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Sample records for electron beam generator

  1. Generation of Nondiffracting Electron Bessel Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Grillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost 30 years ago, Durnin discovered that an optical beam with a transverse intensity profile in the form of a Bessel function of the first order is immune to the effects of diffraction. Unlike most laser beams, which spread upon propagation, the transverse distribution of these Bessel beams remains constant. Electrons also obey a wave equation (the Schrödinger equation, and therefore Bessel beams also exist for electron waves. We generate an electron Bessel beam by diffracting electrons from a nanoscale phase hologram. The hologram imposes a conical phase structure on the electron wave-packet spectrum, thus transforming it into a conical superposition of infinite plane waves, that is, a Bessel beam. We verify experimentally that these beams can propagate for 0.6 m without measurable spreading and can also reconstruct their intensity distributions after being partially obstructed by an obstacle. Finally, we show by numerical calculations that the performance of an electron microscope can be increased dramatically through use of these beams.

  2. Fundamentals of high energy electron beam generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turman, B. N.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Neau, E. L.

    High energy electron beam accelerator technology has been developed over the past three decades in response to military and energy-related requirements for weapons simulators, directed-energy weapons, and inertially-confined fusion. These applications required high instantaneous power, large beam energy, high accelerated particle energy, and high current. These accelerators are generally referred to as 'pulsed power' devices, and are typified by accelerating potential of millions of volts (MV), beam current in thousands of amperes (KA), pulse duration of tens to hundreds of nanoseconds, kilojoules of beam energy, and instantaneous power of gigawatts to teffawatts (10(exp 9) to 10(exp 12) watts). Much of the early development work was directed toward single pulse machines, but recent work has extended these pulsed power devices to continuously repetitive applications. These relativistic beams penetrate deeply into materials, with stopping range on the order of a centimeter. Such high instantaneous power deposited in depth offers possibilities for new material fabrication and processing capabilities that can only now be explored. Fundamental techniques of pulse compression, high voltage requirements, beam generation and transport under space-charge-dominated conditions will be discussed in this paper.

  3. Highly efficient electron vortex beams generated by nanofabricated phase holograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillo, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.grillo@nano.cnr.it [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); CNR-IMEM Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, I-43124 Parma (Italy); Carlo Gazzadi, Gian [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Karimi, Ebrahim [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Mafakheri, Erfan [Dipartimento di Fisica Informatica e Matematica, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Boyd, Robert W. [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Frabboni, Stefano [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Informatica e Matematica, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy)

    2014-01-27

    We propose an improved type of holographic-plate suitable for the shaping of electron beams. The plate is fabricated by a focused ion beam on a silicon nitride membrane and introduces a controllable phase shift to the electron wavefunction. We adopted the optimal blazed-profile design for the phase hologram, which results in the generation of highly efficient (25%) electron vortex beams. This approach paves the route towards applications in nano-scale imaging and materials science.

  4. Novel vortex generator and mode converter for electron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattschneider, P; Stöger-Pollach, M; Verbeeck, J

    2012-08-24

    A mode converter for electron vortex beams is described. Numerical simulations, confirmed by experiment, show that the converter transforms a vortex beam with a topological charge m=±1 into beams closely resembling Hermite-Gaussian HG(10) and HG(01) modes. The converter can be used as a mode discriminator or filter for electron vortex beams. Combining the converter with a phase plate turns a plane wave into modes with topological charge m=±1. This combination serves as a generator of electron vortex beams of high brilliance.

  5. Generation and application of bessel beams in electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillo, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.grillo@cnr.it [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); CNR-IMEM, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, I-43124 Parma (Italy); Harris, Jérémie [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton St., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Gazzadi, Gian Carlo [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Balboni, Roberto [CNR-IMM Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Mafakheri, Erfan [Dipartimento di Fisica Informatica e Matematica, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Dennis, Mark R. [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Frabboni, Stefano [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Informatica e Matematica, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Boyd, Robert W.; Karimi, Ebrahim [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 25 Templeton St., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2016-07-15

    We report a systematic treatment of the holographic generation of electron Bessel beams, with a view to applications in electron microscopy. We describe in detail the theory underlying hologram patterning, as well as the actual electron-optical configuration used experimentally. We show that by optimizing our nanofabrication recipe, electron Bessel beams can be generated with relative efficiencies reaching 37±3%. We also demonstrate by tuning various hologram parameters that electron Bessel beams can be produced with many visible rings, making them ideal for interferometric applications, or in more highly localized forms with fewer rings, more suitable for imaging. We describe the settings required to tune beam localization in this way, and explore beam and hologram configurations that allow the convergences and topological charges of electron Bessel beams to be controlled. We also characterize the phase structure of the Bessel beams generated with our technique, using a simulation procedure that accounts for imperfections in the hologram manufacturing process. - Highlights: • Bessel beams with different convergence, topological charge, visible fringes are demonstrated. • The relation between the Fresnel hologram and the probe shape is explained by detailed calculations and experiments. • Among the holograms here presented the highest relative efficiency is 37%, the best result ever reached for blazed holograms.

  6. Electron Beam Collimation for the Next Generation Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steier, C.; Emma, P.; Nishimura, H.; Papadopoulos, C.; Sannibale, F.

    2013-05-20

    The Next Generation Light Source will deliver high (MHz) repetition rate electron beams to an array of free electron lasers. Because of the significant average current in such a facility, effective beam collimation is extremely important to minimize radiation damage to undulators, prevent quenches of superconducting cavities, limit dose rates outside of the accelerator tunnel and prevent equipment damage. This paper describes the early conceptual design of a collimation system, as well as initial results of simulations to test its effectiveness.

  7. Disruption of Particle Detector Electronics by Beam Generated EMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, G.; /SLAC; Sugimoto, Y.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Sinev, N.; /Oregon U.; Arnold, R.; Woods, M.; /SLAC

    2007-06-27

    The possibility that radio frequency beam generated electromagnetic interference (EMI) could disrupt the operation of particle detector electronics has been of some concern since the inception of short pulse electron colliders more than 30 years ago [1]. Some instances have been reported where this may have occurred but convincing evidence has not been available. This possibility is of concern for the International Linear Collider (ILC). We have conducted test beam studies demonstrating that electronics disruption does occur using the vertex detector electronics (VXD) from the SLD detector which took data at the SLC at SLAC. We present the results of those tests, and we describe the need for EMI standards for beam and detector instrumentation in the IR region at the ILC.

  8. Generation of runaway electron beams in high-pressure nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Burachenko, A. G.; Baksht, E. Kh

    2017-07-01

    In this paper the results of experimental studies of the amplitude-temporal characteristics of a runaway electron beam, as well as breakdown voltage in nitrogen are presented. The voltage pulses with the amplitude in incident wave ≈120 kV and the rise time of ≈0.3 ns was used. The supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) was detected by a collector behind the flat anode. The amplitude-time characteristics of the voltage and SAEB current were studied with subnanosecond time resolution. The maximum pressure at which a SAEB is detectable by collector was ∼1 MPa. This pressure increases with decreasing the voltage rise time. The waveforms of the discharge and runaway electron beam currents was synchronized with the voltage pulses. The mechanism of the runaway electron generation in atmospheric-pressure gases is analyzed on the basis of the obtained experimental data.

  9. Compact pulsed electron beam system for microwave generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. K.; Deb, P.; Shukla, R.; Banerjee, P.; Prabaharan, T.; Adhikary, B.; Verma, R.; Sharma, A.; Shyam, A.

    2012-11-01

    A compact 180 kV electron beam system is designed for high power microwave generation. The electron beam system is consists of a secondary energy storage device, which can deliver energy to the load at faster rate than usual primary energy storage system such as tesla transformers or marx generator. The short duration, high voltage pulse with fast rise time and good flattop is applied to vacuum diode for high power microwave generation. The compact electron beam system is made up of single turn primary tesla transformer which charges a helical pulse forming line and transfers its energy to vacuum diode through a high voltage pressurized spark gap switch. We have used helical pulse forming line which has higher inductance as compared to coaxial pulse forming line, which in turns increases, the pulse width and reduce the length of the pulse forming line. Water dielectric medium is used because of its high dielectric constant, high dielectric strength and efficient energy storage capability. The time dependent breakdown property and high relative permittivity of water makes it an ideal choice for this system. The high voltage flat-top pulse of 90 kV, 260 ns is measured across the matched load. In this article we have reported the design details, simulation and initial experimental results of 180 kV pulsed electron beam system for high power microwave generation.

  10. Generation of subnanosecond electron beams in air at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyrya, I. D.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Lomaev, M. I.; Rybka, D. V.

    2009-11-01

    Optimum conditions for the generation of runaway electron beams with maximum current amplitudes and densities in nanosecond pulsed discharges in air at atmospheric pressure are determined. A supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) with a current amplitude of ˜30 A, a current density of ˜20 A/cm2, and a pulse full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ˜100 ps has been observed behind the output foil of an air-filled diode. It is shown that the position of the SAEB current maximum relative to the voltage pulse front exhibits a time shift that varies when the small-size collector is moved over the foil surface.

  11. Heating of heavy plasma species by damping electron beam in beam-generated plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levko, Dmitry

    2017-11-01

    The heating of heavy species (both ions and neutrals) in the beam-generated plasma by damping electron beam is analyzed using a self-consistent one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo collisions model. It is observed that the damping of the electron beam leads to the excitation of a wide spectrum of electrostatic waves. These waves lead to the heating not only of the thermal plasma electrons but also of the plasma ions. The first less efficient mechanism of the ion heating is the ponderomotive force due to the generation of non-homogeneous high-frequency electric field which is excited by the damping electron beam. The second more efficient mechanism of the ion heating obtained in the simulations is the acceleration by slow plasma waves. This mechanism is responsible for the acceleration of ions to the velocities few times higher than the ion thermal velocity.

  12. Novel Vortex Generator and Mode Converter for Electron Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Schattschneider, P.; Stoeger-Pollach, M.; Verbeeck, J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: A mode converter for electron vortex beams is described. Numerical simulations, confirmed by experiment, show that the converter transforms a vortex beam with a topological charge m = +/- 1 into beams closely resembling Hermite-Gaussian HG(10) and HG(01) modes. The converter can be used as a mode discriminator or filter for electron vortex beams. Combining the converter with a phase plate turns a plane wave into modes with topological charge m = +/- 1. This combination serves as a g...

  13. Plasma sources for high-current electron beam generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasik, Ya. E.; Dunaevsky, A.; Felsteiner, J.

    2001-05-01

    A review of experimental studies of the operation of cathodes made of metal-ceramic, velvet, corduroy, carbon fibers, carbon fabric, and different types of ferroelectrics is presented. These cathodes operated at electric fields in the range of 5-60 kV/cm that allowed the generation of electron beams with duration of several hundreds of nanoseconds while keeping a quasi-constant diode impedance. All cathodes had the same diameter and were tested in a diode powered by a high-voltage generator (300 kV, 85 Ω, 250 ns, ⩽5 Hz). It was shown that the source of electrons for all the studied cathodes is a plasma which is formed as a result of surface discharges. Different types of electrical and optical diagnostics were used to study the formation and parameters of the plasma, the potential distribution inside the anode-cathode gap, and the uniformity and divergence of the extracted electron beam as a function of the amplitude and rise time of the accelerating pulse. Results of the lifetime of the tested cathodes and their compatibility with vacuum requirements are presented as well.

  14. Angular-momentum-dominated electron beams and flat-beam generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yin-e [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2005-06-01

    In the absence of external forces, if the dynamics within an electron beam is dominated by its angular momentum rather than other effects such as random thermal motion or self Coulomb-repulsive force (i.e., space-charge force), the beam is said to be angular-momentum-dominated. Such a beam can be directly applied to the field of electron-cooling of heavy ions; or it can be manipulated into an electron beam with large transverse emittance ratio, i.e., a flat beam. A flat beam is of interest for high-energy electron-positron colliders or accelerator-based light sources. An angular-momentum-dominated beam is generated at the Fermilab/NICADD photoinjector Laboratory (FNPL) and is accelerated to an energy of 16 MeV. The properties of such a beam is investigated systematically in experiment. The experimental results are in very good agreement with analytical expectations and simulation results. This lays a good foundation for the transformation of an angular-momentum-dominated beam into a flat beam. The round-to-flat beam transformer is composed of three skew quadrupoles. Based on a good knowledge of the angular-momentum-dominated beam, the quadrupoles are set to the proper strengths in order to apply a total torque which removes the angular momentum, resulting in a flat beam. For bunch charge around 0.5 nC, an emittance ratio of 100 ± 5 was measured, with the smaller normalized root-mean-square emittance around 0.4 mm-mrad. Effects limiting the flat-beam emittance ratio are investigated, such as the chromatic effects in the round-to-flat beam transformer, asymmetry in the initial angular-momentum-dominated beam, and space-charge effects. The most important limiting factor turns out to be the uncorrelated emittance growth caused by space charge when the beam energy is low, for example, in the rf gun area. As a result of such emittance growth prior to the round-to-flat beam transformer, the emittance ratio achievable in simulation decreases from orders of thousands to

  15. Digital pattern generator: an electron-optical MEMS for massively parallel reflective electron beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grella, Luca; Carroll, Allen; Murray, Kirk; McCord, Mark A.; Tong, William M.; Brodie, Alan D.; Gubiotti, Thomas; Sun, Fuge; Kidwingira, Françoise; Kojima, Shinichi; Petric, Paul; Bevis, Christopher F.; Vereecke, Bart; Haspeslagh, Luc; Mane, Anil U.; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2013-07-01

    The digital pattern generator (DPG) is a complex electron-optical MEMS that pixelates the electron beam in the reflective electron beam lithography (REBL) e-beam column. It potentially enables massively parallel printing, which could make REBL competitive with optical lithography. The development of the REBL DPG, from the CMOS architecture, through the lenslet modeling and design, to the fabrication of the MEMS device, is described in detail. The imaging and printing results are also shown, which validate the pentode lenslet concept and the fabrication process.

  16. Generation of Double-Decker Femtosecond Electron Beams in a Photoinjector

    CERN Document Server

    Yang Jin Feng; Kondoh, Takafumi; Kozawa, Takahiro; Kuroda, Y; Tagawa, Seiichi; Yoshida, Yoichi

    2005-01-01

    The femtosecond electron beam is a practical source in the pump-probe experiment for studies of ultrafast physical/chemical reactions in materials, in which a mode-locked ultrashort laser light is used as a probe source. The synchronized time jitter between the electron beam and the laser light limits the time resolution in the experiment. In order to reduce the time jitter, a new concept of synchronized double-decker electron beam generation in a photoinjector was proposed. The double electron beams were observed in an S-band photocathode RF gun by injecting two laser beams which produced with a picosecond laser. The double electron beams were compressed into 400fs(rms) with a phase-space rotation technique in magnetic fields. The beams, which one is used as a pump source and another is used as a probe source, are expected for ultrafast reaction studies in femtosecond resolution.

  17. Influence of the electrode gap separation on the pseudospark-sourced electron beam generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J., E-mail: junping.zhao@qq.com [High Voltage Division, School of Electrical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, West Xianning Road, Xi' an 710049 (China); Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, G4 0NG Scotland (United Kingdom); Yin, H.; Zhang, L.; Shu, G.; He, W.; Phelps, A. D. R.; Cross, A. W. [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, G4 0NG Scotland (United Kingdom); Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q. [High Voltage Division, School of Electrical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, West Xianning Road, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Pseudospark-sourced electron beam is a self-focused intense electron beam which can propagate without any external focusing magnetic field. This electron beam can drive a beam-wave interaction directly or after being post-accelerated. It is especially suitable for terahertz radiation generation due to the ability of a pseudospark discharge to produce small size in the micron range and very high current density and bright electron beams. In this paper, a single-gap pseudospark discharge chamber has been built and tested with several electrode gap separations to explore the dependence of the pseudospark-sourced electron beam current on the discharge voltage and the electrode gap separation. Experimental results show that the beam pulses have similar pulse width and delay time from the distinct drop of the applied voltage for smaller electrode gap separations but longer delay time for the largest gap separation used in the experiment. It has been found that the electron beam only starts to occur when the charging voltage is above a certain value, which is defined as the starting voltage of the electron beam. The starting voltage is different for different electrode gap separations and decreases with increasing electrode gap separation in our pseudospark discharge configuration. The electron beam current increases with the increasing discharge voltage following two tendencies. Under the same discharge voltage, the configuration with the larger electrode gap separation will generate higher electron beam current. When the discharge voltage is higher than 10 kV, the beam current generated at the electrode gap separation of 17.0 mm, is much higher than that generated at smaller gap separations. The ionization of the neutral gas in the main gap is inferred to contribute more to the current increase with increasing electrode gap separation.

  18. Surface treatment by the ion flow from electron beam generated plasma in the forevacuum pressure range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimov Aleksandr

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research results of peculiarities of gas ion flows usage and their generation from large plasma formation (>50 sq.cm obtained by electron beam ionization of gas in the forevacuum pressure range. An upgraded source was used for electron beam generation, which allowed obtaining ribbon electron beam with no transmitting magnetic field. Absence of magnetic field in the area of ion flow formation enables to obtain directed ion flows without distorting their trajectories. In this case, independent control of current and ion energy is possible. The influence of electron beam parameters on the parameters of beam plasma and ion flow – current energy and density – was determined. The results of alumina ceramics treatment with a beam plasma ions flow are given.

  19. Low-energy run of Fermilab Electron Cooler's beam generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, Lionel; Shemyakin, Alexander; /Fermilab; Fedotov, Alexei; Kewisch, Jorg; /Brookhaven

    2010-08-01

    As a part of a feasibility study of using the Fermilab Electron Cooler for a low-energy Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) run at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the cooler operation at 1.6 MeV electron beam energy was tested in a short beam line configuration. The main result of the study is that the cooler beam generation system is suitable for BNL needs. In a striking difference with running 4.3 MeV beam, no unprovoked beam recirculation interruptions were observed.

  20. Generation of electron beams from a laser-based advanced accelerator at Shanghai Jiao Tong University

    CERN Document Server

    Elsied, Ahmed M M; Li, Song; Mirzaie, Mohammad; Sokollik, Thomas; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    At Shanghai Jiao Tong University, we have established a research laboratory for advanced acceleration research based on high-power lasers and plasma technologies. In a primary experiment based on the laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) scheme, multi-hundred MeV electron beams having a reasonable quality are generated using 20-40 TW, 30 femtosecond laser pulses interacting independently with helium, neon, nitrogen and argon gas jet targets. The laser-plasma interaction conditions are optimized for stabilizing the electron beam generation from each type of gas. The electron beam pointing angle stability and divergence angle as well as the energy spectra from each gas jet are measured and compared.

  1. Low-Energy Run of Fermilab Electron Cooler's Beam Generation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, L.R.; Shemyakin, A.; /Fermilab; Fedotov, A.; Kewisch, J.; /Brookhaven

    2011-03-14

    In the context of the evaluation of possibly using the Fermilab Electron Cooler for the proposed low-energy RHIC run at BNL, operating the cooler at 1.6 MeV electron beam energy was tested in a short beam line configuration. The main conclusion of this feasibility study is that the cooler's beam generation system is suitable for BNL needs. The beam recirculation was stable for all tested parameters. In particular, a beam current of 0.38 A was achieved with the cathode magnetic field up to the maximum value presently available of 250 G. The energy ripple was measured to be 40 eV. A striking difference with running the 4.3 MeV beam (nominal for operation at FNAL) is that no unprovoked beam recirculation interruptions were observed. Electron cooling proposed to increase the luminosity of the RHIC collider for heavy ion beam energies below 10 GeV/nucleon [1] needs a good quality, 0.9-5 MeV electron beam. Preliminary design studies indicate that the scheme of the Recycler's electron cooler at FNAL is suitable for low-energy RHIC cooling and most parts of the cooler can be re-used after the end of the Tevatron Run II. To analyze issues related to the generation of the electron beam in the energy recovery mode and to gain experience with the beam transport at lower beam energy, a dedicated study was performed at FNAL with a beam run through a short beam line (so called U-bend). This report summarizes our findings and observations in the course of the measurements.

  2. Parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam generated in atmospheric-pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, V. F.

    2011-05-01

    Conditions under which the number of runaway electrons in atmospheric-pressure air reaches ˜5 × 1010 are determined. Recommendations for creating runaway electron accelerators are given. Methods for measuring the parameters of a supershort avalanche electron beam and X-ray pulses from gas-filled diodes, as well as the discharge current and gap voltage, are described. A technique for determining the instant of runaway electron generation with respect to the voltage pulse is proposed. It is shown that the reduction in the gap voltage and the decrease in the beam current coincide in time. The mechanism of intense electron beam generation in gas-filled diodes is analyzed. It is confirmed experimentally that, in optimal regimes, the number of electrons generated in atmospheric-pressure air with energies T > eU m , where U m is the maximum gap voltage, is relatively small.

  3. Generation mechanism of whistler waves produced by electron beam injection in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, P. L.; Karimabadi, H.; Omidi, N.

    1989-01-01

    Electromagnetic particle simulations are used to determine the generation mechanism of the whistler waves observed in connection with the artificial injection of electron beams in the ionosphere. The production of the waves is shown to be closely connected with the beam-plasma interaction, which leads to the formation of a current structure which acts like an antenna and emits the whistler waves in a coherent manner. This process, in contrast to a mechanism involving amplification of radiation by a whistler mode plasma instability within the beam, allows the whistlers to be generated even though the beam width is less than one wavelength.

  4. Axicon Lens for Electrons Using a Magnetic Vortex: The Efficient Generation of a Bessel Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Changlin; Petersen, Timothy C.; Kirmse, Holm; Neumann, Wolfgang; Morgan, Michael J.; Etheridge, Joanne

    2017-10-01

    We demonstrate experimentally an efficient electron axicon lens using a magnetic vortex. We show that naturally occurring magnetic vortices with circular magnetic moment distributions in a soft-magnetic thin film create conical phase shifts for fast electrons. Such radially symmetric linear phase ramps are equivalent to ideal light optical axicons. We apply this lens to generate efficient nondiffracting electron Bessel beams, which we observe experimentally in through-focus Lorentz images as well as in propagated off-axis electron holograms. This highlights the potential for using magnetic nanostructures as highly efficient and flexible phase plates for crafting desired electron beam shapes.

  5. Generation of angular-momentum-dominated electron beams from a photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yin-E.; Piot, Philippe; Kim, Kwang-Je; Barov, Nikolas; Lidia, Steven; Santucci, James; Tikhoplav, Rodion; Wennerberg, Jason

    2004-11-30

    Various projects under study require an angular-momentum-dominated electron beam generated by a photoinjector. Some of the proposals directly use the angular-momentum-dominated beams (e.g. electron cooling of heavy ions), while others require the beam to be transformed into a flat beam (e.g. possible electron injectors for light sources and linear colliders). In this paper, we report our experimental study of an angular-momentum-dominated beam produced in a photoinjector, addressing the dependencies of angular momentum on initial conditions. We also briefly discuss the removal of angular momentum. The results of the experiment, carried out at the Fermilab/NICADD Photoinjector Laboratory, are found to be in good agreement with theoretical and numerical models.

  6. Generation of angular-momentum-dominated electron beams from a photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y.-E; /Chicago U.; Piot, P.; /Fermilab; Kim, K.-J.; /Argonne /Chicago U.; Barov, N.; /Northern Illinois U.; Lidia, S.; /LBL, Berkeley; Santucci, J.; /Fermilab; Tikhoplav,; /Rochester U.; Wennerberg, J.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    Various projects under study require an angular-momentum-dominated electron beam generated by a photoinjector. Some of the proposals directly use the angular-momentum-dominated beams (e.g. electron cooling of heavy ions), while others require the beam to be transformed into a flat beam (e.g. possible electron injectors for light sources and linear colliders). In this paper, we report our experimental study of an angular-momentum-dominated beam produced in a photoinjector, addressing the dependencies of angular momentum on initial conditions. We also briefly discuss the removal of angular momentum. The results of the experiment, carried out at the Fermilab/NICADD Photoinjector Laboratory, are found to be in good agreement with theoretical and numerical models.

  7. Generation of angular-momentum-dominated electron beams from a photoinjector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-E Sun

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Various projects under study require an angular-momentum-dominated electron beam generated by a photoinjector. Some of the proposals directly use the angular-momentum-dominated beams (e.g., electron cooling of heavy ions, while others require the beam to be transformed into a flat beam (e.g., possible electron injectors for light sources and linear colliders. In this paper we report our experimental study of an angular-momentum-dominated beam produced in a photoinjector, addressing the dependencies of angular momentum on initial conditions. We also briefly discuss the removal of angular momentum. The results of the experiment, carried out at the Fermilab/NICADD Photoinjector Laboratory, are found to be in good agreement with theoretical and numerical models.

  8. X-ray FEL based on harmonics generation and electron beam outcoupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Burnham, B. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Electron beam outcoupling was suggested by N. A. Vinokurov as a method of optics independent outcoupling for high power FELs. The bunching of the electron beam is provided in a master oscillator. The prebunched electron beam then radiates coherently into an additional wiggler called the radiator. The electron beam is turned by an achromatic bend into this wiggler and its radiation propagates with a small angle with respect to the OK-4 optical axis. Thus, the radiation will pass around the mirror of the master oscillator optical cavity and can then be utilized. This scheme is perfectly suited for harmonic generation if the radiator wiggler is tuned on one of the master oscillator wavelength harmonics. This system is reminiscent of a klystron operating on a harmonic of the reference frequency. In this paper we present the theory of this device, its spectral and spatial characteristics of radiation, the optimization of the master oscillator, the achromatic bend and bunching for harmonic generation, and influence of beam parameters (energy spread, emittance, etc.) on generated power. Examples of possible storage ring and linac driven systems are discussed.

  9. Advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) for 2-nd generation carbon radiotherapy facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Shornikov, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we analyze how advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) can facilitate the progress of carbon therapy facilities. We will demonstrate that advanced ion sources enable operation of 2-nd generation ion beam therapy (IBT) accelerators. These new accelerator concepts with designs dedicated to IBT provide beams better suited for therapy and, are more cost efficient than contemporary IBT facilities. We will give a sort overview of the existing new IBT concepts and focus on those where ion source technology is the limiting factor. We will analyse whether this limitation can be overcome in the near future thanks to ongoing EBIS development.

  10. Generation of a spin-polarized electron beam by multipole magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ebrahim; Grillo, Vincenzo; Boyd, Robert W; Santamato, Enrico

    2014-03-01

    The propagation of an electron beam in the presence of transverse magnetic fields possessing integer topological charges is presented. The spin-magnetic interaction introduces a nonuniform spin precession of the electrons that gains a space-variant geometrical phase in the transverse plane proportional to the field's topological charge, whose handedness depends on the input electron's spin state. A combination of our proposed device with an electron orbital angular momentum sorter can be utilized as a spin-filter of electron beams in a mid-energy range. We examine these two different configurations of a partial spin-filter generator numerically. The results of this analysis could prove useful in the design of an improved electron microscope. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultra-low emittance electron beam generation using ionization injection in a plasma beatwave accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Carl; Benedetti, Carlo; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2017-10-01

    Ultra-low emittance beams can be generated using ionization injection of electrons into a wakefield excited by a plasma beatwave accelerator. This all-optical method of electron beam generation uses three laser pulses of different colors. Two long-wavelength laser pulses, with frequency difference equal to the plasma frequency, resonantly drive a plasma wave without fully ionizing a gas. A short-wavelength injection laser pulse (with a small ponderomotive force and large peak electric field), co-propagating and delayed with respect to the beating long-wavelength lasers, ionizes a fraction of the remaining bound electrons at a trapped wake phase, generating an electron beam that is accelerated in the wakefield. Using the beating of long-wavelength pulses to generate the wakefield enables atomically-bound electrons to remain at low ionization potentials, reducing the required amplitude of the ionization pulse, and, hence, the initial transverse momentum and emittance of the injected electrons. An example is presented using two lines of a CO2 laser to form a plasma beatwave accelerator to drive the wake and a frequency-doubled Ti:Al2O3 laser for ionization injection. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  12. Generation and focusing of electron beams with initial transverse-longitudinal correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J. R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States) Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering.; Lewellen, J. W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Poole, B. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-10-07

    In charged particle beams, one of the roles played by space charge is to couple the transverse and longitudinal dynamics of the beam. This can lead to very complex phenomena which are generally studied using computer simulations. However, in some cases models based on phenomenological or analytic approximations can provide valuable insight into the system behavior. In this paper, we employ such approximations to investigate the conditions under which all the slices of a space charge dominated electron beam with slowly varying current could be focused to a waist with the same radius and at the same location, independent of slice current, and show that this can be accomplished approximately if the initial transverse-longitudinal correlation introduced onto the beam by the electron gun is chosen to compensate for the transverse-longitudinal correlation introduced onto the beam in the drift section. The validity of our approximations is assessed by use of progressively more realistic calculations. We also consider several design elements of electron guns that affect the initial correlations in the beams they generate.

  13. Generation of electron vortex beams using line charges via the electrostatic Aharonov-Bohm effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Giulio; Lu, Peng-Han; Tavabi, Amir H; Duchamp, Martial; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E

    2017-10-01

    It has recently been shown that an electron vortex beam can be generated by the magnetic field surrounding the tip of a dipole-like magnet. This approach can be described using the magnetic Aharonov-Bohm effect and is associated with the fact that the end of a long magnetic rod can be treated approximately as a magnetic monopole. However, it is difficult to vary the magnetisation of the rod in such a setup and the electron beam vorticity is fixed for a given tip shape. Here, we show how a similar behaviour, which has the advantage of easy tuneability, can be achieved by making use of the electrostatic Aharonov-Bohm effect associated with an electrostatic dipole line. We highlight the analogies between the magnetic and electrostatic cases and use simulations of in-focus, Fresnel and Fraunhofer images to show that a device based on two parallel, oppositely charged lines that each have a constant charge density can be used to generate a tuneable electron vortex beam. We assess the effect of using a dipole line that has a finite length and show that if the charge densities on the two lines are different then an additional biprism-like effect is superimposed on the electron-optical phase. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pulse-periodic generation of supershort avalanche electron beams and X-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Erofeev, M. V.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2014-05-01

    Pulse-periodic generation of supershort avalanche electron beams (SAEBs) and X-ray emission in nitrogen, as well as the transition from a single-pulse mode to a pulse-periodic mode with a high repetition frequency, was studied experimentally. It is shown that, in the pulse-periodic mode, the full width at halfmaximum of the SAEB is larger and the decrease rate of the gap voltage is lower than those in the single-pulse mode. It is found that, when the front duration of the voltage pulse at a nitrogen pressure of 90 Torr decreases from 2.5 to 0.3 ns, the X-ray exposure dose in the pulse-periodic mode increases by more than one order of magnitude and the number of SAEB electrons also increases. It is shown that, in the pulse-periodic mode of a diffuse discharge, gas heating in the discharge gap results in a severalfold increase in the SAEB amplitude (the number of electrons in the beam). At a generator voltage of 25 kV, nitrogen pressure of 90 Torr, and pulse repetition frequency of 3.5 kHz, a runaway electron beam was detected behind the anode foil.

  15. Effective regimes of runaway electron beam generation in helium, hydrogen, and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Lomaev, M. I.; Sorokin, D. A.; Shut'ko, Yu. V.

    2010-04-01

    Runaway electron beam parameters and current-voltage characteristics of discharge in helium, hydrogen, and nitrogen at pressures in the range of several Torr to several hundred Torr have been studied. It is found that the maximum amplitudes of supershort avalanche electron beams (SAEBs) with a pulse full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ˜100 ps are achieved in helium, hydrogen, and nitrogen at a pressure of ˜60, ˜30, and ˜10 Torr, respectively. It is shown that, as the gas pressure is increased in the indicated range, the breakdown voltage of the gas-filled gap decreases, which leads to a decrease in the SAEB current amplitude. At pressures of helium within 20-60 Torr, hydrogen within 10-30 Torr, and nitrogen within 3-10 Torr, the regime of the runaway electron beam generation changes and, by varying the pressure in the gas-filled diode in the indicated intervals, it is possible to smoothly control the current pulse duration (FWHM) from ˜100 to ˜500 ps, while the beam current amplitude increases by a factor of 1.5-3.

  16. Echo-enabled tunable terahertz radiation generation with a laser-modulated relativistic electron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A new scheme to generate narrow-band tunable terahertz (THz radiation using a variant of the echo-enabled harmonic generation is analyzed. We show that by using an energy chirped beam, THz density modulation in the beam phase space can be produced with two lasers having the same wavelength. This removes the need for an optical parametric amplifier system to provide a wavelength-tunable laser to vary the central frequency of the THz radiation. The practical feasibility and applications of this scheme are demonstrated numerically with a start-to-end simulation using the beam parameters at the Shanghai Deep Ultraviolet Free-Electron Laser facility (SDUV. The central frequency of the density modulation can be continuously tuned by either varying the chirp of the beam or the momentum compactions of the chicanes. The influence of nonlinear rf chirp and longitudinal space charge effect have also been studied in our article. The methods to generate the THz radiation in SDUV with the new scheme and the estimation of the radiation power are also discussed briefly.

  17. Relativistic electron beam interaction and $K_{\\alpha}$-generation in solid targets

    CERN Document Server

    Fill, E; Eder, D; Eidmann, K; Saemann, A

    1999-01-01

    When fs laser pulses interact with solid surfaces at intensities I lambda /sup 2/ >10/sup 18/ W/cm/sup 2/ mu m/sup 2/, collimated relativistic electron beams are generated. These electrons can be used for producing intense X-radiation (bremsstrahlung or K/sub alpha /) for pumping an innershell X-ray laser. The basic concept of such a laser involves the propagation of the electron beam in a material which converts electron energy into appropriate pump photons. Using the ATLAS titanium-sapphire laser at Max-Planck-Institut fur Quantenoptik, we investigate the generation of hot electrons and of characteristic radiation in copper. The laser (200 mJ/130 fs) is focused by means of an off-axis parabola to a diameter of about 10 mu m. By varying the position of the focus, we measure the copper K/sub alpha /-yield as a function of intensity in a range from 10/sup 15/ to 2 x 10/sup 18/ W/cm/sup 2/ while keeping the laser pulse energy constant. Surprisingly, the highest emission is obtained at an intensity of about 10/s...

  18. Sensitivity of echo enabled harmonic generation to sinusoidal electron beam energy structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsing, E.; Garcia, B.; Huang, Z.; Raubenheimer, T.; Xiang, D.

    2017-06-01

    We analytically examine the bunching factor spectrum of a relativistic electron beam with sinusoidal energy structure that then undergoes an echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) transformation to produce high harmonics. The performance is found to be described primarily by a simple scaling parameter. The dependence of the bunching amplitude on fluctuations of critical parameters is derived analytically, and compared with simulations. Where applicable, EEHG is also compared with high gain harmonic generation (HGHG) and we find that EEHG is generally less sensitive to several types of energy structure. In the presence of intermediate frequency modulations like those produced by the microbunching instability, EEHG has a substantially narrower intrinsic bunching pedestal.

  19. Generating high brightness electron beams using density down ramp injection in nonlinear plasma wakefields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalichaouch, Thamine; Xu, Xinlu; Davidson, Asher; Yu, Peicheng; An, Weiming; Joshi, Chan; Zhang, Chaojie; Mori, Warren; Li, Fei; Lu, Wei; Fonseca, Ricardo

    2017-10-01

    In the past few decades, there has been much progress in theory, simulation, and experiment towards using Plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA) and Laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) as the basis for designing and building compact x-ray free-electron-lasers (XFEL) as well as a next generation linear collider. Recently, ionization injection and density downramp injection have been proposed and demonstrated as controllable injection schemes for generating high quality relativistic electron beams. We present the concepts and full 3D simulation results using OSIRIS which show that downramp injection can generate electron beams with unprecedented brightnesses. However, full-3D simulations of plasma-based acceleration can be computationally intensive, sometimes taking millions of cpu-hours. Due to the near azimuthal symmetry in PWFA and LWFA, quasi-3D simulations using a cylindrical geometry are computationally more efficient than 3D Cartesian simulations since only the first few harmonics are needed in ϕ to capture the 3D physics of most problems. We also present results from the quasi-3D approach on downramp injection and compare the results against full 3D simulations. Work supported by NSF and DOE.

  20. Temporal characteristics of monoenergetic electron beams generated by the laser wakefield acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ohkubo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulse length of quasimonoenergetic electrons accelerated by the wakefield generated by 12 TW, 40 fs laser pulses in a gas jet is determined via spectral measurements using a bolometer to detect coherent transition radiation. A quasimonoenergetic electron beam with its mean energy E=21  MeV, dispersion ΔE=4  MeV, total charge q∼30  pC, and the geometrical emittance 0.07π  mm mrad is generated with high reproducibility. The averaged duration of only the quasimonoenergetic electron bunches peaked around 20 MeV is 130±30  fs (FWHM, while it is 250±70  fs (FWHM for electron bunches with quasimonoenergetic distributions peaked around 4 MeV, at a distance of 180 mm far from the gas jet because of relatively large electron energy spread. Pulse elongation of the electron bunch with the quasimonoenergetic distribution after 180 mm path is 60–220  fs (FWHM. Therefore, the initial duration of the electron bunch at the gas-jet rear is expected to be less than 100  fs (FWHM.

  1. Generation of low-emittance electron beams in electrostatic accelerators for FEL applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Chen; Elias, Luis R.

    1995-02-01

    This paper reports results of transverse emittance studies and beam propagation in electrostatic accelerators for free electron laser applications. In particular, we discuss emittance growth analysis of a low current electron beam system consisting of a miniature thermoionic electron gun and a National Electrostatics Accelerator (NEC) tube. The emittance growth phenomenon is discussed in terms of thermal effects in the electron gun cathode and aberrations produced by field gradient changes occurring inside the electron gun and throughout the accelerator tube. A method of reducing aberrations using a magnetic solenoidal field is described. Analysis of electron beam emittance was done with the EGUN code. Beam propagation along the accelerator tube was studied using a cylindrically symmetric beam envelope equation that included beam self-fields and the external accelerator fields which were derived from POISSON simulations.

  2. Counter-crossing injection for stable high-quality electron beam generation via laser-plasma interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotaki, H; Daito, I; Hayashi, Y; Ma, J; Chen, L-M; Kando, M; Esirkepov, T Z; Fukuda, Y; Homma, T; Pirozhkov, A; Koga, J K; Nakajima, K; Daido, H; Bulanov, S V [Advanced Photon Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kizugawa, Kyoto (Japan)], E-mail: kotaki.hideyuki@jaea.go.jp

    2008-05-01

    Counter-crossing injection, which is a realistic setup for applications, by two sub-relativistic laser pulses colliding at an angle of 45 degrees is demonstrated. The collision of the two laser pulses generates a high-quality electron beam with high reproducibility. The generated monoenergetic electron beam has a peak energy of 14.4 MeV, an energy spread of 10.6%, a charge of 21.8 pC, a normalized emittance of 1.6 {pi} mm mrad, and a reproducibility of 50%. The electron beam generation is unfolded with two-dimensional-particle-in-cell simulations. The laser pulses in plasma are self-focused to higher intensity when the laser power is above the threshold for relativistic self-focusing. The collision of the self-focused laser pulses generates a high-quality electron beam with high reproducibility.

  3. Experimental study on hard X-ray generation of relativistic electron beams in azimuthal magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Fan Ya Jun; Qiu Aici

    2002-01-01

    Experimental study on hard X-ray generation was carried out on Flash 2 accelerator, with the method of relativistic electron beams transported in a low pressure gas via azimuthal magnetic field and interacted with Ta target. At 47 cm transporting distance, the measured areal integral of hard X-ray dose rate was 2.1 x 10 sup 1 sup 0 Gy centre dot cm sup 2 /s, total areal integral of hard X-ray dose was 1843 Gy centre dot cm sup 2 , and X-ray convert rate was 108 Gy centre dot cm sup 2 /kJ

  4. Short-pulse, high-energy radiation generation from laser-wakefield accelerated electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Will

    2013-10-01

    Recent experimental results of laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) of ~GeV electrons driven by the 200TW HERCULES and the 400TW ASTRA-GEMINI laser systems and their subsequent generation of photons, positrons, and neutrons are presented. In LWFA, high-intensity (I >1019 W /cm2), ultra-short (τL counter-propagating, ultra-high intensity (I >1021 W /cm2) laser pulse to undergo inverse Compton scattering and emit a high-peak brightness beam of high-energy photons. Preliminary results and experimental sensitivities of the electron-laser beam overlap are presented. The high-energy photon beams can be spectrally resolved using a forward Compton scattering spectrometer. Moreover, the photon flux can be characterized by a pixelated scintillator array and by nuclear activation and (γ,n) neutron measurements from the photons interacting with a secondary solid target. Monte-Carlo simulations were performed using FLUKA to support the yield estimates. This research was supported by DOE/NSF-PHY 0810979, NSF CAREER 1054164, DARPA AXiS N66001-11-1-4208, SF/DNDO F021166, and the Leverhulme Trust ECF-2011-383.

  5. Generation of Homogeneous and Patterned Electron Beams using a Microlens Array Laser-Shaping Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halavanau, Aliaksei [NICADD, DeKalb; Edstrom, Dean [Fermilab; Gai, Wei [Argonne, HEP; Ha, Gwanghui [Argonne, HEP; Piot, Philippe [NICADD, DeKalb; Power, John [Argonne, HEP; Qiang, Gao [Unlisted, CN; Ruan, Jinhao [Fermilab; Santucci, James [Fermilab; Wisniewski, Eric [Argonne, HEP

    2016-06-01

    In photocathodes the achievable electron-beam parameters are controlled by the laser used to trigger the photoemission process. Non-ideal laser distribution hampers the final beam quality. Laser inhomogeneities, for instance, can be "amplified" by space-charge force and result in fragmented electron beams. To overcome this limitation laser shaping methods are routinely employed. In the present paper we demonstrate the use of simple microlens arrays to dramatically improve the transverse uniformity. We also show that this arrangement can be used to produce transversely-patterned electron beams. Our experiments are carried out at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator facility.

  6. Advanced electron-beam pattern generation technology for 180-nm masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Frank E.; Sauer, Charles A.; Wang, William; Vernon, Matthew; Prior, Richard; Pearce-Percy, Henry T.; Cole, Damon M.; Mankos, Marian

    1997-02-01

    Optical lithography will be the dominant technique used for 180 nm generation production devices. With a reduced feature size on the wafer, 4X optical reduction, optical proximity correction (OPC), and phase shift lithography techniques, mask-related errors become even more critical to wafer yield. In addition, small feature sizes and lithography enhancement techniques require finer edge resolution. Clearly, new patten generation tools are needed for this generation of maskmaking requirements. Multipass gray (MPG) writing strategy was introduced with the MEBESR 4500S. The ability to deliver a 4X improvement in dose while improving throughput is a significant advantage over previous MEBES systems. Since MPG is used in conjunction with offset scan voting, reduction in butting of over 50% has been demonstrated with MPG. Higher doses are now possible with use of a multipass writing strategy and a brighter source. As a result, resists with higher contrast and process robustness can be used. A significant improvement in uniformity is noted with the new process, an essential step needed in meeting 180 nm requirements. Dry etch is essential to meet these new requirements and with sufficient process margin to be manufacturable. This paper describes the key electron-beam pattern generation technology necessary to meet the requirement of 180 nm masks, including a high dose field- emission gun and column capable of delivering 800 A/cm2; complete dynamic beam correction; a digital stage servo to provide stable, reproducible stage control under high acceleration conditions; a high speed data path to support 320 MHz beam blanking and a 10 nm data address. This paper also examines the improvements made to the MEBES platform and documents the resulting improvements and compares these results to the requirements for 180 nm masks.

  7. Sensitivity of echo enabled harmonic generation to sinusoidal electron beam energy structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hemsing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We analytically examine the bunching factor spectrum of a relativistic electron beam with sinusoidal energy structure that then undergoes an echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG transformation to produce high harmonics. The performance is found to be described primarily by a simple scaling parameter. The dependence of the bunching amplitude on fluctuations of critical parameters is derived analytically, and compared with simulations. Where applicable, EEHG is also compared with high gain harmonic generation (HGHG and we find that EEHG is generally less sensitive to several types of energy structure. In the presence of intermediate frequency modulations like those produced by the microbunching instability, EEHG has a substantially narrower intrinsic bunching pedestal.

  8. Magnetic-field generation and electron-collimation analysis for propagating fast electron beams in overdense plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong-Bo; Zhu, Shao-Ping; Chen, Mo; Wu, Si-Zhong; He, X T; Mima, Kunioki

    2011-03-01

    An analytical fluid model is proposed for artificially collimating fast electron beams produced in the interaction of ultraintense laser pulses with specially engineered low-density-core-high-density-cladding structure targets. Since this theory clearly predicts the characteristics of the spontaneously generated magnetic field and its dependence on the plasma parameters of the targets transporting fast electrons, it is of substantial relevance to the target design for fast ignition. The theory also reveals that the rapid changing of the flow velocity of the background electrons in a transverse direction (perpendicular to the flow velocity) caused by the density jump dominates the generation of a spontaneous interface magnetic field for these kinds of targets. It is found that the spontaneously generated magnetic field reaches as high as 100 MG, which is large enough to collimate fast electron transport in overdense plasmas. This theory is also supported by numerical simulations performed using a two-dimensional particle-in-cell code. It is found that the simulation results agree well with the theoretical analysis.

  9. Generating Periodic Terahertz Structures in a Relativistic Electron Beam through Frequency Down-Conversion of Optical Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, Michael

    2012-07-19

    We report generation of density modulation at terahertz (THz) frequencies in a relativistic electron beam through laser modulation of the beam longitudinal phase space. We show that by modulating the energy distribution of the beam with two lasers, density modulation at the difference frequency of the two lasers can be generated after the beam passes through a chicane. In this experiment, density modulation around 10 THz was generated by down-converting the frequencies of an 800 nm laser and a 1550 nm laser. The central frequency of the density modulation can be tuned by varying the laser wavelengths, beam energy chirp, or momentum compaction of the chicane. This technique can be applied to accelerator-based light sources for generation of coherent THz radiation and marks a significant advance toward tunable narrow-band THz sources.

  10. High-Flux Femtosecond X-Ray Emission from Controlled Generation of Annular Electron Beams in a Laser Wakefield Accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T Z; Behm, K; Dong, C F; Davoine, X; Kalmykov, S Y; Petrov, V; Chvykov, V; Cummings, P; Hou, B; Maksimchuk, A; Nees, J A; Yanovsky, V; Thomas, A G R; Krushelnick, K

    2016-08-26

    Annular quasimonoenergetic electron beams with a mean energy in the range 200-400 MeV and charge on the order of several picocoulombs were generated in a laser wakefield accelerator and subsequently accelerated using a plasma afterburner in a two-stage gas cell. Generation of these beams is associated with injection occurring on the density down ramp between the stages. This well-localized injection produces a bunch of electrons performing coherent betatron oscillations in the wakefield, resulting in a significant increase in the x-ray yield. Annular electron distributions are detected in 40% of shots under optimal conditions. Simultaneous control of the pulse duration and frequency chirp enables optimization of both the energy and the energy spread of the annular beam and boosts the radiant energy per unit charge by almost an order of magnitude. These well-defined annular distributions of electrons are a promising source of high-brightness laser plasma-based x rays.

  11. First Demonstration of Electron Beam Generation and Characterization with an All Superconducting Radio-frequency (SRF) Photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamps, T; Barday, R; Jankowiak, A; Knobloch, J; Kugeler, O; Matveenko, A N; Neumann, A; Quast, T; Rudolph, J; Schubert, S G; Volker, J; Kneisel, P; Nietubyc, R; Sekutowicz, J K; Smedley, J; Volkov, V; Weinberg, G

    2011-09-01

    In preparation for a high brightness, high average current electron source for the energy-recovery linac BERLinPro an all superconducting radio-frequency photoinjector is now in operation at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin. The aim of this experiment is beam demonstration with a high brightness electron source able to generate sub-ps pulse length electron bunches from a superconducting (SC) cathode film made of Pb coated on the backwall of a Nb SRF cavity. This paper describes the setup of the experiment and first results from beam measurements.

  12. Generation and diagnostics of uncaptured beam in the Fermilab Tevatron and its control by electron lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Long Zhang

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the collider run II, the Tevatron operates with 36 high intensity bunches of 980 GeV protons and antiprotons. Particles not captured by the Tevatron rf system pose a threat since they can quench the superconducting magnets during acceleration or at beam abort. We describe the main mechanisms for the origination of this uncaptured beam, and present measurements of its main parameters by means of a newly developed diagnostics system. The Tevatron electron lens is effectively used in the collider run II operation to remove uncaptured beam and keep its intensity in the abort gaps at a safe level.

  13. High energy micro electron beam generation using chirped laser pulse in the presence of an axial magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akou, H.; Hamedi, M.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the generation of high-quality and high-energy micro electron beam in vacuum by a chirped Gaussian laser pulse in the presence of an axial magnetic field is numerically investigated. The features of energy and angular spectra, emittances, and position distribution of electron beam are compared in two cases, i.e., in the presence and absence of an external magnetic field. The electron beam is accelerated with higher energy and qualified in spatial distribution in the presence of the magnetic field. The presence of an axial magnetic field improves electron beam spatial quality as well as its gained energy through keeping the electron motion parallel to the direction of propagation for longer distances. It has been found that a 64 μm electron bunch with about MeV initial energy becomes a 20 μm electron beam with high energy of the order of GeV, after interacting with a laser pulse in the presence of an external magnetic field.

  14. High energy micro electron beam generation using chirped laser pulse in the presence of an axial magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akou, H., E-mail: h.akou@nit.ac.ir; Hamedi, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Science, Babol University of Technology, Babol 47148-71167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, the generation of high-quality and high-energy micro electron beam in vacuum by a chirped Gaussian laser pulse in the presence of an axial magnetic field is numerically investigated. The features of energy and angular spectra, emittances, and position distribution of electron beam are compared in two cases, i.e., in the presence and absence of an external magnetic field. The electron beam is accelerated with higher energy and qualified in spatial distribution in the presence of the magnetic field. The presence of an axial magnetic field improves electron beam spatial quality as well as its gained energy through keeping the electron motion parallel to the direction of propagation for longer distances. It has been found that a 64 μm electron bunch with about MeV initial energy becomes a 20 μm electron beam with high energy of the order of GeV, after interacting with a laser pulse in the presence of an external magnetic field.

  15. Generation of femtosecond soft x-ray pulse by interaction between laser and electron beam in an electron storage ring

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, T; Amano, S; Mochizuki, T; Yatsuzaka, M

    2002-01-01

    A femtosecond synchrotron radiation pulse train can be extracted from an electron storage ring by interaction between an ultrashort laser pulse and an electron beam in an undulator. Generation system of a femtosecond soft x-ray pulse by the slicing technique was studied with numerical calculations for its performance, as applicable for the NewSUBARU synchrotron radiation facility at LASTI. The femtosecond electron pulse, that is energy-modulated with a Ti:sapphire laser at a pulse energy of 100 mu J, a pulse width of 150 fs, and repetition frequency of 20 kHz, can be sufficiently separated in a bending magnet. A femtosecond soft x-ray pulse (the critical photon energy of 0.69 keV and a pulse width of 250 fs) is obtained with a collimator (diameter of 800 mu m phi), and it has an average brightness 3 x 10 sup 6 photons/s/mm sup 2 /mrad sup 2 /0.1 %BW and an average photon flux 10 sup 5 photons/s/0.1 %BW. (author)

  16. Generating a Homogeneous Dose Distribution in the Junction Region between Two Adjacent Fields in Electron Beam Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Tahmasebi Birgani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Treatment with megavoltage electron beams is ideal for irradiating superficial tumors because of their limited range in tissues. However, for electron treatment of extended areas, such as the chest wall, two or more adjacent fields can be used. Abutment of these fields may lead to significant dose in homogeneities in the junction region. The aim of this study is to offer a new method for generating a homogeneous dose distribution in the junction region between two adjacent fields in electron beam therapy. Materials and Methods: Several approaches have been proposed to solve the problem of ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ spots in the junction region between abutting electron fields. These techniques are based on beam-edge modifying devices or penumbra generators which act to broaden the electron beam penumbra, and thus facilitate field matching. But use of these devices is time consuming and design of the modifications to the applicators are generally applicator dependent. An idea which was originally proposed for matching two adjacent photon fields (with dose inhomogeneity of about 2% is resurrected here. This method is based on the rotation of the gantry such that the adjacent fields have a common edge and the overlap region in treatment volume is eliminated. For this purpose, the effective source to surface distance (SSDeff for the available electron beam energies (6, 9, 12 and 15 MeV and applicators (cones (6 × 6, 10 × 10, 15 ×15, 20 × 20 and 25 × 25 cm2 have been determined for a Varian 2100C linear accelerator. Result: Using SSDeff, in respect to beam divergence, one can use the photon beam behavior for electron beams and achieve a uniform dose distribution in adjacent electron fields. Discussion and Conclusion: Compared to beam-edge modifying devices or penumbra generators that are usually time consuming to plan and set up, rotating the gantry to eliminate the overlap region is simple and applicable in the problem of abutting

  17. Amplitude−temporal characteristics of a supershort avalanche electron beam generated during subnanosecond breakdown in air and nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasenko, V. F., E-mail: vft@loi.hcei.tsc.ru; Baksht, E. Kh.; Beloplotov, D. V.; Burachenko, A. G.; Lomaev, M. I. [Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Current Electronics (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-15

    The amplitude−temporal characteristics of a supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) with an amplitude of up to 100 A, as well as of the breakdown voltage and discharge current, are studied experimentally with a picosecond time resolution. The waveforms of discharge and SAEB currents are synchronized with those of the voltage pulses. It is shown that the amplitude−temporal characteristics of the SAEB depend on the gap length and the designs of the gas diode and cathode. The mechanism for the generation of runaway electron beams in atmospheric-pressure gases is analyzed on the basis of the obtained experimental data.

