas-RTIL interface with increasing n, as well as

  4. Ionic liquids in tribology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Ichiro

    2009-06-24

    Current research on room-temperature ionic liquids as lubricants is described. Ionic liquids possess excellent properties such as non-volatility, non-flammability, and thermo-oxidative stability. The potential use of ionic liquids as lubricants was first proposed in 2001 and approximately 70 articles pertaining to fundamental research on ionic liquids have been published through May 2009. A large majority of the cations examined in this area are derived from 1,3-dialkylimidazolium, with a higher alkyl group on the imidazolium cation being beneficial for good lubrication, while it reduces the thermo-oxidative stability. Hydrophobic anions provide both good lubricity and significant thermo-oxidative stability. The anions decompose through a tribochemical reaction to generate metal fluoride on the rubbed surface. Additive technology to improve lubricity is also explained. An introduction to tribology as an interdisciplinary field of lubrication is also provided.

  5. Graphene-ionic liquid composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksay, Ilhan A.; Korkut, Sibel; Pope, Michael; Punckt, Christian

    2016-11-01

    Method of making a graphene-ionic liquid composite. The composite can be used to make elec-trodes for energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors. Dis-closed and claimed herein is method of making a graphene-ionic liquid com-posite, comprising combining a graphene source with at least one ionic liquid and heating the combination at a temperature of at least about 130 .degree. C.

  6. Aluminium electrodeposition in chloroaluminate ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Wang, Enqi; Mu, Jiechen; Yu, Xianjin; Wang, Qiannan; Yang, Lina; Zhao, Zengdian

    2014-08-01

    An efficient microwave enhanced synthesis of ambient temperature chloroaluminate ionic liquid ([EMIM]Br) that preceeds reaction of 1-methylimidazolium with bromoethane in a closed vessel, was described in our work. The reaction time was drastically reduced as compared to the conventional methods. The electrochemical techniques of impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used to investigate the mechanism of Al electrodeposition from 2:1 (molar ratio) AlCl3/[EMIM]Br ionic liquid at room temperature. Results indicated that Al electrode- position from this ionic liqud was a quasi-reversible process, and the kinetic complications during the reaction was probably attributed to the electron transfer or mass transport cooperative controlled processes, instantaneous nucleation with diffusion-controlled growth was also investigated. Electrodepositon experiment was conducted using constant current density of 40 mA·cm(-2) for 20 minutes at room temperature and the qualitative analysis of the deposits were performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS). The deposits obtained on copper cathode were dense and compact and most Al crystal shows granular structure spherical with high purity.

  7. Defect structure of yttria-stabilized zirconia and its influence on the ionic conductivity at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goff, J.P.; Hayes, W.; Hull, S.

    1999-01-01

    of neutron and x-ray diffraction data, including both Bragg and coherent diffuse scattering components, has identified three principal types of defects within the fluorite lattice. At low yttria concentrations (x... to the melting point. There is also an increasing number of single vacancies and (111) vacancy pairs (with surrounding relaxation fields) as x increases, and these isolated clusters become mobile at T>similar to 1000 K and give rise to the high ionic conductivity of the material. In light of these observations......, we propose that the anomalous decrease in the ionic conductivity with increasing x is a consequence of the decreasing mobility of the isolated defects, possibly due to blockage by the increasing number of static aggregates....

  8. Development and characterization of high temperature, high energy density dielectric materials to establish routes towards power electronics capacitive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Dennis P.

    -doped composition. The Ca(Ti0.795Mn 0.005Zr0.2)O3 composition was selected for single layer, Pt buried electrode capacitor prototyping to evaluate high temperature electrical characteristics. Polarization-field (P--E) hysteresis measurements of CTZ showed a large increase in dielectric loss with increasing temperature, limiting the dielectric breakdown strength and recoverable energy density. When doped with Mn, CTZ + Mn showed a minimization of the temperature dependence of the breakdown strength, and maximum energy densities of 7.00 J/cm 3 at a Eb of 1.1 MV/cm at room temperature and 5.36 J/cm3 at Eb = 1.0 MV/cm at 300 °C were observed. Impedance spectroscopy of the CTZ and CTZ + Mn dielectrics showed that doping with Mn resulted in a decrease in ionic conductivity and a subsequent decrease in electronic conductivity. Basic characterization of Ca(Ti0.8Hf0.2)O 3 (CTH) and Ca(Ti0.795Mn0.005Hf0.2)O 3 (CTH + Mn) showed similar characteristics compared to the CTZ system. High temperature impedance spectroscopy of CTH and CTH + Mn showed similar behavior to the CTZ and CTZ + Mn systems, but with overall decreases in ionic and electronic conductivity. Coupled with thermally stimulated depolarization current measurements (TSDC), oxygen vacancy migration and space charge conduction are dominant and could be minimized with Mn doping. To gain further insight into how aliovalent Mn controls high temperature conduction in the CTH + Mn system, capacitors were quenched from the sintering temperature and an impedance study was performed. It was observed that ionic conductivity was quenched in due to oxygen vacancies compensating Mn 3+, and interfacial features were observed in impedance spectra due to double back-to-back Schottky barriers (depletion layers). As capacitors were re-oxidized, bulk resistivity increased while interfacial resistivity decreased. The hypothesis was supported by the application of dc bias during impedance measurements, which showed similar impedance behavior to the re

  9. Ionic/Electronic Conductivity, Thermal/Chemical Expansion and Oxygen Permeation in Pr and Gd Co-Doped Ceria PrxGd0.1Ce0.9-xO1.95-δ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Shiyang; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Søgaard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The oxygen permeation flux of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95-δ (CGO)-based oxygen transport membranes under oxidizing conditions is limited by the electronic conductivity of the material. This work aims to enhance the bulk ambipolar conductivity of CGO by partial substitution of Ce with the redox active element...... Pr. A series of compositions of PrxGd0.1Ce0.9-xO1.95-δ (x = 0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.08, 0.15, 0.25, 0.3 and 0.4) was prepared by solid state reaction. X-ray powder diffraction (XPD) indicates that Pr is completely dissolved in the fluorite structure up to 40 at.%. Pronounced nonlinear thermal expansion...... behavior was observed as a function of temperature, due to the simultaneous contributions of both thermal and chemical expansion. The electronic and ionic conductivities were measured as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. Within the range from 10 to 15 at.% Pr, a drastic drop...

  10. Learning Ionic

    CERN Document Server

    Ravulavaru, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who want to learn how to build hybrid mobile applications using Ionic. It is also ideal for people who want to explore theming for Ionic apps. Prior knowledge of AngularJS is essential to complete this book successfully.

  11. 500 C Electronic Packaging and Dielectric Materials for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    High-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics are required for exploring the inner solar planets and distributed control of next generation aeronautical engines. Various silicon carbide (SiC) high temperature sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at and above 500C. A compatible packaging system is essential for long-term testing and application of high temperature electronics and sensors. High temperature passive components are also necessary for high temperature electronic systems. This talk will discuss ceramic packaging systems developed for high temperature electronics, and related testing results of SiC circuits at 500C and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) integrated circuits at temperatures beyond commercial limit facilitated by these high temperature packaging technologies. Dielectric materials for high temperature multilayers capacitors will also be discussed. High-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics are required for probing the inner solar planets and distributed control of next generation aeronautical engines. Various silicon carbide (SiC) high temperature sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at and above 500C. A compatible packaging system is essential for long-term testing and eventual applications of high temperature electronics and sensors. High temperature passive components are also necessary for high temperature electronic systems. This talk will discuss ceramic packaging systems developed for high electronics and related testing results of SiC circuits at 500C and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) integrated circuits at temperatures beyond commercial limit facilitated by high temperature packaging technologies. Dielectric materials for high temperature multilayers capacitors will also be discussed.

  12. Nonlocal control of electron temperature in short direct current glow discharge plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidov, V. I. [Department of Optics and Spectroscopy, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); International Laboratory “Nonlocal Plasma in Nanotechnology and Medicine”, ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Stepanova, O. M. [Department of Optics and Spectroscopy, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Kurlyandskaya, I. P. [International Laboratory “Nonlocal Plasma in Nanotechnology and Medicine”, ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg University of State Fire Service of EMERCOM RF, Murmansk Branch, Murmansk 183040 (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-15

    To demonstrate controlling the electron temperature in nonlocal plasma, experiments have been performed on a short (without positive column) dc glow discharge with a cold cathode by applying different voltages to the conducting discharge wall. The experiments have been performed for low-pressure noble gas discharges. The applied voltage can modify trapping the energetic electrons emitted from the cathode sheath and arising from the atomic and molecular processes in the plasma within the device volume. This phenomenon results in the energetic electrons heating the slow plasma electrons, which consequently modifies the electron temperature. Furthermore, a numerical model of the discharge has demonstrated the electron temperature modification for the above case.

  13. Temperature dependence of electronic heat capacity in Holstein model of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialko, N.; Sobolev, E.; Lakhno, V.

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of charge migration was modeled to calculate temperature dependencies of its thermodynamic equilibrium values such as energy and electronic heat capacity in homogeneous adenine fragments. The energy varies from nearly polaron one at T ∼ 0 to midpoint of the conductivity band at high temperatures. The peak on the graph of electronic heat capacity is observed at the polaron decay temperature.

  14. Excess enthalpies of mixing, effect of temperature and composition on the density, and viscosity and thermodynamic properties of binary systems of {ammonium-based ionic liquid + alkanediol}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domańska, Urszula; Papis, Paulina; Szydłowski, Jerzy; Królikowska, Marta; Królikowski, Marek

    2014-11-06

    In the present work the excess enthalpies of butyltrimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl)imide, [N1114][NTf2], with 1,2-propanediol, or 1,2-butanediol, or 2,3-butanediol have been measured at T = 298.15 K. Additionally, the density, ρ, and dynamic viscosity, η, for binary solutions containing ionic liquids (ILs) and alkanedioles, {butyltrimethylammonium bis(trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl)imide, [N1114][NTf2], + 1,2-propanediol, 1,2-butanediol, 2,3-butanediol} and {(2-hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium bis(trifluoro-methylsulfonyl)imide, [N1112OH][NTf2], + 1,2-propanediol, 1,3-propanediol, 1,5-pentanediol}, at wide temperature and composition ranges at ambient pressure have been investigated. From experimental values of the density, ρ, and dynamic viscosity, η, the excess molar volumes, V(E), and dynamic viscosity deviations, Δη, were calculated and correlated using the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. The temperature dependence of density and viscosity for the tested binary systems was described by an empirical second-order polynomial and by the Vogel-Fucher-Tammann equation, respectively. The variation of density and viscosity as a function of composition has been described by the polynomial correlations. Comparison of the experimental results for the binary mixtures tested in this work allows us to determine the influence of alkanediol carbon chain length, the position of the hydroxyl group in the alcohol, and the influence of the structure of the cation of the ionic liquid on the presented properties.

  15. Effect of pH, ionic strength, foreign ions, humic acid and temperature on Zn(II) sorption onto γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Jiang; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Xia; Chen, Yuantao [Qinghai Normal University, Qinghai (China); Zhao, Lanping [Education Training Center of Ningxia Electric Power Company, Ningxia (China)

    2014-02-15

    The sorption of Zn(II) on γ-alumina was investigated as a function of contact time, pH, ionic strength, foreign ions, solid amount, humic acid (HA) and temperature by using batch technique. The results indicated that the sorption of Zn(II) onto γ-alumina was strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength. The sorption of Zn(II) increased slowly with increasing pH at pH 2-5, then increased sharply with pH increasing from 5 to 8.5, and at last maintained a maximum value at pH>8.5. A positive effect of HA on Zn(II) sorption was found at pH<7, whereas a negative effect was observed at pH>7. The thermodynamic data (ΔG{sup 0}, ΔS{sup 0}, ΔH{sup 0}) were calculated from the temperature-dependent sorption isotherms, and the results suggested that the sorption of Zn(II) on γ-alumina was endothermic and spontaneous. The sorption results revealed that the γ-alumina can be as a cost-effective sorbent for pre-concentration of Zn(II) from large volumes of aqueous solutions in environmental pollution cleanup.

  16. Effect of humic acid, fulvic acid, pH, ionic strength and temperature on {sup 63}Ni(II) sorption to MnO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, G.; Wang, X. [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power Univ., BJ (China); Key Lab. of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Inst. of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Hu, J.; Yang, S.; Ren, X.; Li, J. [Key Lab. of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Inst. of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Jin, H. [National Synchrotron Radiation Lab., Univ. of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, AH (China); Chen, Y. [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power Univ., BJ (China)

    2010-07-01

    The effects of pH, ionic strength, temperature, humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) on the sorption of radionuclide {sup 63}Ni(II) to MnO{sub 2} have been investigated by using batch techniques. The results indicated that the sorption of {sup 63}Ni(II) on MnO{sub 2} is obviously dependent on pH values but independent of ionic strength. The presence of HA/FA strongly enhances the sorption of {sup 63}Ni(II) on MnO{sub 2} at low pH values, whereas reduces {sup 63}Ni(II) sorption at high pH values. The sorption of {sup 63}Ni(II) on MnO{sub 2} is attributed to inner-sphere surface complexation rather than outer-sphere surface complexation or ion exchange. The diffuse layer model (DLM) is used to simulate the experimental data well with the aid of FITEQL 3.2. The thermodynamic parameters ({delta}H{sup 0}, {delta}S{sup 0}, {delta}G{sup 0}) are also calculated from the temperature dependent sorption isotherms, and the results suggest that the sorption of {sup 63}Ni(II) on MnO{sub 2} is a spontaneous and endothermic process. (orig.)

  17. Electron energy distribution function, effective electron temperature, and dust charge in the temporal afterglow of a plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denysenko, I. B.; Azarenkov, N. A. [School of Physics and Technology, V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Svobody sq. 4, 61022 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Kersten, H. [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Leibnizstr. 19, Kiel D-24098 (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Analytical expressions describing the variation of electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in an afterglow of a plasma are obtained. Especially, the case when the electron energy loss is mainly due to momentum-transfer electron-neutral collisions is considered. The study is carried out for different EEDFs in the steady state, including Maxwellian and Druyvesteyn distributions. The analytical results are not only obtained for the case when the rate for momentum-transfer electron-neutral collisions is independent on electron energy but also for the case when the collisions are a power function of electron energy. Using analytical expressions for the EEDF, the effective electron temperature and charge of the dust particles, which are assumed to be present in plasma, are calculated for different afterglow durations. An analytical expression for the rate describing collection of electrons by dust particles for the case when the rate for momentum-transfer electron-neutral collisions is independent on electron energy is also derived. The EEDF profile and, as a result, the effective electron temperature and dust charge are sufficiently different in the cases when the rate for momentum-transfer electron-neutral collisions is independent on electron energy and when the rate is a power function of electron energy.

  18. Density, viscosity and phase equilibria study of {ethylsulfate-based ionic liquid + water} binary systems as a function of temperature and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Królikowska, Marta, E-mail: mlaskowska@ch.pw.edu.pl; Lipiński, Paweł; Maik, Daria

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • The [EMPIP][EtSO{sub 4}], [EMMOR][EtSO{sub 4}], [EMPYR][EtSO{sub 4}] and its aqueous mixtures have been studied. • The density, dynamic viscosity and SLE have been determined. • The excess molar volumes and viscosity deviations have been calculated. • The NRTL, Wilson, UNIQUAC, Redlich–Kister and VFT equations have been used to correlate the experimental data. - Abstract: This paper is a continuation of our investigation on physicochemical and thermodynamic properties of ionic liquids and its aqueous solutions. In this work the density, ρ and dynamic viscosity, η have been determined for binary mixtures of the ionic liquids: 1-ethyl-1-methyl-piperidinium ethylsulfate, [EMPIP][EtSO{sub 4}], 1-ethyl-1-methylmorpholinium ethylsulfate, [EMMOR][EtSO{sub 4}] and 1-ethyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium ethylsulfate, [EMPYR][EtSO{sub 4}] with water at wide temperature and composition range at atmospheric pressure. From experimental values of the density, ρ and dynamic viscosity, η the excess molar volumes, V{sup E} and viscosity deviations, Δη were calculated and correlated using Redlich–Kister polynomial equation. The (solid + liquid) phase equilibria, SLE for the tested binary mixtures have been determined by well-known dynamic method at a wide range of composition and temperature at atmospheric pressure. For comparison, the SLE data for {[EMPYR][EtSO_4] + water} binary mixtures have been determined using DSC technique. The experimental SLE data have been correlated by means of NRTL, UNIQUAC and Wilson equations. Additionally, the basic thermal properties of the pure ILs, that is, the glass-transition temperature, T{sub g,1} as well as the heat capacity at the glass-transition temperature, ΔC{sub p(g),1}, melting temperature, T{sub m} and enthalpy of melting, Δ{sub m}H have been measured using a differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Decomposition of the ILs was detected by the simultaneous TG/DTA experiments. The choice of the

  19. The Ho(III) as structural probe for high temperature ionic liquids: RCl 3 (R = rare earth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrissanthopoulos, A.; Papatheodorou, G. N.

    2008-12-01

    The electronic absorption spectra of the f ← f transitions of Ho 3+ as a probe cation doped in solid and liquid YCl 3 and TbCl 3 have been measured from room temperature to above the melting point of both compounds. In the same temperature range Raman spectroscopy has been utilized to characterize all phases present. Emphasis is given on the Ho 3+ ligand field spectra of the 5G 6 ← 5I 8 hypersensitive transition and their similarities with the known spectra of holmium chloro-elpasolite. Smooth spectral changes with nearly invariant molar absorptivities (between 30 and 40 L mol -1 cm -1) are observed upon melting YCl 3 and α-TbCl 3 which indicate that most probably the Ho 3+ is in 6-fold distorted octahedral coordination in both compounds and both phases. Drastic spectral changes are observed alongside the α-TbCl 3 to β-TbCl 3 phase transition where the coordination is altered from six to eight and the molar absorptivity quadruples. The spectra of liquid Y(Ho)Cl 3 and Tb(Ho)Cl 3 are correlated to the spectra of liquid La(Ho)Cl 3 and Gd(Ho)Cl 3 and are attributed to the ligand field states of Ho 3+ in distorted octahedral geometries. In conjunction with the molar volumes of all RCl 3 (R = rare earth) liquids which are invariant and independent of R and with Raman spectroscopic measurements for the same systems, a common possible structure of the rare earth chloride liquids is deduced and proposed.

  20. The effects of incident electron current density and temperature on the total electron emission yield of polycrystalline CVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhaj, M; Tondu, T; Inguimbert, V [ONERA/DESP 2, Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse Cedex (France); Barroy, Pierre; Silva, Francois; Gicquel, Alix, E-mail: Mohamed.Belhaj@onera.f [LIMHP, Universite Paris 13, CNRS Institut Galilee, 99 Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2010-04-07

    The effects of temperature and incident electron current density on the total electron emission yield (TEEY) of polycrystalline diamond deposited by the chemical vapour deposition technique (CVD) were investigated at low electron beam fluence. It was found that the TEEY reversibly increases with the temperature and reversibly decreases with the current density. This behaviour is explained on the basis of a dynamic competition between the accumulation of holes (positive space charge), which internally reduces the secondary electron emission, and the thermally activated conductivity that tends to reduce the space charge formation.

  1. On the viscosity of two 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium ionic liquids: effect of the temperature and pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaciño, Félix M.; Comuñas, María J.P.; Regueira Muñiz, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    A new calibration procedure was used and four new temperatureprobes have been placed on afalling-body viscometer to improve its accuracy. The new configuration and calibrationprocedure allow measuring viscosities with an uncertainty of 3.5% at pressures up to 150 MPa.This device was employed to m...... ionic liquids. Furthermore, experimental data were used to check the application of the thermodynamic scaling approach as well as the hard-sphere scheme. Both models represent the viscosity values with average relative deviations lower than 2%....

  2. Effective Energy Transfer via Plasmon-Activated High-Energy Water Promotes Its Fundamental Activities of Solubility, Ionic Conductivity, and Extraction at Room Temperature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Chih-Ping; Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Wang, Ching-Chiung; Tsai, Po-Wei; Ho, Chia-Wen; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    ... conductivity, and extraction at room temperature. High-energy water with reduced HBs was created by utilizing hot electrons with energies from the decay of surface plasmon excited at gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs...

  3. Sorption of Ni(II) on GMZ bentonite: Effects of pH, ionic strength, foreign ions, humic acid and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Shitong [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, 230031 Hefei (China); Li Jiaxing; Lu Yi [Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, 230031 Hefei (China); Chen Yixue [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Wang Xiangke [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, 230031 Hefei (China)], E-mail: xkwang@ipp.ac.cn

    2009-09-15

    Bentonite has been widely studied in nuclear waste management because of its special physicochemical properties. In this work, the sorption of Ni(II) from aqueous solution onto GMZ bentonite as a function of contact time, pH, ionic strength, foreign ions, humic acid (HA) and temperature was investigated under ambient conditions. The results indicated that the pseudo-second-order rate equation simulated the kinetic sorption process well. The sorption of Ni(II) on GMZ bentonite was strongly dependent on pH and on ionic strength. At low pH, the sorption of Ni(II) was dominated by outer-sphere surface complexation and ion exchange with Na{sup +}/H{sup +} on GMZ bentonite surfaces, whereas inner-sphere surface complexation was the main sorption mechanism at high pH. A positive effect of HA on Ni(II) sorption was found at pH<8, whereas a negative effect was observed at pH>8. The Langmuir, Freundlich, and D-R models were used to simulate the sorption isotherms of Ni(II) at three different temperatures: 303.15, 318.15 and 333.15 K. The thermodynamic parameters ({delta}H{sup 0}, {delta}S{sup 0} and {delta}G{sup 0}) of Ni(II) sorption on GMZ bentonite at the three different temperatures were calculated from the temperature-dependent sorption isotherms. The results indicated that the sorption process of Ni(II) on GMZ bentonite was endothermic and spontaneous. Experimental results indicate that GMZ bentonite is a suitable sorbent for pre-concentration and solidification of Ni(II) from large volume solutions.

  4. Electronic chemical response indexes at finite temperature in the canonical ensemble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco-Pérez, Marco, E-mail: qimfranco@hotmail.com, E-mail: jlgm@xanum.uam.mx, E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx; Gázquez, José L., E-mail: qimfranco@hotmail.com, E-mail: jlgm@xanum.uam.mx, E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Química, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, México, D. F. 09340, México (Mexico); Departamento de Química, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, México, D. F. 07360, México (Mexico); Vela, Alberto, E-mail: qimfranco@hotmail.com, E-mail: jlgm@xanum.uam.mx, E-mail: avela@cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Química, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, México, D. F. 07360, México (Mexico)

    2015-07-14

    Assuming that the electronic energy is given by a smooth function of the number of electrons and within the extension of density functional theory to finite temperature, the first and second order chemical reactivity response functions of the Helmholtz free energy with respect to the temperature, the number of electrons, and the external potential are derived. It is found that in all cases related to the first or second derivatives with respect to the number of electrons or the external potential, there is a term given by the average of the corresponding derivative of the electronic energy of each state (ground and excited). For the second derivatives, including those related with the temperature, there is a thermal fluctuation contribution that is zero at zero temperature. Thus, all expressions reduce correctly to their corresponding chemical reactivity expressions at zero temperature and show that, at room temperature, the corrections are very small. When the assumption that the electronic energy is given by a smooth function of the number of electrons is replaced by the straight lines behavior connecting integer values, as required by the ensemble theorem, one needs to introduce directional derivatives in most cases, so that the temperature dependent expressions reduce correctly to their zero temperature counterparts. However, the main result holds, namely, at finite temperature the thermal corrections to the chemical reactivity response functions are very small. Consequently, the present work validates the usage of reactivity indexes calculated at zero temperature to infer chemical behavior at room and even higher temperatures.

  5. A Simple Guiding Principle for the Temperature Dependence of the Solubility of Light Gases in Imidazolium-based Ionic Liquids Derived from Molecular Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Kerlé, Daniela; Ludwig, Ralf; Wohlrab, Sebastian; Paschek, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    We have determined the temperature dependence of the solvation behavior of a large collection of light gases in imidazolium-based Ionic Liquids (ILs) with the help of extensive molecular dynamics simulations. The solubility of molecular hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, methane, krypton, argon, neon and carbon dioxide in the imidazolium based ILs of type 1-n-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C$_n$mim][NTf$_2$]) with varying chain lengths $n\\!=\\!2,4,6,8$ are computed for a temperature range between $300\\,\\mbox{K}$ and $500\\,\\mbox{K}$ at $1\\,\\mbox{bar}$. By applying Widom's particle insertion technique and Bennet's overlapping distribution method, we are able to determine the temperature dependent solvation free energies for those selected light gases in simulated imidazolium based ILs with high statistical accuracy. Our simulations show that the magnitude of the solvation free energy of a gas molecule at a chosen reference temperature and its temperature-derivatives are intimately related...

  6. A new room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-trimethylsilylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate as a solvent for extraction and preconcentration of mercury with determination by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zaijun; Wei, Qin; Yuan, Rui; Zhou, Xia; Liu, Huizhen; Shan, Haixia; Song, Qijun

    2007-01-15

    A new room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-trimethylsilylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate abbreviated as [C(4)tmsim][PF(6)] was synthesized and developed as a novel medium for liquid/liquid extraction of inorganic mercury in this work. Under optimal condition, o-carboxyphenyldiazoamino-p-azobenzene abbreviated as CDAA reacted with inorganic mercury to form a neutral Hg-CDAA complex, the complex was rapidly extracted into ionic liquid phase. After back-extracting into aqueous phase with sulfide sodium solution, the mercury concentration was detected by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. The extraction and back-extraction efficiencies were 99.9 and 100.1% for 5.0microg L(-1) standard mercury in 1000mL of water solution, respectively. The detection limit, calculated using three times the standard error of estimate of the calibration graph, is 0.01ng of mercury per milliliter water sample. The proposed method has been used to the determination of trace inorganic mercury in natural water with satisfactory results. Moreover, Zeta potential and surface tension of [C(4)tmsim][PF(6)] solution were measured and applied to explain the extraction mechanism of [C(4)tmsim][PF(6)] system.

  7. Preconcentration and trace determination of cadmium in spinach and various water samples by temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, Reyhaneh; Mansoursamaei, Nazanin; Jamali, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive and selective method for the preconcentration and separation of sub µg L-1 levels of cadmium ions in aqueous solutions with high salt contents is described. The developed method is based on temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction of cadmium using the 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (ionic liquid (IL)) as an extractant followed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry determination. The extraction of cadmium ions from the aqueous solution into the fine droplets of IL was performed with dithizone as the chelating agent. Some predominant factors affecting the preconcentration of cadmium ions were evaluated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear over the concentration range from 0.6-20.0 µg L-1 of cadmium and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.2 µg L-1. The enrichment factor was found to be 25. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of cadmium in spinach and water samples.

  8. Femtosecond Raman-Induced Kerr Effect Study of Temperature-Dependent Intermolecular Dynamics in Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids: Effects of Anion Species and Cation Alkyl Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinuma, Shohei; Ishida, Tateki; Shirota, Hideaki

    2017-01-12

    The temperature dependence of the intermolecular vibrational dynamics in imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) with 10 different anions was studied by femtosecond Raman-induced Kerr effect spectroscopy. For all ILs investigated in this study, the intensity in the low-frequency region below 50 cm-1 increases, and the spectral density in the high-frequency region above 80 cm-1 decreases (and shows a redshift) with increasing temperature. The first phenomenon would be attributed to the activation of the translational vibrational motions, whereas the second one is ascribed to the slowing librational motion of the imidazolium ring with increasing temperature. Calculated spectra of the density of states for the intermolecular vibrations of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, which is one of the experiment samples studied here, obtained by molecular dynamics simulation agreed well with the experimental results and confirmed the spectral assignments. When we compared the difference spectra between spectra measured at various temperatures and the spectrum measured at 293 K, a clear difference was found in the ∼50 cm-1 region of the Kerr spectra of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide from those of the other ILs. The difference might have originated from the librational motions of the corresponding anions. We also compared the temperature-dependent Kerr spectra of hexafluorophosphate salts of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium, and 1-heptyl-3-methylimidazolium cations. These ILs showed a similar temperature dependence, which was not affected by the alkyl group length. The temperature-dependent viscosities and glass transition temperatures of the ILs were also estimated to determine their fragilities.

  9. Revisiting the definition of the electronic chemical potential, chemical hardness, and softness at finite temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco-Pérez, Marco, E-mail: qimfranco@hotmail.com, E-mail: jlgm@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Química, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, México D. F. 09340 (Mexico); Department of Chemistry, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Gázquez, José L., E-mail: qimfranco@hotmail.com, E-mail: jlgm@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Química, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, México D. F. 09340 (Mexico); Ayers, Paul W. [Department of Chemistry, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Vela, Alberto [Departamento de Química, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados (Cinvestav), Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 2508, México D. F. 07360 (Mexico)

    2015-10-21

    We extend the definition of the electronic chemical potential (μ{sub e}) and chemical hardness (η{sub e}) to finite temperatures by considering a reactive chemical species as a true open system to the exchange of electrons, working exclusively within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. As in the zero temperature derivation of these descriptors, the response of a chemical reagent to electron-transfer is determined by the response of the (average) electronic energy of the system, and not by intrinsic thermodynamic properties like the chemical potential of the electron-reservoir which is, in general, different from the electronic chemical potential, μ{sub e}. Although the dependence of the electronic energy on electron number qualitatively resembles the piecewise-continuous straight-line profile for low electronic temperatures (up to ca. 5000 K), the introduction of the temperature as a free variable smoothens this profile, so that derivatives (of all orders) of the average electronic energy with respect to the average electron number exist and can be evaluated analytically. Assuming a three-state ensemble, well-known results for the electronic chemical potential at negative (−I), positive (−A), and zero values of the fractional charge (−(I + A)/2) are recovered. Similarly, in the zero temperature limit, the chemical hardness is formally expressed as a Dirac delta function in the particle number and satisfies the well-known reciprocity relation with the global softness.

