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Sample records for electrolyte balance id

  1. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance the amount of water in your body Balance your body's acid/base (pH) level Move nutrients into your cells Move wastes out of your cells Make sure that your nerves, muscles, the ... something upsets this balance, you may have too little water (dehydration) or ...

  2. Human Water and Electrolyte Balance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montain, S. J; Cheuvront, S. N; Carter, R; Sawka, M. N

    2006-01-01

    .... Sweat losses, if not replaced, reduce body water volume and electrolyte content. Excessive body water or electrolyte losses can disrupt physiological homeostasis and threaten both health and performance...

  3. Electrolyte balance and crude protein requirement of laying Japanese quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Vargas Gonçalves Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two levels of crude protein and five levels of electrolyte balance on the performance and egg-quality of laying Japanese quail. Six hundred 45-day-oldquails were distributed in a randomized-block design with a 5 × 2 factorial arrangement comprising ten treatments, five replicates, and 12 birds per experimental unit. The electrolyte balance levels were 50, 125, 200, 275, and 350 mEq kg–1of diet, and crude protein (CP levels were 210 and 240 g kg-1. The performance and egg-quality variables assessed were: feed intake, feed conversion, egg-laying percentage, egg weight and mass, and albumin, yolk and shell weight. There were no interactions among the studied factors. The electrolyte balance and crude protein levels did not significantly affect the performance variables. However, increased shell weight of eggs stored for seven days was observed at an electrolyte balance level of 200 mEq kg–1. With regard to the CP levels, increased egg weight was observed at 28 days at a level of 210 g kg-1, whereas increased albumin weight was observed at 35 days of storage at a level of 240 g kg-1. A tendency toward an increase in egg albumin weight during the storage period of 14 days was observed. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that the diet for Japanese quails in the laying phase be formulated with an electrolyte balance of 50 mEq kg–1and 240 g kg-1 of crude protein This diet did not have a negative effect on productive performance, and by increasing the weight of egg albumin, eggs can be stored for a longer duration, thus demonstrating an alternative method to increase the shelf life of eggs.

  4. Effect of different electrolyte balances in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UM Arantes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance, tibial density and mineral content, Na, K ,and Cl serum levels, and dry matter content of the litter of broilers fed diets with different levels of dietary electrolyte balances. Two experiments were carried out: during the starter phase (7 to 21 days of age, 960 broilers and during the growe phase (22 to 38 days of age, 816 broilers. In both experiments, a completely randomized design with four treatments based on dietary electrolyte balance values (200, 240, 280 and 320 mEq/kg of diet with four replicates was applied. Birds and diets were weighed when birds were seven, 14 and 21 days of age in the first experiment, and 22 and 38 days of age in the second experiment in order to determine weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion. Final body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion and mortality rate were evaluated. On days 21 and 38, the left tibia of two birds per replicate was collected to determine bone density and the serum was used for Na and K analysis. Litter dry matter content was also determined on days 21 and 38 . There was no effect of dietary electrolyte balance values on broilers performance between 7 and 14, 7 and 21, or 22 and 38 days of age, tibial bone density and mineral content, or on Na, K and Cl serum levels. Litter dry matter was linearly reduced as dietary electrolyte balance value increased. Diets with 200 mEq/kg may be recommended for broilers from 7 to 38 days of age with no negative influence on the evaluated parameters.

  5. Does extending the dual-task functional exercises workout improve postural balance in individuals with ID?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczyk, Edyta; Jankowicz-Szymanska, Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Maintaining postural balance, overcoming visual and motor coordination disorders and experiencing problems with low general fitness - typical of intellectually disabled individuals - adversely affect the performance quality of their activities of daily living (ADLs). Physical fitness and postural balance can be improved by taking part in special intervention programs. Our study was designed to test whether extending the dual-task intervention program (combining ADLs with balance exercises on unstable surfaces) from 12 to 24 weeks additionally improved postural balance in individuals with intellectual disability (ID). We also attempted to assess whether the effects of the above intervention program were still noticeable after 8 weeks of holidays, in which participants did not take any rehabilitation exercises. A total of 34 adolescents, aged 14-16 years (15.06±0.9), with moderate ID took part in our study. The experimental group (E) consisted of 17 individuals, who continued the intervention program originated 3 months earlier, and the control group (C) comprised the same number of participants. Postural balance was assessed on a stabilometric platform Alfa. Having extended the workout period by another 12 weeks, we noticed that the path length of the center of pressure (COP) covered by participants on tests with their eyes open and closed significantly shortened. After a lapse of 8 weeks from the completion of the program, the experimental group revealed a statistically significant decrease in the velocity along the medio-lateral (M/L) and anterior-posterior (A/P) axes. The remaining variables stayed at the same level and the control group did not demonstrate any statistically significant changes. Dual-task exercises, in which enhancing functional tasks of daily living is combined with a parallel stimulation of balance reactions, may improve static balance in persons with ID. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Water-Electrolytic and Acid-Base Balance in Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Gerasimov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The review deals with some aspects of correction of water-electrolytic and acid-base balance and this problem-associated infusion therapy. It characterizes various electrolytic solutions and considers the efficacy and safety of their use in terms of homeostatic maintenance. Key words: homeostasis, dyshidria, acid-base balance, acidosis, infusion therapy, crystalloid solutions.

  7. Dietary electrolyte balance affects growth performance, amylase activity and metabolic response in the meagre (Argyrosomus regius)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnoni, Leonardo J.; Salas-Leiton, Emilio; Peixoto, Maria João; Pereira, Luis; Silva-Brito, Francisca; Fontinha, Filipa; Gonçalves, José F.M.; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Schrama, Johan W.; Ozório, Rodrigo O.A.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary ion content is known to alter the acid-base balance in freshwater fish. The current study investigated the metabolic impact of acid-base disturbances produced by differences in dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) in the meagre (Argyrosomus regius), an euryhaline species. Changes in fish

  8. Neurologic complications of electrolyte disturbances and acid-base balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espay, Alberto J

    2014-01-01

    Electrolyte and acid-base disturbances are common occurrences in daily clinical practice. Although these abnormalities can be readily ascertained from routine laboratory findings, only specific clinical correlates may attest as to their significance. Among a wide phenotypic spectrum, acute electrolyte and acid-base disturbances may affect the peripheral nervous system as arreflexic weakness (hypermagnesemia, hyperkalemia, and hypophosphatemia), the central nervous system as epileptic encephalopathies (hypomagnesemia, dysnatremias, and hypocalcemia), or both as a mixture of encephalopathy and weakness or paresthesias (hypocalcemia, alkalosis). Disabling complications may develop not only when these derangements are overlooked and left untreated (e.g., visual loss from intracranial hypertension in respiratory or metabolic acidosis; quadriplegia with respiratory insufficiency in hypermagnesemia) but also when they are inappropriately managed (e.g., central pontine myelinolisis when rapidly correcting hyponatremia; cardiac arrhythmias when aggressively correcting hypo- or hyperkalemia). Therefore prompt identification of the specific neurometabolic syndromes is critical to correct the causative electrolyte or acid-base disturbances and prevent permanent central or peripheral nervous system injury. This chapter reviews the pathophysiology, clinical investigations, clinical phenotypes, and current management strategies in disorders resulting from alterations in the plasma concentration of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus as well as from acidemia and alkalemia. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary electrolyte balance affects the nutrient digestibility and maintenance energy expenditure of Nile tilapia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, S.; Geurden, I.; Orozco, Z.G.A.; Kaushik, S.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Acid–base disturbances caused by environmental factors and physiological events including feeding have been well documented in several fish species, but little is known about the impact of dietary electrolyte balance (dEB). In the present study, we investigated the effect of feeding diets differing

  10. fluid and electrolyte balance during the comrades marathon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were examined and a blood sample was taken during the week before the race ... Blood was taken immediately after the race. Particular .... takes. All of those who sweat loss exceeded 9 litres drank more than 4t litres, but in spite of this the negative balances were alarming. Water deficits of up to 5t litres were recorded!

  11. Glycerin levels while maintaining the electrolyte balance in finishing pig diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaeli Gonçalves Leite

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and carcass and meat characteristics of finishing pigs fed diets with different levels of glycerin, while maintaining the electrolyte balance. Forty barrows with an initial weight of 97.76±13.44 kg were distributed, in a randomized block design, into four treatments with five replicates. Treatments consisted of diets containing 0, 5, 10, and 15% glycerin. Inclusions of salt and sodium bicarbonate were adjusted to balance the sodium content and maintain the same electrolyte balance of the diets as a function of glycerin inclusions. In vivo backfat thickness, daily feed intake, daily weight gain, and feed conversion were measured. After the animals were slaughtered, pH and temperature were measured 45 min and 24 h postmortem, and backfat thickness, loin-eye area, drip loss, and colorimetry were determined. Glycerin inclusion levels did not influence the performance of barrows. Hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, and lightness had higher values when pigs were fed diets containing 2.32, 2.43, and 2.61% glycerin, respectively. The other carcass and meat characteristics were not influenced. Glycerin can be used in finishing pig diets without compromising results of performance or carcass and meat characteristics up to the inclusion level of 15%.

  12. Dietary electrolyte balance affects growth performance, amylase activity and metabolic response in the meagre (Argyrosomus regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnoni, Leonardo J; Salas-Leiton, Emilio; Peixoto, Maria-João; Pereira, Luis; Silva-Brito, Francisca; Fontinha, Filipa; Gonçalves, José F M; Wilson, Jonathan M; Schrama, Johan W; Ozório, Rodrigo O A

    2017-09-01

    Dietary ion content is known to alter the acid-base balance in freshwater fish. The current study investigated the metabolic impact of acid-base disturbances produced by differences in dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) in the meagre (Argyrosomus regius), an euryhaline species. Changes in fish performance, gastric chyme characteristics, pH and ion concentrations in the bloodstream, digestive enzyme activities and metabolic rates were analyzed in meagre fed ad libitum two experimental diets (DEB 200 or DEB 700mEq/kg) differing in the Na2CO3 content for 69days. Fish fed the DEB 200 diet had 60-66% better growth performance than the DEB 700 group. Meagre consuming the DEB 200 diet were 90-96% more efficient than fish fed the DEB 700 diet at allocating energy from feed into somatic growth. The pH values in blood were significantly lower in the DEB 700 group 2h after feeding when compared to DEB 200, indicating that acid-base balance in meagre was affected by electrolyte balance in diet. Osmolality, and Na+ and K+ concentrations in plasma did not vary with the dietary treatment. Gastric chyme in the DEB 700 group had higher pH values, dry matter, protein and energy contents, but lower lipid content than in the DEB 200 group. Twenty-four hours after feeding, amylase activity was higher in the gastrointestinal tract of DEB 700 group when compared to the DEB 200 group. DEB 700 group had lower routine metabolic (RMR) and standard metabolic (SMR) rates, indicating a decrease in maintenance energy expenditure 48h after feeding the alkaline diet. The current study demonstrates that feeding meagre with an alkaline diet not only causes acid-base imbalance, but also negatively affects digestion and possibly nutrient assimilation, resulting in decreased growth performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance of broilers fed diets with different dietary electrolyte balance under summer conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LMO Borgatti

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed diets with different Dietary Electrolyte balances (DEB during the summer season. A total of 1,280 one-day-old Ross sexed chicks were distributed in 32 experimental units according to a randomized block design in a 4x2 factorial arrangement (4 levels and 2 sexes and 4 replicates per treatment (40 birds per replicate. Feed program consisted of 3 phases (1-21, 22-42, 43-49 days of age. Experimental diets were formulated based on corn and soybean meal and adjusted to 210, 250, 290 and 330 mEq/kg of Na + K - Cl through the addition of sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate and ammonium chloride. Weekly measurements of body weight gain and feed intake were done, and at 49 days, birds were slaughtered to evaluate the dressing percentage and parts yield. Weight gain during the starter phase increased linearly (p<0.01 as DEB increased. Different DEB levels did not affect feed intake or mortality. Carcass characteristics were not affected by treatments. Dietary electrolytic balance influenced weight gain and feed gain ratio from 1 to 21 days, and best results were observed when diets contained 290 and 330 mEq/kg.

  14. Fluid and electrolyte balance during 24-hour fluid and/or energy restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lewis J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2013-12-01

    Weight categorized athletes use a variety of techniques to induce rapid weight loss (RWL) in the days leading up to weigh in. This study examined the fluid and electrolyte balance responses to 24-hr fluid restriction (FR), energy restriction (ER) and fluid and energy restriction (F+ER) compared with a control trial (C), which are commonly used techniques to induce RWL in weight category sports. Twelve subjects (six male, six female) received adequate energy and water (C) intake, adequate energy and restricted water (~10% of C; FR) intake, restricted energy (~25% of C) and adequate water (ER) intake or restricted energy (~25% of C) and restricted (~10% of C) water intake (F+ER) in a randomized counterbalanced order. Subjects visited the laboratory at 0 hr, 12 hr, and 24 hr for blood and urine sample collection. Total body mass loss was 0.33% (C), 1.88% (FR), 1.97% (ER), and 2.44% (F+ER). Plasma volume was reduced at 24 hr during FR, ER, and F+ER, while serum osmolality was increased at 24 hr for FR and F+ER and was greater at 24 hr for FR compared with all other trials. Negative balances of sodium, potassium, and chloride developed during ER and F+ER but not during C and FR. These results demonstrate that 24 hr fluid and/ or energy restriction significantly reduces body mass and plasma volume, but has a disparate effect on serum osmolality, resulting in hypertonic hypohydration during FR and isotonic hypohydration during ER. These findings might be explained by the difference in electrolyte balance between the trials.