  18. Amplitude-temporal characteristics of a supershort avalanche electron beam generated during subnanosecond breakdown in air and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Beloplotov, D. V.; Burachenko, A. G.; Lomaev, M. I.

    2016-04-01

    The amplitude-temporal characteristics of a supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) with an amplitude of up to 100 A, as well as of the breakdown voltage and discharge current, are studied experimentally with a picosecond time resolution. The waveforms of discharge and SAEB currents are synchronized with those of the voltage pulses. It is shown that the amplitude-temporal characteristics of the SAEB depend on the gap length and the designs of the gas diode and cathode. The mechanism for the generation of runaway electron beams in atmospheric-pressure gases is analyzed on the basis of the obtained experimental data.

  19. Lithographic analysis of multipass gray writing strategy for electron-beam pattern generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabala, Jan M.; Abboud, Frank E.; Dean, Robert L.; Weaver, Suzanne; Cole, Damon M.; Sauer, Charles A.; Raymond, Frederick, III; Hofmann, Ulrich

    1999-06-01

    Gray-level printing is an efficient strategy to create small-address patterns on photomasks. This work provides a technical description of the multipass gray (MPG) raster- scan writing technique as implemented on the MEBES 4500S and MEBES 5000 electron-beam pattern generation tools. The differences between single-pass printing (SPP) and MPG are reviewed. The factors that allow increase in throughput and dose with MPG are explained. Aerial image simulations of edge placement and corner rounding verify the MPG model. Multipass writing with offset scan voting, which reduces random and systematic errors, is explained. Because MPG is a gray-level printing technique, the dose distribution across feature edges is necessarily broader than that derived from SPP writing. Simulations and experimental results indicate that, using ZEP 7000 resist and dry etch, edges can be placed without loss of accuracy, despite the width of this 'gray' profile. The spot size necessary to obtain optimal critical dimension quality is also determined by simulation and empirically. The lithographic quality of MPG writing/processing is confirmed by composite metrology test that sample the whole quality area of the mask. We conclude that MPG is a viable technique for writing advanced masks.

  20. MEBES IV: a new generation raster-scan electron-beam lithography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Frank E.; Poreda, John T.; Smith, Robert L.

    1992-07-01

    The MEBES IV Electron Beam Lithography System was developed to meet requirements for advanced maskmaking. This necessitates support of 16- and 64-Mbit DRAM production and early development of 256-Mbit DRAMs. Using the original MEBES concepts and Etec's many years of experience with MEBES manufacturing, several major subsystems were redesigned, including the electron beam column and electron source. New test methods and test patterns were also developed to characterize system performance. As a result of the combined efforts of Etec Manufacturing and Engineering, a number of MEBES IV systems have already been built and tested. This paper provides a brief description of the MEBES IV systems. The new test patterns and methods are discussed. System performance data collected during factory acceptance of MEBES IV-LaB6 and -TFE (thermal field emission) systems are also presented.

  1. High-quality electron beam generation in a proton-driven hollow plasma wakefield accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Xia, G.; Lotov, K. V.; Sosedkin, A. P.; Hanahoe, K.; Mete-Apsimon, O.

    2017-10-01

    Simulations of proton-driven plasma wakefield accelerators have demonstrated substantially higher accelerating gradients compared to conventional accelerators and the viability of accelerating electrons to the energy frontier in a single plasma stage. However, due to the strong intrinsic transverse fields varying both radially and in time, the witness beam quality is still far from suitable for practical application in future colliders. Here we demonstrate the efficient acceleration of electrons in proton-driven wakefields in a hollow plasma channel. In this regime, the witness bunch is positioned in the region with a strong accelerating field, free from plasma electrons and ions. We show that the electron beam carrying the charge of about 10% of 1 TeV proton driver charge can be accelerated to 0.6 TeV with a preserved normalized emittance in a single channel of 700 m. This high-quality and high-charge beam may pave the way for the development of future plasma-based energy frontier colliders.

  2. APPARATUS FOR ELECTRON BEAM HEATING CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W.H.; Reece, J.B.

    1962-09-18

    An improved electron beam welding or melting apparatus is designed which utilizes a high voltage rectifier operating below its temperature saturation region to decrease variations in electron beam current which normally result from the gas generated in such apparatus. (AEC)

  3. Electron Beam Proximity Effect Correction on the MEBES eXara Mask Pattern Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Robert L.; Baik, Ki-Ho

    2002-12-01

    Electron beam (e-beam) proximity effect correction (PEC) has become a critical consideration with the reduction of feature sizes and the increasing use of optical proximity effect correction (OPC). PEC is accomplished on the 50kV MEBES eXara system with the embedded PEC (emPEC) technique, which is an automated version of GHOST. This method equalizes the background exposure by writing a fifth pass in the reverse tone of the four primary exposure passes. This compensates for the dose differences in the background due to backscattered electrons. The result is feature size control independent of the proximity and density of surrounding features, and independent of feature size. The method is simple and does not require additional computations for raster scan systems. A description of the method and its results for both coverage proximity effect correction (feature size deviation as a function of the surrounding exposure density) and CD linearity (deviation of different feature sizes) is presented.

  4. Optical Sideband Generation: a Longitudinal Electron Beam Diagnostic Beyond the Laser Bandwidth Resolution Limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Tilborg, J. van; Matlis, N. H.; Plateau, G. R.; Leemans, W. P.

    2010-06-01

    Electro-optic sampling (EOS) is widely used as a technique to measure THz-domain electric field pulses such asthe self-fields of femtosecond electron beams. We present an EOS-based approach for single-shot spectral measurement that excels in simplicity (compatible with fiber integration) and bandwidth coverage (overcomes the laser bandwidth limitation), allowing few-fs electron beams or single-cycle THz pulses to be characterized with conventional picosecond probes. It is shown that the EOS-induced optical sidebands on the narrow-bandwidth optical probe are spectrally-shifted replicas of the THz pulse. An experimental demonstration on a 0-3 THz source is presented.

  5. Further advances in electron-beam pattern generation technology for 180-nm masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Frank E.; Sauer, Charles A.; Vernon, Matthew; Coleman, Thomas P.; Dean, Robert L.; Wang, William; Prior, Richard; Lu, Maiying; Weaver, Suzanne

    1998-09-01

    The technology in use in today's mask shop may not be adequate to meet 180 nm production requirements. In particular, requirements for linewidth control, linewidth uniformity, and registration are tightening at a breakneck pace. In the past, incremental improvements to registration and linewidth have been adequate to keep pace with steadily evolving mask requirements. This paradigm of continuous incremental improvement is not longer a valid model. Mask writers are needed that can deliver a higher dose to support advanced resists for superior critical dimension (CD) control, write faster to compensate for shrinking device sizes, and incorporate advanced calibration and error control schemes to improve placement accuracy. This paper describes key electron-beam pattern generation activities necessary to meet 180 nm mask requirements. This includes testing and implementation of multipass graybeam to improve throughput at lower addresses without compromising lithography quality, a new resist and process capable of supporting dry etching, and a data path capable of supporting addressing to 10 nm. Multipass gray (MPG) writing strategy was introduced with the MEBES 4500S. The ability to deliver a 4X improvement in dose while improving throughput is a significant advantage over previous MEBES systems. Because MPG is used in conjunction with offset scan voting, improvements in registration performance and a reduction in butting of over 50 percent have been demonstrated. Some of the process improvements attributed to a high dose mask writer are also documented in this paper. CD uniformity improvements with ZEP 7000 and dry etch at a 720 nm nominal feature size and smaller are also discussed in some detail.

  6. High-quality electron beam generation and bright betatron radiation from a cascaded laser wakefield accelerator (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiansheng; Wang, Wentao; Li, Wentao; Qi, Rong; Zhang, Zhijun; Yu, Changhai; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jiaqi; Qing, Zhiyong; Ming, Fang; Xu, Yi; Leng, Yuxin; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2017-05-01

    One of the major goals of developing laser wakefiled accelerators (LWFAs) is to produce compact high-energy electron beam (e-beam) sources, which are expected to be applied in developing compact x-ray free-electron lasers and monoenergetic gamma-ray sources. Although LWFAs have been demonstrated to generate multi-GeV e-beams, to date they are still failed to produce high quality e beams with several essential properties (narrow energy spread, small transverse emittance and high beam charge) achieved simultaneously. Here we report on the demonstration of a high-quality cascaded LWFA experimentally via manipulating electron injection, seeding in different periods of the wakefield, as well as controlling energy chirp for the compression of energy spread. The cascaded LWFA was powered by a 1-Hz 200-TW femtosecond laser facility at SIOM. High-brightness e beams with peak energies in the range of 200-600 MeV, 0.4-1.2% rms energy spread, 10-80 pC charge, and 0.2 mrad rms divergence are experimentally obtained. Unprecedentedly high 6-dimensional (6-D) brightness B6D,n in units of A/m2/0.1% was estimated at the level of 1015-16, which is very close to the typical brightness of e beams from state-of-the-art linac drivers and several-fold higher than those of previously reported LWFAs. Furthermore, we propose a scheme to minimize the energy spread of an e beam in a cascaded LWFA to the one-thousandth-level by inserting a stage to compress its longitudinal spatial distribution via velocity bunching. In this scheme, three-segment plasma stages are designed for electron injection, e-beam length compression, and e-beam acceleration, respectively. A one-dimensional theory and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations have demonstrated this scheme and an e beam with 0.2% rms energy spread and low transverse emittance could be generated without loss of charge. Based on the high-quality e beams generated in the LWFA, we have experimentally realized a new scheme to enhance the

  7. Analytic model of bunched beams for harmonic generation in the low-gain free electron laser regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Penn

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available One scheme for harmonic generation employs free electron lasers (FELs with two undulators: the first uses a seed laser to modulate the energy of the electron beam; following a dispersive element which acts to bunch the beam, the second undulator radiates at a higher harmonic. These processes are currently evaluated using extensive calculations or simulation codes which can be slow to evaluate and difficult to set up. We describe a simple algorithm to predict the output of a harmonic generation beam line in the low-gain FEL regime, based on trial functions for the output radiation. Full three-dimensional effects are included. This method has been implemented as a Mathematica® package, named CAMPANILE, which runs rapidly and can be generalized to include effects such as asymmetric beams and misalignments. This method is compared with simulation results using the FEL code GENESIS, both for single stages of harmonic generation and for the LUX project, a design concept for an ultrafast x-ray facility, where multiple stages upshift the input laser frequency by factors of up to 200.

  8. Non-ambipolar radio-frequency plasma electron source and systems and methods for generating electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkowitz, Noah [Madison, WI; Longmier, Benjamin [Madison, WI; Baalrud, Scott [Madison, WI

    2009-03-03

    An electron generating device extracts electrons, through an electron sheath, from plasma produced using RF fields. The electron sheath is located near a grounded ring at one end of a negatively biased conducting surface, which is normally a cylinder. Extracted electrons pass through the grounded ring in the presence of a steady state axial magnetic field. Sufficiently large magnetic fields and/or RF power into the plasma allow for helicon plasma generation. The ion loss area is sufficiently large compared to the electron loss area to allow for total non-ambipolar extraction of all electrons leaving the plasma. Voids in the negatively-biased conducting surface allow the time-varying magnetic fields provided by the antenna to inductively couple to the plasma within the conducting surface. The conducting surface acts as a Faraday shield, which reduces any time-varying electric fields from entering the conductive surface, i.e. blocks capacitive coupling between the antenna and the plasma.

  9. Non-ambipolar radio-frequency plasma electron source and systems and methods for generating electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkowitz, Noah (Inventor); Longmier, Benjamin (Inventor); Baalrud, Scott (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electron generating device extracts electrons, through an electron sheath, from plasma produced using RF fields. The electron sheath is located near a grounded ring at one end of a negatively biased conducting surface, which is normally a cylinder. Extracted electrons pass through the grounded ring in the presence of a steady state axial magnetic field. Sufficiently large magnetic fields and/or RF power into the plasma allow for helicon plasma generation. The ion loss area is sufficiently large compared to the electron loss area to allow for total non-ambipolar extraction of all electrons leaving the plasma. Voids in the negatively-biased conducting surface allow the time-varying magnetic fields provided by the antenna to inductively couple to the plasma within the conducting surface. The conducting surface acts as a Faraday shield, which reduces any time-varying electric fields from entering the conductive surface, i.e. blocks capacitive coupling between the antenna and the plasma.

  10. Sheet electron beam tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Alexander Grenbeaux

    The DARPA HiFIVE project uses a pulsed electron sheet beam gun to power a traveling wave tube amplifier operating at 220 GHz. Presented is a method for characterizing the high current density 0.1 mm by 1 mm sheet electron beam. A tungsten tipped probe was scanned through the cross section of the sheet electron beam inside of a vacuum vessel. The probe was controlled with sub-micron precision using stepper motors and LabView computer control while boxcar averaging hardware sampled the pulsed beam. Matlab algorithms were used to interpret the data, calculate beam dimensions and current density, and create 2-dimensional cross section images. Full characterization of two separate HiFIVE sheet electron guns was accomplished and is also presented.

  11. Principal component analysis of electron beams generated in K-shell aluminum X-pinch plasma produced by a compact LC-generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, M. F.; Danisman, Y.; Larour, J.; Aranchuk, L.

    2015-06-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) method is applied and compared with the line ratios of H-like and He-like transitions, in order to investigate the effects of electron beam on the K-shell Aluminum synthetic spectra. It is also used as a diagnostics to estimate the plasma parameters of K-shell Al X-pinch plasma spectrum. This spectrum is produced by the explosion of two 25-μm Al wires on a compact LC (40 kV, 200 kA) generator. The database for the principal component extraction is created over a previously developed, non-LTE, collisional radiative K-shell Aluminum model. As a result, PCA shows an agreement with the line ratios which are sensitive to plasma electron temperatures, densities and beam fractions. Principal component analysis also illustrates that the addition to the non-LTE model of a fraction f of electrons in an energetic beam, generates the clusters in a three dimensional vector space which are translations of each other and follows reverse v-shaped cascade trajectories, except for the f = 0.0 case. Modeling of a typical shot by PCA gives the plasma electron temperature of Te = 100 eV, density of Ne = 1 × 1020 cm-3 and hot electron fraction of f = 0.2 (with a beam energy centered at 10 keV).

  12. Injector for CESAR (2 MeV electron storage ring): 2-beam, 2 MV van de Graaff generator.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1963-01-01

    The van de Graaff generator in its tank. For voltage-holding, the tank was filled with pressurized extra-dry nitrogen. 2 beams emanated from 2 separate electron-guns. The left beam, for injection into the CESAR ring, was pulsed at 50 Hz, with currents of up to 1 A for 400 ns. The right beam was sent to a spectrometer line. Its pulselength was also 400 ns, but the pulse current was 12 microA, at a rate variable from 50 kHz to 1 MHz. This allowed stabilization of the top-terminal voltage to an unprecedented stability of +- 100 V, i.e. 6E-5. Although built for a nominal voltage of 2 MV, the operational voltage was limited to 1.75 MV in order to minimize voltage break-down events.

  13. Brilliant GeV electron beam with narrow energy spread generated by a laser plasma accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronghao Hu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of GeV electron beam with narrow energy spread and high brightness is investigated using particle-in-cell simulations. A controlled electron injection scheme and a method for phase-space manipulation in a laser plasma accelerator are found to be essential. The injection is triggered by the evolution of two copropagating laser pulses near a sharp vacuum-plasma transition. The collection volume is well confined and the injected bunch is isolated in phase space. By tuning the parameters of the laser pulses, the parameters of the injected electron bunch, such as the bunch length, energy spread, emittance and charge, can be adjusted. Manipulating the phase-space rotation with the rephasing technique, the injected electron bunch can be accelerated to GeV level while keeping relative energy spread below 0.5% and transverse emittance below 1.0  μm. The results present a very promising way to drive coherent x-ray sources.

  14. Generation of high charge state metal ion beams by electron cyclotron resonance heating of vacuum arc plasma in cusp trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, A G; Savkin, K P; Oks, E M; Vizir, A V; Yushkov, G Yu; Vodopyanov, A V; Izotov, I V; Mansfeld, D A

    2012-02-01

    A method for generating high charge state heavy metal ion beams based on high power microwave heating of vacuum arc plasma confined in a magnetic trap under electron cyclotron resonance conditions has been developed. A feature of the work described here is the use of a cusp magnetic field with inherent "minimum-B" structure as the confinement geometry, as opposed to a simple mirror device as we have reported on previously. The cusp configuration has been successfully used for microwave heating of gas discharge plasma and extraction from the plasma of highly charged, high current, gaseous ion beams. Now we use the trap for heavy metal ion beam generation. Two different approaches were used for injecting the vacuum arc metal plasma into the trap--axial injection from a miniature arc source located on-axis near the microwave window, and radial injection from sources mounted radially at the midplane of the trap. Here, we describe preliminary results of heating vacuum arc plasma in a cusp magnetic trap by pulsed (400 μs) high power (up to 100 kW) microwave radiation at 37.5 GHz for the generation of highly charged heavy metal ion beams.

  15. Optimized electron beam writing strategy for fabricating computer-generated holograms based on an effective medium approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Wiebke; Kämpfe, Thomas; Rockstroh, Werner; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2011-04-25

    Recent research revealed that using the effective medium approach to generate arbitrary multi-phase level computer-generated holograms is a promising alternative to the conventional multi-height level approach. Although this method reduces the fabrication effort using one-step binary lithography, the subwavelength patterning process remains a huge challenge, particularly for large-scale applications. To reduce the writing time on variable shaped electron beam writing systems, an optimized strategy based on an appropriate reshaping of the binary subwavelength structures is illustrated. This strategy was applied to fabricate a three-phase level CGH in the visible range, showing promising experimental results.

  16. Comparative study of nonideal beam effects in high gain harmonic generation and self-seeded free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Marinelli

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate and compare the properties of two narrow-bandwidth free-electron laser (FEL schemes, one using self-seeding and the other high gain harmonic generation (HGHG. The two systems have been thoroughly studied analytically and numerically in the past. The aim of this work is to compare their performances when the FEL is driven by an electron beam with nonideal properties, thus including effects such as shot-to-shot energy fluctuations and nonlinear energy chirp. In both cases nonlinearities produce a bandwidth larger than the Fourier transform limited value. However, our analysis indicates that, for approximately the same output power levels, the self-seeding scheme is less affected than the HGHG scheme by quadratic energy chirps in the electron beam longitudinal phase space. This is confirmed by a specific numerical example corresponding to SPARX parameters where the electron beam was optimized to minimize the FEL gain length. The work has been carried out with the aid of the time dependent FEL codes GENESIS 1.3 (3D and PERSEO (1D.

  17. Electron Beam Materials Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald E.

    2012-06-01

    In electron beam processing, a well-defined beam of relatively energetic electrons produced by a high voltage acceleration gap is used to transmit thermal energy into a material in a precise manner. This controlled deposition of heat is employed in a wide variety of industrial applications for precision cutting, drilling, and welding of materials as well as annealing, glazing, and surface hardening. This chapter will describe the equipment used and the most prominent industrial applications for this process.

  18. Wakefields generated by electron beams passing through a waveguide loaded with a slightly dispersive active medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Tyukhtin

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The wakefields of a relativistic electron beam passing through a waveguide loaded with an active medium with weak resonant dispersion are considered. For the calculations in this paper, the parameters of the medium are those of a solution of fullerene (C_{60} in a nematic liquid crystal that exhibits activity in the X-band. It is shown that several of the TM accelerating modes can be amplified for the geometries under consideration; structures in which higher order modes are amplified exhibit essential advantages as PASERs. In particular, the amplification of the highest mode occurs in a structure loaded with a rather thick active medium layer that maximizes the energy stored by the active medium.

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of electron beams generated by a 12 MeV dedicated mobile IORT accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaccarino, G.; Strigari, L.; D'Andrea, M.; Bellesi, L.; Felici, G.; Ciccotelli, A.; Benassi, M.; Soriani, A.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dosimetric characteristics of the electron beams generated by the light intraoperative accelerator, Liac® (SORDINA, Italy), using Monte Carlo (MC) calculations. Moreover we investigated the possibility of characterizing the Liac® dosimetry with a minimal set of dosimetric data. In fact accelerator commissioning requires measurements of both percentage depth doses (PDDs) and off-axis profiles for all the possible combinations of energy, applicator diameter and bevelled angle. The Liac® geometry and water phantom were simulated in a typical measurement setup, using the MC code EGSnrc/BEAMnrc. A simulated annealing optimization algorithm was used in order to find the optimal non-monoenergetic spectrum of the initial electron beam that minimizes the differences between calculated and measured PDDs. We have concluded that, for each investigated nominal energy beam, only the PDDs of applicators with diameters of 30, 70 and 100 mm and the PDD without an applicator were needed to find the optimal spectra. Finally, the output factors of the entire set of applicator diameters/bevelled angles were calculated. The differences between calculated and experimental output factors were better than 2%, with the exception of the smallest applicator which gave differences between 3% and 4% for all energies. The code turned out to be useful for checking the experimental data from various Liac® beams and will be the basis for developing a tool based on MC simulation to support the medical physicist in the commissioning phase.

  20. Comparison of characteristics of photon and electron beams generated by Philips/Elekta and Varian linear accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haijun; Xiao, Ying; Galvin, James M

    2002-06-01

    Commissioning data of the common energy of 6 MV photon beams are analyzed for seven Philips/ Elekta linacs of five different models: SL 75/5, SL 15, SL 25, SLi Precise, and SLi. The observed beam quality %dd(10)x of 67.7% +/- 0.3 agrees with the manufacturer's specification of 67.5% +/- 2% but with a much smaller variation, suggesting the possibility of a more accurate beam quality guideline for acceptance commissioning of these linac models. Field size factors are less uniform, especially for the biggest field size of 40 x 40 cm2, but all agree within 1.1% between the five models. These 6 MV photon beams are also shown to be 0.4 MV harder than the Varian 2100C model. For commissioning electron beams generated by the Philips/Elekta models SL 15, SLi Precise and SLi, guidelines can be found from this work for the following parameters: actual field size at 100 SSD (up to +/- 0.6%) (different from manufacturer specified values at 95 SSD), and virtual source distance (up to +/- 0.7%). Significant differences are seen for R50 (up to 3.7 mm), sigma-theta-x, effective source distance, and cone size factor. However, except for R50 where Varian 2100C datasets are not available for comparison, the differences between the different Philips/Elekta models are comparable to those between the same Varian 2100C model linacs measured by us and Watts.

  1. Development of new generation software tools for simulation of electron beam formation in novel high power gyrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabchevski, S [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Zhelyazkov, I [Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Benova, E [Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Atanassov, V [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Dankov, P [Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Thumm, M [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Association EURATOM-FZK, Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Dammertz, G [University of Karlsruhe, Institute of High Frequency Techniques and Electronics, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Piosczyk, B [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Association EURATOM-FZK, Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Illy, S [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Association EURATOM-FZK, Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Tran, M Q [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM-CRPP, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Alberti, S [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM-CRPP, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Hogge, J-Ph [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM-CRPP, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2006-07-15

    Computer aided design (CAD) based on numerical experiments performed by using adequate physical models and efficient simulation codes is an indispensable tool for development, investigation, and optimization of gyrotrons used as radiation sources for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) of fusion plasmas. In this paper, we review briefly the state-of-the-art in the field of modelling and simulation of intense, relativistic, helical electron beams formed in the electron-optical systems (EOS) of powerful gyrotrons. We discuss both the limitations of the known computer codes and the requirements for increasing their capabilities for solution of various design problems that are being envisaged in the development of the next generation gyrotrons for ECRH. Moreover, we present the concept followed by us in an attempt to unite the advantages of the modern programming techniques with self-consistent, first-principles 3D physical models in the creation of a new highly efficient and versatile software package for simulation of powerful gyrotrons.

  2. Effect of gas heating on the generation of an ultrashort avalanche electron beam in the pulse-periodic regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Lomaev, M. I.; Sorokin, D. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2015-07-01

    The generation of an ultrashort avalanche electron beam (UAEB) in nitrogen in the pulse-periodic regime is investigated. The gas temperature in the discharge gap of the atmospheric-pressure nitrogen is measured from the intensity distribution of unresolved rotational transitions ( C 3Π u , v' = 0) → ( B 3Π g , v″ = 0) in the nitrogen molecule for an excitation pulse repetition rate of 2 kHz. It is shown that an increase in the UAEB current amplitude in the pulse-periodic regime is due to gas heating by a series of previous pulses, which leads to an increase in the reduced electric field strength as a result of a decrease in the gas density in the zone of the discharge formation. It is found that in the pulse-periodic regime and the formation of the diffuse discharge, the number of electrons in the beam increases by several times for a nitrogen pressure of 9 × 103 Pa. The dependences of the number of electrons in the UAEB on the time of operation of the generator are considered.

  3. Low emittance electron beam generation from a laser wakefield accelerator using two laser pulses with different wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. L. Xu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ionization injection triggered by short wavelength laser pulses inside a nonlinear wakefield driven by a longer wavelength laser is examined via multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We find that very bright electron beams can be generated through this two-color scheme in either collinear propagating or transverse colliding geometry. For a fixed laser intensity I, lasers with longer/shorter wavelength λ have larger/smaller ponderomotive potential (∝Iλ^{2}. The two-color scheme utilizes this property to separate the injection process from the wakefield excitation process. Very strong wakes can be generated at relatively low laser intensities by using a longer wavelength laser driver (e.g., a 10  μm CO_{2} laser due to its very large ponderomotive potential. On the other hand, a short wavelength laser can produce electrons with very small residual momenta (p_{⊥}∼a_{0}∼sqrt[I]λ inside the wake, leading to electron beams with very small normalized emittances (tens of nm. Using particle-in-cell simulations we show that a ∼10  fs electron beam with ∼4  pC of charge and a normalized emittance of ∼50  nm can be generated by combining a 10  μm driving laser with a 400 nm injection laser, which is an improvement of more than 1 order of magnitude compared to the typical results obtained when a single wavelength laser is used for both the wake formation and ionization injection. With the transverse colliding geometry, simulations show that similarly low emittance and much lower slice energy spread (∼30  keV, comparing with the typical value of few MeV in the longitudinal injection scheme can be simultaneously obtained for electron beams with a few pC charge. Such low slice energy spread may have significant advantages in applications relevant to future coherent light sources driven by plasma accelerators.

  4. Initial benchmarking of a new electron-beam raster pattern generator for 130-100 nm maskmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Charles A.; Abboud, Frank E.; Babin, Sergey V.; Chakarian, Varoujan; Ghanbari, Abe; Innes, Robert; Trost, David; Raymond, Frederick, III

    2000-07-01

    The decision by the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) to accelerate the continuing evolution to smaller linewidths is consistent with the commitment by Etec Systems, Inc. to rapidly develop new technologies for pattern generation systems with improved resolution, critical dimension (CD) uniformity, positional accuracy, and throughput. Current pattern generation designs are inadequate to meet the more advanced requirements for masks, particularly at or below the 100 nm node. Major changes to all pattern generation tools will be essential to meet future market requirements. An electron-beam (e-beam) system that is designed to meet the challenges for 130 - 100 nm device generation with extendibility to the 70-nm range will be discussed. This system has an architecture that includes a graybeam writing strategy, a new state system, and improved thermal management. Detailed changes include a pulse width modulated blanking system, per-pixel deflection, retrograde scanning multipass writing, and a column with a 50 kV accelerating voltage that supports a dose of up to 45 (mu) C/cm2 with minimal amounts of resist heating. This paper examines current issues, our approach to meeting International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) requirements, and some preliminary results from a new pattern generator.

  5. Electron beam generation and structure of defects in carbon and boron nitride nano-tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zobelli, A

    2007-10-15

    The nature and role of defects is of primary importance to understand the physical properties of C and BN (boron nitride) single walled nano-tubes (SWNTs). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a well known powerful tool to study the structure of defects in materials. However, in the case of SWNTs, the electron irradiation of the TEM may knock out atoms. This effect may alter the native structure of the tube, and has also been proposed as a potential tool for nano-engineering of nano-tubular structures. Here we develop a theoretical description of the irradiation mechanism. First, the anisotropy of the emission energy threshold is obtained via density functional based calculations. Then, we numerically derive the total Mott cross section for different emission sites of carbon and boron nitride nano-tubes with different chiralities. Using a dedicated STEM (Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope) microscope with experimental conditions optimised on the basis of derived cross-sections, we are able to control the generation of defects in nano-tubular systems. Either point or line defects can be obtained with a spatial resolution of a few nanometers. The structure, energetics and electronics of point and line defects in BN systems have been investigated. Stability of mono- and di- vacancy defects in hexagonal boron nitride layers is investigated, and their activation energies and reaction paths for diffusion have been derived using the nudged elastic band method (NEB) combined with density functional based techniques. We demonstrate that the appearance of extended linear defects under electron irradiation is more favorable than a random distribution of point defects and this is due to the existence of preferential sites for atom emission in the presence of pre-existing defects, rather than thermal vacancy nucleation and migration. (author)

  6. Decomposition of gas-phase diphenylether at 473 K by electron beam generated plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, H H; Kojima, T

    2003-01-01

    Decomposition of gas-phase diphenylether (DPE) in the order of several parts per million by volume (ppmv) was studied as a model compound of dioxin using a flow-type electron-beam reactor at an elevated temperature of 473 K. The ground state oxygen ( sup 3 P) atoms played an important role in the decomposition of DPE resulting in the formation of 1,4-hydroquinone (HQ) as a major ring retaining product. The high yield of hydroquinone indicated that the breakage of ether bond (C-O) is important in the initial step of DPE decomposition. Ring cleavage products were CO and CO sub 2 , and NO sub 2 was also produced from background N sub 2 -O sub 2. The sum of the yields of HQ, CO sub 2 and CO accounts for over 90% of the removed DPE. Hydroxyl radicals (OH) were less important in the dilute DPE decomposition at a high water content, and were mostly consumed by recombination reactions to form hydrogen peroxide. The smaller the initial DPE concentrations, the higher the decomposition efficiency and the lower the yield...

  7. The experimental study of neutralized electron beams for electron cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Bosser, Jacques; MacCaferri, R; Molinari, G; Tranquille, G; Varenne, F; Korotaev, Yu V; Meshkov, I N; Polyakov, V A; Smirnov, A; Syresin, E M

    1996-01-01

    In this report we present the latest experimental results on electron beam neutralization. These experiments have been made at LEAR and on the JINR test bench. The main difficulty in obtaining neutralized beams resides in an instability which is dependent on the electron beam current. A number of methods have been developed in order to overcome this instability and have enabled us to further investigate the possibility of generating intense low energy electron beams for the cooling of Pb ions.

  8. Influence of ultrarelativistic electron beam divergence on spectral-angular characteristics of coherent X-radiation generated in a single-crystal target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazhevich, S. V.; Grazhdankin, G. A.; Zagorodnyuk, R. A.; Noskov, A. V.

    2015-07-01

    A dynamical theory of coherent X-ray radiation generated in a single-crystal target by the finite divergence beam of relativistic electrons has been developed in the scattering Laue geometry. Coherent X-ray emission is considered in general case of asymmetric reflection for electron Coulomb field in the form of two emission mechanism contributions: parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) and diffracted transition radiation (DTR). The method of averaging radiation cross section over the angular electrons distribution is used. The influence of electron beam divergence on both spectral and angular characteristics of coherent radiation has been studied. The significant difference of the effects of electron beam divergence in PXR and DTR is shown. The possibilities of practical use of DTR from a single-crystal target for indication of beam divergence of ultrarelativistic electrons are investigated.

  9. Influence of ultrarelativistic electron beam divergence on spectral–angular characteristics of coherent X-radiation generated in a single-crystal target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazhevich, S.V., E-mail: blazh@bsu.edu.ru; Grazhdankin, G.A.; Zagorodnyuk, R.A.; Noskov, A.V.

    2015-07-15

    A dynamical theory of coherent X-ray radiation generated in a single-crystal target by the finite divergence beam of relativistic electrons has been developed in the scattering Laue geometry. Coherent X-ray emission is considered in general case of asymmetric reflection for electron Coulomb field in the form of two emission mechanism contributions: parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) and diffracted transition radiation (DTR). The method of averaging radiation cross section over the angular electrons distribution is used. The influence of electron beam divergence on both spectral and angular characteristics of coherent radiation has been studied. The significant difference of the effects of electron beam divergence in PXR and DTR is shown. The possibilities of practical use of DTR from a single-crystal target for indication of beam divergence of ultrarelativistic electrons are investigated.

  10. Different roles of electron beam in two stream instability in an elliptical waveguide for generation and amplification of THz electromagnetic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, S.; Jazi, B., E-mail: jaziada@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Laser and Photonics, Faculty of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jahanbakht, S. [Department of Communications Engineering, Faculty of Electrical And Computer Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    In this work, two stream instability in a metallic waveguide with elliptical cross-section and with a hollow annular dielectric layer is studied for generation and amplification of THz electromagnetic waves. Dispersion relation of waves and their dependents to geometric dimensions and characteristics of the electron beam are analyzed. In continuation, the diagrams of growth rate for some operating frequencies are presented, so that effective factors on the growth rates, such as geometrical dimensions, dielectric constant of dielectric layer, accelerating voltage, and applied current intensity are analyzed. It is shown that while an electron beam is responsible for instability, another electron beam plays a stabilizing role.

  11. Different roles of electron beam in two stream instability in an elliptical waveguide for generation and amplification of THz electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, S.; Jazi, B.; Jahanbakht, S.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, two stream instability in a metallic waveguide with elliptical cross-section and with a hollow annular dielectric layer is studied for generation and amplification of THz electromagnetic waves. Dispersion relation of waves and their dependents to geometric dimensions and characteristics of the electron beam are analyzed. In continuation, the diagrams of growth rate for some operating frequencies are presented, so that effective factors on the growth rates, such as geometrical dimensions, dielectric constant of dielectric layer, accelerating voltage, and applied current intensity are analyzed. It is shown that while an electron beam is responsible for instability, another electron beam plays a stabilizing role.

  12. Metamaterial light sources driven by electron beams

    OpenAIRE

    ADAMO, G.; MacDonald, K. F.; De Angelis, F.; Di Fabrizio, E.; Zheludev, N. I.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a new generation of free-space and fibre-coupled tuneable light sources based on nanostructured photonic metamaterials driven by free-electrons beams. Emission wavelengths are determined by metamaterial resonant modes and electron energies

  13. The Drive Beam Generation for Two Beam Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Corsini, R

    1996-01-01

    In this paper a review is made of the schemes of two beam accelerator proposed for electron-positron colliders in the TeV energy range. The attention is given to the different methods of generating and handling the high-charge drive beam. Different options are described, and in particular three different possibility for the generation of the drive beam for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) project are described.

  14. Injector for CESAR (2 MeV electron storage ring): 2-beam, 2 MV van de Graaff generator; tank removed.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1968-01-01

    The van de Graaff generator in its tank. For voltage-holding, the tank was filled with pressurized extra-dry nitrogen. 2 beams emanated from 2 separate electron-guns. The left beam, for injection into the CESAR ring, was pulsed at 50 Hz, with currents of up to 1 A for 400 ns. The right beam was sent to a spectrometer line. Its pulselength was also 400 ns, but the pulse current was 12 microA, at a rate variable from 50 kHz to 1 MHz. This allowed stabilization of the top-terminal voltage to an unprecedented stability of +- 100 V, i.e. 6E-5. Although built for a nominal voltage of 2 MV, the operational voltage was limited to 1.75 MV in order to minimize voltage break-down events. CESAR was terminated at the end of 1967 and dismantled in 1968. R.Nettleton (left) and H.Burridge (right) are preparing the van de Graaff for shipment to the University of Swansea.

  15. Light Beam Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and a system for synthesizing a set of controllable light beams by provision of a system for synthesizing a set of light beams, comprising a spatially modulated light source for generation of electromagnetic radiation with a set of replicas of a predetermined...... symbol, s, positioned at respective desired positions (xs, ys) in an object plane o(x, y) intersecting, preferably perpendicular to, the direction of propagation of the electromagnetic radiation, and having spatial amplitudes a(x-xs, y-ys), spatial phases f(x-xs, y-ys)> and spatial polarisation vectors p......(x-xs, y-ys), a Fourier transforming lens for Fourier transforming the electromagnetic radiation, a first spatial light modulator for phase shifting the Fourier transformed electromagnetic radiation with the phase -F(u, v) of S*, S* is the complex conjugate of the Fourier transformed symbol s, a Fourier...

  16. Three-dimensional analysis of wakefields generated by flat electron beams in planar dielectric-loaded structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mihalcea

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An electron bunch passing through a dielectric-lined waveguide generates Čerenkov radiation that can result in a high-peak axial electric field suitable for acceleration of a subsequent bunch. Axial fields beyond gigavolt-per-meter are attainable in structures with sub-mm sizes depending on the achievement of suitable electron bunch parameters. A promising configuration consists of using a planar dielectric structure driven by flat electron bunches. In this paper we present a three-dimensional analysis of wakefields produced by flat beams in planar dielectric structures thereby extending the work of Tremaine, Rosenzweig, and Schoessow, Phys. Rev. E 56, 7204 (1997PLEEE81063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.56.7204] on the topic. We especially provide closed-form expressions for the normal frequencies and field amplitudes of the excited modes and benchmark these analytical results with finite-difference time-domain particle-in-cell numerical simulations. Finally, we implement a semianalytical algorithm into a popular particle-tracking program thereby enabling start-to-end high-fidelity modeling of linear accelerators based on dielectric-lined planar waveguides.

  17. Ecton processes in the generation of pulsed runaway electron beams in a gas discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesyats, G. A.

    2017-09-01

    As was shown earlier for pulsed discharges that occur in electric fields rising with extremely high rates (1018 V/(cm s)) during the pulse rise time, the electron current in a vacuum discharge is lower than the current of runaway electrons in an atmospheric air discharge in a 1-cm-long gap. In this paper, this is explained by that the field emission current from cathode microprotrusions in a gas discharge is enhanced due to gas ionization. This hastens the initiation of explosive electron emission, which occurs within 10-11 s at a current density of up to 1010 A/cm2. Thereafter, a first-type cathode spot starts forming. The temperature of the cathode spot decreases due to heat conduction, and the explosive emission current ceases. Thus, the runaway electron current pulse is similar in nature to the ecton phenomenon in a vacuum discharge.

  18. Generation of high brightness electron beam by brake-applied velocity bunching with a relatively low energy chirp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruixuan; He, Zhigang; Li, Biaobin; Zhang, Shancai; Li, Weiwei; Jia, Qika; Wang, Lin

    2017-09-01

    Velocity bunching technique is a tool for compressing electron beams in modern high brightness photoinjector sources, which utilizes the velocity difference introduced by a traveling rf wave at a relatively low energy. It presents peculiar challenges when applied to obtain a beam with a very high current and a low transverse emittance in photoinjectors. The main difficulty is to control the emittance oscillations of the beam during high compression, which can be naturally considered as an extension of the emittance compensation process. In this paper, a brake-applied velocity bunching scheme is proposed, in which the electron bunch is injected into the accelerator with a low gradient at a deceleration phase, like ;a brake is applied;, afterward slips to an acceleration phase. During the entire compression process, the energy chirp induced by the rf field is mostly linear, which retains a symmetric electron beam in the temporal distribution. The key point of the new scheme is a smaller energy chirp at a lower beam energy compared with the normal velocity bunching. Besides, the beam energy chirp before compression is dominated by the linear correlation due to a relatively short laser pulse. With a symmetric bunch compression, the transverse emittance could be compensated even if the compression factor is extremely high. As to our simulation results, the peak current of the compressed beam can be above 1.8 kA for the charge of 800 pC with a good emittance compensation.

  19. Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Füellekrug, M.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E. M. D.

    2011-01-01

    Non-luminous relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds have been detected by the radio signals of low frequency similar to 40-400 kHz which they radiate. The electron beams occur similar to 2-9 ms after positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges at heights between similar to 22-72 km above...... thunderclouds. Intense positive lightning discharges can also cause sprites which occur either above or prior to the electron beam. One electron beam was detected without any luminous sprite which suggests that electron beams may also occur independently of sprites. Numerical simulations show that beams...... of electrons partially discharge the lightning electric field above thunderclouds and thereby gain a mean energy of similar to 7MeV to transport a total charge of similar to-10mC upwards. The impulsive current similar to 3 x 10(-3) Am-2 associated with relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds...

  20. Photocurrent generation in lateral graphene p-n junction created by electron-beam irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Xuechao

    2015-07-08

    Graphene has been considered as an attractive material for optoelectronic applications such as photodetectors owing to its extraordinary properties, e.g. broadband absorption and ultrahigh mobility. However, challenges still remain in fundamental and practical aspects of the conventional graphene photodetectors which normally rely on the photoconductive mode of operation which has the drawback of e.g. high dark current. Here, we demonstrated the photovoltaic mode operation in graphene p-n junctions fabricated by a simple but effective electron irradiation method that induces n-type doping in intrinsic p-type graphene. The physical mechanism of the junction formation is owing to the substrate gating effect caused by electron irradiation. Photoresponse was obtained for this type of photodetector because the photoexcited electron-hole pairs can be separated in the graphene p-n junction by the built-in potential. The fabricated graphene p-n junction photodetectors exhibit a high detectivity up to ~3 × 1010 Jones (cm Hz1/2 W−1) at room temperature, which is on a par with that of the traditional III–V photodetectors. The demonstrated novel and simple scheme for obtaining graphene p-n junctions can be used for other optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and be applied to other two dimensional materials based devices.

  1. Electron beam welding and beam positioning

    OpenAIRE

    MOROZOV M.Y.; BRAVERMAN V.Y.; MEDNIKOV D.M.

    2015-01-01

    Programs for control of mutual movements of the welded parts and EB gun are written in the unified language ISO-7bit. Beam settings control uses electronic charts or optional languages, sometimes self-designed. Operator coordinates movements and beam settings manually.

  2. Electron-beam lithographic computer-generated holograms designed by direct search coding algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hitoshi; Torii, Yasuhiro

    2009-08-01

    An optimized encoding algorithm is required to produce high-quality computer generated holograms (CGH). For such purpose, we have proposed that usage of the direct search algorithm (DSA) is effective for encoding the Lohmann-type binary amplitude and phase CGH. However, it takes much time for a computation time to get an optical solution by a DSA. To solve this problem, we have newly found that simultaneously selective direct search algorithm (SDSA) is greatly effective to shorten a computing time for encoding a Lohmann-type CGH.

  3. Electron beam silicon purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, Anatoly [SIA ' ' KEPP EU' ' , Riga (Latvia); Kravtsov, Alexey [' ' KEPP-service' ' Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Purification of heavily doped electronic grade silicon by evaporation of N-type impurities with electron beam heating was investigated in process with a batch weight up to 50 kilos. Effective temperature of the melt, an indicative parameter suitable for purification process characterization was calculated and appeared to be stable for different load weight processes. Purified material was successfully approbated in standard CZ processes of three different companies. Each company used its standard process and obtained CZ monocrystals applicable for photovoltaic application. These facts enable process to be successfully scaled up to commercial volumes (150-300 kg) and yield solar grade silicon. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Portable electron beam weld chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. R.; Dimino, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    Development and characteristics of portable vacuum chamber for skate type electron beam welding are discussed. Construction and operational details of equipment are presented. Illustrations of equipment are provided.

  5. Improved electron-beam welding technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, B.

    1970-01-01

    Electron-beam generator produces high quality welds without vaporization by relying on the mobility and hydrodynamic properties of the material in its liquid phase. The power density of the beam is relative to the speed of the workpiece, producing an inclined weld-front.

  6. Manipulation and electron-oscillation-measurement of laser accelerated electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotaki, H; Hayashi, Y; Kawase, K; Mori, M; Kando, M; Homma, T; Koga, J K; Daido, H; Bulanov, S V, E-mail: kotaki.hideyuki@jaea.go.jp [Advanced Photon Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1-7, Umemidai, Kizugawa, Kyoto (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Monoenergetic electron beams have been generated in the self-injection scheme of laser acceleration. In applications of these laser accelerated electron beams, stable and controllable electron beams are necessary. A stable electron beam is generated in the self-injection scheme by using a nitrogen gas jet target. We found the profile of the electron beam was manipulated by rotating the laser polarization. The electron beam is in the first bucket of the wake wave. In the energy space, transverse oscillation is observed when the laser pulse has S-polarization. The direction of the electron beam is controlled by the gas jet position.

  7. Electronic beam control for advanced laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorschner, Terry A.; Lambert, Larry Q.; Smith, Irl W.; Harris, Clarke E.

    1999-05-01

    The recent development of optical phased arrays (OPAs) enables practical, electronically programmable, control of laser beams for laser radar and other advanced optical sensors. OPAs are the direct analog of microwave phased array antennas; they are electronically programmable optical elements that control the phase distribution on an optical aperture in order to control beam direction and shape. Operating principles and construction of OPAs are briefly described and current and potential performance capabilities are summarized. An OPA supports spatial-domain beam control such as agile or continuous scanning patterns, adaptive electronic focus control, and far-field beam shape control, as well as the generation of multiple beams from a single input beam (pattern generation, or fanout). OPAs also support time-domain beam control, including precision time delay or positioning of short pulses, pulse compression and expansion, and the generation of dense pulse bursts from a single pulse. All of these functions are software controllable, which enables mission-flexible and mission-adaptive optical systems, including so-called 'smart' optical systems with autonomous alignment and calibration capabilities. These and other electronically programmable capabilities are discussed. As a concrete example of an advanced sensor enabled by the OPA, the potential for an adaptable-format, high-resolution, multi-beam laser radar with no moving parts is discussed.

  8. Computer simulation of electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabchevski, S.P.; Mladenov, G.M. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. po Elektronika)

    1994-04-14

    Self-fields and forces as well as the local degree of space-charge neutralization in overcompensated electron beams are considered. The radial variation of the local degree of space-charge neutralization is analysed. A novel model which describes the equilibrium potential distribution in overcompensated beams is proposed and a method for computer simulation of the beam propagation is described. Results from numerical experiments which illustrate the propagation of finite emittance overneutralized beams are presented. (Author).

  9. Thermal and resonance neutrons generated by various electron and X-ray therapeutic beams from medical linacs installed in polish oncological centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konefał, Adam; Orlef, Andrzej; Łaciak, Marcin; Ciba, Aleksander; Szewczuk, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Background High-energy photon and electron therapeutic beams generated in medical linear accelerators can cause the electronuclear and photonuclear reactions in which neutrons with a broad energy spectrum are produced. A low-energy component of this neutron radiation induces simple capture reactions from which various radioisotopes originate and in which the radioactivity of a linac head and various objects in the treatment room appear. Aim The aim of this paper is to present the results of the thermal/resonance neutron fluence measurements during therapeutic beam emission and exemplary spectra of gamma radiation emitted by medical linac components activated in neutron reactions for four X-ray beams and for four electron beams generated by various manufacturers’ accelerators installed in typical concrete bunkers in Polish oncological centers. Materials and methods The measurements of neutron fluence were performed with the use of the induced activity method, whereas the spectra of gamma radiation from decays of the resulting radioisotopes were measured by means of a portable high-purity germanium detector set for field spectroscopy. Results The fluence of thermal neutrons as well as resonance neutrons connected with the emission of a 20 MV X-ray beam is ∼106 neutrons/cm2 per 1 Gy of a dose in water at a reference depth. It is about one order of magnitude greater than that for the 15 MV X-ray beams and about two orders of magnitude greater than for the 18–22 MeV electron beams regardless of the type of an accelerator. Conclusion The thermal as well as resonance neutron fluence depends strongly on the type and the nominal potential of a therapeutic beam. It is greater for X-ray beams than for electrons. The accelerator accessories and other large objects should not be stored in a treatment room during high-energy therapeutic beam emission to avoid their activation caused by thermal and resonance neutrons. Half-lives of the radioisotopes originating from

  10. Electron Beam Lithography for nano-patterning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Tine; Anhøj, Thomas Aarøe; Khomtchenko, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Electron beam lithography is a versatile tool for fabrication of nano-sized patterns. The patterns are generated by scanning a focused beam of high-energy electrons onto a substrate coated with a thin layer of electron-sensitive polymer (resist), i.e. by directly writing custom-made patterns...... in a polymer. Electron beam lithography is a suitable method for nano-sized production, research, or development of semiconductor components on a low-volume level. Here, we present electron beam lithography available at DTU Danchip. We expertize a JEOL 9500FZ with electrons accelerated to an energy of 100ke......V and focused to a beam spot size down to ~5nm. The electron beam can scan across the substrate with a speed of 100MHz and can write areas of 1mm x 1mm without stitching. In order to ensure high-precision patterning, the beam position on the substrate is controlled by a two-stage deflector system and substrates...

  11. Non-diffracting multi-electron vortex beams balancing their electron-electron interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutzafi, Maor; Kaminer, Ido; Harari, Gal; Segev, Mordechai

    2017-09-21

    The wave-like nature of electrons has been known for almost a century, but only in recent years has the ability to shape the wavefunction of EBeams (Electron-Beams) become experimentally accessible. Various EBeam wavefunctions have been demonstrated, such as vortex, self-accelerating, Bessel EBeams etc. However, none has attempted to manipulate multi-electron beams, because the repulsion between electrons rapidly alters the beam shape. Here, we show how interference effects of the quantum wavefunction describing multiple electrons can be used to exactly balance both the repulsion and diffraction-broadening. We propose non-diffracting wavepackets of multiple electrons, which can also carry orbital angular momentum. Such wavefunction shaping facilitates the use of multi-electron beams in electron microscopy with higher current without compromising on spatial resolution. Simulating the quantum evolution in three-dimensions and time, we show that imprinting such wavefunctions on electron pulses leads to shape-preserving multi-electrons ultrashort pulses. Our scheme applies to any beams of charged particles, such as protons and ion beams.Vortex electron beams are generated using single electrons but their low beam-density is a limitation in electron microscopy. Here the authors propose a scheme for the realization of non-diffracting electron beams by shaping wavepackets of multiple electrons and including electron-electron interactions.

  12. Electron Beam Propagation in a Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung W. Min

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Electron beam propagation in a fully ionized plasma has been studied using a one-dimensional particle simulation model. We compare the results of electrostatic simulations to those of electromagnetic simulations. The electrostatic results show the essential features of beam-plasma instability which accelerates ambient plasmas. The results also show the heating of ambient plasmas and the trapping of plasmas due to the locally generated electric field. The level of the radiation generated by the same non-relativistic beam is slightly higher than the noise level. We discuss the results in context of the heating of coronal plasma during solar flares.

  13. METHOD OF ELECTRON BEAM PROCESSING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    As a rule, electron beam welding takes place in a vacuum. However, this means that the workpieces in question have to be placed in a vacuum chamber and have to be removed therefrom after welding. This is time−consuming and a serious limitation of a process the greatest advantage of which is the o......As a rule, electron beam welding takes place in a vacuum. However, this means that the workpieces in question have to be placed in a vacuum chamber and have to be removed therefrom after welding. This is time−consuming and a serious limitation of a process the greatest advantage of which...... exploiting the potential of electron beam processing to a greater degree than previously possible, for example by means of electron beam welding...

  14. Use of beam deflection to control an electron beam wire deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor); Hofmeister, William H. (Inventor); Hafley, Robert A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for controlling an electron beam process wherein a wire is melted and deposited on a substrate as a molten pool comprises generating the electron beam with a complex raster pattern, and directing the beam onto an outer surface of the wire to thereby control a location of the wire with respect to the molten pool. Directing the beam selectively heats the outer surface of the wire and maintains the position of the wire with respect to the molten pool. An apparatus for controlling an electron beam process includes a beam gun adapted for generating the electron beam, and a controller adapted for providing the electron beam with a complex raster pattern and for directing the electron beam onto an outer surface of the wire to control a location of the wire with respect to the molten pool.