  10. Revisiting the definition of the electronic chemical potential, chemical hardness, and softness at finite temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Pérez, Marco; Gázquez, José L.; Ayers, Paul W.; Vela, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    We extend the definition of the electronic chemical potential (μe) and chemical hardness (ηe) to finite temperatures by considering a reactive chemical species as a true open system to the exchange of electrons, working exclusively within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. As in the zero temperature derivation of these descriptors, the response of a chemical reagent to electron-transfer is determined by the response of the (average) electronic energy of the system, and not by intrinsic thermodynamic properties like the chemical potential of the electron-reservoir which is, in general, different from the electronic chemical potential, μe. Although the dependence of the electronic energy on electron number qualitatively resembles the piecewise-continuous straight-line profile for low electronic temperatures (up to ca. 5000 K), the introduction of the temperature as a free variable smoothens this profile, so that derivatives (of all orders) of the average electronic energy with respect to the average electron number exist and can be evaluated analytically. Assuming a three-state ensemble, well-known results for the electronic chemical potential at negative (-I), positive (-A), and zero values of the fractional charge (-(I + A)/2) are recovered. Similarly, in the zero temperature limit, the chemical hardness is formally expressed as a Dirac delta function in the particle number and satisfies the well-known reciprocity relation with the global softness.

  11. Carprofen-imprinted monolith prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization in room temperature ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Lu; Han, Xu; Wang, Xian-Hua; Huang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Zhao-Sheng

    2013-10-01

    To obtain fast separation, ionic liquids were used as porogens first in combination with reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization to prepare a new type of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) monolith. The imprinted monolithic column was synthesized using a mixture of carprofen (template), 4-vinylpyridine, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, [BMIM]BF4, and chain transfer agent (CTA). Some polymerization factors, such as template-monomer molar ratio, the degree of crosslinking, the composition of the porogen, and the content of CTA, on the column efficiency and imprinting effect of the resulting MIP monolith were systematically investigated. Affinity screening of structurally similar compounds with the template can be achieved in 200 s on the MIP monolith due to high column efficiency (up to 12,070 plates/m) and good column permeability. Recognition mechanism of the imprinted monolith was also investigated.

  12. Improved Ionic Liquids as Space Lubricants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ionic liquids are candidate lubricant materials. However for application in low temperature space mechanisms their lubrication performance needs to be enhanced. UES...

  13. Micromachined Joule-Thomson coolers for cooling low-temperature detectors and electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Brake, H. J.M.; Lerou, P. P.P.M.; Burger, J. F.; Holland, H. J.; Derking, J. H.; Rogalla, H.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of electronic devices can often be improved by lowering the operating temperature resulting in lower noise and larger speed. Also, new phenomena can be applied at low temperatures, as for instance superconductivity. In order to fully exploit lowtemperature electronic devices, the

  14. The dust-acoustic mode in two-temperature electron plasmas with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the effect will introduce a dissipation on the mode, and the dispersion and the dissipation depend on the temperature ratio and number density ratio of hot and cold electrons. Keywords. Dusty plasmas; dust charging; Maxwellian distribution; two-temperature electron. PACS Nos 52.27.Lw; 52.30.Ex; 52.35.Dm. 1. Introduction.

  15. High-Temperature Electronics: Status and Future Prospects in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Touati

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the state of current electronics and states the drive toward high-temperature electronics. The problems specific to high-temperature effects on conventional electronics and prospects of alternative technologies like silicon-on-insulator, silicon carbide, and diamond are discussed. Improving petroleum recovery from oil wells with hightemperature coverage of downhole electronics, making combustion processes more efficient utilizing embedded electronics, programs for More Electric Aircraft and Vehicles necessitating distributed control systems, and environmental protection issues stress the need to use and develop high-temperature electronics. This makes high-temperature electronics a key-enabling technology in the 21st century. Actual applications using high-temperature electronics are discussed in some details. Also information and guidelines are included about supporting electronics needed to make a complete high-temperature system. The technology has been making major advancements and is expected to account for 20% of the electronics market by 2010. However, many technical challenges have to be solved.

  16. Probing electron density of H-bonding between cation-anion of imidazolium-based ionic liquids with different anions by vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yong; Li, Haoran

    2010-03-04

    Attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory calculation have been employed to study the spectral properties of imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) with different anions. ILs based on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation with different anions, OH(-), CF(3)CO(2)(-), HSO(4)(-), H(2)PO(4)(-), Cl(-), PF(6)(-), and BF(4)(-), are investigated in the present work. It has been shown that the C(2)-H stretching vibration of the imidazolium ring is closely related to the electron density of H-bonding between the two closest cations and anions for pure ILs. The electron density of H-bonding between cation and anion with different anions decreases in the order [OH](-) > [H(2)PO(4)](-) > [HSO(4)](-) > [CF(3)CO(2)](-) > [Cl](-) > [BF(4)](-) > [PF(6)](-). For aqueous ILs, with increasing water content, the aromatic C-H stretching vibration of the imidazolium cation showed systematic blue-shifts. Especially for BmimOH, the nu(C(2))(-H) undergoes a drastic blue-shift by 58 cm(-1), suggesting that the formation of the strong hydrogen bonds O-H...O may greatly weaken the electron density of H-bonding between the cation and anion of ILs.

  17. An electrochemical alternative strategy to the synthesis of {beta}-lactams. Part 3 [1]. Room-temperature ionic liquids vs molecular organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotgiu, G.; Orsini, M. [Dip. Elettronica Applicata, Universita di Roma Tre, via Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Chiarotto, I.; Feroci, M.; Inesi, A. [Dip. Ingegneria Chimica, Materiali, Materie Prime e Metallurgia, Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , via Castro Laurenziano, 7, I-00161 Roma (Italy); Rossi, L. [Dip. Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali, Universita degli Studi, I-67040, Monteluco di Roio, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    Electrochemically induced cyclization of bromoamides to {beta}-lactams has been achieved in room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). The use of volatile, organic solvents (VOCs) and of supporting electrolytes may be avoided. Proton exchange reaction between amide substrates and suitable electrogenerated bases gives rise to a C{sub 4} carbanion which undergoes cyclization to {beta}-lactam via intramolecular nucleophilic substitution (C{sub 3}-C{sub 4} bond formation). {beta}-Lactams have been isolated in good to elevated yields. The 'non innocent' nature of the RTILs (imidazolium-based salts) is considered. Proton exchange reaction between N-dialkylimidazolium cation and EGB yielding N-heterocyclic carbene is discussed. (author)

  18. Preparation of room temperature ionic liquids based on aliphatic onium cations and asymmetric amide anions and their electrochemical properties as a lithium battery electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hajime; Sakaebe, Hikari; Tatsumi, Kuniaki

    The physical and electrochemical properties of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) based on asymmetric amide anions (TSAC: 2,2,2-trifluoro- N-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)acetamide, C1C2: N-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)pentafluoroethylsulfonamide) and aliphatic onium cations, such as ammonium, phosphonium, and sulfonium, were reported. The melting point of the C1C2 salts decreased compared to the corresponding TFSI salts (TFSI: bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide), however, the viscosity was about twice that of the TFSI salts. Relatively low viscosity RTILs based on aliphatic onium cations could be prepared using the TSAC anion and tetraalkylammonium cation containing an alkoxy group. The linear sweep voltammogram of these RTILs with and without Li-TFSI were investigated in order to estimate the electrochemical windows and possible use as a lithium battery electrolyte.

  19. Brønsted Acid Ionic Liquids (BAILs) as Efficient and Recyclable Catalysts in the Conversion of Glycerol to Solketal at Room Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gui, Zhenyou; Zahrtmann, Nanette; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan

    2016-01-01

    Brønsted acid ionic liquids (BAILs) have been prepared and applied for the first time - to the best of our knowledge - as efficient catalysts in the acetylation of glycerol with acetone to form solketal ((2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)methanol) at very mild reaction conditions (room temperature......) and short reaction times. The BAILs showed a superior catalytic performance in terms of both conversion and selectivity compared to the common mineral acid methanesulfonic acid as well as to other reported homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. Catalyst reusability was demonstrated with one of the BAILs...... (BAIL-1), which was recovered and reused by a simple procedure in four consecutive reaction runs without any loss of catalytic activity and selectivity. Thus, the BAILs combine the advantages of both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis with respect to excellent conversion and selectivity as well...

  20. Temperature dependence of electron mobility in N-type organic molecular crystals: Theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lili; Fan, Jianzhong; Jiang, Supu; Wang, Zhongjie; Wang, Chuan-Kui

    2017-11-01

    The temperature dependence of electron mobility in three Fx-TCNQ molecular crystals is studied. The electron mobility calculated based on Marcus charge transfer rate for all three molecules increases, as the temperature becomes high. Nevertheless, the electron mobility calculated based on quantum charge transfer rate shows opposite temperature dependence and indicates bandlike transport mechanism. Similar intrinsic transport properties are obtained for three systems. The different temperature dependence for Fx-TCNQ molecules detected should be induced by different transfer paths or external factors. Our investigation could help one better understand experimental results and provide intuitive view on the transfer mechanism in molecular crystals.

  1. High-temperature behavior of supported graphene: Electron-phonon coupling and substrate-induced doping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulstrup, Søren; Bianchi, Marco; Guan, Dandan

    2012-01-01

    The temperature-dependent electronic structure and electron-phonon coupling of weakly doped supported graphene is studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The electron-phonon coupling is found to be extremely weak, reaching the lowest valu...

  2. An insertion to eliminate horizontal temperature of high energy electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burov, A.V. [AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki; Danilov, V.V. [AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki

    1998-03-16

    High energy electron cooling with a circulated electron bunch could significantly increase the luminosity of hadron colliders. One of the significant obstacles is high horizontal temperature of electron bunches, suppressing dramatically calculated cooling rates. Recently, a transformation of betatron coordinates and angles for elimination of the radial temperature was found. In our paper, we present a simple scheme to make up this transformation by thin quadruples, drifts and a solenoid.

  3. SSVD Extreme Temperature Electronics for Planned Venus Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a new class of electronic devices called solid state vacuum devices (SSVDTMs), a highly enabling...

  4. SSVD Extreme Temperature Electronics for Planned Venus Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to demonstrate, based on a new class of electronic devices called solid state vacuum devices (SSVD?s), a highly promising enabling...

  5. An efficient ultrasound assisted approach for the impregnation of room temperature ionic liquid onto Dowex 1×8 resin matrix and its application toward the enhanced adsorption of chromium (VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalidhasan, S; Kumar, A Santhana Krishna; Rajesh, Vidya; Rajesh, N

    2012-04-30

    The work discussed in this paper is based on the utilization of ultrasound in conjunction with an ionic liquid (Aliquat 336) impregnated Dowex 1×8 resin for the effective adsorption of chromium. Ionic liquids are known for their selectivity toward metal extraction and ultrasonic medium offers efficient energy transfer for impregnating the ionic liquid in the resin matrix. The molecular interaction between the ionic liquid impregnated resin and chromium was studied through various physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. The influence of various analytical parameters on the adsorption of Cr(VI) such as pH, adsorbent dosage, temperature and interference of foreign ions was studied in detail. Chromium (VI) was quantitatively adsorbed in the pH range of 3.5-4, with a high adsorption capacity of 230.9 mg g(-1) in conformity with the Langmuir isotherm model. The study of thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption process is exothermic and spontaneous. The adsorbent could be regenerated using 1 mol L(-1) HCl-0.28 mol L(-1) ascorbic acid mixture. Chromium could be effectively detoxified from an industrial effluent and finally the developed method was validated with the analysis of a certified reference material (BCR-715). The obtained results indicated that the ultrasonic assisted impregnation of the room temperature ionic liquid significantly enhances and improves the removal efficiency of Cr(VI). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Temperature Regulating System for Use with an Electron Spin Resonance Spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, J.

    1965-01-01

    A servosystem that controls the sample temperature in an electron spin resonance spectrometer is described. It is based upon the regulation of the combination of two nitrogen gas flows of different temperatures. The temperature can be preset with an accuracy to about 1 degC between -140 and 100°C...

  7. ZnO-ionic liquid nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanes, Jose; Carrion, Francisco-Jose [Grupo de Ciencia de Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales y Fabricacion, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Campus de la Muralla del Mar, C/ Doctor Fleming s/n, 30202 Cartagena (Spain); Bermudez, Maria-Dolores, E-mail: mdolores.bermudez@upct.es [Grupo de Ciencia de Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales y Fabricacion, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Campus de la Muralla del Mar, C/ Doctor Fleming s/n, 30202 Cartagena (Spain)

    2009-02-15

    The mixture of nanostructures derived from the surface interactions and reactivity of ZnO nanoparticles with the room-temperature ionic liquid (IL1) 1-hexyl, 3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate has been studied. Results are discussed on the basis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) determinations. Size and morphology changes in ZnO nanoparticles by surface modification with IL1 are observed. ZnF{sub 2} crystalline needles due to reaction with the hexafluorophosphate anion are also formed.

  8. Time resolved temperature measurement of polymer surface irradiated by mid-IR free electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Mitsunori; Chiba, Tomoyuki; Oyama, Takahiro; Imai, Takayuki; Tsukiyama, Koichi

    2017-08-01

    We have developed the time-resolved temperature measurement system by using a radiation thermometer FLIR SC620. Temporal temperature profiles of an acrylic resin surface by the irradiation of infrared free electron laser (FEL) pulse were recorded in an 8 ms resolution to measure an instantaneous temperature rise and decay profile. Under the single-shot condition, a peak temperature defined as the temperature jump from the ambient temperature was found to be proportional to the absorbance. Under the multi-shot condition, the temperature accumulation was found to reach a roughly constant value where the supply and release of the heat is balanced.

  9. High-resolution spectroscopy of jet-cooled 1,1'-diphenylethylene: electronically excited and ionic states of a prototypical cross-conjugated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarek, Szymon; Vdovin, Alexander; Rijs, Anouk; van Walree, Cornelis A; Zgierski, Marek Z; Buma, Wybren J

    2011-09-01

    The photophysics of a prototypical cross-conjugated π-system, 1,1'-diphenylethylene, have been studied using high-resolution resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization excitation spectroscopy and zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy, in combination with advanced ab initio calculations. We find that the excitation spectrum of S(1) displays extensive vibrational progressions that we identify to arise from large changes in the torsional angles of the phenyl rings upon electronic excitation. The extensive activity of the antisymmetric inter-ring torsional vibration provides conclusive evidence for a loss of symmetry upon excitation, leading to an inequivalence of the two phenyl rings. Nonresonant zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy from the ground state of the neutral molecule to the ground state of the radical cation, on the other hand, demonstrates that upon ionization symmetry is retained, and that the geometry changes are considerably smaller. Apart from elucidating how removal of an electron affects the structure of the molecule, these measurements provide an accurate value for the adiabatic ionization energy (65274 ± 1 cm(-1) (8.093 eV)). Zero kinetic energy photoelectron spectra obtained after excitation of vibronic levels in S(1) confirm these conclusions and provide us with an extensive atlas of ionic vibronic energy levels. For higher excitation energies the excitation spectrum of S(1) becomes quite congested and shows unexpected large intensities. Ab initio calculations strongly suggest that this is caused by a conical intersection between S(1) and S(2). © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. Changes in microstructure of two ammonium-based protic ionic liquids proved by in situ variable-temperature 1 H NMR spectroscopy: influence of anion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaochen; Xu, Yingjie; Zhu, Xiao; Lu, Yueqing

    2017-04-22

    In this work, changes in microstructure of two protic ionic liquids (PILs), namely n-butylammonium acetate (N4Ac) and n-butylammonium nitrate (N4NO3 ), are proved by in situ variable-temperature 1 H NMR spectroscopy at the temperature range from 25 to 115 °C, and the influence of the nature of anion is discussed accordingly. The results demonstrate that 1 H NMR chemical shifts of alkyl protons of both N4Ac and N4NO3 are almost not changed with the increasing of temperature, due to the absence of hydrogen bond interaction between alkyl protons with anions. Whereas those of + N-H of cation decrease linearly with the temperature increasing, indicating that the hydrogen bond interaction between + N-H and anion weakens gradually. In addition, the strength of hydrogen bond interaction between + N-H and NO3- is stronger than that between + N-H and Ac- , suggesting that anions have a significant influence on microstructure due to the acidity of a Brønsted acid. Consequently, the proton transfer from cation to anion is much easier in N4Ac compared to N4NO3 . Further analyses of 1 H NMR chemical shifts of + N-H in N4Ac at the temperature range from 100 to 115 °C suggest that the splitting of + N-H peak may be attributed to obvious evidence of the existence of the proton transfer from + N-H to Ac- , which leads to dissociate the contact ion-pair in N4Ac to form the neutral ion-pair 'molecule'. The results will help us to extensively understand the behavior of proton transfer and offer us some valuable information for the design of PILs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Electron-Temperature Dependence of the Recombination of NH4(+)((NH3)(sub n) Ions with Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypkowski, M. P.; Johnson, R.

    1997-01-01

    The two-body recombination of NH4(+)(NH3)(sub 2,3) cluster-ions with electrons has been studied in an afterglow experiment in which the electron temperature T, was elevated by radio-frequency heating from 300 K up to 900 K. The recombination coefficients for the n = 2 and n = 3 cluster ions were found to be equal, alpha(sub 2, sup(2)) = alpha(sub 3, sup(2)) = (4.8 +/- 0.5) x 10(exp - 6)cu cm/s, and to vary with electron temperature as T(sub c, sup -0.65) rather than to be nearly temperature-independent as had been inferred from measurements in microwave-heated plasmas.

  12. Analysis of the enhanced negative correlation between electron density and electron temperature related to earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. H. Shen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ionospheric perturbations in plasma parameters have been observed before large earthquakes, but the correlation between different parameters has been less studied in previous research. The present study is focused on the relationship between electron density (Ne and temperature (Te observed by the DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions satellite during local nighttime, in which a positive correlation has been revealed near the equator and a weak correlation at mid- and low latitudes over both hemispheres. Based on this normal background analysis, the negative correlation with the lowest percent in all Ne and Te points is studied before and after large earthquakes at mid- and low latitudes. The multiparameter observations exhibited typical synchronous disturbances before the Chile M8.8 earthquake in 2010 and the Pu'er M6.4 in 2007, and Te varied inversely with Ne over the epicentral areas. Moreover, statistical analysis has been done by selecting the orbits at a distance of 1000 km and ±7 days before and after the global earthquakes. Enhanced negative correlation coefficients lower than −0.5 between Ne and Te are found in 42% of points to be connected with earthquakes. The correlation median values at different seismic levels show a clear decrease with earthquakes larger than 7. Finally, the electric-field-coupling model is discussed; furthermore, a digital simulation has been carried out by SAMI2 (Sami2 is Another Model of the Ionosphere, which illustrates that the external electric field in the ionosphere can strengthen the negative correlation in Ne and Te at a lower latitude relative to the disturbed source due to the effects of the geomagnetic field. Although seismic activity is not the only source to cause the inverse Ne–Te variations, the present results demonstrate one possibly useful tool in seismo-electromagnetic anomaly differentiation, and a comprehensive analysis with multiple

  13. Application of ionic liquids in hydrometallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jesik; Jung, Yeojin; Kusumah, Priyandi; Lee, Jinyoung; Kwon, Kyungjung; Lee, Churl Kyoung

    2014-08-29

    Ionic liquids, low temperature molten salts, have various advantages manifesting themselves as durable and environmentally friendly solvents. Their application is expanding into various fields including hydrometallurgy due to their unique properties such as non-volatility, inflammability, low toxicity, good ionic conductivity, and wide electrochemical potential window. This paper reviews previous literatures and our recent results adopting ionic liquids in extraction, synthesis and processing of metals with an emphasis on the electrolysis of active/light, rare earth, and platinum group metals. Because the research and development of ionic liquids in this area are still emerging, various, more fundamental approaches are expected to popularize ionic liquids in the metal manufacturing industry.

  14. Ionic Channels in Thunderclouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losseva, T. V.; Fomenko, A. S.; Nemtchinov, I. V.

    2007-12-01

    We proceed to study the formation and propagation of ionic channels in thunderclouds in the framework of the model of the corona discharge wave propagation (Fomenko A.S., Losseva T.V., Nemtchinov I.V. The corona discharge waves in thunderclouds and formation of ionic channels // 2004 Fall Meeting. EOS Trans. AGU. 2004. V. 85. ¹ 47. Suppl. Abstract AE23A-0835.). In this model we proposed a hypothesis that the structure of a thundercloud becomes nonuniform due to corona discharge on the drops and ice particles and formation of ionic channels with higher conductivity than the surrounding air. When the onset strength of corona discharge becomes smaller than the electric field strength the corona discharge increases concentrations of ions in a small part of the cloud (a hot spot). An additional charge at opposite ends of the hot spot forms due to polarization process. The increased electric field initiates corona discharge in other parts of the cloud on ice particles and water drops with smaller sizes. The corona discharge front moves as a wave with the velocity of the order of ion drift and formes a highly conductive channel. We model this non-stationary problem with Poisson equation which is solved simultaneously with a simplified set of kinetic equations for ions, small charged particles and electrons (at high electric fields), including ionization due to electronic impact, attachment and formation of positive ions. By applying 3D numerical simulations we obtain the parameters of formed ionic channels with respect to onset electric fields both from large particles (in hot spot) and from small particles (surrounding hot spot), microscopic currents from particles with different sizes and the external electric field in the cloud. The interaction of ionic channels is also investigated. This work was supported by Russian Foundation of Basic Research (Project No 07-05-00998-à).

  15. Composite electrolytes of polyethylene oxides/garnets interfacially wetted by ionic liquid for room-temperature solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Hanyu; Zhao, Ning; Sun, Jiyang; Du, Fuming; Li, Yiqiu; Guo, Xiangxin

    2017-12-01

    Paramount attention has been paid on solid polymer electrolytes due to their potential in enhancement of energy density as well as improvement of safety. Herein, the composite electrolytes consisting of Li-salt-free polyethylene oxides and 200 nm-sized Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 particles interfacially wetted by [BMIM]TF2N of 1.8 μL cm-2 have been prepared. Such wetted ionic liquid remains the solid state of membrane electrolytes and decreases the interface impedance between the electrodes and the electrolytes. There is no release of the liquid phase from the PEO matrix when the pressure of 5.0 × 104 Pa being applied for 24 h. The interfacially wetted membrane electrolytes show the conductivity of 2.2 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 20 °C, which is one order of magnitude greater than that of the membranes without the wetted ionic liquids. The conduction mechanism is related to a large number of lithium ions releasing from Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 particles and the improved conductive paths along the ion-liquid-wetted interfaces between the polymer matrix and ceramic grains. When the membranes being used in the solid-state LiFePO4/Li and LiFe0.15Mn0.85PO4/Li cells at 25 °C, the excellent rate capability and superior cycle stability has been shown. The results provide a new prospect for solid polymer electrolytes used for room-temperature solid-state lithium batteries.

  16. Selective determination of inorganic cobalt in nutritional supplements by ultrasound-assisted temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berton, Paula; Martinis, Estefania M. [Analytical Chemistry Research and Development Group (QUIANID), (LISAMEN-CCT-CONICET-Mendoza), Av. Ruiz Leal S/N Parque General San Martin, M 5502 IRA Mendoza (Argentina); Martinez, Luis D. [INQUISAL-CONICET, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Wuilloud, Rodolfo G., E-mail: rwuilloud@mendoza-conicet.gob.ar [Analytical Chemistry Research and Development Group (QUIANID), (LISAMEN-CCT-CONICET-Mendoza), Av. Ruiz Leal S/N Parque General San Martin, M 5502 IRA Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza (Argentina)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synergy of ultrasound energy and TILDLME technique for improved metal extraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly selective determination of inorganic Co species at trace levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Speciation analysis of Co in several nutritional supplements with highly complex matrices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development of an environmentally friendly microextraction technique with minimal waste production and sample consumption. - Abstract: In the present work, a simple and rapid analytical method based on application of ionic liquids (ILs) for inorganic Co(II) species (iCo) microextraction in a variety of nutrient supplements was developed. Inorganic Co was initially chelated with 1-nitroso-2-naphtol (1N2N) reagent followed by a modern technique named ultrasound-assisted temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid phase microextraction (USA-TILDLME). The extraction was performed with 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C{sub 6}mim][PF{sub 6}] with the aid of ultrasound to improve iCo recovery. Finally, the iCo-enriched IL phase was solubilized in methanol and directly injected into an electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer (ETAAS). Several parameters that could influence iCo microextraction and detection were carefully studied. Since the main difficulty in these samples is caused by high concentrations of potential interfering ions, different approaches were evaluated to eliminate interferences. The limit of detection (LOD) was 5.4 ng L{sup -1}, while the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 4.7% (at 0.5 {mu}g L{sup -1} Co level and n = 10), calculated from the peak height of absorbance signals. Selective microextraction of iCo species was achieved only by controlling the pH value during the procedure. The method was thus successfully applied for determination of iCo species in nutritional supplements.

  17. Effect of nonthermal distributed electrons and temperature on phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Interaction of nonplanar ion-acoustic solitary waves is an important source of infor- mation for studying the nature and characteristics of ion-acoustic solitary waves (IASWs). The head-on collision between two cylindrical/spherical IASWs in un-magnetized plasmas compris- ing of nonthermal distributed electrons ...

  18. Effect of nonthermal distributed electrons and temperature on phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Interaction of nonplanar ion-acoustic solitary waves is an important source of information for studying the nature and characteristics of ion-acoustic solitary waves (IASWs). The head-on collision between two cylindrical/spherical IASWs in un-magnetized plasmas comprising of nonthermal distributed electrons and warm ions ...

  19. Phonon, magnon and electron contributions to low temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    0.15MnO3 and Er0.8Y0.2MnO3 manganites. Fermion component as the electronic specific heat coefficient is deduced using the band structure calculations. Later on, following double-exchange mechanism the role of magnon is assessed ...

  20. Electron Beam Cured Epoxy Resin Composites for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dorsey, George F.; Havens, Stephen J.; Lopata, Vincent J.; Meador, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    Electron beam curing of Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC's) is a nonthermal, nonautoclave curing process that has been demonstrated to be a cost effective and advantageous alternative to conventional thermal curing. Advantages of electron beam curing include: reduced manufacturing costs; significantly reduced curing times; improvements in part quality and performance; reduced environmental and health concerns; and improvement in material handling. In 1994 a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), sponsored by the Department of Energy Defense Programs and 10 industrial partners, was established to advance the electron beam curing of PMC technology. Over the last several years a significant amount of effort within the CRADA has been devoted to the development and optimization of resin systems and PMCs that match the performance of thermal cured composites. This highly successful materials development effort has resulted in a board family of high performance, electron beam curable cationic epoxy resin systems possessing a wide range of excellent processing and property profiles. Hundreds of resin systems, both toughened and untoughened, offering unlimited formulation and processing flexibility have been developed and evaluated in the CRADA program.

  1. Effects of rf power on electron density and temperature, neutral temperature, and Te fluctuations in an inductively coupled plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camparo, James; Fathi, Gilda

    2009-05-01

    Atomic clocks that fly on global-navigation satellites such as global positioning system (GPS) and Galileo employ light from low-temperature, inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs) for atomic signal generation and detection (i.e., alkali/noble-gas rf-discharge lamps). In this application, the performance of the atomic clock and the capabilities of the navigation system depend sensitively on the stability of the ICP's optical emission. In order to better understand the mechanisms that might lead to instability in these rf-discharge lamps, and hence the satellite atomic clocks, we studied the optical emission from a Rb/Xe ICP as a function of the rf power driving the plasma. Surprisingly, we found that the electron density in the plasma was essentially independent of increases in rf power above its nominal value (i.e., "rf-power gain") and that the electron temperature was only a slowly varying function of rf-power gain. The primary effect of rf power was to increase the temperature of the neutrals in the plasma, which was manifested by an increase in Rb vapor density. Interestingly, we also found evidence for electron temperature fluctuations (i.e., fluctuations in the plasma's high-energy electron content). The variance of these fluctuations scaled inversely with the plasma's mean electron temperature and was consistent with a simple model that assumed that the total electron density in the discharge was independent of rf power. Taken as a whole, our results indicate that the electrons in alkali/noble-gas ICPs are little affected by slight changes in rf power and that the primary effect of such changes is to heat the plasma's neutral species.

  2. Hotspot electron temperature from x-ray continuum measurements on the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrott, L C; Benedetti, L R; Chen, H; Izumi, N; Khan, S F; Ma, T; Nagel, S R; Landen, O L; Pak, A; Patel, P K; Schneider, M; Scott, H A

    2016-11-01

    We report on measurements of the electron temperature in the hotspot of inertially confined, layered, spherical implosions on the National Ignition Facility using a differential filtering diagnostic. Measurements of the DT and DD ion temperatures using neutron time-of-flight detectors are complicated by the contribution of hot spot motion to the peak width, which produce an apparent temperature higher than the thermal temperature. The electron temperature is not sensitive to this non-thermal velocity and is thus a valuable input to interpreting the stagnated hot spot conditions. Here we show that the current differential filtering diagnostic provides insufficient temperature resolution for the hot spot temperatures of interest. We then propose a new differential filter configuration utilizing larger pinhole size to increase spectral fluence, as well as thicker filtration. This new configuration will improve measurement uncertainty by more than a factor of three, allowing for a more accurate hotspot temperature.