  15. Normal saline versus balanced-salt solution as intravenous fluid therapy during neurosurgery: effects on acid-base balance and electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizah, Mohamed; Liu, Chian Y; Ooi, Joanna S

    2017-06-01

    This prospective, randomized controlled study compared the changes in acid-base balance and serum electrolytes with the use of intravenous balanced and non-balanced crystalloid solutions intraoperatively during elective neurosurgery. Thirty consented adult patients who underwent craniotomy were randomly allocated into two groups of 15 patients each. The non-balanced group received 0.9% normal saline while the balanced group received Sterofundin®ISO as the intraoperative fluid for maintenance. Biochemical indices for acid-base balance and serum electrolytes were analyzed periodically. In the non-balanced group, significant changes were noted in the pH, base excess and bicarbonate values over time compared to its respective baseline values (P<0.01). Four patients (27.7%) also developed a pH<7.35 and 5 patients (33.3%) developed marked acidosis with base excess <-4.0 at the end of surgery. Both mean sodium and chloride levels were also significantly higher compared to its baseline values respectively (142.6±2.4 versus 138±2.7 mmol/L, P<0.01 and 105.7±4.1 versus 113.2±3.0 mmol/L (P<0.01). A balanced solution (Sterofundin®ISO) provided significantly better control over acid-base balance, sodium and chloride levels when used as intraoperative fluid maintenance and replacement during elective neurosurgery.

  16. Whole body acid-base and fluid-electrolyte balance: a mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Matthew B

    2013-10-15

    A cellular compartment was added to our previous mathematical model of steady-state acid-base and fluid-electrolyte chemistry to gain further understanding and aid diagnosis of complex disorders involving cellular involvement in critically ill patients. An important hypothesis to be validated was that the thermodynamic, standard free-energy of cellular H(+) and Na(+) pumps remained constant under all conditions. In addition, a hydrostatic-osmotic pressure balance was assumed to describe fluid exchange between plasma and interstitial fluid, including incorporation of compliance curves of vascular and interstitial spaces. The description of the cellular compartment was validated by close comparison of measured and model-predicted cellular pH and electrolyte changes in vitro and in vivo. The new description of plasma-interstitial fluid exchange was validated using measured changes in fluid volumes after isoosmotic and hyperosmotic fluid infusions of NaCl and NaHCO3. The validated model was used to explain the role of cells in the mechanism of saline or dilutional acidosis and acid-base effects of acidic or basic fluid infusions and the acid-base disorder due to potassium depletion. A module was created that would allow users, who do not possess the software, to determine, for free, the results of fluid infusions and urinary losses of water and solutes to the whole body.

  17. Blood pressure and fluid-electrolyte balance in mice with reduced or absent ANP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, S W; Veress, A T; Honrath, U; Chong, C K; Peng, L; Smithies, O; Sonnenberg, H

    1996-07-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-gene knockout mice of three genotypes (+/+, +/-, and -/-) were maintained on a low-salt diet (0.008% NaCl). They were then fed either the same low-salt diet or a high-salt diet (8% NaCl) for 1 wk. No differences were found among genotypes in daily food and water intakes or in urinary volume and electrolyte excretions. Arterial blood pressures measured in anesthetized animals at the end of the dietary regimen were significantly and similarly increased in -/- compared with +/+ mice on each diet. Renal excretion of fluid and electrolytes was measured in anesthetized mice before and after acute blood volume expansion. No genotype differences were observed before volume expansion. After volume expansion the wild-type (+/+) mice had much greater saluretic responses than either the heterozygous (+/-) or the homozygous mutant (-/-) animals on the low-salt diet but not on the high-salt diet. We conclude that ANP lowers blood pressure in the absence of detected changes in renal function; ANP is not essential for normal salt balance, even on high-salt intake; and ANP is essential for the natriuretic response to acute blood volume expansion on a low-salt but not high-salt intake.

  18. Changes in acid-base balance during electrolytic ablation in an ex vivo perfused liver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravante, Gianpiero; Ong, Seok Ling; Metcalfe, Matthew S; Sorge, Roberto; Fox, Andrew J; Lloyd, David M; Maddern, Guy J; Dennison, Ashley R

    2012-11-01

    Electrolytic ablation (EA) destroys tissues through extreme pH changes in the local microenvironment. An ex vivo perfused liver model was used to assess the systemic effects of EA on the acid-base balance without the influence of compensatory organs (lungs and kidneys). Eleven pigs were perfused extracorporeally at 39°C with autologous blood; 4 also underwent EA after 1 hour of reperfusion. Arterial blood samples were obtained hourly. pH and CO(2) levels did not change throughout the experiments. A significant increase of HCO(3)-, anion gap, base excess, and lactate was present after the third hour. No differences were observed between EA experiments and controls. EA does not alter the acid-base balance even when the confounding influence of compensatory organs is removed. Such findings should be considered when planning ablations in patients with renal failure or respiratory diseases in which EA could avoid undesirable metabolic changes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The changes in electrolytes and acid-base balance after artificially induced acute diarrhea by laxatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. J.; Yoon, Y. M.; Park, K. N.

    1994-01-01

    Following the acute diarrhea in patients (n = 24) overnight with commonly used laxatives for bowel preparation, the changes in electrolytes and acid-base balance in blood and urine were investigated. Though no alterations of serum sodium or potassium concentrations were noted, mild but significant reduction of mean values (+/- SEM) of plasma pH and HCO3 after diarrhea when compared to those before it developed (pH, from 7.42 +/- 0.01 to 7.39 +/- 0.01, p < 0.01; HCO3, from 25.8 +/- 0.6 to 23.7 +/- 0.6 mEq/L, p < 0.05). However, significant reduction of concentration in spot urine sodium from 150 +/- 12.3 to 93 +/- 14 mEq/g of crea. (p < 0.01) and increase in spot urine potassium from 33 +/- 3.2 to 51 +/- 6.0 mEq/g of crea. (p < 0.05) following diarrhea were seen with significant reduction of urine pH from 6.67 +/- 0.21 to 5.5 +/- 0.13 (p < 0.001). Also, with this effective urinary acidification following diarrhea, a significant reduction of urinary anion gap as well as significant increment of spot urine ammonium was accompanied (anion gap, from 80.4 +/- 11.1 to 44 +/- 8.5 mEq/g of crea. p < 0.001; ammonium, from 87 +/- 18.5 to 229 +/- 37 mg/g of crea. p < 0.001) in addition to the significant inverse correlation between these changes in spot urine from basal levels in 24 study subjects (y = -1.13 x +61, r = 0.7, p < 0.001). In conclusion, we observed that the acute diarrhea with laxatives used for bowel preparation caused a mild degree of metabolic acidosis with no changes in blood electrolytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7702787

  20. Effect of dietary electrolytes and histidine on histidine metabolism and acid-base balance in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Y.N.; Austic, R.E.; Rumsey, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    1. Rainbow trout fingerlings were fed diets containing 1.2, 1.8 and 2.6% histidine and two mixtures of Na, K and Cl (Na + K - Cl = 0 or -200 meq/kgdiet) in a factorial design.2. Growth and efficiency of feed conversion were not affected by histidine in the diet when it contained the −200 meq/kg electrolyte mixture, but with the 0 meq/kg level, 2.6% histidine depressed both measures of response.3. Histidine increased plasma and muscle histidine levels, increased hepatic histidase activity, but did not affect hepatic histidine-pyruvate aminotransferase activity.4. Muscle-free histidine concentrations were markedly higher and lysine concentrations were lower in trout receiving 0 meq/kg than those receiving the −200 meq/kg electrolyte mixture.5. The electrolyte balance of the diet has a marked effect on the metabolism of histidine in trout.

  1. Effects of a new intravenous electrolyte solution for veterinary therapy on the electrolyte and acid-base balances of healthy horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Fajardo Valente Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The effects of a new intravenous electrolyte solution for veterinary therapy on electrolyte and acid-base balances of horses were evaluated, assessing the potential of the use of this solution as a rational alternative in fluid therapy. Eight healthy adult horses, including 4 males and 4 females, received two treatments in a cross-over design: isotonic saline solution (IS and a test solution (TS containing 145mEq of Na+, 5mEq of K+, 4mEq of Ca++, 2mEq of Mg++, 96mEq of Cl-, 60mEq of lactate, 50g of dextrose, and 4mg of cyanocobalamin per liter. Solutions were IV infused in a volume corresponding to 5% of BW, over 3 hours. Venous blood samples were taken 5 times before and after the infusion (at 0, 3, 6, 9 e 24h, for pHv, pCO2v, HCO3 -v, BEv, Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca++, Ca, P, Mg, glucose and L-lactate measurements, and AG and SID calculations. The data were analyzed through repeated measures ANOVA. The IS caused mild acidifying effect by increasing Cl- and decreasing plasma SID. In contrast, the TS induced mild and transient hypochloremia without changes in acid-base balance. Hyperglycemia was present at the end of the TS infusion and reversed 6 hours later. The horses did not exhibit any clinical changes. We concluded that TS is an option for fluid therapy in horses.

  2. Balance between the physical diffusion and the exchange reaction on binary ionic liquid electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Feng; Lin, Hong; Zhang, Jing [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Jianbao [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Application Technology of Chemical Materials in Hainan Superior Resources, Hainan Provincial Key Laboratory of Research on Utilization of Si-Zr-Ti Resources, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China)

    2011-02-01

    A comprehensive characterizations of viscosities, conductivities, triiodide diffusion coefficients, charge-transfer resistances and photovoltaic performance of a potential dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) electrolyte systems based on binary ionic liquid (IL) mixtures, namely, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (EMIDCA)/1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (PMII) with a fixed iodine concentration at varying EMIDCA volume fraction are investigated in the present study. Viscosity and conductivity values are accurately correlated with regard to temperature and EMIDCA volume fraction. The triiodide diffusion coefficients, the predominant electrolyte parameter for limitation of DSC efficiency, are determined by symmetrical cell methods. The physical diffusion and exchange reactions between the iodide and triiodide dominate the apparent triiodide diffusion coefficients at different range of EMIDCA volume fraction. A balance between the viscosity-dependent physical diffusion and the exchange reactions can get at an optimal volume percents of EMIDCA. Impedance spectroscopy and photovoltaic results both support the existence of an optimized binary IL electrolyte composition. Hence, for optimizing an IL-based electrolyte in regards to triiodide transport, a low viscosity is not the exclusive crucial factor since exchange reactions transport effects also play an important role to resolve the diffusion limitation of DSC efficiency. (author)

  3. A dynamic human water and electrolyte balance model for verification and optimization of life support systems in space flight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, P.; Czupalla, M.; Walter, U.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we report on the development of a dynamic MATLAB SIMULINK® model for the water and electrolyte balance inside the human body. This model is part of an environmentally sensitive dynamic human model for the optimization and verification of environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) in space flight applications. An ECLSS provides all vital supplies for supporting human life on board a spacecraft. As human space flight today focuses on medium- to long-term missions, the strategy in ECLSS is shifting to closed loop systems. For these systems the dynamic stability and function over long duration are essential. However, the only evaluation and rating methods for ECLSS up to now are either expensive trial and error breadboarding strategies or static and semi-dynamic simulations. In order to overcome this mismatch the Exploration Group at Technische Universität München (TUM) is developing a dynamic environmental simulation, the "Virtual Habitat" (V-HAB). The central element of this simulation is the dynamic and environmentally sensitive human model. The water subsystem simulation of the human model discussed in this paper is of vital importance for the efficiency of possible ECLSS optimizations, as an over- or under-scaled water subsystem would have an adverse effect on the overall mass budget. On the other hand water has a pivotal role in the human organism. Water accounts for about 60% of the total body mass and is educt and product of numerous metabolic reactions. It is a transport medium for solutes and, due to its high evaporation enthalpy, provides the most potent medium for heat load dissipation. In a system engineering approach the human water balance was worked out by simulating the human body's subsystems and their interactions. The body fluids were assumed to reside in three compartments: blood plasma, interstitial fluid and intracellular fluid. In addition, the active and passive transport of water and solutes between those

  4. Colonoscopy preparation: polyethylene glycol with Gatorade is as safe and efficacious as four liters of polyethylene glycol with balanced electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Thomas; Macgill, Alice; Porat, Gail; Friedenberg, Frank K

    2012-12-01

    Four liters of polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG) with balanced electrolytes for colonoscopy preparation has had poor acceptance. Another approach is the use of electrolyte-free PEG combined with 1.9 L of Gatorade. Despite its widespread use, there are no data on metabolic safety and minimal data on efficacy. Our aim was to assess the efficacy and electrolyte safety of these two PEG-based preparations. This was a prospective, randomized, single-blind, non-inferiority trial. Patients were randomized to 238 g PEG + 1.9 L Gatorade or 4 L of PEG-ELS containing 236 g PEG. Split dosing was not performed. On procedure day blood was drawn for basic chemistries. The primary outcome was preparation quality from procedure photos using the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale. We randomized 136 patients (66 PEG + Gatorade, 70 PEG-ELS). There were no differences in preparation scores between the two agents in the ITT analysis (7.2 ± 1.9 for PEG-ELS and 7.0 ± 2.1 for PEG + Gatorade; p = 0.45). BBPS scores were identical for those who completed the preparation and dietary instructions as directed (7.4 ± 1.7 for PEG-ELS, and 7.4 ± 1.8 for PEG + Gatorade; p = 0.98). There were no statistical differences in serum electrolytes between the two preparations. Patients who received PEG + Gatorade gave higher overall satisfaction scores for the preparation experience (p = 0.001), and had fewer adverse effects. Use of 238 g PEG + 1.9 L Gatorade appears to be safe, better tolerated, and non-inferior to 4 L PEG-ELS. This preparation may be especially useful for patients who previously tolerated PEG-ELS poorly.