  15. A high brightness electron beam for Free Electron Lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oerle, Bartholomeus Mathias; van Oerle, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    In a free electron laser, coherent radiation is generated by letting an electron beam propagate through an alternating magnetic field. The magnetic field is created by a linear array of magnets, which is called an undulator or a wiggler. The wavelength of the laser radiation depends on the amplitude

  16. Intense Relativistic Electron Beam Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    dif- fusion pump furnished with the electron beam machine was sized to hold vacuum rathcr thani to ,achieve rapid pump down, we were limited to 2 or...camera and lasers as well as providing an advance synchronized trigger pulse to the oscilloscopes. Since this water filled spark gap switch initiates...Equipment Source NRL 0.5 XeV 7 ohm relativistic "electron beam machine Government furnished Capacitor bank and magnetic field solenoid 4’ long with

  17. Generation of multi-charged high current ion beams using the SMIS 37 gas-dynamic electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorf, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zorin, V. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics; Sidorov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics; Bokhanov, A. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics; Izotov, I. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics; Razin, S. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics; Skalyga, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation). Inst. of Applied Physics

    2013-06-02

    A gas-dynamic ECR ion source (GaDIS) is distinguished by its ability to produce high current and high brightness beams of moderately charged ions. Contrary to a classical ECR ion source where the plasma confinement is determined by the slow electron scattering into an empty loss-cone, the higher density and lower electron temperature in a GaDIS plasma lead to an isotropic electron distribution with the confinement time determined by the prompt gas-dynamic flow losses. As a result, much higher ion fluxes are available, however a decrease in the confinement time of the GaDIS plasma lowers the ion charge state. The gas-dynamic ECR ion source concept has been successfully realized in the SMIS 37 experimental facility operated at the Institute of Applied Physics, Russia. The use of high-power (~100 kW) microwave (37.5 GHz) radiation provides a dense plasma (~1013 cm-3) with a relatively low electron temperature (~50- 100 eV) and allows for the generation of high current (~1 A/cm2) beams of multi-charged ions. In this work we report on the present status of the SMIS 37 ion source and discuss the advanced numerical modeling of ion beam extraction using the particle-in-cell code WARP

  18. Low voltage electron beam accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochi, Masafumi [Iwasaki Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Widely used electron accelerators in industries are the electron beams with acceleration voltage at 300 kV or less. The typical examples are shown on manufactures in Japan, equipment configuration, operation, determination of process parameters, and basic maintenance requirement of the electron beam processors. New electron beam processors with acceleration voltage around 100 kV were introduced maintaining the relatively high dose speed capability of around 10,000 kGy x mpm at production by ESI (Energy Science Inc. USA, Iwasaki Electric Group). The application field like printing and coating for packaging requires treating thickness of 30 micron or less. It does not require high voltage over 110 kV. Also recently developed is a miniature bulb type electron beam tube with energy less than 60 kV. The new application area for this new electron beam tube is being searched. The drive force of this technology to spread in the industries would be further development of new application, process and market as well as the price reduction of the equipment, upon which further acknowledgement and acceptance of the technology to societies and industries would entirely depend. (Y. Tanaka)

  19. Electron beam micromachining of plastics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dupák, Libor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, 5-6 (2014), s. 310-314 ISSN 0861-4717 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0103 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : micromachining of plastics * Electron beam Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  20. Hybrid optical: electron-beam resists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, D. M.; Spector, S. J.; Fedynyshyn, T. H.; Lyszczarz, T. M.; Rothschild, M.; Thackeray, J.; Spear-Alfonso, K.

    2007-03-01

    Combining optical and electron beam exposures on the same wafer level is an attractive approach for extending the usefulness of current generation optical tools. This technique requires high-performance hybrid resists that perform equally well with optical and e-beam tools. In this paper Rohm and Haas EPIC TM 2340, a 193-nm chemically amplified photoresist, is used in a hybrid exposure role. The e-beam tool was used to pattern 45 nm half-pitch features and a 193- nm immersion stepper was used to pattern 60-nm half-pitch features in the same resist layer. The effects of processing parameters and delay times were investigated.

  1. Generation of quasi-monochromatic beams of accelerated electrons during interaction of weak-contrast intense femtosecond laser radiation with a metal-foil edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkov, Yu A; Stepanov, A N; Yashunin, D A; Pugachev, L P; Levashov, P R; Andreev, N E; Andreev, Aleksandr A

    2013-03-31

    The formation of monoenergetic beams of accelerated electrons by focusing femtosecond laser radiation with an intensity of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} W cm{sup -2} onto an edge of aluminium foil has been experimentally demonstrated. The electrons had energy distributions peaking in the range from 0.2 to 0.8 MeV and an energy spread less than 20 %. The acceleration mechanism related to the generation of a plasma wave as a result of self-modulation instability of the laser pulse in the subcritical plasma formed the prepulse of the laser system (arriving 10 ns before the main pulse) is considered. Onedimensional PIC simulation of the interaction between the laser radiation and plasma with a concentration of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} showed that effective excitation of a plasma wave, as well as the trapping and acceleration of the electron beam with an energy on the order of 1 MeV, may occur in the presence of inhomogeneities in the density at the plasma boundary and in the temporal shape of the beam. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  2. Electron Beam Materials Irradiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Marshall R.

    2012-06-01

    Radiation processing is a well established method for enhancing the properties of materials and commercial products by treating them with ionizing energy in the form of high-energy electrons, X-rays, and gamma rays. Beneficial effects include polymerizing, cross-linking, grafting and degrading plastics, sterilizing single-use medical devices, disinfecting and disinfesting fresh foods, purifying drinking water, treating wastewater and other toxic waste materials that harm the environment, and many other applications that are still being evaluated. Industrial electron accelerators of several types have been developed and are being used for these applications. More than 1800 electron accelerators are presently installed in facilities worldwide for these purposes.

  3. Shimmed electron beam welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ganjiang; Nowak, Daniel Anthony; Murphy, John Thomas

    2002-01-01

    A modified electron beam welding process effects welding of joints between superalloy materials by inserting a weldable shim in the joint and heating the superalloy materials with an electron beam. The process insures a full penetration of joints with a consistent percentage of filler material and thereby improves fatigue life of the joint by three to four times as compared with the prior art. The process also allows variable shim thickness and joint fit-up gaps to provide increased flexibility for manufacturing when joining complex airfoil structures and the like.

  4. Propagation of an ultra intense laser pulse in an under dense plasma: production of quasi monoenergetic electron beams and development of applications; Propagation d'une impulsion laser ultra-intense dans un plasma sous-dense: generation de faisceaux d'electrons quasi monoenergetiques et developpement d'applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glinec, Y

    2006-09-15

    This experimental study concerns the generation of electron beams with original properties. These electrons beams originate from the interaction of an ultra-intense and short laser pulse with a gas jet. Previously, these electron beams had a large divergence and a broad spectrum. A major improvement in this field was achieved when an electron beam with low divergence (10 mrad) and a peaked spectrum (170 MeV) was observed during this thesis, using a new single shot electron spectrometer. A parametric study of the interaction allowed to observe the evolution of the electron beam. Experiments have been carried out to deepen the characterization of the electron beam. The observation of transition radiation generated by the electrons at an interface shows that the electron beam interacts with the laser pulse during the acceleration. Radial oscillations of the electron beam around the laser axis, named betatron oscillations, were also observed on the electron spectra. Such a quasi-monoenergetic spectrum is essential for many applications. In order to justify the interest of this electron beam, several applications are presented: a sub-milli-metric gamma-ray radiography of dense objects, a dose profile of the electron beam comparable to present capabilities of photon sources for radiotherapy, a very short temporal profile useful for water radiolysis and the generation of a bright X-ray source with low divergence. (author)

  5. Nanoscale metamaterial light source driven by electron beam

    OpenAIRE

    ADAMO, G.; MacDonald, K. F.; De Angelis, F.; Di Fabrizio, E.; Zheludev, N. I.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a new generation of free-space and fibre-coupled tuneable light sources based on nanostructured photonic metamaterials driven by free-electrons beams. Emission wavelengths are determined by metamaterial resonant modes and electron energies.

  6. Weld formation control at electron beam welding with beam oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Trushnikov, Dmitriy; Koleva, Elena; Mladenov, Georgy; A. Shcherbakov

    2014-01-01

    Electron beam welding is used extensively to produce essential machine parts. The control of the basic beam parameters beam power or beam current at constant accelerating voltage, welding speed, current of focusing lens and distance between electron gun and welded sample surface is not enough to obtain at most of the regimes sound welds. Control of the focus position using analysis of the high frequency component of the current, collected by plasma, at periodic interactions on the beam (the o...

  7. Experiments on Ion Beam Space-Charge Neutralization with Pulsed Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Herleb, U

    1998-01-01

    Space-charge neutralization of heavy ion beams with electron beam pulses generated by electron guns incorporating ferroelectric cathodes has been experimentally investigated. Several experiments are described, the results of which prove that the intensity of selected ion beam parts with defined charge states generated in a laser ion source can be increased by an order of magnitude. For elevated charge states the intensity amplification is more significant than for low charge states. A charge enhancement factor of four has been achieved by neutralization with pulsed electron beams for Al7+ ions generated from an aluminium target.

  8. 3D shaping of electron beams using amplitude masks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiloh, Roy, E-mail: royshilo@post.tau.ac.il; Arie, Ady

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Electron beams are shaped in 3D with examples of curves and lattices. • Computer generated holograms are manifested as binary amplitude masks. • Applications in electron-optical particle trapping, manipulation, and synthesis. • Electron beam lithography fabrication scheme explained in detail. • Measurement paradigms of 3D shaped beams are discussed. - Abstract: Shaping the electron wavefunction in three dimensions may prove to be an indispensable tool for research involving atomic-sized particle trapping, manipulation, and synthesis. We utilize computer-generated holograms to sculpt electron wavefunctions in a standard transmission electron microscope in 3D, and demonstrate the formation of electron beams exhibiting high intensity along specific trajectories as well as shaping the beam into a 3D lattice of hot-spots. The concepts presented here are similar to those used in light optics for trapping and tweezing of particles, but at atomic scale resolutions.

  9. Electron beam control for barely separated beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David R.; Ament, Lucas J. P.

    2017-04-18

    A method for achieving independent control of multiple beams in close proximity to one another, such as in a multi-pass accelerator where coaxial beams are at different energies, but moving on a common axis, and need to be split into spatially separated beams for efficient recirculation transport. The method for independent control includes placing a magnet arrangement in the path of the barely separated beams with the magnet arrangement including at least two multipole magnets spaced closely together and having a multipole distribution including at least one odd multipole and one even multipole. The magnetic fields are then tuned to cancel out for a first of the barely separated beams to allow independent control of the second beam with common magnets. The magnetic fields may be tuned to cancel out either the dipole component or tuned to cancel out the quadrupole component in order to independently control the separate beams.

  10. Practical Teaching about Electron Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawson, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    If you have seen tubes like the ones we describe here in the back of a cupboard but have been reluctant to use them, now is the time to get them out. The aim of this article is to record the history of teaching about electron beams, particularly with Teltron equipment, and in doing so encourage those schools that are equipped with these tubes to…

  11. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, N.; Dabrowski, A. E.; Fabbri, F.; Grassi, T.; Hughes, E.; Mans, J.; Montanari, A.; Orfanelli, S.; Rusack, R.; Torromeo, G.; Stickland, D. P.; Stifter, K.

    2016-02-01

    The CMS Beam Halo Monitor has been successfully installed in the CMS cavern in LHC Long Shutdown 1 for measuring the machine induced background for LHC Run II. The system is based on 40 detector units composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The readout electronics chain uses many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter electronics, with dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time, with few nanosecond resolution, and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics uses microTCA technology and receives data via a high-speed 5 Gbps asynchronous link. It records histograms with sub-bunch crossing timing resolution and is read out via IPbus using the newly designed CMS data acquisition for non-event based data. The data is processed in real time and published to CMS and the LHC, providing online feedback on the beam quality. A dedicated calibration monitoring system has been designed to generate short triggered pulses of light to monitor the efficiency of the system. The electronics has been in operation since the first LHC beams of Run II and has served as the first demonstration of the new QIE10, Microsemi Igloo2 FPGA and high-speed 5 Gbps link with LHC data.

  12. NOx reduction by electron beam-produced nitrogen atom injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penetrante, Bernardino M.

    2002-01-01

    Deactivated atomic nitrogen generated by an electron beam from a gas stream containing more than 99% N.sub.2 is injected at low temperatures into an engine exhaust to reduce NOx emissions. High NOx reduction efficiency is achieved with compact electron beam devices without use of a catalyst.

  13. Current-limited electron beam injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    The injection of an electron beam into a weakly collisional, magnetized background plasma was investigated experimentally. The injected beam was energetic and cold, the background plasma was initially isothermal. Beam and plasma dimensions were so large that the system was considered unbounded. The temporal and spatial evolution of the beam-plasma system was dominated by collective effects. High-frequency electrostatic instabilities rapidly thermalized the beam and heated the background electrons. The injected beam current was balanced by a return current consisting of background electrons drifting toward the beam source. The drift between electrons and ions gave rise to an ion acoustic instability which developed into strong three-dimensional turbulence. It was shown that the injected beam current was limited by the return current which is approximately given by the electron saturation current. Non-Maxwellian electron distribution functions were observed.

  14. Self-amplified spontaneous emission FEL with energy-chirped electron beam and its application for generation of attosecond x-ray pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Saldin

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Influence of a linear energy chirp in the electron beam on a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE Free Electron Laser (FEL operation is studied analytically and numerically using a 1D model. Analytical results are based on the theoretical background developed by Krinsky and Huang [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6, 050702 (2003PRABFM1098-4402]. Explicit expressions for Green’s functions and for output power of a SASE FEL are obtained for the high-gain linear regime in the limits of small and large energy chirp parameters. Saturation length and power versus energy chirp parameter are calculated numerically. It is shown that the effect of linear energy chirp on FEL gain is equivalent to the linear undulator tapering (or linear energy variation along the undulator. A consequence of this fact is a possibility to perfectly compensate FEL gain degradation, caused by the energy chirp, by means of the undulator tapering independently of the value of the energy chirp parameter. An application of this effect for generation of attosecond pulses from a hard x-ray FEL is proposed. Strong energy modulation within a short slice of an electron bunch is produced by a few-cycle optical laser pulse in a short undulator, placed in front of the main undulator. Gain degradation within this slice is compensated by an appropriate undulator taper while the rest of the bunch suffers from this taper and does not lase. Three-dimensional simulations predict that short (200 attoseconds high-power (up to 100 GW pulses can be produced in Angstrom wavelength range with a high degree of contrast. A possibility to reduce pulse duration to sub-100 attosecond scale is discussed.

  15. Head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in the RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo,Y.; FischW; Abreu, N.; Beebe, E.; Montag, C.; Okamura, M.; Pikin, A.; Robert-Demolaize, G.

    2008-06-23

    The working point for the polarized proton run in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider is constrained between 2/3 and 7/10 in order to maintain good beam lifetime and polarization. To further increase the bunch intensity to improve the luminosity, a low energy Gaussian electron beam, or an electron lens is proposed to head-on collide with the proton beam to compensate the large tune shift and tune spread generated by the proton-proton beam-beam interactions at IP6 and IP8. In this article, we outline the scheme of head-on beam-beam compensation in the RHIC and give the layout of e-lens installation and the parameters of the proton and electron beams. The involved physics and engineering issues are shortly discussed.

  16. Design of electron beam accelerator for microwave application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestwich, K. R.

    Relativistic electron beams are used for generating high power microwaves. These microwave sources require electron beam generators spanning significant ranges in voltage and impedance. The pulsed power technology used to generate these electron beams is presented. Electron beam generators that produce beams with pulse durations in the 10 ns to 100 ns regime consist of an energy storage section, pulse shaping section, and an electron beam diode. The energy storage section is either a Marx generator or capacitor bank-pulsed transformer. The pulse shaping is done with high-voltage transmission lines. The electron beam diode is usually a cold-cathode, space-charge-limited flow device. For longer pulses (approx 1 microsec) the energy storage and pulse shaping can be combined. Lumped-element pulsed-forming networks (PFN) can be designed to produce the desired pulse shape. The Marx generator becomes one of the elements of the PFN. Alternatively, a low voltage PFN followed by a highly coupled transformer can be used. Basic design principles for all of the above subsystems are discussed. Both PFLs and PFNs can also be operated as inductive storage systems with opening switches.

  17. Low Emittance Electron Beam Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhoplav, Rodion [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the properties of a low emittance electron beam produced by laser pulses incident onto an rf gun photocathode. The experiments were carried out at the A0 photoinjector at Fermilab. Such beam studies are necessary for fixing the design of new Linear Colliders as well as for the development of Free Electron Lasers. An overview of the A0 photoinjector is given in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2 we describe the A0 photoinjector laser system. A stable laser system is imperative for reliable photoinjector operation. After the recent upgrade, we have been able to reach a new level of stability in the pulse-to-pulse fluctuations of the pulse amplitude, and of the temporal and transverse profiles. In Chapter 3 we present a study of transverse emittance versus the shape of the photo-cathode drive-laser pulse. For that purpose a special temporal profile laser shaping device called a pulse-stacker was developed. In Chapter 4 we discuss longitudinal beam dynamics studies using a two macro-particle bunch; this technique is helpful in analyzing pulse compression in the magnetic chicane, as well as velocity bunching effects in the rf-gun and the 9-cell accelerating cavity. In Chapter 5 we introduce a proposal for laser acceleration of electrons. We have developed a laser functioning on the TEM*01 mode, a mode with a longitudinal electric field component which is suitable for such a process. Using this technique at energies above 40 MeV, one would be able to observe laser-based acceleration.

  18. Single Bunch Electron Cloud Effects in the NLC Beam Delivery System(LCC-0126)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D

    2003-12-08

    A positron beam passing through a linear collider beam delivery beam line is finely focused to desired specifications during collimation and especially in Final Focusing (FFS). Undesired additional focusing is generated by beam-electron cloud interactions, which typically leads to beam size increases at high cloud densities. This paper examines the severity of the electron cloud effects and assesses the critical cloud density.

  19. The polarized electron beam for the SLAC Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, M.

    1996-10-01

    The SLAC Linear Collider has been colliding a polarized electron beam with an unpolarized positron beam at the Z{sup 0} resonance for the SLD experiment since 1992. An electron beam polarization of close to 80% has been achieved for the experiment at luminosities up to 8 {center_dot} 10{sup 29} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. This is the world`s first and only linear collider, and is a successful prototype for the next generation of high energy electron linear colliders. This paper discusses polarized beam operation for the SLC, and includes aspects of the polarized source, spin transport and polarimetry.

  20. Magnetic Deflection Of Welding Electron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinzak, R. Michael; Booth, Gary N.

    1991-01-01

    Electron-beam welds inside small metal parts produced with aid of magnetic deflector. Beam redirected so it strikes workpiece at effective angle. Weld joint positioned to where heavy microfissure concentration removed when subsequent machining required, increasing likelihood of removing any weld defects located in face side of electron-beam weld.

  1. Definition of Beam Diameter for Electron Beam Welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgardt, Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pierce, Stanley W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dvornak, Matthew John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    It is useful to characterize the dimensions of the electron beam during process development for electron beam welding applications. Analysis of the behavior of electron beam welds is simplest when a single number can be assigned to the beam properties that describes the size of the beam spot; this value we generically call the “beam diameter”. This approach has worked well for most applications and electron beam welding machines with the weld dimensions (width and depth) correlating well with the beam diameter. However, in recent weld development for a refractory alloy, Ta-10W, welded with a low voltage electron beam machine (LVEB), it was found that the weld dimensions (weld penetration and weld width) did not correlate well with the beam diameter and especially with the experimentally determined sharp focus point. These data suggest that the presently used definition of beam diameter may not be optimal for all applications. The possible reasons for this discrepancy and a suggested possible alternative diameter definition is the subject of this paper.

  2. Rippled beam free electron Laser Amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsten, Bruce E.

    1998-04-21

    A free electron laser amplifier provides a scalloping annular electron beam that interacts with the axial electric field of a T{sub 0n} mode. A waveguide defines an axial centerline and . A solenoid arranged about the waveguide produces an axial constant magnetic field within the waveguide. An electron beam source outputs a annular electron beam that interacts with the axial magnetic field to have an equilibrium radius and a ripple radius component having a variable radius with a ripple period along the axial centerline. An rf source outputs an axial electric field that propagates within the waveguide coaxial with the electron beam and has a radial mode that interacts at the electron beam at the equilibrium radius component of the electron beam.

  3. Material Protection During Electron-Beam Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, R. L.; Kiluk, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Alumina pellets behind electron-beam weld joint protect other parts of assembly from beam and from spattered material. Alumina pellets may be cleaned and reused. Easily applied and removed in regions that are narrow or have complex shapes.

  4. Optical circular deflector with attosecond resolution for ultrashort electron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel method using high-power laser as a circular deflector is proposed for the measurement of femtosecond (fs and sub-fs electron beam. In the scheme, the electron beam interacts with a laser pulse operating in a radially polarized doughnut mode (TEM_{01^{*}} in a helical undulator, generating angular kicks along the beam in two directions at the same time. The phase difference between the two angular kicks makes the beam form a ring after a propagation section with appropriate phase advance, which can reveal the current profile of the electron beam. Detailed theoretical analysis of the method and numerical results with reasonable parameters are both presented. It is shown that the temporal resolution can reach up to ∼100 attosecond, which is a significant improvement for the diagnostics of ultrashort electron beam.

  5. Beam distribution reconstruction simulation for electron beam probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yong-Chun; Mao, Rui-Shi; Li, Peng; Kang, Xin-Cai; Yin, Yan; Liu, Tong; You, Yao-Yao; Chen, Yu-Cong; Zhao, Tie-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Guo; Wang, Yan-Yu; Yuan, You-Jin

    2017-07-01

    An electron beam probe (EBP) is a detector which makes use of a low-intensity and low-energy electron beam to measure the transverse profile, bunch shape, beam neutralization and beam wake field of an intense beam with small dimensions. While it can be applied to many aspects, we limit our analysis to beam distribution reconstruction. This kind of detector is almost non-interceptive for all of the beam and does not disturb the machine environment. In this paper, we present the theoretical aspects behind this technique for beam distribution measurement and some simulation results of the detector involved. First, a method to obtain a parallel electron beam is introduced and a simulation code is developed. An EBP as a profile monitor for dense beams is then simulated using the fast scan method for various target beam profiles, including KV distribution, waterbag distribution, parabolic distribution, Gaussian distribution and halo distribution. Profile reconstruction from the deflected electron beam trajectory is implemented and compared with the actual profile, and the expected agreement is achieved. Furthermore, as well as fast scan, a slow scan, i.e. step-by-step scan, is considered, which lowers the requirement for hardware, i.e. Radio Frequency deflector. We calculate the three-dimensional electric field of a Gaussian distribution and simulate the electron motion in this field. In addition, a fast scan along the target beam direction and slow scan across the beam are also presented, and can provide a measurement of longitudinal distribution as well as transverse profile simultaneously. As an example, simulation results for the China Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System (CADS) and High Intensity Heavy Ion Accelerator Facility (HIAF) are given. Finally, a potential system design for an EBP is described.

  6. Experimental Device for Electron Beam Micromachining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dupák, Libor; Zobač, Martin; Dupák, Jan; Vlček, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 41, 5-6 (2006), s. 272-275 ISSN 0861-4717. [EBT 2006 - International Conference on Electron Beam Technologies /8./. Varna, 05.06.2006-10.06.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : electron beam drilling * quartz glass Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  7. Electron-beam deflection controlled by digital signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressey, J. R.

    1965-01-01

    Electron-beam deflection in electronic image converters is controlled by a tapped magnetic deflection yoke and a series of current generators. The generators supply equal current to each tap through digitally controlled switches, thereby increasing the inherent accuracy of the system.

  8. Slow electrostatic fluctuations generated by beam-plasma interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Pommois, Karen; Pezzi, Oreste; Veltri, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    Eulerian simulations of the Vlasov-Poisson equations have been employed to analyze the excitation of slow electrostatic fluctuations (with phase speed close to the electron thermal speed), due to a beam-plasma interaction, and their propagation in linear and nonlinear regime. In 1968, O'Neil and Malmberg [Phys. Fluids {\\bf 11}, 1754 (1968)] dubbed these waves "beam modes". In the present paper, it is shown that, in the presence of a cold and low density electron beam, these beam modes can become unstable and then survive Landau damping unlike the Langmuir waves. When an electron beam is launched in a plasma of Maxwellian electrons and motionless protons and this initial equilibrium is perturbed by a monochromatic density disturbance, the electric field amplitude grows exponentially in time and then undergoes nonlinear saturation, associated with the kinetic effects of particle trapping and phase space vortex generation. Moreover, if the initial density perturbation is setup in the form of a low amplitude rand...

  9. SU-E-T-556: Monte Carlo Generated Dose Distributions for Orbital Irradiation Using a Single Anterior-Posterior Electron Beam and a Hanging Lens Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duwel, D [Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lamba, M; Elson, H; Kumar, N [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Various cancers of the eye are successfully treated with radiotherapy utilizing one anterior-posterior (A/P) beam that encompasses the entire content of the orbit. In such cases, a hanging lens shield can be used to spare dose to the radiosensitive lens of the eye to prevent cataracts. Methods: This research focused on Monte Carlo characterization of dose distributions resulting from a single A-P field to the orbit with a hanging shield in place. Monte Carlo codes were developed which calculated dose distributions for various electron radiation energies, hanging lens shield radii, shield heights above the eye, and beam spoiler configurations. Film dosimetry was used to benchmark the coding to ensure it was calculating relative dose accurately. Results: The Monte Carlo dose calculations indicated that lateral and depth dose profiles are insensitive to changes in shield height and electron beam energy. Dose deposition was sensitive to shield radius and beam spoiler composition and height above the eye. Conclusion: The use of a single A/P electron beam to treat cancers of the eye while maintaining adequate lens sparing is feasible. Shield radius should be customized to have the same radius as the patient’s lens. A beam spoiler should be used if it is desired to substantially dose the eye tissues lying posterior to the lens in the shadow of the lens shield. The compromise between lens sparing and dose to diseased tissues surrounding the lens can be modulated by varying the beam spoiler thickness, spoiler material composition, and spoiler height above the eye. The sparing ratio is a metric that can be used to evaluate the compromise between lens sparing and dose to surrounding tissues. The higher the ratio, the more dose received by the tissues immediately posterior to the lens relative to the dose received by the lens.

  10. A device for measuring electron beam characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Andreev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a device intended for diagnostics of electron beams and the results obtained with this device. The device comprises a rotating double probe operating in conjunction with an automated probe signal collection and processing system. This provides for measuring and estimating the electron beam characteristics such as radius, current density, power density, convergence angle, and brightness.

  11. Welding multiple plies with an electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiluk, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Method for electron-beam welding of multi-ply metal sheets eliminates ply separation and minimizes porosity. Method was developed for assembling bellows made of four plies of iron/nickel alloy sheets. Method consists of making successive stitch welds with electron beam until weld seam is completely filled in and all plies have been penetrated.

  12. Viewing electron-beam welds in progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenoff, C. T.

    1980-01-01

    With aid of optical filter, operator of electron-beam welding machine can view TV image of joint that is being welded and can make corrections as necessary. Operator can see when weld bead gets out of alinement, for example, and compensate for deflection of electron beam caused by changes in magnetic field.

  13. Effect of external static magnetic field on the emittance and total charge of electron beams generated by laser-Wakefield acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokai, Tomonao; Kinoshita, Kenichi; Zhidkov, Alexei; Maekawa, Akira; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Uesaka, Mitsuru

    2006-08-18

    Significant enhancement of emittance and an increase of the total charge of femtosecond electron beams produced by a 12 TW, 40 fs laser pulse, tightly focused in a He gas jet, are observed after applying a static magnetic field, B> or =0.2 T, directed along the axis of laser pulse propagation. The effect appears when plasma produced by a laser prepulse becomes magnetized in the vicinity of the focus point: the electron Larmor frequency exceeds the collisional frequency, while periphery of the plasma remains unmagnetized. The entailed change in the shape of the plasma suppresses the diffraction of the main laser pulse that results in a much higher charge of electrons self-injected during the longitudinal wave breaking of the laser wake as well as the excellent stability of the beams.

  14. Electron beam energy QA - a note on measurement tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Juergen; Nyflot, Matthew J; Smith, Wade P; Wottoon, Landon S; Young, Lori; Yang, Fei; Kim, Minsun; Hendrickson, Kristi R G; Ford, Eric; Kalet, Alan M; Cao, Ning; Dempsey, Claire; Sandison, George A

    2016-03-08

    Monthly QA is recommended to verify the constancy of high-energy electron beams generated for clinical use by linear accelerators. The tolerances are defined as 2%/2 mm in beam penetration according to AAPM task group report 142. The practical implementation is typically achieved by measuring the ratio of readings at two different depths, preferably near the depth of maximum dose and at the depth corresponding to half the dose maximum. Based on beam commissioning data, we show that the relationship between the ranges of energy ratios for different electron energies is highly nonlinear. We provide a formalism that translates measurement deviations in the reference ratios into change in beam penetration for electron energies for six Elekta (6-18 MeV) and eight Varian (6-22 MeV) electron beams. Experimental checks were conducted for each Elekta energy to compare calculated values with measurements, and it was shown that they are in agreement. For example, for a 6 MeV beam a deviation in the measured ionization ratio of ± 15% might still be acceptable (i.e., be within ± 2 mm), whereas for an 18 MeV beam the corresponding tolerance might be ± 6%. These values strongly depend on the initial ratio chosen. In summary, the relationship between differences of the ionization ratio and the corresponding beam energy are derived. The findings can be translated into acceptable tolerance values for monthly QA of electron beam energies.

  15. Spin transport in tilted electron vortex beams

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Banasri; Chowdhury, Debashree

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we have enlightened the spin related issues of tilted Electron vortex beams. We have shown that in the skyrmionic model of electron we can have the spin Hall current considering the tilted type of electron vortex beam. We have considered the monopole charge of the tilted vortex as time dependent and through the time variation of the monopole charge we can explain the spin Hall effect of electron vortex beams. Besides, with an external magnetic field we can have a spin filter con...

  16. Potential of New-Generation Electron Beam Technology in Interface Modification of Cold and HVOF Sprayed MCrAlY Bond Coats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cizek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electron beam (EB technology treatment was carried out on CoNiCrAlY bond coats deposited on Inconel substrates via cold spray and HVOF techniques in dissimilar thicknesses. Such treatment was carried out with regard to the final materials microstructure, composition, surface roughness, and the quality of the coating-substrate interface. Following a multiple-step optimization of the processing parameters (such as beam pattern configuration, accelerating voltage, longitudinal speed, and multiple beam incidence, two final EB modifications were carried out on both coating types. It was found that the optimized EB treatment could lead to a significant alteration of the interface from a distinctive divide into smooth chemical and structural transition between the materials, significant decrease in surface roughness and porosity, and changes in mechanical properties (increase in Young’s modulus and decrease in hardness of the coating.

  17. A microwave chip-based beam splitter for low-energy guided electrons

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, Jakob; Thomas, Sebastian; Weber, Philipp; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the splitting of a low-energy electron beam by means of a microwave pseudopotential formed above a planar chip substrate. Beam splitting arises from smoothly transforming the transverse guiding potential for an electron beam from a single-well harmonic confinement into a double-well, thereby generating two separated output beams with $5\\,$mm lateral spacing. Efficient beam splitting is observed for electron kinetic energies up to $3\\,$eV, in excellent agreement with particle tr...

  18. Design Study for Pulsed Proton Beam Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Sung Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fast neutrons with a broad energy spectrum, with which it is possible to evaluate nuclear data for various research fields such as medical applications and the development of fusion reactors, can be generated by irradiating proton beams on target materials such as beryllium. To generate short-pulse proton beam, we adopted a deflector and slit system. In a simple deflector with slit system, most of the proton beam is blocked by the slit, especially when the beam pulse width is short. Therefore, the available beam current is very low, which results in low neutron flux. In this study, we proposed beam modulation using a buncher cavity to increase the available beam current. The ideal field pattern for the buncher cavity is sawtooth. To make the field pattern similar to a sawtooth waveform, a multiharmonic buncher was adopted. The design process for the multiharmonic buncher includes a beam dynamics calculation and three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation. In addition to the system design for pulsed proton generation, a test bench with a microwave ion source is under preparation to test the performance of the system. The design study results concerning the pulsed proton beam generation and the test bench preparation with some preliminary test results are presented in this paper.

  19. Measuring the electron beam energy in a magnetic bunch compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, Kirsten

    2010-09-15

    Within this thesis, work was carried out in and around the first bunch compressor chicane of the FLASH (Free-electron LASer in Hamburg) linear accelerator in which two distinct systems were developed for the measurement of an electron beams' position with sub-5 {mu}m precision over a 10 cm range. One of these two systems utilized RF techniques to measure the difference between the arrival-times of two broadband electrical pulses generated by the passage of the electron beam adjacent to a pickup antenna. The other system measured the arrival-times of the pulses from the pickup with an optical technique dependent on the delivery of laser pulses which are synchronized to the RF reference of the machine. The relative advantages and disadvantages of these two techniques are explored and compared to other available approaches to measure the same beam property, including a time-of-flight measurement with two beam arrival-time monitors and a synchrotron light monitor with two photomultiplier tubes. The electron beam position measurement is required as part of a measurement of the electron beam energy and could be used in an intra-bunch-train beam-based feedback system that would stabilize the amplitude of the accelerating field. By stabilizing the accelerating field amplitude, the arrival-time of the electron beam can be made more stable. By stabilizing the electron beam arrival-time relative to a stable reference, diagnostic, seeding, and beam-manipulation lasers can be synchronized to the beam. (orig.)

  20. Electron beam injection during active experiments. I - Electromagnetic wave emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, R. M.; Kellogg, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    The wave emissions produced in Echo 7 experiment by active injections of electron beams were investigated to determine the properties of the electromagnetic and electrostatic fields for both the field-aligned and cross-field injection in such experiments and to evaluate the sources of free energy and relative efficiencies for the generation of the VLF and HF emissions. It is shown that, for typical beam energies in active experiments, electromagnetic effects do not substantially change the bulk properties of the beam, spacecraft charging, and plasma particle acceleration. Through simulations, beam-generated whistlers; fundamental z-mode and harmonic x-mode radiation; and electrostatic electron-cyclotron, upper-hybrid, Langmuir, and lower-hybrid waves were identified. The characteristics of the observed wave spectra were found to be sensitive to both the ratio of the electron plasma frequency to the cyclotron frequency and the angle of injection relative to the magnetic field.

  1. Survey on electron beam processing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, S.; Sunabe, K.; Inaba, T.

    1990-06-01

    The developing situation is studied of electron beam processing technologies and the future problems are shown when these are utilized for electric power utilities. When an electron beam is used as a heating source by focussing, the electron beam has features of high focusability, high controllability and high energy density, so that the electron beam is used for parts requiring high quality processing from micro machining, case hardening, and welding to melting furnaces of metals of high melting point. Presently is necessary to hold ultra high voltage for acceleration and high vacuum because of lower current. Since the processing capability with high energy density is high and the energy consumption efficiency is also high for the chemical field using the high energy density of the electron beam, the application are researched in the field from sterilization of medical instruments, sterilization of sludge, through food processing, improvement of thermal resistance of insulated wires to flue gas irradiation to desulfurize and denitrify. But a practical use is not yet realized because of small current of electron beam. Therefore, the largest technological problem may be the development of high current electron gun and the beam control systems.

  2. Attainment of Electron Beam Suitable for Medium Energy Electron Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seletskiy, Sergei M. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Electron cooling of charged particle beams is a well-established technique at electron energies of up to 300 keV. However, up to the present time the advance of electron cooling to the MeV-range energies has remained a purely theoretical possibility. The electron cooling project at Fermilab has recently demonstrated the ¯rst cooling of 8.9 GeV/c antiprotons in the Recycler ring, and therefore, has proved the validity of the idea of relativistic electron cool- ing. The Recycler Electron Cooler (REC) is the key component of the Teva- tron Run II luminosity upgrade project. Its performance depends critically on the quality of electron beam. A stable electron beam of 4.3 MeV car- rying 0.5 A of DC current is required. The beam suitable for the Recycler Electron Cooler must have an angular spread not exceeding 200 ¹rad. The full-scale prototype of the REC was designed, built and tested at Fermilab in the Wideband laboratory to study the feasibility of attaining the high-quality electron beam. In this thesis I describe various aspects of development of the Fermilab electron cooling system, and the techniques used to obtain the electron beam suitable for the cooling process. In particular I emphasize those aspects of the work for which I was principally responsible.

  3. Intra-cavity vortex beam generation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Darryl

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors explore vortex beams and in particular the generation of single LG0l modes and superpositions thereof. Vortex beams carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) and this intrinsic property makes them prevalent in transferring...

  4. Electron beam relaxation in a beam-plasma discharge in crossed fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadeev, K.K.; Erastov, E.M.; Ivanov, A.A.; Muksunov, A.M.; Nikiforov, V.A.; Severnyj, V.V.; Khripunov, B.I.; Shapkin, V.V. (Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Atomnoj Ehnergii)

    Experimental investigation into production conditions of high- degree ionization plasma with an electron beam Usub(b)=5 kV, Isub(b)=0.7 A in crypton n/sub 0/=3x10/sup 12/ cm/sup -3/ in crossed electric and magnetic fields is stated. It is shown that resonance electric field can lead both to starting up of volume discharge-under these conditions electron beam power dissipation sharply increases, and discharge breakdown. Power dissipation increases when incresing magnetic field intensity from 8 to 12 kGs. Dependence of electron beam power dissipation on a longitudinal size of working volume has been investigated. A minimum length of the beam and gas interaction range, at which generation of volume discharge is still possible, has been determined. The data obtained can be useful during construction of a plasma centrifuge on the basis of beam-plasma discharge.

  5. Review of electron beam therapy physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Almond, Peter R

    2006-07-07

    For over 50 years, electron beams have been an important modality for providing an accurate dose of radiation to superficial cancers and disease and for limiting the dose to underlying normal tissues and structures. This review looks at many of the important contributions of physics and dosimetry to the development and utilization of electron beam therapy, including electron treatment machines, dose specification and calibration, dose measurement, electron transport calculations, treatment and treatment-planning tools, and clinical utilization, including special procedures. Also, future changes in the practice of electron therapy resulting from challenges to its utilization and from potential future technology are discussed.

  6. Numerical simulation of electron beam welding with beam oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushnikov, D. N.; Permyakov, G. L.

    2017-02-01

    This research examines the process of electron-beam welding in a keyhole mode with the use of beam oscillations. We study the impact of various beam oscillations and their parameters on the shape of the keyhole, the flow of heat and mass transfer processes and weld parameters to develop methodological recommendations. A numerical three-dimensional mathematical model of electron beam welding is presented. The model was developed on the basis of a heat conduction equation and a Navier-Stokes equation taking into account phase transitions at the interface of a solid and liquid phase and thermocapillary convection (Marangoni effect). The shape of the keyhole is determined based on experimental data on the parameters of the secondary signal by using the method of a synchronous accumulation. Calculations of thermal and hydrodynamic processes were carried out based on a computer cluster, using a simulation package COMSOL Multiphysics.

  7. Electron beam machining using rotating and shaped beam power distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, J.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1996-07-09

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for electron beam (EB) machining (drilling, cutting and welding) that uses conventional EB guns, power supplies, and welding machine technology without the need for fast bias pulsing technology. The invention involves a magnetic lensing (EB optics) system and electronic controls to: (1) concurrently bend, focus, shape, scan, and rotate the beam to protect the EB gun and to create a desired effective power-density distribution, and (2) rotate or scan this shaped beam in a controlled way. The shaped beam power-density distribution can be measured using a tomographic imaging system. For example, the EB apparatus of this invention has the ability to drill holes in metal having a diameter up to 1,000 {micro}m (1 mm or larger), compared to the 250 {micro}m diameter of laser drilling. 5 figs.

  8. Electron beam machining using rotating and shaped beam power distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, John W.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for electron beam (EB) machining (drilling, cutting and welding) that uses conventional EB guns, power supplies, and welding machine technology without the need for fast bias pulsing technology. The invention involves a magnetic lensing (EB optics) system and electronic controls to: 1) concurrently bend, focus, shape, scan, and rotate the beam to protect the EB gun and to create a desired effective power-density distribution, and 2) rotate or scan this shaped beam in a controlled way. The shaped beam power-density distribution can be measured using a tomographic imaging system. For example, the EB apparatus of this invention has the ability to drill holes in metal having a diameter up to 1000 .mu.m (1 mm or larger), compared to the 250 .mu.m diameter of laser drilling.

  9. SU-E-T-472: Characterization of the Very High Energy Electrons, ISO - 250 MeV (VHEE) Beam Generated by ALPHA-X Laser Wakefield Accelerator Beam Line for Utilization in Monte Carlo Simulation for Biomedical Experiment Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvin, V; Subiel, A; Desrosiers, C; Wiggins, M; Maryanski, M; Mendonca, M; Boyd, M; Sorensen, A; Cipiccia, S; Issac, R; Welsh, G; Brunetti, E; Aniculaesei, C; Jaroszynski, D A

    2012-06-01

    Progress in the development of compact high-energy pulsed laser- plasma wakefield accelerators is opening up the potential for using Very High Energy Electron (VHEEs) beams in the range of 150 - 250 MeV for biomedical studies. Initial experiments using VHEE for this purpose have been carried out using the ALPHA-X laser-plasma wakefield accelerator beam line at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK. The purpose of this investigation is to use Monte Carlo simulations to plan experiments and compare with characterization of the interaction of the VHEE beam using a dosimeter. An experiment using the VHEE beam to irradiate a muscle-equivalent BANG polymer gel dosimeter has been carried out. Simulations have been used to prepare for the experiments. These were undertaken using the expected average energy for a pulse set and an energy spread approximated by Gaussian distribution. The model was implemented in FLUKA Monte Carlo code with follow up modeling using the Geant4 toolkit. The results have been compared with 1mm̂3 voxel laser CT based measurements of the dose deposited in the BANG dosimeter and with measurement of the induced radioactivity. The results of the measured dose from induced radioactivity have been compared with data from the FLUKA simulations. The beam model based on an average energy of particles in irradiation gives an acceptable estimate of the induced radioactivity and the dose deposited in the BANG dosimeter. Comparison with the dosimeter scanned profiles shows that the structure of the spectra of VHEE beams in the experiment and secondary scattered particles in the beam line should be accounted for in any model. Such model description of the VHEE beam for the ALPHA-X beam line has been developed. Monte Carlo simulations using the FLUKA code is an efficient way to plan a VHEE experiment and analyze data from measurements. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  10. Emittance growth from electron beam modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2009-12-01

    In linac ring colliders like MeRHIC and eRHIC a modulation of the electron bunch can lead to a modulation of the beam beam tune shift and steering errors. These modulations can lead to emittance growth. This note presents simple formulas to estimate these effects which generalize some previous results.

  11. Electron beam relaxation in turbulent plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karfidov, D.M.; Lukina, N.A. [General Physics Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The electron beam interaction with collisionless plasma was studied experimentally. The beam relaxation length is shown to be determined by strong Langmuir turbulence development. Effective collision frequency of turbulence is determined; final cavity size determined from plasma electrical field strength measurements is estimated to be about 30 Debay lengths. (author)

  12. Electron beam, laser beam and plasma arc welding studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    This program was undertaken as an initial step in establishing an evaluation framework which would permit a priori selection of advanced welding processes for specific applications. To this end, a direct comparison of laser beam, electron beam and arc welding of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was undertaken. Ti-6Al-4V was selected for use in view of its established welding characteristics and its importance in aerospace applications.

  13. Normal modes and mode transformation of pure electron vortex beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukkarasu, G; Mousley, M; Babiker, M; Yuan, J

    2017-02-28

    Electron vortex beams constitute the first class of matter vortex beams which are currently routinely produced in the laboratory. Here, we briefly review the progress of this nascent field and put forward a natural quantum basis set which we show is suitable for the description of electron vortex beams. The normal modes are truncated Bessel beams (TBBs) defined in the aperture plane or the Fourier transform of the transverse structure of the TBBs (FT-TBBs) in the focal plane of a lens with the said aperture. As these modes are eigenfunctions of the axial orbital angular momentum operator, they can provide a complete description of the two-dimensional transverse distribution of the wave function of any electron vortex beam in such a system, in analogy with the prominent role Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams played in the description of optical vortex beams. The characteristics of the normal modes of TBBs and FT-TBBs are described, including the quantized orbital angular momentum (in terms of the winding number l) and the radial index p>0. We present the experimental realization of such beams using computer-generated holograms. The mode analysis can be carried out using astigmatic transformation optics, demonstrating close analogy with the astigmatic mode transformation between LG and Hermite-Gaussian beams.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Electron Beam Source for Technological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, V. A.; Shchedrin, I. S.

    1997-05-01

    Electron beam source with thermionic cathode and its application for technological purposes are described.Three electrode electron gun has a lanthanum hexaboride disc emitter with indirect heating. Accelerating voltage can be varied from 20 to 100 kV.Maximum d.c. current is 1-2 A for emitter diameter 4-5 mm.Magnetic focusing lens of solenoidal type ensures high beam power density on the object processed - up to 10 MW per sq.sm.This electron source was used for welding and thermoprocessing - surface hardening of ball-bearings. To ensure required complex power distribution on their surface special electronic unit for electron beam position control was designed.At the surface of ball-bearings the layer with hardness of 62-64 HRC and thickness about 1-1.5 mm was formed after electron processing that considerably increased their working period.

  15. Power distribution for electron beam welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, E.

    1980-01-01

    The power distribution of an electron seam is analyzed. Digital computer techniques are used to evaluate the radial distribution of power detected by a wire probe circulating through the beam. Results are reported.

  16. Electron beam welding complex diagnostics automated system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Є. В. Нікітенко

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the system of technical diagnostics is investigated. The algorithm of technical diagnostic of electron beam welding complex, which serves as the basis for creation of automated system for technical diagnostics, is proposed

  17. Beam Dynamics in an Electron Lens with the Warp Particle-in-cell Code

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari, Giulio; Redaelli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Electron lenses are a mature technique for beam manipulation in colliders and storage rings. In an electron lens, a pulsed, magnetically confined electron beam with a given current-density profile interacts with the circulating beam to obtain the desired effect. Electron lenses were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for beam-beam compensation, for abort-gap clearing, and for halo scraping. They will be used in RHIC at BNL for head-on beam-beam compensation, and their application to the Large Hadron Collider for halo control is under development. At Fermilab, electron lenses will be implemented as lattice elements for nonlinear integrable optics. The design of electron lenses requires tools to calculate the kicks and wakefields experienced by the circulating beam. We use the Warp particle-in-cell code to study generation, transport, and evolution of the electron beam. For the first time, a fully 3-dimensional code is used for this purpose.

  18. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B. (eds.) (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA); International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (USA). Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  19. Inelastic electron-vortex-beam scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Boxem, Van, Ruben; Partoens, Bart; Verbeeck, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Recent theoretical and experimental developments in the field of electron-vortex-beam physics have raised questions about what exactly this novelty in the field of electron microscopy (and other fields, such as particle physics) really provides. An important part of the answer to these questions lies in scattering theory. The present investigation explores various aspects of inelastic quantum scattering theory for cylindrically symmetric beams with orbital angular momentum. The mode...

  20. An Electronically Controlled 8-Element Switched Beam Planar Array

    KAUST Repository

    Sharawi, Mohammad S.

    2015-02-24

    An 8-element planar antenna array with electronically controlled switchable-beam pattern is proposed. The planar antenna array consists of patch elements and operates in the 2.45 GHz ISM band. The array is integrated with a digitally controlled feed network that provides the required phases to generate 8 fixed beams covering most of the upper hemisphere of the array. Unlike typical switchable beam antenna arrays, which operate only in one plane, the proposed design is the first to provide full 3D switchable beams with simple control. Only a 3-bit digital word is required for the generation of the 8 different beams. The integrated array is designed on a 3-layer PCB on a Taconic substrate (RF60A). The total dimensions of the fabricated array are 187.1 × 261.3 × 1.3mm3.

  1. Calculation of Electron Beam Potential Energy from RF Photocathode Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Liu Wan Ming; Power, John G; Wang, Haitao

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the contribution of potential energy to beam dynamics as simulated by PARMELA at low energies (10 - 30MeV). We have developed a routine to calculate the potential energy of the relativistic electron beam using the static coulomb potential in the rest frame (first order approximation as in PARMELA). We found that the potential energy contribution to the beam dynamics could be very significant, particularly with high charge beams generated by an RF photocathode gun. Our results show that when the potential energy is counted correctly and added to the kinetic energy from PARMELA, the total energy is conserved. Simulation results of potential and kinetic energies for short beams (~1 mm) at various charges (1 - 100 nC) generated by a high current RF photocathode gun are presented.

  2. A Compact Beam Source for Free Electron Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingchang; Xu, Zhizhan; Yu, Jinhui; Lee, Byung Cheol; Lee, Jongmin

    2000-10-01

    A compact beam source produced by pseudospark discharge for free electron lasers is developed. An impedance match between a Marx generator and a pseudospark discharge chamber is analyzed, the impedance characteristic curve for the pseudospark discharge chamber is measured for the first time. The configuration of the new device is described, it has a length of one meter; the original pulse line accelerator has total length of 6 meters. A voltage of 300 kV, a current of 4 kA for the compact device is measured. The electron beam has a diameter of 1.5 mm and has self-pinch effect. The beam has a brightness of 10^12 A/(m rad)^2, as same as a brightness from photo-cathode. The compact beam source can be used for free electron lasers and high power switch.

  3. Phase retrieval of an electron vortex beam using diffraction holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturi, Federico; Campanini, Marco; Gazzadi, Gian Carlo; Balboni, Roberto; Frabboni, Stefano; Boyd, Robert W.; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Karimi, Ebrahim; Grillo, Vincenzo

    2017-11-01

    In both light optics and electron optics, the amplitude of a wave scattered by an object is an observable that is usually recorded in the form of an intensity distribution in a real space image or a diffraction image. In contrast, retrieval of the phase of a scattered wave is a well-known challenge, which is usually approached by interferometric or numerical methods. In electron microscopy, as a result of constraints in the lens setup, it is particularly difficult to retrieve the phase of a diffraction image. Here, we use a "defocused beam" generated by a nanofabricated hologram to form a reference wave that can be interfered with a diffracted beam. This setup provides an extended interference region with the sample wavefunction in the Fraunhofer plane. As a case study, we retrieve the phase of an electron vortex beam. Beyond this specific example, the approach can be used to retrieve the wavefronts of diffracted beams from a wide range of samples.

  4. Coulomb-Driven Relativistic Electron Beam Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chao; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Shengguang; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Lingrong; Zhu, Pengfei; Xiang, Dao; Zhang, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Coulomb interaction between charged particles is a well-known phenomenon in many areas of research. In general, the Coulomb repulsion force broadens the pulse width of an electron bunch and limits the temporal resolution of many scientific facilities such as ultrafast electron diffraction and x-ray free-electron lasers. Here we demonstrate a scheme that actually makes use of the Coulomb force to compress a relativistic electron beam. Furthermore, we show that the Coulomb-driven bunch compression process does not introduce additional timing jitter, which is in sharp contrast to the conventional radio-frequency buncher technique. Our work not only leads to enhanced temporal resolution in electron-beam-based ultrafast instruments that may provide new opportunities in probing material systems far from equilibrium, but also opens a promising direction for advanced beam manipulation through self-field interactions.