  3. Hotspot electron temperature from x-ray continuum measurements on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrott, L. C.; Benedetti, L. R.; Chen, H.; Izumi, N.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; Nagel, S. R.; Landen, O. L.; Pak, A.; Patel, P. K.; Schneider, M.; Scott, H. A.

    2016-11-01

    We report on measurements of the electron temperature in the hotspot of inertially confined, layered, spherical implosions on the National Ignition Facility using a differential filtering diagnostic. Measurements of the DT and DD ion temperatures using neutron time-of-flight detectors are complicated by the contribution of hot spot motion to the peak width, which produce an apparent temperature higher than the thermal temperature. The electron temperature is not sensitive to this non-thermal velocity and is thus a valuable input to interpreting the stagnated hot spot conditions. Here we show that the current differential filtering diagnostic provides insufficient temperature resolution for the hot spot temperatures of interest. We then propose a new differential filter configuration utilizing larger pinhole size to increase spectral fluence, as well as thicker filtration. This new configuration will improve measurement uncertainty by more than a factor of three, allowing for a more accurate hotspot temperature.

  4. Encapsulation for smart textile electronics - humidity and temperature sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Andreas; Tran, Thanh-Nam; Aasmundtveit, Knut E; Seeberg, Trine M

    2015-01-01

    A combined humidity and temperature sensor was packaged by vacuum casting onto three different types of textiles; cotton, nylon and a waterproof fabric. This was done in order to integrate the sensor in a jacket in a soft and reliable way without changing the sensor performance. A membrane was custom made and integrated into the device to protect the sensor from the environment. The packaged sensors performance was characterized in a climate chamber were the relative humidity and temperature ranged from 25 % to 95 % and -10 °C to 75 °C respectively. The packaged sensors showed insignificant to limited performance degradation.

  5. Dual – Temperature Electron distribution in a Laboratory Plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dual-temperature distribution function is used to investigate theoretically the effect of a perturbation of Maxwell distribution function on density ratios in a laboratory plasma produced solely by collision. By assuming a foreknowledge of collision coefficients and cross-sections and an atomic model which sets at two ...

  6. Influence of temperature and frequency on ionic conductivity of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}–Pb{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}–BiPO{sub 4} phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Moudane, M., E-mail: m.elmoudane@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Matériaux, Nanotechnologies et Environnement, Université Mohammed V de Rabat, Faculté des Sciences, Av. Ibn Batouta, B.P. 1014 Rabat (Morocco); El Maniani, M.; Sabbar, A. [Equipe de Physico-chimie des Matériaux et Nanomatériaux: Dépollution, Environnement et Développement Durable, Université Mohammed V de Rabat, Faculté des Sciences, Av. Ibn Batouta, B.P. 1014 Rabat (Morocco); Ghanimi, A.; Tabyaoui, M.; Bellaouchou, A.; Guenbour, A. [Laboratoire de Matériaux, Nanotechnologies et Environnement, Université Mohammed V de Rabat, Faculté des Sciences, Av. Ibn Batouta, B.P. 1014 Rabat (Morocco)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Results of ionic conductivities of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}–Pb{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}–BiPO{sub 4} phosphate glasses. • Determination of glass transition temperature using DSC method. • Study of temperature and frequency on ionic conductivity of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}–Pb{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}–BiPO{sub 4} phosphate glasses. - Abstract: Lithium–Lead–Bismuth phosphates glasses having, a composition 30Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}–(70 − x)Pb{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}–xBiPO{sub 4} (45 ≤ x ≤ 60 mol%) were prepared by using the melt quenching method 1000 °C. The thermal stability of theses glasses increases with the substitution of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} with PbO. The ionic conductivity of all compositions have been measured over a wide temperature (200–500 °C) and frequency range (1–106 Hz). The ionic conductivity data below and above T{sub g} follows Arrhenius and Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher (VTF) relationship, respectively. The activation energies are estimated and discussed. The dependence in frequency of AC conductivity is found to obey Jonscher’s relation.

  7. Physically Gelled Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid-Based Composite Membranes for CO2/N-2 Separation: Effect of Composition and Thickness on Membrane Properties and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, PT; Voss, BA; Wiesenauer, EF; Gin, DL; Nobe, RD

    2013-07-03

    An aspartame-based, low molecular-weight organic gelator (LMOG) was used to form melt-infused and composite membranes with two different imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) for CO2 separation from N-2. Previous work demonstrated that LMOGs can gel RTILs at low, loading levels, and this aspartame-based LMOG was selected because it has been reported to gel a large number of RTILs. The imidazolium-based RTILs were used because of their inherent good properties for CO2/light gas separations. Analysis of the resulting bulk RTIL/LMOG physical gels showed that these materials have high sol-gel transition temperatures (ca. 135 degrees C) suitable for flue gas applications. Gas permeabilities and burst pressure measurements of thick, melt infused membranes revealed a trade-off between high CO2 permeabilities and good mechanical stability as a function of the LMOG loading. Defect-free, composite membranes of the gelled RTILs were successfully fabricated by choosing an appropriate porous membrane support (hydrophobic PTFE) using a suitable coating technique (roller coating). The thicknesses of the applied composite gel layers ranged from 10.3 to 20.7 mu m, which represents an order of magnitude decrease in active layer thickness, compared to the original melt-infused gel RTIL membranes.

  8. Hyperthermostable Thermotoga maritima xylanase XYN10B shows high activity at high temperatures in the presence of biomass-dissolving hydrophilic ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianyi; Anbarasan, Sasikala; Wang, Yawei; Telli, Kübra; Aslan, Aşkın Sevinç; Su, Zhengding; Zhou, Yin; Zhang, Li; Iivonen, Piia; Havukainen, Sami; Mentunen, Tero; Hummel, Michael; Sixta, Herbert; Binay, Baris; Turunen, Ossi; Xiong, Hairong

    2016-07-01

    The gene of Thermotoga maritima GH10 xylanase (TmXYN10B) was synthesised to study the extreme limits of this hyperthermostable enzyme at high temperatures in the presence of biomass-dissolving hydrophilic ionic liquids (ILs). TmXYN10B expressed from Pichia pastoris showed maximal activity at 100 °C and retained 92 % of maximal activity at 105 °C in a 30-min assay. Although the temperature optimum of activity was lowered by 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]OAc), TmXYN10B retained partial activity in 15-35 % hydrophilic ILs, even at 75-90 °C. TmXYN10B retained over 80 % of its activity at 90 °C in 15 % [EMIM]OAc and 15-25 % 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate ([EMIM]DMP) during 22-h reactions. [EMIM]OAc may rigidify the enzyme and lower V max. However, only minor changes in kinetic parameter K m showed that competitive inhibition by [EMIM]OAc of TmXYN10B is minimal. In conclusion, when extended enzymatic reactions under extreme conditions are required, TmXYN10B shows extraordinary potential.

  9. Blocking layer modeling for temperature analysis of electron transfer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, we simulate thermal effects on the electron transfer rate from three quantum dots CdSe, CdS and CdTe to three metal oxides TiO2, SnO2 and ZnO2 in the presence of four blocking layers ZnS, ZnO, TiO2 and Al2O3, in a porous quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) structure, using Marcus theory.

  10. Electron acoustic wave propagation in a two-electron-temperature plasma layer applied to the problem of hypersonic vehicle communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikov, Vladimir; Rose, David

    2008-11-01

    Problem of electromagnetic wave propagation through a plasma sheath surrounding reentry vehicles and vehicles traveling at hypersonic velocities at high altitudes attracts the attention of many researchers. High plasma density inside a plasma sheath around a hypersonic vehicle prevents propagation of electromagnetic waves with the frequencies below the local plasma frequency. This results in RF frequency communication problems. One possibility to mitigate this problem is to induce a two-temperature electron distribution inside the plasma sheath. This allows electron acoustic waves (EAWs) with frequencies well below the local plasma frequency (fp ˜ 9 GHz) to propagate through a plasma layer, enabling communication. A small hot electron population is produced in the sheath by injection of an energetic electron beam in the sheath from the vehicle. Excitation, propagation, and attenuation of EAWs inside a plasma sheath in the presence of an electron beam has been investigated as well as efficiency of transformation of EAWs into electromagnetic waves on the sheath boundary.

  11. Tuning the physicochemical properties of diverse phenolic ionic liquids for equimolar CO2 capture by the substituent on the anion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congmin; Luo, Huimin; Li, Haoran; Zhu, Xiang; Yu, Bo; Dai, Sheng

    2012-02-13

    Phenolic ionic liquids for the efficient and reversible capture of CO(2) were designed and prepared from phosphonium hydroxide and substituted phenols. The electron-withdrawing or electron-donating ability, position, and number of the substituents on the anion of these ionic liquids were correlated with the physicochemical properties of the ionic liquids. The results show that the stability, viscosity, and CO(2)-capturing ability of these ionic liquids were significantly affected by the substituents. Furthermore, the relationship between the decomposition temperature, the CO(2)-absorption capacity, and the basicity of these ionic liquids was quantitatively correlated and further rationalized by theoretical calculation. Indeed, these ionic liquids showed good stability, high absorption capacity, and low absorption enthalpy for CO(2) capture. This method, which tunes the physicochemical properties by making use of substituent effects in the anion of the ionic liquid, is important for the design of highly efficient and reversible methods for CO(2)-capture. This CO(2) capture process using diverse phenolic ionic liquids is a promising potential method for CO(2) absorption with both high absorption capacity and good reversibility. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Tuning the Physicochemical Properties of Diverse Phenolic Ionic Liquids for Equimolar CO2 Capture by the Substituent on the Anion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Yu, Bo [ORNL; Li, Haoran [Zhejiang University; Wang, Congmin [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic ionic liquids for the efficient and reversible capture of CO{sub 2} were designed and prepared from phosphonium hydroxide and substituted phenols. The electron-withdrawing or electron-donating ability, position, and number of the substituents on the anion of these ionic liquids were correlated with the physicochemical properties of the ionic liquids. The results show that the stability, viscosity, and CO{sub 2}-capturing ability of these ionic liquids were significantly affected by the substituents. Furthermore, the relationship between the decomposition temperature, the CO{sub 2}-absorption capacity, and the basicity of these ionic liquids was quantitatively correlated and further rationalized by theoretical calculation. Indeed, these ionic liquids showed good stability, high absorption capacity, and low absorption enthalpy for CO{sub 2} capture. This method, which tunes the physicochemical properties by making use of substituent effects in the anion of the ionic liquid, is important for the design of highly efficient and reversible methods for CO{sub 2}-capture. This CO{sub 2} capture process using diverse phenolic ionic liquids is a promising potential method for CO{sub 2} absorption with both high absorption capacity and good reversibility.

  13. An efficient ultrasound assisted approach for the impregnation of room temperature ionic liquid onto Dowex 1 Multiplication-Sign 8 resin matrix and its application toward the enhanced adsorption of chromium (VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalidhasan, S.; Santhana Krishna Kumar, A. [Department of Chemistry, Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani-Hyderabad Campus, Jawahar Nagar, Shameerpet Mandal, R. R. Dist 500 078, AP (India); Vidya Rajesh [Department of Biological Sciences, Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani-Hyderabad Campus, Jawahar Nagar, Shameerpet Mandal, R. R. Dist 500 078, AP (India); Rajesh, N., E-mail: nrajesh05@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS), Pilani-Hyderabad Campus, Jawahar Nagar, Shameerpet Mandal, R. R. Dist 500 078, AP (India)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasound assisted impregnation of an ionic liquid in a Dowex resin matrix is studied through various physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chromium is adsorbed with a high adsorption capacity of 230.9 mg g{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorbent is regenerated using HCl-ascorbic acid mixture. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chromium could be effectively detoxified from an industrial effluent and the developed method was validated with the analysis of a certified reference material. - Abstract: The work discussed in this paper is based on the utilization of ultrasound in conjunction with an ionic liquid (Aliquat 336) impregnated Dowex 1 Multiplication-Sign 8 resin for the effective adsorption of chromium. Ionic liquids are known for their selectivity toward metal extraction and ultrasonic medium offers efficient energy transfer for impregnating the ionic liquid in the resin matrix. The molecular interaction between the ionic liquid impregnated resin and chromium was studied through various physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. The influence of various analytical parameters on the adsorption of Cr(VI) such as pH, adsorbent dosage, temperature and interference of foreign ions was studied in detail. Chromium (VI) was quantitatively adsorbed in the pH range of 3.5-4, with a high adsorption capacity of 230.9 mg g{sup -1} in conformity with the Langmuir isotherm model. The study of thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption process is exothermic and spontaneous. The adsorbent could be regenerated using 1 mol L{sup -1} HCl-0.28 mol L{sup -1} ascorbic acid mixture. Chromium could be effectively detoxified from an industrial effluent and finally the developed method was validated with the analysis of a certified reference material (BCR-715). The obtained results indicated that the ultrasonic assisted impregnation of the room temperature ionic liquid significantly

  14. Improved Design of Radiation Hardened, Wide-Temperature Analog and Mixed-Signal Electronics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA space exploration missions require the electronics for avionic systems, components, and controllers that are capable of operating in the extreme temperature and...

  15. Rapid method to estimate temperature changes in electronics elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oborskii G. A., Savel’eva O. S., Shikhireva Yu. V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal behavior of electronic equipment is the determining factor for performing rapid assessment of the effectiveness of design and operation of the equipment. The assessment method proposed in this article consists in fixation of an infrared video stream from the surface of the device and converting it into a visible flow by means of a thermal imager, splitting it into component colors and their further processing using parabolic transformation. The result of the transformation is the number used as a rapid criterion for estimation of distribution stability of heat in the equipment.

  16. Electron cyclotron emission measurements on JET: Michelson interferometer, new absolute calibration, and determination of electron temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmuck, S.; Fessey, J.; Gerbaud, T.; Alper, B.; Beurskens, M. N. A.; de la Luna, E.; Sirinelli, A.; Zerbini, M.

    2012-01-01

    At the fusion experiment JET, a Michelson interferometer is used to measure the spectrum of the electron cyclotron emission in the spectral range 70-500 GHz. The interferometer is absolutely calibrated using the hot/cold technique and, in consequence, the spatial profile of the plasma electron

  17. Adsorption of arsenate and arsenite by iron-treated activated carbon and zeolites: effects of pH, temperature, and ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Kelly B; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M

    2005-01-01

    Naturally occurring arsenic contaminates groundwater in many countries, including the United States, at levels greater than 10 microg l(-1), the current WHO guideline value, increasing the risk of skin, lung, bladder, and kidney cancer in millions of people. Arsenic toxicity is dependent on its chemical form; arsenite is more toxic due to its higher affinity for protein than arsenate. This study supports worldwide research efforts to obtain drinking water with arsenic levels below 10 microg l(-1). Batch adsorption kinetic and isotherm studies were conducted to compare and evaluate iron-treated adsorbents for arsenate and arsenite removal from aqueous media. Two iron treatments were investigated as well as the effects of varied pH, temperature, and ionic strength increases on adsorption effectiveness. Adsorbent materials such as activated carbon and naturally occurring zeolites (clinoptilolite and chabazite) were selected because of their relative low cost and because the zeolites are potential point-of-use materials for mitigating arsenic contaminated groundwater. Molecular sieves, Faujasite (13X) and Linde type A (5A) were selected because they provide a basis for comparison with previous studies and represent well-characterized materials. Iron-treated activated carbon and chabazite showed the most promise as low-cost arsenic adsorbents; activated carbon removed approximately 60% of arsenate and arsenite while chabazite removed approximately 50% of arsenate and 30% of arsenite. Modeling arsenate and arsenite adsorption by these adsorbents using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm expressions determined the adsorbents' capacity for arsenic removal from aqueous media. Arsenate removal by iron-treated activated carbon and clinoptilolite best fit the Langmuir model. Arsenate removal by iron-treated chabazite and arsenite removal by activated carbon, chabazite, and clinoptilolite best fit the Freundlich model. Applications of iron-modified activated carbon for

  18. Room temperature 2D electron gas at the (001)-SrTiO3 surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Sara; Mathieu, Claire; Copie, Olivier; Feyer, Vitaliy; Schneider, Claus M.; Barrett, Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Functional oxides and phenomena such as a 2D electron gas (2DEG) at oxide interfaces represent potential technological breakthroughs for post-CMOS electronics. Non-invasive techniques are required to study the surface chemistry and electronic structure, underlying their often unique electrical properties. The sensitivity of photoemission electron microscopy to chemistry and electronic structure makes it an invaluable tool for probing the near surface region of microscopic regions and domains of functional materials. We present results demonstrating a room temperature 2DEG at the (001)-SrTiO3 surface. The 2DEG is switched on by soft X-ray irradiation.

  19. Diverse electron-induced optical emissions from space observatory materials at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, J. R.; Evans Jensen, Amberly; Wilson, Gregory; Dekany, Justin; Bowers, Charles W.; Meloy, Robert

    2013-09-01

    Electron irradiation experiments have investigated the diverse electron-induced optical and electrical signatures observed in ground-based tests of various space observatory materials at low temperature. Three types of light emission were observed: (i); long-duration cathodoluminescence which persisted as long as the electron beam was on (ii) short-duration (fiberglass-epoxy composites, and macroscopically-conductive carbon-loaded polyimides). We conclude that electron-induced optical emissions resulting from interactions between observatory materials and the space environment electron flux can, in specific circumstances, make significant contributions to the stray light background that could possibly adversely affect the performance of space-based observatories.

  20. Electron-trapping probability in natural dosemeters as a function of irradiation temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallinga, J.; Murray, A.S.; Wintle, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    The electron-trapping probability in OSL traps as a function of irradiation temperature is investigated for sedimentary quartz and feldspar. A dependency was found for both minerals; this phenomenon could give rise to errors in dose estimation when the irradiation temperature used in laboratory...... procedures is different from that in the natural environment. No evidence was found for the existence of shallow trap saturation effects that Could give rise to a dose-rate dependency of electron trapping....

  1. Calculating the electron temperature in the lightning channel by continuous spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangcheng, DONG; Jianhong, CHEN; Xiufang, WEI; Ping, YUAN

    2017-12-01

    Based on the theory of plasma continuous radiation, the relationship between the emission intensity of bremsstrahlung and recombination radiation and the plasma electron temperature is obtained. During the development process of a return stroke of ground flash, the intensity of continuous radiation spectrum is separated on the basis of the spectrums with obviously different luminous intensity at two moments. The electron temperature of the lightning discharge channel is obtained through the curve fitting of the continuous spectrum intensity. It is found that electron temperature increases with the increase of wavelength and begins to reduce after the peak. The peak temperature of the two spectra is close to 25 000 K. To be compared with the result of discrete spectrum, the electron temperature is fitted by the O I line and N II line of the spectrum respectively. The comparison shows that the high temperature value is in good agreement with the temperature of the lightning core current channel obtained from the ion line information, and the low temperature at the high band closes to the calculation result of the atomic line, at a low band is lower than the calculation of the atomic line, which reflects the temperature of the luminous channel of the outer corona.

  2. Effect of temperature and ionic strength on the dissociation kinetics and lifetime of PNA-DNA triplexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosaganov, Y N; Stetsenko, D A; Lubyako, E N

    2000-01-01

    (10) PNA complexes with ss- and dsDNA were equal within the accuracy of experiments. The activation energy, U, value for T(10) PNA-DNA complexes did not change when the NaCl concentration was increased from 50 to 200 or 600 mM. Conversely, the tau values decreased with the increase in Na......Dissociation kinetics of triplexes formed by molecules of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) and DNA have been studied. The complexes consisted of oligomeric PNA containing 10 thymine bases and the dA(10) target incorporated in single-stranded (ssDNA) or double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Their dissociation...... was followed by means of the gel mobility shift assay at various temperatures and sodium ion concentrations. In all experiments, the dissociation kinetics of triplexes were exponential; the effective lifetime of a triplex, tau, depended on temperature in accordance with the Arrhenius law. The tau values for T...

  3. Electron Attachment to POCl3: Measurement and Theoretical Analysis of Rate Constants and Branching Ratios as a Function of Gas Pressure and Temperature, Electron Temperature, and Electron Energy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Doren, Jane M; Friedman, Jeffrey F; Miller, Thomas M; Viggiano, A. A; Denifl, S; Scheier, P; Mark, T. D; Troe, J

    2006-01-01

    ... of the resonant POCl3 state and collisional stabilization of the parent anion. In the electron beam experiment at zero electron energy, the fragment ion POCl2- is the dominant ion product of attachment (96...

  4. Four ways to determine the electron density in low-temperature plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroeks, R.F.G.; Steenbakkers, M.F.M.; Qing, Z.; van de Sanden, M.C.M.; Schram, D.C.

    Four ways to measure the electron density in low-temperature plasmas are presented: Thomson scattering, Langmuir probe, optical-emission spectroscopy, and continuum-radiation analysis. The results of the four methods are compared to each other and discussed. For the electron-density range of

  5. Electron Temperature of the Arc Discharge for Nanomaterial Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurer, Matthew; Vekselman, Vladislav; Startton, Brentley; Raitses, Yevgeny; LaboratoryPlasma Nanosynthesis Team

    2016-10-01

    Since the discovery of different allotropes of carbon in the twentieth century many uses have been found for carbon based nanomaterials such as buckyballs, nanotubes (CNTs), and graphene. An atmospheric pressure arc discharge with graphite electrodes is a promising technique for producing large volumes of these carbon nanostructures. Plasma drives the synthesis providing carbon feedstock by anode ablation and sustaining required composition and temperature of nanomaterial species, as such it is important to characterize the plasma used in this process in order to control the quality and attributes of the resulting carbon nanostructures. In work we present detailed in-situ measurements of spatial distribution of arc plasma parameters obtained with optical emission spectroscopy (OES) diagnostics. The plasma temperature has been determined using Boltzmann diagram method with collisional radiative modeling due to plasma deviation from complete local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Results of these measurements demonstrate a strong correlation between arc plasma and synthesis processes. This work was supported by US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  6. Temperature-dependent electronic decay profiles in CZT: probe of bulk and surface properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessick, Royal; Maupin, Hugh; Tepper, Gary C.; Szeles, Csaba

    2003-01-01

    The electronic performance of CZT-based gamma radiation spectrometers is governed by a synergism of bulk and surface properties. Compensation is used to increase the bulk resistivity of Cd1-xZnxTe (x~0.1), but the same electronic states that are introduced to increase the material resistivity can also trap charge and reduce the carrier lifetime. Electrical and mechanical surface defects introduced during or subsequent to crystal harvesting are also known to interfere with device performance. Using a contactless, pulsed laser microwave cavity perturbation technique, electronic decay profiles were studied in high pressure Bridgman CZT as a function of temperature. The electronic decay profile was found to depend very strongly on temperature and was modeled using a function consisting of two exponential terms with temperature-dependent amplitudes and time constants. The model was used to relate the observed temperature dependent decay kinetics in CZT to specific trap energies. It was found that, at low temperatures, the electronic decay process is dominated by a deep trap with an energy of approximately 0.69 +/- 0.1 eV from the band edge. As the temperature is increased, the charge trapping becomes dominated by a second trap with an energy of approximately 0.60 +/- 0.1 eV from the band edge. Surface damage introduces additional charge traps that significantly alter the decay kinetics particularly at low temperatures.

  7. Comparing the temperature dependence of photosynthetic electron transfer in Chloroflexus aurantiacus and Rhodobactor sphaeroides reaction centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhi; Lin, Su; Xin, Yueyong; Wang, Haiyu; Blankenship, Robert E; Woodbury, Neal W

    2011-09-29

    The process of electron transfer from the special pair, P, to the primary electron donor, H(A), in quinone-depleted reaction centers (RCs) of Chloroflexus (Cf.) aurantiacus has been investigated over the temperature range from 10 to 295 K using time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopic techniques. The kinetics of the electron transfer reaction, P* → P(+)H(A)(-), was found to be nonexponential, and the degree of nonexponentiality increased strongly as temperature decreased. The temperature-dependent behavior of electron transfer in Cf. aurantiacus RCs was compared with that of the purple bacterium Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides . Distinct transitions were found in the temperature-dependent kinetics of both Cf. aurantiacus and Rb. sphaeroides RCs, at around 220 and 160 K, respectively. Structural differences between these two RCs, which may be associated with those differences, are discussed. It is suggested that weaker protein-cofactor hydrogen bonding, stronger electrostatic interactions at the protein surface, and larger solvent interactions likely contribute to the higher transition temperature in Cf. aurantiacus RCs temperature-dependent kinetics compared with that of Rb. sphaeroides RCs. The reaction-diffusion model provides an accurate description for the room-temperature electron transfer kinetics in Cf. aurantiacus RCs with no free parameters, using coupling and reorganization energy values previously determined for Rb. sphaeroides , along with an experimental measure of protein conformational diffusion dynamics and an experimental literature value of the free energy gap between P* and P(+)H(A)(-). © 2011 American Chemical Society

  8. Temperature control of electronic components using fluidised beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, R.

    1981-06-01

    This paper introduces the concept of fluidized bed cooling applied to electronic systems. It is shown that, when fluidized with air, the cooling efficiency and the pumping power are principally dependent on particle characteristics; in particular the mean diameter should not be less than 100 microns. Design rules are developed and applied to two types of fluid-bed systems: (1) a small bed of alumina particles cooling single devices of 40 W power dissipation where the fluidizing air is the main heat transporting medium, and (2) a large bed of cenospheres with a simple integrated heat exchanger to extract more than 1 KW of heat from complete sub-rack assemblies of up to 40 printed circuit boards, for a fluidizing power of about 3 W. The effect of board spacing on the overall thermal performance is considered, and a minimum spacing of 10-20 mm is shown to be required to maintain cooling efficiency.

  9. Variations in erosive wear of metallic materials with temperature via the electron work function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiaochen; Yu, Bin [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2V4 (Canada); Yan, X.G. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Science and Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China); Li, D.Y., E-mail: dongyang.li@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2V4 (Canada); School of Mechanical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Science and Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China)

    2016-04-01

    Mechanical properties of metals are intrinsically determined by their electron behavior, which is largely reflected by the electron work function (EWF or φ). Since the work function varies with temperature, the dependence of material properties on temperature could be predicted via variations in work function with temperature. Combining a hardness – φ relationship and the dependence of work function on temperature, a temperature-dependent model for predicting solid-particle erosion is proposed. Erosive wear losses of copper, nickel, and carbon steel as sample materials were measured at different temperatures. Results of the tests are consistent with the theoretical prediction. This study demonstrates a promising parameter, electron work function, for looking into fundamental aspects of wear phenomena, which would also help develop alternative methodologies for material design. - Highlights: • Metallic materials' wear resistance is influenced by temperature. • Electron work function (EWF) intrinsically determines materials' wear resistance. • An EWF-based temperature-dependent solid-particle erosion model is proposed.

  10. Electron transport and room temperature single-electron charging in 10 nm scale PtC nanostructures formed by electron beam induced deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Z. A. K.; Jones, M. E.; Wang, C.; Scotuzzi, M.; Hagen, C. W.

    2017-11-01

    Nanostructures of platinum-carbon nanocomposite material have been formed by electron-beam induced deposition. These consist of nanodots and nanowires with a minimum size ∼20 nm, integrated within ∼100 nm nanogap n-type silicon-on-insulator transistor structures. The nanodot transistors use ∼20 nm Pt/C nanodots, tunnel-coupled to Pt/C nanowire electrodes, bridging the Si nanogaps. Room-temperature single-electron transistor operation has been measured, and single-electron current oscillations and ‘Coulomb diamonds’ observed. In nanowire transistors, the temperature dependence from 290 to 8 K suggests that the current is a combination of thermally activated and tunnelling transport of carriers across potential barriers along the current path, and that the Pt/C is p-type at low temperature.

  11. Modelling an Ar-Hg fluorescent lamp plasma using a 3 electron-temperature approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartgers, A.; Mullen, J.A.M. van der [Department of Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands)]. E-mail: j.j.a.m.v.d.mullen@tue.nl

    2001-06-21

    By using a 3 electron-group model to describe the deviation from a Maxwellian electron energy distribution, a collisional radiative model describing a low temperature Ar-Hg plasma is greatly improved. Previously, the ionisation mechanisms of such plasmas, commonly used in fluorescent lamps, could not be satisfactory modelled. Where using a Maxwellian electron energy distribution showed the production of argon ions to be dominating over the production of mercury ions, the 3 temperature approximation yields a mercury ionization rate which is 30 times larger than the argon ionization rate. (author)

  12. Trace mercury determination in drinking and natural water samples by room temperature ionic liquid based-preconcentration and flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinis, Estefania M.; Berton, Paula [Laboratory of Environmental Research and Services of Mendoza (LISAMEN), (CCT - CONICET - Mendoza), Av. Ruiz Leal S/N Parque General San Martin, CC. 131, M 5502 IRA Mendoza (Argentina); Olsina, Roberto A. [INQUISAL-CONICET, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Altamirano, Jorgelina C. [Laboratory of Environmental Research and Services of Mendoza (LISAMEN), (CCT - CONICET - Mendoza), Av. Ruiz Leal S/N Parque General San Martin, CC. 131, M 5502 IRA Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza (Argentina); Wuilloud, Rodolfo G., E-mail: rwuilloud@lab.cricyt.edu.ar [Laboratory of Environmental Research and Services of Mendoza (LISAMEN), (CCT - CONICET - Mendoza), Av. Ruiz Leal S/N Parque General San Martin, CC. 131, M 5502 IRA Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza (Argentina)

    2009-08-15

    A liquid-liquid extraction procedure (L-L) based on room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) was developed for the preconcentration and determination of mercury in different water samples. The analyte was quantitatively extracted with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}]) under the form of Hg-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (Hg-5-Br-PADAP) complex. A volume of 500 {mu}l of 9.0 mol L{sup -1} hydrochloric acid was used to back-extract the analyte from the RTIL phase into an aqueous media prior to its analysis by flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-CV-AAS). A preconcentration factor of 36 was achieved upon preconcentration of 20 mL of sample. The limit of detection (LOD) obtained under the optimal conditions was 2.3 ng L{sup -1} and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for 10 replicates at 1 {mu}g L{sup -1} Hg{sup 2+} was 2.8%, calculated with peaks height. The method was successfully applied to the determination of mercury in river, sea, mineral and tap water samples and a certified reference material (CRM).