  5. Colonoscopy Preparation: Polyethylene Glycol with Gatorade is as Safe and Efficacious as 4 Liters of Polyethylene Glycol with Balanced Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Thomas; Macgill, Alice; Porat, Gail; Friedenberg, Frank K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Four liters of polyethylene glycol 3350 with balanced electrolytes for colonoscopy preparation has had poor acceptance. Another approach is the use of electrolyte-free PEG combined with 1.9L of Gatorade. Despite its widespread use, there are no data on metabolic safety and minimal data on efficacy. Our aim was to assess the efficacy and electrolyte safety of these two PEG-based preparations. Methods This was a prospective, randomized, single-blind, non-inferiority trial. Patients were randomized to 238g PEG + 1.9L Gatorade or 4L of PEG-ELS containing 236g PEG. Split dosing was not performed. On procedure day blood was drawn for basic chemistries. The primary outcome was preparation quality from procedure photos using the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale. Results We randomized 136 patients (66 PEG + Gatorade, 70 PEG-ELS). There were no differences in preparation scores between the two agents in the ITT analysis (7.2 ± 1.9 for PEG-ELS and 7.0 ± 2.1 for PEG + Gatorade; p = 0.45). BBPS scores were identical for those who completed the preparation and dietary instructions as directed (7.4 ± 1.7 for PEG-ELS, and 7.4 ± 1.8 for PEG + Gatorade; p = 0.98). There were no statistical differences in serum electrolytes between the two preparations. Patients who received PEG + Gatorade gave higher overall satisfaction scores for the preparation experience (p = 0.001), and had fewer adverse effects. Conclusions Use of 238g PEG + 1.9L Gatorade appears to be safe, better tolerated, and non-inferior to 4L PEG-ELS. This preparation may be especially useful for patients who previously tolerated PEG-ELS poorly. PMID:22711499

  6. [Disorders of water and electrolyte metabolism and changes in acid-base balance in patients with ascitic liver cirrhosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfriedová, Halima; Horáčková, Miroslava; Čáslavská, Milena; Špičák, Julius; Schück, Otto

    2017-01-01

    In patients with advanced cirrhosis with ascites disorders of water and electrolyte metabolism are often present and they are associated with changes in acid-base balance. These changes can be very complicated, their diagnosis and treatment difficult. Dilutional hyponatremia is the most common disorder. Hyponatremia in these patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality before and after liver transplantation. Other common disorders include hyperchloremic acidosis, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, lactic acidosis, respiratory alkalosis. If renal impairment occurs (for example hepatorenal syndrome), metabolic acidosis and retention of acid metabolites may develop. The pathogenesis of these conditions applies primarily hemodynamic changes. Activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and non-osmotic stimulation of antidiuretic hormone trigger serious changes in water and natrium-chloride metabolism. This activation is clinically expressed like oedema, ascites, hydrothorax, low to zero natrium concentration in urine and increased urinary osmolality, which is higher than serum osmolality. In practice, the evaluation can be significantly modified by the ongoing diuretic therapy. Closer monitoring of water and electrolyte metabolism together with acid-base balance in patients with ascitic liver cirrhosis is important, not only in terms of diagnosis but especially in terms of therapy.

  7. Fluid and electrolyte balance during the first week of life and risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in the preterm neonate

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    Gustavo Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early fluid and electrolyte imbalances may be associated with an increased risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. OBJECTIVE: We sought to establish an association between fluid and electrolyte balance in the first week of life and the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. METHODS: Clinical charts of 205 neonates <32 weeks gestational age and/or <1,250 g birth weight (admitted to our NICU between 1997 and 2008 were analyzed. Clinical features, fluid and electrolyte balance were analyzed for the first 7 days of life using multivariate models of generalized estimation equations. A p value <0.05 was considered significant in all of the hypothesis tests. RESULTS: The prevalence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia was 22%. Lower gestational age and birth weight, male gender, less frequent use of antenatal steroids, respiratory distress syndrome, use of surfactant, patent ductus arteriosus, duration of invasive ventilation and NICU stay were significantly associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The variation in serum values of potassium, phosphorus and creatinine during the first week of life also revealed an association with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Higher mean plasma calcium values were associated with spontaneous closure of the patent ductus arteriosus. The use of indomethacin to induce patent ductus arteriosus closure was significantly higher in bronchopulmonary dysplasia patients. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in renal function and tubular handling of potassium and phosphorus are present during the first week of life among preterm neonates who will develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The higher rate of patent ductus arteriosus and indomethacin use may influence these differences. Serum levels of calcium also appear to play a role in spontaneous ductus arteriosus closure.

  8. Changes in hemolymph oxyhemocyanin, acid-base balance, and electrolytes in Marsupenaeus japonicus under combined ammonia and nitrite stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sha-Yen; Shieh, Li-Wei; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2013-04-15

    Ammonia and nitrite are the most common toxic nitrogenous compounds in aquaculture ponds. We evaluated the effects of a combined treatment with these two compounds on the hemolymph acid-base balance, electrolytes and oxyhemocyanin content in kuruma shrimp, (Marsupenaeus japonicus). The shrimp (6.37±1.29 g) were individually exposed to 9 different ammonia and nitrite regimes {ammonia at 0 (control), 0.39, and 1.49 mM combined with nitrite at 0 (control), 0.38, and 1.49 mM} in a 30‰ saline solution at 22°C. Hemolymph oxyhemocyanin (OxyHc), protein content, acid-base balance, osmolality, and electrolyte levels were measured in treated shrimp after 48 h of treatment. Hemolymph OxyHc, protein content, the OxyHc/protein ratio, pH, pCO2, HCO3(-), TCO2, OH(-)/H(+), osmolality, and Cl(-), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) levels were inversely related to the dose of ammonia and nitrite. However, hemolymph pO2 levels directly increased with the ammonia and nitrite concentrations. Following exposure to 1.49 mM ammonia+1.49 mM nitrite, the hemolymph pO2 increased by 89.5%, whereas the hemolymph OxyHc, protein content, OxyHc/protein ratio, pH, pCO2, HCO3(-), TCO2, OH(-)/H(+), osmolality, Cl(-), and Na(+) decreased by 51.2, 28.2, 34.9, 2.9, 51.1, 71.5, 70.8, 42.8, 4.9, 32.1, and 38.6%, respectively, compared with control shrimp. Combined ammonia and nitrite stress may therefore exert a synergistic effect on shrimp relative to the stress induced by ammonia or nitrite alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Serum Electrolyte, Acid-Base Balance, and Enzyme Changes in Acute Halogeton Glomeratus Poisoning in Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, L. F.

    1968-01-01

    Fourteen sheep were used on an acute halogeton toxicity feeding experiment. Seven sheep were fed a lethal dose of Halogeton glomeratus, an oxalate-producing plant, 7 served as controls. Various serum and tissue electrolytes and enzymes were measured. Sesum calcium decreased while magnesium and phosphorus increased. Although a severe hypocalcemia resulted from the feeding of halogeton tetany was not observed. Blood pH, pCO2 and pO2 measurements demonstrated that alkalosis did not develop. Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, and lactic dehydrogenase all increased. Succinic dehydrogenase was inhibited in the rumen wall but not in other tissues according to the methods used. This finding, as well as other work cited, indicates a possible interference with carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:4234785

  10. Serum electrolyte, acid-base balance, and enzyme changes in acute halogeton glomeratus poisoning in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, L F

    1968-10-01

    Fourteen sheep were used on an acute halogeton toxicity feeding experiment. Seven sheep were fed a lethal dose of Halogeton glomeratus, an oxalate-producing plant, 7 served as controls. Various serum and tissue electrolytes and enzymes were measured. Sesum calcium decreased while magnesium and phosphorus increased. Although a severe hypocalcemia resulted from the feeding of halogeton tetany was not observed. Blood pH, pCO(2) and pO(2) measurements demonstrated that alkalosis did not develop. Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, and lactic dehydrogenase all increased. Succinic dehydrogenase was inhibited in the rumen wall but not in other tissues according to the methods used. This finding, as well as other work cited, indicates a possible interference with carbohydrate metabolism.

  11. Effect of crude protein concentration and dietary electrolyte balance on litter quality, foot pad dermatitis, growth performance and processing yields in two medium heavy turkey hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.; Hocking, P.M.; Vinco, L.J.

    2017-01-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of crude protein (CP) concentration and dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) on growth performance, processing yields, litter quality and foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in male turkeys from two commercial hybrids. Soya bean meal was replaced by

  12. Different sodium levels and electrolyte balances in pre-starter diets for broilers

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    A Maiorka

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment with 400 one-day-old male chicks (Ross was conducted to evaluate the effects of different Na levels (0.10, 0.22, 0.34 and 0.46% and different cation/anion balances (Na+K-Cl (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 meq/kg in pre-starter diets on broiler performance. The corn and soybean-based diets had 22% crude protein and 2,900 kcal/kg metabolizable energy and were fed ad libitum. Performance data showed a positive quadratic effect of increasing Na levels on feed and water consumption, weight gain and feed conversion. Na+K-Cl also had a quadratic influence on feed intake and weight gain. None of the effects tested affected the amount of water measured in excreta. Derivatives of obtained regression equations pointed to optimal Na levels of 0.45% for water consumption, 0.40% for feed intake and weight gain and 0.38% for feed conversion. As to the effect of dietary Na+K-Cl balances on performance, regression equation values were 174 meq/kg for feed consumption and 163 meq/kg for weight gain. These results show that both Na level and Na+K-Cl balance interfere on broiler performance.

  13. Effects of dietary electrolyte balance and addition of electrolyte-betaine supplements in feed or water on performance, acid-base balance and water retention in heat-stressed broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, M A M; Downing, J

    2015-04-01

    The effects of dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) and electrolyte-betaine (El-Be) supplements on heat-stressed broiler performance, acid-base balance and water retention were evaluated during the period 31-40 d of age in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. A total of 240 broilers were assigned to 6 treatment groups each with 8 replicates of 5 birds per cage and were exposed to cyclic high temperature (32 - 24 ± 1°C). Birds were provided with diets having DEB of either 180 or 220 mEq/kg. El-Be supplements were either added to the diet, water or not added to either of them to complete the array of 6 treatment groups. An additional 80 birds were kept at thermoneutral temperature (20 ± 1°C) and were provided with tap water and diets with DEB of either 180 or 220 mEq/kg to serve as negative controls. Exposure to high temperature depressed growth performance, increased rectal temperature and decreased potassium (K(+)) retention. In high-temperature room, birds fed on diets with DEB of 220 mEq/kg tended to increase BW from 35-40 d of age. However, at thermoneutral temperature, broilers fed on diets with DEB of 220 mEq/kg increased K(+) retention. Adding El-Be supplements in feed or water improved feed conversion ratio (FCR), enhanced water consumption and increased K(+) and sodium (Na(+)) retention. Interactions between DEB and El-Be supplements tended to affect body weight gain and FCR during the periods 35-40 and 31-40 d of age, respectively. It is suggested that when using a diet with DEB of 180 mEq/kg, adding the El-Be supplements in drinking water was more beneficial than in feed. Adding the supplements in feed or water was equally useful when using DEB of 220 mEq/kg.

  14. Changes in oxygen content and acid-base balance in arterial and portal blood in response to the dietary electrolyte balance in pigs during a 9-h period after a meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersjant-Li, Y.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jansman, A.; Schulze, H.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of two dietary electrolyte balance (dEB, Na K - Cl-) levels on arterial and portal blood oxygen content, blood pH, and acid-base status in pigs was studied during a 9-h period after a meal, using a crossover experimental design. The dEB levels were established by changing the Cl- level in

  15. Blood gas analysis, anion gap, and strong ion difference in horses treated with polyethylene glycol balanced solution (PEG 3350 or enteral and parenteral electrolyte solutions

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    Cláudio Luís Nina Gomes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Large volumes of different electrolytes solutions are commonly used for ingesta hydration in horses with large colon impaction, but little is known about their consequences to blood acid-base balance. To evaluate the effects of PEG 3350 or enteral and parenteral electrolyte solutions on the blood gas analysis, anion gap and strong ion difference, five adult female horses were used in a 5x5 latin square design. The animals were divided in five groups and distributed to each of the following treatments: NaCl (0.9% sodium chloride solution; EES (enteral electrolyte solution, EES+LR (EES plus lactated Ringer's solution; PEG (balanced solution with PEG 3350 and PEG+LR (PEG plus lactated Ringer's solution. Treatments PEG or PEG + LR did not change or promoted minimal changes, while the EES caused a slight decrease in pH, but its association with lactated Ringer's solution induced increase in AG and SID values, as well as caused hypernatremia. In turn, the treatment NaCl generated metabolic acidosis. PEG 3350 did not alter the acid-base balance. Despite it's slight acidifying effect, the enteral electrolyte solution (EES did not cause clinically relevant changes.

  16. Fluid and electrolyte balance after major thoracic surgery by bioimpedance and endocrine evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagini, Lucio; Capozzi, Rosanna; Tassi, Valentina; Savignani, Claudia; Quintaliani, Giuseppe; Reboldi, Gianpaolo; Puma, Francesco

    2011-08-01

    Weight gain with oedema development is a complication of major surgical procedures with an incidence as high as 40%. Fluid retention is not always clinically evident and it is reported despite fluid-restriction regime. The causes are several and not totally clear. We performed a prospective study to assess the amount of fluid accumulation and redistribution observed after major thoracic surgery. In 49 patients submitted to lobectomy with systematic lymph node dissection for lung cancer, we measured preoperatively and on the postoperative days 1, 2, 4 and 7, body weight, fluid balance, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and bioimpedance analysis (BIA)-derived parameters resistance (R) and reactance (X(c)). The postoperative course was characterised by significant changes. Mean increase in body weight was 2.7 kg ((1.9-3.4); pfluid balance (-244 ml (-520 to -50)), whereas, on postoperative day 2, we observed a positive and significant change (+968 ml (646-1456), pbody R and X(c) fell on the first day (pfluid balance. BNP increased on day 1, immediately after surgery, and remained significantly above basal values for the entire observation period (pfluid retention over the course of the study. BIA was an easy, reproducible and non-invasive method for the estimation and early detection of fluid retention. Increase in BNP may be related to the systemic reaction to stress and to the decreased pulmonary vascular bed. We found no correlation between fluid retention and length of anaesthesia, sex, age, blood loss and body mass index. The clinical and prognostic implication of weight gain may be relevant to patient's health. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Red blood transfusion in preterm infants: changes in glucose, electrolytes and acid base balance