  5. The effect of neodymium on the microcracks generated on the Al–17.5Si alloy surface treated by high current pulsed electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Liang; Gao, Bo, E-mail: gaob@smm.neu.edu.cn; Zhu, Guanglin; Hao, Yi; Sun, Shuchen; Tu, Ganfeng

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: SEM results demonstrate that microcracks are remarkably removed from the Al–17.5Si alloy surface after HCPEB treatment due to Nd element, and they decrease in length at high pulse number, showing a decrease in the stress concentration in the primary Si phase during the cooling process of HCPEB, as shown in Fig. 1. Therefore, the microcrack elimination is attributed to reducing the stress concentration. - Highlights: • The main highlights in this paper are summarized as follows: (1) After adding rare earth Nd, the microcracks are remarkably removed from an Al–17.5Si alloy surface by HCPEB, resulting in an improved corrosion resistance of the alloy surface. (2) A site-fixed observation of SEM is first proposed in HCPEB-treated technology, and a microcrack evolution with increasing pulsed numbers is observed for alloy surfaces using this method. (3) The elimination mechanism of microcracks with rare earth Nd is first presented in the present work. (4) Compound modification of rare earth Nd and HCPEB technology on the Al–17.5Si alloy is first investigated. - Abstract: In the present work, the effect of Nd on the microcracks generated on an Al–17.5Si alloy surface by a high current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) was investigated. By a newly proposed site-fixed observation, the propagation of microcracks with increasing pulsed numbers first increases and then decreases due to the Nd element. The crack density decreases from 0.0669 mm/mm{sup 2} of 5 pulses to 0.00687 mm/mm{sup 2} of 50 pulses. EPMA analysis results indicate that Nd is uniformly distributed on the HCPEB-treated alloy surface. Nano-silicon particles and nano-Al cellular structures were formed by TEM observation, showing grain refinement of the alloy surface. The microcrack elimination is attributed to a decrease in the stress concentration in the primary Si phase during the cooling process of HCPEB. The electrochemical measurement shows that the corrosion current density

  6. Automatic joint tracking for CNC-programmed electron beam welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, M.J.; Powers, D.E.

    1985-08-01

    In an effort to provide a means for actively maintaining precise alignment during an entire welding procedure, various types of contact and non-contact joint sensing and tracking methods have been investigated over the years. A stylus riding in the groove or a cam follower running along a machined reference surface that parallels the groove, coupled to a transducer for producing a signal indicative of seam path runout, is one method that has been investigated. Another is the employment of light-sensitive devices, used in both a comparative and a discerning fashion to produce a signal indicative of beam-to-joint alignment. Also, electronic detectors that monitor the magnitude of either electron or x-ray emission coming back from a workpiece and produce a signal indicative of beam-to-joint alignment deviations have been investigated. Of the various methods tried, the one which has proved to be ideal for use in joint sensing and tracking during EB welding is that of monitoring the ''secondary'' electron backflow that results when a workpiece is bombarded with a beam of ''primary'' electrons. This is because the primary electron beam producing this secondary electron backflow is the welding beam itself. Since the welding beam becomes the means for measuring joint location, the technique of sensing secondary electron backflow automatically provides a direct correlation between the actual welding beam position and the joint location measured. Thus, any need for calibrating an auxiliary joint location device to actual welding beam position is eliminated. In addition, this method is least affected by the high amount of vapor and spatter generated during welding. In this article, a system employing Secondary Electron Emission Sensing (SEES) to provide an on-line (''realtime''), truly automatic joint tracking capability will be discussed.

  7. Microwave Chip-Based Beam Splitter for Low-Energy Guided Electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Jakob; Thomas, Sebastian; Weber, Philipp; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2015-06-26

    We present a novel beam splitter for low-energy electrons using a micro-structured guiding potential created above the surface of a planar microwave chip. Beam splitting arises from smoothly transforming the transverse guiding potential for an electron beam from a single-well harmonic confinement into a double well, thereby generating two separated output beams with 5 mm lateral spacing. Efficient beam splitting is observed for electron kinetic energies up to 3 eV, in excellent agreement with particle tracking simulations. We discuss prospects of this novel beam splitter approach for electron-based quantum matter-wave optics experiments.

  8. Beam Instrumentation for the Single Electron DAFNE Beam Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzitelli, G; Valente, P; Vescovi, M

    2003-01-01

    The DAΦNE Beam Test Facility (BTF) has been successfully commissioned in February 2002, and started operation in November of the same year. Although the BTF is a beam transfer line optimized for single particle production, mainly for high energy detectors calibration, it can provide electrons and positrons in a wide range of multiplicity: between 1-1010, with energies from a few tens of MeV up to 800 MeV. The large multiplicity range requires many different diagnostic devices, from high-energy calorimeters and ionization/fluorescence chambers in the few particles range, to standard beam diagnostics systems. The schemes of operation, the commissioning results, as well as the beam diagnostics are presented.

  9. Effects of beam quality in a free-electron laser oscillator with two electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Soon-Kwon

    2017-11-01

    We have studied the electron beam quality in a free-electron laser (FEL) oscillator by using two electron beams of different harmonically related energies in the FEL facility, which is operated in the infrared and far-infrared regions. The electron beam quality, such as emittance, energy spread, and higher-order modes were studied using an extended three-dimensional (3D) FEL code for two electron beams that we have developed. The variations in the radiation amplitude of the electron beam's emittances, and energy spread were also calculated for a tapered wiggler for the multiparticle and multi-pass number using a new 3D code. The evolution of the radiation field intensity for higher-order modes of the wiggler with beam emittance and energy spread was studied for the two-electron beam's FEL performance. We found that the radiation intensity was degraded due to the energy spread and the emittance of the electron beam. We minimized the degradation of the radiation intensity by optimizing the tapered wiggler for the coupled two-beam FEL oscillator.

  10. A simple electron-beam lithography system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Kristian; Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard; Bøggild, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A large number of applications of electron-beam lithography (EBL) systems in nanotechnology have been demonstrated in recent years. In this paper we present a simple and general-purpose EBL system constructed by insertion of an electrostatic deflector plate system at the electron-beam exit...... of the column of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The system can easily be mounted on most standard SEM systems. The tested setup allows an area of up to about 50 x 50 pm to be scanned, if the upper limit for acceptable reduction of the SEM resolution is set to 10 run. We demonstrate how the EBL system can...... be used to write three-dimensional nanostructures by electron-beam deposition. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  11. Microwave bessel beams generation using guided modes

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed

    2011-06-01

    A novel method is devised for Bessel beams generation in the microwave regime. The beam is decomposed in terms of a number of guided transverse electric modes of a metallic waveguide. Modal expansion coefficients are computed from the modal power orthogonality relation. Excitation is achieved by means of a number of inserted coaxial loop antennas, whose currents are calculated from the excitation coefficients of the guided modes. The efficiency of the method is evaluated and its feasibility is discussed. Obtained results can be utilized to practically realize microwave Bessel beam launchers. © 2006 IEEE.

  12. Multi-GeV electron beam and high brightness betatron x-ray generation in recent Texas Petawatt laser-driven plasma accelerator experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Fazel, Neil; Li, Zhengyan; Zhang, Xi; Henderson, Watson; Chang, Yen-Yu; Korzekwa, Rick; Tsai, H.-E.; Quevedo, Hernan; Dyer, Gilliss; Gaul, Erhard; Martinez, Mikael; Bernstein, Aaron; Spinks, Michael; Gordan, Joseph; Donovan, Michael; Khudik, Vladimir; Shvets, Gennady; Ditmire, Todd; Downer, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Compact laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs) driven by petawatt (PW) lasers have produced highly collimated, quasi-monoenergetic multi-GeV electron bunches with ~100 pC charge, which are promising sources of ultrafast x-rays. Here we report three recent advances in PW-LPA performance brought about by optimizing the focal volume of the Texas PW laser with a deformable mirror. First, we accelerated electrons up to 3 GeV with hundreds of pC over 1 GeV and 1 GeV, 10% >2 GeV). Third, by introducing a double-peaked laser focus, creating a ``double bubble'' that subsequently merged, we significantly increased electron charge (0.5 nC) above 1 GeV, while producing brighter (1022photon/mm2/rad/0.1%), harder (up to 30 keV) betatron x-rays, characterized by a multi-metal filter pack and phase-contrast imaging. We observe evidence of dimuon production by irradiating a high-Z target with this high-charge, GeV electron beam.

  13. PEPPo: Using a Polarized Electron Beam to Produce Polarized Positrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeyemi, Adeleke H. [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States); et al.

    2015-09-01

    Polarized positron beams have been identified as either an essential or a significant ingredient for the experimental program of both the present and next generation of lepton accelerators (JLab, Super KEK B, ILC, CLIC). An experiment demonstrating a new method for producing polarized positrons has been performed at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility at Jefferson Lab. The PEPPo (Polarized Electrons for Polarized Positrons) concept relies on the production of polarized e⁻/e⁺ pairs from the bremsstrahlung radiation of a longitudinally polarized electron beam interacting within a high-Z conversion target. PEPPo demonstrated the effective transfer of spin-polarization of an 8.2 MeV/c polarized (P~85%) electron beam to positrons produced in varying thickness tungsten production targets, and collected and measured in the range of 3.1 to 6.2 MeV/c. In comparison to other methods this technique reveals a new pathway for producing either high-energy or thermal polarized positron beams using a relatively low polarized electron beam energy (~10MeV) .This presentation will describe the PEPPo concept, the motivations of the experiment and high positron polarization achieved.

  14. Electron beam irradiation processing for industrial and medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Zehra Nur

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, electron beam processing has been widely used for medical and industrial applications. Electron beam accelerators are reliable and durable equipments that can produce ionizing radiation when it is needed for a particular commercial use. On the industrial scale, accelerators are used to generate electrons in between 0.1-100 MeV energy range. These accelerators are used mainly in plastics, automotive, wire and electric cables, semiconductors, health care, aerospace and environmental industries, as well as numerous researches. This study presents the current applications of electron beam processing in medicine and industry. Also planned study of a design for such a system in the energy range of 200-300 keV is introduced.

  15. Energy Spread Reduction of Electron Beams Produced via Laser Wake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollock, Bradley Bolt [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Laser wakefield acceleration of electrons holds great promise for producing ultra-compact stages of GeV scale, high quality electron beams for applications such as x-ray free electron lasers and high energy colliders. Ultra-high intensity laser pulses can be self-guided by relativistic plasma waves over tens of vacuum diffraction lengths, to give >1 GeV energy in cm-scale low density plasma using ionization-induced injection to inject charge into the wake at low densities. This thesis describes a series of experiments which investigates the physics of LWFA in the self-guided blowout regime. Beginning with high density gas jet experiments the scaling of the LWFA-produced electron beam energy with plasma electron density is found to be in excellent agreement with both phenomenological theory and with 3-D PIC simulations. It is also determined that self-trapping of background electrons into the wake exhibits a threshold as a function of the electron density, and at the densities required to produce electron beams with energies exceeding 1 GeV a different mechanism is required to trap charge into low density wakes. By introducing small concentrations of high-Z gas to the nominal He background the ionization-induced injection mechanism is enabled. Electron trapping is observed at densities as low as 1.3 x 1018 cm-3 in a gas cell target, and 1.45 GeV electrons are demonstrated for the first time from LWFA. This is currently the highest electron energy ever produced from LWFA. The ionization-induced trapping mechanism is also shown to generate quasi-continuous electron beam energies, which is undesirable for accelerator applications. By limiting the region over which ionization-induced trapping occurs, the energy spread of the electron beams can be controlled. The development of a novel two-stage gas cell target provides the capability to tailor the gas composition in the longitudinal direction, and confine the trapping process to occur only in a

  16. Peculiar rotation of electron vortex beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachinger, T; Löffler, S; Stöger-Pollach, M; Schattschneider, P

    2015-11-01

    Standard electron optics predicts Larmor image rotation in the magnetic lens field of a TEM. Introducing the possibility to produce electron vortex beams with quantized orbital angular momentum brought up the question of their rotational dynamics in the presence of a magnetic field. Recently, it has been shown that electron vortex beams can be prepared as free electron Landau states showing peculiar rotational dynamics, including no and cyclotron (double-Larmor) rotation. Additionally very fast Gouy rotation of electron vortex beams has been observed. In this work a model is developed which reveals that the rotational dynamics of electron vortices are a combination of slow Larmor and fast Gouy rotations and that the Landau states naturally occur in the transition region in between the two regimes. This more general picture is confirmed by experimental data showing an extended set of peculiar rotations, including no, cyclotron, Larmor and rapid Gouy rotations all present in one single convergent electron vortex beam. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Multi-electron beam system for high resolution electron beam induced deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bruggen, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a multi-electron beam system is described which is dedicated for electron beam induced deposition (EBID) with sub-10 nm resolution. EBID is a promising mask-less nanolithography technique which has the potential to become a viable technique for the fabrication of 20-2 nm

  18. Preliminary investigations on high energy electron beam tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baertling, Yves; Hoppe, Dietrich; Hampel, Uwe

    2010-12-15

    In computed tomography (CT) cross-sectional images of the attenuation distribution within a slice are created by scanning radiographic projections of an object with a rotating X-ray source detector compound and subsequent reconstruction of the images from these projection data on a computer. CT can be made very fast by employing a scanned electron beam instead of a mechanically moving X-ray source. Now this principle was extended towards high-energy electron beam tomography with an electrostatic accelerator. Therefore a dedicated experimental campaign was planned and carried out at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Novosibirsk. There we investigated the capabilities of BINP's accelerators as an electron beam generating and scanning unit of a potential high-energy electron beam tomography device. The setup based on a 1 MeV ELV-6 (BINP) electron accelerator and a single detector. Besides tomographic measurements with different phantoms, further experiments were carried out concerning the focal spot size and repeat accuracy of the electron beam as well as the detector's response time and signal to noise ratio. (orig.)

  19. Foil focusing of relativistic electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Jr., Carl August [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-26

    When an intense relativistic electron beams (IREB) passes through a grounded metal foil, the transverse electric field due to the beam space charge is locally shorted out, and the beam is focused by the magnetic field of its current. The effect can be treated as focusing by a thin lens with first order aberration. Expressions for the focal length and aberration coefficient of the equivalent thin lens are developed in this note. These are then applied to practical examples representative of IREB research at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  20. Spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion and spin-polarization filtering in electron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ebrahim; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Grillo, Vincenzo; Santamato, Enrico

    2012-01-27

    We propose the design of a space-variant Wien filter for electron beams that induces a spin half-turn and converts the corresponding spin angular momentum variation into orbital angular momentum of the beam itself by exploiting a geometrical phase arising in the spin manipulation. When applied to a spatially coherent input spin-polarized electron beam, such a device can generate an electron vortex beam, carrying orbital angular momentum. When applied to an unpolarized input beam, the proposed device, in combination with a suitable diffraction element, can act as a very effective spin-polarization filter. The same approach can also be applied to neutron or atom beams.

  1. Dosimetry for Electron Beam Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne

    1983-01-01

    This report describes two aspects of electron bean dosimetry, on one hand developaent of thin fil« dosimeters and measurements of their properties, and on the other hand developaent of calorimeters for calibration of routine dosimeters, e.g. thin films. Two types of radiochromic thin film...

  2. Electron beam damage in high temperature polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. (Dayton Univ., OH (USA). Research Inst.); Adams, W.W. (Air Force Materials Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Electron microscopic studies of polymers are limited due to beam damage. Two concerns are the damage mechanism in a particular material, and the maximum dose for a material before damage effects are observed. From the knowledge of the dose required for damage to the polymer structure, optimum parameters for electron microscopy imaging can be determined. In the present study, electron beam damage of polymers has been quantified by monitoring changes in the diffraction intensity as a function of electron dose. The beam damage characteristics of the following polymers were studied: poly(p-phenylene benzobisthiazole) (PBZT); poly(p-phenylene benzobisoxazole) (PBO); poly(benzoxazole) (ABPBO); poly(benzimidazole) (ABPBI); poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA); and poly(aryl ether ether ketone) (PEEK). Previously published literature results on polyethylene (PE), polyoxymethylene (POM), nylon-6, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), PBZT, PPTA, PPX, iPS, poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), and poly(phenylene sulphide) (PPS) were reviewed. This study demonstrates the strong dependence of the electron beam resistivity of a polymer on its thermal stability/melt temperature. (author).

  3. Electron beam diagnostic for profiling high power beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, John W [Danville, CA; Palmer, Todd A [Livermore, CA; Teruya, Alan T [Livermore, CA

    2008-03-25

    A system for characterizing high power electron beams at power levels of 10 kW and above is described. This system is comprised of a slit disk assembly having a multitude of radial slits, a conducting disk with the same number of radial slits located below the slit disk assembly, a Faraday cup assembly located below the conducting disk, and a start-stop target located proximate the slit disk assembly. In order to keep the system from over-heating during use, a heat sink is placed in close proximity to the components discussed above, and an active cooling system, using water, for example, can be integrated into the heat sink. During use, the high power beam is initially directed onto a start-stop target and after reaching its full power is translated around the slit disk assembly, wherein the beam enters the radial slits and the conducting disk radial slits and is detected at the Faraday cup assembly. A trigger probe assembly can also be integrated into the system in order to aid in the determination of the proper orientation of the beam during reconstruction. After passing over each of the slits, the beam is then rapidly translated back to the start-stop target to minimize the amount of time that the high power beam comes in contact with the slit disk assembly. The data obtained by the system is then transferred into a computer system, where a computer tomography algorithm is used to reconstruct the power density distribution of the beam.

  4. Electron beams in research and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnert, R.

    1995-11-01

    Fast electrons lose their energy by inelastic collisions with electrons of target molecules forming secondary electrons and excited molecules. Coulomb interaction of secondary electrons with valence electrons of neighboring molecules leads to the formation of radical cations, thermalized electrons, excited molecular states and radicals. The primary reactive species initiate chemical reactions in the materials irradiated. Polymer modifications using accelerated electrons such as cross-linking of cable insulation, tubes, pipes and moldings, vulcanization of elastomers, grafting of polymer surfaces, processing of foamed plastics and heat shrinkable materials have gained wide industrial acceptance. A steadily growing electron beam technology is curing of paints, lacquers, printing inks and functional coatings. Electron beam processing offers high productivity, the possibility to treat the materials at normal temperature and pressure, excellent process control and clean production conditions. On an industrial scale the most important application of fast electrons is curing of 100% reactive monomer/prepolymer systems. Mainly acrylates and epoxides are used to formulate functional coatings on substrates such as paper, foil, wood, fibre board and high pressure laminates. A survey is given about the reaction mechanism of curing, the characterization of cured coatings, and of some industrial application.

  5. Gamma Putty dosimetric studies in electron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aime M Gloi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, lead has been used for field shaping in megavoltage electron beams in radiation therapy. In this study, we analyze the dosimetric parameters of a nontoxic, high atomic number (Z = 83, bismuth-loaded material called Gamma Putty that is malleable and can be easily molded to any desired shape. First, we placed an ionization chamber at different depths in a solid water phantom under a Gamma Putty shield of thickness (t = 0, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mm, respectively and measured the ionizing radiation on the central axis (CAX for electron beam ranging in energies from 6 to 20 MeV. Next, we investigated the relationship between the relative ionization (RI measured at a fixed depth for several Gamma Putty shield at different cutout diameters ranging from 2 to 5 cm for various beam energies and derived an exponential fitting equation for clinical purposes. The dose profiles along the CAX show that bremsstrahlung dominates for Gamma Putty thickness >15 mm. For high-energy beams (12-20 MeV and all Gamma Putty thicknesses up to 25 mm, RI below 5% could not be achieved due to the strong bremsstrahlung component. However, Gamma Putty is a very suitable material for reducing the transmission factor below 5% and protecting underlying normal tissues for low-energy electron beams (6-9 MeV.

  6. Radiative cooling of relativistic electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhirong [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Modern high-energy particle accelerators and synchrotron light sources demand smaller and smaller beam emittances in order to achieve higher luminosity or better brightness. For light particles such as electrons and positrons, radiation damping is a natural and effective way to obtain low emittance beams. However, the quantum aspect of radiation introduces random noise into the damped beams, yielding equilibrium emittances which depend upon the design of a specific machine. In this dissertation, the author attempts to make a complete analysis of the process of radiation damping and quantum excitation in various accelerator systems, such as bending magnets, focusing channels and laser fields. Because radiation is formed over a finite time and emitted in quanta of discrete energies, he invokes the quantum mechanical approach whenever the quasiclassical picture of radiation is insufficient. He shows that radiation damping in a focusing system is fundamentally different from that in a bending system. Quantum excitation to the transverse dimensions is absent in a straight, continuous focusing channel, and is exponentially suppressed in a focusing-dominated ring. Thus, the transverse normalized emittances in such systems can in principle be damped to the Compton wavelength of the electron, limited only by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. In addition, he investigates methods of rapid damping such as radiative laser cooling. He proposes a laser-electron storage ring (LESR) where the electron beam in a compact storage ring repetitively interacts with an intense laser pulse stored in an optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction gives rise to rapid cooling of electron beams and can be used to overcome the space charge effects encountered in a medium energy circular machine. Applications to the designs of low emittance damping rings and compact x-ray sources are also explored.

  7. Electron lenses for head-on beam-beam compensation in RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X.; Fischer, W.; Altinbas, Z.; Anerella, M.; Bajon, E.; Bannon, M.; Bruno, D.; Costanzo, M.; Drees, A.; Gassner, D. M.; Gupta, R. C.; Hock, J.; Harvey, M.; Jain, A. K.; Jamilkowski, J. P.; Kankiya, P.; Lambiase, R.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; Mapes, M.; Marusic, A.; Mi, C.; Michnoff, R.; Miller, T. A.; Minty, M.; Nemesure, S.; Ng, W.; Phillips, D.; Pikin, A. I.; Rosas, P. J.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Samms, T.; Sandberg, J.; Schoefer, V.; Shrey, T. C.; Tan, Y.; Than, R.; Theisen, C.; Thieberger, P.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wanderer, P.; Zhang, W.; White, S. M.

    2017-02-01

    Two electron lenses (e -lenses) have been in operation during the 2015 RHIC physics run as part of a head-on beam-beam compensation scheme. While the RHIC lattice was chosen to reduce the beam-beam-induced resonance-driving terms, the electron lenses reduced the beam-beam-induced tune spread. This has been demonstrated for the first time. The beam-beam compensation scheme allows for higher beam-beam parameters and therefore higher intensities and luminosity. In this paper, we detail the design considerations and verification of the electron beam parameters of the RHIC e -lenses. Longitudinal and transverse alignments with ion beams and the transverse beam transfer function measurement with head-on electron-proton beam are presented.

  8. Gas Electron multipliers for low energy beams

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, F; Ropelewski, L; Spanggaard, J; Tranquille, G

    2010-01-01

    Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) find their way to more and more applications in beam instrumentation. Gas Electron Multiplication uses a very similar physical phenomenon to that of Multi Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPC) but for small profile monitors they are much more cost efficient both to produce and to maintain. This paper presents the new GEM profile monitors intended to replace the MWPCs currently used at CERN’s low energy Antiproton Decelerator (AD). It will be shown how GEMs overcome the documented problems of profile measurements with MWPCs for low energy beams, where the interaction of the beam with the detector has a large influence on the measured profile. Results will be shown of profile measurements performed at 5 MeV using four different GEM prototypes, with discussion on the possible use of GEMs at even lower energies needed at the AD in 2013.

  9. Microsecond Electron Beam Source with Electron Energy Up to 400 Kev and Plasma Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullin, É. N.; Basov, G. F.; Shershnev, S.

    2017-12-01

    A new high-power source of electrons with plasma anode for producing high-current microsecond electron beams with electron energy up to 400 keV has been developed, manufactured, and put in operation. To increase the cross section and pulse current duration of the beam, a multipoint explosive emission cathode is used in the electron beam source, and the beam is formed in an applied external guiding magnetic field. The Marx generator with vacuum insulation is used as a high-voltage source. Electron beams with electron energy up to 300-400 keV, current of 5-15 kA, duration of 1.5-3 μs, energy up to 4 kJ, and cross section up to 150 cm2 have been produced. The operating modes of the electron beam source are realized in which the applied voltage is influenced weakly on the current. The possibility of source application for melting of metal surfaces is demonstrated.

  10. Generative electronic background music system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurowski, Lukasz [Faculty of Computer Science, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Zolnierska Street 49, Szczecin, PL (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions.

  11. The effects of electron beam rotation upon electron beam welded copper-304 couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysk, Kevin Tacy

    The United States Air Force, Arnold Engineering Development Center, has been using copper to 304 stainless steel couples made using the electron beam welding process during the fabrication of intrusive gas-path diagnostic probes for over five years. Only a limited physical analysis of the resulting welds had been done. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects that varying the rotation frequency of the electron beam had upon the mechanical characteristics of the copper to 304 stainless steel couples. All controllable weld process parameters were held constant with the exception of the electron beam rotation frequency; the rotation frequency was varied from 20 Hz to 180 Hz in steps of 20 Hz. Samples welded without electron beam rotation provided a baseline for comparison. Microhardness distributions showed that weld region homogeneity as evidenced by microhardness maps and optical microscopy was a function of the electron beam rotation frequency. There was no correlation between electron beam rotation frequency and weld tensile strength since each test coupon failed in the Cu base material outside of the weld region. The welds made at all electron beam rotation frequencies used for this study contained cracks within the weld region, heat affected zone (HAZ), or both. The relative number, length, and location of the individual cracks changed with electron beam rotation frequency. Cracking in the HAZ due to liquid metal embrittlement (LME) was not evident in those samples welded with the electron beam rotation frequencies below 100 Hz, Cracking due to LME outside of the weld region in the HAZ was observed to increase with the electron beam rotation frequency above 80 Hz. The relationship between weld region cracking and residual stress within the weld region was shown to be dependent on the electron beam rotation frequency. Cracking in the weld region was not observed in samples welded with the electron beam rotation frequency above 80 Hz

  12. Interaction of a Relativistic Electron Beam with Magnetized Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, Seth; Roytershteyn, Vadim; Cattell, Cynthia; van Compernolle, Bart; Delzanno, Gian Luca

    2017-10-01

    The interaction between relativistic electron beams and a magnetized plasma is a fundamental and practical problem that is relevant to many challenging issues in space physics and astrophysics. For example, it is well known that energetic particles in the Earth's radiation belts pose a danger to communication satellites. Compact electron beam sources may be used on future spacecraft to generate waves that would remove the energetic particles from the radiation belt region. A full understanding of the physics of these waves may also shed light on the mechanism for type II/III solar radio emissions. This talk will discuss experiments proposed to further advance understanding of the physical mechanisms governing beam-plasma interactions. The experiments and supporting simulations will investigate in detail the types of waves (whistler, Langmuir, etc.) produced by high-energy beams, beam stability, and feasibility for future space-based experiments. Experiments will be conducted on the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA using a unique variable-energy electron beam recently developed at Los Alamos. We will discuss the proposed experimental setup as well as ongoing feasibility studies conducted using theoretical estimates and kinetic simulations. Supported by NSF.

  13. Electron gun for a multiple beam klystron with magnetic compression of the electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Tran, Hien T; Bui, Thuc; Attarian, Adam; Tallis, William; David, John; Forstall, Virginia; Andujar, Cynthia; Blach, Noah T; Brown, David B; Gadson, Sean E; Kiley, Erin M; Read, Michael

    2013-10-01

    A multi-beam electron gun provides a plurality N of cathode assemblies comprising a cathode, anode, and focus electrode, each cathode assembly having a local cathode axis and also a central cathode point defined by the intersection of the local cathode axis with the emitting surface of the cathode. Each cathode is arranged with its central point positioned in a plane orthogonal to a device central axis, with each cathode central point an equal distance from the device axis and with an included angle of 360/N between each cathode central point. The local axis of each cathode has a cathode divergence angle with respect to the central axis which is set such that the diverging magnetic field from a solenoidal coil is less than 5 degrees with respect to the projection of the local cathode axis onto a cathode reference plane formed by the device axis and the central cathode point, and the local axis of each cathode is also set such that the angle formed between the cathode reference plane and the local cathode axis results in minimum spiraling in the path of the electron beams in a homogenous magnetic field region of the solenoidal field generator.

  14. Spatial Control of Laser Wakefield Accelerated Electron Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimchuk, A.; Behm, K.; Zhao, T.; Joglekar, A. S.; Hussein, A.; Nees, J.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Krushelnick, K.; Elle, J.; Lucero, A.; Samarin, G. M.; Sarry, G.; Warwick, J.

    2017-10-01

    The laser wakefield experiments to study and control spatial properties of electron beams were performed using HERCULES laser at the University of Michigan at power of 100 TW. In the first experiment multi-electron beam generation was demonstrated using co-propagating, parallel laser beams with a π-phase shift mirror and showing that interaction between the wakefields can cause injection to occur for plasma and laser parameters in which a single wakefield displays no significant injection. In the second experiment a magnetic triplet quadrupole system was used to refocus and stabilize electron beams at the distance of 60 cm from the interaction region. This produced a 10-fold increase in remote gamma-ray activation of 63Cu using a lead converter. In the third experiment measurements of un-trapped electrons with high transverse momentum produce a 500 mrad (FWHM) ring. This ring is formed by electrons that receive a forward momentum boost by traversing behind the bubble and its size is inversely proportional to the plasma density. The characterization of divergence and charge of this electron ring may reveal information about the wakefield structure and trapping potential. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy and the National Nuclear Security Administration and Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  15. Track-average LET of secondary electrons generated in LiF:Mg,Ti and liquid water by 20-300 kV x-ray, 137Cs and 60Co beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Santiago, A; Massillon-Jl, G

    2016-11-21

    Electrons generated in matter by photons could be a fundamental basis for an adequate analysis of radiation effects and damage. We have studied separately the 'primary electrons' generated directly by photons from the 'secondary electrons' (SE) produced by electron-electron interactions. In this work, track-average linear energy transfer, [Formula: see text], of SE in LiF:Mg,Ti and liquid water produced by twelve photon energy beams from 20 kV x-ray to 60Co gamma rays have been investigated using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo Code. The exposure of LiF:Mg,Ti in different phantom materials has been considered. Depending on the photon energy, SE represent 40%-90% of the total electron fluence (TEF) between 1 keV and 10 keV, being higher when the photon energy increases. Independent of the medium, [Formula: see text] versus mean photon energy displays a local minimum at around 40 keV, followed by a local maximum at ~80 keV-100 keV. The [Formula: see text] of SE generated by the x-ray beams are of order of 11 keV µm-1 to 19 keV µm-1 in LiF:Mg,Ti and 5 keV µm-1 to 9 keV µm-1 in liquid water which represent 3-5 times those produced by 60Co gamma rays in both media. These values were considerably greater than those of TEF, by factors of 3-8. Furthermore, [Formula: see text] of SE generated in liquid water by 20 kV-200 kV x-rays are similar to those of 76 MeV-120 MeV 3He ions. Contrary to the TEF, where [Formula: see text] were independent of the phantom material, at low photon energies [Formula: see text] of SE was found to be sensitive to the surrounding medium showing higher values within the phantom than in air. This result, which agrees with published experimental results, implies the importance of the SE ionization density for an understanding of dosimeter response induced by photon beams.

  16. Electron beam radiation for conjunctival squamous carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, Gerardo F; Tena, Lawrence B; Finger, Paul T

    2011-01-01

    To describe the authors' technique and preliminary results using electron beam radiation as rescue therapy for recalcitrant squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva and cornea. A retrospective review comprised of an interventional case series of patients with pathologically confirmed diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva and cornea, who had failed multiple standard treatments and underwent electron beam radiation therapy. Outcomes, radiation-related complications, and adverse effects were documented. Mortality and local control rates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier survival probability method. Eight patients met the inclusion criteria; of these, 6 (75%) were men and 2 (25%) were women, with ages ranging from 38 to 65 years (mean 50 years). One tumor (12.5%) was classified as T2N0M0, 6 (75%) were classified as T3N0M0, and one (12.5%) was classified as T4N0M0. Follow up from electron beam radiation therapy ranged from 3 to 72 months (mean 30.25 months). The most common side effect was erythema and edema of the eyelids with diffuse transient eyelash loss, seen in all patients. Tumor local control and regression after electron beam radiation therapy were noted in 6 patients (75%); recurrence was noted in 2. There was neither metastatic spread nor tumor-related deaths. The authors report a small case series where local tumor control was achieved with electron beam radiation therapy for recalcitrant squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva and cornea. This approach may be considered for patients who fail conventional therapy.

  17. Parallel electron-beam-induced deposition using a multi-beam scanning electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, P.C.; Mohammadi-Gheidari, A.; Hagen, C.W.; Kruit, P.

    2011-01-01

    Lithography techniques based on electron-beam-induced processes are inherently slow compared to light lithography techniques. The authors demonstrate here that the throughput can be enhanced by a factor of 196 by using a scanning electron microscope equipped with a multibeam electron source. Using

  18. Electron beam confinement and image contrast enhancement in near field emission scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, T L; De Pietro, L G; Pescia, D; Ramsperger, U

    2009-04-01

    In conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the lateral resolution is limited by the electron beam diameter impinging on the specimen surface. Near field emission scanning electron microscopy (NFESEM) provides a simple means of overcoming this limit; however, the most suitable field emitter remains to be determined. NFESEM has been used in this work to investigate the W (110) surface with single-crystal tungsten tips of (310), (111), and (100)-orientations. The topographic images generated from both the electron intensity variations and the field emission current indicate higher resolution capabilities with decreasing tip work function than with polycrystalline tungsten tips. The confinement of the electron beam transcends the resolution limitations of the geometrical models, which are determined by the minimum beam width.

  19. Acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian

    2016-05-31

    An acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam includes a housing; a plurality of spaced apart piezo-electric layers disposed within the housing; and a non-linear medium filling between the plurality of layers. Each of the plurality of piezoelectric layers is configured to generate an acoustic wave. The non-linear medium and the plurality of piezo-electric material layers have a matching impedance so as to enhance a transmission of the acoustic wave generated by each of plurality of layers through the remaining plurality of layers.

  20. Fast Electron Beam Simulation and Dose Calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Trindade, A; Peralta, L; Lopes, M C; Alves, C; Chaves, A

    2003-01-01

    A flexible multiple source model capable of fast reconstruction of clinical electron beams is presented in this paper. A source model considers multiple virtual sources emulating the effect of accelerator head components. A reference configuration (10 MeV and 10x10 cm2 field size) for a Siemens KD2 linear accelerator was simulated in full detail using GEANT3 Monte Carlo code. Our model allows the reconstruction of other beam energies and field sizes as well as other beam configurations for similar accelerators using only the reference beam data. Electron dose calculations were performed with the reconstructed beams in a water phantom and compared with experimental data. An agreement of 1-2% / 1-2 mm was obtained, equivalent to the accuracy of full Monte Carlo accelerator simulation. The source model reduces accelerator simulation CPU time by a factor of 7500 relative to full Monte Carlo approaches. The developed model was then interfaced with DPM, a fast radiation transport Monte Carlo code for dose calculati...

  1. Electron beam focusing in the magnetic field of a bent electron beam evaporator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Salahshoor

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the vacuum film deposition through electron beam evaporation has been reviewed and the effect of magnetic field on the operation of this system has been explained. Then, the magnetic field distribution due to magnetic components configuartion of a commercial evaporation source with 270-degree electron beam gun (manufactured by Sharif University Branch of ACECR, has been simulated by means of a finite element software, ANSYS. The simulation result was verified by comparing with the results obtained from measurement by Hall Effect sensor. Furthermore, by using the ray-tracing capability of the software, the capability of the magnetic lens of this device for electron beam focusing has been investigated. The predicted position of the electron beam spot on the target is in good agreement with experimental observations  

  2. Simplifying Electron Beam Channeling in Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ryan J; Mittal, Anudha; Odlyzko, Michael L; Mkhoyan, K Andre

    2017-08-01

    Sub-angstrom scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) allows quantitative column-by-column analysis of crystalline specimens via annular dark-field images. The intensity of electrons scattered from a particular location in an atomic column depends on the intensity of the electron probe at that location. Electron beam channeling causes oscillations in the STEM probe intensity during specimen propagation, which leads to differences in the beam intensity incident at different depths. Understanding the parameters that control this complex behavior is critical for interpreting experimental STEM results. In this work, theoretical analysis of the STEM probe intensity reveals that intensity oscillations during specimen propagation are regulated by changes in the beam's angular distribution. Three distinct regimes of channeling behavior are observed: the high-atomic-number (Z) regime, in which atomic scattering leads to significant angular redistribution of the beam; the low-Z regime, in which the probe's initial angular distribution controls intensity oscillations; and the intermediate-Z regime, in which the behavior is mixed. These contrasting regimes are shown to exist for a wide range of probe parameters. These results provide a new understanding of the occurrence and consequences of channeling phenomena and conditions under which their influence is strengthened or weakened by characteristics of the electron probe and sample.

  3. Electron Accelerators for Radioactive Ion Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lia Merminga

    2007-10-10

    The summary of this paper is that to optimize the design of an electron drive, one must: (a) specify carefully the user requirements--beam energy, beam power, duty factor, and longitudinal and transverse emittance; (b) evaluate different machine options including capital cost, 10-year operating cost and delivery time. The author is convinced elegant solutions are available with existing technology. There are several design options and technology choices. Decisions will depend on system optimization, in-house infrastructure and expertise (e.g. cryogenics, SRF, lasers), synergy with other programs.

  4. Statistical process control for electron beam monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Tarjuelo, Juan; Luquero-Llopis, Naika; García-Mollá, Rafael; Quirós-Higueras, Juan David; Bouché-Babiloni, Ana; Juan-Senabre, Xavier Jordi; de Marco-Blancas, Noelia; Ferrer-Albiach, Carlos; Santos-Serra, Agustín

    2015-07-01

    To assess the electron beam monitoring statistical process control (SPC) in linear accelerator (linac) daily quality control. We present a long-term record of our measurements and evaluate which SPC-led conditions are feasible for maintaining control. We retrieved our linac beam calibration, symmetry, and flatness daily records for all electron beam energies from January 2008 to December 2013, and retrospectively studied how SPC could have been applied and which of its features could be used in the future. A set of adjustment interventions designed to maintain these parameters under control was also simulated. All phase I data was under control. The dose plots were characterized by rising trends followed by steep drops caused by our attempts to re-center the linac beam calibration. Where flatness and symmetry trends were detected they were less-well defined. The process capability ratios ranged from 1.6 to 9.3 at a 2% specification level. Simulated interventions ranged from 2% to 34% of the total number of measurement sessions. We also noted that if prospective SPC had been applied it would have met quality control specifications. SPC can be used to assess the inherent variability of our electron beam monitoring system. It can also indicate whether a process is capable of maintaining electron parameters under control with respect to established specifications by using a daily checking device, but this is not practical unless a method to establish direct feedback from the device to the linac can be devised. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. PLASMA EMISSION BY COUNTER-STREAMING ELECTRON BEAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziebell, L. F.; Petruzzellis, L. T.; Gaelzer, R. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Yoon, P. H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Pavan, J., E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br, E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu, E-mail: joel.pavan@ufpel.edu.br [Instituto de Física e Matemática, UFPel, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

    2016-02-10

    The radiation emission mechanism responsible for both type-II and type-III solar radio bursts is commonly accepted as plasma emission. Recently Ganse et al. suggested that type-II radio bursts may be enhanced when the electron foreshock geometry of a coronal mass ejection contains a double hump structure. They reasoned that the counter-streaming electron beams that exist between the double shocks may enhance the nonlinear coalescence interaction, thereby giving rise to more efficient generation of radiation. Ganse et al. employed a particle-in-cell simulation to study such a scenario. The present paper revisits the same problem with EM weak turbulence theory, and show that the fundamental (F) emission is not greatly affected by the presence of counter-streaming beams, but the harmonic (H) emission becomes somewhat more effective when the two beams are present. The present finding is thus complementary to the work by Ganse et al.

  6. Electronics and Calibration system for the CMS Beam Halo Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Nicolò; Fabbri, Franco L; Finkel, Alexey; Orfanelli, Stella; Loos, R; Montanari, Alessandro; Rusack, R; Stickland, David P

    2014-01-01

    In the context of increasing luminosity of LHC, it will be important to accurately measure the Machine Induced Background. A new monitoring system will be installed in the cavern of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment for measuring the beam background at high radius. This detector is composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators, coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The readout chain of this detector will make use of many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadron Calorimeter electronics, with a dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal will be digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics will record bunch-by-bunch histograms, which will be published to CMS and the LHC using the newly designed CMS beam instrumentation specific DAQ. A calibration monitoring system has been designed to generate triggered pulses of...

  7. Electron beam analysis of particulate cometary material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, John

    1989-01-01

    Electron microscopy will be useful for characterization of inorganic dust grains in returned comet nucleus samples. The choice of instrument(s) will depend primarily on the nature of the samples, but ultimately a variety of electron-beam methods could be employed. Scanning and analytical (transmission) electron microscopy are the logical choise for morphological, mineralogical, and bulk chemical analyses of dust grains removed from ices. It may also be possible to examine unmelted ice/dust mixtures using an environmental scanning electron microscope equipped with a cryo-transfer unit and a cold stage. Electron microscopic observations of comet nuclei might include: (1) porosities of dust grains; (2) morphologies and microstructures of individual mineral grains; (3) relative abundances of olivine, pyroxene, and glass; and (4) the presence of phases that might have resulted from aqueous alteration (layer silicates, carbonates, sulfates).

  8. Electron beam throughput from raster to imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zywno, Marek

    2016-12-01

    Two architectures of electron beam tools are presented: single beam MEBES Exara designed and built by Etec Systems for mask writing, and the Reflected E-Beam Lithography tool (REBL), designed and built by KLA-Tencor under a DARPA Agreement No. HR0011-07-9-0007. Both tools have implemented technologies not used before to achieve their goals. The MEBES X, renamed Exara for marketing purposes, used an air bearing stage running in vacuum to achieve smooth continuous scanning. The REBL used 2 dimensional imaging to distribute charge to a 4k pixel swath to achieve writing times on the order of 1 wafer per hour, scalable to throughput approaching optical projection tools. Three stage architectures were designed for continuous scanning of wafers: linear maglev, rotary maglev, and dual linear maglev.

  9. Electron Beam Welding of Gear Wheels by Splitted Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dřímal Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with the issue of electron beam welding of high-accurate gear wheels composed of a spur gearing and fluted shaft joined with a face weld for automotive industry. Both parts made of the high-strength low-alloy steel are welded in the condition after final machining and heat treatment, performed by case hardening, whereas it is required that the run-out in the critical point of weldment after welding, i. e. after the final operation, would be 0.04 mm max..

  10. Proximity effect of electron beam lithography on single-electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    monly used technique in this field, and many researchers have been investigating its application to make nanopatterns. In electron beam lithography, the well-known proximity effect refers to .... electrodes are grounded. The charging effect, which blocks the injection/ejection of a single charge into/from a quantum dot, ...

  11. Compact two-beam push-pull free electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Andrew [Yorktown, VA

    2009-03-03

    An ultra-compact free electron laser comprising a pair of opposed superconducting cavities that produce identical electron beams moving in opposite directions such that each set of superconducting cavities accelerates one electron beam and decelerates the other electron beam. Such an arrangement, allows the energy used to accelerate one beam to be recovered and used again to accelerate the second beam, thus, each electron beam is decelerated by a different structure than that which accelerated it so that energy exchange rather than recovery is achieved resulting in a more compact and highly efficient apparatus.

  12. Experimental Studies of Compensation of Beam-Beam Effects with Tevatron Electron Lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab; Alexahin, Yu.; Bishofberger, Kip; Kamerdzhiev, V.; Parkhomchuk, V.; Reva, V.; Solyak, N.; Wildman, D.; Zhang, X.-L.; Zimmermann, F.; /Fermilab /Los Alamos /Novosibirsk, IYF /CERN

    2008-02-01

    Applying the space-charge forces of a low-energy electron beam can lead to a significant improvement of the beam-particle lifetime limit arising from the beam-beam interaction in a high-energy collider [1]. In this article we present the results of various beam experiments with 'electron lenses', novel instruments developed for the beam-beam compensation at the Tevatron, which collides 980-GeV proton and antiproton beams. We study the dependencies of the particle betatron tunes on the electron beam current, energy and position; we explore the effects of electron-beam imperfections and noises; and we quantify the improvements of the high-energy beam intensity and the collider luminosity lifetime obtained by the action of the Tevatron Electron Lenses.

  13. Experimental studies of compensation of beam-beam effects with Tevatron electron lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, V; Alexahin, Y; Kamerdzhiev, V; Solyak, N; Wildman, D; Zhang, X-L [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Bishofberger, K [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Parkhomchuk, V; Reva, V [Budker INP, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Zimmermann, F [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneve (Switzerland)], E-mail: shiltsev@fnal.gov

    2008-04-15

    Applying the space-charge forces of a low-energy electron beam can lead to a significant improvement of the beam-particle lifetime limit arising from the beam-beam interaction in a high-energy collider. In this paper, we present the results of various beam experiments with 'electron lenses', novel instruments developed for the beam-beam compensation at the Tevatron, which collides 980 GeV proton and antiproton beams. We study the dependencies of the particle betatron tunes on the electron beam current, energy and position; we explore the effects of electron-beam imperfections and noises; and we quantify the improvements of the high-energy beam intensity and the collider luminosity lifetime obtained by the action of the Tevatron electron lenses.

  14. Disabling CNT Electronic Devices by Use of Electron Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, Mihail

    2008-01-01

    Bombardment with tightly focused electron beams has been suggested as a means of electrically disabling selected individual carbon-nanotubes (CNTs) in electronic devices. Evidence in support of the suggestion was obtained in an experiment in which a CNT field-effect transistor was disabled (see figure) by focusing a 1-keV electron beam on a CNT that served as the active channel of a field-effect transistor (FET). Such bombardment could be useful in the manufacture of nonvolatile-memory circuits containing CNT FETs. Ultimately, in order to obtain the best electronic performances in CNT FETs and other electronic devices, it will be necessary to fabricate the devices such that each one contains only a single CNT as an active element. At present, this is difficult because there is no way to grow a single CNT at a specific location and with a specific orientation. Instead, the common practice is to build CNTs into electronic devices by relying on spatial distribution to bridge contacts. This practice results in some devices containing no CNTs and some devices containing more than one CNT. Thus, CNT FETs have statistically distributed electronic characteristics (including switching voltages, gains, and mixtures of metallic and semiconducting CNTs). According to the suggestion, by using a 1-keV electron beam (e.g., a beam from a scanning electron microscope), a particular nanotube could be rendered electrically dysfunctional. This procedure could be repeated as many times as necessary on different CNTs in a device until all of the excess CNTs in the device had been disabled, leaving only one CNT as an active element (e.g., as FET channel). The physical mechanism through which a CNT becomes electrically disabled is not yet understood. On one hand, data in the literature show that electron kinetic energy >86 keV is needed to cause displacement damage in a CNT. On the other hand, inasmuch as a 1-keV beam focused on a small spot (typically a few tens of nanometers wide

  15. System of video observation for electron beam welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laptenok, V. D.; Seregin, Y. N.; Bocharov, A. N.; Murygin, A. V.; Tynchenko, V. S.

    2016-04-01

    Equipment of video observation system for electron beam welding process was developed. Construction of video observation system allows to reduce negative effects on video camera during the process of electron beam welding and get qualitative images of this process.

  16. Study on local vacuum electron beam welding of flange rim

    CERN Document Server

    He Cheng Dan; Ying Lei; Xu Qi Jin

    2002-01-01

    Local vacuum electron beam welding and its application prospect in military and civil industry are introduced. A home made local vacuum electron beam welding is completed. Its main technical parameters and key techniques are also presented

  17. Experiments on Ion Space-Charge Neutralization with Pulsed Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Herleb, U

    1996-01-01

    The method of space-charge neutralization of heavy ion beams with electron beam pulses generated with electron guns incorporating ferroelectric cathodes has been experimentally investigated. Several experiments are described, the results of which prove that the intensity of selected ion beam parts with defined charge states generated in a laser ion source may be increased by one order of magnitude. For elevated charge states the intensity amplification is more significant than for low charge states. For $Al^(7+)$ ions from an aluminium target a charge enhancement by a factor of 4 has been achieved by electron beam focusing.

  18. Tailoring laser wakefield accelerated electron beams. An experimental study on the influence of experimental conditions on electron beam parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couperus, Jurjen P.; Koehler, Alexander; Zarini, Omid; Huebl, Axel; Schramm, Ulrich [Institute of Radiation Physics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Jochmann, Axel; Debus, Alexander; Irman, Arie [Institute of Radiation Physics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) has emerged as a promising concept for the next generation of high energy electron accelerators. In LFWA a high intensity ultrashort laser pulse drives plasma density waves, inducing a high accelerating field gradient in the order of GV/m. To create stable reproducible electron beams, tailoring of experimental parameters like gas density, laser energy and laser pulse duration is required. In this talk we present an overview of our experimental studies with the DRACO (3 J on target, 30 fs) laser on ultrasonic gas-jet targets (He and He-N{sub 2} mixtures). We discuss the influence of experimental parameters on beam parameters like beam charge, shot-to-shot stability and energy distribution, both in the self-injecting bubble regime as well as in the ionisation injection regime.

  19. Investigation of the clinical potential of scattering foil free electron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldib, Ahmed; Jin, Lihui; Li, Jinsheng; Ma, C-M Charlie

    2014-02-21

    Electron beam therapy has been an important radiation therapy modality for many decades. Studies have been conducted recently for more efficient and advanced delivery of electron beam radiation therapy. X-ray contamination is a common problem that exists with all of the advanced electron beam therapy techniques such as Bolus Electron conformal therapy, segmented electron conformal therapy, and modulated electron arc therapy. X-ray contamination could add some limitations to the advancement and clinical utility of those electron modalities. It was previously shown in the literature that the scattering foil is one of the major accelerator parts contributing to the generation of bremsstrahlung photons. Thus, in this work we investigate the dosimetric characteristics of scattering foil free (SFF) electron beams and the feasibility of using those beams for breast cancer boosts. The SFF electron beams were modeled and simulated using the Monte Carlo method. CT scans of six previously treated breast patients were used for the treatment plan generation utilizing our in-house Monte Carlo-based treatment planning system. Electron boost plans with conventional beams and the SFF beams were generated, respectively, for all patients. A significant reduction of the photon component was observed with the removal of the primary scattering foil for beam energies higher than 12 MeV. Flatness was greatly affected but the difference in flatness between conventional and SFF beams was much reduced for small cone sizes, which were often used clinically for breast boosts. It was found that the SFF electron beams could deliver high-quality dose distributions as conventional electron beams for boost treatments of the breast with an added advantage of a further reduced dose to the lung and the heart.

  20. Electron Beam Welding of Gear Wheels by Splitted Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dřímal, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    This contribution deals with the issue of electron beam welding of high-accurate gear wheels composed of a spur gearing and fluted shaft joined with a face weld for automotive industry. Both parts made of the high-strength low-alloy steel are welded in the condition after final machining and heat treatment, performed by case hardening, whereas it is required that the run-out in the critical point of weldment after welding, i. e. after the final operation, would be 0.04 mm max.. In case of common welding procedure, cracks were formed in the weld, initiated by spiking in the weld root. Crack formation was prevented by the use of an interlocking joint with a rounded recess and suitable welding parameters, eliminating crack initiation by spiking in the weld root. Minimisation of the welding distortions was achieved by the application of tack welding with simultaneous splitting of one beam into two parts in the opposite sections of circumferential face weld attained on the principle of a new system of controlled deflection with digital scanning of the beam. This welding procedure assured that the weldment temperature after welding would not be higher than 400 °C. Thus, this procedure allowed achieving the final run-outs in the critical point of gearwheels within the maximum range up to 0.04 mm, which is acceptable for the given application. Accurate optical measurements did not reveal any changes in the teeth dimensions.

  1. submitter Parametric study of transport beam lines for electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Scisciò, M; Migliorati, M; Mostacci, A; Palumbo, L; Papaphilippou, Y; Antici, P

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, laser-plasma acceleration of high-energy electrons has attracted strong attention in different fields. Electrons with maximum energies in the GeV range can be laser-accelerated within a few cm using multi-hundreds terawatt (TW) lasers, yielding to very high beam currents at the source (electron bunches with up to tens-hundreds of pC in a few fs). While initially the challenge was to increase the maximum achievable electron energy, today strong effort is put in the control and usability of these laser-generated beams that still lack of some features in order to be used for applications where currently conventional, radio-frequency (RF) based, electron beam lines represent the most common and efficient solution. Several improvements have been suggested for this purpose, some of them acting directly on the plasma source, some using beam shaping tools located downstream. Concerning the latter, several studies have suggested the use of conventional accelerator magnetic devices (such as quadrupo...

  2. Electron vortex beams in a magnetic field and spin filter

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Debashree; Basu, Banasri; Bandyopadhyay, Pratul

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the propagation of electron vortex beams in a magnetic field. It is pointed out that when electron vortex beams carrying orbital angular momentum propagate in a magnetic field, the Berry curvature associated with the scalar electron moving in a cyclic path around the vortex line is modified from that in free space. This alters the spin-orbit interaction, which affects the propagation of nonparaxial beams. The electron vortex beams with tilted vortex lead to spin Hall effect in ...

  3. Electron beam position monitor for a dielectric microaccelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Ken; Peralta, Edgar A; England, R Joel; Wu, Ziran; Colby, Eric R; Makasyuk, Igor; MacArthur, James P; Ceballos, Andrew; Byer, Robert L

    2014-08-15

    We report the fabrication and first demonstration of an electron beam position monitor for a dielectric microaccelerator. This device is fabricated on a fused silica substrate using standard optical lithography techniques and uses the radiated optical wavelength to measure the electron beam position with a resolution of 10 μm, or 7% of the electron beam spot size. This device also measures the electron beam spot size in one dimension.