  13. A strategy of utilizing Zn(II) as metallic pivot in room temperature ionic liquid to prepare molecularly imprinted polymers for compound with intramolecular hydrogen bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ya Kun; Jia, Man; Yang, Jian; Huang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Zhao-Sheng; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2018-01-01

    A method of preparing molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with Zn(II) as a metallic pivot was adopted to solve the problem of imprinting compound with intramolecular hydrogen bonds by forming stronger coordination binding interaction among the template-functional monomer-Zn2+ complex. A ternary porogenic system including dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide, and room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate was employed to fabricate imprinted monolith with high porosity and good flow-through properties, in which chicoric acid (CA), zinc acetate, 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP), and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) was the template, metallic ion, functional monomer, as well as crosslinker, respectively. The influence of polymerization factors including the 4-VP-CA ratio, monomer-crosslinker ratio, template-Zn2+ ratio on imprinting factors was systematically investigated. When the ratio of 4-VP to CA was 24:1, the greatest IF value (24.81) was achieved on the CA-MIP prepared with zinc acetate. In addition, off-line SPE with the optimal MIPs monolith led to high purity of CA (98.0% ± 0.5%) from extraction of Cichorium intybus L. roots with the recovery of 77.5% ± 2.5% (n = 6). As a conclusion, the strategy of introducing metal ions as metal pivot to prepare MIPs was a powerful method for the MIPs synthesis to the template molecules with intramolecular hydrogen bonds.

  14. Phonon and electron temperature and non-Fourier heat transport in thin layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlomagno, I.; Cimmelli, V.A. [Department of Mathematics, Computer Science and Economics, University of Basilicata, Campus Macchia Romana, Viale dell' Ateneo Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza (Italy); Sellitto, A. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    We present a thermodynamic model of heat conductor which allows for different temperatures of phonons and electrons. This model is applied to calculate the steady-state radial temperature profile in a circular thin layer. The compatibility of the obtained temperature profiles with the second law of thermodynamics is investigated in view of the requirement of positive entropy production and of a nonlocal constitutive equation for the entropy flux.

  15. High-Temperature Air-Cooled Power Electronics Thermal Design: Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waye, Scot [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Power electronics that use high-temperature devices pose a challenge for thermal management. With the devices running at higher temperatures and having a smaller footprint, the heat fluxes increase from previous power electronic designs. This project overview presents an approach to examine and design thermal management strategies through cooling technologies to keep devices within temperature limits, dissipate the heat generated by the devices and protect electrical interconnects and other components for inverter, converter, and charger applications. This analysis, validation, and demonstration intends to take a multi-scale approach over the device, module, and system levels to reduce size, weight, and cost.

  16. Two-dimensional time resolved measurements of the electron temperature in MST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, P. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Assocation, Padova (Italy); Bonomo, F. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Assocation, Padova (Italy); Univ. di Padova, Padova, (Italy). Dipart. di Fisica; Marrelli, L. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Assocation, Padova (Italy); Martin, P. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Assocation, Padova (Italy); Univ. di Padova, Padova, (Italy). Dipart. di Fisica; Piovesan, P. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Assocation, Padova (Italy); Spizzo, G. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Assocation, Padova (Italy); Chapman, B. E. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Craig, D. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas; Den Hartog, D. J. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas; Goetz, J. A. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; O’Connell, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Prager, S. C. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas; Reyfman, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Sarff, J. S. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) time resolved images of the electron temperature profile in the core of the MST reversed field pinchplasma are presented. The measurements have been obtained with a soft x-ray (SXR) tomographic diagnostic comprised of four cameras, each with a multichannel photodiode array, viewing the plasma from different poloidal angles, with a total of 74 channels. The 2D electron temperature profile is estimated by simultaneously measuring the SXR emissivity through different beryllium foils using the standard double-filter technique. With these methods, fast temperature variation in the core of the plasma (up to 100 kHz) can be analyzed.

  17. Validity of Eucken formula and Stokes’ viscosity relation in high-temperature electronically excited gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Istomin, V. A.; Kustova, E. V.; Mekhonoshina, M. A. [Department of Mathematics and Mechanics, Saint Petersburg State University, 198504 Universitetskiy pr., 28, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-09

    In the present work we evaluate the accuracy of the Eucken formula and Stokes’ viscosity relation in high temperature non-equilibrium air species with electronic excitation. The thermal conductivity coefficient calculated using the exact kinetic theory methods is compared with that obtained applying approximate formulas in the temperature range 200–20000 K. A modification of the Eucken formula providing a good agreement with exact calculations is proposed. It is shown that the Stokes viscosity relation is not valid in electronically excited monoatomic gases at temperatures higher than 2000 K.

  18. Ionic/Electronic Conductivity, Thermal/Chemical Expansion and Oxygen Permeation in Pr and Gd Co-Doped Ceria PrxGd0.1Ce0.9-xO1.95

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Shiyang; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Søgaard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Pr. A series of compositions of PrxGd0.1Ce0.9-xO1.95-δ (x = 0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.08, 0.15, 0.25, 0.3 and 0.4) was prepared by solid state reaction. X-ray powder diffraction (XPD) indicates that Pr is completely dissolved in the fluorite structure up to 40 at.%. Pronounced nonlinear thermal expansion...... behavior was observed as a function of temperature, due to the simultaneous contributions of both thermal and chemical expansion. The electronic and ionic conductivities were measured as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. Within the range from 10 to 15 at.% Pr, a drastic drop...

  19. Microstructural stability of wrought, laser and electron beam glazed NARloy-Z alloy at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.; Jerman, G.; Bhat, B.; Poorman, R.

    1993-11-01

    Microstructure of wrought, laser, and electron-beam glazed NARloy-Z(Cu-3 wt.% Ag-0.5 wt.% Zr) was investigated for thermal stability at elevated temperatures (539 to 760 C (1,100 to 1,400 F)) up to 94 h. Optical and scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis were employed for studying microstructural evolution and kinetics of precipitation. Grain boundary precipitation and precipitate free zones (PFZ`s) were observed in the wrought alloy after exposing to temperatures above 605 C (1,120 F). The fine-grained microstructure observed in the laser and electron-beam glazed NARloy-Z was much more stable at elevated temperatures. Microstructural changes correlated well with hardness measurements.

  20. Translational, rotational, vibrational and electron temperatures of a gliding arc discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Ehn, Andreas; Gao, Jinlong; Kong, Chengdong; Aldén, Marcus; Salewski, Mirko; Leipold, Frank; Kusano, Yukihiro; Li, Zhongshan

    2017-08-21

    Translational, rotational, vibrational and electron temperatures of a gliding arc discharge in atmospheric pressure air were experimentally investigated using in situ, non-intrusive optical diagnostic techniques. The gliding arc discharge was driven by a 35 kHz alternating current (AC) power source and operated in a glow-type regime. The two-dimensional distribution of the translational temperature (Tt) of the gliding arc discharge was determined using planar laser-induced Rayleigh scattering. The rotational and vibrational temperatures were obtained by simulating the experimental spectra. The OH A-X (0, 0) band was used to simulate the rotational temperature (Tr) of the gliding arc discharge whereas the NO A-X (1, 0) and (0, 1) bands were used to determine its vibrational temperature (Tv). The instantaneous reduced electric field strength E/N was obtained by simultaneously measuring the instantaneous length of the plasma column, the discharge voltage and the translational temperature, from which the electron temperature (Te) of the gliding arc discharge was estimated. The uncertainties of the translational, rotational, vibrational and electron temperatures were analyzed. The relations of these four different temperatures (Te>Tv>Tr >Tt) suggest a high-degree non-equilibrium state of the gliding arc discharge.

  1. Sensitivity of Inferred Electron Temperature from X-ray Emission of NIF Cryogenic DT Implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klem, Michael [Univ. of Dallas, Irving, TX (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory seeks to achieve thermonuclear ignition through inertial confinement fusion. The accurate assessment of the performance of each implosion experiment is a crucial step. Here we report on work to derive a reliable electron temperature for the cryogenic deuteriumtritium implosions completed on the NIF using the xray signal from the Ross filter diagnostic. These Xrays are dominated by bremsstrahlung emission. By fitting the xray signal measured through each of the individual Ross filters, the source bremsstrahlung spectrum can be inferred, and an electron temperature of the implosion hot spot inferred. Currently, each filter is weighted equally in this analysis. We present work quantifying the errors with such a technique and the results from investigating the contribution of each filter to the overall accuracy of the temperature inference. Using this research, we also compare the inferred electron temperature against other measured implosion quantities to develop a more complete understanding of the hotspot physics.

  2. Electron beam irradiation of textile effluents and non-ionic ethoxylated surfactant for toxicity and color removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, Stephanie V. Del; Garcia, Vanessa S.G.; Boiani, Nathalia F.; Rosa, Jorge M.; Andrade e Silva, Leonardo G. de; Borrely, Sueli I., E-mail: vanessagranadeiro@gmail.com, E-mail: steh.vdsole@gmail.com, E-mail: jotarosa@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); SENAI, Faculdade de Tecnologia Antoine Skaf, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Textile industry has an expressive scenario in the world economy and Brazil is the 5{sup th} in the textile production. By 2015, Brazilian textile production represented US $ 39.3 billion, accounting for more than 1.8 million tons of fabric (ABIT, 2017). The effluents from textile industry are highlighted by quantity of wastewater discharged and variety of substances (dyes, bleaching agents, surfactants, salts, acids, among others). Such compounds often prove to be toxic to aquatic biota. This present study aims to assess toxicity of whole effluents, before and after irradiation (by electron beam accelerator, EBI). In addition, the reduction of the effluent color after irradiation is also very important. Daphnia similis and Vibrio fischeri were the biological systems applied for toxicity evaluations. Previous results demonstrated the surfactant as the main toxic compound, in the untreated and irradiated forms, EC 50 = 0.44 ppm ± 0.02 (untreated); EC 50 = 0.46 % ± 0.07 (irradiated). The irradiation was effective in reducing the color of the effluent, starting from 0.5 kGy. EB radiation may be proposed as an alternative treatment for the final effluent from textile processing, mainly for reuse purposes. (author)

  3. The effect of composition, electron irradiation and quenching on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrolyte samples were also quenched at liquid nitrogen temperature and conductivity measurements were made. The ionic conductivity at room temperature exhibits a characteristic double peak for the composition = 20 and 70. Both electron beam irradiation and quenching at low temperature have resulted in an ...

  4. Packaging Technology Developed for High-Temperature SiC Sensors and Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Lei, Jih-Fen

    2000-01-01

    A ceramic- and thick-film-materials-based prototype electronic package designed for silicon carbide (SiC) high-temperature sensors and electronics has been successfully tested at 500 C in an oxygen-containing air environment for 500 hours. This package was designed, fabricated, assembled, and electronically evaluated at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field with an in-house-fabricated SiC semiconductor test chip. High-temperature electronics and sensors are necessary for harsh-environment space and aeronautical applications, such as space missions to the inner solar system or the emission control electronics and sensors in aeronautical engines. Single-crystal SiC has such excellent physical and chemical material properties that SiC-based semiconductor electronics can operate at temperatures over 600 C, which is significantly higher than the limit for Si-based semiconductor devices. SiC semiconductor chips were recently demonstrated to be operable at temperatures as high as 600 C, but only in the probe station environment because suitable packaging technology for sensors and electronics at temperatures of 500 C and beyond did not exist. Thus, packaging technology for SiC-based sensors and electronics is immediately needed for both application and commercialization of high-temperature SiC sensors and electronics. In response to this need, researchers at Glenn designed, fabricated, and assembled a prototype electronic package for high-temperature electronics, sensors, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) using aluminum nitride (AlN) substrate and gold (Au) thick-film materials. This prototype package successfully survived a soak test at 500 C in air for 500 hours. Packaging components tested included thick-film high-temperature metallization, internal wire bonds, external lead bonds, and a SiC diode chip die-attachment. Each test loop, which was composed of thick-film printed wire, wire bond, and lead bond was subjected to a 50-mA direct current for 250

  5. Electrochemical characterisations and ageing of ionic liquid/γ-butyrolactone mixtures as electrolytes for supercapacitor applications over a wide temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagousset, Laure; Pognon, Grégory; Nguyen, Giao T. M.; Vidal, Frédéric; Jus, Sébastien; Aubert, Pierre-Henri

    2017-08-01

    Electrochemical properties in mesoporous media of three different ionic liquids (1-propyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium-bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide - Pyr13FSI, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide - Pyr14TFSI and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide - EMITFSI) are investigated from -50 °C to 100 °C and compared with binary mixtures with γ-butyrolactone (GBL). Buckypaper composed of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) are used to prepare and study coin-cell supercapacitors. Supercapacitor using Pyr13FSI/GBL present a rapid loss of capacitance after only a thousand cycles at 100 °C. On the contrary, EMITFSI/GBL and Pyr14TFSI/GBL prove to be very promising at high temperature (the capacitance loss after 10,000 cycles is 9% and 10%). More drastic ageing tests such as floating are also carried out for these two mixtures at 100 °C and -50 °C. 23% and 15% capacitance losses have been recorded after 500 h of floating at 100 °C for EMITFSI/GBL and Pyr14TFSI/GBL. The capacitance of supercapacitors based on Pyr14TFSI/GBL dropped by 20% after 200 h of floating at -50 °C rather than EMITFSI/GBL show a remarkable stability during floating at -50 °C, with 6.6% capacitance loss after 500 h (3 V at -50 °C). These results show that the mixture EMITFSI/GBL works properly all along the broad range of temperature [-50 °C to +100 °C] and thus proved that our approach is very promising for the development of high performances supercapacitors specifically adapted for extreme environment.

  6. Synthesis and development of ordered, phase-separated, room-temperature ionic liquid-based AB and ABC block copolymers for gas separation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesenauer, Erin F.

    CO2 capture process development is an economically and environmentally important challenge, as concerns over greenhouse gas emissions continue to receive worldwide attention. Many applications require the separation of CO 2 from other light gases such as N2, CH4, and H2 and a number of technologies have been developed to perform such separations. While current membrane technology offers an economical, easy to operate and scale-up solution, polymeric membranes cannot withstand high temperatures and aggressive chemical environments, and they often exhibit an unfavorable tradeoff between permeability and selectivity. Room-temperature ionic-liquids (RTILs) are very attractive as next-generation CO2-selective separation media and their development into polymerized membranes combat these challenges. Furthermore, polymers that can self-assemble into nanostructured, phase-separated morphologies (e.g., block copolymers, BCPs) have a direct effect on gas transport as materials morphology can influence molecular diffusion and membrane transport performance. In this thesis, nanophase-separated, RTIL-based AB and ABC di- and tri-BCPs were prepared via the sequential, living ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of an IL-based monomer and one or more mutually immiscible co-monomers. This novel type of ion-containing BCP system forms various ordered nanostructures in the melt state via primary and secondary structure control. Monomer design and control of block composition, sequence, and overall polymer lengths were found to directly affect the ordered polymer assembly. Supported, composite membranes of these new BCPs were successfully fabricated, and the effect of BCP composition and nanostructure on CO2/light gas transport properties was studied. These nanostructured IL-based BCPs represent innovative polymer architectures and show great potential CO2/light gas membrane separation applications.

  7. Experimental observation of electron-temperature-gradient turbulence in a laboratory plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoo, S K; Singh, S K; Awasthi, L M; Singh, R; Kaw, P K

    2012-06-22

    We report the observation of electron-temperature-gradient (ETG) driven turbulence in the laboratory plasma of a large volume plasma device. The removal of unutilized primary ionizing and nonthermal electrons from uniform density plasma and the imposition and control of the gradient in the electron temperature (T[Symbol: see text] T(e)) are all achieved by placing a large (2 m diameter) magnetic electron energy filter in the middle of the device. In the dressed plasma, the observed ETG turbulence in the lower hybrid range of frequencies ν = (1-80 kHz) is characterized by a broadband with a power law. The mean wave number k perpendicular ρ(e) = (0.1-0.2) satisfies the condition k perpendicular ρ(e) ≤ 1, where ρ(e) is the electron Larmor radius.

  8. High-temperature sensitivity and its acclimation for photosynthetic electron reactions of desert succulents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetti, M.B.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1987-08-01

    Photosynthetic electron reactions of succulent plants from hot deserts are able to tolerate extremely high temperatures and to acclimate to seasonal increase in temperature. In this study, we report the influence of relatively long, in vivo, high-temperature treatments on electron transport reactions for two desert succulents, Agave deserti and Opuntia ficus-indica, species which can tolerate 60{degree}C. Whole chain electron transport averaged 3{degree}C more sensitive to a 1-hour high-temperature treatment than did PSII (Photosystem II) which in turn averaged 3{degree}C more sensitive than did PSI. For plants maintained at day/night air temperatures of 30{degree}C/20{degree}C, treatment at 50{degree}C cause these reactions to be inhibited an average of 39% during the first hour, an additional 31% during the next 4 hours, and 100% by 12 hours. Upon shifting the plants from 30{degree}C/20{degree}C to 45{degree}C/35{degree}C, the high temperatures where activity was inhibited 50% increased 3{degree}C to 8{degree}C for the three electron transport reactions, the half-times for acclimation averaging 5 days for A. deserti and 4 days for O. ficus-indica. For the 45{degree}C/35{degree}C plants treated at 60{degree}C for 1 hour, PSI activity was reduced by 54% for A. deserti and 36% for O. ficus-indica. Acclimation leads to a toleration of very high temperatures without substantial disruption of electron transport for these desert succulents, facilitating their survival in hot deserts. Indeed, the electron transport reactions of these species tolerate longer periods at higher temperatures than any other vascular plants so far reported.

  9. Molecular anion formation in 9,10-anthraquinone: Dependence of the electron detachment rate on temperature and incident electron energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenichnyuk, Stanislav A.; Vorob'ev, Alexander S.; Asfandiarov, Nail L.; Modelli, Alberto

    2010-06-01

    Attachment of low-energy electrons to gas phase 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) was observed with electron transmission (ET) spectroscopy, and interpreted with the support of quantum chemical calculations. The ET spectrum displays three shape resonances at 0.45, 0.7, and 2.2 eV, associated with temporary electron capture into empty π∗ molecular orbitals of AQ, the first two anion states being stable. According to TD-B3LYP calculations, the first π-π ∗ core-excited resonance lies at about 1.8 eV, although no experimental evidence for this anion state was found. The long-lived parent molecular anion [AQ]- was observed by means of Electron Attachment Spectroscopy (EAS) using two different mass spectrometers and also by measuring the total anion current at the collision chamber walls. The molecular anion current shows maxima at zero energy, around 0.6 eV and at 1.8 eV. Association of these maxima with the corresponding resonant anion states is discussed. The experimentally measured electron detachment times from [AQ]- as a function of the incident electron energy and the temperature of the target molecule show a pronounced change of slope around 1.5 eV, regardless of the temperature. This unexpected behavior can be qualitatively reproduced within the framework of a multiexponential approach which describes the electron detachment event in terms of a redistribution of the anion excess energy, regardless of the initial mechanism of temporary anion formation.

  10. Laser Thomson scattering measurements of electron temperature and density in a hall-effect plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washeleski, Robert L.

    Hall-effect thrusters (HETs) are compact electric propulsion devices with high specific impulse used for a variety of space propulsion applications. HET technology is well developed but the electron properties in the discharge are not completely understood, mainly due to the difficulty involved in performing accurate measurements in the discharge. Measurements of electron temperature and density have been performed using electrostatic probes, but presence of the probes can significantly disrupt thruster operation, and thus alter the electron temperature and density. While fast-probe studies have expanded understanding of HET discharges, a non-invasive method of measuring the electron temperature and density in the plasma is highly desirable. An alternative to electrostatic probes is a non-perturbing laser diagnostic technique that measures Thomson scattering from the plasma. Thomson scattering is the process by which photons are elastically scattered from the free electrons in a plasma. Since the electrons have thermal energy their motion causes a Doppler shift in the scattered photons that is proportional to their velocity. Like electrostatic probes, laser Thomson scattering (LTS) can be used to determine the temperature and density of free electrons in the plasma. Since Thomson scattering measures the electron velocity distribution function directly no assumptions of the plasma conditions are required, allowing accurate measurements in anisotropic and non-Maxwellian plasmas. LTS requires a complicated measurement apparatus, but has the potential to provide accurate, non-perturbing measurements of electron temperature and density in HET discharges. In order to assess the feasibility of LTS diagnostics on HETs non-invasive measurements of electron temperature and density in the near-field plume of a Hall thruster were performed using a custom built laser Thomson scattering diagnostic. Laser measurements were processed using a maximum likelihood estimation method

  11. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, C. Austen; Xu, Kang; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  12. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  13. Electron temperature measurement of Ba photoplasma by using an electrostatic probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtlehner, J. P.; Blanchet, A.; Leloutre, B.

    1994-09-01

    We study experimentally and theoretically the time evolution of the electron temperature Te of a photoionized barium vapor which expands freely into a vacuum. Using the gas dynamics fundamental equations and assuming the plasma expansion to be adiabatic, a model is built and analytical expressions are derived for the electron and ion temperatures, velocity, and density time evolutions. The experimental apparatus consists essentially of a vacuum chamber, a Joule effect furnace which produces the Ba vapor. A cylindrical plasma created between the two vertical plates is produced by two-step ionization of the vapor. The electron temperature is measured with a cylindrical electrostatic probe biased by a slowly variable voltage ramp. The current-voltage curve is built step by step with a boxcar averager. The results involve different parameter variations like vapor density or sampling time of the probe current for studying the time evolution of electron temperature. Finally, it was found that the adiabatic cooling model agrees well with the experimental electron temperature evolution, but was limited below 0.025 eV by the Langmuir probe accuracy.

  14. Characteristics of temporal evolution of particle density and electron temperature in helicon discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiong; Cheng, Mousen; Guo, Dawei; Wang, Moge; Li, Xiaokang

    2017-10-01

    On the basis of considering electrochemical reactions and collision relations in detail, a direct numerical simulation model of a helicon plasma discharge with three-dimensional two-fluid equations was employed to study the characteristics of the temporal evolution of particle density and electron temperature. With the assumption of weak ionization, the Maxwell equations coupled with the plasma parameters were directly solved in the whole computational domain. All of the partial differential equations were solved by the finite element solver in COMSOL MultiphysicsTM with a fully coupled method. In this work, the numerical cases were calculated with an Ar working medium and a Shoji-type antenna. The numerical results indicate that there exist two distinct modes of temporal evolution of the electron and ground atom density, which can be explained by the ion pumping effect. The evolution of the electron temperature is controlled by two schemes: electromagnetic wave heating and particle collision cooling. The high RF power results in a high peak electron temperature while the high gas pressure leads to a low steady temperature. In addition, an OES experiment using nine Ar I lines was conducted using a modified CR model to verify the validity of the results by simulation, showing that the trends of temporal evolution of electron density and temperature are well consistent with the numerically simulated ones.

  15. Consequences of Part Temperature Variability in Electron Beam Melting of Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Brian A.; Mireles, Jorge; Ridwan, Shakerur; Wicker, Ryan B.; Beuth, Jack

    2017-12-01

    To facilitate adoption of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) parts produced via additive manufacturing (AM), the ability to ensure part quality is critical. Measuring temperatures is an important component of part quality monitoring in all direct metal AM processes. In this work, surface temperatures were monitored using a custom infrared camera system attached to an Arcam electron beam melting (EBM®) machine. These temperatures were analyzed to understand their possible effect on solidification microstructure based on solidification cooling rates extracted from finite element simulations. Complicated thermal histories were seen during part builds, and temperature changes occurring during typical Ti64 builds may be large enough to affect solidification microstructure. There is, however, enough time between fusion of individual layers for spatial temperature variations (i.e., hot spots) to dissipate. This means that an effective thermal control strategy for EBM® can be based on average measured surface temperatures, ignoring temperature variability.

  16. Consequences of Part Temperature Variability in Electron Beam Melting of Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Brian A.; Mireles, Jorge; Ridwan, Shakerur; Wicker, Ryan B.; Beuth, Jack

    2017-09-01

    To facilitate adoption of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) parts produced via additive manufacturing (AM), the ability to ensure part quality is critical. Measuring temperatures is an important component of part quality monitoring in all direct metal AM processes. In this work, surface temperatures were monitored using a custom infrared camera system attached to an Arcam electron beam melting (EBM®) machine. These temperatures were analyzed to understand their possible effect on solidification microstructure based on solidification cooling rates extracted from finite element simulations. Complicated thermal histories were seen during part builds, and temperature changes occurring during typical Ti64 builds may be large enough to affect solidification microstructure. There is, however, enough time between fusion of individual layers for spatial temperature variations (i.e., hot spots) to dissipate. This means that an effective thermal control strategy for EBM® can be based on average measured surface temperatures, ignoring temperature variability.

  17. Temperature dependence of positron-annihilation lifetime, free volume, conductivity, ionic mobility, and number of charge carriers in a polymer electrolyte polyethylene oxide complexed with NH4ClO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, B.; Singru, R. M.; Maurya, K. K.; Chandra, S.

    1996-09-01

    Various physical properties of the solution-cast films of the proton conducting polymer polyethylene oxide (PEO) complexed with ammonium perchlorate (NH4ClO4) have been studied in the temperature range 300-370 K. These properties studied by us include free volume by positron lifetime spectroscopy, ionic conductivity by impedance spectroscopy, ionic mobility by transient ionic current technique, number of charge carriers, dielectric constant, etc. The hole volume and conductivity show a steep rise at T~=Tm (~333 K). It appears that the increase in free volume arises out of the increase in the size of the holes rather than an increase in their number. Although the free volume shows an increase around Tm, the measured ionic mobility does not show similar behavior. The increase in the conductivity at Tm is, therefore, ascribed to an increase in the number of charge carriers at ~Tm. A suitable dissociation model involving the dielectric constant is proposed to explain this increase. The value of the dissociation energy for PEO:NH4ClO4 has been determined to be 2.4 eV.

  18. The effect of sample matrix on electron density, electron temperature and gas temperature in the argon inductively coupled plasma examined by Thomson and Rayleigh scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanselman, D. S.; Sesi, N. N.; Huang, M.; Hieftje, G. M.

    1994-05-01

    Spatially-resolved electron temperature ( Te), electron number density ( ne) and gas-kinetic temperature ( Tg) maps of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) have been obtained for two central-gas flow rates, four heights above the load coil (ALC) and in the presence and absence of interferants with a wide range of first ionization potentials. The radial profiles demonstrate how the directly measured fundamental parameters neTe and Tg can be significantly enhanced and/or depressed with added interferent, depending upon plasma operating conditions and observation region. In general, the magnitude of ne, and Te change is found to be an inverse function of interferent ionization potential; furthermore, ne enhancements in the central channel might be the result of electron redistribution from high to low electron density regions rather than from ionization of the matrix. The large measured increases in ne cannot be attributed solely to matrix ionization, especially when measurement uncertainties and the probable over-estimation in calculated ne, enhancements are taken into account. Changes in ne and Te have been correlated with axial Ca atom and ion emission profiles. A brief review of the mechanisms most likely involved in interelement matrix interferences is given within the context of the present study. This article is an electronic publication in Spectrochimica Acta Electronica (SAE), the electronic section of Spectrochimica Acta Part B (SAB). The hardcopy text is accompanied by a disk for the Macintosh computer with data files stored in ASCII format. The main article discusses the scientific aspects of the subject and gives an interpretation of the results contained in the data files.

  19. Understanding the impact of the central atom on the ionic liquid behavior: Phosphonium vs ammonium cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Pedro J.; Ventura, Sónia P. M.; Batista, Marta L. S.; Schröder, Bernd; Gonçalves, Fernando; Esperança, José; Mutelet, Fabrice; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2014-02-01

    The influence of the cation's central atom in the behavior of pairs of ammonium- and phosphonium-based ionic liquids was investigated through the measurement of densities, viscosities, melting temperatures, activity coefficients at infinite dilution, refractive indices, and toxicity against Vibrio fischeri. All the properties investigated are affected by the cation's central atom nature, with ammonium-based ionic liquids presenting higher densities, viscosities, melting temperatures, and enthalpies. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution show the ammonium-based ionic liquids to present slightly higher infinite dilution activity coefficients for non-polar solvents, becoming slightly lower for polar solvents, suggesting that the ammonium-based ionic liquids present somewhat higher polarities. In good agreement these compounds present lower toxicities than the phosphonium congeners. To explain this behavior quantum chemical gas phase DFT calculations were performed on isolated ion pairs at the BP-TZVP level of theory. Electronic density results were used to derive electrostatic potentials of the identified minimum conformers. Electrostatic potential-derived CHelpG and Natural Population Analysis charges show the P atom of the tetraalkylphosphonium-based ionic liquids cation to be more positively charged than the N atom in the tetraalkylammonium-based analogous IL cation, and a noticeable charge delocalization occurring in the tetraalkylammonium cation, when compared with the respective phosphonium congener. It is argued that this charge delocalization is responsible for the enhanced polarity observed on the ammonium based ionic liquids explaining the changes in the thermophysical properties observed.