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    Shereen Abdelghaffar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preterm neonates comprise the most heavily transfused group of patients, and about 85% of extremely low birth weight newborns receive a transfusion by the end of their hospital stay. The aim of this study was to assess the possible metabolic effects of RBC transfusion on preterm infants, especially during the first 2 weeks of life, and its relation to blood volume. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 40 preterm neonates with gestational age of less than or equal to 34 weeks. They received RBCs transfusion during first 2 weeks of life. Venous blood samples of infants were collected 2 to 4 hours before and 1 hour after the end of transfusion to evaluate hemoglobin (Hb level, hematocrit, acid-base, electrolytes, and glucose status. Then, infants were classified into two main groups: those who received RBCs volume less than or 20 ml/kg and those who received RBCs volume more than 20 ml/kg. Results: Infants received a mean volume of 20.38 ± 3.2 ml/kg RBCs (range, 10.9 - 26.6 ml/kg at a median age of 9.8 ± 3.6 days. After transfusion, a significant increase of mean Hb (P<0.001, mean Hct (P<0.001, pH (P<0.001, pO 2 (P<0.05, and a significant decrease of the pCO2 (41.46 ± 8.8torr vs 35.4 ± 9.34 torr; P<0.001 were observed. In addition, there was a significant increase of serum K + (P<0.001, and a significant decrease of Ca +2 (P<0.001. A positive correlation was found between the K + intake and the changes of kalemia (r = 0.99; P = 0.00. Furthermore, we observed an inverse correlation between the patients′ calcium intake and the changes of calcemia (r = -0.35; P = 0.02. On comparing the changes in clinical and biochemical variables between two groups after transfusion, we observed a significant increase in mean Hb and Hct associated with a significant decrease in mean serum Ca +2 (P<0.001 in the group receiving the larger blood volume. Conclusion: RBC transfusion was effective in improving anemia, oxygenation, increasing

  18. Small volume isosmotic polyethylene glycol electrolyte balanced solution (PMF-100) in treatment of chronic nonorganic constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazziari, E; Badiali, D; Habib, F I; Reboa, G; Pitto, G; Mazzacca, G; Sabbatini, F; Galeazzi, R; Cilluffo, T; Vantini, I; Bardelli, E; Baldi, F

    1996-08-01

    The present multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled trial evaluates the therapeutic effectiveness of small-volume daily doses of an isosmotic polyethylene glycol (PEG) electrolyte solution in the treatment of chronic nonorganic constipation. After a complete diagnostic investigation, patients still constipated at the end of a four-week placebo-treatment run-in period were enrolled and randomized to receive either placebo or PEG solution 250 ml twice a day for the following eight weeks. Patients were assessed at four and eight weeks of treatment, and they reported frequency and modality of evacuation, use of laxatives, and relevant symptoms daily on a diary card. Oroanal and segmental large-bowel transit times were assessed with radiopaque markers during the fourth week of the run-in period and the last week of the treatment period. During the study period, dietary fiber and liquids were standardized and laxatives were allowed only after five consecutive days without a bowel movement. Of the 55 patients enrolled, five dropped out, three because of adverse events and two for reasons unrelated to therapy; another two were excluded from the efficacy analysis because of protocol violation. Of the remaining 48 patients (37 women, age 42 +/- 15 years, mean +/- SD), 23 were assigned to placebo and 25 to PEG treatment. In comparison to placebo, PEG solution induced a statistically significant increase in weekly bowel frequency at four weeks and at the end of the study (PEG: 4.8 +/- 2.3 vs placebo: 2.8 +/- 1.6; P < 0.002) and a significant decrease in straining at defecation (P < 0.01), stool consistency (P < 0.02), and use of laxatives (P < 0.03). Oroanal, left colon, and rectal transit times were significantly shortened by PEG treatment. There was no difference between controls and PEG-treated patients as far as abdominal symptoms and side effects were concerned. In conclusion, PEG solution at 250 ml twice a day is effective in increasing bowel frequency, accelerating

  19. Water balance model for polymer electrolyte fuel cells with ultrathin catalyst layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Karen; Eikerling, Michael

    2014-02-07

    We present a water balance model of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) with ultrathin catalyst layers (UTCLs). The model treats the catalyst layers in an interface approximation and the gas diffusion layers as linear transmission lines of water fluxes. It relates current density, pressure distribution, and water fluxes in the different functional layers of the assembly. The optimal mode of operation of UTCLs is in a fully flooded state. The main challenge for MEAs with UTCLs is efficient liquid water removal, to avoid flooding of the gas diffusion layers. The model provides strategies for increasing the critical current density for the onset of flooding, via liquid permeabilities, vaporization areas, and gas pressure differentials. Finally, we discuss methods to identify regimes of transport via water flux measurements.

  20. Fluid and electrolyte balance during two different preseason training sessions in elite rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Samuel D; Love, Thomas D; Brown, Rachel C; Baker, Dane F; Howe, Anna S; Black, Katherine E

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare fluid balance between a resistance and an aerobic training sessions, in elite rugby players. It is hypothesized that resistance exercise will result in a higher prevalence of overdrinking, whereas during the aerobic session, underdrinking will be more prevalent. As with previous fluid balance studies, this was an observational study. Twenty-six players completed the resistance training session, and 20 players completed the aerobic training session. All players were members of an elite rugby union squad competing in the southern hemisphere's premier competition. For both sessions, players provided a preexercise urine sample to determine hydration status, pre- and postexercise measures of body mass, and blood sodium concentration were taken, and the weight of drink bottles were recorded to calculate sweat rates and fluid intake rates. Sweat patches were positioned on the shoulder of the players, and these remained in place throughout each training session and were later analyzed for sodium concentration. The percentage of sweat loss replaced was higher in the resistance (196 ± 130%) than the aerobic training session (56 ± 17%; p = 0.002). Despite this, no cases of hyponatremia were detected. The results also indicated that more than 80% of players started training in a hypohydrated state. Fluid intake seems to differ depending on the nature of the exercise session. In this group of athletes, players did not match their fluid intakes with their sweat loss, resulting in overdrinking during resistance training and underdrinking in aerobic training. Therefore, hydration strategies and education need to be tailored to the exercise session. Furthermore, given the large number of players arriving at training hypohydrated, improved hydration strategies away from the training venue are required.

  1. Extravasation injury of balanced electrolyte solution simulates the clinical condition of necrotizing fasciitis: A case report

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    Carmine D'Acunto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Extravasation injury (EI is an iatrogenic condition that occurs preferentially in neonatal and pediatric patients when the injection of fluid substances by intravenous access is required and it accidentally leaks into the adjacent tissues or in spaces outside of vascular compartment. Different types and amount of substances once undergoing extravasation can affect the EI differently [1]. In some instances immediate measures such as saline washout, local antidotes, enzymatic debridement and surgical interventions can be required in order to prevent the occurrence of a growing injury avoiding the progression of the EI to a medical emergency [6]. Here we report an unusual case of a preterm 2-month-old male patient in which the extravasation of balanced electrolyte solution on the upper right arm resulted in the development of full-thickness skin necrosis appearing as the clinical condition of necrotizing fasciitis. The management of necrotic tissue was performed using escharectomy as well as autograft skin under conditions of general anesthesia.

  2. Renal β-intercalated cells maintain body fluid and electrolyte balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueutin, Victor; Vallet, Marion; Jayat, Maximilien; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Cornière, Nicolas; Leviel, Françoise; Sohet, Fabien; Wagner, Carsten A; Eladari, Dominique; Chambrey, Régine

    2013-10-01

    Inactivation of the B1 proton pump subunit (ATP6V1B1) in intercalated cells (ICs) leads to type I distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), a disease associated with salt- and potassium-losing nephropathy. Here we show that mice deficient in ATP6V1B1 (Atp6v1b1-/- mice) displayed renal loss of NaCl, K+, and water, causing hypovolemia, hypokalemia, and polyuria. We demonstrated that NaCl loss originated from the cortical collecting duct, where activity of both the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the pendrin/Na(+)-driven chloride/bicarbonate exchanger (pendrin/NDCBE) transport system was impaired. ENaC was appropriately increased in the medullary collecting duct, suggesting a localized inhibition in the cortex. We detected high urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and ATP levels in Atp6v1b1-/- mice. Inhibition of PGE2 synthesis in vivo restored ENaC protein levels specifically in the cortex. It also normalized protein levels of the large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel and the water channel aquaporin 2, and improved polyuria and hypokalemia in mutant mice. Furthermore, pharmacological inactivation of the proton pump in β-ICs induced release of PGE2 through activation of calcium-coupled purinergic receptors. In the present study, we identified ATP-triggered PGE2 paracrine signaling originating from β-ICs as a mechanism in the development of the hydroelectrolytic imbalance associated with dRTA. Our data indicate that in addition to principal cells, ICs are also critical in maintaining sodium balance and, hence, normal vascular volume and blood pressure.

  3. A novel isotonic-balanced electrolyte solution with 1% glucose for intraoperative fluid therapy in children: results of a prospective multicentre observational post-authorization safety study (PASS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sümpelmann, Robert; Mader, Thomas; Eich, Christoph; Witt, Lars; Osthaus, Wilhelm A

    2010-11-01

    The recommendations for intraoperative fluid therapy in children have been adapted from hypotonic to isotonic electrolyte solutions with lower glucose concentrations (1-2.5% instead of 5%) to avoid hyponatremia and hyperglycemia. The objective of this prospective multicentre observational post-authorization safety study was to evaluate the intraoperative use of a novel isotonic-balanced electrolyte solution with 1% glucose (BS-G1) with a particular focus on changes in acid-base status, electrolyte and glucose concentrations. Following local ethics committee approval, pediatric patients aged up to 4 years with an ASA risk score of I-III undergoing intraoperative administration of BS-G1 were enrolled. Patient demographics, the performed procedure, adverse drug reactions, hemodynamic data, and the results of blood gas analysis before and after infusion were documented with a focus on changes in acid-base status, electrolyte and glucose concentrations. In 107 patients (ASA I-III; age 16.2 ± 15.4, range day of birth to 47.7 months; body weight 8.8 ± 4.8, range 1.6-18.8 kg), the mean volume infused was 20 ± 12.6 (range 3.6-83.3) ml·kg(-1) BS-G1. During the infusion, hemoglobin, hematocrit, anion gap, strong ion difference, and calcium decreased and chloride and glucose increased significantly within the physiologic range. All other measured parameters including sodium, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate remained stable. Neither hypoglycemia (glucose 10 mmol·l(-1) ) was documented after BS-G1 infusion. No adverse drug reactions were reported. The studied isotonic-balanced electrolyte solution with 1% glucose helps to avoid perioperative acid-base imbalance, hyponatremia, hyperglycemia, and ketoacidosis in infants and toddlers and may therefore enhance patient safety. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Effects of Dietary Electrolyte Balance on Growth Performance, Nitrogen Metabolism and Some Blood Biochemical Parameters of Growing Rabbits

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    J. W. Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different dietary electrolyte balance (DEB on growth performance, nitrogen (N metabolism and some blood biochemical parameters were investigated in 2 to 3 months old growing rabbits. A total of 150 growing rabbits of 2 months age were randomly divided into five groups according to average body weight, with 30 rabbits in each group. The DEB levels of the five experimental diets were −154, −3.16, +201, +347, and +500 meq/kg of dry matter (DM, respectively. There was a 7-d adaptation period and a 23-d experimental period. The results showed that the DEB levels had a quadratic affect on the average daily feed intake (ADFI (p<0.001. The greatest ADFI was achieved when the DEB level was +201 meq/kg DM. Fecal N (FN content linearly decreased (0.047, while digestible N (DN, retained N (RN, efficiency of intake N converted into digestible N (DN/IN and the efficiency of intake N converted into retained N (RN/IN linearly increased with the DEB increase (0.020, 0.004, 0.021, and 0.049, respectively. Serum phosphorus (P ion content linearly increased with the DEB increase (p = 0.036. The DEB had a quadratic relationship with serum anion gap (AG (p = 0.002 and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH content (p = 0.016. The DEB levels quadratically affected base excess (BE in the plasma (p<0.001. In conclusion, the DEB unaffected growth performance but affected feed intake, N metabolism and some blood biochemical parameters of growing rabbits.

  5. The fluid and electrolyte balance of New Zealand European and Māori/Pacific Island athletes: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Andrew; Brown, Rachel Clare; Black, Katherine Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Observational research on professional athletes from the USA suggests differences may exist in sweat sodium loss based on ethnic differences. The New Zealand (NZ) sporting population is mainly of European or Māori/Pacific Island origin. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the fluid-electrolyte balance of athletes by ethnicity. A total of 20 Māori/Pacific Islanders (MP; body mass 100.97 ± 13.05 kg) and 29 NZ European (NZE; body mass 89.11 ± 11.56 kg) elite male athletes were recruited. Sweat rates were determined by body mass change during a 1-h spin cycle exercise session, during which fluid intakes and heart rate were recorded. Sweat samples were analysed for sodium concentration. Mean ± SD sweat sodium concentrations were 73.4 ± 27.2 mmol·L(-1) and 55.5 ± 26.8 mmol·L(-1) for the MP and NZE groups, respectively (p = 0.070). Sweat rate was 0.93 ± 0.26 L·h(-1) for the MP group and 0.89 ± 0.33 L·h(-1) for the NZE group (p = 0.357). Fluid intake was 1.05 ± 0.48 L and 0.93 ± 0.49 L for MP and NZE, respectively (p = 0.395). Half of the MP group gained weight during the exercise session compared to 37% of the NZE group. Pre-exercise urine specific gravity was significantly lower amongst the NZE group (1.016 ± 0.009 g mL(-1)) than the MP group (1.024 ± 0.008 g mL(-1)) p = 0.001. There was no significant difference in heart rate between the groups, p = 0.082. Hydration practices of athletes in NZ may differ by ethnicity, and this may highlight the need for more targeted education by ethnicity.