  4. Modification of Biodegradable Polyesters Using Electron Beam

    OpenAIRE

    M. Suhartini

    2013-01-01

    Poly(4-Hydroxybutirat) P4HB, Poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) PBSA and Poly(-caprolactone) PCL were electron beam (EB)-irradiated. Poly(4-Hydroxybutirat) was irradiated without any polyfunctional monomers (PFM). While PBSA and PCL were irradiated in the presence of polyfunctional monomers such as Trimethallyl isocyanurate (TMAIC), Polyethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (2G, 4G), Trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPT) and Tetramethylolmethane tetraacrylate (A-TMMT) at ambient temperature. Ai...

  5. Modification of Biodegradable Polyesters Using Electron Beam

    OpenAIRE

    M. Suhartini

    2013-01-01

    Poly(4-Hydroxybutirat)p4hb, Poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) PBSA and Poly(e-caprolactone) PCL were electron beam (EB)-irradiated. Poly(4-Hydroxybutirat) was irradiated without any polyfunctional monomers (PFM). While PBSA and PCL were irradiated in the presence of polyfunctional monomers such asTrimethallyl isocyanurate (TMAIC), Polyethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (2G, 4G), Trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPT) and Tetramethylolmethane tetraacrylate (A-TMMT) at ambient temperature. Ai...

  6. Electron beam flue gas treatment process. Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkonen, V.A. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Chmielewski, A.G. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The basis of the process for electron beam flue gas treatment are presented in the report. In tabular form the history of the research is reviewed. Main dependences of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal efficiencies on different physico-chemical parameters are discussed. Trends concerning industrial process implementation are presented in the paper,finally. (author). 74 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab.

  7. Preventing Contamination In Electron-Beam Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, Wesley D.; Gulbrandsen, Kevin A.; Oleksiak, Carl

    1990-01-01

    Simple expedient eliminates time-consuming, expensive manual hand grinding. Use of groove and backup tube greatly reduces postweld cleanup in some electron-beam welding operations. Tube-backup method developed for titanium parts, configurations of which prevents use of solid-block backup. In new welding configuration, tube inserted in groove to prevent contact between alumina beads and molten weld root. When welding complete and beads and tube removed, only minor spatter remains and is ground away easily.

  8. Susceptor heating device for electron beam brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antieau, Susan M.; Johnson, Robert G. R.

    1999-01-01

    A brazing device and method are provided which locally apply a controlled amount of heat to a selected area, within a vacuum. The device brazes two components together with a brazing metal. A susceptor plate is placed in thermal contact with one of the components. A serrated pedestal supports the susceptor plate. When the pedestal and susceptor plate are in place, an electron gun irradiates an electron beam at the susceptor plate such that the susceptor plate is sufficiently heated to transfer heat through the one component and melt the brazing metal.

  9. Process variation in electron beam sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jeffrey A.

    2012-08-01

    The qualification and control of electron beam sterilization can be improved by the application of proven statistical analysis techniques such as Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Statistical Tolerance Limits. These statistical techniques can be useful tools in: Locating and quantifying the minimum and maximum absorbed dose in a product. Estimating the expected process maximum dose, given a minimum sterilizing dose. Setting a process minimum dose target, based on an allowance for random measurement and process variation. Determining the dose relationship between a reference dosimeter and process minimum and maximum doses. This study investigates and demonstrates the application of these tools in qualifying electron beam sterilization, and compares the conclusions obtained with those obtained using practices recommended in Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) TIR 29 (2002) Guide for Process Control in Radiation Sterilization. The study supports the following conclusions for electron beam processes: ANOVA is a more effective tool for evaluating the equivalency of absorbed doses than methods suggested in AAMI TIR29 (2002). Process limits computed using statistical tolerance limits more accurately reflect actual process variability than the AAMI method, which applies +/-2 sample standard deviations (s) regardless of sample size. The use of reference dose ratios lends itself to qualification using statistical tolerance limits. The current AAMI recommended approach may result in an overly optimistic estimate of the reference dose adjustment factor, as it is based on application of +/-2(s) tolerances regardless of sample size.

  10. Effects of electron beam irradiation on tin dioxide gas sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Abstract. In this paper, the effects of electron beam irradiation on the gas sensing performance of tin dioxide thin films toward H2 are studied. The tin dioxide thin films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The results show that the sensitivity increased after electron beam irradiation. The electron beam irradiation.

  11. Theoretical study on effects of exposure pattern width on line edge roughness and stochastic defect generation in fabrication of 16-nm-half-pitch line-and-space patterns by electron beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Tamura, Takao

    2017-11-01

    The resolution of electron beam (EB) mask writers has reached a 16 nm half-pitch. The suppression of stochastic phenomena such as line edge roughness (LER) and stochastic defect generation is an important issue in the high-resolution fabrication of photomasks and nanoimprint molds. In this study, the effects of exposure pattern width on LER and stochastic defect generation were theoretically investigated on the basis of the sensitization and reaction mechanisms of chemically amplified EB resists. The exposure pattern width affected stochastic bridging more than stochastic pinching and LER. The optimum pattern widths for the suppression of stochastic bridging in the fabrication of 16-nm-half-pitch line-and-space patterns were 8, 8, 10, and 12 nm for the sensitivities of 300, 240, 180, and 120 µC cm-2, respectively.

  12. Laser interactions with high brightness electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malton, Stephen P.

    The International Linear Collider will be a high-precision machine to study the next energy frontier in particle physics. At the TeV energy scale, the ILC is expected to deliver luminosities in excess of 1034 cni" 2s_1. In order to achieve this, beam conditions must be monitored throughout the machine. Measurment of the beam emittance is essential to ensuring that the high luminosity can be provided at the interaction point. At the de sign beam sizes in the ILC beam delivery system, the Laserwire provides a non-invasive real-time method of measuring the emittance by the method of inverse Compton scattering. The prototype Laserwire at the PETRA stor age ring has produced consistent results with measured beam sizes of below 100 /nn. The Energy Recovery Linac Prototype (ERLP) is a technology testbed for the 4th Generation Light Source (4GLS). Inverse Compton scattering can be used in the ERLP as a proof of concept for a proposed 4GLS upgrade, and to produce soft X-rays for condensed matter experiments. The design constraints for the main running mode of the ERLP differ from those required for inverse Compton scattering. Suitable modifications to the optical lattice have been developed under the constraint that no new magnetic structures may be introduced, and the resulting photon distributions are described.

  13. A Gridded Electron Gun for a Sheet Beam Klystron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, M. E.; Miram, G.; Ives, R. L.; Ivanov, V.; Krasnykh, A.

    2003-12-01

    Calabazas Creek Research, Inc.(CCR) is developing rectangular, gridded, thermionic, dispenser-cathode guns for sheet beam devices. The first application is expected to be klystrons for advanced particle accelerators and colliders. The current generation of accelerators typically use klystrons with a cylindrical beam generated by a Pierce-type electron gun. As RF power is pushed to higher levels, space charge forces in the electron beam limit the amount of current that can be transmitted at a given voltage. The options are to increase the beam voltage, leading to problems with X-Ray shielding and modulator and power supply design, or to develop new techniques for lowering the space charge forces in the electron beam. In this device, the beam has a rectangular cross section. The thickness is constrained as it would in a normal, cylindrically symmetric klystron with a Pierce gun. However, the width of the beam is many times the thickness, and the resulting cross sectional area is much larger than in the conventional device. This allows much higher current and/or a lower voltage before space charge forces become too high. The current program addresses issues related to beam formation at the emitter surface, design and implementation of shadow and control grids in a rectangular geometry. It is directed toward a robust, cost-effective, and reliable mechanical design. A prototype device will be developed that will operate at 415 kV, 250 A for an 80 MW, X-Band, sheet-beam klystron. The cathode will have 100 cm2 of cathode area with an average cathode current loading of 2.5 A/cm2. For short pulse formation, the use of a grid was chosen. The gun has been designed with a combination of 2-D and 3-D codes. 2-D codes were used to determine the starting point for the electrodes to produce the compression (which is in only 1 direction.) These results showed that a very high quality beam could be achieved even in the presence of the shadow grid. 3-D results have shown that the

  14. Radial electron-beam-breakup transit-time oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostrom, M.A. [Mission Research Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kwan, T.J.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-01-01

    A new radially-driven electron-beam-breakup transit-time oscillator has been investigated analytically and through computer simulation as a compact low-impedance high-power microwave generator. In a 1MV, 50kA device 35cm in radius and 15cm long, with no external magnetic field, 5GW of extracted power and a growth rate of 0.26/ns have been observed. Theoretical maximum efficiencies are several times higher.

  15. Generation of linearly polarized resonant transition radiation X-ray beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yajima, Kazuaki; Awata, Takaaki; Ikeda, Mitsuharu; Ikeda, Kenichi; Yogo, Akifumi; Itoh, Akio; Imanishi, Nobutsugu [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2000-03-01

    We have proposed a method to generate almost linearly polarized resonant transition radiation X rays by using a rectangular slit placed on an electron beam axis. Our calculation predicted that the linearity is 93.5% for the resonant transition radiation X-ray beam extracted through a slit of 0.5 mrad long and 0.2 mrad wide in case of 1-GeV electron beam irradiating a 7.5-{mu}m thick Kapton foil stack. (author)

  16. Plasma Charge Current for Controlling and Monitoring Electron Beam Welding with Beam Oscillation

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriy Shchavlev; Anatoliy Piskunov; Aleksandr Abdullin; Vladimir Belenkiy; Georgy Mladenov; Dmitriy Trushnikov

    2012-01-01

    Electron beam welding (EBW) shows certain problems with the control of focus regime. The electron beam focus can be controlled in electron-beam welding based on the parameters of a secondary signal. In this case, the parameters like secondary emissions and focus coil current have extreme relationships. There are two values of focus coil current which provide equal value signal parameters. Therefore, adaptive systems of electron beam focus control use low-frequency scanning of focus, which sub...

  17. First test of BNL electron beam ion source with high current density electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikin, Alexander, E-mail: pikin@bnl.gov; Alessi, James G., E-mail: pikin@bnl.gov; Beebe, Edward N., E-mail: pikin@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Shornikov, Andrey; Mertzig, Robert; Wenander, Fredrik; Scrivens, Richard [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2015-01-09

    A new electron gun with electrostatic compression has been installed at the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) Test Stand at BNL. This is a collaborative effort by BNL and CERN teams with a common goal to study an EBIS with electron beam current up to 10 A, current density up to 10,000 A/cm{sup 2} and energy more than 50 keV. Intensive and pure beams of heavy highly charged ions with mass-to-charge ratio < 4.5 are requested by many heavy ion research facilities including NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL and HIE-ISOLDE at CERN. With a multiampere electron gun, the EBIS should be capable of delivering highly charged ions for both RHIC facility applications at BNL and for ISOLDE experiments at CERN. Details of the electron gun simulations and design, and the Test EBIS electrostatic and magnetostatic structures with the new electron gun are presented. The experimental results of the electron beam transmission are given.

  18. Combined phenomena of beam-beam and beam-electron cloud interactionsin circular e^{+}e^{-} colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhito Ohmi

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available An electron cloud causes various effects in high intensity positron storage rings. The positron beam and the electron cloud can be considered a typical two-stream system with a certain plasma frequency. Beam-beam interaction is another important effect for high luminosity circular colliders. Colliding two beams can be considered as a two-stream system with another plasma frequency. We study the combined phenomena of the beam-electron cloud and beam-beam interactions from a viewpoint of two complex two-stream effects with two plasma frequencies.

  19. Radial Moment Calculations of Coupled Electron-Photon Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRANKE,BRIAN C.; LARSEN,EDWARD W.

    2000-07-19

    The authors consider the steady-state transport of normally incident pencil beams of radiation in slabs of material. A method has been developed for determining the exact radial moments of 3-D beams of radiation as a function of depth into the slab, by solving systems of 1-D transport equations. They implement these radial moment equations in the ONEBFP discrete ordinates code and simulate energy-dependent, coupled electron-photon beams using CEPXS-generated cross sections. Modified P{sub N} synthetic acceleration is employed to speed up the iterative convergence of the 1-D charged particle calculations. For high-energy photon beams, a hybrid Monte Carlo/discrete ordinates method is examined. They demonstrate the efficiency of the calculations and make comparisons with 3-D Monte Carlo calculations. Thus, by solving 1-D transport equations, they obtain realistic multidimensional information concerning the broadening of electron-photon beams. This information is relevant to fields such as industrial radiography, medical imaging, radiation oncology, particle accelerators, and lasers.

  20. Improvement of Galilean refractive beam shaping system for accurately generating near-diffraction-limited flattop beam with arbitrary beam size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haotong; Liu, Zejin; Jiang, Pengzhi; Xu, Xiaojun; Du, Shaojun

    2011-07-04

    We propose and demonstrate the improvement of conventional Galilean refractive beam shaping system for accurately generating near-diffraction-limited flattop beam with arbitrary beam size. Based on the detailed study of the refractive beam shaping system, we found that the conventional Galilean beam shaper can only work well for the magnifying beam shaping. Taking the transformation of input beam with Gaussian irradiance distribution into target beam with high order Fermi-Dirac flattop profile as an example, the shaper can only work well at the condition that the size of input and target beam meets R(0) ≥ 1.3 w(0). For the improvement, the shaper is regarded as the combination of magnifying and demagnifying beam shaping system. The surface and phase distributions of the improved Galilean beam shaping system are derived based on Geometric and Fourier Optics. By using the improved Galilean beam shaper, the accurate transformation of input beam with Gaussian irradiance distribution into target beam with flattop irradiance distribution is realized. The irradiance distribution of the output beam is coincident with that of the target beam and the corresponding phase distribution is maintained. The propagation performance of the output beam is greatly improved. Studies of the influences of beam size and beam order on the improved Galilean beam shaping system show that restriction of beam size has been greatly reduced. This improvement can also be used to redistribute the input beam with complicated irradiance distribution into output beam with complicated irradiance distribution.

  1. Estimation of the Processing Parameters in Electron Beam Thermal Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Dulau, Mircea

    2014-01-01

    Electron beam have many special properties which make them particularly well suited for use in materials handling through melting, welding, surface treatment, etc., taking into account that this manufacturing is performed in vacuum. The use of electron beam for surface limited heat treatment of workpiece has brought about a noticeable extension of the beam technologies. Some theoretical aspects and simulation results are presented in this paper, considering a high power electron beam processi...

  2. Suppression of COTR in electron beam imaging diagnosis at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Minjie

    2012-05-15

    The Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) demands electron beams with high peak current to generate high-brilliant, coherent X-ray pulses. Magnetic chicanes are used for longitudinal compression of the electron bunches to achieve the required high peak current. During bunch compression process, microstructures with a modulation length comparable to the visible light can be induced inside the bunch. This leads to coherent emission of optical transition radiation (OTR), which may impede the widely used beam diagnostic based on OTR imaging. In this thesis, two methods of using incoherent scintillation light are proposed to circumvent the problem of coherence effects in beam imaging diagnostics. The method of temporal separation has been proved experimentally to have successfully suppressed coherence effects. The longitudinal beam profiles measured using this method are in good agreement with reference measurements, verifying further the reliability of the method. The method of spatial separation has been investigated in preparation studies, from which an improved experimental setup has been designed.

  3. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080684; Fabbri, F.; Grassi, T.; Hughes, E.; Mans, J.; Montanari, A.; Orfanelli, S.; Rusack, R.; Torromeo, G.; Stickland, D.P.; Stifter, K.

    2016-01-01

    The CMS Beam Halo Monitor has been successfully installed in the CMS cavern in LHC Long Shutdown 1 for measuring the machine induced background for LHC Run II. The system is based on 40 detector units composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes. The readout electronics chain uses many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter electronics, with dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time, with few ns resolution, and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics uses microTCA technology and receives data via a high-speed 5 Gbps asynchronous link. It records histograms with sub-bunch crossing timing resolution and is readout by IPbus using the newly designed CMS data acquisition for non-event based data. The data is processed in real time and published to CMS and the LHC, providi...

  4. High energy electron beams from a laser wakefield acceleration with a long gas jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehoon; Hwangbo, Yong Hun; Lee, Shin-Yeong

    2017-09-01

    A long gas jet was used as a gas target for laser wake field acceleration to increase the energy and quality of the electron beam. When the plasma density was 7 × 1018 cm-3, quasi monoenergetic electron beams with a maximum energy of 152 MeV, a beam divergence 3 mrad, and a pointing stability 4 mrad were generated with a 5 mm long gas jet. The maximum energy was close to the theoretical limit predicted from the bubble model. This means that the length of the plasma was sufficiently long to accelerate the electron to the dephasing length after the electrons were self-injected by self-focusing. As the plasma density increased, the dephasing length decreased and the electron energy decreased. The continuous injection with higher density plasmas generated highly diverging beams. As the laser power increased, a number of electron beams with different propagation directions were generated. As shown by the measured shadowgram, the laser was divided into several filaments and each filament accelerated electron beam having different directions. The electron beam generated at this time decreased as the laser energy decreased due the division of the laser into different directions.

  5. Polystyrene as a zwitter resist in electron beam lithography based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The resist action of polystyrene (w, 2,600,000) towards electroless deposition of gold on Si(100) surface following cross-linking by exposing to a 10 kV electron beam, has been investigated employing a scanning electron microscope equipped with electron beam lithography tool. With a low dose of electrons (21 C/cm2), ...

  6. Development of an Automatic Beam Focal Detection System for Electron Beam Welding

    OpenAIRE

    Seigo, Hiramoto; Megumi, OHMINE; Masahiko, SAKAMOTO; Manufacturing Development Laboratory, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation

    1992-01-01

    In electron beam welding, it is very important to set the beam's focal position on a workpiece properly. However, it is very difficult to position one accurately in the case of workpieces having complex joint geometry. A new beam focal detection system has been developed as part of an intelligent wedling system for electron bearn welding. When electrons are irradiated on a workpiece, backscattered electrons, thermoelectrons, secondary electrons, ions or X-rays are emitted from the workpiece. ...

  7. Creation, Manipulation, And Diagnosis Of Intense, Relativistic Picosecond Photo-electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, S G

    2002-01-01

    The radio frequency photoinjector is the pre-eminent source for advanced electron beam applications that require extremely high phase space density (high brightness) beams. Because of their high phase space density, the collective fields generated by photoinjector beams dominate their behavior. These space-charge fields influence every aspect of the beam's handling, including its acceleration, measurement, and transport. The effects of space-charge must be carefully considered in all of these beam handling procedures in order to deliver the highest brightness beams possible. This dissertation investigates the space-charge dominated physical processes involved in the acceleration and propagation, emittance measurement, and magnetic compression of photoinjector beams. In the analysis of the behavior of these beams, emphasis is placed on the techniques used to compensate for space-charge forces, and maximize beam brightness. The rectilinear motion of a space-charge dominated beam is analyzed, including both line...

  8. Production and application of pulsed slow-positron beam using an electron LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Ohdaira, Toshiyuki; Mikado, Tomohisa [Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kobayashi, Yoshinori

    1997-03-01

    Slow-positron beam is quite useful for non-destructive material research. At the Electrotechnical Laboratory (ETL), an intense slow positron beam line by exploiting an electron linac has been constructed in order to carry out various experiments on material analysis. The beam line can generates pulsed positron beams of variable energy and of variable pulse period. Many experiments have been carried out so far with the beam line. In this paper, various capability of the intense pulsed positron beam is presented, based on the experience at the ETL, and the prospect for the future is discussed. (author)

  9. Beam lifetime measurement and analysis in Indus-2 electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the beam lifetime measurement and its theoretical analysis are presented using measured vacuum pressure and applied radio frequency (RF) cavity voltage in Indus-2 electron storage ring at 2 GeV beam energy. Experimental studies of the effect of RF cavity voltage and bunched beam filling pattern on beam ...

  10. Two-Beam Instability in Electron Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burov, Alexey V.; /Fermilab

    2006-04-01

    The drift motion of cooling electrons makes them able to respond to transverse perturbations of a cooled ion beam. This response may lead to dipole or quadrupole transverse instabilities at specific longitudinal wave numbers. While the dipole instabilities can be suppressed by a combination of the Landau damping, machine impedance, and the active damper, the quadrupole and higher order modes can lead to either emittance growth, or a lifetime degradation, or both. The growth rates of these instabilities are strongly determined by the machine x-y coupling. Thus, tuning out of the coupling resonance and/or reduction of the machine coupling can be an efficient remedy for these instabilities.

  11. Spatial Control of Photoemitted Electron Beams using a Micro-Lens-Array Transverse-Shaping Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halavanau, A. [Northern Illinois U.; Qiang, G. [Tsinghua U., Beijing, Dept. Eng. Phys.; Ha, G. [POSTECH; Wisniewski, E. [Argonne (main); Piot, P. [NIU, DeKalb; Power, J. G. [Argonne (main); Gai, W. [Argonne (main)

    2017-07-24

    A common issue encountered in photoemission electron sources used in electron accelerators is the transverse inhomogeneity of the laser distribution resulting from the laser-amplification process and often use of frequency up conversion in nonlinear crystals. A inhomogeneous laser distribution on the photocathode produces charged beams with lower beam quality. In this paper, we explore the possible use of microlens arrays (fly-eye light condensers) to dramatically improve the transverse uniformity of the drive laser pulse on UV photocathodes. We also demonstrate the use of such microlens arrays to generate transversely-modulated electron beams and present a possible application to diagnose the properties of a magnetized beam.

  12. Advanced Electron Beam Diagnostics for the FERMI FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Ferianis, M; D'Auria, G; Di Mitri, S

    2005-01-01

    Fermi is the fourth generation light source currently under design at ELETTRA: based on the Harmonic Generation (HG) scheme it will generate FEL radiation in the 100-10nm range. The successful implementation of the HG scheme calls also for precise knowledge of electron beam emittances and energy spread as well as for very accurate control on the photon to electron interaction, in the Undulator sections. In this paper we present our design for two fundamental Diagnostics foreseen for the new FERMI LINAC: the Beam Position Monitors (BPM) and the Transverse Deflecting cavity set-up. Sensitivity studies on transverse beam displacement effects on global stability of FEL output radiation dictate the ultimate performance to be provided by the BPM system. Due to non negligible longitudinal occupancy of a cavity type BPM, some efforts have been put to study compact cavity BPM configuration. A proper set-up of RF deflecting cavity combined with the vertical ramp foreseen at the end of the LINAC provide a powerful tool ...

  13. Thermal and optical properties of electron beam irradiated cellulose triacetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouh, S. A.; Mohamed, Amal; El Hussieny, H. M.

    2009-06-01

    Samples from Cellulose triacetate (CTA) sheets were irradiated with electron beam in the dose range 10-200 kGy. Non-isothermal studies were carried out using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to obtain the activation energy of thermal decomposition for CTA polymer. The CTA samples decompose in one main break down stage. The results indicate that the irradiation by electron beam in the dose range 80-200 kGy increases the thermal stability of the polymer samples. Also, the variation of melting temperatures with the electron dose has been determined using differential thermal analysis (DTA). The CTA polymer is characterized by the appearance of one endothermic peak due to melting. It is found that the irradiation in the dose range 10-80 kGy causes defects generation that splits the crystals depressing the melting temperature, while at higher doses (80-200 kGy), the thickness of crystalline structure (lamellae) is increased, thus the melting temperature increases. In addition, the transmission of these samples in the wavelength range 200-2500 nm, as well as any color changes, were studied. The color intensity Δ E* was greatly increased on increasing the electron beam dose, and accompanied by a significant increase in the blue color component.

  14. Focused electron beam induced deposition: A perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Huth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID is a direct-writing technique with nanometer resolution, which has received strongly increasing attention within the last decade. In FEBID a precursor previously adsorbed on a substrate surface is dissociated in the focus of an electron beam. After 20 years of continuous development FEBID has reached a stage at which this technique is now particularly attractive for several areas in both, basic and applied research. The present topical review addresses selected examples that highlight this development in the areas of charge-transport regimes in nanogranular metals close to an insulator-to-metal transition, the use of these materials for strain- and magnetic-field sensing, and the prospect of extending FEBID to multicomponent systems, such as binary alloys and intermetallic compounds with cooperative ground states.Results: After a brief introduction to the technique, recent work concerning FEBID of Pt–Si alloys and (hard-magnetic Co–Pt intermetallic compounds on the nanometer scale is reviewed. The growth process in the presence of two precursors, whose flux is independently controlled, is analyzed within a continuum model of FEBID that employs rate equations. Predictions are made for the tunability of the composition of the Co–Pt system by simply changing the dwell time of the electron beam during the writing process. The charge-transport regimes of nanogranular metals are reviewed next with a focus on recent theoretical advancements in the field. As a case study the transport properties of Pt–C nanogranular FEBID structures are discussed. It is shown that by means of a post-growth electron-irradiation treatment the electronic intergrain-coupling strength can be continuously tuned over a wide range. This provides unique access to the transport properties of this material close to the insulator-to-metal transition. In the last part of the review, recent developments in mechanical

  15. Electron Beam Welding of Thick Copper Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broemssen, Bernt von [IVF Industriforskning och utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to review the two variants of the Electron Beam Welding (EBW) processes developed (or used) by 1- SKB, Sweden with assistance from TWI, England and 2 - POSIVA, Finland with assistance from Outokumpu, Finland. The aim was also to explain the principle properties of the EBW method: how it works, the parameters controlling the welding result but also giving rise to benefits, and differences between the EBW variants. The main conclusions are that both SKB and POSIVA will within a few years succeed to qualify their respective EBW method for welding of copper canisters. The Reduced Pressure EBW that SKB use today seems to be very promising in order to avoid root defects. If POSIVA does not succeed to avoid root defects with the high vacuum method and the beam oscillation technique it should be possible for POSIVA to incorporate the Reduced Pressure technique albeit with significant changes to the EBW equipment. POSIVA has possibly an advantage over SKB with the beam oscillation technique used, which gives an extra degree of freedom to affect the weld quality. The beam oscillation could be of importance for closing of the keyhole. Before EBW of lids, the material certification showing the alloy content (specifying min and max impurity percentages) and the mechanical properties should be checked. The welded material needs also to be tested for mechanical properties. If possible the weld should have a toughness level equal to that of the unwelded parent material. Specifically some conclusions are reported regarding the SKB equipment. Suggestions for further development are also given in the conclusion chapter.

  16. Contact lens surface by electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jung Hyuck [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Suk Ju; Hwang, Kwang Ha; Jeon Jin [Dongshin Univ., Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Contact lens materials needs good biocompatibility, high refractive index, high optical transparency, high water content etc. Surface treat method by using plasma and radiation can modify the physical and/or chemical properties of the contact lens surface. Radiation technology such as electron beam irradiation can apply to polymerization reaction and enhance the functionality of the polymer.The purpose of this study is to modify of contact lens surface by using Eb irradiation technology. Electron beam was irradiated to the contact lens surface which was synthesized thermal polymerization method and commercial contact lens to modify physical and chemical properties. Ft-IR, XP, UV-vis spectrophotometer, water content, oxygen trans-metastability were used to characterize the surface state, physicochemical, and optical property of the contact lens treated with Eb. The water content and oxygen transmissibility of the contact lens treated with Eb were increased due to increase in the hydrophilic group such as O-C=O and OH group on the contact lens surface which could be produced by possible reaction between carbon and oxygen during the Eb irradiation. All of the lenses showed the high optical transmittance above 90%. In this case of B/Es, TES, Ti contact lens, the optical transmittance decreased about 5% with increasing Eb dose in the wavelength of UV-B region. The contact lens modified by Eb irradiation could improve the physical properties of the contact lens such as water content and oxygen transmissibility.

  17. Polarization of a stored electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A.W.

    1981-07-01

    Synchrotron radiation by a point charge is a familiar subject in classical electrodynamics. Perhaps less familiar are some quantum mechanical corrections to the classical results. Some of those quantum aspects of synchrotron radiation are described. One of the quantum effects leads to the expectation that electrons in a storage ring will polarize themselves to 92% - a surprisingly high value. A semi-classical derivation of the quantum effects is given. An effort has been made to minimize the need of using quantum mechanics. Results are put together to derive a final expression of beam polarization. Conditions under which the expected 92% polarization is destroyed are found and attributed to depolarization resonances. The various depolarization mechanisms are first illustrated by an idealized example and then systematically treated by a matrix formalism. It is shown that the strength of depolarization is specified by a key quantity called the spin chromaticity. Finally as an application of the obtained results, an estimate of the achievable level of beam polarization for two existing electron storage rings, SPEAR and PEP, is given.

  18. High current precision long pulse electron beam position monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, S D; Fessenden, T J; Holmes, C

    2000-01-01

    Precision high current long pulse electron beam position monitoring has typically experienced problems with high Q sensors, sensors damped to the point of lack of precision, or sensors that interact substantially with any beam halo thus obscuring the desired signal. As part of the effort to develop a multi-axis electron beam transport system using transverse electromagnetic stripline kicker technology, it is necessary to precisely determine the position and extent of long high energy beams for accurate beam position control (6 - 40 MeV, 1 - 4 kA, 2 μs beam pulse, sub millimeter beam position accuracy.) The kicker positioning system utilizes shot-to-shot adjustments for reduction of relatively slow (< 20 MHz) motion of the beam centroid. The electron beams passing through the diagnostic systems have the potential for large halo effects that tend to corrupt position measurements.

  19. Interpenetrating Polymer Network (IPN) Adhesives for Electron Beam Cure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sands, James

    2000-01-01

    Electron beam (e-beam)-processed polymer adhesives have historically performed poorly compared to traditional adhesive technologies due to a lack of toughness engineered into these new types of adhesive materials...

  20. Unveiling the orbital angular momentum and acceleration of electron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiloh, Roy; Tsur, Yuval; Remez, Roei; Lereah, Yossi; Malomed, Boris A; Shvedov, Vladlen; Hnatovsky, Cyril; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Arie, Ady

    2015-03-06

    New forms of electron beams have been intensively investigated recently, including vortex beams carrying orbital angular momentum, as well as Airy beams propagating along a parabolic trajectory. Their traits may be harnessed for applications in materials science, electron microscopy, and interferometry, and so it is important to measure their properties with ease. Here, we show how one may immediately quantify these beams' parameters without need for additional fabrication or nonstandard microscopic tools. Our experimental results are backed by numerical simulations and analytic derivation.

  1. Strategies for mitigating the ionization-induced beam head erosion problem in an electron-beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. An

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for mitigating ionization-induced beam head erosion in an electron-beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA are explored when the plasma and the wake are both formed by the transverse electric field of the beam itself. Beam head erosion can occur in a preformed plasma because of a lack of focusing force from the wake at the rising edge (head of the beam due to the finite inertia of the electrons. When the plasma is produced by field ionization from the space charge field of the beam, the head erosion is significantly exacerbated due to the gradual recession (in the beam frame of the 100% ionization contour. Beam particles in front of the ionization front cannot be focused (guided causing them to expand as in vacuum. When they expand, the location of the ionization front recedes such that even more beam particles are completely unguided. Eventually this process terminates the wake formation prematurely, i.e., well before the beam is depleted of its energy. Ionization-induced head erosion can be mitigated by controlling the beam parameters (emittance, charge, and energy and/or the plasma conditions. In this paper we explore how the latter can be optimized so as to extend the beam propagation distance and thereby increase the energy gain. In particular we show that, by using a combination of the alkali atoms of the lowest practical ionization potential (Cs for plasma formation and a precursor laser pulse to generate a narrow plasma filament in front of the beam, the head erosion rate can be dramatically reduced. Simulation results show that in the upcoming “two-bunch PWFA experiments” on the FACET facility at SLAC national accelerator laboratory the energy gain of the trailing beam can be up to 10 times larger for the given parameters when employing these techniques. Comparison of the effect of beam head erosion in preformed and ionization produced plasmas is also presented.

  2. Proton beam shaped by “particle lens” formed by laser-driven hot electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, S. H.; Shen, B. F., E-mail: bfshen@mail.shcnc.ac.cn, E-mail: wwpvin@hotmail.com, E-mail: yqgu@caep.cn; Wang, W. P., E-mail: bfshen@mail.shcnc.ac.cn, E-mail: wwpvin@hotmail.com, E-mail: yqgu@caep.cn; Zhang, H.; Zhang, L. G.; Huang, S.; Xu, Z. Z. [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); He, S. K.; Lu, F.; Zhang, F. Q.; Deng, Z. G.; Dong, K. G.; Wang, S. Y.; Zhou, K. N.; Xie, N.; Wang, X. D.; Liu, H. J.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Gu, Y. Q., E-mail: bfshen@mail.shcnc.ac.cn, E-mail: wwpvin@hotmail.com, E-mail: yqgu@caep.cn; Zhang, B. H. [Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2016-05-23

    Two-dimensional tailoring of a proton beam is realized by a “particle lens” in our experiment. A large quantity of electrons, generated by an intense femtosecond laser irradiating a polymer target, produces an electric field strong enough to change the trajectory and distribution of energetic protons flying through the electron area. The experiment shows that a strip pattern of the proton beam appears when hot electrons initially converge inside the plastic plate. Then the shape of the proton beam changes to a “fountain-like” pattern when these hot electrons diffuse after propagating a distance.

  3. Simulation tools for pinched-electron-beam radiographic diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Humphries

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe capabilities of an integrated software suite to simulate pinched-electron-beam diodes for pulsed radiography. In contrast to other reported work using particle-in-cell methods, we employ a ray-tracing code (Trak with advanced capabilities for modeling beam-generated magnetic fields. Ray tracing is a direct approach to a steady-state solution and involves less work than a particle-in-cell calculation. The second software component, GamBet, is a new Monte Carlo code for radiation transport that incorporates effects of the complex electric and magnetic fields at the radiation target. The ray-tracing approach exhibits good convergence in calculations for the diode geometry of the compact radiography (CRAD program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. With a 1.5 MV, 30 ns driver, we predict that the diode can produce a beam with axial length ∼1  mm that generates isotropic bremsstrahlung radiation exceeding 1 rad at 1 m. The ray-tracing procedure encounters convergence problems when applied to the rod-pinch geometry, a configuration used in several pulsed radiographic machines. We observe a fundamental difference in the nature of electron orbits in the two diodes. There is an increased chance for particle-orbit feedback in the rod pinch, so that equilibrium solutions are sensitive to small changes in emission characteristics.

  4. Tomography of the electron beam transverse phase space at PITZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asova, Galina

    2013-09-15

    The operation of a Free Elector Laser, FEL, requires high energy, high peak current electron beams with small transverse emittance. In the contemporary FELs, the electron beam is passed through a periodic magnetic structure - an undulator - which modifies the straight beam trajectory into a sinusoidal one, where FEL light is generated at each bend. According to the energy, the transverse emittance and the peak current of the beam and the parameters of the undulator, FEL radiation with wavelength in the range of nano- to micrometers can be generated. Studies and development of FELs are done all over the world. The Free electron LASer in Hamburg, FLASH, and the international European X-ray FEL, XFEL, in Hamburg, Germany, are two leading projects of the Deutsches Elektronen SYnchrotron, DESY. Part of the research program on FELs in DESY is realized in Zeuthen within the project Photo-Injector Test Facility at DESY in Zeuthen, PITZ. PITZ is an international collaboration including Germany, Russia, Italy, France, Bulgaria, Thailand, United Kingdom. The Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, INRNE, at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences participates from bulgarian side. PITZ studies and optimizes the photo-injectors for FLASH and the XFEL. The research program emphasizes on detailed measurements of the transverse phase-space density distribution. Until 2010 the single slit scan technique has been used to measure the beam transverse distributions. At the end of 2010 a module for tomographic diagnostics has been installed which extends the possibilities of PITZ to measure simultaneously the two transverse planes of a single micropulse with improved signal-to-noise ratio. The difficult conditions of low emittance for high bunch charge and low energy make the operation of the module challenging. This thesis presents the design considerations for the tomography module, a number of reconstruction algorithms and their applicability to limited data sets, the influence

  5. Towards sub-A electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivanek, O.L.; Dellby, N. [Nion R and D, 1102 8th St., Kirkland, WA (United States); Lupini, A.R. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1999-06-01

    The prospects for reaching sub-A electron probes through aberration correction in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) are evaluated. The design, results and practical experience gained from a working 100 keV STEM C{sub S} corrector are presented and discussed. The design of a second-generation quadrupole-octupole C{sub S} corrector that pays particular attention to the influence of instabilities is outlined. Probe shapes calculated for the new corrector indicate that it will be able to produce a probe smaller than 1 A at 100 keV. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Regenerative Beam Breakup in Multi-Pass Electron Accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Arthur Malcolm, Jr.

    1980-12-01

    Important electron coincidence experiments in the 1 to 2 GeV range require electron beams of high intensity and high duty factor. To provide such beams, multi-pass electron accelerator systems are being developed at many laboratories. The beam current in multi-pass electron machines is limited by beam breakup which arises from interaction of the electron beam with deflection modes of the accelerator structure. Achieving high beam intensity (50 to 100 (mu)A) will require detailed understanding and careful control of beam breakup phenomena, and is the subject of this thesis. The TM(,11)-like traveling wave theory is applied to obtain a physical understanding of beam-mode interactions and the principles of focussing in simple two-pass systems, and is used as a basis for general studies of the dependence of starting current on accelerator parameters in systems of many passes. The concepts developed are applied in analyzing beam breakup in the superconducting recyclotron at Stanford. Measurements of beam interactions with selected breakup modes are incorporated in a simple model in order to estimate relative strengths of breakup modes and to predict starting currents in five-pass operation. The improvement over these predicted currents required in order to obtain 50 to 100 (mu)A beams is shown to be achievable with a combination of increased breakup mode loading and improved beam optics.

  7. Study on electron beam in a low energy plasma focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Muhammad Zubair, E-mail: mzubairkhan-um76@yahoo.com [Plasma Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Department of Physics, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Ling, Yap Seong; San, Wong Chiow [Plasma Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-03-05

    Electron beam emission was investigated in a low energy plasma focus device (2.2 kJ) using copper hollow anode. Faraday cup was used to estimate the energy of the electron beam. XR100CR X-ray spectrometer was used to explore the impact of the electron beam on the target observed from top-on and side-on position. Experiments were carried out at optimized pressure of argon gas. The impact of electron beam is exceptionally notable with two different approaches using lead target inside hollow anode in our plasma focus device.

  8. Development of hollow electron beams for proton and ion collimation

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari, G.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Still, D.A.; Valishev, A.; Vorobiev, L.G.; Assmann, R.; Kabantsev, A.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetically confined hollow electron beams for controlled halo removal in high-energy colliders such as the Tevatron or the LHC may extend traditional collimation systems beyond the intensity limits imposed by tolerable material damage. They may also improve collimation performance by suppressing loss spikes due to beam jitter and by increasing capture efficiency. A hollow electron gun was designed and built. Its performance and stability were measured at the Fermilab test stand. The gun will be installed in one of the existing Tevatron electron lenses for preliminary tests of the hollow-beam collimator concept, addressing critical issues such as alignment and instabilities of the overlapping proton and electron beams

  9. Development of hollow electron beams for proton and ion collimation

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari, G; Kuznetsov, G; Shiltsev, V; Still, D A; Valishev, A; Vorobiev, L G; Assmann, R; Kabantsev, A

    2012-01-01

    Magnetically confined hollow electron beams for controlled halo removal in high-energy colliders such as the Tevatron or the LHC may extend traditional collimation systems beyond the intensity limits imposed by tolerable material damage. They may also improve collimation performance by suppressing loss spikes due to beam jitter and by increasing capture efficiency. A hollow electron gun was designed and built. Its performance and stability were measured at the Fermilab test stand. The gun will be installed in one of the existing Tevatron electron lenses for preliminary tests of the hollow-beam collimator concept, addressing critical issues such as alignment and instabilities of the overlapping proton and electron beams.

  10. Electron beam diagnostic system using computed tomography and an annular sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.

    2015-08-11

    A system for analyzing an electron beam including a circular electron beam diagnostic sensor adapted to receive the electron beam, the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor having a central axis; an annular sensor structure operatively connected to the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor, wherein the sensor structure receives the electron beam; a system for sweeping the electron beam radially outward from the central axis of the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor to the annular sensor structure wherein the electron beam is intercepted by the annular sensor structure; and a device for measuring the electron beam that is intercepted by the annular sensor structure.

  11. Two-beam instability in electron cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Burov

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The drift motion of cooling electrons makes them able to respond to transverse perturbations of a cooled ion beam. This response may lead to dipole or quadrupole transverse instabilities at specific longitudinal wave numbers. While the dipole instabilities can be suppressed by a combination of the Landau damping, machine impedance, and the active damper, the quadrupole and higher order modes can lead to either emittance growth, or a lifetime degradation, or both. The growth rates of these instabilities are strongly determined by the machine x-y coupling. Thus, tuning out of the coupling resonance and/or reduction of the machine coupling can be an efficient remedy for these instabilities.

  12. Electron Cloud with Inverted Beam Screens

    CERN Document Server

    Maury Cuna, H; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of computer simulations studying the effect of wrongly oriented LHC beam screens on the local electron-cloud heat load and density. At 3.5 or 7-TeV energy and for maximum secondary emission-yield values below 1.5, with the inverted sawtooth orientation about ten times higher heat load is expected than for the standard orientation, and the wrongly oriented sawtooth chambers could lead to a local heatload bottleneck during the process of surface conditioning at 25-ns bunch spacing. The available cooling margin can be significantly increased by correcting the sawtooth orientations at least for two dipole magnets in LHC arc cells 26 and 32 R3, in order that there be no half-cell cooling loop containing more than one inverted screen.

  13. Electron Cloud with Inverted Beam Screens

    CERN Document Server

    Maury Cuna, H

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of computer simulations studying the effect of wrongly oriented LHC beam screens on the local electron-cloud heat load and density. At 3.5 or 7-TeV energy and for maximum secondary emission-yield values below 1.5, with the inverted sawtooth orientation about ten times higher heat load is expected than for the standard orientation, and the wrongly oriented sawtooth chambers could lead to a local heat-load bottleneck during the process of surface conditioning at 25-ns bunch spacing. The available cooling margin can be significantly increased by correcting the sawtooth orientations at least for two dipole magnets in LHC arc cells 26 and 32 R3, in order that there be no half-cell cooling loop containing more than one inverted screen.

  14. High Efficiency Transverse D. C. Electron Beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    current for Ing a diffraction grating of 280 groves per millimeter. This each enra sl teruin :s indicated onl the left oif the figure prov ided at...moaio niII.i ineacflint MeTw:iI 6003 I(- I1IJL3limmm I i-i Ii t ciM~ pdl )oi’l ii)iioikiixc)1 pWIIpn;jOB. ,)r CyllteC’rIcI 0IIIW 1lllrieCl;ie ll)CIINlyILC...yield ly shown in Fig. 2 where the electron-beam-created plasma is cathode materials had weak spectra. The first five materials visible. The cathode face

  15. Modelling of electron beam absorption in complex geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Alexander; Bauereiß, Andreas; Körner, Carolin

    2014-02-01

    Computational modelling of processes that involve highly energetic electrons like electron beam melting, welding, drilling or electron beam lithography, to name but a few, requires information about the attenuation of the electron beam as it passes through the sample. Depth-dose curves as a function of electron energy, target material as well as local surface obliquity have to be provided in situ during the calculation. The most efficient way to address this issue is by employing mathematical expressions. Therefore, we propose an electron beam model based on a set of semi-empirical equations available from different published literature and on theoretical considerations. Particular stress is thereby put on accuracy and the range of validity of the theoretical approach by comparison with experimental data. Finally, we apply our model to powder-bed based additive manufacturing. The numerical results demonstrate that electron beam absorption and depth of penetration have a strong influence on the quality of the fabricated product.

  16. Simulation of relativistically colliding laser-generated electron flows

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xiaohu; Sarri, Gianluca; Borghesi, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The plasma dynamics resulting from the simultaneous impact, of two equal, ultra-intense laser pulses, in two spatially separated spots, onto a dense target is studied via particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. The simulations show that electrons accelerated to relativistic speeds, cross the target and exit at its rear surface. Most energetic electrons are bound to the rear surface by the ambipolar electric field and expand along it. Their current is closed by a return current in the target, and this current configuration generates strong surface magnetic fields. The two electron sheaths collide at the midplane between the laser impact points. The magnetic repulsion between the counter-streaming electron beams separates them along the surface normal direction, before they can thermalize through other beam instabilities. This magnetic repulsion is also the driving mechanism for the beam-Weibel (filamentation) instability, which is thought to be responsible for magnetic field growth close to the internal shocks of ...

  17. Hollow Electron Beam Collimation for HL-LHC - Effects on the Beam Core

    CERN Document Server

    Fitterer, M; Valishev, A; Bruce, R; Papotti, G; Redaelli, S; Valentino, G; Valentino, G; Valuch, D; Xu, C

    2017-01-01

    Collimation with hollow electron beams is currently one of the most promising concepts for active halo control in the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). To ensure the successful operation of the hollow beam collimator the unwanted effects on the beam core, which might arise from the operation with a pulsed electron beam, must be minimized. This paper gives a summary of the effect of hollow electron lenses on the beam core in terms of sources, provides estimates for HL-LHC and discusses the possible mitigation methods.

  18. Hollow Electron Beam Collimation for HL-LHC - Effects on the Beam Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitterer, M. [Fermilab; Stancari, G. [Fermilab; Valishev, A. [Fermilab; Bruce, R. [CERN; Papotti, G [CERN; Redaelli, S. [CERN; Valentino, G. [Malta U.; Valentino, G. [CERN; Valuch, D. [CERN; Xu, C. [CERN

    2017-06-13

    Collimation with hollow electron beams is currently one of the most promising concepts for active halo control in the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC). To ensure the successful operation of the hollow beam collimator the unwanted effects on the beam core, which might arise from the operation with a pulsed electron beam, must be minimized. This paper gives a summary of the effect of hollow electron lenses on the beam core in terms of sources, provides estimates for HL-LHC and discusses the possible mitigation methods.

  19. Electrostatic charging of spacecraft in response to electron beam injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nagendra; Hwang, K. S.

    1989-01-01

    Electron beam injections from spacecraft now constitute a major activity in space research. Here, the charging level of a conducting surface when an electron beam is injected from it is investigated. Injections into both vacuum and an ambient plasma are considered. When a Maxwellian beam is injected into vacuum, the surface changes to a potential much greater than the average beam energy. The dependence of this excess is examined by considering beams with water-bag types of velocity distribution functions in which no electron has a velocity V(max) above a certain value. The electric field distribution in the electron sheath near the surface is determined by the pressure distribution. Thus, the surface potential is determined not only by V(max) but by all the beam parameters. The ambient plasma reduces the charging level and causes an oscillation in the surface potential. The oscillation frequency is the electron-plasma frequency associated with the ambient plasma.

  20. Artificial auroras in the upper atmosphere. I - Electron beam injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, J. L.; Mende, S. B.; Kawashima, N.; Roberts, W. T.; Taylor, W. W. L.; Neubert, T.; Gibson, W. C.; Marshall, J. A.; Swenson, G. R.

    1993-03-01

    The Atlas-1 Spacelab payload's Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators generated artificial electron beams for the stimulation of auroral emissions at southern auroral latitudes. Optical measurements were made by the Shuttle Orbiter's onboard TV cameras, as well as by the Atmospheric Emissions Photometric Imager (in both white light and the 427.8 nm N2(+) emission line). Shuttle-based auroral imaging furnished a novel perspective on the artificial auroras; the emissions were traced from 295 km to the 110 km level along the curved magnetic-field lines.

  1. Artificial auroras in the upper atmosphere. I - Electron beam injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, J. L.; Mende, S. B.; Kawashima, N.; Roberts, W. T.; Taylor, W. W. L.; Neubert, T.; Gibson, W. C.; Marshall, J. A.; Swenson, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    The Atlas-1 Spacelab payload's Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators generated artificial electron beams for the stimulation of auroral emissions at southern auroral latitudes. Optical measurements were made by the Shuttle Orbiter's onboard TV cameras, as well as by the Atmospheric Emissions Photometric Imager (in both white light and the 427.8 nm N2(+) emission line). Shuttle-based auroral imaging furnished a novel perspective on the artificial auroras; the emissions were traced from 295 km to the 110 km level along the curved magnetic-field lines.

  2. Compact beam transport system for free-electron lasers driven by a laser plasma accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing laser-driven plasma accelerators (LPAs as a high-quality electron beam source is a promising approach to significantly downsize the x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL facility. A multi-GeV LPA beam can be generated in several-centimeter acceleration distance, with a high peak current and a low transverse emittance, which will considerably benefit a compact FEL design. However, the large initial angular divergence and energy spread make it challenging to transport the beam and realize FEL radiation. In this paper, a novel design of beam transport system is proposed to maintain the superior features of the LPA beam and a transverse gradient undulator (TGU is also adopted as an effective energy spread compensator to generate high-brilliance FEL radiation. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations are presented based on a demonstration experiment with an electron energy of 380 MeV and a radiation wavelength of 30 nm.

  3. High throughput defect detection with multiple parallel electron beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Himbergen, H.M.P. van; Nijkerk, M.D.; Jager, P.W.H. de; Hosman, T.C.; Kruit, P.

    2007-01-01

    A new concept for high throughput defect detection with multiple parallel electron beams is described. As many as 30 000 beams can be placed on a footprint of a in.2, each beam having its own microcolumn and detection system without cross-talk. Based on the International Technology Roadmap for

  4. Current understanding and issues on electron beam injection in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, K.; Szuszczewicz, E. P.

    1988-01-01

    The status of the physics understanding involved in electron beam injection in space is reviewed. The paper examines our understanding of beam plasma interactions and their associated wave and energized particle spectra of the processes involved in the beam plasma discharge, and of the vehicle charge neutralization. 'Strawman' models are presented for comparison with experimental observations.

  5. Simulation and optimization of a 10 A electron gun with electrostatic compression for the electron beam ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikin, A.; Beebe, E. N.; Raparia, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Increasing the current density of the electron beam in the ion trap of the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) in BNL's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider facility would confer several essential benefits. They include increasing the ions' charge states, and therefore, the ions' energy out of the Booster for NASA applications, reducing the influx of residual ions in the ion trap, lowering the average power load on the electron collector, and possibly also reducing the emittance of the extracted ion beam. Here, we discuss our findings from a computer simulation of an electron gun with electrostatic compression for electron current up to 10 A that can deliver a high-current-density electron beam for EBIS. The magnetic field in the cathode-anode gap is formed with a magnetic shield surrounding the gun electrodes and the residual magnetic field on the cathode is (5 Division-Sign 6) Gs. It was demonstrated that for optimized gun geometry within the electron beam current range of (0.5 Division-Sign 10) A the amplitude of radial beam oscillations can be maintained close to 4% of the beam radius by adjusting the injection magnetic field generated by a separate magnetic coil. Simulating the performance of the gun by varying geometrical parameters indicated that the original gun model is close to optimum and the requirements to the precision of positioning the gun elements can be easily met with conventional technology.

  6. Beam-beam interaction studies at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Billing

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR operates with 2 GeV multibunch electron and positron beams in a single beam pipe. Electrostatic separators are used to separate the two counterrotating beams at the parasitic crossings. When the beam energy was lowered from 5 GeV in 2003, the strength of the beam-beam interaction became a more important factor in beam-current limitations, resulting in extensive experimental and modeling studies of their characteristics. The CESR lattice design procedure has been modified recently to account explicitly for their dynamic consequences. We describe our modeling of the beam-beam interaction, experimental validation techniques, and investigations into compensation strategies.

  7. On the electron vortex beam wavefunction within a crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, B G

    2015-10-01

    Electron vortex beams are distorted by scattering within a crystal, so that the wavefunction can effectively be decomposed into many vortex components. Using a Bloch wave approach equations are derived for vortex beam decomposition at any given depth and with respect to any frame of reference. In the kinematic limit (small specimen thickness) scattering largely takes place at the neighbouring atom columns with a local phase change of π/2rad. When viewed along the beam propagation direction only one vortex component is present at the specimen entrance surface (i.e. the 'free space' vortex in vacuum), but at larger depths the probe is in a mixed state due to Bragg scattering. Simulations show that there is no direct correlation between vortex components and the 〈Lz〉 pendellösung, i.e. at a given depth probes with relatively constant 〈Lz〉 can be in a more mixed state compared to those with more rapidly varying 〈Lz〉. This suggests that minimising oscillations in the 〈Lz〉 pendellösung by probe channelling is not the only criterion for generating a strong electron energy loss magnetic circular dichroism (EMCD) signal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Electronics and Calibration system for the CMS Beam Halo Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Nicolo

    2014-01-01

    In the context of increasing luminosity of LHC, it will be important to accurately measure the Machine Induced Background. A new monitoring system will be installed in the CMS cavern for measuring the beam background at high radius. This detector is composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators, coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The readout chain of this detector will make use of many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadron Calorimeter electronics, with a dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal will be digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing.The backend electronics will record bunch-by-bunch histograms, which will be published to CMS and the LHC using the newly designed CMS beam instrumentation specific DAQ. A calibration monitoring system has been designed to generate triggered pulses of light to monitor the efficiency of the sys...