  20. Understanding the impact of the central atom on the ionic liquid behavior: Phosphonium vs ammonium cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Pedro J.; Ventura, Sónia P. M.; Batista, Marta L. S.; Schröder, Bernd; Coutinho, João A. P., E-mail: jcoutinho@ua.pt [CICECO, Departamento de Química, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gonçalves, Fernando [Departamento de Biologia e CESAM (Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar), Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Esperança, José [Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2780-901 Oeiras (Portugal); Mutelet, Fabrice [Laboratoire Réactions et Génie des Procédés, CNRS (UPR3349), Nancy-Université, 1 rue Grandville, BP 20451 54001 Nancy (France)

    2014-02-14

    The influence of the cation's central atom in the behavior of pairs of ammonium- and phosphonium-based ionic liquids was investigated through the measurement of densities, viscosities, melting temperatures, activity coefficients at infinite dilution, refractive indices, and toxicity against Vibrio fischeri. All the properties investigated are affected by the cation's central atom nature, with ammonium-based ionic liquids presenting higher densities, viscosities, melting temperatures, and enthalpies. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution show the ammonium-based ionic liquids to present slightly higher infinite dilution activity coefficients for non-polar solvents, becoming slightly lower for polar solvents, suggesting that the ammonium-based ionic liquids present somewhat higher polarities. In good agreement these compounds present lower toxicities than the phosphonium congeners. To explain this behavior quantum chemical gas phase DFT calculations were performed on isolated ion pairs at the BP-TZVP level of theory. Electronic density results were used to derive electrostatic potentials of the identified minimum conformers. Electrostatic potential-derived CHelpG and Natural Population Analysis charges show the P atom of the tetraalkylphosphonium-based ionic liquids cation to be more positively charged than the N atom in the tetraalkylammonium-based analogous IL cation, and a noticeable charge delocalization occurring in the tetraalkylammonium cation, when compared with the respective phosphonium congener. It is argued that this charge delocalization is responsible for the enhanced polarity observed on the ammonium based ionic liquids explaining the changes in the thermophysical properties observed.

  1. Effects of electron-ion temperature equilibration on inertial confinement fusion implosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Barry; Hu, S X

    2011-07-01

    The electron-ion temperature relaxation essentially affects both the laser absorption in coronal plasmas and the hot-spot formation in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It has recently been reexamined for plasma conditions closely relevant to ICF implosions using either classical molecular-dynamics simulations or analytical methods. To explore the electron-ion temperature equilibration effects on ICF implosion performance, we have examined two Coulomb logarithm models by implementing them into our hydrocodes, and we have carried out hydrosimulations for ICF implosions. Compared to the Lee-More model that is currently used in our standard hydrocodes, the two models predict substantial differences in laser absorption, coronal temperatures, and neutron yields for ICF implosions at the OMEGA Laser Facility [Boehly et al. Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Such effects on the triple-picket direct-drive design at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have also been explored. Based on the validity of the two models, we have proposed a combined model of the electron-ion temperature-relaxation rate for the overall ICF plasma conditions. The hydrosimulations using the combined model for OMEGA implosions have shown ∼6% more laser absorption, ∼6%-15% higher coronal temperatures, and ∼10% more neutron yield, when compared to the Lee-More model prediction. It is also noticed that the gain for the NIF direct-drive design can be varied by ∼10% among the different electron-ion temperature-relaxation models.

  2. Measurement of electron density and electron temperature of a cascaded arc plasma using laser Thomson scattering compared to an optical emission spectroscopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, WANG; Cong, LI; Jielin, SHI; Xingwei, WU; Hongbin, DING

    2017-11-01

    As advanced linear plasma sources, cascaded arc plasma devices have been used to generate steady plasma with high electron density, high particle flux and low electron temperature. To measure electron density and electron temperature of the plasma device accurately, a laser Thomson scattering (LTS) system, which is generally recognized as the most precise plasma diagnostic method, has been established in our lab in Dalian University of Technology. The electron density has been measured successfully in the region of 4.5 × 1019 m-3 to 7.1 × 1020 m-3 and electron temperature in the region of 0.18 eV to 0.58 eV. For comparison, an optical emission spectroscopy (OES) system was established as well. The results showed that the electron excitation temperature (configuration temperature) measured by OES is significantly higher than the electron temperature (kinetic electron temperature) measured by LTS by up to 40% in the given discharge conditions. The results indicate that the cascaded arc plasma is recombining plasma and it is not in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). This leads to significant error using OES when characterizing the electron temperature in a non-LTE plasma.

  3. Integrated electronic transport and thermometry at milliKelvin temperatures and in strong magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkharadze, N; Kumar, A; Manfra, M J; Pfeiffer, L N; West, K W; Csáthy, G A

    2011-05-01

    We fabricated a He-3 immersion cell for transport measurements of semiconductor nanostructures at ultra low temperatures and in strong magnetic fields. We have a new scheme of field-independent thermometry based on quartz tuning fork Helium-3 viscometry which monitors the local temperature of the sample's environment in real time. The operation and measurement circuitry of the quartz viscometer is described in detail. We provide evidence that the temperature of two-dimensional electron gas confined to a GaAs quantum well follows the temperature of the quartz viscometer down to 4 mK.

  4. Ion and electron sheath characteristics in a low density and low temperature plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgohain, Binita; Bailung, H.

    2017-11-01

    Ion and electron sheath characteristics in a low electron temperature (Te ˜ 0.25-0.40 eV) and density (ne ˜ 106-107 cm-3) plasma are described. The plasma is produced in the experimental volume through diffusion from a hot cathode discharge plasma source by using a magnetic filter. The electron energy distribution function in the experimental plasma volume is measured to be a narrow Maxwellian distribution indicating the absence of primary and energetic electrons which are decoupled in the source side by the cusp magnetic field near the filter. An emissive probe is used to measure the sheath potential profiles in front of a metal plate biased negative and positive with respect to the plasma potential. For a positive plate bias, the electron density decreases considerably and the electron sheath expands with a longer presheath region compared to the ion sheath. The sheath potential structures are found to follow the Debye sheath model.

  5. Electron density and temperature diagnostics in laser-induced hydrogen plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, G.; Parigger, C. G.

    2017-02-01

    Laser-induced optical breakdown is achieved by using Q-switched, Nd:YAG radiation focused into ultra-high-purity (UHP) hydrogen gas at a pressure of 1.08 ± 0.03 × 105 Pa inside a cell. The plasma emission spectra are dispersed by a Czerny-Turner type spectrometer and detected with an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD). Stark-broadened hydrogen Balmer series H α and Hβ line profiles are used as a spectroscopic tool for the determination of electron density and excitation temperature. Spatial variation of electron density and temperature at 0.40 µs are extracted from the recorded intensities of H α and Hβ lines. Temporal variations of electron density and excitation temperature are also presented for the time delay range of 0.15 µs to 1.4 µs.

  6. Calibration of a two-color soft x-ray diagnostic for electron temperature measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reusch, L. M., E-mail: lmmcguire@wisc.edu; Den Hartog, D. J.; Goetz, J.; McGarry, M. B. [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States); Franz, P. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Stephens, H. D. [University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States); Pierce College Fort Steilacoom, Lakewood, Washington 98498 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The two-color soft x-ray (SXR) tomography diagnostic on the Madison Symmetric Torus is capable of making electron temperature measurements via the double-filter technique; however, there has been a 15% systematic discrepancy between the SXR double-filter (SXR{sub DF}) temperature and Thomson scattering (TS) temperature. Here we discuss calibration of the Be filters used in the SXR{sub DF} measurement using empirical measurements of the transmission function versus energy at the BESSY II electron storage ring, electron microprobe analysis of filter contaminants, and measurement of the effective density. The calibration does not account for the TS and SXR{sub DF} discrepancy, and evidence from experiments indicates that this discrepancy is due to physics missing from the SXR{sub DF} analysis rather than instrumentation effects.

  7. Measurement of turbulent electron temperature fluctuations on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak using correlated electron cyclotron emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freethy, S. J., E-mail: simon.freethy@ipp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, 85748 Garching (Germany); Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Conway, G. D.; Happel, T.; Köhn, A. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, 85748 Garching (Germany); Classen, I.; Vanovac, B. [FOM Institute DIFFER, 5612 AJ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Creely, A. J.; White, A. E. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Turbulent temperature fluctuations are measured on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak using pairs of closely spaced, narrow-band heterodyne radiometer channels and a standard correlation technique. The pre-detection spacing and bandwidth of the radiometer channel pairs is chosen such that they are physically separated less than a turbulent correlation length, but do not overlap. The radiometer has 4 fixed filter frequency channels and two tunable filter channels for added flexibility in the measurement position. Relative temperature fluctuation amplitudes are observed in a helium plasma to be δT/T = (0.76 ± 0.02)%, (0.67 ± 0.02)%, and (0.59 ± 0.03)% at normalised toroidal flux radius of ρ{sub tor} = 0.82, 0.75, and 0.68, respectively.

  8. Processing temperature tuned interfacial microstructure and protonic and oxide ionic conductivities of well-sintered Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9- Na2CO3 nanocomposite electrolytes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanming; Zeng, Yanwei; Wang, Zhentao; Ye, Zhupeng; Zhang, Yuan

    2017-08-01

    Well-sintered SDC-NC (Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9-Na2CO3) nanocomposites have been prepared through a rare-earth/sodium complex carbonate precipitation, powder prefirings at the temperatures 400, 500 and 600 °C and sintering at 800 °C. Their sintering performances, phase components and microstructures have been characterized by Archimedean method, XRD and FESEM techniques. In particular, the influence of the interfacial interactions between the phases of SDC and NC on the microstructures and electrical conductivities of SDC-NC nanocomposites have been investigated by AC impedance and Raman spectroscopies. It has been found that on the basis of the fitting analysis of AC impedance data, the oxide ionic and protonic conductivities of interfacial and non-interfacial phases in the SDC-NC nanocomposites are found to be strongly dependent upon their prefiring temperatures with the sample of SN-600 showing the highest values of 73.2/33.7 and 51.1/105.4 μS/cm at 300 °C, respectively. The single cell based on the electrolyte of SN-600 presents an OCV of 0.992 V and peak power density of 421 mW/cm2 at 550 °C. The interfacial interactions between the phases of SDC and NC inside SDC-NC nanocomposites are considered responsible for their differences in microstructure and electrical conductivity.

  9. Diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arenes showing unusual complexation of actinide ions in room temperature ionic liquids: role of ligand structure, radiolytic stability, emission spectroscopy, and thermodynamic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Prasanta K; Sengupta, Arijit; Iqbal, Mudassir; Huskens, Jurriaan; Verboom, Willem

    2013-03-04

    Diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arenes (C4DGAs) with varying structural modifications were evaluated for actinide complexation from their extraction behavior toward actinide ions such as UO2(2+), Pu(4+), PuO2(2+), and Am(3+) in the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-n-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide (C8mimNTf2). The formation constants were calculated for Am(3+) which showed a significant role of ligand structure, nature of substituents, and spacer length. Although the alkyl substituents on the amidic nitrogen increase the extraction efficiency of americium at lower acidity because of the inductive effect of the alkyl groups, at higher acidity the steric crowding around the ligating site determines the extraction efficiency. All C4DGAs formed 1:1 complexes with Am(3+) while for the analogous Eu(3+) complexes no inner sphere water molecules were detected and the asymmetry of the metal ligand complex differed from one another as proved by time-resolved laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLIFS). Thermodynamic studies indicated that the extraction process, predominant by the Am(3+)-C4DGA complexation reaction, is exothermic. The unique role of the medium on Am(3+) complexation with the C4DGA molecules with varying spacer length, L-IV and L-V, was noticed for the first time with a reversal in the trend observed in the RTIL compared to that seen in a nonpolar molecular diluent like n-dodecane. Various factors leading to a more preorganized structure were responsible for favorable metal ion complexation. The solvent systems show promise to be employed for nuclear waste remediation, and sustainability options were evaluated from radiolytic stability as well as stripping studies.

  10. Visualisation of high temperature magnetisation states in magnetite grains using off-axis electron holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, T. P.; Muxworthy, A. R.; Kovács, A.; Williams, W.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.

    2015-10-01

    The production of a synthetic basalt comprising Fe3O4 grains (∼ 50 nm to ∼ 500 nm), via a glass ceramic method, has been confirmed using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. Off-axis electron holography combined with in situ heating allowed for the visualisation of non-uniform vortex states present in saturation remanent structures, and their variation approaching the Curie temperature; determined separately by bulk thermomagnetic measurements.

  11. High Temperature Pt/Alumina Co-Fired System for 500 C Electronic Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Gold thick-film metallization and 96 alumina substrate based prototype packaging system developed for 500C SiC electronics and sensors is briefly reviewed, the needs of improvement are discussed. A high temperature co-fired alumina material system based packaging system composed of 32-pin chip-level package and printed circuit board is discussed for packaging 500C SiC electronics and sensors.

  12. Ionic emission from Taylor cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Reina, Sergio

    Electrified Taylor cones have been seen as an efficient way to generate thrust for space propulsion. Especially the pure ionic regime (PIR) combines a very high specific impulse (thrust per unit mass) and efficiency, which is very important to reduce fuel transportation costs. The PIR has been primarily based on electrosprays of liquid metals [Swatik and Hendricks 1968, Swatik 1969]. However, emissions dominated by or containing exclusively ions have also been observed from nonmetallic purely ionic substances, initially sulfuric acid [Perel et al. 1969], and more recently room temperature molten salts referred to as ionic liquids (ILs) [Romero-Sanz et al. 2003]. The recent use of the liquid metal ion source (LMIS) with ILs, becoming this "new" source to be known as ionic liquid ion source (ILIS) [Lozano and Martinez-Sanchez 2005], has shown important differences on the emission from Taylor cones with the traditional hollow capillary. This new source seems to be more flexible than the capillary [Paulo, Sergio, carlos], although its low emission level (low thrust) is an important drawback from the space propulsion point of view. Throughout the thesis I have studied some aspects of the ionic emission from ionic liquid Taylor cones and the influence of the properties of the liquids and the characteristic of source on the emission. I have unraveled the reason why ILIS emits such low currents (˜200 nA) and found a way to solve this problem increasing the current up to capillary levels (˜1000 nA) [Castro and Fernandez de la Mora 2009]. I have also tried to reduce ion evaporation while reducing the emitted droplet size in order to increase the thrust generated while keeping the efficiency relatively high and I have measured the energy of evaporation of several cations composing ionic liquids, mandatory step to understand ionic evaporation.

  13. Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI high capacity power project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, Gene E.; Niedra, Janis M.; Frasca, Albert J.; Wieserman, William R.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) high capacity power project are presented: (1) neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) temperature effects on rare earth permanent magnets.

  14. Surface tension of ionic liquids and ionic liquid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Mohammad; Freire, Mara G; Saramago, Benilde; Coutinho, João A P; Lopes, José N Canongia; Rebelo, Luís Paulo N

    2012-01-21

    Some of the most active scientific research fronts of the past decade are centered on ionic liquids. These fluids present characteristic surface behavior and distinctive trends of their surface tension versus temperature. One way to explore and understand their unique nature is to study their surface properties. This critical review analyses most of the surface tension data reported between 2001 and 2010 (187 references).

  15. Two-Temperature Model of non-equilibrium electron relaxation: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Navinder

    2007-01-01

    The present paper is a review of the phenomena related to non-equilibrium electron relaxation in bulk and nano-scale metallic samples. The workable Two-Temperature Model (TTM) based on Boltzmann-Bloch-Peierls (BBP) kinetic equation has been applied to study the ultra-fast(femto-second) electronic relaxation in various metallic systems. The advent of new ultra-fast (femto-second) laser technology and pump-probe spectroscopy has produced wealth of new results for micro and nano-scale electronic...

  16. Electron temperature from x-ray continuum measurements on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrott, Leonard; Bachmann, Benjamin; Benedetti, Robin; Izumi, Nobuhiko; Khan, Shahab; Landen, Otto; Ma, Tammy; Nagel, Sabrina; Pak, Arthur; Patel, Prav; Schneider, Marilyn; Springer, Paul; LLNL Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    We report on measurements of the electron temperature within the hot spot of inertially confined, layered implosions on the NIF using a titanium differential filtering x-ray diagnostic. The electron temperature from x-ray emission is insensitive to non-thermal velocity flows as is the case with ion temperature measurements and is thus a critical parameter in interpreting stagnated hot spot conditions. Here we discuss measurements using titanium filters ranging from 10 μm to 1mm in thickness with a sensitivity band of 10-30keV coupled with penumbral pinholes. The use of larger pinhole diameters increases x-ray fluence improving sensitivity of photon energies with minimal attenuation from the compressed fuel/shell. This diagnostic has been fielded on a series of cryogenic shots with DT ion temperatures ranging from 2-5keV. Analysis of the measurement will be presented along with a comparison against simulated electron temperatures and x-ray spectra as well as a comparison to DT ion temperature measurements. This work was performed under the auspices of U.S. DoE by LLNL under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. A density-temperature description of the outer electron radiation belt during geomagnetic storms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovsky, Joseph E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cayton, Thomas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denton, Michael H [LANCASTER UNIV

    2009-01-01

    Electron flux measurements from 7 satellites in geosynchronous orbit from 1990-2007 are fit with relativistic bi-Maxwellians, yielding a number density n and temperature T description of the outer electron radiation belt. For 54.5 spacecraft years of measurements the median value ofn is 3.7x10-4 cm-3 and the median value ofT is 142 keY. General statistical properties of n, T, and the 1.1-1.5 MeV flux J are investigated, including local-time and solar-cycle dependencies. Using superposed-epoch analysis triggered on storm onset, the evolution of the outer electron radiation belt through high-speed-steam-driven storms is investigated. The number density decay during the calm before the storm is seen, relativistic-electron dropouts and recoveries from dropout are investigated, and the heating of the outer electron radiation belt during storms is examined. Using four different triggers (SSCs, southward-IMF CME sheaths, southward-IMF magnetic clouds, and minimum Dst), CME-driven storms are analyzed with superposed-epoch techniques. For CME-driven storms an absence of a density decay prior to storm onset is found, the compression of the outer electron radiation belt at time of SSC is analyzed, the number-density increase and temperature decrease during storm main phase is seen, and the increase in density and temperature during storm recovery phase is observed. Differences are found between the density-temperature and the flux descriptions, with more information for analysis being available in the density-temperature description.

  18. Correlation between ion diffusional motion and ionic conductivity for different electrolytes based on ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Dilraj Preet; Yamada, K; Park, Jin-Soo; Sekhon, S S

    2009-04-23

    Room temperature ionic liquid 2,3-dimethyl-1-hexylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (DMHxImTFSI) has been synthesized and used in the preparation of polymer gel electrolytes containing polymethylmethacrylate and propylene carbonate (PC). The onset of ion diffusional motion has been studied by (1)H and (19)F NMR spectroscopy and the results obtained for ionic liquid, liquid electrolytes, and polymer gel electrolytes have been correlated with the ionic conductivity results for these electrolytes in the 100-400 K temperature range. The temperature at which (1)H and (19)F NMR lines show motional narrowing and hence ion diffusional motion starts has been found to be closely related to the temperature at which a large increase in ionic conductivity has been observed for these electrolytes. Polymer gel electrolytes have high ionic conductivity over a wide range of temperatures. Thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry studies show that the ionic liquid (DMHxImTFSI) used in the present study is thermally stable up to 400 degrees C, whereas the addition of PC lowers the thermal stability of polymer gel electrolytes containing the ionic liquid. Different electrolytes have been observed to show high ionic conductivity in different range of temperatures, which can be helpful in the design of polymer gel electrolytes for specific applications.

  19. Thermotropic Ionic Liquid Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Sabine Laschat; Axenov, Kirill V

    2011-01-01

    The last five years’ achievements in the synthesis and investigation of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals are reviewed. The present review describes the mesomorphic properties displayed by organic, as well as metal-containing ionic mesogens. In addition, a short overview on the ionic polymer and self-assembled liquid crystals is given. Potential and actual applications of ionic mesogens are also discussed.

  20. Very low velocity ion slowing down in binary ionic mixtures: Charge- and mass-asymmetry effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Fromy

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A binary ionic mixture (BIM in dense and hot plasmas of specific concern for inertial confinement fusion and white dwarf crust is considered as a target for incoming light ions with a velocity smaller than the thermal electron one. The given target stopping power, mostly BIM monitored, is specifically studied in terms of charge and mass asymmetry in its ionic component. The classical plasma target is worked out within a dielectric framework, and scanned with respect to density, temperature, and BIM composition.

  1. Corrosion reliability of electronics: the influence of solder temperature on the decomposition of flux activators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piotrowska, Kamila; Conseil, Helene; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript gives a brief overview on the studies of thermal decomposition of solder flux systems commonly used in the electronic industry. Changes in chemical composition and structural changes of the flux components have been investigated as a function of temperature. Six weak organic acids...

  2. The dust-acoustic mode in two-temperature electron plasmas with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... charging fluctuations, the dispersion peculiarities of dust-acoustic waves are studied based on dust fluid dynamics. The present results show that the effect will introduce a dissipation on the mode, and the dispersion and the dissipation depend on the temperature ratio and number density ratio of hot and cold electrons.

  3. Solar flux variation of the electron temperature morning overshoot in the equatorial F region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolle, Claudia; Liu, H.; Truhlik, V.

    2011-01-01

    Using 8 years of CHAMP satellite observations of the equatorial electron temperature, T-e, we investigate its behavior during the morning overshoot and at ionospheric altitudes below 450 km including its variation with solar activity. The morning T-e has a maximum at the dip equator and decreases...

  4. Study on the correlation between plasma electron temperature and penetration depth in laser welding processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibillano, T.; Ancona, A.; Rizzi, D.; Saludes Rodil, S.; Rodriguez Nieto, J.; Konuk, A.R.; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Huis in 't Veld, Bert

    2010-01-01

    The plasma electron temperature has been estimated starting from the spectroscopic analysis of the optical emission of the laser-generated plasma plume during quite diverse stainless steel welding procedures (c.w. CO2 and pulsed Nd:YAG). Although the optical emissions present different spectral

  5. Study on the correlation between plasma electron temperature and penetration depth in laser welding processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibillano, T.; Ancona, A.; Rizzi, D.; Saludes Rodil, S.; Rodriguez Nieto, J.; Konuk, A.R.; Aarts, R.G.K.M.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The plasma electron temperature has been estimated starting from the spectroscopic analysis of the optical emission of the lasergenerated plasma plume during quite diverse stainless steel welding procedures (c.w. CO2 and pulsed Nd:YAG). Although the optical emissions present different spectral

  6. Elements of solid state electronics based on soi-structures and si whiskers for cryogenic temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhinin A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study results of electrical properties of polycrystalline silicon films in silicon-on-insulator structures and Si whiskers in the temperature range of 4,2—70 K obtained by impedance measurements in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 250 kHz and the possibility of their use in solid-state electronics, functioning at cryogenic temperatures. Characteristics of samples obtained with impedance measurements allow to predict certain specifications of reactive elements of solid state electronics based on polycrystalline and single crystalline silicon, operable at low temperatures. Using the established dependencies, separate elements in the form of solid-state electronics capacitive and inductive elements as well as a combined system in an oscillatory circuit, operable at cryogenic temperatures, have been suggested. The features of developed system depend on the structure of samples and their doping level, which allows to change the required parameters of the elements of solid state electronics in a wide range.

  7. Room temperature Compton profiles of conduction electrons in α-Ga ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Room temperature Compton profiles of momentum distribution of conduction electrons in -Ga metal are calculated in band model. For this purpose, the ... N C Mohapatra2. Department of Physics, Chikiti Mahavidyalaya, Chikiti 761 010, India; Department of Physics, Berhampur University, Berhampur 760 007, India ...

  8. A Technique for Temperature and Ultimate Load Calculations of Thin Targets in a Pulsed Electron Beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen-Walther; Lundsager, Per

    1979-01-01

    A technique is presented for the calculation of transient temperature distributions and ultimate load of rotationally symmetric thin membranes with uniform lateral load and exposed to a pulsed electron beam from a linear accelerator. Heat transfer by conduction is considered the only transfer...

  9. High time resolution reconstruction of electron temperature profiles with a neural network in C-2U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Player, Gabriel; Magee, Richard; Trask, Erik; Korepanov, Sergey; Clary, Ryan; Tri Alpha Energy Team

    2017-10-01

    One of the most important parameters governing fast ion dynamics in a plasma is the electron temperature, as the fast ion-electron collision rate goes as νei Te3 / 2 . Unfortunately, the electron temperature is difficult to directly measure-methods relying on high-powered laser pulses or fragile probes lead to limited time resolution or measurements restricted to the edge. In order to rectify the lack of time resolution on the Thomson scattering data in the core, a type of learning algorithm, specifically a neural network, was implemented. This network uses 3 hidden layers to correlate information from nearly 250 signals, including magnetics, interferometers, and several arrays of bolometers, with Thomson scattering data over the entire C-2U database, totalling nearly 20,000 samples. The network uses the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm with Bayesian regularization to learn from the large number of samples and inputs how to accurately reconstruct the entire electron temperature time history at a resolution of 500 kHz, a huge improvement over the 2 time points per shot provided by Thomson scattering. These results can be used in many different types of analysis and plasma characterization-in this work, we use the network to quantify electron heating.

  10. Effect of electronic contribution on temperature-dependent thermal transport of antimony telluride thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won-Yong; Park, No-Won [Department of Physics, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Ji-Eun [Department of Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Soon-Gil, E-mail: sgyoon@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Jung-Hyuk [School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Kwon, E-mail: sangkwonlee@cau.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-25

    Highlights: • We investigated thermal transport of the antimony telluride thin films. • The contribution of the electronic thermal conductivity increased up to ∼77% at 300 K. • We theoretically analyze and explain the high contribution of electronic component. - Abstract: We study the theoretical and experimental characteristics of thermal transport of 100 nm and 500 nm-thick antimony telluride (Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) thin films prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The thermal conductivity was measured at temperatures ranging from 20 to 300 K, using four-point-probe 3-ω method. Out-of-plane thermal conductivity of the Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin film was much lesser in comparison to the bulk material in the entire temperature range, confirming that the phonon- and electron-boundary scattering are enhanced in thin films. Moreover, we found that the contribution of the electronic thermal conductivity (κ{sub e}) in total thermal conductivity (κ) linearly increased up to ∼77% at 300 K with increasing temperature. We theoretically analyze and explain the high contribution of electronic component of thermal conductivity towards the total thermal conductivity of the film by a modified Callaway model. Further, we find the theoretical model predictions to correspond well with the experimental results.

  11. The low-temperature method for study of coniferous tissues in the environmental scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neděla, Vilém; Tihlaříková, Eva; Hřib, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    The use of non-standard low-temperature conditions in environmental scanning electron microscopy might be promising for the observation of coniferous tissues in their native state. This study is aimed to analyse and evaluate the method based on the principle of low-temperature sample stabilization. We demonstrate that the upper mucous layer is sublimed and a microstructure of the sample surface can be observed with higher resolution at lower gas pressure conditions, thanks to a low-temperature method. An influence of the low-temperature method on sample stability was also studied. The results indicate that high-moisture conditions are not suitable for this method and often cause the collapse of samples. The potential improvement of stability to beam damage has been demonstrated by long-time observation at different operation parameters. We finally show high applicability of the low-temperature method on different types of conifers and Oxalis acetosella. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Translational, rotational, vibrational and electron temperatures of a gliding arc discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Ehn, Andreas; Gao, Jinlong

    2017-01-01

    Translational, rotational, vibrational and electron temperatures of a gliding arc discharge in atmospheric pressure air were experimentally investigated using in situ, non-intrusive optical diagnostic techniques. The gliding arc discharge was driven by a 35 kHz alternating current (AC) power source...... and operated in a glow-type regime. The two-dimensional distribution of the translational temperature (Tt) of the gliding arc discharge was determined using planar laser-induced Rayleigh scattering. The rotational and vibrational temperatures were obtained by simulating the experimental spectra. The OH A–X (0......, 0) band was used to simulate the rotational temperature (Tr) of the gliding arc discharge whereas the NO A–X (1, 0) and (0, 1) bands were used to determine its vibrational temperature (Tv). The instantaneous reduced electric field strength E/N was obtained by simultaneously measuring...

  13. Discontinuous variation of the surface plasmon linewidth of small sodium nanoparticles with electron temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guozhong; Zheng, Yizhuang; Zi, Jian

    2015-05-01

    We found a novel behavior of the surface plasmon linewidth of small sodium nanoparticles, which monotonically decreases with the electron temperature and bears a sudden drop or rise at high electron temperatures. Our calculation is based on the model constructed by splitting the total Hamiltonian of all valence electrons of a metallic nanoparticle into two sub-Hamiltonians and the coupling between them. This novel behavior of the surface plasma resonance linewidth can be verified by pump-probe femtosecond spectroscopy experiments and is able to take place for metallic particles with sizes less than few nanometers. In addition, we propose that it is the size uncertainty of small nanoparticles that yields the intrinsic linewidth of the surface plasmon resonance, which is supported by experimental and theoretical results of nanoparticles Na8 and Na20.

  14. Temperature dependence of the surface plasmon resonance in small electron gas fragments, self consistent field approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasolato, C.; Sacchetti, F.; Tozzi, P.; Petrillo, C.