  6. Effect of ambient temperature and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on water and electrolyte balances in dry and lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelil-Arfa, H; Faverdin, P; Boudon, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the interaction between 2 constant ambient temperatures [thermoneutrality (TN; 15°C) and high temperature (HT; 28°C)] and 2 levels of Na bicarbonate supplementation [calculated to provide diet Na contents of 0.20%DM (Na-) and 0.50%DM (Na+)] on water partitioning in dairy cows. Treatments were compared on 4 dry and 4mid-lactation Holstein cows according to 2 Latin squares (1 for each physiological stage) over the course of 4 periods of 15d. Diets consisted of a total mixed ration based on maize silage. Dry cows were restricted to their protein and energy requirements, whereas lactating cows were fed ad libitum. The daily average temperature-humidity index was 59.4 for TN and 73.2 for HT. Lactating and dry cows had higher vaginal temperatures at HT than at TN, but the increase was more pronounced in lactating cows (+1.05 vs. +0.12°C for vaginal temperature, respectively). Dry matter intake (DMI) of lactating cows decreased by 2.3kg/d at HT. Free water intake (FWI) and estimated volume of water lost to evaporation increased at HT in both lactating and dry cows; no interactions were observed between temperature and physiological stage. When expressed as a proportion of DMI, the increase in evaporation that occurred with increasing temperature was completely compensated for by an increase in FWI for both physiological stages. The urinary water excretion increased slightly at HT in lactating cows but not in dry cows, which may be related to the low chloride content of the offered diet. High Na supplementation increased DMI slightly in lactating cows, but milk yield was not affected. Sodium supplementation did not limit the decrease in DMI observed in lactating cows at HT; this observation is likely due to the high diet electrolyte balance of the offered diets. Sodium supplementation increased FWI in lactating cows and urinary flow in both physiological states. The interaction between ambient temperature and Na

  7. The effects of balanced versus saline-based hetastarch and crystalloid solutions on acid-base and electrolyte status and gastric mucosal perfusion in elderly surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, N J; Woolf, R; Mutch, M; Mallett, S V; Peachey, T; Stephens, R; Mythen, M G

    2001-10-01

    The IV administration of sodium chloride solutions may produce a metabolic acidosis and gastrointestinal dysfunction. We designed this trial to determine whether, in elderly surgical patients, crystalloid and colloid solutions with a more physiologically balanced electrolyte formulation, such as Hartmann's solution and Hextend, can provide a superior metabolic environment and improved indices of organ perfusion when compared with saline-based fluids. Forty-seven elderly patients undergoing major surgery were randomly allocated to one of two study groups. Patients in the Balanced Fluid group received an intraoperative fluid regimen that consisted of Hartmann's solution and 6% hetastarch in balanced electrolyte and glucose injection (Hextend). Patients in the Saline group were given 0.9% sodium chloride solution and 6% hetastarch in 0.9% sodium chloride solution (Hespan). Biochemical indices and acid-base balance were determined. Gastric tonometry was used as a reflection of splanchnic perfusion. Postoperative chloride levels demonstrated a larger increase in the Saline group than the Balanced Fluid group (9.8 vs 3.3 mmol/L, P = 0.0001). Postoperative standard base excess showed a larger decline in the Saline group than the Balanced Fluid group (-5.5 vs -0.9 mmol/L, P = 0.0001). Two-thirds of patients in the Saline group, but none in the Balanced Fluid group, developed postoperative hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis (P = 0.0001). Gastric tonometry indicated a larger increase in the CO2 gap during surgery in the Saline group compared with the Balanced Fluid group (1.7 vs 0.9 kPa, P = 0.0394). In this study, the use of balanced crystalloid and colloid solutions in elderly surgical patients prevented the development of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and resulted in improved gastric mucosal perfusion when compared with saline-based solutions. This prospective, randomized, blinded trial showed that, in elderly surgical patients, the use of balanced IV solutions can

  8. Effect of different levels of crude protein and electrolyte balance on performance, blood parameters and bone characteristics for broiler chickens in phase of 36 to 42 days old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Clenice Navarini Giacobbo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of crude protein (CP and electrolyte balance (EB of the feed of broilers. 480 male broiler of Cobb 500 strain were fed in the period 36 to 42 days of age with two basal diets, one with EB 200 and another with 240 mEq. kg-1, combined with CP levels of 18.00, 17.28, 16.56 and 15.84%. The reduction in CP levels had growing linear effect (P <0.01 on feed conversion of birds (BE 200 and 240 even with the supplementation of industrial amino acids. For weight gain, reduced levels of CP had decreasing linear effect (P <0.01 to birds consuming diets with EB of 240 mEq. kg-1 and quadratic effect (P <0.05 for those who consumed ration with EB than 200 mEq. kg-1 being the level of 17.54%, which resulted in better weight gain of birds. There was linear effect (P <0.05 of reduction in CP levels on the plasmatic values of sodium (EB200 and chlorine (EB240 and quadratic effect (P <0.05 on plasmatic concentration of potassium (EB200 of birds, being the level of 17.05%, which provided the lower potassium values. For the plasma levels of uric acid, total protein and calcium, and bone development, reduction in the levels of CP had no effect on neither one of EB levels studied. Supplementation with bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium chloride was not effective in improving the performance characteristics the birds, in the values of electrolyte balance studied, since there were no performance improvements with increase the electrolytic balance of the diets of 200 to 240 mEq.kg-1.

  9. Plasma and urine electrolyte and mineral concentrations in Thoroughbred horses with recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis after consumption of diets varying in cation-anion balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Erica C; Valberg, Stephanie J; Godden, Sandra M; Pagan, Joe D; Carlson, Gary P; MacLeay, Jennifer M; DeLaCorte, Flavio D

    2002-07-01

    To determine whether plasma, urine, and fecal electrolyte and mineral concentrations differ between clinically normal horses and Thoroughbreds with recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (RER) after consumption of diets varying in cation-anion balance. 5 Thoroughbred mares with RER and 6 clinically normal mixed-breed mares. Each of 3 isocaloric diets designated as low, medium, and high on the basis of dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB) values of 85, 190, and 380, respectively, were fed to horses for 14 days. During the last 72 hours, 3 horses with RER and 3 control horses had daily urine and fecal samples obtained by total 24-hour collection. Remaining horses had urine samples collected daily by single catheterization. For each diet, no differences existed between horses with RER and control horses in plasma pH, electrolyte concentrations, and creatine kinase activity or in urine pH and renal fractional excretion (FE) values. Plasma pH, strong ion difference, bicarbonate and total carbon dioxide concentrations, and base excess decreased and plasma chloride and ionized calcium concentrations increased with decreasing DCAB. Urine pH decreased with decreasing DCAB. The FE of chloride and phosphorus were greatest for horses fed the low diet. The FE values for all electrolytes exept magnesium did not differ between urine samples obtained by single catheterization and total 24-hour collection. Daily balance of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chloride, and potassium did not differ significantly among horses fed the various diets. In clinically normal horses and in horses with RER, the DCAB strongly affects plasma and urine pH and the FE of sodium, potassium, chloride, and phosphorus.

  10. A comparison of the effects of milk and a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink on the restoration of fluid balance and exercise capacity in a hot, humid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Phillip; Love, Thomas D; Maughan, Ronald J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2008-11-01

    Following a 2.0 +/- 0.1% body mass loss induced by intermittent exercise in the heat, seven male volunteers ingested either a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CE) or skimmed milk (M) in a volume equal to 150% of body mass loss. At the end of the 3 h recovery period, subjects were essentially in positive fluid balance on trial M (191 +/- 162 mL), and euhydrated on trial CE (-135 +/- 392 mL) despite being in negative sodium balance on both trials and negative potassium balance on trial CE. This difference of 326 +/- 354 mL or 0.4% body mass approached significance (P = 0.051). Subjects ingested 137 +/- 15 and 113 +/- 12 g of CHO during the CE and M trials, respectively, as well as 75 +/- 8 g of protein during the M trial. At the end of the 3 h recovery period, an exercise capacity test was completed at 61% VO(2peak) in warm (35.3 +/- 0.5 degrees C), humid (63 +/- 2%) conditions. HR (P = 0.020) and rectal temperature (P = 0.045) were higher on trial M, but no difference in exercise time to exhaustion was observed between trials (39.6 +/- 7.3 min vs. 39.7 +/- 8.1 min on trials CE and M, respectively). The results of the present study suggest that milk can be an effective post-exercise rehydration drink, with subjects remaining in net positive fluid balance throughout the recovery period. Despite the effect on fluid retention, exercise capacity was not different between skimmed milk and a commercially available carbohydrate-electrolyte drink 4 h following exercise/heat-induced body mass loss.

  11. Significance of the application of oral rehydration solution to maintain water and electrolyte balance in infants with ileostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlović Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ileostomy represents a necessary procedure to solve various surgical diseases in children. As the result of increased fluid loss and colonic exclusion in its regulation, it is often followed, particularly during the first months after birth, by chronic dehydration and failure to thrive. Objective. The aim of the paper was to present our experience related to the application of oral rehydration solution (ORS to compensate the intestinal loss of water and electrolytes in infants with ileostomy. Methods. Treatment was performed with ORS containing 65 mmol/L of sodium in five infants aged 1.5-8 months (3.8±2.46 months with dehydration and undernutrition after ileostomy performed in the first five days after birth. Results. After rehydration, the continual application of ORS in the daily dosage of 63.90±25.03 ml/kg, i.e. approximately matching the volume of intestinal content elimination (57.00±19.23 ml/kg, resulted in all infants in optimal water and electrolyte homeostasis, and in further course also in the improvement of their nutritional status (p=0.023. Conclusion. Our experience indicates that continual application of reduced sodium content of ORS in the approximate equal quantity of intestinal content loss represents the method of choice in water and electrolyte homeostasis maintenance in infants with ileostomy.

  12. Significance of the application of oral rehydration solution to maintain water and electrolyte balance in infants with ileostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radlović, Vladimir; Leković, Zoran; Radlović, Nedeljko; Lukac, Marija; Ristić, Dragana; Simić, Dusica; Bijelić, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Ileostomy represents a necessary procedure to solve various surgical diseases in children. As the result of increased fluid loss and colonic exclusion in its regulation, it is often followed, particularly during the first months after birth, by chronic dehydration and failure to thrive. The aim of the paper was to present our experience related to the application of oral rehydration solution (ORS) to compensate the intestinal loss of water and electrolytes in infants with ileostomy. Treatment was performed with ORS containing 65 mmol/L of sodium in five infants aged 1.5-8 months (3.8+/-2.46 months) with dehydration and undernutrition after ileostomy performed in the first five days after birth. After rehydration, the continual application of ORS in the daily dosage of 63.90+/-25.03 ml/kg, i.e. approximately matching the volume of intestinal content elimination (57.00+/-19.23 ml/kg), resulted in all infants in optimal water and electrolyte homeostasis, and in further course also in the improvement of their nutritional status (p=0.023). Our experience indicates that continual application of reduced sodium content of ORS in the approximate equal quantity of intestinal content loss represents the method of choice in water and electrolyte homeostasis maintenance in infants with ileostomy.

  13. Physical exercise on serum electrolytes and acid base balance in Mangalarga Marchador horses submitted to cavalcade of 4, 8 and 20km

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Martins Linhares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Acid-base and electrolyte disorders have been described in horses associated during and after exercise. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cavalcade competition on the acid-base and hydroelectrolytic balance in Mangalarga Marchador horses. For this purpose, 15 geldings, 6.2 ± 1.2 years old and clinically healthy, were distributed into three groups of five animals each. Horses were trained to take part in cavalcade competitions. Animals were submitted to cavalcade along 4km (G4, 8km (G8, and 20km (G20 at mean speeds of 15km h-1, 12km h-1, and 12km h-1, respectively. From each horse, venous blood samples were collected before exercise (T0 and immediately after (T1 cavalcade. Bicarbonate ion (HCO3-, pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2, partial pressure of oxygen (pO2, base excess (BE, hematocrit (Hct, sodium (Na+, potassium (K+, chloride (Cl- and lactate were determined. The variables pH, pO2 and pCO2 were corrected in function of rectal temperature of each animal. Blood samples were analyzed for acid-base balance, as well as biochemical and electrolyte parameters using an i-STAT analyzer. Significant (P<0.05 increase in Hct, Na+, pH, HCO3 - and BE were observed after cavalcade in G20 group. Decrease (P<0.05 in K+ and Cl- were also observed in G20 animals after cavalcade (T1. Changes in the acid-base balance and hydroelectrolytic profile of the Mangalarga Marchador after cavalcade of 20km resulted in hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. The 20km cavalcade induced significant hydroelectrolytic and acid-base imbalances in Mangalarga Marchador horses.

  14. Voluntary drinking behaviour, fluid balance and psychological affect when ingesting water or a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Oliver J; Thompson, Dylan; Stokes, Keith A

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of drink composition on voluntary intake, hydration status, selected physiological responses and affective states during simulated gymnasium-based exercise. In a randomised counterbalanced design, 12 physically active adults performed three 20-min intervals of cardiovascular exercise at 75% heart rate maximum, one 20-min period of resistance exercise and 20 min of recovery with ad libitum access to water (W), a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES) or with no access to fluids (NF). Fluid intake was greater with CES than W (1706±157 vs. 1171±152 mL; P<0.01) and more adequate hydration was achieved in CES trials (NF vs. W vs. CES: -1668±73 vs. -700±99 vs. -273±78 g; P<0.01). Plasma glucose concentrations were highest with CES (CES vs. NF vs. W: 4.26±0.12 vs. 4.06±0.08 vs. 3.97±0.10 mmol/L; P<0.05). Pleasure ratings were better maintained with ad libitum intake of CES (CES vs. NF vs. W: 2.72±0.23 vs. 1.09±0.20 vs. 1.74±0.33; P<0.01). Under conditions of voluntary drinking, CES resulted in more adequate hydration and a better maintenance of affective states than W or NF during gymnasium-based exercise. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harteveld, Casper

    At many occasions we are asked to achieve a “balance” in our lives: when it comes, for example, to work and food. Balancing is crucial in game design as well as many have pointed out. In games with a meaningful purpose, however, balancing is remarkably different. It involves the balancing of three different worlds, the worlds of Reality, Meaning, and Play. From the experience of designing Levee Patroller, I observed that different types of tensions can come into existence that require balancing. It is possible to conceive of within-worlds dilemmas, between-worlds dilemmas, and trilemmas. The first, the within-world dilemmas, only take place within one of the worlds. We can think, for example, of a user interface problem which just relates to the world of Play. The second, the between-worlds dilemmas, have to do with a tension in which two worlds are predominantly involved. Choosing between a cartoon or a realistic style concerns, for instance, a tension between Reality and Play. Finally, the trilemmas are those in which all three worlds play an important role. For each of the types of tensions, I will give in this level a concrete example from the development of Levee Patroller. Although these examples come from just one game, I think the examples can be exemplary for other game development projects as they may represent stereotypical tensions. Therefore, to achieve harmony in any of these forthcoming games, it is worthwhile to study the struggles we had to deal with.