  9. Experimental optimization of the 6-dimentional electron beam emittance at the NSLS SDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, H. J.; Murphy, J. B.; Shen, Y.; Tang, C. X.; Wang, X. J.

    2011-08-01

    Experimental optimization of the 6-dimensional electron beam emittance generated by a Magnesium (Mg) photocathode RF gun is presented in this report. A new electron beam optimization algorithm for a low charge (<100 pC) beam was experimentally demonstrated; where the electron beam velocity bunching inside the RF gun plays a critical role, and the transverse emittance as a function of the laser-RF timing jitter was experimentally characterized for the first time. A 20 pC electron beam was optimized to have a normalized slice emittance of 0.15 mm mrad and a longitudinal projected emittance of 3.9 ps keV. Furthermore, the upper limit of the measured thermal emittance—0.5 mm mrad per mm of the rms laser size, is about 50% lower than the theoretical prediction for a Mg cathode (Qian et al., 2010) [1].

  10. Application of Concentrated Electron Beams in Extra-Vacuum Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshkov, Oleg; Iliin, A. A.; Lovtsov, A. S.; Rizakhanov, R. N.

    2001-10-01

    At present time the rise in development of the technology with using the concentrated electron beams in gas with atmospheric pressure is observed. Besides the technologies, which are usually carried out in vacuum and connected with surface modification by the concentrated energy flows (welding, cutting, metal surface hardening), at present time the plasma chemical processes become of greater interest. These are processes with using the beam of fast electrons to initiate the plasma chemical reactions. One of such technologies is gas cleaning of the toxic impurities (nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides and etc.) The electron-beam gas cleaning of the toxic impurities (for example Ebara-process) is based on radiation-enhanced combining of toxic impurities. The disadvantage of this method are high level of consumed power during the gas cleaning and difficulties in devices development for the output of electron beam with megawatt unit power with foil outlet, as the facilities of this very power are necessary for the real industrial application. These problems can be solved by using the devices with concentrated electron beam output into the atmosphere. In this case the beam is transported into the dense gas through the system of lock chambers, independently pumped. But unlike the beam, output through the foil window, the concentrated electron beam is characterized by the noticeable spatial irregularity in distribution of temperature, plasma concentration and area of radiation. This paper is devoted to consideration of using the concentrated electron beams in extra-vacuum technologies.

  11. Effect of electron beam on in vitro cultured orchid organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jaihyunk; Bae, Seho; Bae, Changhyu [Sunchon National Univ., Suncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Suk; Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    Ionizing radiations have been effective mutagen sources to overcome the limitation of the useful genetic resources in natural environment. The study was conducted to investigate an effect of electron beam on organogenesis, growth patterns and genetic variation in the irradiated orchid organs. The in utero cultured rhizomes of orchids were irradiated with the electron beam in the dose range of 15Gy to 2240Gy under the condition of various beam energy and beam current. Significant decreases in survival, growth and organogenesis were observed by increase of intensity of electron beam irradiation. The irradiation intensity of lethal dose 50 of the in utero cultured orchid was estimated as approximately 500Gy to 1000Gy under 10MeV/n, and 1000Gy was optimal for growth and organogenesis of the cultures under 10MeV/n with 0.05mA treatment, and 15Gy {approx} 48Gy under 2MeV/n and 0.5mA electron beam condition. RAPD and ISSR analyses for the electron beam irradiated organs were performed to analyze genetic variation under the electron beam condition. Both of RAPD and ISSR analyses showed higher polymorphic rate in the electron-beam irradiated C. gangrene and C. Kaner.

  12. Landau Damping of Beam Instabilities by Electron Lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, V. [Fermilab; Alexahin, Yuri; Burov, A. [Fermilab; Valishev, A. [Fermilab

    2017-06-26

    Modern and future particle accelerators employ increasingly higher intensity and brighter beams of charged particles and become operationally limited by coherent beam instabilities. Usual methods to control the instabilities, such as octupole magnets, beam feedback dampers and use of chromatic effects, become less effective and insufficient. We show that, in contrast, Lorentz forces of a low-energy, a magnetically stabilized electron beam, or "electron lens", easily introduces transverse nonlinear focusing sufficient for Landau damping of transverse beam instabilities in accelerators. It is also important that, unlike other nonlinear elements, the electron lens provides the frequency spread mainly at the beam core, thus allowing much higher frequency spread without lifetime degradation. For the parameters of the Future Circular Collider, a single conventional electron lens a few meters long would provide stabilization superior to tens of thousands of superconducting octupole magnets.

  13. Electron-beam guiding by a reduced-density channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, D. R.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Godfrey, B. B.

    1990-12-01

    A new regime of density-channel guiding of a relativistic electron beam in air has been found using a three-dimensional charged-particle simulation code, and confirmed in a double-pulse electron-beam experiment. The guiding results from the temperature dependence of the electron-neutral momentum-transfer frequency nu(m). The mechanism does not require a deep channel to obtain a significant guiding force. For the 13-kA MEDEA II (and beams of similar parameters), guiding persists 10 nsec into the beam pulse, with the force per channel displacement as high as 4 G/cm.

  14. Estimation of the Processing Parameters in Electron Beam Thermal Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DULAU Mircea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Electron beam have many special properties which make them particularly well suited for use in materials handling through melting, welding, surface treatment, etc., taking into account that this manufacturing is performed in vacuum. The use of electron beam for surface limited heat treatment of workpiece has brought about a noticeable extension of the beam technologies. Some theoretical aspects and simulation results are presented in this paper, considering a high power electron beam processing system and Matlab facilities. This paper can be used in power engineering and electro-technologies fields as a guideline, in order to simulate and analyse the process parameters.

  15. Potential for Fabric Damage by Welding Electron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragomeni, James M.; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Welding electron beam effects on Nextel AF-62 ceramic fabric enable a preliminary, tentative interpretation of electron beam fabric damage. Static surface charging does not protect fabric from beam penetration, but penetration occurs only after a delay time. The delay time is thought to be that required for the buildup of outgassing products at the fabric surface to a point where arcing occurs. Extra long delays are noted when the gun is close enough to the surface to be shut off by outgassing emissions. Penetration at long distances is limited by beam attenuation from electronic collisions with the chamber atmosphere.

  16. Resonant second harmonic generation of a Gaussian electromagnetic beam in a collisional magnetoplasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sukhdeep; Sharma, A. K.; Salih, Hyder A.

    2009-04-01

    Second harmonic generation of a right circularly polarized Gaussian electromagnetic beam in a magnetized plasma is investigated. The beam causes Ohmic heating of electrons and subsequent redistribution of the plasma, leading to self-defocusing. The radial density gradient, in conjunction with the oscillatory electron velocity, produces density oscillation at the wave frequency. The density oscillation beats with the oscillatory velocity to produce second harmonic current density, giving rise to resonant second harmonic radiation when the wave frequency is one-third of electron cyclotron frequency. The second harmonic field has azimuthal dependence as exp(iθ). The self-defocusing causes a reduction in the efficiency of harmonic generation.

  17. Efficient generation of high beam-quality attosecond pulse with polarization-gating Bessel-Gauss beam from highly-ionized media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Qingbin; Hong, Weiyi; Wang, Shaoyi; Wang, Zhe; Lu, Peixiang

    2012-07-02

    Single attosecond pulse generation with polarization gating Bessel-Gauss beam in relatively strongly-ionized media is investigated. The results show that Bessel-Gauss beam has the ability to suppress the spatial plasma dispersion effects caused by high density of free electrons, thus the laser field can maintain its spatial profile through highly-ionized medium. This indicates the use of Bessel-Gauss beam has advantages over Gaussian beam in high harmonic generation under high ionization conditions. In our scheme, significant improvement of spatiotemporal properties of harmonics is achieved and an isolated attosecond pulse with high beam quality is filtered out using polarization gating.

  18. Comparison of High Resolution Negative Electron Beam Resists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Schøler, Mikkel; Shi, Peixiong

    2006-01-01

    Four high resolution negative electron beam resists are compared: TEBN-1 from Tokuyama Corp. Japan, ma-N 2401XP and mr-L 6000AXP from microresist technology GmbH Germany, and SU-8 2000 series from MicroChem Corp., USA. Narrow linewidth high density patterns are defined by 100 kV electron beam...

  19. Suppressor plate eliminates undesired arcing during electron beam welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanchey, K. K.; Kubik, J.; Mahon, J. C.

    1966-01-01

    Suppressor grid eliminates undesired arcing during electron beam welding in one of two ways. A grid at ground potential collects secondary emission of ions and electrons produced by the beam as it strikes the workpiece, or a negatively energized grid repels the plasma arc back to the workpiece. This eliminates ground screens used to cover view ports.

  20. Application of electron beam technology in improving sewage water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The use of electron beam to disinfect sewage water is gaining importance. The current problem on environmental health in relation to water pollution insists for the safe disposal of sewage water. In general, sewage water comprises of heterogeneous organic based chemicals as well as pathogens. EB. (electron beam) ...

  1. Application of electron beam technology in improving sewage water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of electron beam to disinfect sewage water is gaining importance. The current problem on environmental health in relation to water pollution insists for the safe disposal of sewage water. In general, sewage water comprises of heterogeneous organic based chemicals as well as pathogens. EB (electron beam) ...

  2. Ribbon Reduces Spiking in Electron-Beam Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Spiking in electron-beam welding reduced by placing high-vapor-pressure substance along path of electron beam. Strip of metal having vapor pressure higher than base metal at same temperature placed in slot machined along weld line. Strip vaporizes as beam strikes it, and vapor pressure keeps surface tension from closing off top of channel. Technique used successfully on nickel alloys and aluminum alloys and effective on steel and titanium.

  3. Generation and propagation of intense supersonic beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, K; Christen, W; Even, U

    2011-06-30

    Computer simulations and experiments have been performed to quantify the effects of nozzle shape and skimmer placement on high-density supersonic jets. It is shown that the on axis beam intensity achieved is much higher than intensity achieved using standard sonic nozzles. Changes in skimmer design and positioning are required to allow this intense jet to propagate in a typical supersonic beam setup.

  4. Electron Acceleration by Beating of Two Intense Cross-Focused Hollow Gaussian Laser Beams in Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Saleh T.; Gauniyal, Rakhi; Ahmad, Nafis; Rawat, Priyanka; Purohit, Gunjan

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents propagation of two cross-focused intense hollow Gaussian laser beams (HGBs) in collisionless plasma and its effect on the generation of electron plasma wave (EPW) and electron acceleration process, when relativistic and ponderomotive nonlinearities are simultaneously operative. Nonlinear differential equations have been set up for beamwidth of laser beams, power of generated EPW, and energy gain by electrons using WKB and paraxial approximations. Numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the effect of typical laser-plasma parameters on the focusing of laser beams in plasmas and further its effect on power of excited EPW and acceleration of electrons. It is observed that focusing of two laser beams in plasma increases for higher order of hollow Gaussian beams, which significantly enhanced the power of generated EPW and energy gain. The amplitude of EPW and energy gain by electrons is found to enhance with an increase in the intensity of laser beams and plasma density. This study will be useful to plasma beat wave accelerator and in other applications requiring multiple laser beams. Supported by United Arab Emirates University for Financial under Grant No. UPAR (2014)-31S164

  5. Matching extended-SSD electron beams to multileaf collimated photon beams in the treatment of head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Jared; Stewart, Allan; Satory, Philip

    2009-09-01

    Matching the penumbra of a 6 MeV electron beam to the penumbra of a 6 MV photon beam is a dose optimization challenge, especially when the electron beam is applied from an extended source-to-surface distance (SSD), as in the case of some head and neck treatments. Traditionally low melting point alloy blocks have been used to define the photon beam shielding over the spinal cord region. However, these are inherently time consuming to construct and employ in the clinical situation. Multileaf collimators (MLCs) provide a fast and reproducible shielding option but generate geometrically nonconformal approximations to the desired beam edge definition. The effects of substituting Cerrobend for the MLC shielding mode in the context of beam matching with extended-SSD electron beams are the subject of this investigation. Relative dose beam data from a Varian EX 2100 linear accelerator were acquired in a water tank under the 6 MeV electron beam at both standard and extended-SSD and under the 6 MV photon beam defined by Cerrobend and a number of MLC stepping regimes. The effect of increasing the electron beam SSD on the beam penumbra was assessed. MLC stepping was also assessed in terms of the effects on both the mean photon beam penumbra and the intraleaf dose-profile nonuniformity relative to the MLC midleaf. Computational techniques were used to combine the beam data so as to simulate composite relative dosimetry in the water tank, allowing fine control of beam abutment gap variation. Idealized volumetric dosimetry was generated based on the percentage depth-dose data for the beam modes and the abutment geometries involved. Comparison was made between each composite dosimetry dataset and the relevant ideal dosimetry dataset by way of subtraction. Weighted dose-difference volume histograms (DDVHs) were produced, and these, in turn, summed to provide an overall dosimetry score for each abutment and shielding type/angle combination. Increasing the electron beam SSD increased

  6. Standard practice for scanning electron microscope beam Size characterization

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides a reproducible means by which one aspect of the performance of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) may be characterized. The resolution of an SEM depends on many factors, some of which are electron beam voltage and current, lens aberrations, contrast in the specimen, and operator-instrument-material interaction. However, the resolution for any set of conditions is limited by the size of the electron beam. This size can be quantified through the measurement of an effective apparent edge sharpness for a number of materials, two of which are suggested. This practice requires an SEM with the capability to perform line-scan traces, for example, Y-deflection waveform generation, for the suggested materials. The range of SEM magnification at which this practice is of utility is from 1000 to 50 000 × . Higher magnifications may be attempted, but difficulty in making precise measurements can be expected. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, ass...

  7. Energy distribution of runaway electrons generated by a nanosecond discharge in atmospheric-pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. Kh.; Burachenko, A. G.; Kostyrya, I. D.; Lomaev, M. I.; Petin, V. K.; Rybka, D. V.; Shlyakhtun, S. V.

    2008-12-01

    The spectra of an ultrashort avalanche electron beam generated by a nanosecond discharge in atmospheric-pressure air were investigated. The temporal characteristics of the beam current pulses, gap voltage, and discharge current in a gas diode were measured with a time resolution of ˜0.1 ns. A simple technique was developed for recovering electron spectra from the curves of beam attenuation by aluminum foils. The effect of the cathode design, electrode gap length, and generator parameters on the electron spectra were studied using seven setups. It is shown that generation of electrons with anomalously high energies requires the use of cathodes with increased curvature radius.

  8. Electron beam irradiation of fluoropolymers containing polyethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucio, E.; Burillo, G.; Tapia, F.; Adem, E.; Cedillo, G.; Cassidy, P. E.

    2009-02-01

    A highly fluorinated monomer, 1,3-bis(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-pentafluorophenyl methoxy-2-propyl)benzene (12F-FBE) was polymerized with some diphenols by polycondensation and then was electron beam irradiated between 100 and 1000 kGy to determine degradation radiochemistry yield ( Gs) by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The samples were characterized after irradiation by DSC, FTIR, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The fluoropolymers show apparent degradation in mechanical properties at 300 kGy, except 12F-FBE polymerized with biphenol and bisphenol A, when they did not show any apparent physical change up to 300 kGy; and continue to be flexible and transparent, with a radiochemical yield scission ( Gs) of 0.75, 0.53, 0.88, and 0.38 for 12F-FBE/SDL aliphatic, 12F-FBE/biphenol, 12F-FBE/bisphenol A, and 12F-FBE/bisphenol O, respectively. The number average molecular weights for three of the polymers decrease upon 1000 kGy irradiation to 10% of their original values; however, the polymer from bisphenol A is much more stable and its Mn decreases to only 24% of original.

  9. Heat shrinkage of electron beam modified EVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, S.K.; Chaki, T.K.; Bhowmick, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India). Rubber Technology Center; Tikku, V.K.; Pradhan, N.K. [NICCO Corporation Ltd., (Cable Div.), Calcutta (India)

    1997-10-01

    Heat shrinkage of electron beam modified ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) has been investigated over a range of times, temperatures, stretching, irradiation doses and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) levels. The irradiated (radiation dose 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%) and stretched (100% elongation) sample shrinks to a maximum level when kept at 453K temperature for 60 s. The heat shrinkage of samples irradiated with radiation doses of 20, 50, 100 and 150 kGy increases sharply with increasing stretching in the initial stage. Amnesia rating decreases with increasing radiation dose and TMPTMA level as well as gel content. The high radiation dose and TMPTMA level lower the heat shrinkage due to the chain scission. The effect of temperature at which extension is carried out on heat shrinkage is marginal. The irradiated (radiation dose 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%) EVA tubes of different dimensions expanded in a laboratory grade tube expander show similar behaviour at 453K and 60 s. The X-ray and DSC studies reveal that the crystallinity increases on stretching due to orientation of chains and it decreases to a considerable extent on heat shrinking. The theoretical and experimental values of heat shrinkage for tubes and rectangular strips are in good accord, when the radiation dose is 50 kGy and TMPTMA level 1%. (author).

  10. Modification of Biodegradable Polyesters Using Electron Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suhartini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Poly(4-Hydroxybutirat P4HB, Poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate PBSA and Poly(-caprolactone PCL were electron beam (EB-irradiated. Poly(4-Hydroxybutirat was irradiated without any polyfunctional monomers (PFM. While PBSA and PCL were irradiated in the presence of polyfunctional monomers such as Trimethallyl isocyanurate (TMAIC, Polyethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (2G, 4G, Trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPT and Tetramethylolmethane tetraacrylate (A-TMMT at ambient temperature. Aim of the study is to improve the properties of biodegradable polyester. It was pointed out that crosslinking yield of P4HB (6.39% gel was formed at dose of 90 kGy irradiated in vacuum conditions. Radiation degradation promoted, when P4HB was irradiated in air. The optimum crosslinking yield of PCL and PBSA respectively, were formed in the presence of 1% TMAIC at dose of 50 kGy. The biodegradability of the crosslinked PBSA evaluated by soil burial test is slightly retarded by increasing crosslinking yields.

  11. Onorbit electron beam welding experiment definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The proposed experiment design calls for six panels to be welded, each having unique characteristics selected to yield specific results and information. The experiment is completely automated and the concept necessitated the design of a new, miniaturized, self-contained electron beam (EB) welding system, for which purpose a separate IR and D was funded by the contractor, Martin Marietta Corporation. Since future tasks beyond the proposed experiment might call for astronauts to perform hand-held EB gun repairs or for the gun to be interfaced with a dexterous robot such as the planned flight telerobotic servicer (FTS), the EB gun is designed to be dismountable from the automated system. In the experiment design, two separate, identical sets of weld panels will be welded, one on earth in a vacuum chamber and the other onorbit in the aft cargo bay of an orbiter. Since the main objective of the experiment is to demonstrate that high quality welds can be achieved under onorbit conditions, the welds produced will be subjected to a wide range of discriminating non-destructive Q.C. procedures and destructive physical tests. However, advantage will be taken of the availability of a fairly large quantity of welded material in the two series of welded specimens to widen the circle of investigative talent by providing material to academic and scientific institutions for examination.

  12. Electron beam irradiation of fluoropolymers containing polyethers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucio, E. [Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico); Burillo, G. [Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico)], E-mail: burillo@nucleares.unam.mx; Tapia, F. [Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico); Adem, E. [Departamento de Fisica Experimental, Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico); Cedillo, G. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico DF 04510 (Mexico); Cassidy, P.E. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    A highly fluorinated monomer, 1,3-bis(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-pentafluorophenyl methoxy-2-propyl)benzene (12F-FBE) was polymerized with some diphenols by polycondensation and then was electron beam irradiated between 100 and 1000 kGy to determine degradation radiochemistry yield (G{sub s}) by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The samples were characterized after irradiation by DSC, FTIR, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The fluoropolymers show apparent degradation in mechanical properties at 300 kGy, except 12F-FBE polymerized with biphenol and bisphenol A, when they did not show any apparent physical change up to 300 kGy; and continue to be flexible and transparent, with a radiochemical yield scission (G{sub s}) of 0.75, 0.53, 0.88, and 0.38 for 12F-FBE/SDL aliphatic, 12F-FBE/biphenol, 12F-FBE/bisphenol A, and 12F-FBE/bisphenol O, respectively. The number average molecular weights for three of the polymers decrease upon 1000 kGy irradiation to 10% of their original values; however, the polymer from bisphenol A is much more stable and its M{sub n} decreases to only 24% of origin0008.

  13. Electron beam modification of vanadium dioxide oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaev, Maksim; Velichko, Andrey; Putrolaynen, Vadim; Perminov, Valentin; Pergament, Alexander [Petrozavodsk State University, Petrozavodsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The paper presents the results of a study of electron-beam modification (EBM) of VO{sub 2}-switch I-V curve threshold parameters and the self-oscillation frequency of a circuit containing such a switching device. EBM in vacuum is reversible and the parameters are restored when exposed to air at pressure of 150 Pa. At EBM with a dose of 3 C cm{sup -2}, the voltages of switching-on (V{sub th}) and off (V{sub h}), as well as the OFF-state resistance R{sub off}, decrease down to 50% of the initial values, and the oscillation frequency increases by 30% at a dose of 0.7 C cm{sup -2}. Features of physics of EBM of an oscillator are outlined considering the contribution of the metal and semiconductor phases of the switching channel. Controlled modification allows EBM forming of switches with preset parameters. Also, it might be used in artificial oscillatory neural networks for pattern recognition based on frequency shift keying. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Plasma Charge Current for Controlling and Monitoring Electron Beam Welding with Beam Oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Shchavlev

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Electron beam welding (EBW shows certain problems with the control of focus regime. The electron beam focus can be controlled in electron-beam welding based on the parameters of a secondary signal. In this case, the parameters like secondary emissions and focus coil current have extreme relationships. There are two values of focus coil current which provide equal value signal parameters. Therefore, adaptive systems of electron beam focus control use low-frequency scanning of focus, which substantially limits the operation speed of these systems and has a negative effect on weld joint quality. The purpose of this study is to develop a method for operational control of the electron beam focus during welding in the deep penetration mode. The method uses the plasma charge current signal as an additional informational parameter. This parameter allows identification of the electron beam focus regime in electron-beam welding without application of additional low-frequency scanning of focus. It can be used for working out operational electron beam control methods focusing exactly on the welding. In addition, use of this parameter allows one to observe the shape of the keyhole during the welding process.

  15. Plasma charge current for controlling and monitoring electron beam welding with beam oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushnikov, Dmitriy; Belenkiy, Vladimir; Shchavlev, Valeriy; Piskunov, Anatoliy; Abdullin, Aleksandr; Mladenov, Georgy

    2012-12-14

    Electron beam welding (EBW) shows certain problems with the control of focus regime. The electron beam focus can be controlled in electron-beam welding based on the parameters of a secondary signal. In this case, the parameters like secondary emissions and focus coil current have extreme relationships. There are two values of focus coil current which provide equal value signal parameters. Therefore, adaptive systems of electron beam focus control use low-frequency scanning of focus, which substantially limits the operation speed of these systems and has a negative effect on weld joint quality. The purpose of this study is to develop a method for operational control of the electron beam focus during welding in the deep penetration mode. The method uses the plasma charge current signal as an additional informational parameter. This parameter allows identification of the electron beam focus regime in electron-beam welding without application of additional low-frequency scanning of focus. It can be used for working out operational electron beam control methods focusing exactly on the welding. In addition, use of this parameter allows one to observe the shape of the keyhole during the welding process.

  16. High-current electron beam nonlinear relaxation in plasma and electron acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karfidov, D.M. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. of General Physics (USSR)); Nikolov, N.A.; Malinov, P.N.; Trifonov, I.P. (Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Fizicheski Fakultet (Bulgaria))

    1988-08-01

    A nonlinear relaxation is observed when an electron beam interacts with plasma in an external magnetic field. An acceleration of electrons to energies which are more than twice that of the initial beam energy is observed. The acceleration mechanism is connected with the modulation instability of the plasma waves which is excited when the beam relaxes. (author).

  17. Electron Beam Energy Compensation by Controlling RF Pulse Shape

    CERN Document Server

    Kii, T; Kusukame, K; Masuda, K; Nakai, Y; Ohgaki, H; Yamazaki, T; Yoshikawa, K; Zen, H

    2005-01-01

    We have studied on improvement of electron beam macropulse properties from a thermionic RF gun. Though a thermionic RF gun has many salient features, there is a serious problem that back-bombardment effect worsens quality of the beam. To reduce beam energy degradation by this effect, we tried to feed non-flat RF power into the gun. As a result, we successfully obtained about 1.5 times longer macropulse and two times larger total charge per macropulse. On the other hand, we calculated transient evolution of RF power considering non-constant beam loading. The beam loading is evaluated from time evolution of cathode temperature, by use of one dimensional heat conduction model and electron trajectories' calculations by a particle simulation code. Then we found good agreement between the experimental and calculation results. Furthermore, with the same way, we studied the electron beam output dependence on the cathode radius.

  18. Special features of electron-beam boronizing of steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizov, I. G.; Smirnyagina, N. N.; Semenov, A. P.

    1999-12-01

    Electron-beam treatment is a promising method of surface treatment. It can be used in traditional technological operations, i.e., melting, welding, soldering, facing, quenching, and annealing, and in new processes, i.e., polymerization, local change of magnetic properties, recrystallization of the surface layer, zonal melting, etc. Chemical heat treatment of a metal surface with a daubing applied by means of a powerful electron beam is an interesting technique. By varying the composition of the daubing we can change the properties of the metal surface (wear resistance, corrosion strength, high-temperature strength, etc.). Electron-beam heating has some advantages over laser treatment, namely, (1) a high coefficient of the absorption of electron beam by the metal, which makes it possible to treat the surface effectively without absorbing coatings, (2) simplicity of organization of rapid scanning of the treated surface by the electron beam, (3) high efficiency of the electron gun (up to 70-80%), (4) the possibility of creating quite compact technological electron-beam units with a power of tens and hundreds of kilowatts, (5) treatment in vacuum. In this connection interest in works in this field has grown. The present paper concerns results of a study of the structure and properties of boronized layers deposited on carbon steels by the method of electron-beam treatment under vacuum and by the traditional method for comparison.

  19. Necklace Beam Generation in Nonlinear Colloidal Engineered Media

    CERN Document Server

    Silahli, Salih Z; Litchinitser, Natalia M

    2015-01-01

    Modulational instability is a phenomenon that reveals itself as the exponential growth of weak perturbations in the presence of an intense pump beam propagating in a nonlinear medium. It plays a key role in such nonlinear optical processes as supercontinuum generation, light filamentation, and rogue waves. However, practical realization of these phenomena in the majority of available nonlinear media still relies on high-intensity optical beams. Here, we analytically and numerically show the possibility of necklace beam generation originating from low-intensity spatial modulational instability of vortex beams in engineered soft-matter nonlinear media.

  20. Supershort avalanche electron beams and x-ray in high-pressure nanosecond discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Baksht, E. H.; Kostyrya, I. D.; Lomaev, M. I.; Rybka, D. V.

    2008-10-01

    The properties of a supershort avalanche electron beam (S AEB) and X-ray radiation produced using a nanosecond volume discharge are examined. An electron beam of the runaway electrons with amplitude of ~ 50 A has been obtained in air atmospheric pressure. It is reported that S AEB is formed in the angle above 2π sr. Three groups of the runaway electrons are formed in a gas diode under atmospheric air pressure, when nanosecond voltage pulses with amplitude of hundreds of kilovolts are applied. The electron beam has been generated behind a 45 μm thick AlBe foil in SF6 and Xe under the pressure of 2 arm, and in He under the pressure of about 12 atm. The paper gives the analysis of a generation mechanism of SAEB.

  1. Characterizing and Optimizing Photocathode Laser Distributions for Ultra-low Emittance Electron Beam Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, F. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bohler, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ding, Y. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gilevich, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Huang, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Loos, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ratner, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Vetter, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-12-07

    Photocathode RF gun has been widely used for generation of high-brightness electron beams for many different applications. We found that the drive laser distributions in such RF guns play important roles in minimizing the electron beam emittance. Characterizing the laser distributions with measurable parameters and optimizing beam emittance versus the laser distribution parameters in both spatial and temporal directions are highly desired for high-brightness electron beam operation. In this paper, we report systematic measurements and simulations of emittance dependence on the measurable parameters represented for spatial and temporal laser distributions at the photocathode RF gun systems of Linac Coherent Light Source. The tolerable parameter ranges for photocathode drive laser distributions in both directions are presented for ultra-low emittance beam operations.

  2. Non-invasive measurments of intense relativistic electron beam size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, Carl; McCuistian, Trent; Moir, David; Rodriguez, Patrick; Broste, William; Johnson, Jeff

    2000-10-01

    To understand relativistic electron beam transport dynamics the size of the beam is often measured using invasive techniques such as imaging the Cerenkov or OTR light emitted from a screen inserted into the beam. These techniques would completely disrupt the DARHT 2 beam, so we are developing a non-invasive method using diamagnetic loops. We show that through conservation of canonical angular momentum the RMS radius of the beam can be found by measuring the magnetic flux excluded by the diamagnetic beam. Furthermore, this measurement is shown to be independent of the details of the beam radial current profile for DARHT 2 parameters. We present results from our test and calibration experiments, as well as results of beam radius measurements on the 20-MeV DARHT 1 accelerator.

  3. Free Electron Lasers with Slowly Varying Beam and Undulator Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Zhirong

    2005-01-01

    The performance of a free electron lasers (FEL) is affected when the electron beam energy varies alone the undulator as would be caused by vacuum pipe wakefields and/or when the undulator strength parameter is tapered in the small signal regime until FEL saturation. In this paper, we present a self-consistent theory of FELs with slowly-varying beam and undulator parameters. A general method is developed to apply the WKB approximation to the beam-radiation system by employing the adjoint eigenvector that is orthogonal to the eigenfunctions of the coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations. This method may be useful for other slowly varying processes in beam dynamics.

  4. Tracking on the joint during the electron beam welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, V.; Bogdanov, V.; Belozertsev, V.; Uspenskiy, N.

    2016-11-01

    In the article the description of device, which provides automatic positioning of electron beam relative to joint of welded parts during welding, is given. Extremum seeking based on synchronous detection of sensor signal (X-ray or secondary emission) is realized in the device. Measurements are made when beam goes out of the channel following the welding direction. The application of synchronous detection is possible due to the fact that during joint scanning with electron beam harmonics, carrying data about beam position relative to the joint appear in the joint sensor signal spectrum.

  5. Study of a high power hydrogen beam diagnostic based on secondary electron emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, E., E-mail: emanuele.sartori@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, UNIPD, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Department of Management and Engineering, University di Padova strad. S. Nicola 3, 36100 Vicenza (Italy); Panasenkov, A. [NRC, Kurchatov Institute, 1, Kurchatov Sq, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Veltri, P. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, UNIPD, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); INFN-LNL, viale dell’Università n. 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Serianni, G.; Pasqualotto, R. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, UNIPD, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    In high power neutral beams for fusion, beam uniformity is an important figure of merit. Knowing the transverse power profile is essential during the initial phases of beam source operation, such as those expected for the ITER heating neutral beam (HNB) test facility. To measure it a diagnostic technique is proposed, based on the collection of secondary electrons generated by beam-surface and beam-gas interactions, by an array of positively biased collectors placed behind the calorimeter tubes. This measurement showed in the IREK test stand good proportionality to the primary beam current. To investigate the diagnostic performances in different conditions, we developed a numerical model of secondary electron emission, induced by beam particle impact on the copper tubes, and reproducing the cascade of secondary emission caused by successive electron impacts. The model is first validated against IREK measurements. It is then applied to the HNB case, to assess the locality of the measurement, the proportionality to the beam current density, and the influence of beam plasma.

  6. Investigations and Applications of Field- and Photo-emitted Electron Beams from a Radio Frequency Gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panuganti, SriHarsha [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Production of quality electron bunches using e cient ways of generation is a crucial aspect of accelerator technology. Radio frequency electron guns are widely used to generate and rapidly accelerate electron beams to relativistic energies. In the current work, we primarily study the charge generation processes of photoemission and eld emission inside an RF gun installed at Fermilab's High Brightness Electron Source Laboratory (HBESL). Speci cally, we study and characterize second-order nonlinear photoemission from a Cesium Telluride (Cs2Te) semiconductor photocathode, and eld emission from carbon based cathodes including diamond eld emission array (DFEA) and carbon nanotube (CNT) cathodes located in the RF gun's cavity. Finally, we discuss the application experiments conducted at the facility to produce soft x-rays via inverse Compton scattering (ICS), and to generate uniformly lled ellipsoidal bunches and temporally shaped electron beams from the Cs2Te photocathode.

  7. Summary report of working group 5: Beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, Mike; /Fermilab; Kim, Ki-Yong; /Maryland U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities and presentations of Working Group 5 of the Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held at Annapolis, Maryland in June 2010. Working Group 5 touched on a broad range of topics in the fields of beam and radiation generation and their monitoring and control. These topics were not comprehensively covered in this Workshop, but rather the Working Group concentrated on specific new developments and recent investigations. The Working Group divided its sessions into four broad categories: cathodes and electron guns, radiation generation, beam diagnostics, and beam control and dynamics. This summary is divided into the same structure.

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Electron Beam Damage in Organic Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijten, Zino J W A; Keizer, Arthur D A; de With, Gijsbertus; Friedrich, Heiner

    2017-05-18

    In transmission electron microscopy (TEM) the interaction of an electron beam with polymers such as P3HT:PCBM photovoltaic nanocomposites results in electron beam damage, which is the most important factor limiting acquisition of structural or chemical data at high spatial resolution. Beam effects can vary depending on parameters such as electron dose rate, temperature during imaging, and the presence of water and oxygen in the sample. Furthermore, beam damage will occur at different length scales. To assess beam damage at the angstrom scale, we followed the intensity of P3HT and PCBM diffraction rings as a function of accumulated electron dose by acquiring dose series and varying the electron dose rate, sample preparation, and the temperature during acquisition. From this, we calculated a critical dose for diffraction experiments. In imaging mode, thin film deformation was assessed using the normalized cross-correlation coefficient, while mass loss was determined via changes in average intensity and standard deviation, also varying electron dose rate, sample preparation, and temperature during acquisition. The understanding of beam damage and the determination of critical electron doses provides a framework for future experiments to maximize the information content during the acquisition of images and diffraction patterns with (cryogenic) transmission electron microscopy.

  9. Precision Control of the Electron Longitudinal Bunch Shape Using an Emittance-Exchange Beam Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, G; Cho, M H; Namkung, W; Power, J G; Doran, D S; Wisniewski, E E; Conde, M; Gai, W; Liu, W; Whiteford, C; Gao, Q; Kim, K-J; Zholents, A; Sun, Y-E; Jing, C; Piot, P

    2017-03-10

    We report on the experimental generation of relativistic electron bunches with a tunable longitudinal bunch shape. A longitudinal bunch-shaping (LBS) beam line, consisting of a transverse mask followed by a transverse-to-longitudinal emittance exchange (EEX) beam line, is used to tailor the longitudinal bunch shape (or current profile) of the electron bunch. The mask shapes the bunch's horizontal profile, and the EEX beam line converts it to a corresponding longitudinal profile. The Argonne wakefield accelerator rf photoinjector delivers electron bunches into a LBS beam line to generate a variety of longitudinal bunch shapes. The quality of the longitudinal bunch shape is limited by various perturbations in the exchange process. We develop a simple method, based on the incident slope of the bunch, to significantly suppress the perturbations.

  10. Optimization and control of electron beams from laser wakefield accelerations using asymmetric laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, K.; Gupta, D. N.

    2017-10-01

    Optimization and control of electron beam quality in laser wakefield acceleration are explored by using a temporally asymmetric laser pulse of the sharp rising front portion. The temporally asymmetric laser pulse imparts stronger ponderomotive force on the ambient plasma electrons. The stronger ponderomotive force associated with the asymmetric pulse significantly affects the injection of electrons into the wakefield and consequently the quality of the injected bunch in terms of injected charge, mean energy, and emittance. Based on particle-in-cell simulations, we report to generate a monoenergetic electron beam with reduced emittance and enhanced charge in laser wakefield acceleration using an asymmetric pulse of duration 30 fs.

  11. Coherence of a spin-polarized electron beam emitted from a semiconductor photocathode in a transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwahara, Makoto, E-mail: kuwahara@esi.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Saitoh, Koh; Tanaka, Nobuo [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kusunoki, Soichiro; Nambo, Yoshito; Ujihara, Toru; Asano, Hidefumi [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Jin, Xiuguang [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Takeda, Yoshikazu [Aichi Synchrotron Radiation Center, Seto 489-0965 (Japan); Nagoya Science Industry Institute, Nagoya 460-0008 (Japan)

    2014-11-10

    The brightness and interference fringes of a spin-polarized electron beam extracted from a semiconductor photocathode excited by laser irradiation are directly measured via its use in a transmission electron microscope. The brightness was 3.8 × 10{sup 7 }A cm{sup −2 }sr{sup −1} for a 30-keV beam energy with the polarization of 82%, which corresponds to 3.1 × 10{sup 8 }A cm{sup −2 }sr{sup −1} for a 200-keV beam energy. The resulting electron beam exhibited a long coherence length at the specimen position due to the high parallelism of (1.7 ± 0.3) × 10{sup −5 }rad, which generated interference fringes representative of a first-order correlation using an electron biprism. The beam also had a high degeneracy of electron wavepacket of 4 × 10{sup −6}. Due to the high polarization, the high degeneracy and the long coherence length, the spin-polarized electron beam can enhance the antibunching effect.

  12. Hypernuclear spectroscopy with electron beam at JLab Hall C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuu Fujii

    2010-12-01

    Hypernuclear spectroscopy with electron beam at JLab Hall C has been studied since 2000. The first experiment, JLab E89-009, used Short Orbit Spectrometer (SOS) as a kaon arm and a split-pole type spectrometer (ENGE) as an electron arm. E89-009 employed zero-degree tagging method, which tags scattered electrons at zero-degree and the kaon arm also covered zero-degree. This method obtains maximum yield of hypernuclei but sufferers from high rate background of electrons from bremsstrahlung and positrons from pair-creation. Nevertheless, this experiment demonstrated the possibility of the (e,e' K{sup +}) reaction for hypernuclear spectroscopy by obtaining a hypernuclear mass spectrum with an energy resolution of better than 1 MeV (FWHM) [1][2]. However, poor signal to noise ratio and poor statistics requires us to improve the experimental setup. Therefore, E01-011 experiment was proposed based on the success of the JLab E01-011 experiment. Improvements of E01-011 from E09-009 can be summarized as: 1. Employed newly constructed high resolution kaon spectrometer (HKS) as a kaon arm. 2. Employed so-called 'tilt-method' for the electron arm. With the newly constructed HKS, having 2-10-4 momentum resolution, we expect an energy resolution of 400 keV (FWHM). The 'tilt-method' means the electron arm is tilted vertically to the splitter dispersive plane to avoid background electrons from bremsstrahlung and moeller scattering. The setup allowed us to use up to a few tens beam. The experiment was performed in 2005 and final result will be shown shortly. The third experiment, JLab E05-115 experiment was proposed as a natural extension of E01-011 experiment and will be performed in 2009. Improvements of experimental setup are, 1. Employed newly constructed high resolution electron spectrometer (HES) as a electron arm, 2. Employed a new charge-separation magnet (Splitter), fully customized for hypernuclear experiment at Hall C. With the third generation

  13. Dosimetric characteristics of electron beams produced by a mobile accelerator for IORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimpinella, M [Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti, ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, c.p. 2400 Rome (Italy); Mihailescu, D [Faculty of Physics, University Al I Cuza, Iasi (Romania); Guerra, A S [Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti, ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, c.p. 2400 Rome (Italy); Laitano, R F [Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti, ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, c.p. 2400 Rome (Italy)

    2007-10-21

    Energy and angular distributions of electron beams with different energies were simulated by Monte Carlo calculations. These beams were generated by the NOVAC7 (registered) system (Hitesys, Italy), a mobile electron accelerator specifically dedicated to intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT). The electron beam simulations were verified by comparing the measured dose distributions with the corresponding calculated distributions. As expected, a considerable difference was observed in the energy and angular distributions between the IORT beams studied in the present work and the electron beams produced by conventional accelerators for non-IORT applications. It was also found that significant differences exist between the IORT beams used in this work and other IORT beams with different collimation systems. For example, the contribution from the scattered electrons to the total dose was found to be up to 15% higher in the NOVAC7 (registered) beams. The water-to-air stopping power ratios of the IORT beams used in this work were calculated on the basis of the beam energy distributions obtained by the Monte Carlo simulations. These calculated stopping power ratios, s{sub w,air}, were compared with the corresponding s{sub w,air} values recommended by the TRS-381 and TRS-398 IAEA dosimetry protocols in order to estimate the deviations between a dosimetry based on generic parameters and a dosimetry based on parameters specifically obtained for the actual IORT beams. The deviations in the s{sub w,air} values were found to be as large as up to about 1%. Therefore, we recommend that a preliminary analysis should always be made when dealing with IORT beams in order to assess to what extent the possible differences in the s{sub w,air} values have to be accounted for or may be neglected on the basis of the specific accuracy needed in clinical dosimetry.

  14. Electron beam based transversal profile measurements of intense ion beams; Elektronenstrahl-Diagnostik zur Bestimmung vom transversalen Profil intensiver Ionenstrahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Moussati, Said

    2014-11-03

    have been observed, which can be explained by the imprecise modelling of the charge distribution of an ion beam by the charged wires. The EBI diagnostic method has been applied for the first time in collaboration with the group of Professor Ulrich Ratzinger at the FRANZ accelerator at the Goethe University Frankfurt am Main for low-energy, DC ion beams - {sup 4}He{sup +} at 13.5 keV and a current of approximately 1 mA. The transverse charge distribution of these beams has been successfully determined by this diagnostic method. However the maximum deflection angle of the electrons was nearly 1/3 of the one predicted by the theoretical model. When employing an electron filter located along the ion beam line before the diagnostic chamber an increase of the deflection angle was observed. This suggests that electrons are generated by collisions of ions with background gas in such an amount, that they strongly influence the electrostatic field of the ion beam. This fact has to be more closely investigated in the future.

  15. Sagnac Interferometer Based Generation of Controllable Cylindrical Vector Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Acevedo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a novel experimental geometry to generate cylindrical vector beams in a very robust manner. Continuous control of beams’ properties is obtained using an optically addressable spatial light modulator incorporated into a Sagnac interferometer. Forked computer-generated holograms allow introducing different topological charges while orthogonally polarized beams within the interferometer permit encoding the spatial distribution of polarization. We also demonstrate the generation of complex waveforms obtained by combining two orthogonal beams having both radial modulations and azimuthal dislocations.

  16. Patterned electrochemical deposition of copper using an electron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark den Heijer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a technique for patterning clusters of metal using electrochemical deposition. By operating an electrochemical cell in the transmission electron microscope, we deposit Cu on Au under potentiostatic conditions. For acidified copper sulphate electrolytes, nucleation occurs uniformly over the electrode. However, when chloride ions are added there is a range of applied potentials over which nucleation occurs only in areas irradiated by the electron beam. By scanning the beam we control nucleation to form patterns of deposited copper. We discuss the mechanism for this effect in terms of electron beam-induced reactions with copper chloride, and consider possible applications.

  17. High energy gain electron beam acceleration by 100TW laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotaki, Hideyuki; Kando, Masaki; Kondo, Shuji; Hosokai, Tomonao; Kanazawa, Shuhei; Yokoyama, Takashi; Matoba, Toru; Nakajima, Kazuhisa [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kizu, Kyoto (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    2001-10-01

    A laser wakefield acceleration experiment using a 100TW laser is planed at JAERI-Kansai. High quality and short pulse electron beams are necessary to accelerate the electron beam by the laser. Electron beam - laser synchronization is also necessary. A microtron with a photocathode rf-gun was prepared as a high quality electron injector. The quantum efficiency (QE) of the photocathode of 2x10{sup -5} was obtained. A charge of 100pC from the microtron was measured. The emittance and pulse width of the electron beam was 6{pi} mm-mrad and 10ps, respectively. In order to produce a short pulse electron beam, and to synchronize between the electron beam and the laser pulse, an inverse free electron laser (IFEL) is planned. One of problems of LWFA is the short acceleration length. In order to overcome the problem, a Z-pinch plasma waveguide will be prepared as a laser wakefield acceleration tube for 1 GeV acceleration. (author)

  18. Comparison of axial and radial electron beam-breakup transit-time oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, T.J.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Mostrom, M.A. [Mission Research Corporation, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Comparison of two configurations of a novel high-power microwave generator is presented in this article. Coupling the beam-breakup instability with the transit-time effect of the electron beam in the cavity, rapid energy exchange between the electrons and cavity modes can occur. The dominant cavity modes in the axial and radial configurations are different but their growth rates are comparable. We found that the radial configuration can have a beam impedance less than 10 {Omega} and therefore more suitable for low-voltage and high power operation. Good agreements have been obtained between linear theory and simulation for both configurations.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF SHORT UNDULATORS FOR ELECTRON-BEAM-RADIATION INTERACTION STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piot, P. [NICADD, DeKalb; Andorf, M. B. [NICADD, DeKalb; Fagerberg, G. [Northern Illinois U.; Figora, M. [Northern Illinois U.; Sturtz, A. [Northern Illinois U.

    2016-10-19

    Interaction of an electron beam with external field or its own radiation has widespread applications ranging from coherent-radiation generation, phase space cooling or formation of temporally-structured beams. An efficient coupling mechanism between an electron beam and radiation field relies on the use of a magnetic undulator. In this contribution we detail our plans to build short (11-period) undulators with 7-cm period refurbishing parts of the aladdin U3 undulator [1]. Possible use of these undulators at available test facilities to support experiments relevant to cooling techniques and radiation sources are outlined.

  20. Submillimeter-resolution radiography of shielded structures with laser-accelerated electron beams

    OpenAIRE

    Vidya Ramanathan; Sudeep Banerjee; Nathan Powers; Nathaniel Cunningham; Nathan A. Chandler-Smith; Kun Zhao; Kevin Brown; Donald Umstadter; Shaun Clarke; Sara Pozzi; James Beene; Vane, C R; David Schultz

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the use of energetic electron beams for high-resolution radiography of flaws embedded in thick solid objects. A bright, monoenergetic electron beam (with energy >100  MeV) was generated by the process of laser-wakefield acceleration through the interaction of 50-TW, 30-fs laser pulses with a supersonic helium jet. The high energy, low divergence, and small source size of these beams make them ideal for high-resolution radiographic studies of cracks or voids embedded in dense ma...

  1. Submillimeter-resolution radiography of shielded structures with laser-accelerated electron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Ramanathan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the use of energetic electron beams for high-resolution radiography of flaws embedded in thick solid objects. A bright, monoenergetic electron beam (with energy >100  MeV was generated by the process of laser-wakefield acceleration through the interaction of 50-TW, 30-fs laser pulses with a supersonic helium jet. The high energy, low divergence, and small source size of these beams make them ideal for high-resolution radiographic studies of cracks or voids embedded in dense materials that are placed at a large distance from the source. We report radiographic imaging of steel with submillimeter resolution.

  2. Submillimeter-Resolution Radiography of Shielded Structures with Laser-Accelerated Electron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan, Vidya [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Banerjee, Sudeep [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Powell, Nathan [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Cummingham, N. J. [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Chandler-Smith, Nate [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Zhao, Kun [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Brown, Kevin [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Umstadter, Donald [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Clarke, Shaun [University of Michigan; Pozzi, Sara [University of Michigan; Beene, James R [ORNL; Vane, C Randy [ORNL; Schultz, David Robert [ORNL

    2010-10-01

    We investigate the use of energetic electron beams for high-resolution radiography of flaws embedded in thick solid objects. A bright, monoenergetic electron beam (with energy >100 MeV) was generated by the process of laser-wakefield acceleration through the interaction of 50-TW, 30-fs laser pulses with a supersonic helium jet. The high energy, low divergence, and small source size of these beams make them ideal for high-resolution radiographic studies of cracks or voids embedded in dense materials that are placed at a large distance from the source. We report radiographic imaging of steel with submillimeter resolution.

  3. Generation and conversion of mode beams and their polarization states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpeev, S. V.

    2017-04-01

    New polarization converter for transforming the circulary polarized laser modes into cylindrical vector beams (CVB) including beams of higher orders is proposed. The generation of CVB in birefringent crystals is studied analytically and experimentally in paraxial and non-paraxial regimes. At sharp focusing (in the non-paraxial case) two focuses corresponding ordinary and extraordinary beams are formed along the crystal's axis. The results are extended to the generation of higher-order radially and azimuthally polarized mode beams. Using the simulation the possibility of fabricating crystal-based devices suitable for application in fiber optics was shown. The results of the experimental study on the generation of cylindrical vector beams in a crystal of Iceland spar agree with the results of the simulation.

  4. Electron beam characterization of a combined diode rf electron gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ganter

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and simulation results of an electron gun test facility, based on pulsed diode acceleration followed by a two-cell rf cavity at 1.5 GHz, are presented here. The main features of this diode-rf combination are: a high peak gradient in the diode (up to 100  MV/m obtained without breakdown conditioning, a cathode shape providing an electrostatic focusing, and an in-vacuum pulsed solenoid to focus the electron beam between the diode and the rf cavity. Although the test stand was initially developed for testing field emitter arrays cathodes, it became also interesting to explore the limits of this electron gun with metallic photocathodes illuminated by laser pulses. The ultimate goal of this test facility is to fulfill the requirements of the SwissFEL project of Paul Scherrer Institute [B. D. Patterson et al., New J. Phys. 12, 035012 (2010NJOPFM1367-263010.1088/1367-2630/12/3/035012]; a projected normalized emittance below 0.4  μm for a charge of 200 pC and a bunch length of less than 10 ps (rms. A normalized projected emittance of 0.23  μm with 13 pC has been measured at 5 MeV using a Gaussian laser longitudinal intensity distribution on the photocathode. Good agreements with simulations have been obtained for different electron bunch charge and diode geometries. Emittance measurements at a bunch charge below 1 pC were performed for different laser spot sizes in agreement with intrinsic emittance theory [e.g. 0.54  μm/mm of laser spot size (rms for Cu at 274 nm]. Finally, a projected emittance of 1.25+/-0.2  μm was measured with 200 pC and 100  MV/m diode gradient.

  5. Beam-Induced Multipactoring and Electron-Cloud Effects in Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm; Scandale, Walter; Zimmermann, F

    2009-01-01

    In the beam pipe of high-energy proton or positron accelerators an “electron cloud” can be generated by a variety of processes, e.g. by residual-gas ionization, by photoemission from synchrotron radiation, and, most importantly, by secondary emission via a beam-induced multipactoring process. The electron cloud commonly leads to a degradation of the beam vacuum by several orders of magnitude, to fast beam instabilities, to beam-size increases, and to fast or slow beam losses. At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the cloud electrons could also give rise to an additional heat load inside cold superconducting magnets. In addition to the direct heat deposition from incoherently moving electrons, a potential “magnetron effect” has been conjectured, where electrons would radiate coherently when moving in a strong magnetic field under the simultaneous influence of a beam-induced electric “wake” field that may become resonant with the cyclotron frequency. Electron-cloud effects are already being observed w...

  6. Transport studies of LPA electron beam towards the FEL amplification at COXINEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khojoyan, M., E-mail: martin.khojoyan@synchrotron-soleil.fr; Briquez, F.; Labat, M.; Loulergue, A.; Marcouillé, O.; Marteau, F.; Sharma, G.; Couprie, M.E.

    2016-09-01

    Laser Plasma Acceleration (LPA) [1] is an emerging concept enabling to generate electron beams with high energy, high peak current and small transverse emittance within a very short distance. The use of LPA can be applied to the Free Electron Laser (FEL) [2] case in order to investigate whether it is suitable for the light amplification in the undulator. However, capturing and guiding of such beams to the undulator is very challenging, because of the large divergence and high energy spread of the electron beams at the plasma exit, leading to large chromatic emittances. A specific beam manipulation scheme was recently proposed for the COXINEL (Coherent X-ray source inferred from electrons accelerated by laser) setup, which makes an advantage from the intrinsically large chromatic emittance of such beams [3]. The electron beam transport is studied using two simulation codes: a SOLEIL in-house one and ASTRA [4]. The influence of the collective effects on the electron beam performance is also examined.