    2017-07-01

    The temperature dependence of the surface plasmon resonance in small metal spheres is calculated using an electron gas model within the Random Phase Approximation. The calculation is mainly devoted to the study of spheres with diameters up to at least 10 nm, where quantum effects can still be relevant and a simple plasmon pole approximation for the dielectric function is no more appropriate. We find a possible blue shift of the plasmon resonance position when the temperature is increased while keeping the size of the sphere fixed. The blue shift is appreciable only when the temperature is a large fraction of the Fermi energy. These results provide a guide for pump and probe experiments with a high time resolution, tailored to study the excited electron system before thermalisation with the lattice takes place.

  15. Temperature dependent electron paramagnetic resonance study on magnetoelectric YCrO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Ashish Kumar; Dixit, Ambesh; Garg, Ashish; Gupta, Rajeev

    2017-12-01

    We report temperature dependent electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies on polycrystalline YCrO3 samples at X-band (9.46 GHz) in the temperature range of 120 K–298 K. The EPR spectra exhibit a single broad line across the whole temperature range, attributed to Cr3+ ions. The variation of EPR spectra parameters (line width, integrated intensity, and g-factor) as a function of temperature was analyzed to understand the nature of spin-dynamics in the paramagnetic region of YCrO3. A peak in the g-factor suggests the presence of a new phase within the paramagnetic state at an intermediate point of temperature T IP ~ 230 K, attributed to the onset of short range canted antiferromagnetic correlations in the material much above 140 K, Néel temperature (T N) of YCrO3. The EPR intensity increases with a decrease in temperature up to T N due to the renormalization of the magnetic moments arising from the appearance of canted antiferromagnetic correlations. Further, temperature dependent dielectric measurements also exhibit an anomaly at ~230 K suggesting the presence of magnetodielectric coupling in YCrO3, with a possibility towards a relatively high temperature magnetodielectric system.

  16. On the electron temperature downstream of the solar wind termination shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Chashei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the temperatures of electrons convected with the solar wind to large solar distances and finally transported over the solar wind termination shock. Nearly nothing, unless at high energies in the cosmic ray regime, is known about the thermodynamical behaviour of these distant electrons from in~situ plasma observations. Hence it is tacitly assumed these electrons, due to their adiabatic behaviour and vanishing heat conduction or energization processes, have rapidly cooled off to very low temperatures once they eventually arrive at the solar wind termination shock (at about 100 AU. In this paper we show that such electrons, however, at their passage over the termination shock due to the shock–electric field action undergo an over-adiabatic heating and therefore appear on the downstream side as a substantially heated plasma species. Looking quantitatively into this heating process we find that solar wind electrons achieve temperatures of the order of 2–4 × 106 K downstream of the termination shock, depending on the upstream solar wind bulk velocity and the shock compression ratio. Hence these electrons therewith play an important dynamical role in structuring this shock and determining the downstream plasma flow properties. Furthermore, they present an additional ionization source for incoming neutral interstellar hydrogen and excite X-ray emission. They also behave similar to cosmic ray electrons and extend to some limited region upstream of the shock of the order of 0.1 AU by spatial diffusion and thereby also modify the upstream solar wind properties.

  17. Thermo-responsive poly(ionic liquid) valves for microfluidic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor, Alexandru; Saez, Janire; Florea, Larisa; Benito-Lopez, Fernando; Diamond, Dermot

    2016-01-01

    Poly(ionic liquid)s (PIL) are a class of ionic liquids that feature polymerizable groups in the cation, the anion or both. They retain most of the properties present in ionic liquids, including ionic conductivity, low vapour pressure and tunable physico-chemical properties. Several phosphonium ionic liquids have been shown to possess a lower critical solution temperature, making them suitable materials for the synthesis of temperature-responsive smart materials.1,2 Herein, we present the synt...

  18. Investigation of solvation of iron nanoclusters in ionic liquid 1-butyl-1,1,1-trimethylammonium methane sulfonate using molecular dynamics simulations: Effect of cluster size at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, Mohsen; Akbarzadeh, Hamed; Yousefi, Parnian; Razmkhah, Mohammad

    2017-10-15

    The systems composed of metal nanoclusters in ionic liquids are relevant for applications in lubrication, electrochemical devices, catalysis, and chemical processes. The mechanism of solvation and interactions of these systems are not understood at present. In this work, we have simulated iron nanoclusters with different sizes in ionic liquid 1-butyl-1,1,1-trimethylammonium methane sulfonate [N1114][C1SO3] at two temperatures (300 and 500K) and at atmospheric pressure. We have investigated the effects of cluster size and the temperature on some of the thermodynamics, structural and dynamical properties of the systems. Our results also show that the absolute value of solvation energy increases as the nanocluster size increases. Also the absolute solvation energy increases as the temperature increases. It is also shown that the effect of the cluster size is much more than the effect of the temperature. Our structural investigations indicate at least two shells (a double layer) around the nanocluster and the anions are closer to the cluster surface than the cations. The self-diffusion coefficients of cations, anions, and iron clusters have been also presented and discussed in this work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A harsh environment wireless pressure sensing solution utilizing high temperature electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie

    2013-02-27

    Pressure measurement under harsh environments, especially at high temperatures, is of great interest to many industries. The applicability of current pressure sensing technologies in extreme environments is limited by the embedded electronics which cannot survive beyond 300 °C ambient temperature as of today. In this paper, a pressure signal processing and wireless transmission module based on the cutting-edge Silicon Carbide (SiC) devices is designed and developed, for a commercial piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensor from Kulite Semiconductor Products, Inc. Equipped with this advanced high-temperature SiC electronics, not only the sensor head, but the entire pressure sensor suite is capable of operating at 450 °C. The addition of wireless functionality also makes the pressure sensor more flexible in harsh environments by eliminating the costly and fragile cable connections. The proposed approach was verified through prototype fabrication and high temperature bench testing from room temperature up to 450 °C. This novel high-temperature pressure sensing technology can be applied in real-time health monitoring of many systems involving harsh environments, such as military and commercial turbine engines.

  20. A Harsh Environment Wireless Pressure Sensing Solution Utilizing High Temperature Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Pressure measurement under harsh environments, especially at high temperatures, is of great interest to many industries. The applicability of current pressure sensing technologies in extreme environments is limited by the embedded electronics which cannot survive beyond 300 °C ambient temperature as of today. In this paper, a pressure signal processing and wireless transmission module based on the cutting-edge Silicon Carbide (SiC) devices is designed and developed, for a commercial piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensor from Kulite Semiconductor Products, Inc. Equipped with this advanced high-temperature SiC electronics, not only the sensor head, but the entire pressure sensor suite is capable of operating at 450 °C. The addition of wireless functionality also makes the pressure sensor more flexible in harsh environments by eliminating the costly and fragile cable connections. The proposed approach was verified through prototype fabrication and high temperature bench testing from room temperature up to 450 °C. This novel high-temperature pressure sensing technology can be applied in real-time health monitoring of many systems involving harsh environments, such as military and commercial turbine engines. PMID:23447006

  1. Electronic origin of high-temperature superconductivity in single-layer FeSe superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Defa; Zhang, Wenhao; Mou, Daixiang; He, Junfeng; Ou, Yun-Bo; Wang, Qing-Yan; Li, Zhi; Wang, Lili; Zhao, Lin; He, Shaolong; Peng, Yingying; Liu, Xu; Chen, Chaoyu; Yu, Li; Liu, Guodong; Dong, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Chuangtian; Xu, Zuyan; Hu, Jiangping; Chen, Xi; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qikun; Zhou, X J

    2012-07-03

    The recent discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in iron-based compounds has attracted much attention. How to further increase the superconducting transition temperature (T(c)) and how to understand the superconductivity mechanism are two prominent issues facing the current study of iron-based superconductors. The latest report of high-T(c) superconductivity in a single-layer FeSe is therefore both surprising and significant. Here we present investigations of the electronic structure and superconducting gap of the single-layer FeSe superconductor. Its Fermi surface is distinct from other iron-based superconductors, consisting only of electron-like pockets near the zone corner without indication of any Fermi surface around the zone centre. Nearly isotropic superconducting gap is observed in this strictly two-dimensional system. The temperature dependence of the superconducting gap gives a transition temperature T(c)~ 55 K. These results have established a clear case that such a simple electronic structure is compatible with high-T(c) superconductivity in iron-based superconductors.

  2. Investigations on electronic, Fermi surface, Curie temperature and optical properties of Zr2CoAl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao-Ping; Sun, Weiwei; Zhang, Ya-Ling; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Song, Ting; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Jia-Liang; Su, Hao; Deng, Jian-Bo; Zhu, Xing-Feng

    2017-03-01

    Using full-potential local-orbital minimum-basis along with spin-polarized relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker methods, we study the electronic, Fermi surface, Curie temperature and optical properties of Zr2CoAl alloy. The alloy with Li2AgSb and Cu2MnAl structures are compared in terms of magnetic properties, and the electronic structures in two structures are also discussed. According to the calculated electronic states, it finds that the Zr2CoAl with Li2AgSb structure is half-metallic ferromagnet with an integral magnetic moment of 2.00μB , meanwhile we also notice the d-d and p-d hybridizations are responsible for the formation of minority-spin gap, furthermore, the fat-bands are applied to discuss the mixture between d and p electrons in the vicinity of the Fermi level. The Fermi surfaces related to the valence bands are constructed, and it is found that the spin-up valence bands 26, 27 and 28 across the Fermi energy dominate the nature of electrons. By mapping the system onto a Heisenberg Hamiltonian, we obtain the exchange coupling parameters, and observe that the Zr(A)-Co(C) and Zr(A)-Zr(B) interactions provide a major contribution for exchange interactions. Based on the calculated exchange coupling parameters, the Curie temperature is estimated to be 287.86 K at equilibrium, and also the dependence of Curie temperature on lattice constant related to the tunable Curie temperature in Zr2CoAl alloy is studied. Finally, we report the optical properties of Zr2CoAl alloy, and present the photon energy dependence of the absorption, the optical conductivity and the loss function.

  3. Electron emission yield and charging process of alkali-silicate glass submitted to an electron beam under the varying temperature condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhaj, M., E-mail: Mohamed.Belhaj@onera.fr [ONERA - French Aerospace Lab, F-31055 Toulouse (France); Tondu, T.; Inguimbert, V. [ONERA - French Aerospace Lab, F-31055 Toulouse (France); Elsafi, B.; Fakhfakh, S. [LaMaCop, Faculte des Sciences de SFAX, Route Soukra Km 3, BP 1171, C.P 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Jbara, O., E-mail: omar.jbara@univ-reims.fr [GRESPI/Materiaux Fonctionnels, UFR Sciences, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France)

    2012-01-01

    The electron emission due to electron impact of alkali-silicate glasses is measured with a technique based on the use of a Kelvin probe (KP method) and a pulsed electron beam. The KP method, allows a clear discrimination between the external and internal effects of charging process. The effect of the incident charge fluence, incident charge fluency and the temperature on the yield curve is investigated. It was found that, at room temperature as well as at 80 Degree-Sign C, electron emission varies with charge fluence. The effects of the temperature on charging mechanisms and charge transport characteristics of alkali-silicate glasses where also studied using the measurement of displacement and leakage currents under continuous electron irradiation in scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results clearly establish a correlation between charge carriers mobility and secondary electron emission yield. The enhancement of charge carrier mobility with increasing the temperature prevents the formation of a positive space charge (i.e. creation of positive ions and/or holes) that internally reduces the secondary electron (SE) emission. The higher is the temperature and the higher is the electron emission yield (EEY).

  4. Modeling of temperature profiles in an environmental transmission electron microscope using computational fluid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard; Jensen, Anker Degn; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2015-01-01

    The temperature and velocity field, pressure distribution, and the temperature variation across the sample region inside an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) have been modeled by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Heating the sample area by a furnace type TEM holder ...... difference over the TEM grid is less than 5. °C, at what must be considered typical conditions, and it is concluded that the conditions on the sample grid in the ETEM can be considered as isothermal during general use....... gives rise to temperature gradients over the sample area. Three major mechanisms have been identified with respect to heat transfer in the sample area: radiation from the grid, conduction in the grid, and conduction in the gas. A parameter sensitivity analysis showed that the sample temperature...

  5. Unusual temperature dependence of the dissociative electron attachment cross section of 2-thiouracil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopyra, Janina [Faculty of Science, Siedlce University, 3 Maja 54, 08-110 Siedlce (Poland); Abdoul-Carime, Hassan [Université de Lyon, F-69003 Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS/IN2P3, UMR5822, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Lyon (France)

    2016-01-21

    At low energies (<3 eV), molecular dissociation is controlled by dissociative electron attachment for which the initial step, i.e., the formation of the transient negative ion, can be initiated by shape resonance or vibrational Feshbach resonance (VFR) mediated by the formation of a dipole bound anion. The temperature dependence for shape-resonances is well established; however, no experimental information is available yet on the second mechanism. Here, we show that the dissociation cross section for VFRs mediated by the formation of a dipole bound anion decreases as a function of a temperature. The change remains, however, relatively small in the temperature range of 370-440 K but it might be more pronounced at the extended temperature range.

  6. GaN-Based High Temperature and Radiation-Hard Electronics for Harsh Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kyung-ah; Liao, Anna; Lung, Gerald; Gallegos, Manuel; Hatakeh, Toshiro; Harris, Richard D.; Scheick, Leif Z.; Smythe, William D.

    2010-01-01

    We develop novel GaN-based high temperature and radiation-hard electronics to realize data acquisition electronics and transmitters suitable for operations in harsh planetary environments. In this paper, we discuss our research on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors that are targeted for 500 (sup o)C operation and >2 Mrad radiation hardness. For the target device performance, we develop Schottky-free AlGaN/GaN MOS transistors, where a gate electrode is processed in a MOS layout using an Al2O3 gate dielectric layer....

  7. SISGR: Physical Chemistry of Reaction Dynamics in Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, David [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2017-10-30

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are liquids made up of atomic and molecular ions. This is in contrast with more common liquids, such as water, that are made up of neutral molecules. The additional charges on the atoms and molecules can alter the properties of these liquids, for example they tend to have a very high vapor pressure and the ability to shield charge in electronic devices. For these and other reasons RTILs have recently been deployed in a number of applications that involve production of free electrons in the liquid, such as batteries, capacitors, nuclear power plants, and solar cells. Electrons tend to be very reactive, and understanding their behaviour in these liquids is important for the future design of ionic liquids to be employed in these environments. This study investigated the behavior of electrons generated in RTILs by pulses of ultraviolet light, including how long they survive, and how reactive they are with the both the surrounding liquid and impurities in the liquid. The ionic liquid studied was one of the most commonly used, called N-alkyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium bistriflimide. What the study revealed was that the majority of the electrons initially created, about 96%, had a very short lifetime of less than one picosecond (10-12 second) due to a process called geminate recombination. The study also demonstrated that the electrons are very reactive at the moment they are detached from the molecules in the liquid by light, but that they relax very quickly and lose almost all of their reactivity in much less than one picosecond. The short lifetime and rapid loss of reactivity both serve as important mechanisms that protect the liquid from radiolytic damage.

  8. Variation with temperature of the electron attachment to SO2F2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datskos, P. G.; Christophorou, L. G.

    1989-03-01

    The total electron attachment rate constant ka(,T) for SO2F2 has been measured, in a buffer gas of N2, as a function of the mean electron energy (0.046-0.911 eV) and temperature T (300-700 K) using an electron swarm technique. From the measured ka(,T), the total electron attachment cross sections σa(ɛ,T) were determined. At 300 K the σa(ɛ,T) exhibits a maximum at ˜0.22 eV which is due to dissociative electron attachment and an increase below ˜0.1 eV which is due to the formation of parent negative ions SO2F-2 at near zero energy. At T=400 K, σa(ɛ,T) has only one main peak at ˜0.13 eV which is due only to dissociative electron attachment reflecting the depletion of the parent anions and the prevalence of the fragment negative ions as T increases. The main peak of σa(ɛ,T) shifts to lower electron energies with increasing T so that at 700 K the peak is located at ˜0.03 eV. The value, σda(ɛmax), of the total electron attachment cross section at the peak energy ɛmax increases by a factor of ˜32 as T increases from 300 to 700 K. The analysis of these results—and similar earlier work—leads to the conclusion that the increase in σda(ɛ,T) for the dissociative electron attachment processes in molecules, with increasing T results mainly from an increase with T of the internal energy (principally vibrational) of the molecule.

  9. The Use of Low Temperature Detectors for Direct Measurements of the Mass of the Electron Neutrino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nucciotti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed many exciting breakthroughs in neutrino physics. The detection of neutrino oscillations has proved that neutrinos are massive particles, but the assessment of their absolute mass scale is still an outstanding challenge in today particle physics and cosmology. Since low temperature detectors were first proposed for neutrino physics experiments in 1984, there has been tremendous technical progress: today this technique offers the high energy resolution and scalability required to perform competitive experiments challenging the lowest electron neutrino masses. This paper reviews the thirty-year effort aimed at realizing calorimetric measurements with sub-eV neutrino mass sensitivity using low temperature detectors.

  10. A 2.5-2.7 THz Room Temperature Electronic Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestrini, Alain; Mehdi, Imran; Lin, Robert; Siles, Jose Vicente; Lee, Choonsup; Gill, John; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Schlecht, Erich; Bertrand, Thomas; Ward, John

    2011-01-01

    We report on a room temperature 2.5 to 2.7 THz electronic source based on frequency multipliers. The source utilizes a cascade of three frequency multipliers with W-band power amplifiers driving the first stage multiplier. Multiple-chip multipliers are utilized for the two initial stages to improve the power handling capability and a sub-micron anode is utilized for the final stage tripler. Room temperature measurements indicate that the source can put out a peak power of about 14 microwatts with more than 4 microwatts in the 2.5 to 2.7 THz range.

  11. Probing the local, electronic and magnetic structure of matter under extreme conditions of temperature and pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torchio, R.; Boccato, S.; Cerantola, V.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present recent achievements in the field of investigation of the local, electronic and magnetic structure of the matter under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature. These results were obtained thanks to the coupling of a compact laser heating system to the energy......-dispersive XAS technique available on the ID24 beamline at the ESRF synchrotron. The examples chosen concern the melting and the liquid structure of 3d metals and alloys under high pressures (HPs) and the observation of temperature-induced spin crossover in FeCO3 at HP....

  12. Modelling coronal electron density and temperature profiles based on solar magnetic field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Gómez, J. M.; Antunes Vieira, L. E.; Dal Lago, A.; Palacios, J.; Balmaceda, L. A.; Stekel, T.

    2017-10-01

    The density and temperature profiles in the solar corona are complex to describe, the observational diagnostics is not easy. Here we present a physics-based model to reconstruct the evolution of the electron density and temperature in the solar corona based on the configuration of the magnetic field imprinted on the solar surface. The structure of the coronal magnetic field is estimated from Potential Field Source Surface (PFSS) based on magnetic field from both observational synoptic charts and a magnetic flux transport model. We use an emission model based on the ionization equilibrium and coronal abundances from CHIANTI atomic database 8.0. The preliminary results are discussed in details.

  13. Arbitrary amplitude ion-acoustic solitary waves in a two-temperature nonextensive electron plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatami, M. M.; Tribeche, M.

    2018-02-01

    Effects of presence of ions on the existence and structure of arbitrary amplitude ion-acoustic solitary waves in a plasma consisting of thermal ions and two-temperature nonextensive electrons are investigated. It is shown that solitons of both polarity (compressive and rarefactive) can exist in such a plasma, depending on the range of the plasma parameters. Also, it is seen that the maximum amplitude and the width of both soliton types depend sensitively on the temperature and concentration of ions. To better understand the role of positive ions, the presented model is reduced to a Maxwellian plasma and the results are compared to their Maxwellian counterparts.

  14. Continuous point-like high-temperature laser discharge produced by terahertz free electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kubarev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A continuous point-like laser discharge of record high temperature has been produced in argon at atmospheric pressure with focusing of the radiation of the Novosibirsk terahertz free electron laser (NovoFEL. According to spectral measurements, the temperature in the center of the millimeter-sized plasma sphere was 28000 K at a plasma density of 1.5×1017 cm-3 and an average NovoFEL power of 200 W at a wavelength of 130 μm (2.3 THz.

  15. Modeling of temperature profiles in an environmental transmission electron microscope using computational fluid dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mølgaard Mortensen, Peter [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Willum Hansen, Thomas [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Birkedal Wagner, Jakob, E-mail: jakob.wagner@cen.dtu.dk [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Degn Jensen, Anker, E-mail: aj@kt.dtu.dk [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-05-15

    The temperature and velocity field, pressure distribution, and the temperature variation across the sample region inside an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) have been modeled by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Heating the sample area by a furnace type TEM holder gives rise to temperature gradients over the sample area. Three major mechanisms have been identified with respect to heat transfer in the sample area: radiation from the grid, conduction in the grid, and conduction in the gas. A parameter sensitivity analysis showed that the sample temperature was affected by the conductivity of the gas, the emissivity of the sample grid, and the conductivity of the grid. Ideally the grid should be polished and made from a material with good conductivity, e.g. copper. With hydrogen gas, which has the highest conductivity of the gases studied, the temperature difference over the TEM grid is less than 5 °C, at what must be considered typical conditions, and it is concluded that the conditions on the sample grid in the ETEM can be considered as isothermal during general use. - Highlights: • Computational fluid dynamics used for mapping flow and temperature in ETEM setup. • Temperature gradient across TEM grid in furnace based heating holder very small in ETEM. • Conduction from TEM grid and gas in addition to radiation from TEM grid most important. • Pressure drop in ETEM limited to the pressure limiting apertures.

  16. A method for estimating the temperature in high energy density free electron laser experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Principi, Emiliano, E-mail: emiliano.principi@unicam.i [CNISM, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Camerino via Madonna delle Carceri, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Ferrante, Carino; Filipponi, Adriano [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi dell' Aquila, Via Vetoio, I-67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Bencivenga, Filippo; D' Amico, Francesco; Masciovecchio, Claudio [Synchrotron ELETTRA, Strada Statale 14-I-34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Di Cicco, Andrea [CNISM, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Camerino via Madonna delle Carceri, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); IMPMC, Universite Paris 6, CNRS, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France)

    2010-09-21

    Present and forthcoming free electron laser (FEL) large scale facilities deliver high fluence ultrafast soft and hard X-ray pulses able to create and probe warm dense matter (WDM). Proper diagnostic for basic physical quantities, like temperature and density, is necessary, but the short lifetime of the WDM state (few ps) makes their measurements a challenging task. In this work we propose a method to estimate the WDM temperature using the experimental information from a slow temperature pyrometric probe exploiting the properties of the heat diffusion equation. Numerical simulations show that for typical thin foil samples, a temperature measurement with 1-10{mu}s temporal resolution at the distance of about 300-500{mu}m from the beam center contains sufficient information to retrieve the initial spatial temperature distribution with sufficient accuracy providing information on the temperature reached in the WDM regime. The inversion of the experimental information is obtained by means of a Bayesian approach exploiting a Metropolis Monte Carlo numerical procedure. The model and calculations presented in this work provide the theoretical background for the development of a device for temperature diagnostics of the TIMEX end-station at the Fermi-Elettra FEL facility.

  17. Elevated temperature, nano-mechanical testing in situ in the scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, J. M.; Michler, J. [EMPA - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Mechanics of Materials and Nanostructures, Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, Thun CH-3602 (Switzerland)

    2013-04-15

    A general nano-mechanical test platform capable of performing variable temperature and variable strain rate testing in situ in the scanning electron microscope is described. A variety of test geometries are possible in combination with focused ion beam machining or other fabrication techniques: indentation, micro-compression, cantilever bending, and scratch testing. The system is intrinsically displacement-controlled, which allows it to function directly as a micro-scale thermomechanical test frame. Stable, elevated temperature indentation/micro-compression requires the indenter tip and the sample to be in thermal equilibrium to prevent thermal displacement drift due to thermal expansion. This is achieved through independent heating and temperature monitoring of both the indenter tip and sample. Furthermore, the apex temperature of the indenter tip is calibrated, which allows it to act as a referenced surface temperature probe during contact. A full description of the system is provided, and the effects of indenter geometry and of radiation on imaging conditions are discussed. The stabilization time and temperature distribution throughout the system as a function of temperature is characterized. The advantages of temperature monitoring and thermal calibration of the indenter tip are illustrated, which include the possibility of local thermal conductivity measurement. Finally, validation results using nanoindentation on fused silica and micro-compression of <100> silicon micro-pillars as a function of temperature up to 500 Degree-Sign C are presented, and procedures and considerations taken for these measurements are discussed. A brittle to ductile transition from fracture to splitting then plastic deformation is directly observed in the SEM for silicon as a function of temperature.

  18. Determination of the electronic temperature in the torsatron TJ-I Upgrade by the two filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, F.; Ochando, M.

    1994-07-01

    A Te monitor for the TJ-IU torsatron, based on the two-filters method, has been designed. It will consist of two surface-barrier silicon detectors looking at the same plasma region through berylium filters of different thickness. Plasma electron temperature is deduced from the ratio of the soft-x-ray fluxes transmitted through the two filters. The flexibility in magnetic configuration of TJ-IU plasmas has been taken into account in the mechanical design of this diagnostic. It will be attached to an upper 1 port of the vacuum vessel and the whole system will be movable both, to change the spatial resolution when needed and to enable the scan of the full plasma cross-section to obtain the radial profile of electron temperature in a shot-to-shot basis. (Author) 7 refs.

  19. Electron Temperature Measurement of Buried Layer Targets Using Time Resolved K-shell Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Edward; Foord, M. E.; Shepherd, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G.; Chen, H.; Emig, J.; Schneider, M.; Widmann, K.; Scott, H.; London, R.; Martin, M.; Wilson, B.; Iglesias, C.; Mauche, C.; Whitley, H.; Nilsen, J.; Hoarty, D.; James, S.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M.; Allan, P.; Hobbs, L.

    2016-10-01

    Short pulse laser-heated buried layer experiments have been performed with the goal of creating plasmas with mass densities >= 1 g/cm3 and electron temperatures >= 500 eV. The buried layer geometry has the advantage of rapid energy deposition before significant hydrodynamic expansion occurs. For brief periods (< 40 ps) this provides a low gradient, high density platform for studying emission characteristics under extreme plasma conditions. A study of plasma conditions achievable using the Orion laser facility has been performed. Time resolved K-shell spectroscopy was used to determine the temperature evolution of buried layer aluminum foil targets. The measured evolution is compared to a 2-D PIC simulation done using LSP, which shows late time heating from the non-thermal electron population. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Electron energy loss spectroscopy of excitons in two-dimensional-semiconductors as a function of temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Tizei, Luiz H. G.

    2016-04-21

    We have explored the benefits of performing monochromated Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy(EELS) in samples at cryogenic temperatures. As an example, we have observed the excitonic absorption peaks in single layer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides. These peaks appear separated by small energies due to spin orbit coupling. We have been able to distinguish the split for MoS2 below 300 K and for MoSe2 below 220 K. However, the distinction between peaks is only clear at 150 K. We have measured the change in absorption threshold between 150 K and 770 K for MoS2 and MoSe2. We discuss the effect of carbon and ice contamination in EELSspectra. The increased spectral resolution available made possible with modern monochromators in electron microscopes will require the development of stable sample holders which reaches temperatures far below that of liquid nitrogen.

  1. Dust ion acoustic freak waves in a plasma with two temperature electrons featuring Tsallis distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Balwinder Singh; Singh, Manpreet; Shalini; Saini, N. S.

    2018-02-01

    We present an investigation for the nonlinear dust ion acoustic wave modulation in a plasma composed of charged dust grains, two temperature (cold and hot) nonextensive electrons and ions. For this purpose, the multiscale reductive perturbation technique is used to obtain a nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The critical wave number, which indicates where the modulational instability sets in, has been determined precisely for various regimes. The influence of plasma background nonextensivity on the growth rate of modulational instability is discussed. The modulated wavepackets in the form of either bright or dark type envelope solitons may exist. Formation of rogue waves from bright envelope solitons is also discussed. The investigation indicates that the structural characteristics of these envelope excitations (width, amplitude) are significantly affected by nonextensivity, dust concentration, cold electron-ion density ratio and temperature ratio.

  2. Application of Ionic Liquids in Hydrometallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesik Park

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids, low temperature molten salts, have various advantages manifesting themselves as durable and environmentally friendly solvents. Their application is expanding into various fields including hydrometallurgy due to their unique properties such as non-volatility, inflammability, low toxicity, good ionic conductivity, and wide electrochemical potential window. This paper reviews previous literatures and our recent results adopting ionic liquids in extraction, synthesis and processing of metals with an emphasis on the electrolysis of active/light, rare earth, and platinum group metals. Because the research and development of ionic liquids in this area are still emerging, various, more fundamental approaches are expected to popularize ionic liquids in the metal manufacturing industry.

  3. Measurement of the electron and ion temperatures by the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer on joint Texas experimental tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, W.; Chen, Z. Y., E-mail: zychen@hust.edu.cn; Huang, D. W.; Tong, R. H.; Wang, S. Y.; Wei, Y. N.; Ma, T. K.; Zhuang, G. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Jin, W. [Center of Interface Dynamics for Sustainability, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Chengdu, Sichuan 610200 (China); Lee, S. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Shi, Y. J. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    An x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer has been developed on joint Texas experimental tokamak for the measurement of electron and ion temperatures from the K{sub α} spectra of helium-like argon and its satellite lines. A two-dimensional multi-wire proportional counter has been applied to detect the spectra. The electron and ion temperatures have been obtained from the Voigt fitting with the spectra of helium-like argon ions. The profiles of electron and ion temperatures show the dependence on electron density in ohmic plasmas.