  16. On-ice sweat rate, voluntary fluid intake, and sodium balance during practice in male junior ice hockey players drinking water or a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Matthew S; Logan, Heather M; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2010-06-01

    This study evaluated the repeatability of hydration and sweat measurements taken during on-ice hockey practices with players drinking only water, and determined whether having only a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES) to drink during practices decreased fluid intake or affected other hydration and (or) sweat measures. All testing was conducted on elite players of an Ontario Hockey League team (+/-SE; mean age, 17.6 +/- 0.3 years; mean height, 182.9 +/- 1.4 cm; mean body mass, 83.0 +/- 1.7 kg). Players were studied 3 times over the course of 6 weekly on-ice practices (+/-SE; mean playing time, 1.58 +/- 0.07 h; mean temperature, 11.4 +/- 0.8 degrees C; mean relative humidity, 52% +/- 3%). There was strong repeatability of the measured hydration and sweat parameters between 2 similar on-ice practices when players drank only water. Limiting the players to drinking only a CES (as opposed to water) did not decrease fluid intake during practice (+/-SE; mean CES intake, 0.72 +/- 0.07 L.h-1 vs. mean water intake, 0.82 +/- 0.08 L.h-1) or affect sweat rate (1.5 +/- 0.1 L.h-1 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.1 L.h-1), sweat sodium concentration (72.4 +/- 5.6 mmol.L-1 vs. 73.0 +/- 4.4 mmol.L-1), or percent body mass loss (1.1% +/- 0.2% vs. 0.9% +/- 0.2%). Drinking a CES also improved sodium balance (-2.1 +/- 0.2 g.h-1 vs. -2.6 +/- 0.3 g.h-1) and provided the players with a significant carbohydrate (43 +/- 4 g.h-1 vs. 0 +/- 0 g.h-1) during practice. In summary, a single field sweat test during similar on-ice hockey practices in male junior hockey players is sufficient to evaluate fluid and electrolyte balance. Also, a CES does not affect voluntary fluid intake during practice, compared with water, in these players. The CES provided some salt to offset the salt lost in sweat, and carbohydrate, which may help maintain physical and mental performance in the later stages of practice.

  17. Does parenteral nutrition influence electrolyte and fluid balance in preterm infants in the first days after birth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liset E Elstgeest

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New national guidelines recommend more restricted fluid intake and early initiation of total parenteral nutrition (TPN in very preterm infants. The aim was study the effect of these guidelines on serum sodium and potassium levels and fluid balance in the first three days after birth. METHODS: Two cohorts of infants <28 weeks gestational age, born at the Leiden University Medical Center in the Netherlands, were compared retrospectively before (2002-2004, late-TPN and after (2006-2007, early-TPN introduction of the new Dutch guideline. Outcome measures were serum sodium and potassium levels, diuresis, and changes in body weight in the first three postnatal days. RESULTS: In the first three postnatal days no differences between late-TPN (N = 70 and early-TPN cohort (N = 73 in mean (SD serum sodium (141.1 (3.8 vs 141.0 (3.7 mmol/l or potassium (4.3 (0.5 vs 4.3 (0.5 mmol/l were found, but in the early-TPN cohort diuresis (4.5 (1.6 vs 3.2 (1.4 ml/kg/h and loss of body weight were decreased (-6.0% (7.7 vs -0.8% (8.0. CONCLUSIONS: Initiation of TPN immediately after birth and restricted fluid intake in very preterm infants do not seem to influence serum sodium and potassium levels in first three postnatal days. Further research is needed to see if a decreased diuresis and loss of body weight in the first days is the result of a delayed postnatal adaptation or better energy balance.

  18. Effect of isotonic versus hypotonic maintenance fluid therapy on urine output, fluid balance, and electrolyte homeostasis: a crossover study in fasting adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Regenmortel, N; De Weerdt, T; Van Craenenbroeck, A H; Roelant, E; Verbrugghe, W; Dams, K; Malbrain, M L N G; Van den Wyngaert, T; Jorens, P G

    2017-06-01

    Daily and globally, millions of adult hospitalized patients are exposed to maintenance i.v. fluid solutions supported by limited scientific evidence. In particular, it remains unclear whether fluid tonicity contributes to the recently established detrimental effects of fluid, sodium, and chloride overload. This crossover study consisted of two 48 h study periods, during which 12 fasting healthy adults were treated with a frequently prescribed solution (NaCl 0.9% in glucose 5% supplemented by 40 mmol litre -1 of potassium chloride) and a premixed hypotonic fluid (NaCl 0.32% in glucose 5% containing 26 mmol litre -1 of potassium) at a daily rate of 25 ml kg -1 of body weight. The primary end point was cumulative urine volume; fluid balance was thus calculated. We also explored the physiological mechanisms behind our findings and assessed electrolyte concentrations. After 48 h, 595 ml (95% CI: 454-735) less urine was voided with isotonic fluids than hypotonic fluids ( P hypotonic solutions and were associated with hyperchloraemia. Despite their lower sodium and potassium content, hypotonic fluids were not associated with hyponatraemia or hypokalaemia. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02822898) and EudraCT (2016-001846-24).

  19. Acid-base and electrolyte balance following administration of three crystalloid solutions in dogs undergoing elective orthopaedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Eleanor; Pettitt, Rob; Jones, Ronald S; Cripps, Peter J; Mosing, Martina

    2013-09-01

    To compare acid-base balance and incidence of hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis following administration of three crystalloid solutions to dogs undergoing anaesthesia for orthopaedic surgery. Prospective, randomised, clinical study. Sixty dogs. During a non-standardised anaesthetic, 0.9% saline (S), Hartmann's solution (H) or a polyionic glucose-free maintenance solution (M) was administered IV at 10 mL kg(-1)  hour(-1) . Venous blood pH, PCO2 , PCV, total protein, urea, sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations were measured at induction of anaesthesia (T0) and after 2 hours of fluid therapy (T2). Base excess (BE), bicarbonate, corrected chloride concentration (corrCl), osmolality, change in plasma volume (PV) and strong ion gap (SIG) were calculated. Changes in variables within groups (1-sample Student's t-test/Wilcoxon signed rank test) and between groups (1-way anova/Kruskal-Wallis) were assessed. Data are presented as median (interquartile range). Significance was set at p Hartmann's solution or maintenance solution at 10 mL kg(-1)  hour(-1) for 2 hours in dogs undergoing elective orthopaedic surgery. Bicarbonate and BE increased after Hartmann's and maintenance solutions. Increases in potassium concentration were unexplained. © 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  20. Polymer Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, Daniel T.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2013-07-01

    This review article covers applications in which polymer electrolytes are used: lithium batteries, fuel cells, and water desalination. The ideas of electrochemical potential, salt activity, and ion transport are presented in the context of these applications. Potential is defined, and we show how a cell potential measurement can be used to ascertain salt activity. The transport parameters needed to fully specify a binary electrolyte (salt + solvent) are presented. We define five fundamentally different types of homogeneous electrolytes: type I (classical liquid electrolytes), type II (gel electrolytes), type III (dry polymer electrolytes), type IV (dry single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes), and type V (solvated single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes). Typical values of transport parameters are provided for all types of electrolytes. Comparison among the values provides insight into the transport mechanisms occurring in polymer electrolytes. It is desirable to decouple the mechanical properties of polymer electrolyte membranes from the ionic conductivity. One way to accomplish this is through the development of microphase-separated polymers, wherein one of the microphases conducts ions while the other enhances the mechanical rigidity of the heterogeneous polymer electrolyte. We cover all three types of conducting polymer electrolyte phases (types III, IV, and V). We present a simple framework that relates the transport parameters of heterogeneous electrolytes to homogeneous analogs. We conclude by discussing electrochemical stability of electrolytes and the effects of water contamination because of their relevance to applications such as lithium ion batteries.

  1. SecurID

    CERN Document Server

    Now called RSA SecurID, SecurID is a mechanism developed by Security Dynamics that allows two-factor authentication for a user on a network resource. It works on the principle of the unique password mode, based on a shared secret. Every sixty seconds, the component generates a new six-digit token on the screen. The latter comes from the current time (internal clock) and the seed (SecurID private key that is available on the component, and is also from the SecurID server). During an authentication request, the SecurID server will check the entered token by performing exactly the same calculation as that performed by your component. The server knows the two information required for this calculation: the current time and the seed of your component. Access is allowed if the token calculated by the server matches the token you specified.

  2. Influence of the cardiac glycoside digoxin on cardiac troponin I, acid-base and electrolyte balance, and haematobiochemical profiles in healthy donkeys (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Al-Sobayil, Fahd

    2014-03-12

    The effect of digoxin administration on the serum concentration of the cardiac troponin I (cTnI) has not been reported to date in equidae. This study was therefore designed to evaluate the effect of digoxin on cardiac cell damage in donkeys (Equus asinus) as assessed by cTnI, acid-base and electrolyte balance and haematobiochemical profiles. Ten clinically healthy donkeys were given an IV infusion of digoxin at a dose of 14 μg/kg. Blood samples were collected from the donkeys up through 72 h post-injection. Three of the donkeys exhibited increased heart and respiratory rates post-injection. In the other seven animals, the heart and respiratory rates were lower 4 h post-injection. The serum digoxin concentration increased significantly at many time points after injection. The serum concentration of cTnI did not differ significantly between pre- and post-injection. An increase in blood pH was noted at 3 h after digoxin injection. There were also increases in PO2 and in oxygen saturation. Decreases in PCO2 at 2 to 48 h post-injection as well as a decrease in blood lactate at 4 h post-injection were observed. The serum concentration of glucose remained significantly elevated at all-time points after digoxin injection. It is concluded that administration of digoxin to healthy donkeys (14 μg/kg) did not result in elevations of serum cTnI concentration, signs of digoxin intoxication, ECG abnormalities and did not increase serum concentrations of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine.

  3. Influence of the cardiac glycoside digoxin on cardiac troponin I, acid–base and electrolyte balance, and haematobiochemical profiles in healthy donkeys (Equus asinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of digoxin administration on the serum concentration of the cardiac troponin I (cTnI) has not been reported to date in equidae. This study was therefore designed to evaluate the effect of digoxin on cardiac cell damage in donkeys (Equus asinus) as assessed by cTnI, acid–base and electrolyte balance and haematobiochemical profiles. Ten clinically healthy donkeys were given an IV infusion of digoxin at a dose of 14 μg/kg. Blood samples were collected from the donkeys up through 72 h post-injection. Results Three of the donkeys exhibited increased heart and respiratory rates post-injection. In the other seven animals, the heart and respiratory rates were lower 4 h post-injection. The serum digoxin concentration increased significantly at many time points after injection. The serum concentration of cTnI did not differ significantly between pre- and post-injection. An increase in blood pH was noted at 3 h after digoxin injection. There were also increases in PO2 and in oxygen saturation. Decreases in PCO2 at 2 to 48 h post-injection as well as a decrease in blood lactate at 4 h post-injection were observed. The serum concentration of glucose remained significantly elevated at all-time points after digoxin injection. Conclusions It is concluded that administration of digoxin to healthy donkeys (14 μg/kg) did not result in elevations of serum cTnI concentration, signs of digoxin intoxication, ECG abnormalities and did not increase serum concentrations of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. PMID:24621180

  4. Human Water and Electrolyte Balance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montain, S. J; Cheuvront, S. N; Carter, R; Sawka, M. N

    2006-01-01

    .... The imposition of exercise and environmental stress can, however, challenge this ability. Most circumstances involving physical exercise require the formation and vaporization of sweat as the principle means of heat removal in man...

  5. Zero balance ultrafiltration (Z-BUF) in blood-primed CRRT circuits achieves electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis prior to patient connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackbarth, Richard M; Eding, Dawn; Gianoli Smith, Carla; Koch, Ada; Sanfilippo, Dominic J; Bunchman, Timothy E

    2005-09-01

    Infants requiring CRRT present a unique challenge due to the large circuit volume to blood volume ratio. Blood priming is often used, but some patients can become unstable during the initiation of CRRT due to electrolyte and acid-base imbalance. We postulated that using Z-BUF we could normalize electrolytes and improve the acid base status of the prime prior to patient connection. To test this we set up a circuit using the Baxter BM-25 CRRT pump, a polysulfone or AN-69 membrane, and a three-way stopcock. The circuit was primed with a 60/40 mix of expired autologous donor pRBCs and 5% albumin. The modalities of CVVH, CVVHD, and CVVHDF were compared for relative efficacy. Electrolytes, lactate, pH, cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, bradykinin, and IL-6) were measured. Plasma hemoglobin levels were also measured before and after the Z-BUF procedure. Bradykinin production and elimination in AN-69 membrane circuits were assessed. All lab values equilibrated by 35 minutes. All CRRT modalities were equally efficacious for Z-BUF. Cytokine production or significant hemolysis was not found. In addition, no bradykinin accumulation occurred in AN-69 membrane-containing circuits. We conclude that Z-BUF is a simple and effective way to normalize electrolyte and acid-base status in the CRRT circuit when blood priming is required.

  6. Identifying acid-base and electrolyte imbalances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Michael D

    2015-08-15

    Acid-base and electrolyte imbalances often complicate patient management in acute care settings. Correctly identifying the imbalance and its cause is vital. This article will review the physiology of acid-base and electrolyte balance, their common disturbances, associated causes, clinical manifestations, and management implications for nurse practitioners.

  7. IDS Transposer: A Users Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Klancher Merchant

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Intermediate Data Structure (IDS provides a standard format for storing and sharing individual-level longitudinal life-course data (Alter and Mandemakers 2014; Alter, Mandemakers and Gutmann 2009. Once the data are in the IDS format, a standard set of programs can be used to extract data for analysis, facilitating the analysis of data across multiple databases. Currently, life-course databases store information in a variety of formats, and the process of translating data into IDS can be long and tedious. The IDS Transposer is a software tool that automates this process for source data in any format, allowing database administrators to specify how their datasets are to be represented in IDS. This article describes how the IDS Transposer works, first by going through an example step-bystep, and then by discussing each part of the process and potential options and exceptions in detail.