  7. The use of electron beams for pasteurization of meats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prestwich, K.R.; Kaye, R.J.; Turman, B.N.; Neau, E.L.

    1994-12-01

    Electron beam accelerators can be used for electronic pasteurization of meat products by: (1) using the electrons directly impacting the products, or (2) optimizing the conversion of electron energy to x-rays and treating the product with these x-rays. The choice of process depends on the configuration of the product when it is treated. For electron treatment, ten million electron volt (MeV) kinetic energy is the maximum allowed by international agreement. The depth of penetration of electrons with that energy into a product with density of meat is about five centimeters (cm). Two-sided treatment can be done on products up to 10 cm thick with a two-to-one ratio between minimum and maximum dose. Ground beef patties are about 1.25 cm (0.5 inch thick). Beams with 2.5 MeV electron energy could be used to treat these products. Our calculations show that maximum to minimum dose ratios less than 1.2 can be achieved with this energy if the transverse beam energy is small. If the product thickness is greater than 10 cm, x-rays can provide the needed dose uniformity. Uniform doses can be supplied for pallets with dimensions greater than 1.2 m on each side using x-rays from a 5 MeV electron beam. The efficiency of converting the electron beam to x-rays and configurations to achieve dose uniformity are discussed.

  8. Electron beam injection experiments - Replication of flight observations in a laboratory beam plasma discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, W.; Mcgarity, J. O.; Konradi, A.

    1983-01-01

    Recent electron beam injection experiments in the lower ionosphere have produced two perplexing results: (1) At altitudes from 140 km to 220 km, the beam associated 391.4 nm intensity is relatively independent of altitude despite the decreasing N2 abundance. (2) The radial extent of the perturbed region populated by beam associated energetic electrons significantly exceeds the nominal gyrodiameter for 90 deg injection. A series of laboratory measurements is described in which both of these flight results appear to have been closely reproduced. The laboratory results are reasonably consistent with the transition from a collision dominated to collisionless beam-plasma discharge configuration.

  9. Generating and measuring nondiffracting vector Bessel beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available modulator and an azimuthally varying birefringent plate, known as a q-plate. We extend our control of both the geometric and dynamic phases to perform a polarization and modal decomposition on the vector field. We study both single-charged Bessel beams...

  10. Beam dynamics analysis in pulse compression using electron beam compact simulator for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Takashi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In a final stage of an accelerator system for heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF, pulse shaping and beam current increase by bunch compression are required for effective pellet implosion. A compact simulator with an electron beam was constructed to understand the beam dynamics. In this study, we investigate theoretically and numerically the beam dynamics for the extreme bunch compression in the final stage of HIF accelerator complex. The theoretical and numerical results implied that the compact experimental device simulates the beam dynamics around the stagnation point for initial low temperature condition.

  11. Generation and propagation of radially polarized beams in optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramachandran, Siddharth; Kristensen, P; Yan, M F

    2009-01-01

    Beams with polarization singularities have attracted immense recent attention in a wide array of scientific and technological disciplines. We demonstrate a class of optical fibers in which these beams can be generated and propagated over long lengths with unprecedented stability, even in the pres...

  12. Target, purging magnet and electron collector design for scanned high-energy photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Roger; Aasell, Mats; Naefstadius, Peder; Brahme, Anders [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, PO Box 260, S-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-05-01

    A new method for producing very narrow and intense 50 MV bremsstrahlung beams with a half-width as low as 35 mm at a distance of 1 m from the target is presented. Such a beam is well suited for intensity modulation using scanned photon beams. An algorithm has been developed to minimize the width of the bremsstrahlung beam generated in a multilayer target by varying the individual layer thicknesses and atomic numbers under given constraints on the total target thickness and the mean energy of the transmitted electrons. Under such constraints the narrowest possible bremsstrahlung beam is obtained with a target composed of layers of monotonically increasing atomic number starting with the lowest possible value at the entrance side where the electrons impinge. It is also shown that the narrowest photon beam profile is associated with the highest possible forward photon yield. To be able to use the optimized target clinically it is desirable to be able to collect and stop all the electrons that are transmitted through the target. The electrons are most efficiently collected if they are kept close together, i.e. by minimizing the multiple scatter of the electrons and consequently the half-width of the generated bremsstrahlung beam. This is achieved by a thin low-atomic-number target. A dedicated electron stopper has been developed and integrated with the purging magnet. When the electron stopper is combined with a purging magnet, a primary photon collimator and a multileaf collimator, almost all of the transmitted electrons and their associated bremsstrahlung contamination can effectively be collected. The narrow photon beams from thin low-atomic-number targets have the additional advantage of producing the hardest and most penetrative photon spectrum possible, which is ideal for treating large deep-seated tumours. (author)

  13. Structured electron beams from nano-engineered cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueangaramwong, A. [NICADD, DeKalb; Mihalcea, D. [NICADD, DeKalb; Andonian, G. [RadiaBeam Tech.; Piot, P. [Fermilab

    2017-03-07

    The ability to engineer cathodes at the nano-scale have open new possibilities such as enhancing quantum eciency via surface-plasmon excitation, forming ultra-low-emittance beams, or producing structured electron beams. In this paper we present numerical investigations of the beam dynamics associated to this class of cathode in the weak- and strong-field regimes.We finally discuss the possible applications of some of the achievable cathode patterns when coupled with other phase space manipulations.

  14. Ultrafast generation of skyrmionic defects with vortex beams: Printing laser profiles on magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hiroyuki; Sato, Masahiro

    2017-02-01

    Controlling electric and magnetic properties of matter by laser beams is actively explored in the broad region of condensed matter physics, including spintronics and magneto-optics. Here we theoretically propose an application of optical and electron vortex beams carrying intrinsic orbital angular momentum to chiral ferro- and antiferromagnets. We analyze the time evolution of spins in chiral magnets under irradiation of vortex beams by using the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. We show that beam-driven nonuniform temperature leads to a class of ring-shaped magnetic defects, what we call skyrmion multiplex, as well as conventional skyrmions. We discuss the proper beam parameters and the optimal way of applying the beams for the creation of these topological defects. Our findings provide an ultrafast scheme of generating topological magnetic defects in a way applicable to both metallic and insulating chiral (anti-) ferromagnets.

  15. Demonstration of self-truncated ionization injection for GeV electron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaie, M; Li, S; Zeng, M; Hafz, N A M; Chen, M; Li, G Y; Zhu, Q J; Liao, H; Sokollik, T; Liu, F; Ma, Y Y; Chen, L M; Sheng, Z M; Zhang, J

    2015-10-01

    Ionization-induced injection mechanism was introduced in 2010 to reduce the laser intensity threshold for controllable electron trapping in laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA). However, usually it generates electron beams with continuous energy spectra. Subsequently, a dual-stage target separating the injection and acceleration processes was regarded as essential to achieve narrow energy-spread electron beams by ionization injection. Recently, we numerically proposed a self-truncation scenario of the ionization injection process based upon overshooting of the laser-focusing in plasma which can reduce the electron injection length down to a few hundred micrometers, leading to accelerated beams with extremely low energy-spread in a single-stage. Here, using 100 TW-class laser pulses we report experimental observations of this injection scenario in centimeter-long plasma leading to the generation of narrow energy-spread GeV electron beams, demonstrating its robustness and scalability. Compared with the self-injection and dual-stage schemes, the self-truncated ionization injection generates higher-quality electron beams at lower intensities and densities, and is therefore promising for practical applications.

  16. Creation, Transport and Measurement of Bright Relativistic Electron Beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Chad Bennett

    This thesis deals with three topics relevant to linac-driven free electron lasers: the creation, transport and measurement of bright relativistic electron beams. Thermionic microwave electron guns produce bright electron beams that are well suited to drive free electron lasers, FELs. The rf fields in the gun cause some of the emitted electrons to reverse direction and strike the cathode. These back-bombarding electrons heat the cathode limiting both the pulse length and time averaged current. The cathode heating is reduced if a transverse magnetic field is applied across the gun cavity to deflect back-bombarding electrons. We improve the thermionic microwave electron gun by redesigning the deflection magnet to minimize the back-heating power. Computer simulations show that transverse magnetic fields with rapid axial falloffs reduce the back-heating power more than fields that are axially constant. Experiments verify these simulations. The deflection magnet presently installed on the Mark III gun has a slow axial falloff and reduces the back-heating power by 31%. Using the simulation results we design a new deflection magnet having a rapid axial falloff. This magnet has been installed on the NCCU gun and reduces the back-heating power by 63%. Improper transport of the electron beam through the beam line degrades the quality of the electron beam and lowers the performance of the FEL. We propose to improve the beam line commissioning and control procedures on linac -driven FELs by experimentally measuring the transfer matrix of each beam line section. The transfer matrix of a given section is measured by dithering the electron beam, measuring the beam vector before and after the section and inverting the subsequent data matrix. We minimize the beam line errors by minimizing the deviation between the experimentally measured transfer matrix and the design transfer matrix of each beam line section. While not experimentally verified, computer simulations show that this

  17. Height Control and Deposition Measurement for the Electron Beam Free Form Fabrication (EBF3) Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seufzer, William J. (Inventor); Hafley, Robert A. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A method of controlling a height of an electron beam gun and wire feeder during an electron freeform fabrication process includes utilizing a camera to generate an image of the molten pool of material. The image generated by the camera is utilized to determine a measured height of the electron beam gun relative to the surface of the molten pool. The method further includes ensuring that the measured height is within the range of acceptable heights of the electron beam gun relative to the surface of the molten pool. The present invention also provides for measuring a height of a solid metal deposit formed upon cooling of a molten pool. The height of a single point can be measured, or a plurality of points can be measured to provide 2D or 3D surface height measurements.

  18. Instability during bunch shortening of an electron-cooled beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Takanaka

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Bunch shortening causes an electron-cooled beam to be space charge dominated at low energies. Instability during the bunch shortening has been studied using a particle-tracking program where the 3D space-charge field due to the beam is calculated with a simplifying model.

  19. Two cavity autoacceleration of an intense relativistic electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, P.D.; Lockner, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    Two autoacceleration cavities have been used to accelerate an 11-kA electron beam from 2 MeV to approx. =2.8 MeV. The two 40-..cap omega.. cavities each accelerated the beam by approx. =400 kV with no observable interaction between the two cavities over several cavity transmit times. 6 figs.

  20. Pinched propagation of high-power, pulsed electron beams for welding and materials processing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernsler, Richard F.; Hubbard, Richard F.; Lampe, Martin

    1994-01-01

    Electron beams are used commercially as intense heating sources for welding and related materials processing applications. The beams used for welding operate continuously with energy up to 200 keV and current approximately 1 A. Because these beams are severely degraded by propagation in air over any substantial range, most present-day electron-beam welders require vacuum pumping and precision focusing, which has severely restricted utilization of the technology. Over the past few decades, a different class of electron-beam generators has been developed that produces pulsed beams with energies of several MeV, currents of 1 kA or more, radii as small as 1 mm, pulse lengths of tens of ns, and pulse repetition rates up to several kHz. We show here that beams of this type can propagate in ambient air, in a tightly pinched mode and with acceptable stability, over distances of a few tens of cm. We determine the constraints on the choice of beam parameters, due mainly to the effects of gas scattering and the resistive instability. We show that stability can be enhanced, and the acceptable parameter range extended considerably, by using a narrow conducting pipe filled with air or another gas to guide the beam to the workpiece.

  1. Generating superpositions of higher order bessel beams [Conference paper

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vasilyeu, R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An experimental setup to generate a superposition of higher-order Bessel beams by means of a spatial light modulator and ring aperture is presented. The experimentally produced fields are in good agreement with those calculated theoretically....

  2. Effects of physics change in Monte Carlo code on electron pencil beam dose distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toutaoui, Abdelkader, E-mail: toutaoui.aek@gmail.com [Departement de Physique Medicale, Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon BP399 Alger RP, Algiers (Algeria); Khelassi-Toutaoui, Nadia, E-mail: nadiakhelassi@yahoo.fr [Departement de Physique Medicale, Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon BP399 Alger RP, Algiers (Algeria); Brahimi, Zakia, E-mail: zsbrahimi@yahoo.fr [Departement de Physique Medicale, Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon BP399 Alger RP, Algiers (Algeria); Chami, Ahmed Chafik, E-mail: chafik_chami@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Sciences Nucleaires, Faculte de Physique, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumedienne, BP 32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria)

    2012-01-15

    Pencil beam algorithms used in computerized electron beam dose planning are usually described using the small angle multiple scattering theory. Alternatively, the pencil beams can be generated by Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport. In a previous work, the 4th version of the Electron Gamma Shower (EGS) Monte Carlo code was used to obtain dose distributions from monoenergetic electron pencil beam, with incident energy between 1 MeV and 50 MeV, interacting at the surface of a large cylindrical homogeneous water phantom. In 2000, a new version of this Monte Carlo code has been made available by the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), which includes various improvements in its electron-transport algorithms. In the present work, we were interested to see if the new physics in this version produces pencil beam dose distributions very different from those calculated with oldest one. The purpose of this study is to quantify as well as to understand these differences. We have compared a series of pencil beam dose distributions scored in cylindrical geometry, for electron energies between 1 MeV and 50 MeV calculated with two versions of the Electron Gamma Shower Monte Carlo Code. Data calculated and compared include isodose distributions, radial dose distributions and fractions of energy deposition. Our results for radial dose distributions show agreement within 10% between doses calculated by the two codes for voxels closer to the pencil beam central axis, while the differences are up to 30% for longer distances. For fractions of energy deposition, the results of the EGS4 are in good agreement (within 2%) with those calculated by EGSnrc at shallow depths for all energies, whereas a slightly worse agreement (15%) is observed at deeper distances. These differences may be mainly attributed to the different multiple scattering for electron transport adopted in these two codes and the inclusion of spin effect, which produces an increase of the effective range of

  3. Tungsten spectroscopy at the Livermore electron beam ion trap facility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clementson, J; Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G.V; Gu, M.F; Lundberg, H; Podpaly, Y; Trabert, E

    2011-01-01

    .... In this paper, an overview of recent results from the Livermore WOLFRAM spectroscopy project is presented, which includes experimental investigations at the EBIT-I and SuperEBIT electron beam ion traps...

  4. Brushless dc motor uses electron beam switching tube as commutator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, P.

    1965-01-01

    Electron beam switching tube eliminates physical contact between rotor and stator in brushless dc motor. The tube and associated circuitry control the output of a dc source to sequentially energize the motor stator windings.

  5. Electron acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized plasma with nonthermal electrons and an electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S. V., E-mail: satyavir@iigs.iigm.res.in; Lakhina, G. S., E-mail: lakhina@iigs.iigm.res.in [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel (W), Navi Mumbai (India); University of the Western Cape, Belville (South Africa); Devanandhan, S., E-mail: devanandhan@gmail.com [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel (W), Navi Mumbai (India); Bharuthram, R., E-mail: rbharuthram@uwc.ac.za [University of the Western Cape, Belville (South Africa)

    2016-08-15

    A theoretical investigation is carried out to study the obliquely propagating electron acoustic solitary waves having nonthermal hot electrons, cold and beam electrons, and ions in a magnetized plasma. We have employed reductive perturbation theory to derive the Korteweg-de-Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov (KdV-ZK) equation describing the nonlinear evolution of these waves. The two-dimensional plane wave solution of KdV-ZK equation is analyzed to study the effects of nonthermal and beam electrons on the characteristics of the solitons. Theoretical results predict negative potential solitary structures. We emphasize that the inclusion of finite temperature effects reduces the soliton amplitudes and the width of the solitons increases by an increase in the obliquity of the wave propagation. The numerical analysis is presented for the parameters corresponding to the observations of “burst a” event by Viking satellite on the auroral field lines.

  6. Methacrylamide Copolymer Resists For Electron Beam Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namaste, Y. M. N.; Obendorf, S. K.; Rodriguez, F.

    1986-07-01

    Polymethacrylamide (PMAAm) and copolymers of MAAm with methyl methacrylate were synthesized and evaluated for their applicability to electron beam lithography. The sensitivity of PMAAm has previously been reported as less than 1 μC/cm2, with thermal stability at temperatures up to 330°C.' Despite these claims, further lithographic evaluation of this resist system is apparently absent from the literature. This research was conducted to further investigate the lithographic performance of these resists and to determine their sensitivity using current definitions. Using PMAAm homopolymer (Mw = 8.1 x 105), with a 15 minute prebake at 200°C, the lithographic results were much poorer than expected. Patterns exposed to doses of 10 μC/cm2 or lower could not be developed using water as the developing solvent. Forced developing with Na2SiO3 solution (pH=10) developed lower doses than water, but much greater thinning was observed. An unexposed thinning of 10% occurred when developing exposures of 15 μC/cm2 with water, and 40 μC/cm2 with Na2SiO3 solution (20 KV). Swelling of the unexposed polymer and some adhesion problems were observed. The high sensitivity previously reported for PMAAm' can not be attributed solely to chain scission efficiency (Gs), which has been reported to be only 1.5 times that of PMMA (Gs determined by Y-irradiation). An induction period in the dissolution of unexposed polymer has also been sugggested as contributing to the sensitivity of this resist. In the present work, dissolution induction periods were observed with laser interferometry for the unexposed films, but the magnitude of these induction periods could not account for a large enhancement of sensitivity. Imide crosslink formation may have been responsible for the previously reported sensitivity of PMAAm.' In the present work, imid formation was not observed, either after prebaking coated wafers at 180 to 240°C or heating of polymer solutions for 7 hours at 80°C. Apparently, the

  7. Mixed feed and its ingredients electron beam decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuglov, V. V.; Bryazgin, A. A.; Vlasov, A. Yu; Voronin, L. A.; Ites, Yu V.; Korobeynikov, M. V.; Leonov, S. V.; Leonova, M. A.; Tkachenko, V. O.; Shtarklev, E. A.; Yuskov, Yu G.

    2017-01-01

    Electron beam treatment is used for food processing for decades to prevent or minimize food losses and prolong storage time. This process is also named cold pasteurization. Mixed feed ingredients supplied in Russia regularly occur to be contaminated. To reduce contamination level the contaminated mixed feed ingredients samples were treated by electron beam with doses from 2 to 12 kGy. The contamination levels were decreased to the level that ensuring storage time up to 1 year.

  8. Hybrid generation and analysis of vector vortex beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamani, Sandra; Bendau, Ethan; Secor, Jeff; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tu, Jiufeng J; Alfano, Robert R

    2017-03-10

    A method is described for generating optical vector vortex beams carrying superpositions of orbital angular momentum states by using a tandem application of a spatial light modulator with a vortex retarder. The vortex component has a spatially inhomogeneous phase front that can carry orbital angular momentum, and the vector nature is a spatially inhomogeneous state of polarization in the laser beam profile. The vector vortex beams are characterized experimentally by imaging the beams at points across the focal plane in an astigmatic system using a tilted lens. Mathematical analysis of the Gouy phase shows good agreement with the phase structure obtained in the experimental images. The polarization structure of the vector beam and the orbital angular momentum of the vortex beam are shown to be preserved.

  9. Effects of beam-tube roughness on x-ray free electron laser performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady Stupakov

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In an x-ray free electron laser like the Linear Coherent Light Source being designed at SLAC, electron bunches about 70μm FWHM long are sent into a beam tube only 5 mm in internal diameter and more than 100 m in length. Because of the surface roughness of the beam tube, wakefields can be generated that catch up to the bunch and interact with it, causing energy spread and emittance growth. The strength of this effect depends on the details of the roughness of the surface. We present here a study in which the roughness of the beam tube was measured and the longitudinal impedance of the tube was calculated. Our result shows that a commercially available beam tube can be made smooth enough so the resulting wakefield effects are within the tolerance determined by the requirement that the induced relative energy spread of the beam be less than 5×10^{-4}.

  10. Microbunched electron cooling for high-energy hadron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, D

    2013-08-23

    Electron and stochastic cooling are proven methods for cooling low-energy hadron beams, but at present there is no way of cooling hadrons as they near the TeV scale. In the 1980s, Derbenev suggested that electron instabilities, such as free-electron lasers, could create collective space charge fields strong enough to correct the hadron energies. This Letter presents a variation on Derbenev's electron cooling scheme using the microbunching instability as the amplifier. The large bandwidth of the instability allows for faster cooling of high-density beams. A simple analytical model illustrates the cooling mechanism, and simulations show cooling rates for realistic parameters of the Large Hadron Collider.

  11. Injection of an overdense electron beam in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Hideo; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha

    1990-01-01

    A three-dimensional particle simulation model is used to study the injection and propagation of an overdense electron beam in the vicinity of a conductor in space. Beam electrons with a density of more than 100 times the ambient electron density are modeled using large-scale plasma simulations; in these simulations the surface area of the conductor is several thousands times that of the beam cross section at the injection point. The parameters of the simulations are chosen to allow the realistic simulation of active space experiments such as the Space Shuttle's Spacelab 2 electron beam mission. These simulations confirm space observations that an overdense electron beam can at least partially escape the near vicinity of the spacecraft, even in a fully ionized plasma. Once they have escaped from the vicinity of the spacecraft, these beam electrons should be able to propagate away freely until their energy is dissipated. It is suggested that such large-scale simulations could be useful in interpreting data from space experiments.

  12. Optimization of Beam Transmission of PAL-PNF Electron Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S. G.; Kim, S. K.; Kim, E. A. [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The PNF (Pohang Neutron Facility) electron Linac is providing converted neutrons and photons from electron beams to users for nuclear physics experiments and high energy gamma-ray exposures. This linac is capable of producing 100 MeV electron beams with a beam current of pulsed 100 mA. The pulse length is 2 {mu}s and the pulse repetition rate is typically 30 Hz. This linac consists of two SLAC-type S-band accelerating columns and the thermionic RF gun. They are powered by one klystron and the matching pulse modulator. The electron beams emitted from the RF gun are bunched as they pass through the alpha magnet and are injected into the accelerating column thereafter. In this paper, we discuss procedures and results of the beam transmission optimization with technical details of the accelerator system. We also briefly discuss the future upgrade plan to obtain short-pulse or electron beams for neutron TOF experiments by adopting a triode type thermionic DC electron gun

  13. Electron Beam Profiler for the Fermilab Main Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman-Keup, R. [Fermilab; Alvarez, M [Fermilab; Fitzgerald, J. [Fermilab; Lundberg, C. [Fermilab; Prieto, P. [Fermilab; Blokland, W. [ORNL, Oak Ridge

    2014-01-01

    The long range plan for Fermilab calls for large proton beam intensities in excess of 2 MW for use in the neutrino program. Measuring the transverse profiles of these high intensity beams is challenging and generally relies on non-invasive techniques. One such technique involves measuring the deflection of a beam of electrons with a trajectory perpendicular to the proton beam. A device such as this is already in use at the Spallation Neutron Source at ORNL and a similar device will be installed shortly in the Fermilab Main Injector. The Main Injector device is discussed in detail and some test results and simulations are shown

  14. The preplasma effect on the properties of the shock wave driven by a fast electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llor Aisa, E.; Ribeyre, X.; Tikhonchuk, V. T. [University Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, CELIA, UMR 5107, 33405 Talence (France); Gus' kov, S. Yu. [Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Leninskii Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI,” Moscow115409 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    Strong shock wave generation by a mono-energetic fast electron beam in a plasma with an increasing density profile is studied theoretically. The proposed analytical model describes the shock wave characteristics for a homogeneous plasma preceded by a low density precursor. The shock pressure and the time of shock formation depend on the ratio of the electron stopping length to the preplasma areal density and on the initial energy of injected electrons. The conclusions of theoretical model are confirmed in numerical simulations.

  15. Simultaneous optimization of photons and electrons for mixed beam radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, S.; Fix, M. K.; Joosten, A.; Henzen, D.; Frei, D.; Volken, W.; Kueng, R.; Aebersold, D. M.; Stampanoni, M. F. M.; Manser, P.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this work is to develop and investigate an inverse treatment planning process (TPP) for mixed beam radiotherapy (MBRT) capable of performing simultaneous optimization of photon and electron apertures. A simulated annealing based direct aperture optimization (DAO) is implemented to perform simultaneous optimization of photon and electron apertures, both shaped with the photon multileaf collimator (pMLC). Validated beam models are used as input for Monte Carlo dose calculations. Consideration of photon pMLC transmission during DAO and a weight re-optimization of the apertures after deliverable dose calculation are utilized to efficiently reduce the differences between optimized and deliverable dose distributions. The TPP for MBRT is evaluated for an academic situation with a superficial and an enlarged PTV in the depth, a left chest wall case including the internal mammary chain and a squamous cell carcinoma case. Deliverable dose distributions of MBRT plans are compared to those of modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT), photon IMRT and if available to those of clinical VMAT plans. The generated MBRT plans dosimetrically outperform the MERT, photon IMRT and VMAT plans for all investigated situations. For the clinical cases of the left chest wall and the squamous cell carcinoma, the MBRT plans cover the PTV similarly or more homogeneously than the VMAT plans, while OARs are spared considerably better with average reductions of the mean dose to parallel OARs and D 2% to serial OARs by 54% and 26%, respectively. Moreover, the low dose bath expressed as V 10% to normal tissue is substantially reduced by up to 45% compared to the VMAT plans. A TPP for MBRT including simultaneous optimization is successfully implemented and the dosimetric superiority of MBRT plans over MERT, photon IMRT and VMAT plans is demonstrated for academic and clinical situations including superficial targets with and without deep-seated part.

  16. Improved electron beam weld design and control with beam current profile measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giedt, Warren H.

    The determination of machine settings for making an electron beam weld still involves trial and error tests. Also, even after settings are selected, serious variations in penetration may occur. Results are presented to demonstrate that improved weld consistency and quality can be obtained with measurement of the beam size and intensity distribution.

  17. Note: Characteristic beam parameter for the line electron gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M; Islam, G U; Zhou, Z; Chi, Y

    2013-11-01

    We have optimized the beam parameters of line source electron gun using Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre electron beam trajectory program (EGUN), utilizing electrostatic focusing only. We measured minimum beam diameter as 0.5 mm that corresponds to power density of 68.9 kW/cm(2) at 13.5 mm in the post-anode region which is more than two-fold (33 kW/cm(2)), of the previously reported results. The gun was operated for the validation of the theoretical results and found in good agreement. The gun is now without any magnetic and electrostatic focusing thus much simpler and more powerful.

  18. Plasma density enhancements created by the ionization of the Earth's upper atmosphere by artificial electron beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubert, Torsten; Banks, P.M.

    line) and down-going differential energy flux. The equations are solved numerically, using the MSIS atmospheric model and the IRI ionospheric model. The results from the model compare well with recent observations from the CHARGE 2 sounding rocket experiment. Two aspects of the beam-neutral atmosphere...... electrons and thereby limits the ionization of the neutral atmosphere. As an example we find from CHARGE 2 observations and from the model calculations that below about 180 km, secondary electrons generated through the ionization of the neutral atmosphere by 1-10 keV electron beams from sounding rockets...

  19. Low Voltage Electron Beam Processing Final Report CRADA No. TC-645-93-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wakalopulos, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-16

    This CRADA project was established to develop a small, inexpensive sealed-tube electron beam processing system having immediate applications in industrial, high speed manufacturing processes, and in the Department of Energy (DOE) waste treatment/cleanup operations. The technical work involved the development and demonstration of a compact, sealed, 50-75 kilovolt (kV) EB generator prototype, including controls and power supply. The specific goals of this project were to develop a low cost vacuum tube capable of shooting an electron beam several inches into the air, and to demonstrate that wide area materials processing is feasible by stacking the tubes to produce continuous beams. During the project, we successfully demonstrated the producibility of a low cost electron beam system and several material processing operations of interest to US industry, DOE and, since September 11, 2001, the Homeland Security.

  20. An Electron Beam Profile Instrument Based on FBGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Sporea

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Along with the dose rate and the total irradiation dose measurements, the knowledge of the beam localization and the beam profile/energy distribution in the beam are parameters of interest for charged particle accelerator installations when they are used in scientific investigations, industrial applications or medical treatments. The transverse profile of the beam, its position, its centroid location, and its focus or flatness depend on the instrument operating conditions or on the beam exit setup. Proof-of-concept of a new type of charged particle beam diagnostics based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs was demonstrated. Its operating principle relies on the measurement of the peak wavelength changes for an array of FBG sensors as function of the temperature following the exposure to an electron beam. Periodically, the sensor irradiation is stopped and the FBG are force cooled to a reference temperature with which the temperature influencing each sensor during beam exposure is compared. Commercially available FBGs, and FBGs written in radiation resistant optical fibers, were tested under electron beam irradiation in order to study their possible use in this application.

  1. Solid gold nanostructures fabricated by electron beam deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Kristian; Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard; Rasmussen, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    and bridges. Transmission electron microscopy was used to study how the composition of these structures was affected when the background gas in the ESEM chamber and the electron beam parameters were varied. The nanostructures were layered composites of up to three different materials each characterized......Direct writing with gold by electron beam deposition is a method for rapid fabrication of electrically conducting nanostructures. An environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) equipped with a source of the precursor gas dimethylacetylacetonate gold(Ill) was used to fabricate nanoscale tips...... by a certain range of gold/carbon ratios. Above a certain threshold of ESEM chamber water vapor pressure and a certain threshold of electron beam current, the deposited tips contained a solid polycrystalline gold core. The deposition technique was used to fabricate free-standing nanowires and to solder free...

  2. Multifunctional diffractive optical elements for the generation of higher order Bessel-like-beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, A.; Bhattacharya, Shanti

    2015-01-01

    Higher Order Bessel Beams (HOBBs) have many useful applications in optical trapping experiments. The generation of HOBBs is achieved by illuminating an axicon by a Laguerre-Gaussian beam generated by a spiral phase plate. It can also be generated by a Holographic Optical Element (HOE) containing the functions of the Spiral Phase Plate (SPP) and an axicon. However the HOBB's large focal depth reduces the intensity at each plane. In this paper, we propose a multifunctional Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) containing the functions of a SPP, axicon and a Fresnel Zone Lens (FZL) to generate higher efficiency higher order Bessel-like-beams with a reduced focal depth. The functions of a SPP and a FZL were combined by shifting the location of zones of FZL in a spiral fashion. The resulting element is combined with an axicon by modulo-2π phase addition technique. The final composite element contains the functions of SPP, FZL and axicon. The elements were designed with different topological charges and fabricated using electron beam direct writing. The elements were tested and the generation of a higher order Bessel-like-beams is confirmed. Besides, the elements also generated high quality donut beams at two planes equidistant from the focal plane of the FZL.

  3. Beam lifetime measurement and analysis in Indus-2 electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coulomb scattering of charged particles in a stored beam causes an exchange of energy between transverse and longitudinal .... beam current and decay rate, a curve fitting of the form di = aIi + bI2 i was generated. To estimate the coefficients a and b we use the least square minimization method as follows: error χ2(a, b) =.

  4. Food Irradiation Using Electron Beams and X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bruce

    2003-04-01

    mass throughput (dM/dt in kg/s) of an accelerator-based system is proportional to the average beam power (P in kW), and inversely proportional to the minimum required dose (Dm in kGy, with 1 kGy = 1 kJ/kg). The constant of proportionality is the mass throughput efficiency. Throughput efficiencies of 0.4 or better are typical of electron beam installations, but are only 0.025-0.035 for x-ray installations, primarily because of the inefficiency of bremsstrahlung generation at 5 MeV (about 8an axially-coupled, standing-wave, L-band linac with an average power in excess of 100 kW to achieve reasonable throughput rates with x-ray processing. Various design aspects of this new machine will be presented.

  5. Beam Line Design and Beam Physics Study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser at Peking University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guimei [Peking Univ., Beijing (China)

    2011-12-31

    Energy recovering linac (ERL) offers an attractive alternative for generating intense beams of charged particles by approaching the operational efficiency of a storage ring while maintaining the superior beam quality typical of a linear accelerator. In ERLs, the decelerated beam cancels the beam loading effects of the accelerated beam with high repetition rate. Therefore, ERLs can, in principle, accelerate very high average currents with only modest amounts of RF power. So the efficiency of RF power to beam is much higher. Furthermore, the energy of beam to dump is lower, so it will reduce dump radiation. With the successful experiments in large maximum-to-injection energy ratio up to 51:1 and high power FEL up to 14kW, the use of ERL, especially combining with superconducting RF technology, provides a potentially powerful new paradigm for generation of the charged particle beams used in MW FEL, synchrotron radiation sources, high-energy electron cooling devices and so on. The 3+1/2 DC-SC photo injector and two 9cell TESLA superconducting cavity for IR SASE FEL in PKU provides a good platform to achieve high average FEL with Energy Recovery. The work of this thesis is on Beam line design and Beam dynamics study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser for Peking University. It is the upgrade of PKU facility, which is under construction. With ERL, this facility can work in CW mode, so it can operate high average beam current without RF power constraint in main linac and generate high average FEL power. Moreover, it provides a test facility to study the key technology in ERL. System parameters are optimized for PKU ERL-FEL. The oscillation FEL output power is studied with different bunch charge, transverse emittance, bunch length and energy spread. The theory of optimal RF power and Q{sub ext} with ERL and without ERL is analyzed and applied to PKU injector and linac including microphonic effect. pace charge effect in the injector and merger is studied for beam

  6. Double layer propagation in experiments with electron beam injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruskin, L. G.; Khazanov, G. V.

    1993-01-01

    Electron beam injection into a plasma is investigated using the analytical inverted Bernstein-Green-Kruskal method. Particle number and momentum conservation laws are applied to evaluate the propagation velocity and potential drop on the leading edge of the beam. Electric potential is supposed to be monotonic, thus the leading front has a double-layer-like structure. For the case of cold particles, analytical expressions for the double layer velocity and potential drop are obtained. It is pointed out that double layer velocity differs from the initial electron speed: even for weak beams a noticeable deceleration takes place. Strong beams are found incapable of penetrating into plasma - their propagation velocity is very small. Ambient electrons undergo a considerable acceleration forming a return current which neutralizes the injector. Possible instability of the distribution functions is discussed.

  7. Electron beam melting of advanced materials and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahale, Tushar Ramkrishna

    Layered manufacturing has for long been used for the fabrication of non-functional parts using polymer-based processes. Developments in laser beam and electron beam welding technologies and their adoption to layered manufacturing has made it possible to fabricate high-density functional parts in metal irrespective of the level of complexity. The Electron Beam Melting (EBM) process by Arcam AB is one such layered manufacturing process that utilizes a focused electron beam to process metal powder, layer by layer, in a vacuum environment. Research conducted as part of this body of work looks into the development of both bulk materials in the form of metal alloys and ceramic metal-matrix composites as well as the development of tunable mechanical & thermal metamaterials. Simulation models to approximate electron beam melting were suggested using commercial finite element analysis packages. A framework was developed based on the finite difference method to simulate layered manufacturing using Arcam AB's electron beam melting process. The outputs from the simulation data could be used to better understand the local melting, grain evolution, composition and internal stresses within freeform-fabricated metal parts.

  8. Initial Self-Consistent 3-D Electron-Cloud Simulations of LHC Beam with the Code WARP+POSINST

    CERN Document Server

    Vay, Jean-Luc; Friedman, Alex; Furman, Miguel; Grote, D P

    2005-01-01

    We present initial results from the self-consistent beam-cloud dynamics simulations of a sample LHC beam, using a newly developed set of modeling capability based on a merger of the three-dimensional parallel Particle-In-Cell accelerator code WARP and the electron cloud code POSINST.*,** Although the storage ring model we use as a test bed to contain the beam is much simpler and shorter than the LHC, its lattice elements are realistically modeled, as is the beam and the electron cloud dynamics. The simulated mechanisms for generation and absorption of the electrons at the walls are based on previously validated models available in POSINST.***

  9. Determination of deep level capture cross sections in wide band-gap semiconductors by means of an electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Roos, O.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents a general theory for the determination of the short circuit current generated by a sinusoidally amplitude-modulated electron beam in the presence of recombination centers with an arbitrary number of charge states. It is shown that a measurement of the coherent phase shift with respect to the incident beam as a function of the modulation frequency of the beam ascertains the magnitudes of electron and hole capture cross sections. The surface exposed to the electron beam must have a negligible surface recombination velocity for the measurements to be unambiguous.

  10. Generation of monoenergetic ion beams with a laser accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfotenhauer, Sebastian M.

    2009-01-29

    A method for the generation of monoenergetic proton and ion beams from a laser-based particle accelerator is presented. This method utilizes the unique space-charge effects occurring during relativistic laser-plasma interactions on solid targets in combination with a dot-like particle source. Due to this unique interaction geometry, MeV proton beams with an intrinsically narrow energy spectrum were obtained, for the first time, from a micrometer-scale laser accelerator. Over the past three years, the acceleration scheme has been consistently improved to enhance both the maximum particle energy and the reliability of the setup. The achieved degree of reliability allowed to derive the first scaling laws specifically for monoenergetic proton beams. Furthermore, the acceleration scheme was expanded on other target materials, enabling the generation of monoenergetic carbon beams. The experimental work was strongly supported by the parallel development of a complex theoretical model, which fully accounts for the observations and is in excellent agreement with numerical simulations. The presented results have an extraordinarily broad scope way beyond the current thesis: The availability of monoenergetic ion beams from a compact laser-plasma beam source - in conjunction with the unique properties of laser-produced particle beams - addresses a number of outstanding applications in fundamental research, material science and medical physics, and will help to shape a new generation of accelerators. (orig.)

  11. Simulations of pulsed electron beam injection during active experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    Two-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulations are used to investigate the characteristics of the spacecraft charging, particle acceleration, and wave emissions during beam injection, turnoff and subsequent pulsing of the beam. It is shown that, during beam injection, the beam current is neutralized by a spatially separate return current region extending several tens of meters from the beam region, with the currents being closed across the field lines by the perpendicular acceleration of ambient plasma ions into the beam region. After beam turnoff, this current system reverses after a time lag of about an ion plasma period. The current reversal is accompanied by prolonged electron collection by the spacecraft near the beam region, preferential ion collection by sections of the spacecraft magnetically connected to the initial return current regions, and the creation of hot plasma extending well into the return current regions. Because of the time lag, the currents induced in the plasma during periodic beam injection can be strongly modified from the imposed beam current.

  12. Space charge effects in intense electron beams related to electron cooling systems

    CERN Document Server

    Korotaev, Yu V; Petrov, A; Sidorin, A; Smirnov, A; Syresin, E M

    2000-01-01

    The review of researches performed by JINR-CERN-ITEP collaboration in 1994-1995 and by JINR group in 1996-1998 years is presented. The research has the goal to study theoretically and experimentally a possibility of electron beam space neutralization and formation of a stable and intense neutralized electron beam (NEB). (4 refs).

  13. Simulations of electromagnetic emissions produced in a thin plasma by a continuously injected electron beam

    CERN Document Server

    Annenkov, V V; Volchok, E P

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, electromagnetic emissions produced in a thin beam-plasma system are studied using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. For the first time, the problem of emission generation in such a system is considered in the realistic formulation allowing for the continuous injection of a relativistic electron beam through the plasma boundary. Specific attention is given to the thin plasma case in which the transverse plasma size is comparable to the typical wavelength of beam-driven oscillations. Such a case is often implemented in laboratory beam-plasma experiments and has a number of peculiarities. Emission from a thin plasma does not require intermediate generation of electromagnetic plasma eigenmodes, as in the infinite case, and is more similar to the regular antenna radiation. In this work, we determine how efficiently the fundamental and second harmonic emissions can be generated in previously modulated and initially homogeneous plasmas.

  14. Simulations of electromagnetic emissions produced in a thin plasma by a continuously injected electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annenkov, V. V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Timofeev, I. V.; Volchok, E. P. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, electromagnetic emissions produced in a thin beam-plasma system are studied using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. For the first time, the problem of emission generation in such a system is considered in a realistic formulation allowing for the continuous injection of a relativistic electron beam through a plasma boundary. Specific attention is given to the thin plasma case in which the transverse plasma size is comparable to the typical wavelength of beam-driven oscillations. Such a case is often implemented in laboratory beam-plasma experiments and has a number of peculiarities. Emission from a thin plasma does not require intermediate generation of the electromagnetic plasma eigenmodes, as in an infinite case, and is more similar to the regular antenna radiation. In this work, we determine how efficiently the fundamental and the second harmonic emissions can be generated in previously modulated and initially homogeneous plasmas.

  15. Sub-10 nm focused electron beam induced deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dorp, W.F.

    2008-01-01

    Work started with a critical review of literature from the past 70-odd years. The review shows that the physical processes occurring in EBID are generally well understood. By combining models for electron scattering in a solid and electron beam induced heating and knowledge of growth regimes, the

  16. Dielectronic recombination measurements at EBIT (Electron Beam Ion Trap)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, D.A.

    1990-10-04

    The Electron Beam Ion Trap at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has proved an ideal device for the study of interactions between electrons and highly-charged ions. I describe measurements of one such interaction, dielectronic recombination, in several ion species. The results are in marginal agreement with theoretical predictions. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  17. CERN's web application updates for electron and laser beam technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sigas, Christos

    2017-01-01

    This report describes the modifications at CERN's web application for electron and laser beam technologies. There are updates at both the front and the back end of the application. New electron and laser machines were added and also old machines were updated. There is also a new feature for printing needed information.

  18. Preparation of PbSe nanoparticles by electron beam irradiation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Abstract. A novel method has been developed by electron beam irradiation to prepare PbSe nanoparticles. 2 MeV 10mA GJ-2-II electronic accelerator was used as radiation source. Nanocrystalline PbSe was prepared rapidly at room temperature under atmospheric pressure without any kind of toxic reagents. The structure.

  19. M11.4.1: Electron beam emittance meter finished

    CERN Document Server

    CORDE, S

    2011-01-01

    The method that we have successfully developed based on the X ray radiation emitted by betatronic motion of electrons in the plasma is reported here. We show here very preliminary experimental results that are very promising to determine in a single shot the electron beam emittance with a high resolution.

  20. Electron Beam Diagnostics Of The JLAB UV FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evtushenko, Pavel; Benson, Stephen; Biallas, George; Coleman, James; Dickover, Cody; Douglas, David; Marchlik, Matthew; Sexton, Daniel; Tennant, Christopher

    2011-03-01

    In this contribution we describe various systems and aspects of the electron beam diagnostics of the JLab UV FEL. The FEL is installed on a new bypass beam line at the existing 10 kW IR Upgrade FEL. Here, we describe a set of the following systems. A combination of OTR and phosphor viewers is used for measurements of the transverse beam profile, transverse emittance, and Twiss parameters. This system is also used for alignment of the optical cavity of the UV oscillator and to ensure the overlap between the electron beam and optical mode in the FEL wiggler. A system of beam position monitors equipped with log-amp based BPM electronics. Bunch length on the order of 120 fs RMS is measured with the help of a modified Martin-Puplett interferometer. The longitudinal transfer function measurement system is used to set up bunch compression in an optimal way, such that the LINAC RF curvature is compensated using only higher order magnetic elements of the beam transport. This set of diagnostic systems made a significant contribution in achieving first lasing of the FEL after only about 60 hours of beam operation.

  1. Electron Beam Quality Determination Through Fricke Xylenol Gel Dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchevist, P. C. D.; Moreira, M. V.; de Almeida, A.

    2009-03-01

    According to the IAEA TRS-398 protocol, a parallel plate ionization chamber is recommended to be used in electron dosimetry. The important dosimetric parameters such as R100 and R50, inferred from the percentage depth dose (PDD) curve, allow to obtain the electron beam average energy at the water phantom surface (material equivalent to the soft tissue). In this work, a chemical dosimeter based on the Fe(II) to Fe(III) oxidation was used to obtain the average energies from electrons beams (from nominal energies of 5, 8 and 10 MeV) and related parameters of R100, R50 and zref. These energies obtained through the Fricke Xylenol Gel (FXG) were compared to those with a parallel plate ionization chamber, following the cited protocol, which showed no significant differences. From these measurements one can conclude the FXG applicability for R100, R50 and electron beam average energy determination.

  2. Necklace beam generation in nonlinear colloidal engineered media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silahli, Salih Z; Walasik, Wiktor; Litchinitser, Natalia M

    2015-12-15

    Modulational instability is a phenomenon that reveals itself as the exponential growth of weak perturbations in the presence of an intense pump beam propagating in a nonlinear medium. It plays a key role in such nonlinear optical processes as supercontinuum generation, light filamentation, rogue waves, and ring (or necklace) beam formation. To date, a majority of studies of these phenomena have focused on light-matter interactions in self-focusing Kerr media existing in nature. However, a large and tunable nonlinear response of a colloidal suspension can be tailored at will by judiciously engineering the optical polarizability. Here, we analytically and numerically show the possibility of necklace beam generation originating from spatial modulational instability of vortex beams in engineered soft-matter nonlinear media with different types of exponential nonlinearity.

  3. High energy density plasma science with an ultrarelativistic electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, C.; Blue, B.; Clayton, C. E.; Dodd, E.; Huang, C.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W. B.; Wang, S.; Hogan, M. J.; O'Connell, C.; Siemann, R.; Watz, D.; Muggli, P.; Katsouleas, T.; Lee, S.

    2002-05-01

    An intense, high-energy electron or positron beam can have focused intensities rivaling those of today's most powerful laser beams. For example, the 5 ps (full-width, half-maximum), 50 GeV beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) at 1 kA and focused to a 3 micron rms spot size gives intensities of >1020 W/cm-2 at a repetition rate of >10 Hz. Unlike a ps or fs laser pulse which interacts with the surface of a solid target, the particle beam can readily tunnel through tens of cm of steel. However, the same particle beam can be manipulated quite effectively by a plasma that is a million times less dense than air! This is because of the incredibly strong collective fields induced in the plasma by the Coulomb force of the beam. The collective fields in turn react back onto the beam leading to many clearly observable phenomena. The beam paraticles can be: (1) Deflected leading to focusing, defocusing, or even steering of the beam; (2) undulated causing the emission of spontaneous betatron x-ray radiation and; (3) accelerated or decelerated by the plasma fields. Using the 28.5 GeV electron beam from the SLAC linac a series of experiments have been carried out that demonstrate clearly many of the above mentioned effects. The results can be compared with theoretical predictions and with two-dimensional and three-dimensional, one-to-one, particle-in-cell code simulations. These phenomena may have practical applications in future technologies including optical elements in particle beam lines, synchrotron light sources, and ultrahigh gradient accelerators.

  4. High gain harmonic generation free electron lasers enhanced by pseudoenergy bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Tanaka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new scheme for high gain harmonic generation free electron lasers (HGHG FELs, which is seeded by a pair of intersecting laser beams to interact with an electron beam in a modulator undulator located in a dispersive section. The interference of the laser beams gives rise to a two-dimensional modulation in the energy-time phase space because of a strong correlation between the electron energy and the position in the direction of dispersion. This eventually forms pseudoenergy bands in the electron beam, which result in efficient harmonic generation in HGHG FELs in a similar manner to the well-known scheme using the echo effects. The advantage of the proposed scheme is that the beam quality is less deteriorated than in other existing schemes.

  5. Simple method for generating adjustable trains of picosecond electron bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Muggli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple, passive method for producing an adjustable train of picosecond electron bunches is demonstrated. The key component of this method is an electron beam mask consisting of an array of parallel wires that selectively spoils the beam emittance. This mask is positioned in a high magnetic dispersion, low beta-function region of the beam line. The incoming electron beam striking the mask has a time/energy correlation that corresponds to a time/position correlation at the mask location. The mask pattern is transformed into a time pattern or train of bunches when the dispersion is brought back to zero downstream of the mask. Results are presented of a proof-of-principle experiment demonstrating this novel technique that was performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility. This technique allows for easy tailoring of the bunch train for a particular application, including varying the bunch width and spacing, and enabling the generation of a trailing witness bunch.

  6. Polarization holograms allow highly efficient generation of complex light beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, U; Pagliusi, P; Provenzano, C; Volke-Sepúlveda, K; Cipparrone, Gabriella

    2013-03-25

    We report a viable method to generate complex beams, such as the non-diffracting Bessel and Weber beams, which relies on the encoding of amplitude information, in addition to phase and polarization, using polarization holography. The holograms are recorded in polarization sensitive films by the interference of a reference plane wave with a tailored complex beam, having orthogonal circular polarizations. The high efficiency, the intrinsic achromaticity and the simplicity of use of the polarization holograms make them competitive with respect to existing methods and attractive for several applications. Theoretical analysis, based on the Jones formalism, and experimental results are shown.

  7. Measurement of beam energy spread in a space-charge dominated electron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Cui

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of beam energy spread in a space-charge dominated beam is very important to understanding the physics of intense beams. It is believed that coupling between the transverse and longitudinal directions via Coulomb collisions will cause an increase of the beam longitudinal energy spread. At the University of Maryland, experiments have been carried out to study the energy evolution in such intense beams with a high-resolution retarding field energy analyzer. The temporal beam energy profile along the beam pulse has been characterized at the distance of 25 cm from the anode of a gridded thermionic electron gun. The mean energy of the pulsed beams including the head and tail is reported here. The measured rms energy spread is in good agreement with the predictions of the intrabeam scattering theory. As an application of the beam energy measurement, the input impedance between the cathode and the grid due to beam loading can be calculated and the impedance number is found to be a constant in the operation region of the gun.

  8. Optimization of Compton Source Performance through Electron Beam Shaping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyzhenkov, Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yampolsky, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-26

    We investigate a novel scheme for significantly increasing the brightness of x-ray light sources based on inverse Compton scattering (ICS) - scattering laser pulses off relativistic electron beams. The brightness of ICS sources is limited by the electron beam quality since electrons traveling at different angles, and/or having different energies, produce photons with different energies. Therefore, the spectral brightness of the source is defined by the 6d electron phase space shape and size, as well as laser beam parameters. The peak brightness of the ICS source can be maximized then if the electron phase space is transformed in a way so that all electrons scatter off the x-ray photons of same frequency in the same direction, arriving to the observer at the same time. We describe the x-ray photon beam quality through the Wigner function (6d photon phase space distribution) and derive it for the ICS source when the electron and laser rms matrices are arbitrary.

  9. Analysis of a non-diffractive beam generated from an annular beam in random media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ziqi; Shiina, Tatsuo

    2017-11-01

    An annular beam has the ability to self-transform into a non-diffractive beam when it propagates in air at a long distance. In our previous study, we propagated an annular beam in random media and obtained a non-diffractive beam at a short propagation distance of a few tens centimeters by adjusting the concentration of random media and narrowing the view angle of the receiver. In this paper, we aim to analyze the components and characteristics of a non-diffractive beam and elucidate how the non-diffractive beam is generated in random media. The intensity variation of the scattered waveform is examined when the distance between the receiver and the back plane of a medium tank is changed. The waveform scattered in random media is constructed from forward scattering light at the center and multiple scattering light in the surrounding part. The forward scattering light at the center generates the non-diffractive beam. In numerical analysis based on diffusion theory, the calculation result of the non-diffractive beam shows agreement with the experimental result.

  10. Gap application results for adjacent electron beams treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, Francisco G.A., E-mail: francisampaio@pg.ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Fisica - FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Av. dos Bandeirantes 3900, CEP 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Del Lama, Lucas S., E-mail: lucasdellama@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Fisica - FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Av. dos Bandeirantes 3900, CEP 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Petchevist, Paulo C.D., E-mail: petchevist12@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Fisica - FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Av. dos Bandeirantes 3900, CEP 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Radioterapia e Megavoltagem de Ribeirao Preto - IRMEV, Rua Sete de Setembro 1150, CEP 14010-180, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Moreira, Marcos V., E-mail: marcos_vasques@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Fisica - FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Av. dos Bandeirantes 3900, CEP 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Radioterapia e Megavoltagem de Ribeirao Preto - IRMEV, Rua Sete de Setembro 1150, CEP 14010-180, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Almeida, Adelaide de, E-mail: dalmeida@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Fisica - FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Av. dos Bandeirantes 3900, CEP 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    Nowadays, electron beams from high-energy linear accelerators (LINAC) are widely used in a variety of radiotherapy treatments being suitable especially for superficial tumors. Since this sort of ionizing radiation has stopping power higher than photons, deeper and healthier tissues can be preserved. On the other hand, when applying adjacent electron beams, 'hot' spots can be observed, due to penumbra and/or scattering, contributing to the increase of the absorbed dose in the target volume. In this sense, the objective of this work was to investigate the effects of parallel adjacent electron beams using the chemical dosimeter Fricke Xylenol Gel (FXG) and compare the experimental results with ones acquired using Monte Carlo simulation. Thus, 10 Multiplication-Sign 10, 15 Multiplication-Sign 15 and 20 Multiplication-Sign 20 cm{sup 2} fields were irradiated with 5, 8 and 10 MeV electron beams applying different gap widths. The experimental results and the simulations indicated overdose values up to 40% from the prescribed one for the specific tumor. This demonstrates that specific gaps are necessary in the case of treatments with parallel adjacent electron beams in order to prevent overdoses in the depth of interest.