  4. Evidence for electronic and ionic limitations at the origin of the second voltage plateau in nickel electrodes, as deduced from impedance spectroscopy measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barde, F.; Tarascon, J.M. [Laboratoire de Reactivite et de Chimie des Solides, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, CNRS UMR 6007, F-80039 Amiens (France); Taberna, P.L. [CIRIMAT, CNRS UMR 5085, Universite Paul Sabatier, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Palacin, M.R. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain)

    2008-05-01

    The second plateau occurring during the reduction of the nickel oxyhydroxide electrode (NOE) was studied by impedance spectroscopy on a cell with a pasted electrode prepared from commercial undoped {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2}. Measurements were performed at diverse states of reduction and a large variation of impedance upon the transition from the first to the second plateau was observed. This variation mainly takes place at low frequencies and is hence related to ionic diffusion. We observed that the impedance becomes more capacitive on the second plateau meaning that the proton diffusion is limited. These results would be consistent with the gradual formation of an insulating layer of nickel hydroxide at the interface between the NOE and the electrolyte upon reduction. Once this layer becomes compact the ionic diffusion would be hindered and forced to occur through this layer, which could explain the voltage drop observed. (author)

  5. Vibrational Inelastic Electron Tunneling Spectroscopy of Surface Adsorbed Single Molecules at Sub-Kelvin Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Chi-Lun

    2015-01-01

    With a 600mk homebuilt UHV STM system, we studied molecular vibration at the solid surface with inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) of Acetylene single molecules adsorbed on Cu(100) surface and revealed five new vibrational modes that were previously inaccessible to STM-IETS at 8K temperature. The identification of vibrational IETS features with normalized conductance change (Δσ/σ) as low as 0.24% was demonstrated. Facilitated by the high energy resolution, we also revealed the a...

  6. Room-temperature gas sensing through electronic coupling between tin oxide nanocrystal and carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, G.; Ocola, L.; Chen, J.; Center for Nanoscale Materials; Univ. of Wisconsin at Milwaukee

    2009-01-01

    A new gas-sensing platform for low-concentration gases (NO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and CO) comprises discrete SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals uniformly distributed on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The resulting hybrid nanostructures are highly sensitive, even at room temperature, because their gas sensing abilities rely on electron transfer between the nanocrystals and the CNTs.

  7. High-energy electron-induced damage production at room temperature in aluminum-doped silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, J. W.; Cheng, L. J.; Jaworowski, A.; Karins, J. P.; Lee, Y. H.; Lindstroem, L.; Mooney, P. M.; Oehrlen, G.; Wang, K. L.

    1979-01-01

    DLTS and EPR measurements are reported on aluminum-doped silicon that was irradiated at room temperature with high-energy electrons. Comparisons are made to comparable experiments on boron-doped silicon. Many of the same defects observed in boron-doped silicon are also observed in aluminum-doped silicon, but several others were not observed, including the aluminum interstitial and aluminum-associated defects. Damage production modeling, including the dependence on aluminum concentration, is presented.

  8. Electron-induced dry reforming of methane in a temperature-controlled dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuming

    2013-09-23

    Dry reforming of methane has the potential to reduce the greenhouse gases methane and carbon dioxide and to generate hydrogen-rich syngas. In reforming methane, plasma-assisted reforming processes may have advantages over catalytic processes because they are free from coking and their response time for mobile applications is quick. Although plasma-assisted reforming techniques have seen recent developments, systematic studies that clarify the roles that electron-induced chemistry and thermo-chemistry play are needed for a full understanding of the mechanisms of plasma-assisted reformation. Here, we developed a temperature-controlled coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) apparatus to investigate the relative importance of electron-induced chemistry and thermo-chemistry in dry reforming of methane. In the tested background temperature range 297-773 K, electron-induced chemistry, as characterized by the physical properties of micro-discharges, was found to govern the conversions of CH4 and CO2, while thermo-chemistry influenced the product selectivities because they were found to depend on the background temperature. Comparisons with results from arc-jet reformation indicated that thermo-chemistry is an efficient conversion method. Our findings may improve designs of plasma-assisted reformers by using relatively hotter plasma sources. However, detailed chemical kinetic studies are needed. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  9. Room-Temperature-Processable Wire-Templated Nanoelectrodes for Flexible and Transparent All-Wire Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sung-Yong; Lee, Yeongjun; Kim, Se Hyun; Park, Cheolmin; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2017-04-25

    Sophisticated preparation of arbitrarily long conducting nanowire electrodes on a large area is a significant requirement for development of transparent nanoelectronics. We report a position-customizable and room-temperature-processable metallic nanowire (NW) electrode array using aligned NW templates and a demonstration of transparent all-NW-based electronic applications by simple direct-printing. Well-controlled electroless-plating chemistry on a polymer NW template provided a highly conducting Au NW array with a very low resistivity of 7.5 μΩ cm (only 3.4 times higher than that of bulk Au), high optical transmittance (>90%), and mechanical bending stability. This method enables fabrication of all-NW-based electronic devices on various nonplanar surfaces and flexible plastic substrates. Our approach facilitates realization of advanced future electronics.

  10. Novel hydrophobic ionic liquids electrolyte based on cyclic sulfonium used in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Lei; Pan, Xu; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Changneng; Fang, Xiaqin; Chen, Shuanghong; Dai, Songyuan [Key Lab of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2011-01-15

    A novel series of hydrophobic room temperature ionic liquids based on six cyclic sulfonium cations were first time synthesized and applied in dye-sensitized solar cells as pure solvents for electrolyte system. The chronoamperograms result showed that the length of substituent on sulfonium cations could inhibit the I{sub 3}{sup -} diffusion and the five-ring structure of sulfonium was benefit for fast triiodide ion diffusion. The electrochemical impendence spectra measurement of dye-sensitized solar cells with these ionic liquid electrolytes was carried out and the result indicated that the cations' structure had indeed influence on the cells' performance especially for the fill factor, which was further proved by the measurement result of I-V curves of these dye-sensitized solar cells. The conclusion was obtained that the electron exchange reaction on Pt counter electrode/electrolyte interface dominated the cells' performance for these ionic liquid electrolyte-based DSCs. (author)

  11. Tailoring The Conducting Polymers PPY And PANI With Ionic Liquid BMIMBr For Enhanced Electrochromic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkat Ul-ain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of energy is the biggest need of the hour for developing countries. Smart windows with electrochromic characteristics can be one of the solutions for power shortfall. In this study ionic liquid BMIMBr is successfully synthesized by the reflux method. Ionogels comprising of ionic liquid and polymers Polyaniline and Polypyrrol were electrochemically deposited by galvanostatic methods. These films are structurally characterized by XRD and SEM. Concentration of monomer and ionic liquid was changed in order to study the effect on electrochemical and electrochromic properties. The electrochromic character was analyzed by optical studies and colour change was evident at different potentials. To further investigate the electron transport properties electrical conductivity studies were carried out. In a nutshell different parameters are studied with respect to concentration and temperature so that best material could be obtained showing high optical contrast and stability. Taking these studies in account an effective electrochromic device can be fabricated.

  12. Development of Ultra Low-Temperature Electronics for the AEgIS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenbacher, Thomas; Kellerbauer, Alban; Doser, Michael; Caspers, Friedhelm

    This thesis presents the development of electronics for operation at cryogenic temperatures, with particular emphasis on the cryogenic electronics required for the Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy (AEgIS) experiment at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN). The research is focused on a highly sensitive charged particle detection system for a Penning trap, on cryogenic low-pass filters and on a low-loss DC-contact RF switch. The detection system consists of a high quality factor tuned circuit including a superconducting coil, and a low-noise amplifier. Since the experimental setup of the AEgIS experiment requires it, the developed electronics must reliably operate at 4.2 K (~269C) and in high constant magnetic field of more than 1 Tesla. Therefore, the performance of the cryogenic electronic designs were carefully evaluated at low-temperature/high magnetic field, the result of which have important implications for the AEgIS experiment. Moreover, a new possibility of ...

  13. Quasi-optical design for systems to diagnose the electron temperature and density fluctuations on EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Qifo; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Hailin, E-mail: zhaohailin@ipp.ac.cn; Zhou, Tianfu; Ti, Ang; Hu, Liqun [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-11-15

    A system to simultaneously diagnose the electron temperature and density fluctuations is proposed for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak device. This system includes a common quasi-optical antenna, a correlation electron cyclotron emission (CECE) system that is used to measure the electron temperature fluctuations and a Doppler backscattering (DBS) system that is used to measure the electron density fluctuations. The frequency range of the proposed CECE system is 108-120 GHz, and this corresponds to a radial coverage of normalized radius ((R − R{sub 0})/a, R{sub 0} = 1850 mm, a = 450 mm) from 0.2 to 0.67 for the plasma operation with a toroidal magnetic field of 2.26 T. This paper focuses on the design of the quasi-optical antenna and aims at optimizing the poloidal resolution for different frequency bands. An optimum result gives the beam radius for the CECE system of 13-15 mm and this corresponds to a wave number range of k{sub θ} < 2.4 cm{sup −1}. The beam radius is 20-30 mm for V band (50-75 GHz) and 15-20 mm for W band (75-110 GHz).

  14. Physical Chemistry of Reaction Dynamics in Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margulis, Claudio Javier [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The Margulis group BES funded research at the University of Iowa is part of a broader collaborative effort that includes the groups of Blank (U. Minnesota), Castner (Rutgers U.), Maroncelli (Penn. State U.) and Wishart (BNL). The goal of this group of PIs is to better understand from an experimental and a theoretical perspective different aspects of photo-initiated electron transfer processes in a set of different room-temperature ionic-liquid systems. The Margulis contribution is theoretical and computational. Details are presented in the attached documentation.

  15. Separation of benzene from alkanes using 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulfate ionic liquid at several temperatures and atmospheric pressure: Effect of the size of the aliphatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Emilio J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Calvar, Noelia, E-mail: noecs@uvigo.e [Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Gomez, Elena [Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Dominguez, Angeles [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    The ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulfate, [EMpy][ESO{sub 4}], was studied for the separation of benzene from aliphatic hydrocarbons (octane or nonane) by solvent extraction through the determination of the (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) of the ternary systems: left braceoctane (1) + benzene (2) + [EMpy][ESO{sub 4}] (3)right brace and left bracenonane (1) + benzene (2) + [EMpy][ESO{sub 4}] (3)right brace at T = (283.15 and 298.15) K and atmospheric pressure. Binodal curves were determined using the 'cloud point' method, and tie-line compositions were obtained by density measurements. The values of selectivity and distribution coefficient, derived from the tie-line data, were used to decide if this ionic liquid can be used as potential solvent for the separation of benzene from aliphatic hydrocarbons using liquid extraction. These results were analyzed and compared to those previously reported for the systems left bracehexane + benzene + [EMpy][ESO{sub 4}]right brace and left braceheptane + benzene + [EMpy][ESO{sub 4}]right brace. The experimental results show that this ionic liquid is suitable for the extraction of benzene from mixtures containing octane and nonane. The consistency of tie-line data was ascertained by applying the Othmer-Tobias and Hand equations. The experimental results for the ternary systems were well correlated with the NRTL model. No literature data were found for the mixtures discussed in this paper.

  16. Dielectric study on mixtures of ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, E; Sippel, P; Reuter, D; Weiß, M; Loidl, A; Krohns, S

    2017-08-07

    Ionic liquids are promising candidates for electrolytes in energy-storage systems. We demonstrate that mixing two ionic liquids allows to precisely tune their physical properties, like the dc conductivity. Moreover, these mixtures enable the gradual modification of the fragility parameter, which is believed to be a measure of the complexity of the energy landscape in supercooled liquids. The physical origin of this index is still under debate; therefore, mixing ionic liquids can provide further insights. From the chemical point of view, tuning ionic liquids via mixing is an easy and thus an economic way. For this study, we performed detailed investigations by broadband dielectric spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry on two mixing series of ionic liquids. One series combines an imidazole based with a pyridine based ionic liquid and the other two different anions in an imidazole based ionic liquid. The analysis of the glass-transition temperatures and the thorough evaluations of the measured dielectric permittivity and conductivity spectra reveal that the dynamics in mixtures of ionic liquids are well defined by the fractions of their parent compounds.

  17. Low-Temperature Sintering Bonding Using Silver Nanoparticle Paste for Electronics Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ag nanoparticles (NPs with about 40 nm diameter covered with 5–8 nm organic shell were prepared by chemical reduction reaction. The thermal characteristics of Ag nanoparticle (NP paste were measured by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The low-temperature sintering bonding processes using Ag NP paste were carried out at the temperature range of 150–350°C for 5 min under the pressure of 3 MPa. The microstructures of the sintered joint and the fracture morphology were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The shear strength was used to evaluate the mechanical property of the sintered joint. TGA-DSC test showed that the Ag content is approximately 95.5 mass% in Ag NP paste. The average shear strength of the joint fabricated at 250°C for 5 min under the pressure of 3 MPa was about 28 MPa, which could meet the requirements of electronics packaging working at high temperature. The joint shear strength increased with the increase of the sintering temperature due to much denser sintered Ag NPs and more comprehensive metallurgical bonds formed in the joint.

  18. Magnetospheric Whistler Mode Ray Tracing with the Inclusion of Finite Electron and Ion Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxworth, A. S.; Golkowski, M.

    2015-12-01

    Ray tracing is an important technique for the study of whistler mode wave propagation in the Earth's magnetosphere. In numerical ray tracing the trajectory of a wave packet is calculated at each point in space by solving the Haselgrove equations, assuming a smooth, loss-less medium with no mode coupling. Previous work on ray tracing has assumed a cold plasma environment with negligible electron and ion temperatures. In this work we present magnetospheric whistler mode wave ray tracing results with the inclusion of finite ion and electron temperature. The inclusion of finite temperature effects makes the fourth order dispersion relation become sixth order. We compare our results with the work done by previous researchers for cold plasma environments, using two near earth space models (NGO and GCPM). Inclusion of finite temperature closes the otherwise open refractive index surface near the lower hybrid resonance frequency and affects the magnetospheric reflection of whistler waves. We also asses the main changes in the ray trajectory and implications for cyclotron resonance wave particle interactions including energetic particle precipitation.

  19. The Electron Temperature and Anisotropy in the Solar Wind. Comparison of the Core and Halo Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrard, V.; Lazar, M.; Poedts, S.; Štverák, Š.; Maksimovic, M.; Trávníček, P. M.

    2016-08-01

    Estimating the temperature of solar wind particles and their anisotropies is particularly important for understanding the origin of their deviations from thermal equilibrium and the effects this has. In the absence of energetic events, the velocity distribution of electrons reveals a dual structure with a thermal (Maxwellian) core and a suprathermal (kappa) halo. This article presents a detailed observational analysis of these two components, providing estimations of their temperatures and temperature anisotropies, and decoding any potential interdependence that their properties may indicate. The dataset used in this study includes more than 120 000 of the distributions measured by three missions in the ecliptic within an extended range of heliocentric distances from 0.3 to over 4 AU. The core temperature is found to decrease with the radial distance, while the halo temperature slightly increases, clarifying an apparent contradiction in previous observational analyses and providing valuable clues about the temperature of the kappa-distributed populations. For low values of the power-index kappa, these two components manifest a clear tendency to deviate from isotropy in the same direction, which seems to confirm the existence of mechanisms with similar effects on both components, e.g., the solar wind expansion, or the particle heating by the fluctuations. However, the existence of plasma states with anticorrelated anisotropies of the core and halo populations and the increase in their number for high values of the power-index kappa suggest a dynamic interplay of these components, mediated, most probably, by the anisotropy-driven instabilities.

  20. Temperature dependence of the cross section for the fragmentation of thymine via dissociative electron attachment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopyra, Janina [Faculty of Science, Siedlce University, 3 Maja 54, 08-110 Siedlce (Poland); Abdoul-Carime, Hassan, E-mail: hcarime@ipnl.in2p3.fr [Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon1, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, 43 Bd du 11 novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2015-05-07

    Providing experimental values for absolute Dissociative Electron Attachment (DEA) cross sections for nucleobases at realistic biological conditions is a considerable challenge. In this work, we provide the temperature dependence of the cross section, σ, of the dehydrogenated thymine anion (T − H){sup −} produced via DEA. Within the 393-443 K temperature range, it is observed that σ varies by one order of magnitude. By extrapolating to a temperature of 313 K, the relative DEA cross section for the production of the dehydrogenated thymine anion at an incident energy of 1 eV decreases by 2 orders of magnitude and the absolute value reaches approximately 6 × 10{sup −19} cm{sup 2}. These quantitative measurements provide a benchmark for theoretical prediction and also a contribution to a more accurate description of the effects of ionizing radiation on molecular medium.

  1. Measurement of the Electronic Thermal Conductance Channels and Heat Capacity of Graphene at Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Chung Fong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to transport energy is a fundamental property of the two-dimensional Dirac fermions in graphene. Electronic thermal transport in this system is relatively unexplored and is expected to show unique fundamental properties and to play an important role in future applications of graphene, including optoelectronics, plasmonics, and ultrasensitive bolometry. Here, we present measurements of bipolar thermal conductances due to electron diffusion and electron-phonon coupling and infer the electronic specific heat, with a minimum value of 10k_{B} (10^{-22}  J/K per square micron. We test the validity of the Wiedemann-Franz law and find that the Lorenz number equals 1.32×(π^{2}/3(k_{B}/e^{2}. The electron-phonon thermal conductance has a temperature power law T^{2} at high doping levels, and the coupling parameter is consistent with recent theory, indicating its enhancement by impurity scattering. We demonstrate control of the thermal conductance by electrical gating and by suppressing the diffusion channel using NbTiN superconducting electrodes, which sets the stage for future graphene-based single-microwave photon detection.

  2. Electron-phonon coupling in bilayer and single-layer graphene at sub-Kelvin temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKitterick, Chris; Vora, Heli; Du, Xu; Rooks, Michael; Prober, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Graphene has been proposed by many groups as a detector of terahertz photons1 , 2 , 3, due to its very small heat capacity and predicted low thermal conductance. We present Johnson noise thermometry measurements of single and bilayer graphene samples fabricated at Stony Brook University and at Yale University. These measurements probe the graphene electron-phonon coupling at sub-Kelvin temperatures. The devices are fabricated with superconducting contacts (NbN at Stony Brook, Al and Nb at Yale) to confine the hot electrons in the graphene device, diminishing the contribution of electron out-diffusion in cooling the electron system. By using commercially-available CVD-grown graphene for some samples, we can define large area sections, allowing us to emphasize the thermal conductance due to electron-phonon coupling. These measurements allow for performance estimates for using similar graphene devices to detect terahertz photons. 1C. B. McKitterick, D. E. Prober, B. S. Karasik, Journal of Applied Physics 113, 044512 (2013). 2H. Vora, P. Kumaravadivel, B. Nielsen, X. Du, Applied Physics Letters 100, 153507 (2012). 3K. Fong, K. Schwab, Physical Review X 2, 1 (2012). This work supported by NSF-DMR 0907082.

  3. Effects of Temperature, Oxygen Level, Ionic Strength, and pH on the Reaction of Benzene with Hydroxyl Radicals at the Air-Water Interface in Comparison to the Bulk Aqueous Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Aubrey A; Valsaraj, Kalliat T

    2015-08-06

    Atmospheric aerosols (e.g., fog droplets) are complex, multiphase mediums. Depending on location, time of day, and/or air mass source, there can be considerable variability within these droplets, relating to temperature, pH, and ionic strength. Due to the droplets' inherently small size, the reactions that occur within these droplets are determined by bulk aqueous phase and air-water interfacial conditions. In this study, the reaction of benzene and hydroxyl radicals is examined kinetically in a thin-film flow-tube reactor. By varying the aqueous volume (e.g., film thickness) along the length of the reactor, both bulk and interfacial reaction rates are measured from a single system. Temperature, pH, and ionic strength are varied to model conditions typical of fog events. Oxygen-poor conditions are measured to study oxygen's overall effect on the reaction pathway. Initial rate activation energies and the bulk aqueous phase and interfacial contributions to the overall rate constant are also obtained.

  4. Selective gas absorption by ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Kegnæs, Søren; Due-Hansen, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Reversible absorption performance for the flue gas components CO 2, NO and SO2 has been tested for several different ionic liquids (ILs) at different temperatures and flue gas compositions. Furthermore, different porous, high surface area carriers have been applied as supports for the ionic liquids...... to obtain Supported Ionic Liquid-Phase (SILP) absorber materials. The use of solid SILP absorbers with selected ILs were found to significantly improve the absorption capacity and sorption dynamics at low flue gas concentration, thus making the applicability of ILs viable in technical, continuous flow...... processes for flue gas cleaning. The results show that CO 2, NO and SO2 can be reversible and selective absorbed using different ILs and that Supported Ionic Liquid-Phase (SILP) absorbers are promising materials for industrial flue gas cleaning. Absorption/desorption dynamics can be tuned by temperatures...

  5. Absorption and oxidation of no in ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention concerns the absorption and in situ oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) in the presence of water and oxygen in ionic liquid compositions at ambient temperature.......The present invention concerns the absorption and in situ oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) in the presence of water and oxygen in ionic liquid compositions at ambient temperature....

  6. Effect of Rabi splitting on the low-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance signal of anthracite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedaruk, Ryhor; Strzelczyk, Roman; Tadyszak, Krzysztof; Markevich, Siarhei A; Augustyniak-Jabłokow, Maria Aldona

    2017-01-01

    Specific distortions of the EPR signal of bulk anthracite are observed at low temperatures. They are accompanied by variations in the microwave oscillator frequency and are explained by the manifestation of the Rabi splitting due to the strong coupling between electron spins and the cavity, combined with the use of an automatic frequency-control (AFC) system. EPR signals are recorded at negligible saturation in the temperature range of 4-300K with use of the AFC system to keep the oscillator frequency locked to the resonant frequency of the TM110 cylinder cavity loaded with the sample. For the sample with a mass of 3.6mg the line distortions are observed below 50K and increase with temperature lowering. The oscillator frequency variations are used to estimate the coupling strength as well as the number of spins in the sample. It is shown that the spin-cavity coupling strength is inversely proportional to temperature and can be used for the absolute determination of the number of spins in a sample. Our results indicate that at low temperatures even 10 16 spins of the anthracite sample, with a mass of about 0.5mg, can distort the EPR line. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparing density, electron temperature, and magnetic fluctuations with gyrokinetic simulations using new synthetic diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, D. R.; Bergerson, W.; Ennever, P.; Greenwald, M.; Hubbard, A.; Irby, J.; Phillips, P.; Porkolab, M.; Rowan, W.; Terry, J. L.; Xu, P.; Alcator C-Mod Team

    2013-10-01

    Three new synthetic turbulence diagnostics are implemented in GS2 and compared with measurements: phase contrast imaging, polarimetry, and electron-cyclotron (ECE) emission. Our new synthetic diagnostic framework is based on transforming to a real-space annulus in Cartesian coordinates. This allows straightforward convolution with diagnostic point-spread functions, or integration over viewing chords. Wavenumber spectra and fluctuation amplitudes, as well as transport fluxes, are compared with measurements. Both phase contrast imaging and newly observed ECE electron temperature fluctuations, closely follow the electron temperature in an internal transport barrier during on-axis heating pulses, consistent with the role of TEM turbulence. New C-Mod polarimetry measurements, showing strong broadband core magnetic fluctuations, will also be examined against gyrokinetic simulations. The new framework is readily extended to other fluctuation measurements such as two-color interferometry, beam emission spectroscopy, Doppler back-scattering, ECE imaging, and microwave imaging reflectometry. Supported by U.S. DoE awards DE-FC02-08ER54966, DE-FC02-99ER54512, DE-FG03-96ER54373.

  8. Temperature dependence of band gaps in semiconductors: electron-phonon interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, Reinhard K.; Cardona, M.; Lauck, R. [MPI for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Bhosale, J.; Ramdas, A.K. [Physics Dept., Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Burger, A. [Fisk University, Dept. of Life and Physical Sciences, Nashville, TN (United States); Munoz, A. [MALTA Consolider Team, Dept. de Fisica Fundamental II, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Instituto de Materiales y Nanotecnologia, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Romero, A.H. [CINVESTAV, Dept. de Materiales, Unidad Queretaro, Mexico (Mexico); MPI fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Halle an der Saale (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the temperature dependence of the energy gap of several semiconductors with chalcopyrite structure and re-examine literature data and analyze own high-resolution reflectivity spectra in view of our new ab initio calculations of their phonon properties. This analysis leads us to distinguish between materials with d-electrons in the valence band (e.g. CuGaS{sub 2}, AgGaS{sub 2}) and those without d-electrons (e.g. ZnSnAs{sub 2}). The former exhibit a rather peculiar non-monotonic temperature dependence of the energy gap which, so far, has resisted cogent theoretical description. We demonstrate it can well be fitted by including two Bose-Einstein oscillators with weights of opposite sign leading to an increase at low-T and a decrease at higher T's. We find that the energy of the former correlates well with characteristic peaks in the phonon density of states associated with low-energy vibrations of the d-electron constituents.

  9. TEMPERATURE AND ELECTRON DENSITY DIAGNOSTICS OF A CANDLE-FLAME-SHAPED FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidoni, S. E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center/CUA, Code 674, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McKenzie, D. E.; Longcope, D. W.; Yoshimura, K. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States); Plowman, J. E., E-mail: silvina.e.guidoni@nasa.gov [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    Candle-flame-shaped flares are archetypical structures that provide indirect evidence of magnetic reconnection. A flare resembling Tsuneta's famous 1992 candle-flame flare occurred on 2011 January 28; we present its temperature and electron density diagnostics. This flare was observed with Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA), Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT), and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Ahead (STEREO-A)/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager, resulting in high-resolution, broad temperature coverage, and stereoscopic views of this iconic structure. The high-temperature images reveal a brightening that grows in size to form a tower-like structure at the top of the posteruption flare arcade, a feature that has been observed in other long-duration events. Despite the extensive work on the standard reconnection scenario, there is no complete agreement among models regarding the nature of this high-intensity elongated structure. Electron density maps reveal that reconnected loops that are successively connected at their tops to the tower develop a density asymmetry of about a factor of two between the two legs, giving the appearance of ''half-loops''. We calculate average temperatures with a new fast differential emission measure (DEM) method that uses SDO/AIA data and analyze the heating and cooling of salient features of the flare. Using STEREO observations, we show that the tower and the half-loop brightenings are not a line-of-sight projection effect of the type studied by Forbes and Acton. This conclusion opens the door for physics-based explanations of these puzzling, recurrent solar flare features, previously attributed to projection effects. We corroborate the results of our DEM analysis by comparing them with temperature analyses from Hinode/XRT.

  10. Metathesis and hydroformylation reactions in ionic liquids.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs), consisting of ions that are liquid at ambient temperatures, can act as solvents for a broad spectrum of chemical processes. These ionic liquids are attracting increasing attention from industry because they promise significant environmental as well as product and process benefits. ILs were used as solvents for two industrially important homogeneous reactions namely metathesis of 1-octene and the hydroformylation of vinyl acetate. In the metathesis of 1-octene, several rea...

  11. Coplanar photonic bandgap resonators for low temperature electron and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigillito, A. J.; Tyryshkin, A. M.; Lyon, S. A.

    In recent years, superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) resonators have become a useful tool for low temperature pulsed electron spin resonance (ESR), even at dilution refrigerator temperatures. Their small mode volumes make CPW resonators particularly well suited to measuring small numbers of spins near the resonator surface, since in this region the spin sensitivity is very high. While these resonators have proven useful for ESR at single microwave frequencies, it is difficult to also manipulate nuclear spins in electron-nuclear-double resonance (ENDOR) experiments, since manipulation of nuclear spins requires radio frequency (RF) magnetic fields. Ideally one would simply generate these fields by passing RF currents through the CPW, but because conventional CPW resonators are capacitively coupled, they will not transmit low-frequency RF currents. In this talk, we discuss the use of one dimensional photonic bandgap (PBG) resonators to overcome this challenge. PBG resonators are a promising alternative to conventional CPW resonators since they offer high quality factors at microwave frequencies, while simultaneously allowing transmission of nonresonant RF currents below the photonic bandgap. Here, we will discuss PBG resonator designs and present data showing their use for low temperature ESR of donors in 28Si. Initial ENDOR results will also be presented.

  12. Anomalous ionic conductivity of Sc sub 2 (WO sub 4) sub 3 mediated by structural changes at high pressures and temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Secco, R A; Imanaka, N; Adachi, G

    2002-01-01

    The ionic conductivity of Sc sub 2 (WO sub 4) sub 3 at 400 deg. C shows a normal decrease with increase in pressure up to 2.9 GPa but then increases anomalously at pressures up to 4.3 GPa. Synchrotron in situ x-ray diffraction results show that Sc sub 2 (WO sub 4) sub 3 undergoes pressure-induced amorphization at pressures coincident with the reversal in conductivity behaviour. The loss of crystal structure at high pressure may be associated with the property of negative thermal expansion in Sc sub 2 (WO sub 4) sub 3.