  8. ) and “maintains the balance of healthy microbiota that helps to strengthen the natural defence” (ID 2942) (further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    of Lactobacillus helveticus CNCM I-1722 and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum CNCM I-3470 and alleviation of psychological stress and “maintains the balance of healthy microbiota that helps to strengthen the natural defence”. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claims, a combination of L...... for the claimed effect “maintains the balance of healthy microbiota that helps to strengthen the natural defence” it was not possible to establish the specific effect which is the subject of the claim. The Panel considers that the claimed effect is general and non-specific, and does not refer to any specific...

  9. Aplicação estratégica do balanço eletrolítico em dietas para matrizes pesadas Strategic application of electrolytic balance in diets for broiler breeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Tedeschi dos Santos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi de avaliar o efeito da utilização do conceito de equilíbrio eletrolítico das dietas sobre o desempenho de matrizes de corte. Foram utilizadas 57.000 matrizes pesadas, da linhagem Cobb 500, entre 55 e 62 semanas de idade distribuídas em dois grupos de três galpões que receberam de forma alternada (dois ciclos de quatro semanas rações que seguiam ou não o conceito de equilíbrio eletrolítico. Foram avaliados o consumo de ração, produtividade, aproveitamento de ovos, mortalidade, produção semanal de ovos/ave e conversão alimentar. O mesmo conceito foi extrapolado para quatro galpões comerciais, de 6.300 aves cada (linhagem Ross, desde a fase de pré-postura, sendo aplicado em dois destes galpões o conceito de equilíbrio eletrolítico. Observou-se, no período de utilização da ração que seguia o conceito de equilíbrio eletrolítico, menor mortalidade (0,285% vs. 0,525%; PThe aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of the use of the electrolytic balance concept on broiler breeder's performance. A total of 57.000 Cobb 500 breeders between 55 and 62 weeks of age were used to verify the influence of eletrolitic balance on flock productive parameters . The birds were distributed in two groups of three houses each that received at an alternated way (two cycles of four weeks feeds formulated with or without the eletrolitic balance concept. It was evaluated feed consumption, productivity, hatched eggs, mortality, egg production/bird and feed conversion. The same concept was used in four commercial houses of 6300 birds each (Ross line, since the pre laying, applied to two of this commercial houses,the concept of electrolyte balance. It was observed during the use of feed that followed the eletrolitic balance concept, lower mortality (0.285% vs 0.525%; P<0.05, higher productivity (56.63% vs 55.69%; P<0.05, higher weekly egg production (3.96 vs 3.88eggs; P<0.05 and lower feed conversion (267 vs

  10. Electrolyte Racers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellie, Shawn; Kellie, Tonya; Corbin-Tipton, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    A fast way to teach investigative skills in science is to tie them to NASCAR using Hot Wheels Formula Fuelers Race Cars. These inexpensive toy cars travel different distances based on the strength of the "electrolyte" (a substance that conducts electricity when dissolved in water) in their "fuel" tanks. Advertisements for these race cars urge kids…

  11. [Changes in the acid-base and water-electrolyte balance induced by salbutamol. "In vivo" studies in patients with chronic broncho-pulmonary disease and "in vitro" by tonometry of venous blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, A; Allegra, L; Basani, F; Ferrario, E; Numeroso, R; Fumagalli, G

    1979-01-07

    The Authors studied the effects of e.v. Salbutamol evaluating the acute "in vivo" variations of acid-base and hydro-electrolitic balance in 16 chronic obstructive lung patients undergoing e.v. drug administration, and also ionic variations "in vitro" of venous blood samples incubated and tonometrated with the drug. The results "in vivo" do not show variations of acid-base equilibrium (paO2, paCO2, pH, HCO3-); whereas diminution of haematocrit (Ht), rise of urinary osmolarity and variations of hydro-electrolitic balance (Na+, K+, Cl-) are demonstrated. The results "in vitro" do not show considerable variations on ionic assessment. These data, according to the other latest result, indicate the possible role of haemodilution. We think that the explanation of these phenomena could be a modification of renal water and electrolytes reabsorption, likely under the influence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), stimulated in the hypothalamus and activated also by the beta-stimulant drug at tubular cell receptors.

  12. [Forensic Validation of the Goldeneye™ DNA ID 25A Kit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yao-dong; Cao, Li-ping

    2015-08-01

    To test and estimate the forensic application of Goldeneye™ DNA ID 25A Kit. The kit was validated by a series of tests for accuracy, sensitivity, consistency, peak height balance, stability, and mixed samples through measured blood samples and other samples in routine casework. The peak height balance of the different loci was ≥ 42%. The genotyping results of the positive control DNA was accurate. The complete STR genotyping result could be obtained from 0.125 ng positive control DNA. Goldeneye™ DNA ID 25A Kit is suitable for criminal cases and DNA database in forensic practice.

  13. SNP ID-info: SNP ID searching and visualization platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Cheng, Yu-Huei; Wen, Cheng-Hao; Chang, Phei-Lang; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2008-09-01

    Many association studies provide the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), diseases and cancers, without giving a SNP ID, however. Here, we developed the SNP ID-info freeware to provide the SNP IDs within inputting genetic and physical information of genomes. The program provides an "SNP-ePCR" function to generate the full-sequence using primers and template inputs. In "SNPosition," sequence from SNP-ePCR or direct input is fed to match the SNP IDs from SNP fasta-sequence. In "SNP search" and "SNP fasta" function, information of SNPs within the cytogenetic band, contig position, and keyword input are acceptable. Finally, the SNP ID neighboring environment for inputs is completely visualized in the order of contig position and marked with SNP and flanking hits. The SNP identification problems inherent in NCBI SNP BLAST are also avoided. In conclusion, the SNP ID-info provides a visualized SNP ID environment for multiple inputs and assists systematic SNP association studies. The server and user manual are available at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/snpid-info.

  14. Solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  15. Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai

    2012-10-09

    Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

  16. A metered intake of milk following exercise and thermal dehydration restores whole-body net fluid balance better than a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution or water in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seery, Suzanne; Jakeman, Philip

    2016-09-01

    Appropriate rehydration and nutrient intake in recovery is a key component of exercise performance. This study investigated whether the recovery of body net fluid balance (NFB) following exercise and thermal dehydration to -2 % of body mass (BM) was enhanced by a metered rate of ingestion of milk (M) compared with a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CE) or water (W). In randomised order, seven active men (aged 26·2 (sd 6·1) years) undertook exercise and thermal dehydration to -2 % of BM on three occasions. A metered replacement volume of M, CE or W equivalent to 150 % of the BM loss was then consumed within 2-3 h. NFB was subsequently measured for 5 h from commencement of rehydration. A higher overall NFB in M than CE (P=0·001) and W (P=0·006) was observed, with no difference between CE and W (P=0·69). After 5 h, NFB in M remained positive (+117 (sd 122) ml) compared with basal, and it was greater than W (-539 (sd 390) ml, P=0·011) but not CE (-381 (sd 460) ml, P=0·077, d=1·6). Plasma osmolality (Posm) and K remained elevated above basal in M compared with CE and W. The change in Posm was associated with circulating pre-provasopressin (r s 0·348, Pfluid ingestion acts in synergy with the nutrient composition of M in the restoration of NFB following exercise and thermal dehydration.

  17. Magnesium removal in the electrolytic zinc industry

    OpenAIRE

    Booster, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Electrolytic zinc plants need to take measures to control the magnesium content in their process liquors, because the natural magnesium bleed does not balance the input from concentrates. Presently used methods are environmentally unfriendly (due to the production of large amounts of waste gypsum) or expensive. Therefore, an alternative process route is explored in which magnesium is removed from zinc electrolyte by selective precipitation of magnesium fluoride (sellaite). As standard applica...

  18. Electrolytes and thermoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, B.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of ions on temperature is studied for cases where the changes in ionic concentrations are induced by direct infusion or injection of electrolyte solutions into the cerebral ventricles or into specific areas of brain tissue; intravenous infusion or injection; eating food or drinking solutions of different ionic composition; and heat or exercise dehydration. It is shown that introduction of Na(+) and Ca(++) into the cerebral ventricles or into the venous system affects temperature regulation. It appears that the specific action of these ions is different from their osmotic effects. It is unlikely that their action is localized to the thermoregulatory centers in the brain. The infusion experiments demonstrate that the changes in sodium balance occurring during exercise and heat stress are large enough to affect sweat gland function and vasomotor activity.

  19. Evaluation of acid-base control, electrolyte balance, and filter patency of a Prismaflex-based regional citrate anticoagulation protocol for pre-dilution continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadzhynov, Dmytro; Slowinski, Torsten; Lieker, Ina; Neumayer, Hans-H; Peters, Harm

    2014-05-01

    Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) is increasingly used in patients requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). This study evaluated a new RCA protocol based on the Prismaflex® dialysis device and an isotonic citrate solution (prismocitrate) for pre-dilution continous veno-venous hemodiafiltration. The Prismaflex®/Prismocitrate-based protocol involved an AN69ST® membrane (Prisma Flex ST100), a blood flow of 120 mL/min, 1.8 L/h Prismocitrate (10 mmol/L citrate/2 mmol/L citric acid) substitution fluid in pre-dilution mode, and 0.8 L/h dialysate flow (PrismOcal) at the start. In parallel, infusions of potassium, calcium, and magnesium were initiated. Blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and ionized calcium levels were measured in 6 hours intervals and magnesium levels every 24 hours. Scheduled hemofilter run time was 72 hours. A consecutive series of 25 continuous renal replacement treatments was analyzed in 15 patients. After at least 6h of RRT, 69.9% of bicarbonate concentrations and 84.6% base excess (BE) calculations were below normal range. During CRRT, mean bicarbonate decreased from 22.9 to 20.2 mmol/L and mean BE from -1.5 to -4.2 mmol/L. In addition, 66.3% of ionized systemic calcium concentrations were out of the normal range, while 54.1% of the magnesium readings were above normal range. Five filters reached the scheduled run time of 72 hours, 19 treatments stopped prematurely because of RRT related reasons (5 filter clottings, 2 severe metabolic disarrangements, 12 major Prismaflex® hardware or software handling problems). One patient was switched to intermittent hemodialysis. The evaluated Prismaflex®/ Prismocitrate-based citrate anticoagulation protocol provides insufficient control of blood acid-base and electrolyte balance.

  20. Threshold extended ID3 algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A. B. Rajesh; Ramesh, C. Phani; Madhusudhan, E.; Padmavathamma, M.

    2012-04-01

    Information exchange over insecure networks needs to provide authentication and confidentiality to the database in significant problem in datamining. In this paper we propose a novel authenticated multiparty ID3 Algorithm used to construct multiparty secret sharing decision tree for implementation in medical transactions.

  1. Persistence of blood changes associated with alteration of the dietary electrolyte balance in commercial pigs after feed withdrawal, transportation, and lairage, and the effects on performance and carcass quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L N; Engle, T E; Paradis, M A; Correa, J A; Anderson, D B

    2010-12-01

    Increasing dietary electrolyte balance (dEB) has previously been shown to reduce the incidence of nonambulatory and noninjured swine, improve meat quality, and reduce the incidence of gastric ulcers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dEB under commercial conditions. Due to the variability in feed withdrawal, transport, and lairage conditions in the swine industry, it was necessary to determine first the persistence of blood changes during the marketing process after alteration of dEB. Sixteen pens of 8 crossbred barrows were assigned to a low (121 mEq/kg) or high (375 mEq/kg) dEB diet, calculated as Na(+) + K(+) - Cl(-), to determine the persistence of blood changes associated with the alteration of dEB. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC (1998) requirements for energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals. Dietary treatments were provided for ad libitum intake for 3 d before slaughter. Before transport, animals were fasted in the barn for approximately 10 h. After fasting, animals were shipped to the packing plant, rested for 8 h, and subsequently slaughtered. Initial and final BW of the animals were obtained. Blood was sampled at baseline (2 d before administration of diets), before feed withdrawal (0 h), after feed withdrawal (10 h), and at exsanguination (20 h). Consumption of the high dEB diet for 3 d resulted in an increase in blood TCO(2) (P = 0.001), HCO(3)(-) (P = 0.001), and base excess (P = 0.0003) and a decrease in Cl(-) (P = 0.0002) and anion gap (P = 0.01). These differences, however, were not maintained for any of the blood components after the 10-h feed withdrawal (P > 0.22). Increasing dEB had no adverse effects (P > 0.18) on growth performance, meat quality, or carcass yield and did not decrease pars esophageal ulcer scores. This study demonstrated that the effect of dEB on blood components was not maintained after a 10-h feed withdrawal. Therefore, it is likely that the ability of the animal to withstand any increased

  2. Balanço eletrolítico para suínos machos castrados em crescimento mantidos em ambiente de alta temperatura Electrolyte balance of growing males castrated swines in a high temperature environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anilce de Araujo Brêtas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do balanço eletrolítico (BE em rações com diferentes níveis de eletrólitos para suínos na fase de crescimento criados em alta temperatura. Foram utilizados 200 suínos machos castrados, com peso inicial de 25,3±1,3 kg e final de 68,8±3,4 kg, distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições com dez animais por unidade experimental, para a fase de crescimento T1(testemunha ração sem suplementação de eletrólitos 191 mEq/kg; T2 (NaHCO3 ração suplementada bicarbonato de sódio (NaHCO3 250 mEq/kg; T3 (NaHCO3+KCl ração suplementada NaHCO3 e cloreto de potássio (KCl 250 mEq/kg; T4 (NaHCO3 ração suplementada NaHCO3 300 mEq/kg; e T5 (NaHCO3+KCl ração suplementada com NaHCO3 e KCl 300 mEq/kg. As variáveis avaliadas foram consumo de ração, ganho de peso, consumo de nitrogênio, consumo de lisina, eficiência de utilização de nitrogênio para ganho, eficiência de utilização de lisina para ganho, conversão alimentar e os parâmetros fisiológicos, frequência respiratória e temperatura retal. Foi coletado sangue para mensurar as concentrações sorológicas de Na, Cl e K. A temperatura média foi 29,65±3,80º C com UR do ar 69,6±10,4%, Temperatura do Globo Negro de 31,95±1,98º C e Índice de Temperatura do Globo Úmido em 80,51±2,44. Os níveis de BE reduziram (P0,05. A correção do BE não influenciou o desempenho dos suínos.The effect of electrolyte balance (EB in diets with different levels of electrolytes for growing swine under high environmental temperature was evaluated. Two hundred castrated pigs with initial weight of 25.3±1.3 kg and final weight of 68.8±3.4 kg were allotted in a completely randomized experimental design with five treatments and four replicates with 10 pigs per experimental unit, for the growing phase T1 (control diet without electrolyte 191 mEq/kg; T2 (NaHCO3 diet supplemented with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3

  3. Magnesium removal in the electrolytic zinc industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booster, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Electrolytic zinc plants need to take measures to control the magnesium content in their process liquors, because the natural magnesium bleed does not balance the input from concentrates. Presently used methods are environmentally unfriendly (due to the production of large amounts of waste gypsum)

  4. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Charles Austen; Liu, Changle; Xu, Kang; Skotheim, Terje A.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  5. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.; Xu, K.; Skotheim, T.A.