  11. Electron beam welding of iridium heat source capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaleski, Thomas M.; Yearwood, J. Cecil; Burgan, Clyde E.; Green, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    The development of the welding procedures for the production of DOP-26 iridium alloy cups for heat source encapsulation is described. All the final assembly welds were made using the electron beam welding process. The welding of the 0.13-mm weld shield required the use of computer controlled X-Y table and a run-off tab. Welding of the frit vent to the cup required that a laser weld be made to hold the frit assembly edges together for the final electron beam weld. Great care is required in tooling design and beam placement to achieve acceptable results. Unsuccessful attempts to use laser beam welding for heat shield butt weld are discussed.

  12. Effect of secondary ions on the electron beam optics in the Recycler Electron Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A.; Prost, L.; Saewert, G.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    Antiprotons in Fermilab's Recycler ring are cooled by a 4.3 MeV, 0.1-0.5 A DC electron beam (as well as by a stochastic cooling system). The unique combination of the relativistic energy ({gamma} = 9.49), an Ampere-range DC beam, and a relatively weak focusing makes the cooling efficiency particularly sensitive to ion neutralization. A capability to clear ions was recently implemented by way of interrupting the electron beam for 1-30 {micro}s with a repetition rate of up to 40 Hz. The cooling properties of the electron beam were analyzed with drag rate measurements and showed that accumulated ions significantly affect the beam optics. For a beam current of 0.3 A, the longitudinal cooling rate was increased by factor of {approx}2 when ions were removed.

  13. Electron beam induced chemical dry etching and imaging in gaseous NH3 environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Charlene J; Martin, Aiden; Phillips, Matthew R; Toth, Milos

    2012-09-21

    We report the use of ammonia (NH(3)) vapor as a new precursor for nanoscale electron beam induced etching (EBIE) of carbon, and an efficient imaging medium for environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Etching is demonstrated using amorphous carbonaceous nanowires grown by electron beam induced deposition (EBID). It is ascribed to carbon volatilization by hydrogen radicals generated by electron dissociation of NH(3) adsorbates. The volatilization process is also effective at preventing the buildup of residual hydrocarbon impurities that often compromise EBIE, EBID and electron imaging. We also show that ammonia is a more efficient electron imaging medium than H(2)O, which up to now has been the most commonly used ESEM imaging gas.

  14. Beam Profile Diagnostics for the Fermilab Medium Energy Electron Cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, A.; Kazakevich, G.; Nagaitsev, S.; Tassotto, G.; Gai, W.; Konecny, R.

    2005-10-01

    The Fermilab Recycler ring will employ an electron cooler to store and cool 8.9 GeV antiprotons. The cooler will be based on a Pelletron electrostatic accelerator working in an energy-recovery regime. Several techniques for determining the characteristics of the beam dynamics are being investigated. Beam profiles have been measured as a function of the beam line optics at the energy of 3.5 MeV in the current range of 10/sup -4/-1 A, with a pulse duration of 2 /spl mu/s. The profiles were measured using optical transition radiation produced at the interface of a 250-/spl mu/m aluminum foil and also from YAG crystal luminescence. In addition, beam profiles measured using multiwire detectors were investigated. These three diagnostics will be used together to determine the profile dynamics of the beam. In this paper we report the results so far obtained using these techniques.

  15. Small field electron beam dosimetry using MOSFET detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Heaton, Robert; Norrlinger, Bern; Islam, Mohammad K

    2010-10-04

    The dosimetry of very small electron fields can be challenging due to relative shifts in percent depth-dose curves, including the location of dmax, and lack of lateral electronic equilibrium in an ion chamber when placed in the beam. Conventionally a small parallel plate chamber or film is utilized to perform small field electron beam dosimetry. Since modern radiotherapy departments are becoming filmless in favor of electronic imaging, an alternate and readily available clinical dosimeter needs to be explored. We have studied the performance of MOSFET as a relative dosimeter in small field electron beams. The reproducibility, linearity and sensitivity of a high-sensitivity microMOSFET were investigated for clinical electron beams. In addition, the percent depth doses, output factors and profiles have been measured in a water tank with MOSFET and compared with those measured by an ion chamber for a range of field sizes from 1 cm diameter to 10 cm × 10 cm for 6, 12, 16 and 20 MeV beams. Similar comparative measurements were also per-formed with MOSFET and films in solid water phantom. The MOSFET sensitivity was found to be practically constant over the range of field sizes investigated. The dose response was found to be linear and reproducible (within ± 1% for 100 cGy). An excellent agreement was observed among the central axis depth dose curves measured using MOSFET, film and ion chamber. The output factors measured with MOSFET for small fields agreed to within 3% with those measured by film dosimetry. Overall results indicate that MOSFET can be utilized to perform dosimetry for small field electron beam.

  16. Supershort avalanche electron beam in SF_{6} and krypton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zhang (章程

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Runaway electrons play an important role in the avalanche formation in nanosecond- and subnanosecond- pulse discharges. In this paper, characteristics of a supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB generated at the subnanosecond and nanosecond breakdown in sulfur hexafluoride (SF_{6} in an inhomogeneous electric field were studied. One pulser operated at negative polarity with voltage pulse amplitude of ∼130  kV and rise time of 0.3 ns. The other pulser operated at negative polarity with voltage pulse amplitude of 70 kV and rise time of ∼1.6  ns. SAEB parameters in SF_{6} are compared with those obtained in krypton (Kr, nitrogen (N_{2}, air, and mixtures of SF_{6} with krypton or nitrogen. Experimental results showed that SAEB currents appeared during the rise-time of the voltage pulse for both pulsers. Moreover, amplitudes of the SAEB current in SF_{6} and Kr approximately ranged from several to tens of milliamps at atmospheric pressure, which were smaller than those in N_{2} and air (ranging from hundreds of milliamps to several amperes. Furthermore, the concentration of SF_{6} additive could significantly reduce the SAEB current in N_{2}-SF_{6} mixture, but it slightly affected the SAEB current in Kr-SF_{6} mixture because of the atomic/molecular ionization cross section of the gas had a much greater impact on the SAEB current rather than the electronegativity.

  17. Supershort avalanche electron beam in SF6 and krypton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Tarasenko, Victor F.; Gu, Jianwei; Baksht, Evgeni Kh.; Beloplotov, Dmitry V.; Burachenko, Alexander G.; Yan, Ping; Lomaev, Mikhail I.; Shao, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Runaway electrons play an important role in the avalanche formation in nanosecond- and subnanosecond- pulse discharges. In this paper, characteristics of a supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) generated at the subnanosecond and nanosecond breakdown in sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 ) in an inhomogeneous electric field were studied. One pulser operated at negative polarity with voltage pulse amplitude of ˜130 kV and rise time of 0.3 ns. The other pulser operated at negative polarity with voltage pulse amplitude of 70 kV and rise time of ˜1.6 ns . SAEB parameters in SF6 are compared with those obtained in krypton (Kr), nitrogen (N2 ), air, and mixtures of SF6 with krypton or nitrogen. Experimental results showed that SAEB currents appeared during the rise-time of the voltage pulse for both pulsers. Moreover, amplitudes of the SAEB current in SF6 and Kr approximately ranged from several to tens of milliamps at atmospheric pressure, which were smaller than those in N2 and air (ranging from hundreds of milliamps to several amperes). Furthermore, the concentration of SF6 additive could significantly reduce the SAEB current in N2-SF6 mixture, but it slightly affected the SAEB current in Kr -SF6 mixture because of the atomic/molecular ionization cross section of the gas had a much greater impact on the SAEB current rather than the electronegativity.

  18. Local investigation of the optical properties of subwavelength rectangular holes with a focused beam of electrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prangsma, J.C.; van Oosten, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269286470; Kuipers, L.

    2011-01-01

    The optical properties of rectangular subwavelength holes in a gold film are investigated using the light generated when a focused beam of electrons impinges on the sample close to the hole. Using this technique, multi-spectral maps of the holes are obtained with a resolution beyond the optical

  19. Emission of an intense electron beam from a ceramic honeycomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, M.; Myers, M.; Hegeler, F.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Sethian, J. D.; Ludeking, L.

    2003-01-01

    Inserting a slab of honeycomb ceramic in front of the emitting surface of a large-area cathode improves the electron beam emission uniformity, decreases the beam current rise and fall times, and maintains a more constant diode impedance. Moreover, changing the cathode material from velvet to carbon fiber achieved a more robust cathode that starts to emit at a higher electric field without a degradation in beam uniformity. In addition, an 80% reduction in the postshot diode pressure was also observed when gamma alumina was deposited on the ceramic. A possible explanation is that reabsorption and recycling of adsorbed gases takes place.

  20. Transverse phase space mapping of relativistic electron beams using optical transition radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Le Sage

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Optical transition radiation (OTR has proven to be a versatile and effective diagnostic for measuring the profile, divergence, and emittance of relativistic electron beams with a wide range of parameters. Diagnosis of the divergence of modern high brightness beams is especially well suited to OTR interference (OTRI techniques, where multiple dielectric or metal foils are used to generate a spatially coherent interference pattern. Theoretical analysis of measured OTR and OTRI patterns allows precise measurement of electron beam emittance characteristics. Here we describe an extension of this technique to allow mapping of divergence characteristics as a function of transverse coordinates within a measured beam. We present the first experimental analysis of the transverse phase space of an electron beam using all optical techniques. Comparing an optically masked portion of the beam to the entire beam, we measure different angular spread and average direction of the particles. Direct measurement of the phase-space ellipse tilt angle has been demonstrated using this optical masking technique.

  1. Resist requirements and limitations for nanoscale electron-beam patterning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liddle, J. A.; Gallatin, G. M.; Ocola, L. E.; Experimental Facilities Division (APS); LBNL; IBM T.J. Watson Research Center

    2003-01-01

    Electron beam lithography still represents the most effective way to pattern materials at the nanoscale, especially in the case of structures, which are not indefinitely repeating a simple motif. The success of e-beam lithography depends on the availability of suitable resists. There is a substantial variety of resist materials, from PMMA to calixarenes, to choose from to achieve high resolution in electron-beam lithography. However, these materials suffer from the limitation of poor sensitivity and poor contrast. In both direct-write and projection e-beam systems the maximum beam current for a given resolution is limited by space-charge effects. In order to make the most efficient use of the available current, the resist must be as sensitive as possible. This leads, naturally, to the use of chemically amplified (CA) systems. Unfortunately, in the quest for ever smaller feature sizes and higher throughputs, even chemically amplified materials are limited: ultimately, sensitivity and resolution are not independent. Current resists already operate in the regime of < 1 electron/nm2. In this situation detailed models are the only way to understand material performance and limits. Resist requirements, including sensitivity, etch selectivity, environmental stability, outgassing, and line-edge roughness as they pertain to, high-voltage (100 kV) direct write and projection electron-beam exposure systems are described. Experimental results obtained on CA resists in the SCALPEL exposure system are presented and the fundamental sensitivity limits of CA and conventional materials in terms of shot-noise and resolution limits in terms of electron-beam solid interactions are discussed.

  2. Toward single mode, atomic size electron vortex beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, Ondrej L; Rusz, Jan; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos; Lovejoy, Tracy J; Dellby, Niklas

    2014-06-01

    We propose a practical method of producing a single mode electron vortex beam suitable for use in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The method involves using a holographic "fork" aperture to produce a row of beams of different orbital angular momenta, as is now well established, magnifying the row so that neighboring beams are separated by about 1 µm, selecting the desired beam with a narrow slit, and demagnifying the selected beam down to 1-2 Å in size. We show that the method can be implemented by adding two condenser lenses plus a selection slit to a straight-column cold-field emission STEM. It can also be carried out in an existing instrument, the monochromated Nion high-energy-resolution monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy-STEM, by using its monochromator in a novel way. We estimate that atom-sized vortex beams with ≥ 20 pA of current should be attainable at 100-200 keV in either instrument.

  3. High-quality electron beams from beam-driven plasma accelerators by wakefield-induced ionization injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez de la Ossa, A; Grebenyuk, J; Mehrling, T; Schaper, L; Osterhoff, J

    2013-12-13

    We propose a new and simple strategy for controlled ionization-induced trapping of electrons in a beam-driven plasma accelerator. The presented method directly exploits electric wakefields to ionize electrons from a dopant gas and capture them into a well-defined volume of the accelerating and focusing wake phase, leading to high-quality witness bunches. This injection principle is explained by example of three-dimensional particle-in-cell calculations using the code OSIRIS. In these simulations a high-current-density electron-beam driver excites plasma waves in the blowout regime inside a fully ionized hydrogen plasma of density 5×10(17)cm-3. Within an embedded 100  μm long plasma column contaminated with neutral helium gas, the wakefields trigger ionization, trapping of a defined fraction of the released electrons, and subsequent acceleration. The hereby generated electron beam features a 1.5 kA peak current, 1.5  μm transverse normalized emittance, an uncorrelated energy spread of 0.3% on a GeV-energy scale, and few femtosecond bunch length.

  4. Modelling and simulation of beam formation in electron guns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabchevski, S. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. po Elektronika; Mladenov, G. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. po Elektronika; Titov, A. [St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Barbarich, I. [St. Petersburg State Electrotechnical University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes a new PC version of the software package GUN-EBT for computer simulation of beam formation in rotationally symmetric electron guns with thermionic cathodes. It is based on a self-consistent physical model which takes into account the beam space charge and the initial velocity effects. The theoretical framework used for both the formulation of the model and for the interpretation of the results of numerical experiments is the formalism of the charged particle dynamics in phase space. This enables not only a trajectory analysis (ray tracing) but also a phase-space analysis of beams to be performed. The package can be used as an effective tool for computer aided design and optimization of electron guns in various electron-optical systems. The operation of the package is illustrated with a typical example. (orig.).

  5. Constraints on photon pulse duration from longitudinal electron beam diagnostics at a soft x-ray free-electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Behrens

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The successful operation of x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs, like the Linac Coherent Light Source or the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH, makes unprecedented research on matter at atomic length and ultrafast time scales possible. However, in order to take advantage of these unique light sources and to meet the strict requirements of many experiments in photon science, FEL photon pulse durations need to be known and tunable. This can be achieved by controlling the FEL driving electron beams, and high-resolution longitudinal electron beam diagnostics can be utilized to provide constraints on the expected FEL photon pulse durations. In this paper, we present comparative measurements of soft x-ray pulse durations and electron bunch lengths at FLASH. The soft x-ray pulse durations were measured by FEL radiation pulse energy statistics and compared to electron bunch lengths determined by frequency-domain spectroscopy of coherent transition radiation in the terahertz range and time-domain longitudinal phase space measurements. The experimental results, theoretical considerations, and simulations show that high-resolution longitudinal electron beam diagnostics provide reasonable constraints on the expected FEL photon pulse durations. In addition, we demonstrated the generation of soft x-ray pulses with durations below 50 fs (FWHM after the implementation of the new uniform electron bunch compression scheme used at FLASH.

  6. Size Control Technology of Silver Nanoparticles Using Electron Beam Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Suk; Kim, Byungnam; Kim, Hye Won; Koo, Yong Hwan; Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Hyun [Univ. of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Hyung Bin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Changmoon [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The manufacturing of silver nanoparticles using an electron beam is easy, fast, and highly productive, and it is possible at room temperature with no chemical residuals. Its various advantages therefore make this an important method for manufacturing nanoparticles such as silver, copper, and platinum. In particular, despite the use of electron beam irradiation, the results show that this method makes it possible to produce silver nanoparticles at low cost since low beam energy and low doses are used. This means that middle and high-energy electron beam accelerators are very expensive, but a low-energy electron beam accelerator has a relatively low cost of around 4-5 times, and mass production for a flow reaction without the need for extra radiation shielding is possible. Silver nanoparticles are of great interest to many researchers owing to their ability to be used in many applications such as catalysis, nanoelectronics, optical filters, electromagnetic interference shielding, surface Raman scattering, medical supplies, fabrics, cosmetics, hygiene and kitchen supplies, and electric home appliances.

  7. Tunable monoenergetic electron beams from independently controllable laser-wakefield acceleration and injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Golovin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of experiments on laser-wakefield acceleration in a novel two-stage gas target with independently adjustable density and atomic-composition profiles. We were able to tailor these profiles in a way that led to the separation of the processes of electron injection and acceleration and permitted independent control of both. This resulted in the generation of stable, quasimonoenergetic electron beams with central energy tunable in 50–300 MeV range. For the first time, we are able to independently control the beam charge and energy spread over the entire tunability range.

  8. High-flux electron beams from laser wakefield accelerators driven by petawatt lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ming; Tesileanu, Ovidiu

    2017-07-01

    Laser wakefield accelerators (LWFAs) are considered to be one of the most competitive next-generation accelerator candidates. In this paper, we will study the potential high-flux electron beam production of an LWFA driven by petawatt-level laser pulses. In our three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, an optimal set of parameters gives ˜ 40 {nC} of charge with 2 {PW} laser power, thus ˜ 400 {kA} of instantaneous current if we assume the electron beam duration is 100 fs. This high flux and its secondary radiation are widely applicable in nuclear and QED physics, industrial imaging, medical and biological studies.

  9. All-optical time-resolved measurement of laser energy modulation in a relativistic electron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Xiang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose and demonstrate an all-optical method to measure laser energy modulation in a relativistic electron beam. In this scheme the time-dependent energy modulation generated from the electron-laser interaction in an undulator is converted into time-dependent density modulation with a chicane, which is measured to infer the laser energy modulation. The method, in principle, is capable of simultaneously providing information on femtosecond time scale and 10^{-5} energy scale not accessible with conventional methods. We anticipate that this method may have wide applications in many laser-based advanced beam manipulation techniques.

  10. Investigation of effect of electron beam on various polyethylene blends

    CERN Document Server

    Morshedian, J

    2003-01-01

    With regards to the expanding usage of electron beams irradiation in polymer industries such as sterilization of polymeric disposable medical products; cable manufacturing; pipes, heat shrinkable materials, etc. In this project the effect of electron beam on polyethylene used in manufacturing of pipe and heat shrinkable products was studied. Results showed that by increasing the applied dose on samples; the crosslink density would increase and polymers with tertiary carbon atoms in their backbone structure tend to crosslink more readily. The melting temperature and crystallinity percent decreased and degradation temperature increased. Density in low doses decreased and in high doses increased.

  11. Laser and electron beam processing of silicon and gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayan, J.

    1979-10-01

    Laser (photon) and electron beams provide a controlled source of heat by which surface layers of silicon and gallium arsenide can be rapidly melted and cooled with rates exceeding 10/sup 80/C/sec. The melting process has been used to remove displacement damage in ion implanted Si and GaAs, to remove dislocations, loops and precipitates in silicon and to study impurity segregation and solubility limits. The mechanisms associated with various phenomena will be examined. The possible impact of laser and electron beam processing on device technology, particularly with respect to solar cells is discussed.

  12. Low energy electron beams for industrial and environmental applications

    CERN Document Server

    Skarda, Vlad

    2017-01-01

    EuCARD-2 Workshop, 8-9 December 2016, Warsaw, Poland. Organizers: Science and Technology Facilities Council, UK CERN - The European Organization for Nuclear Research, Switzerland, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Poland, Fraunhofer Institute for Electron Beam and Plasma Technology, Germany, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland. An article presents short information about EuCARD-2 Workshop “Low energy electron beams for industrial and environmental applications”, which was held in December 2016 in Warsaw. Objectives, main topics and expected output of meeting are described. List of organizers is included.

  13. Numerical modeling of electron-beam welding of dissimilar metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krektuleva, R. A.; Cherepanov, O. I.; Cherepanov, R. O.

    2016-11-01

    This paper is devoted to numerical modeling of heat transfer processes and estimation of thermal stresses in weld seams created by electron beam welding of heterogeneous metals. The mathematical model is based on a system of equations that includes the Lagrange's variational equation of theory of plasticity and variational equation of M. Biot's principle to simulate the heat transfer processes. The two-dimensional problems (plane strain and plane stress) are considered for estimation of thermal stresses in welds considering differences of mechanical properties of welded materials. The model is developed for simulation of temperature fields and stresses during electron beam welding.

  14. Sterilization of ground spices by electron beams irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashigiwa, Masayuki; Nakachi, Ayako; Kobayashi, Hiroshi [K. Kobayashi and Co., Ltd., Kako, Hyogo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Each ground spice (Black Pepper, Turmeric, Ginger, Paprika and Basil), which was packaged into polyethylene film, was irradiated by electron beams at 5 different levels: 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy. Bacteriological tests for total bacterial count were carried out on spices before and after irradiation, but the tests for microfiora were carried out only before irradiation. Total bacterial count decreased in proportion to the level of electron beams. But the decreasing rate for Turmeric, Ginger and Basil was lower compared with that of other spices. The reason seems that rate of contamination by B. pumilus, which is thought as radiation resistant bacteria, was higher on these spices. (author)

  15. Electron beam weld development on a Filter Pack Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereskiewicz, J. P.

    1994-06-01

    A continuous electron beam welding procedure was developed to replace the manual gas tungsten arc welding procedure on the Filter Pack Assembly. A statistical study was used to evaluate the feasibility of electron beam welding 6061-T6 aluminum covers to A356 cast weldments throughout the joint tolerance range specified on product drawings. Peak temperature exposures were not high enough to degrade the heat sensitive electrical components inside the cast weldment. Actual weldments with alodine coating on the weld joint area were successfully cleaned using a nonmetallic fiberglass brush cleaning method.

  16. Polystyrene calorimeter for electron beam dose measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    Calorimeters from polystrene have been constructed for dose measurement at 4-10 MeV electron accelerators. These calorimeters have been used successfully for a few years, and polystyrene calorimeters for use at energies down to 1 MeV and being tested. Advantage of polystyrene as the absorbing...

  17. Modelling hot electron generation in short pulse target heating experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sircombe N.J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Target heating experiments planned for the Orion laser facility, and electron beam driven fast ignition schemes, rely on the interaction of a short pulse high intensity laser with dense material to generate a flux of energetic electrons. It is essential that the characteristics of this electron source are well known in order to inform transport models in radiation hydrodynamics codes and allow effective evaluation of experimental results and forward modelling of future campaigns. We present results obtained with the particle in cell (PIC code EPOCH for realistic target and laser parameters, including first and second harmonic light. The hot electron distributions are characterised and their implications for onward transport and target heating are considered with the aid of the Monte-Carlo transport code THOR.

  18. Review of supershort avalanche electron beam during nanosecond-pulse discharges in some gases

    OpenAIRE

    Victor F. Tarasenko; ZHANG Cheng; Baksht, Evgenii Kh.; Burachenko, Alexander G.; Shao, Tao; Dmitry V. Beloplotov; Lomaev, Mikhail I.; Yan, Ping; Kozyrev, Andrey V.; Natalia S. Semeniuk

    2016-01-01

    Supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) plays an important role in nanosecond-pulse discharges. This paper aims at reviewing experiments results on characteritics of SAEB and its spectra in different gases in nanosecond-pulse discharges. All the joint experiments were carried in the Institute of High Current Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Electrical Engineering of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. In these experiments, the generation of a SAEB in SF6 in a...

  19. Slit disk for modified faraday cup diagnostic for determining power density of electron and ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teruya, Alan T [Livermore, CA; Elmer,; John, W [Danville, CA; Palmer, Todd A [State College, PA

    2011-03-08

    A diagnostic system for characterization of an electron beam or an ion beam includes an electrical conducting disk of refractory material having a circumference, a center, and a Faraday cup assembly positioned to receive the electron beam or ion beam. At least one slit in the disk provides diagnostic characterization of the electron beam or ion beam. The at least one slit is located between the circumference and the center of the disk and includes a radial portion that is in radial alignment with the center and a portion that deviates from radial alignment with the center. The electron beam or ion beam is directed onto the disk and translated to the at least one slit wherein the electron beam or ion beam enters the at least one slit for providing diagnostic characterization of the electron beam or ion beam.

  20. Transient self-amplified Cerenkov radiation with a short pulse electron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Poole

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available An analytic and numerical examination of the slow wave Cerenkov free electron maser is presented. We consider the steady-state amplifier configuration as well as operation in the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE regime. The linear theory is extended to include electron beams that have a parabolic radial density inhomogeneity. Closed form solutions for the dispersion relation and modal structure of the electromagnetic field are determined in this inhomogeneous case. To determine the steady-state response, a macroparticle approach is used to develop a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations for the amplitude and phase of the electromagnetic wave, which are solved in conjunction with the particle dynamical equations to determine the response when the system is driven as an amplifier with a time harmonic source. We then consider the case in which a fast rise time electron beam is injected into a dielectric loaded waveguide. In this case, radiation is generated by SASE, with the instability seeded by the leading edge of the electron beam. A pulse of radiation is produced, slipping behind the leading edge of the beam due to the disparity between the group velocity of the radiation and the beam velocity. Short pulses of microwave radiation are generated in the SASE regime and are investigated using particle-in-cell (PIC simulations. The nonlinear dynamics are significantly more complicated in the transient SASE regime when compared with the steady-state amplifier model due to the slippage of the radiation with respect to the beam. As strong self-bunching of the electron beam develops due to SASE, short pulses of superradiant emission develop with peak powers significantly larger than the predicted saturated power based on the steady-state amplifier model. As these superradiant pulses grow, their pulse length decreases and forms a series of solitonlike pulses. Comparisons between the linear theory, macroparticle model, and PIC

  1. Numerical calculations of the electron beam emittance for laser acceleration experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balascuta, Septimiu

    2017-06-01

    At the E6 experimental area at ELI-NP, two 10 PW Laser (pump and probe) pulses, with their directions making an 135° angle, will be used for the study of the radiation reaction, non-linear Thomson scattering, electron beam cooling and other QED phenomena in the relativistic regime. The pump 10 PW Laser beam focused in a gas-jet will generate a plasma wakefield that accelerate electrons by self-injection. The probe 10PW Laser pulse has to be synchronized and focused on the electron bunch. In order to maximize the flux of gamma rays produced in this collision, for a given Laser field intensity, the transversal area of the electron beam at the collision point has to be smaller than the focus of the probe pulse. This work presents the calculation of electron beam emittance and angular divergence, versus the distance traveled by electron bunch in vacuum. A configuration of dipole permanent magnets is proposed for the study of energy distribution of electrons and positrons.

  2. Next-generation fragment separators for exotic beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Laura Leigh

    The next generation of nuclear physics research will require advanced exotic beam facilities based on heavy-ion drivers. Exotic beams of rare nuclei will be produced via fragmentation and fission reactions resulting from a high-energy heavy-ion beam hitting a target. A large aperture fragment separator with superconducting magnets is needed for capture, selection, and transport of rare isotopes for experiments. The code COSY INFINTIY uses powerful differential algebra (DA) methods for computing the dynamics of the beam in the fragment separator. A hybrid map-Monte Carlo code has been developed and added to COSY to calculate beam-material interactions. This code tracks the fragmentation and fission of the beam in target and absorber material while computing energy loss and energy and angular straggling as well as charge state evolution of the beam by implementing auxiliary codes such as ATIMA and GLOBAL. EPAX has been utilized to return the cross-sections of fragmentation products. The special case of fission has been treated by integrating the code MCNPX to accurately predict cross-sections and dynamics of exotic beams produced by a 238U beam incident on a Li or C target. Fragment separator designs based on optical symmetries and optimized to be aberration-free are presented. For isotope separation, the Brho-DeltaE-Brho method is used, requiring the addition of an energy absorber. Shaped surfaces are used in order to reduce optical aberrations, resulting in a high-purity rare isotope beam. Beam purity is investigated for four rare isotope production mechanisms, namely light and heavy nuclear fragmentation and light and heavy nuclear fission. Each of these presents unique challenges due to the dynamics of the beam and background contamination produced. Optimized fragment separator settings are presented for each production reaction mechanism and purity results are shown after each selection stage. These include a first- and second-stage achromatic selection and gas

  3. Proximity effect of electron beam lithography on single-electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrical characteristics of the single-electron transistor were observed to be consistent with the expected behavior of electron transport through gated quantum dots, up to 150 K. The dependence of the electrical characteristics on the dot size reveals that the d oscillation follows from the Coulomb blockade by poly-Si ...

  4. Feasibility studies of using thin entrance window photodiodes for clinical electron beam dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Cristina R.; Asfora, Viviane K.; Barros, Vinicius S.M.; Gonçalves, Josemary A.C.; Andrade, Lucas F.R.; Khoury, Helen J.; Bueno, Carmen C., E-mail: vsmdbarros@gmail.com, E-mail: vikhoury@gmail.com, E-mail: hjkhoury@gmail.com, E-mail: cristinaramos@smartsat.com.br, E-mail: josemary@ipen.br, E-mail: ccbueno@ipen.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife-PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Itabuna, BA (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The response of the commercial XRA-24 PIN photodiode (5.76 mm{sup 2} active area) for clinical electron beam dosimetry covering the range of 8-12 MeV was investigated. Within this energy range, the charge generated in the diode's sensitive volume is linearly dependent on the absorbed dose up to 320 cGy. However, charge sensitivity coefficients evidenced that the dose response of the diode is slightly dependent on the electron beam energy. Indeed, the diode's energy dependence was within 8.5% for 8-12MeV electron beams. On the other hand, it was also observed an excellent repeatability of these results with a variation coefficient (VC) lower than 0.4%, which is within the 1% tolerance limit recommended by the AAPM TG-62. Furthermore, the agreement between the percentage depth dose profiles (PDD) gathered with the diode and the ionization chamber allowed achieving the electron beam quality within 1% of that obtained with the ionization chamber. Based on these results, the photodiode XRA-24 can be a reliable and inexpensive alternative for electron beams dosimetry. (author)

  5. Multiple pulse electron beam converter design for high power radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincosy, P. A.; Back, N.; Bergstrom, P. M.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Poulsen, P.

    2001-06-01

    The typical response of the x-ray converter material to the passage of a high-powered relativistic electron beam is vaporization and rapid dispersal. The effect of this dispersal on subsequent pulses for multi-pulse radiography is the collective effects on the propagation of the electron beam through the expanding plasma and the reduced number of electron to photon interactions. Thus, for the dual-axis radiographic hydrodynamic test facility, the converter material must either be replaced or confined long enough to accommodate the entire pulse train. Typically the 1-mm-thick high Z and full density converter material is chosen to give peak dose and minimum radiographic spot. For repeated pulses we propose a modified converter, constructed of either low density, high Z material in the form of foam or of foils spaced over ten times the axial thickness of the standard 1 mm converter. The converter material is confined within a tube to impede outward motion in radius outside the beam interaction region. We report single-pulse experiments which measure the dose and spot size produced by the modified converter and compare them to similar measurements made by the standard converter. For multiple pulses over a microsecond time scale, we calculate the radial and axial hydrodynamic flow to study the material reflux into the converter volume and the resultant density decrease as the electron beam energy is deposited. Both the electron transport through the expanding low density plasma and beam in the higher density material are modeled. The x-ray source dose and spot size are calculated to evaluate the impact of the changing converter material density distribution on the radiographic spot size and dose. The results indicate that a multiple-pulse converter design for three or four high-power beam pulses is feasible.

  6. Electromagnetic interactions between a fast electron beam and metamaterial cloaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinying; Dong, Yunxia; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2008-10-01

    Relativistic energy loss and photon emission in the interaction of ideal and nonideal metamaterial cloaks with an external electron beam are studied based on the classical electrodynamics. The effects of various imperfect parameters on the efficiency of the cloak are emphasized. The energy-loss spectra and the photon emission for such structures with the different combinations of electron velocity and impact parameter are calculated. It is shown that the efficiency of nonideal electromagnetic cloaks and the effect of various nonideal parameters on the cloak invisibility can be exhibited in the electron energy loss spectroscopy. This means that the properties of cloak can be explored by scanning transmission electron microscopy.

  7. On production and asymmetric focusing of flat electron beams using rectangular capillary discharge plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdasarov, G. A.; Bobrova, N. A.; Boldarev, A. S.; Olkhovskaya, O. G.; Sasorov, P. V.; Gasilov, V. A.; Barber, S. K.; Bulanov, S. S.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Schroeder, C. B.; van Tilborg, J.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.; Levato, T.; Margarone, D.; Korn, G.; Kando, M.; Bulanov, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    A method for the asymmetric focusing of electron bunches, based on the active plasma lensing technique, is proposed. This method takes advantage of the strong inhomogeneous magnetic field generated inside the capillary discharge plasma to focus on the ultrarelativistic electrons. The plasma and magnetic field parameters inside the capillary discharge are described theoretically and modeled with dissipative magnetohydrodynamic computer simulations enabling analysis of the capillaries of rectangle cross-sections. Large aspect ratio rectangular capillaries might be used to transport electron beams with high emittance asymmetries, as well as assist in forming spatially flat electron bunches for final focusing before the interaction point.

  8. Calculation of the transverse kicks generated by the bends of a hollow electron lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancari, Giulio

    2014-03-25

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beams whose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam in high-energy accelerators. They were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for abort-gap clearing, beam-beam compensation, and halo scraping. A beam-beam compensation scheme based upon electron lenses is currently being implemented in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This work is in support of a conceptual design of hollow electron beam scraper for the Large Hadron Collider. It also applies to the implementation of nonlinear integrable optics with electron lenses in the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator at Fermilab. We consider the axial asymmetries of the electron beam caused by the bends that are used to inject electrons into the interaction region and to extract them. A distribution of electron macroparticles is deposited on a discrete grid enclosed in a conducting pipe. The electrostatic potential and electric fields are calculated using numerical Poisson solvers. The kicks experienced by the circulating beam are estimated by integrating the electric fields over straight trajectories. These kicks are also provided in the form of interpolated analytical symplectic maps for numerical tracking simulations, which are needed to estimate the effects of the electron lens imperfections on proton lifetimes, emittance growth, and dynamic aperture. We outline a general procedure to calculate the magnitude of the transverse proton kicks, which can then be generalized, if needed, to include further refinements such as the space-charge evolution of the electron beam, magnetic fields generated by the electron current, and longitudinal proton dynamics.

  9. Low-energy electron beams through ultra-thin foils, applications for electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Aken, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis has discussed two electron microscopy applications that make use of ultra-thin foils: the tunnel junction emitter and the low-energy foil corrector. Both applications have in common that the electron beam is sent through the thin foil at low energy. Part of the electrons will scatter in

  10. Electron beam irradiation of Matricaria chamomilla L. for microbial decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemtanu, Monica R. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Electron Accelerator Laboratory, 409 Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)], E-mail: monica.nemtanu@inflpr.ro; Kikuchi, Irene Satiko; Jesus Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha de [University of Sao Paulo, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacy, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580-Bloco 13, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mazilu, Elena; Setnic, Silvia [S.C. Hofigal Export-Import S.A., 2A Intrarea Serelor Street, 75669, Bucharest 4 (Romania); Bucur, Marcela [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Biology, Department of Microbiology, 1-3 Aleea Portocalelor Street, Bucharest 6 (Romania); Duliu, Octavian G. [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Meltzer, Viorica; Pincu, Elena [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Physical Chemistry, Bd. Regina Elisabeta 4-12, 030018 Bucharest (Romania)

    2008-05-15

    Wild chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) is one of the most popular herbal materials with both internal and external use to cure different health disturbances. As a consequence of its origin, chamomile could carry various microbial contaminants which offer different hazards to the final consumer. Reduction of the microbial load to the in force regulation limits represents an important phase in the technological process of vegetal materials, and the electron beam treatment might be an efficient alternative to the classical methods of hygienic quality assurance. The purpose of the study was to analyze the potential application of the electron beam treatment in order to assure the microbial safety of the wild chamomile. Samples of chamomile dry inflorescences were treated in electron beam (e-beam) of 6 MeV mean energy, at room temperature and ambient pressure. Some loss of the chemical compounds with bioactive role could be noticed, but the number of microorganisms decreased as a function on the absorbed dose. Consequently, the microbial quality of studied vegetal material inflorescences was improved by e-beam irradiation.

  11. Prospects for electron beam aberration correction using sculpted phase masks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiloh, Roy, E-mail: royshilo@post.tau.ac.il; Remez, Roei; Arie, Ady

    2016-04-15

    Technological advances in fabrication methods allowed the microscopy community to take incremental steps towards perfecting the electron microscope, and magnetic lens design in particular. Still, state of the art aberration-corrected microscopes are yet 20–30 times shy of the theoretical electron diffraction limit. Moreover, these microscopes consume significant physical space and are very expensive. Here, we show how a thin, sculpted membrane is used as a phase-mask to induce specific aberrations into an electron beam probe in a standard high resolution TEM. In particular, we experimentally demonstrate beam splitting, two-fold astigmatism, three-fold astigmatism, and spherical aberration. - Highlights: • Thin membranes can be used as aberration correctors in electron columns. • We demonstrate tilt, twofold-, threefold-astigmatism, and spherical aberrations. • Experimental and physical-optics simulation results are in good agreement. • Advantages in cost, size, nonmagnetism, and nearly-arbitrary correction.

  12. Electron beam sounding rocket experiments for probing the distant magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemzek, R. J.; Winckler, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    Electron accelerators on sounding rockets have injected 8-40-keV electrons on closed magnetospheric tail field lines near 250 km altitude in the northern auroral zone. These beams mirrored at the southern conjugate point ad returned as 'echoes' which were detected on the rocket system. The 20 percent of the beam that returned was sufficient to measure field line lengths and verify magnetospheric magnetic models, to measure fluctuating electric fields, and electron pitch angle scattering (6-10) R(E) distant, and to identify 10-100 V field-aligned potentials above the rocket. The experiment gives new insight into the motion of natural electrons in the outer Van Allen radiation belt.

  13. Electron Beam Welding of a Depleted Uranium Alloy to Niobium Using a Calibrated Electron Beam Power Density Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, J. W.; Teruya, A. T.; Terrill, P. E.

    2000-08-01

    Electron beam test welds were made joining flat plates of commercially pure niobium to a uranium-6wt%Nb (binary) alloy. The welding parameters and joint design were specifically developed to minimize mixing of the niobium with the U-6%Nb alloy. A Modified Faraday Cup (MFC) technique using computer-assisted tomography was employed to determine the precise power distribution of the electron beam so that the welding parameters could be directly transferred to other welding machines and/or to other facilities.

  14. Spin-valley splitting of electron beam in graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We study spatial separation of the four degenerate spin-valley components of an electron beam in a EuO-induced and top-gated ferromagnetic/pristine/strained graphene structure. We show that, in a full resonant tunneling regime for all beam components, the formation of standing waves can lead sudden phase jumps ∼−π and giant lateral Goos-Hänchen shifts as large as the transverse beam width, while the interplay of the spin and valley imaginary wave vectors in the modulated regions can lead differences of resonant angles for the four spin-valley flavors, manifesting a spin-valley beam splitting effect. The splitting effect is found to be controllable by the gating and strain.

  15. Electron beam processing of fresh produce - A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Suresh D.; Shayanfar, Shima

    2018-02-01

    To meet the increasing global demand for fresh produce, robust processing methods that ensures both the safety and quality of fresh produce are needed. Since fresh produce cannot withstand thermal processing conditions, most of common safety interventions used in other foods are ineffective. Electron beam (eBeam) is a non-thermal technology that can be used to extend the shelf life and ensure the microbiological safety of fresh produce. There have been studies documenting the application of eBeam to ensure both safety and quality in fresh produce, however, there are still unexplored areas that still need further research. This is a critical review on the current literature on the application of eBeam technology for fresh produce.

  16. Antiproton beam profile measurements using Gas Electron Multipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Pinto, Serge; Spanggaard, Jens; Tranquille, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    The new beam profile measurement for the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN is based on a single Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) with a 2D readout structure. This detector is very light, ~0.4% X_0, as required by the low energy of the antiprotons, 5.3 MeV. This overcomes the problems previously encountered with multi-wire proportional chambers (MWPC) for the same purpose, where beam interactions with the detector severely affect the obtained profiles. A prototype was installed and successfully tested in late 2010, with another five detectors now installed in the ASACUSA and AEgIS beam lines. We will provide a detailed description of the detector and discuss the results obtained. The success of these detectors in the AD makes GEM-based detectors likely candidates for upgrade of the beam profile monitors in all experimental areas at CERN. The various types of MWPC currently in use are aging and becoming increasingly difficult to maintain.

  17. HOLLOW ELECTRON BEAM COLLIMATION FOR HL-LHC - EFFECT ON THE BEAM CORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitterer, M. [Fermilab; Stancari, G. [Fermilab; Valishev, A. [Fermilab; Bruce, R. [CERN; Papadopoulou, S. [CERN; Papotti, G. [CERN; Pellegrini, D. [CERN; Pellegrini, S. [CERN; Valuch, D. [CERN; Wagner, J. F. [CERN

    2016-10-05

    Collimation with hollow electron beams or lenses (HEL) is currently one of the most promising concepts for active halo control in HL-LHC. In previous studies it has been shown that the halo can be efficiently removed with a hollow electron lens. Equally important as an efficient removal of the halo, is also to demonstrate that the core stays unperturbed. In this paper, we present a summary of the experiment at the LHC and simulations in view of the effect of the HEL on the beam core in case of a pulsed operation.

  18. Combined in-beam gamma-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy with radioactive ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konki J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In-beam gamma-ray and electron spectroscopy have been widely used as tools to study the broad variety of phenomena in nuclear structure. The SPEDE spectrometer is a new device to be used in conjunction with the MINIBALL germanium detector array to enable the detection of internal conversion electrons in coincidence with gamma rays from de-exciting nuclei in radioactive ion beam experiments at the upcoming HIE-ISOLDE facility at CERN, Switzerland. Geant4 simulations were carried out in order to optimise the design and segmentation of the silicon detector to achieve good energy resolution and performance.

  19. Characterization and control of femtosecond electron and X-ray beams at free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Christopher

    2012-11-15

    X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) open up new frontiers in photon science, and in order to take full advantage of these unique accelerator-based light sources, the characterization and control of the femtosecond electron and X-ray beams is essential. Within this cumulative thesis, recent results achieved within the active research field of femtosecond electron and X-ray beams at FELs are reported.The basic principles of X-ray FELs are described, and concepts of longitudinal electron beam diagnostics with femtosecond accuracy are covered. Experimental results obtained with a transverse deflecting structure (TDS) and spectroscopy of coherent terahertz radiation are presented, and the suppression of coherent optical radiation effects, required for diagnostics utilizing a TDS, is demonstrated. Control of the longitudinal phase space by using multiple radio frequencies for longitudinal electron beam tailoring is presented, and a new technique of reversible electron beam heating with two TDSs is described. For the characterization of femtosecond X-ray pulses, a novel method based on dedicated longitudinal phase space diagnostics for electron beams is introduced, and recent measurements with a streaking technique using external terahertz fields are presented.

  20. Industrial applications of electron beam; Przemyslowe zastosowamia wiazki elektronow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A.G. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    The review of industrial applications with use of electron beams has been done. Especially the radiation technologies being developed in Poland have been shown. Industrial installations with electron accelerators as radiation source have been applied for: modification of polymers; modification of thyristors; sterilization of health care materials; radiopreservation of food and other consumer products; purification of combustion flue gases in heat and power plants. 14 refs, 6 tabs, 7 figs.

  1. Space-charge dynamics of polymethylmethacrylate under electron beam irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, H; Ong, C K

    1997-01-01

    Space-charge dynamics of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) under electron beam irradiation has been investigated employing a scanning electron microscope. Assuming a Gaussian space-charge distribution, the distribution range (sigma) has been determined using a time-resolved current method in conjunction with a mirror image method. sigma is found to increase with irradiation time and eventually attain a stationary value. These observations have been discussed by taking into account radiation-induced conductivity and charge mobility. (author)

  2. Microstructure evolution and fracture behaviour for electron beam ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of microstructural characteristics on fracture behaviour mechanism for electron beam welding of Ti–6Al–4V was investigated. The results indicated that the welded microstructure composed of coarse needle + phases presenting disordered and multidirectional short needle morphology to make fracture ...

  3. Microstructure evolution and fracture behaviour for electron beam ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The effect of microstructural characteristics on fracture behaviour mechanism for electron beam welding of Ti–6Al–4V was investigated. The results indicated that the welded microstructure composed of coarse needle α + β phases presenting disordered and multidirectional short needle morphology to make frac-.

  4. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the structure and optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This work reports the effect of electron beam (EB) irradiation on the structure and optical properties of nanocrystalline nickel oxide (NiO) cubes. NiO nanocubes were synthesized by the chemical precipitation method. The characterization was carried out by employing analytical techniques like X-ray diffraction, ...

  5. Planar electron beams in a wiggler magnet array

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-02-01

    Feb 1, 2013 ... Planar electron beams in a wiggler magnet array. ARTI HADAP1,∗ and K C MITTAL2. 1General Engineering Department, Terna Engineering College, Nerul, Navi Mumbai 400 706,. India. 2Accelerator and Pulsed Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay,. Mumbai 400 085, India. ∗.

  6. Gamma and electron-beam irradiation of cut flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko

    2003-01-01

    Fresh cut flowers are commodities that require quarantine treatment for export/import. In the present work some cut flowers were irradiated in a gamma panoramic source and in an electron beam accelerator with doses up to 800 Gy, and the results for the radiation tolerance of the flowers are presented.

  7. Electron beam computed tomography for the diagnosis of cardiac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diagnosis of cardiac disease. Yadon Arad. Electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) of the heart is a new modality which will alter the way cardiology is practised. ... cardiovascular disease is either an acute myocardial infarction (MI) or ... Department of Preventive Cardiology, St Francis Hospital, Roslyn,. NY,USA.

  8. Application of electron beam technology in improving sewage water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2Radiation Technology Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai-400085, India. Accepted 30 May, 2011. The use of electron beam to disinfect sewage water is gaining importance. The current problem on environmental health in relation to water pollution insists for the safe disposal of ...

  9. Molecule-by-Molecule Writing Using a Focused Electron Beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Dorp, Willem F.; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Feringa, Ben L.

    2012-01-01

    The resolution of lithography techniques needs to be extended beyond their current limits to continue the trend of miniaturization and enable new applications. But what is the ultimate spatial resolution? It is known that single atoms can be imaged with a highly focused electron beam. Can single ...

  10. Studies on tin oxide films prepared by electron beam evaporation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Transparent conducting tin oxide thin films have been prepared by electron beam evaporation and spray pyrolysis methods. Structural, optical and electrical properties were studied under different pre- paration conditions like substrate temperature, solution flow rate and rate of deposition. Resistivity of un-.

  11. Studies on tin oxide films prepared by electron beam evaporation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transparent conducting tin oxide thin films have been prepared by electron beam evaporation and spray pyrolysis methods. Structural, optical and electrical properties were studied under different preparation conditions like substrate temperature, solution flow rate and rate of deposition. Resistivity of undoped evaporated ...

  12. Microfissuring in Electron-Beam-Welded Nickel Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr

    1985-01-01

    Mathematical model developed for microfissuring of commercial nickel alloy during electron-beam welding. Number of measured microfissures per unit length of weld plotted against excess power calculated by computer model. Excess power that above level likely to produce microfissures. In agreement with model, measured microfissures increase at rate of 4.5 per inch (1.8 per centimeter) per excess kilowatt.

  13. Filler-wire positioner for electron beam welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaupre, W. M.; Fueg, L. B.; Phillips, J. A.

    1970-01-01

    Miniaturized positioner is installed in any electron beam vacuum chamber for use with wire feed applications requiring filler wire. Horizontal and vertical control of the positioner is maintained from a console while chamber is under vacuum. Device permits more positive positioning of welding filler wire.

  14. Flue gas cleaning by multiple irradiation with electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paur, H.-R.; Baumann, W.; Mätzing, H.; Lindner, W.

    1995-09-01

    By electron beam treatment, NOx and SO2 can be reduced simultaneously from combustion flue gas. The efficiency of the process has been shown to improve by multiple irradiation. It appears most promising to perform the multiple irradiation with an intermediate gas scrubber. This paper reports experimental investigations on the efficiency of the intermediate filter.

  15. Electron Beam Cured Epoxy Resin Composites for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dorsey, George F.; Havens, Stephen J.; Lopata, Vincent J.; Meador, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    Electron beam curing of Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC's) is a nonthermal, nonautoclave curing process that has been demonstrated to be a cost effective and advantageous alternative to conventional thermal curing. Advantages of electron beam curing include: reduced manufacturing costs; significantly reduced curing times; improvements in part quality and performance; reduced environmental and health concerns; and improvement in material handling. In 1994 a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), sponsored by the Department of Energy Defense Programs and 10 industrial partners, was established to advance the electron beam curing of PMC technology. Over the last several years a significant amount of effort within the CRADA has been devoted to the development and optimization of resin systems and PMCs that match the performance of thermal cured composites. This highly successful materials development effort has resulted in a board family of high performance, electron beam curable cationic epoxy resin systems possessing a wide range of excellent processing and property profiles. Hundreds of resin systems, both toughened and untoughened, offering unlimited formulation and processing flexibility have been developed and evaluated in the CRADA program.

  16. A comparison of the physics of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW), Electron Beam Welding (EBW), and Laser Beam Welding (LBW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The physics governing the applicability and limitations of gas tungsten arc (GTA), electron beam (EB), and laser beam (LB) welding are compared. An appendix on the selection of laser welding systems is included.

  17. Extraction simulations and emittance measurements of a Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility electron beam plasma source for radioactive ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, A. J. II; Liu, Y. [Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has a variety of ion sources used to produce radioactive ion beams (RIBs). Of these, the workhorse is an electron beam plasma (EBP) ion source. The recent addition of a second RIB injector, the Injector for Radioactive Ion Species 2 (IRIS2), for the HRIBF tandem accelerator prompted new studies of the optics of the beam extraction from the EBP source. The source was modeled using SIMION V8.0, and results will be presented, including comparison of the emittances as predicted by simulation and as measured at the HRIBF offline ion source test facilities. Also presented will be the impact on phase space shape resulting from extraction optics modifications implemented at IRIS2.

  18. A Novel Diagnostics of Ultrashort Electron Bunches Based on Detection of Coherent Radiation from Bunched Electron Beam in an Undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Saldin, Evgeny L; Yurkov, Mikhail V

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new method for measurements of the longitudinal profile of 100 femtosecond electron bunches for X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFELs). The method is based on detection of coherent undulator radiation produced by modulated electron beam. Seed optical quantum laser is used to produce exact optical replica of ultrashort electron bunches. The replica is generated in apparatus which consists of an input undulator (energy modulator), and output undulator (radiator) separated by a dispersion section. The radiation in the output undulator is excited by the electron bunch modulated at the optical wavelength and rapidly reaches a hundred-MW-level power. We then use the now-standard method of ultrashort laser pulse-shape measurement, a tandem combination of autocorrelator and spectrum (FROG -- frequency resolved optical gating) providing real-time single-shot measurements of the electron bunch structure. The big advantage of proposed technique is that it can be used to determine the slice energy spread and emi...

  19. Proton beams emission from laser-generated plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Torrisi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available An alternative method employing large dimension ion accelerator systems to generate proton beams can be the production of ions by using a power pulsed laser, operating at high intensity, irradiating in vacuum hydrogenated targets and by extracting the ions of interest from the generated plasma. The choice of the adequate target, of the laser pulse intensity regime and of the ion current obtainable, is strongly dependent of the type of experimental apparatus, as will be discussed in the article. Proton beam emission from experiments conduced at low and high laser intensities are presented, in order to generate protons from about 100 eV, as that prepared at the Physics Department of Messina University, up to about 100 keV, as prepared at INFN-LNS of Catania, and up to about 1 MeV obtained at the international PALS Laboratory of Prague, Czech Republic.

  20. Numerical model of the plasma formation at electron beam welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushnikov, D. N.; Mladenov, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    The model of plasma formation in the keyhole in liquid metal as well as above the electron beam welding zone is described. The model is based on solution of two equations for the density of electrons and the mean electron energy. The mass transfer of heavy plasma particles (neutral atoms, excited atoms, and ions) is taken into account in the analysis by the diffusion equation for a multicomponent mixture. The electrostatic field is calculated using the Poisson equation. Thermionic electron emission is calculated for the keyhole wall. The ionization intensity of the vapors due to beam electrons and high-energy secondary and backscattered electrons is calibrated using the plasma parameters when there is no polarized collector electrode above the welding zone. The calculated data are in good agreement with experimental data. Results for the plasma parameters for excitation of a non-independent discharge are given. It is shown that there is a need to take into account the effect of a strong electric field near the keyhole walls on electron emission (the Schottky effect) in the calculation of the current for a non-independent discharge (hot cathode gas discharge). The calculated electron drift velocities are much bigger than the velocity at which current instabilities arise. This confirms the hypothesis for ion-acoustic instabilities, observed experimentally in previous research.