  13. Modern ab initio valence bond theory calculations reveal charge shift bonding in protic ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Amol Baliram; Bhanage, Bhalchandra Mahadeo

    2016-06-21

    The nature of bonding interactions between the cation and the anion of an ionic liquid is at the heart of understanding ionic liquid properties. A particularly interesting case is a special class of ionic liquids known as protic ionic liquids. The extent of proton transfer in protic ionic liquids has been observed to vary according to the interacting species. Back proton transfer renders protic ionic liquids volatile and to be considered as inferior ionic liquids. We try to address this issue by employing modern ab initio valence bond theory calculations. The results indicate that the bonding in the cation and the anion of a prototypical ionic liquid, ethylammonium nitrate, is fundamentally different. It is neither characteristic of covalent/polar covalent bonding nor ionic bonding but rather charge shift bonding as a resonance hybrid of two competing ionic molecular electronic structure configurations. An investigation of other analogous protic ionic liquids reveals that this charge shift bonding seems to be a typical characteristic of protic ionic liquids while the ionic solid analogue compound ammonium nitrate has less charge shift bonding character as compared to protic ionic liquids. Further the extent of charge shift bonding character has been found to be congruent with the trends in many physicochemical properties such as melting point, conductivity, viscosity, and ionicity of the studied ionic liquids indicating that percentage charge shift character may serve as a key descriptor for large scale computational screening of ionic liquids with desired properties.

  14. Ionic Liquids to Replace Hydrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelfgen, Syri; Sims, Joe; Forton, Melissa; Allan, Barry; Rogers, Robin; Shamshina, Julia

    2011-01-01

    A method for developing safe, easy-to-handle propellants has been developed based upon ionic liquids (ILs) or their eutectic mixtures. An IL is a binary combination of a typically organic cation and anion, which generally produces an ionic salt with a melting point below 100 deg C. Many ILs have melting points near, or even below, room temperature (room temperature ionic liquids, RTILs). More importantly, a number of ILs have a positive enthalpy of formation. This means the thermal energy released during decomposition reactions makes energetic ILs ideal for use as propellants. In this specific work, to date, a baseline set of energetic ILs has been identified, synthesized, and characterized. Many of the ILs in this set have excellent performance potential in their own right. In all, ten ILs were characterized for their enthalpy of formation, density, melting point, glass transition point (if applicable), and decomposition temperature. Enthalpy of formation was measured using a microcalorimeter designed specifically to test milligram amounts of energetic materials. Of the ten ILs characterized, five offer higher Isp performance than hydrazine, ranging between 10 and 113 seconds higher than the state-of-the-art propellant. To achieve this level of performance, the energetic cations 4- amino-l,2,4-triazolium and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazolium were paired with various anions in the nitrate, dicyanamide, chloride, and 3-nitro-l,2,4-triazole families. Protonation, alkylation, and butylation synthesis routes were used for creation of the different salts.

  15. Spectral evolution of soft x-ray emission from optically thin, high electron temperature platinum plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Hara

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The soft x-ray spectra of heavy element plasmas are frequently dominated by unresolved transition array (UTA emission. We describe the spectral evolution of an intense UTA under optically thin conditions in platinum plasmas. The UTA was observed to have a peak wavelength around 4.6 nm at line-of-sight averaged electron temperatures less than 1.4 keV at electron densities of (2.5–7.5 × 1013 cm−3. The UTA spectral structure was due to emission from 4d–4f transitions in highly charged ions with average charge states of q = 20–40. A numerical simulation successfully reproduced the observed spectral behavior.

  16. Spectral evolution of soft x-ray emission from optically thin, high electron temperature platinum plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Hayato; Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Sasaki, Akira; Suzuki, Chihiro; Tamura, Naoki; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kato, Daiji; Murakami, Izumi; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; LHD Experiment Group

    2017-08-01

    The soft x-ray spectra of heavy element plasmas are frequently dominated by unresolved transition array (UTA) emission. We describe the spectral evolution of an intense UTA under optically thin conditions in platinum plasmas. The UTA was observed to have a peak wavelength around 4.6 nm at line-of-sight averaged electron temperatures less than 1.4 keV at electron densities of (2.5-7.5) × 1013 cm-3. The UTA spectral structure was due to emission from 4d-4f transitions in highly charged ions with average charge states of q = 20-40. A numerical simulation successfully reproduced the observed spectral behavior.

  17. Enhanced room temperature electronic and thermoelectric properties of the dilute bismuthide InGaBiAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongmo, Pernell; Zhong, Yujun; Attia, Peter; Bomberger, Cory; Cheaito, Ramez; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Zide, Joshua

    2012-11-01

    We report room temperature electronic and thermoelectric properties of Si-doped In0.52Ga0.48BiyAs1-y with varying Bi concentrations. These films were grown epitaxially on a semi-insulating InP substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. We show that low Bi concentrations are optimal in improving the conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermoelectric power factor, possibly due to the surfactant effects of bismuth. We observed a reduction in thermal conductivity with increasing Bi concentration, which is expected because of alloy scattering. We report a peak ZT of 0.23 at 300 K.

  18. An All-Elastomeric Transparent and Stretchable Temperature Sensor for Body-Attachable Wearable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trung, Tran Quang; Ramasundaram, Subramaniyan; Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2016-01-20

    A transparent stretchable (TS) gated sensor array with high optical transparency, conformality, and high stretchability of up to 70% is demonstrated. The TS-gated sensor array has high responsivity to temperature changes in objects and human skin. This unprecedented TS-gated sensor array, as well as the integrated platform of the TS-gated sensor with a transparent and stretchable strain sensor, show great potential for application to wearable skin electronics for recognition of human activity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Spatial and temporal variations of electron temperatures and densities from EUV-emitting lithium plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coons, R W; Harilal, S S; Polek, M; Hassanein, A

    2011-07-01

    Planar slabs of pure Li were irradiated with 1.064 nm, 6 ns Nd:YAG laser pulses. Determination of plasma densities at both the earliest times of plasma formation and near the target surface was performed using Nomarski interferometry. The plasma parameters at later times were evaluated using optical emission spectroscopy. The space- and time-dependent electron densities and temperatures of the plasma were determined from their Stark broadening and the relative intensities of the spectral lines, respectively. The advantages and disadvantages of both of these techniques are evaluated and discussed.

  20. Electron temperature and heat load measurements in the COMPASS divertor using the new system of probes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adámek, Jiří; Seidl, Jakub; Horáček, Jan; Komm, Michael; Eich, T.; Pánek, Radomír; Cavalier, J.; Devitre, A.; Peterka, Matěj; Vondráček, Petr; Stöckel, Jan; Šesták, David; Grover, Ondřej; Bílková, Petra; Böhm, Petr; Varju, Jozef; Havránek, Aleš; Weinzettl, Vladimír; Lovell, J.; Dimitrova, Miglena; Mitošinková, Klára; Dejarnac, Renaud; Hron, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 11 (2017), č. článku 116017. ISSN 0029-5515 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-10723S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-14228S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015045 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : COMPASS * divertor * heat load * ELM * electron temperature * Ball-pen probe Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1741-4326/aa7e09

  1. Electron temperature structures associated with magnetic tearing modes in the Madison Symmetric Torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Hillary Dianne

    Tearing mode induced magnetic islands have a significant impact on the thermal characteristics of magnetically confined plasmas such as those in the reversed-field-pinch. Using a state-of-the-art Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic, electron temperature fluctuations correlated with magnetic tearing modes have been observed on the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field-pinch. The TS diagnostic consists of two independently triggerable Nd:YAG lasers that can each pulse up to 15 times each plasma discharge and 21 General Atomics polchromators equipped with avalanche photodiode modules. Detailed calibrations focusing on accuracy, ease of use and repeatability and in-situ measurements have been performed on the system. Electron temperature (Te) profiles are acquired at 25 kHz with 2 cm or less resolution along the minor radius, sufficient to measure the effect of an island on the profile as the island rotates by the measurement point. Bayesian data analysis techniques are developed and used to detect fluctuations over an ensemble of shots. Four cases are studied; standard plasmas in quiescent periods, through sawteeth, through core reconnection events and in plasmas where the tearing mode activity is decreased. With a spectrum of unstable tearing modes, remnant islands that tend to flatten the temperature profile are present in the core between sawtooth-like reconnection events. This flattening is characteristic of rapid parallel heat conduction along helical magnetic field lines. The spatial structure of the temperature fluctuations show that the location of the rational surface of the m/n = 1/6 tearing mode is significantly further in than equilibrium suggestions predict. The fluctuations also provide a measurement of the remnant island width which is significantly smaller than the predicted full island width. These correlated fluctuations disappear during both global and core reconnection events. In striking contrast to temperature flattening, a temperature gradient

  2. Nanostructured Ferrite Based Electronic Nose Sensitive to Ammonia at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. B. GAWAS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Manganese and Nickel doped Zinc Ferrite powder (Mn0.3Ni0.3Zn0.4Fe2O4 was synthesized by autocatalytic thermal decomposition technique. The average crystallite size in the material powder was found to be of 10 – 13 nm. Characterization techniques such as X-Ray diffraction studies, Transmission electron microscopy, Infra-Red spectroscopy, etc, were employed to study the average particle size, phase and composition of the ferrite. Thick films of Mn0.3Ni0.3Zn0.4Fe2O4 were prepared by screen printing technique. These films were observed to be sensitive to 10 ppm NH3 at room temperature. The effects of surface microstructure, operating temperature, gas concentrations, etc., on the gas response, selectivity, response and recovery times of the sensor in the presence of NH3 and other gases were studied and discussed.

  3. Temperature dependence of Q-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of nitrosyl heme proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Marco; Wajnberg, Eliane; Bemski, George

    1997-11-01

    The Q-band (35 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of nitrosyl hemoglobin (Hb N O) and nitrosyl myoglobin (Mb NO) were studied as a function of temperature between 19 K and 200 K. The spectra of both heme proteins show classes of variations as a function of temperature. The first one has previously been associated with the existence of two paramagnetic species, one with rhombic and the other with axial symmetry. The second one manifests itself in changes in the g-factors and linewidths of each species. These changes are correlated with the conformational substates model and associate the variations of g-values with changes in the angle of the N(his)-Fe-N (NO) bond in the rhombic species and with changes in the distance between Fe and N of the proximal (F8) histidine in the axial species. (author) 24 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Application of ionic liquids based enzyme-assisted extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmoides leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tingting; Sui, Xiaoyu, E-mail: suixiaoyu@outlook.com; Li, Li; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Xin; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Honglian; Fu, Shuang

    2016-01-15

    A new approach for ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction (ILEAE) of chlorogenic acid (CGA) from Eucommia ulmoides is presented in which enzyme pretreatment was used in ionic liquids aqueous media to enhance extraction yield. For this purpose, the solubility of CGA and the activity of cellulase were investigated in eight 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. Cellulase in 0.5 M [C6mim]Br aqueous solution was found to provide better performance in extraction. The factors of ILEAE procedures including extraction time, extraction phase pH, extraction temperatures and enzyme concentrations were investigated. Moreover, the novel developed approach offered advantages in term of yield and efficiency compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Scanning electronic microscopy of plant samples indicated that cellulase treated cell wall in ionic liquid solution was subjected to extract, which led to more efficient extraction by reducing mass transfer barrier. The proposed ILEAE method would develope a continuous process for enzyme-assisted extraction including enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process. In this research, we propose a novel view for enzyme-assisted extraction of plant active component, besides concentrating on enzyme facilitated cell wall degradation, focusing on improvement of bad permeability of ionic liquids solutions. - Highlights: • An ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction method of natural product was explored. • ILEAE utilizes enzymatic treatment to improve permeability of ionic liquids solution. • Enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process were ongoing simultaneously. • ILEAE process simplified operating process and suitable for more complete extraction.

  5. Improved Models and Tools for Prediction of Radiation Effects on Space Electronics in Wide Temperature Range Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All NASA exploration systems operate in the extreme environments of space (Moon, Mars, etc.) and require reliable electronics capable of handling a wide temperature...

  6. Improved Models and Tools for Prediction of Radiation Effects on Space Electronics in Wide Temperature Range Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All NASA exploration systems operate in the extreme environments of space and require reliable electronics capable of handling a wide temperature range (-180:C to...

  7. Temperature-controlled ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted microextraction for preconcentration of trace quantity of cadmium and nickel by using organic ligand in artificial saliva extract of smokeless tobacco products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Arain, Asma Jabeen; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Naeemullah; Arain, Salma Aslam

    2015-03-01

    A new approach was developed for the preconcentration of cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) in artificial saliva extract of dry snuff (brown and black) products using temperature-controlled ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (TIL-UDLLμE) followed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The Cd and Ni were complexed with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC), extracted in ionic liquid drops, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C4MIM][PF6]. The multivariate strategy was applied to estimate the optimum values of experimental variables influence the % recovery of analytes by TIL-UDLLμE method. At optimum experimental conditions, the limit of detection (3s) were 0.05 and 0.14 μg L-1 while relative standard deviations (% RSD) were 3.97 and 3.55 for Cd and Ni respectively. After extraction, the enhancement factors (EF) were 87 and 79 for Cd and Ni, respectively. The RSD for six replicates of 10 μg L-1 Cd and Ni were 3.97% and 3.55% respectively. To validate the proposed method, certified reference material (CRM) of Virginia tobacco leaves was analyzed, and the determined values of Cd and Ni were in good agreement with the certified values. The concentration of Cd and Ni in artificial saliva extracts corresponds to 39-52% and 21-32%, respectively, of the total contents of both elements in dry brown and black snuff products.

  8. Measurements of Relativistic Effects in Collective Thomson Scattering at Electron Temperatures less than 1 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, James Steven [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous scattering from electron-plasma waves and ion-acoustic waves is used to measure local laser-produced plasma parameters with high spatiotemporal resolution including electron temperature and density, average charge state, plasma flow velocity, and ion temperature. In addition, the first measurements of relativistic modifications in the collective Thomson scattering spectrum from thermal electron-plasma fluctuations are presented [1]. Due to the high phase velocity of electron-plasma fluctuations, relativistic effects are important even at low electron temperatures (Te < 1 keV). These effects have been observed experimentally and agree well with a relativistic treatment of the Thomson scattering form factor [2]. The results are important for the interpretation of scattering measurements from laser produced plasmas. Thomson scattering measurements are used to characterize the hydrodynamics of a gas jet plasma which is the foundation for a broad series of laser-plasma interaction studies [3, 4, 5, 6]. The temporal evolution of the electron temperature, density and ion temperature are measured. The measured electron density evolution shows excellent agreement with a simple adiabatic expansion model. The effects of high temperatures on coupling to hohlraum targets is discussed [7]. A peak electron temperature of 12 keV at a density of 4.7 × 1020cm-3 are measured 200 μm outside the laser entrance hole using a two-color Thomson scattering method we developed in gas jet plasmas [8]. These measurements are used to assess laser-plasma interactions that reduce laser hohlraum coupling and can significantly reduce the hohlraum radiation temperature.

  9. The role of electron transport in determining the temperature dependence of the photosynthetic rate in spinach leaves grown at contrasting temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamori, Wataru; Noguchi, Ko; Kashino, Yasuhiro; Terashima, Ichiro

    2008-04-01

    The temperature response of the uncoupled whole-chain electron transport rate (ETR) in thylakoid membranes differs depending on the growth temperature. However, the steps that limit whole-chain ETR are still unclear and the question of whether the temperature dependence of whole-chain ETR reflects that of the photosynthetic rate remains unresolved. Here, we determined the whole-chain, PSI and PSII ETR in thylakoid membranes isolated from spinach leaves grown at 30 degrees C [high temperature (HT)] and 15 degrees C [low temperature (LT)]. We measured temperature dependencies of the light-saturated photosynthetic rate at 360 microl l(-1) CO2 (A360) in HT and LT leaves. Both of the temperature dependences of whole-chain ETR and of A360 were different depending on the growth temperature. Whole-chain ETR was less than the rates of PSI ETR and PSII ETR in the broad temperature range, indicating that the process was limited by diffusion processes between the PSI and PSII. However, at high temperatures, whole-chain ETR appeared to be limited by not only the diffusion processes but also PSII ETR. The C3 photosynthesis model was used to evaluate the limitations of A360 by whole-chain ETR (Pr) and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylation (Pc). In HT leaves, A360 was co-limited by Pc and Pr at low temperatures, whereas at high temperatures, A360 was limited by Pc. On the other hand, in LT leaves, A360 was solely limited by Pc over the entire temperature range. The optimum temperature for A360 was determined by Pc in both HT and LT leaves. Thus, this study showed that, at low temperatures, the limiting step of A360 was different depending on the growth temperature, but was limited by Pc at high temperatures regardless of the growth temperatures.

  10. [Effects of carbon sources, temperature and electron acceptors on biological phosphorus removal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yun; Xu, Song; Dong, Tao; Wang, Bin-Fan; Wang, Xian-Yao; Peng, Dang-Cong

    2015-02-01

    Effects of carbon sources, temperature and electron acceptors on phosphorus uptake and release were investigated in a pilot-scale oxidation ditch. Phosphorus uptake and release rates were measured with different carbon sources (domestic sewage, sodium acetate, glucose) at 25 degrees C. The results showed that the minimum phosphorus uptake and release rates of glucose were 5.12 mg x (g x h)(-1) and 6.43 mg x (g x h)(-1), respectively, and those of domestic sewage are similar to those of sodium acetate. Phosphorus uptake and release rates increased with the increase of temperature (12, 16, 20 and 25 degrees C) using sodium acetate as carbon sources. Anoxic phosphorus uptake rate decreased with added COD. Electron acceptors (oxygen, nitrate, nitrite) had significant effects on phosphorus uptake rate and their order was in accordance with oxygen > nitrate > nitrite. The mass ratio of anoxic P uptake and N consumption (P(uptake)/N (consumption)) of nitrate and nitrite were 0.96 and 0.65, respectively.

  11. Electron temperature and heat load measurements in the COMPASS divertor using the new system of probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamek, J.; Seidl, J.; Horacek, J.; Komm, M.; Eich, T.; Panek, R.; Cavalier, J.; Devitre, A.; Peterka, M.; Vondracek, P.; Stöckel, J.; Sestak, D.; Grover, O.; Bilkova, P.; Böhm, P.; Varju, J.; Havranek, A.; Weinzettl, V.; Lovell, J.; Dimitrova, M.; Mitosinkova, K.; Dejarnac, R.; Hron, M.; The COMPASS Team; The EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-11-01

    A new system of probes was recently installed in the divertor of tokamak COMPASS in order to investigate the ELM energy density with high spatial and temporal resolution. The new system consists of two arrays of rooftop-shaped Langmuir probes (LPs) used to measure the floating potential or the ion saturation current density and one array of Ball-pen probes (BPPs) used to measure the plasma potential with a spatial resolution of ~3.5 mm. The combination of floating BPPs and LPs yields the electron temperature with microsecond temporal resolution. We report on the design of the new divertor probe arrays and first results of electron temperature profile measurements in ELMy H-mode and L-mode. We also present comparative measurements of the parallel heat flux using the new probe arrays and fast infrared termography (IR) data during L-mode with excellent agreement between both techniques using a heat power transmission coefficient γ  =  7. The ELM energy density {{\\varepsilon }\\parallel } was measured during a set of NBI assisted ELMy H-mode discharges. The peak values of {{\\varepsilon }\\parallel } were compared with those predicted by model and with experimental data from JET, AUG and MAST with a good agreement.

  12. Crystal Structure-Ionic Conductivity Relationships in Doped Ceria Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omar, Shobit; Wachsman, Eric D.; Jones, Jacob L.

    2009-01-01

    lattice strain of 10 mol% trivalent cation-doped ceria systems at the same temperatures. A consistent set of ionic conductivity data is developed, where the samples are synthesized under similar experimental conditions. On comparing the grain ionic conductivity, Nd0.10Ce0.90O2−δ exhibits the highest ionic...... conductivity among other doped ceria systems. The grain ionic conductivity is around 17% higher than that of Gd0.10Ce0.90O2−δ at 500°C, in air. X-ray diffraction profiles are collected on the sintered powder of all the compositions, from room temperature to 600°C, in air. From the lattice expansion data...... crystal structure–ionic conductivity relationship based on minimum elastic strain is not sufficient to explain the ionic conductivity behavior in ceria-based system....

  13. Temperature and energy effects on secondary electron emission from SiC ceramics induced by Xe17+ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lixia; Zhou, Xianming; Cheng, Rui; Wang, Xing; Ren, Jieru; Lei, Yu; Ma, Lidong; Zhao, Yongtao; Zhang, Xiaoan; Xu, Zhongfeng

    2017-07-25

    Secondary electron emission yield from the surface of SiC ceramics induced by Xe 17+ ions has been measured as a function of target temperature and incident energy. In the temperature range of 463-659 K, the total yield gradually decreases with increasing target temperature. The decrease is about 57% for 3.2 MeV Xe 17+ impact, and about 62% for 4.0 MeV Xe 17+ impact, which is much larger than the decrease observed previously for ion impact at low charged states. The yield dependence on the temperature is discussed in terms of work function, because both kinetic electron emission and potential electron emission are influenced by work function. In addition, our experimental data show that the total electron yield gradually increases with the kinetic energy of projectile, when the target is at a constant temperature higher than room temperature. This result can be explained by electronic stopping power which plays an important role in kinetic electron emission.

  14. Direct writing of flexible electronics through room temperature liquid metal ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yunxia; Li, Haiyan; Liu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Conventional approaches of making a flexible circuit are generally complex, environment unfriendly, time and energy consuming, and thus expensive. Here, we describe for the first time the method of using high-performance GaIn(10)-based electrical ink, a significantly neglected room temperature liquid metal, as both electrical conductors and interconnects, for directly writing flexible electronics via a rather easy going and cost effective way. The new generation electric ink was made and its wettability with various materials was modified to be easily written on a group of either soft or rigid substrates such as epoxy resin board, glass, plastic, silica gel, paper, cotton, textiles, cloth and fiber etc. Conceptual experiments were performed to demonstrate and evaluate the capability of directly writing the electrical circuits via the invented metal ink. Mechanisms involved were interpreted through a series of fundamental measurements. The electrical resistivity of the fluid like GaIn(10)-based material was measured as 34.5 µΩ·cm at 297 K by four point probe method and increased with addition of the oxygen quantity, which indicates it as an excellent metal ink. The conductive line can be written with features that are approximately 10 µm thick. Several functional devices such as a light emitting diode (LED) array showing designed lighting patterns and electrical fan were made to work by directly writing the liquid metal on the specific flexible substrates. And satisfactory performances were obtained. The present method opens the way to directly and quickly writing flexible electronics which can be as simple as signing a name or drawing a picture on the paper. The unique merit of the GaIn(10)-based liquid metal ink lies in its low melting temperature, well controlled wettability, high electrical conductivity and good biocompability. The new electronics writing strategy and basic principle has generalized purpose and can be extended to more industrial areas, even

  15. Silicotungstate, a Potential Electron Transporting Layer for Low-Temperature Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Ho; Kim, Hyun Bin; Yang, In Seok; Sung, Sang Do; Choi, Young Sik; Kim, Jeongho; Lee, Wan In

    2017-08-02

    Thin films of a heteropolytungstate, lithium silicotungstate (Li 4 SiW 12 O 40 , termed Li-ST), prepared by a solution process at low temperature, were successfully applied as electron transporting layer (ETL) of planar-type perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Dense and uniform Li-ST films were prepared on FTO glass by depositing a thin Li-ST buffer layer, followed by coating of a main Li-ST layer. The film thickness was controlled by varying the number of coating cycles, consisting of spin-coating and thermal treatment at 150 °C. In particular, by employing 60 nm-thick Li-ST layer obtained by two cycles of coating, the fabricated CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 PSC device demonstrates the photovoltaic conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.26% with J SC of 22.16 mA cm -2 , V OC of 0.993 mV and FF of 64.81%. The obtained PCE is significantly higher than that of the PSC employing a TiO 2 layer processed at the same temperature (PCE = 12.27%). Spectroscopic analyses by time-resolved photoluminescence and pulsed light-induced transient measurement of photocurrent indicate that the Li-ST layer collects electrons from CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 more efficiently and also exhibits longer electron lifetime than the TiO 2 layer thermally treated at 150 °C. Thus, Li-ST is considered to be a promising ETL material that can be applied for the fabrication of flexible PSC devices.

  16. Direct Writing of Flexible Electronics through Room Temperature Liquid Metal Ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yunxia; Li, Haiyan; Liu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Background Conventional approaches of making a flexible circuit are generally complex, environment unfriendly, time and energy consuming, and thus expensive. Here, we describe for the first time the method of using high-performance GaIn10-based electrical ink, a significantly neglected room temperature liquid metal, as both electrical conductors and interconnects, for directly writing flexible electronics via a rather easy going and cost effective way. Methods The new generation electric ink was made and its wettability with various materials was modified to be easily written on a group of either soft or rigid substrates such as epoxy resin board, glass, plastic, silica gel, paper, cotton, textiles, cloth and fiber etc. Conceptual experiments were performed to demonstrate and evaluate the capability of directly writing the electrical circuits via the invented metal ink. Mechanisms involved were interpreted through a series of fundamental measurements. Results The electrical resistivity of the fluid like GaIn10-based material was measured as 34.5 µΩ·cm at 297 K by four point probe method and increased with addition of the oxygen quantity, which indicates it as an excellent metal ink. The conductive line can be written with features that are approximately 10 µm thick. Several functional devices such as a light emitting diode (LED) array showing designed lighting patterns and electrical fan were made to work by directly writing the liquid metal on the specific flexible substrates. And satisfactory performances were obtained. Conclusions The present method opens the way to directly and quickly writing flexible electronics which can be as simple as signing a name or drawing a picture on the paper. The unique merit of the GaIn10-based liquid metal ink lies in its low melting temperature, well controlled wettability, high electrical conductivity and good biocompability. The new electronics writing strategy and basic principle has generalized purpose and can be

  17. Direct writing of flexible electronics through room temperature liquid metal ink.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxia Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conventional approaches of making a flexible circuit are generally complex, environment unfriendly, time and energy consuming, and thus expensive. Here, we describe for the first time the method of using high-performance GaIn(10-based electrical ink, a significantly neglected room temperature liquid metal, as both electrical conductors and interconnects, for directly writing flexible electronics via a rather easy going and cost effective way. METHODS: The new generation electric ink was made and its wettability with various materials was modified to be easily written on a group of either soft or rigid substrates such as epoxy resin board, glass, plastic, silica gel, paper, cotton, textiles, cloth and fiber etc. Conceptual experiments were performed to demonstrate and evaluate the capability of directly writing the electrical circuits via the invented metal ink. Mechanisms involved were interpreted through a series of fundamental measurements. RESULTS: The electrical resistivity of the fluid like GaIn(10-based material was measured as 34.5 µΩ·cm at 297 K by four point probe method and increased with addition of the oxygen quantity, which indicates it as an excellent metal ink. The conductive line can be written with features that are approximately 10 µm thick. Several functional devices such as a light emitting diode (LED array showing designed lighting patterns and electrical fan were made to work by directly writing the liquid metal on the specific flexible substrates. And satisfactory performances were obtained. CONCLUSIONS: The present method opens the way to directly and quickly writing flexible electronics which can be as simple as signing a name or drawing a picture on the paper. The unique merit of the GaIn(10-based liquid metal ink lies in its low melting temperature, well controlled wettability, high electrical conductivity and good biocompability. The new electronics writing strategy and basic principle has generalized

  18. Electron-ion temperature ratio estimations in the summer polar mesosphere when subject to HF radio wave heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, H.; La Hoz, C.; Havnes, O.; Rietveld, M.

    2014-10-01

    We have inferred the electron temperature enhancements above mesospheric altitudes under Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes (PMSE) conditions when the ionosphere is exposed to artificial HF radio wave heating. The proposed method uses the dependence of the radar cross section on the electron-to-ion temperature ratio to infer the heating factor from incoherent scatter radar (ISR) power measurements above 90 km. Model heating temperatures match our ISR estimations between 90 and 130 km with 0.94 Pearson correlation index. The PMSE strength measured by the MORRO MST radar is about 50% weaker during the heater-on period when the modeled electron-to-ion mesospheric temperature is approximately 10 times greater than the unperturbed value. No PMSE weakening is found when the mesospheric temperature enhancement is by a factor of three or less. The PMSE weakening and its absence are consistent with the modeled mesospheric electron temperatures. This consistency supports to the proposed method for estimating mesospheric electron temperatures achieved by independent MST and ISR radar measurements.

  19. A silica nanoparticle based ionic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Nikhil; Azad, Zubair; Giannelis, Emmanuel

    2011-03-01

    We report an ionic fluid consisting of silica nanoparticles as the anion, and amine-terminated polyethylene glycol as the cation. Unlike previous work that has required chemical functionalization of the silica surface, the charge on the nanoparticle anion is carried by the intrinsic surface hydroxyls, simplifying the synthesis, and thus making this a simple test system to probe the physics of these nanoscale ionic materials. Charge and steric factors result in excellent dispersion of the nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. The resulting material is a soft glass that has thermal and rheological properties that depend on the silica:polymer ratio. In particular, at a critical silica:polymer ratio, the ionic material shows a significant depression of the normalized heat of melting and the melting temperature compared to samples with higher or lower silica content (showing eutectic-like behaviour), and to controls without the ionic interaction between the polymer and the particle. Funded by KAUST-CU.

  20. Ionic liquid-nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying

    2012-01-01

    We investigate physical and electrochemical properties of a family of organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes based on the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone) imide covalently tethered to silica nanoparticles (SiO 2-IL-TFSI). The ionic conductivity exhibits a pronounced maximum versus LiTFSI composition, and in mixtures containing 13.4 wt% LiTFSI, the room-temperature ionic conductivity is enhanced by over 3 orders of magnitude relative to either of the mixture components, without compromising lithium transference number. The SiO 2-IL-TFSI/LiTFSI hybrid electrolytes are thermally stable up to 400°C and exhibit tunable mechanical properties and attractive (4.25V) electrochemical stability in the presence of metallic lithium. We explain these observations in terms of ionic coupling between counterion species in the mobile and immobile (particle-tethered) phases of the electrolytes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.