    1999-10-05

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  6. Impact resistant electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veith, Gabriel M.; Armstrong, Beth L.; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E.; Dudney, Nancy J.

    2017-03-07

    A passively impact resistant composite electrolyte composition includes an electrolyte solvent, up to 2M of an electrolyte salt, and shear thickening ceramic particles having a polydispersity index of no greater than 0.1, an average particle size of in a range of 50 nm to 1 .mu.m, and an absolute zeta potential of greater than .+-.40 mV.

  7. A Cooperative IDS Approach Against MPTCP Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Postgraduate School graduate has proven that intrusion detection systems (IDS) can be defeated by leveraging Multipath Transmission Control Protocol...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK iv ABSTRACT Recent thesis work by a Naval Postgraduate School graduate has proven that intrusion detection systems (IDS) can be...12 2.4 Related Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3 Single Intrusion Detection System (IDS) Experiments 17 3.1

  8. Uued suunad ID-maailmas / Ene Vihtla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vihtla, Ene

    2010-01-01

    Alates 2010. aasta oktoobrist väljastab Politsei- ja Piirivalveamet digitaalset isikutunnistust ehk digi-ID. 1. jaanuarist muutuvad ID-kaartide turvamärgid ja Eestis elavatele välismaalastele, kes ei ole EL-i kodanikud, hakatakse ID-kaardi asemel välja andma elamisloakaarti

  9. ID Barrel installed in cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Apsimon, R.; Romaniouk, A.

    Wednesday 23rd August was a memorable day for the Inner Detector community as they witnessed the transport and installation of the central part of the inner detector (ID-barrel) into the ATLAS detector. Many members of the collaboration gathered to witness this moment at Point 1. After years of design, construction and commissioning, the outer two detectors (TRT and SCT) of the ID barrel were moved from the SR1 cleanroom to the ATLAS cavern. The barrel was moved across the car park from building 2175 to SX1. Although only a journey of about 100 metres, this required weeks of planning and some degree of luck as far as the weather was concerned. Accelerometers were fitted to the barrel to provide real-time monitoring and no values greater than 0.1 g were recorded, fully satisfying the transport specification for this extremely precise and fragile detector. Muriel, despite her fear of heights, bravely volunteered to keep a close eye on the detector. Swapping cranes to cross the entire parking lot, while Mur...

  10. VLM Tool for IDS Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cǎtǎlin NAE

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to a very specific type of analysis tool (VLM - Vortex Lattice Method to be integrated in a IDS - Integrated Design System, tailored for the usage of small aircraft industry. The major interest is to have the possibility to simulate at very low computational costs a preliminary set of aerodynamic characteristics for basic aerodynamic global characteristics (Lift, Drag, Pitching Moment and aerodynamic derivatives for longitudinal and lateral-directional stability analysis. This work enables fast investigations of the influence of configuration changes in a very efficient computational environment. Using experimental data and/or CFD information for a specific calibration of VLM method, reliability of the analysis may me increased so that a first type (iteration zero aerodynamic evaluation of the preliminary 3D configuration is possible. The output of this tool is basic state aerodynamic and associated stability and control derivatives, as well as a complete set of information on specific loads on major airframe components.The major interest in using and validating this type of methods is coming from the possibility to integrate it as a tool in an IDS system for conceptual design phase, as considered for development for CESAR project (IP, UE FP6.

  11. Nanoporous polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Brian [Wheat Ridge, CO; Nguyen, Vinh [Wheat Ridge, CO

    2012-04-24

    A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

  12. General characteristics of patients with electrolyte imbalance admitted to emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    Balcı, Arif Kadri; Koksal, Ozlem; Kose, Ataman; Armagan, Erol; Ozdemir, Fatma; Inal, Taylan; Oner, Nuran

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fluid and electrolyte balance is a key concept to understand for maintaining homeostasis, and for a successful treatment of many metabolic disorders. There are various regulating mechanisms for the equilibrium of electrolytes in organisms. Disorders of these mechanisms result in electrolyte imbalances that may be life-threatening clinical conditions. In this study we defined the electrolyte imbalance characteristics of patients admitted to our emergency department. METHODS: This s...

  13. [Postoperative management of patients with sellar tumors through monitoring urine volume and urine electrolytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li-Lei; Dong, Wei; Zhou, Pei-Zhi; Ma, Wei-Chao; Li, You-Ping; Wu, Qian; Jiang, Shu

    2013-05-01

    To determine the value of urine volume and urine electrolytes in postoperative management of patients with sellar tumors. Medical records of 103 patients with sellar tumors in the West China Hospital from January 2009 to December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were managed either based on blood electrolytes (Group A, n = 56) or based on urine volume and urine electrolytes (Group B, n = 47). The incidence of balance disturbance of water and electrolytes was compared between the two groups. The levels of blood electrolytes were normal in both groups 3 days after operations despite significant loss of electrolytes through urine. Balance disturbance of water and electrolytes was revealed 4-7 days after operations. Group B had a lower incidence of balance disturbance of water and electrolytes (17.02%, 8/47) compared with Group A (73.21%, 41/56, P electrolytes was found. Higher incidence of balance disturbance of water and electrolytes was found in craniopharyngioma (P electrolytes can be achieved for patients with sellar tumors through monitoring urine than through blood. It can also simplify the postoperative management of patients with sellar tumors.

  14. The #Idéo2017 Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, Julien; Marinica, Claudia; Hassine, Nader; Alkhouli, Abdulhafiz; Borzic, Boris

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The #Idéo2017 platform allows citizens to analyze the tweets of the 11 candidates at the French 2017 Presidential Election. #Idéo2017 processes the messages of the candidates by creating a corpus in almost real time. By using techniques from linguistics supplied with tools, #Idéo2017 is able to provide the main characteristics of the corpus and of the employment of the political lexicon, and allows comparisons between the different candidates.

  15. The #Idéo2017 Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, Julien; Marinica, Claudia; Hassine, Nader; Alkhouli, Abdulhafiz; Borzic, Boris

    2017-01-01

    The #Idéo2017 platform allows citizens to analyze the tweets of the 11 candidates at the French 2017 Presidential Election. #Idéo2017 processes the messages of the candidates by creating a corpus in almost real time. By using techniques from linguistics supplied with tools, #Idéo2017 is able to provide the main characteristics of the corpus and of the employment of the political lexicon, and allows comparisons between the different candidates.

  16. Blood biochemical parameters, nitrogen balance and gross energy metabolizability in pigs fed with different dietary electrolyte balancesParâmetros bioquímicos sanguíneos, balanço de nitrogênio e metabolizabilidade da energia bruta em suínos alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes balanços eletrolíticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Daniel Giusti Bruno

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate different dietary electrolyte balance (DEB on the blood biochemical parameters, nitrogen balances and crude metabolizable energy of swine in the initial phase. Sixteen barrows were used, averaging 27.95 kg of initial weight, allotted individually in metabolic cages in a randomized blocks design with four treatments (DEB of 160, 208, 257 and 305 mEq/kg and 4 replicates. The blood biochemical parameters analyzed were chloride, potassium, sodium and urea in blood. Urine pH was also evaluated, and the parameters evaluated in nitrogen (N balance were N intake, fecal N, N excreted in urine, absorbed N, N retention, retained N/absorbed N and total excretion of N. The gross energy digestibility and metabolizibility coefficients were determined, and the respectives values of digestible and metabolizable energy. The values of urinary pH increased (P 0.05 between the evaluated DEB. A linear increase (P Objetivou-se com esse trabalho avaliar diferentes balanços eletrolíticos das dietas (BED sobre os parâmetros bioquímicos sanguíneos, balanços de nitrogênio e a metabolizabilidade da energia bruta, de suínos na fase inicial. Foram utilizados 16 suínos, machos castrados, com peso inicial de 27,95 kg, distribuídos individualmente em gaiolas metabólicas, em um delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso com quatro tratamentos (BED de 160, 208, 257 e 305 mEq/kg e quatro repetições. Os parâmetros bioquímicos sanguíneos avaliados foram cloretos, potássio, sódio e uréia no soro. O pH da urina também foi avaliado, e as variáveis utilizadas no balanço de nitrogênio (N foram o N ingerido, N excretado nas fezes, N excretado na urina, N absorvido, N retido, N retido/N absorvido e excreção total de N. Foram determinados os coeficientes de digestibilidade e metabolizabilidade da energia bruta e seus respectivos valores de energia digestível e metabolizável. Os valores de pH urinário aumentaram (P 0,05 entre

  17. Electron ID in ATLAS Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Thais, Savannah Jennifer; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Efficient and accurate electron identification is of critical importance to measuring many physics processes with leptons in the final state, including H->4l, dark vector boson searches, and various SUSY searches. This poster will describe the current status of the Likelihood driven Electron ID, highlighting the recent move from a MC driven ID to a data-driven ID. It will include the most recent identification efficiency and scale-factor measurements. Additionally, it will describe continued improvements for Run 2 electron ID, highlighting improvements in the low pt region and potential Machine Learning improvements.

  18. "Mobilnõi ID" - prjamoi naslednik privõtshnoi ID kartõ / Andrus Viks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viks, Andrus

    2008-01-01

    Mis on mobiil-ID. Reformierakond on teinud ettepaneku kasutada mobiil-ID-d ka valimistel, Riigikogu aseesimees Kristiina Ojuland peab seda e-valimiste loomulikuks arenguks. Ilmunud ka Vesti Estonii okt. lk. 5

  19. based gel polymer electrolytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    vity at ambient temperature (Wright 1975; Martuscelli et al 1984). Generally solid polymer electrolytes have many advantages, viz. high ionic conductivity, high specific energy, wide electrochemical stability windows, light and easy processibility. Apart from this, polymer electrolyte studies have been carried out in poly(vinyl ...

  20. Towards Prognostics of Electrolytic Capacitors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A remaining useful life prediction algorithm and degradation model for electrolytic capacitors is presented. Electrolytic capacitors are used in several applications...

  1. A proposed HTTP service based IDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Abd-Eldayem

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous growth of the web-based applications has increased information security vulnerabilities over the Internet. Security administrators use Intrusion-Detection System (IDS to monitor network traffic and host activities to detect attacks against hosts and network resources. In this paper IDS based on Naïve Bayes classifier is analyzed. The main objective is to enhance IDS performance through preparing the training data set allowing to detect malicious connections that exploit the http service. Results of application are demonstrated and discussed. In the training phase of the proposed IDS, at first a feature selection technique based on Naïve Bayes classifier is used, this technique identifies the most important HTTP traffic features that can be used to detect HTTP attacks. In the testing and running phases proposed IDS classifies the network traffic based on the requested service, then based on the selected features Naïve Bayes classifier is used to analyze the HTTP service based traffic and identifies the HTTP normal connections and attacks. The performance of the IDS is measured through experiments using NSL-KDD data set. The results show that the detection rate of the IDS is about 99%, the false-positive rate is about 1%, and the false-negative rate is about 0.25%; therefore, proposed IDS holds the highest detection rate and the lowest false alarm compared with other leading IDS. In addition, the proposed IDS based on Naïve Bayes is used to classify network connections as a normal or attack. And it holds a high detection rate and a low false alarm.

  2. Electrolyte for batteries with regenerative solid electrolyte interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Shao, Yuyan; Bennett, Wendy D.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2017-08-01

    An energy storage device comprising: an anode; and a solute-containing electrolyte composition wherein the solute concentration in the electrolyte composition is sufficiently high to form a regenerative solid electrolyte interface layer on a surface of the anode only during charging of the energy storage device, wherein the regenerative layer comprises at least one solute or solvated solute from the electrolyte composition.

  3. Electron ID in ATLAS Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Thais, Savannah Jennifer; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Efficient and accurate electron identification is of critical importance to measuring many physics processes with leptons in the final state, including H->4l, dark vector boson searches, and various SUSY searches. This poster will describe the current status of the Likelihood driven Electron ID, as well as the most recent identification efficiency and scale-factor measurements. The poster will include public results from ATLAS-CONF-2016-024 (2015 Electron ID Conf Note), and any potential public plot displaying the latest recommendations (Moriond 2017). Additionally, it will describe planned improvements for Run 2 electron ID, highlighting improvements in the low pt region.

  4. Electrolytic refining of gold

    OpenAIRE

    Wohlwill, Emil

    2008-01-01

    At the request of the editor of ELECTROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY, I herewith give some notes on the electrolytic method of gold refining, to supplement the article of Dr. Tuttle (Vol. I, page 157, January, 1903).

  5. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik

    2015-06-02

    Anion exchange polymer electrolytes that include guanidinium functionalized polymers may be used as membranes and binders for electrocatalysts in preparation of anodes for electrochemical cells such as solid alkaline fuel cells.

  6. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Experimental antegrade enema: effects on water, electrolyte and acid-base balances with different solutions Enema anterógrado experimental: equilíbrio hídrico eletrolítico e ácido-base em coelhos submetidos a enema com diferentes soluções

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Helman

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the effects on the water, electrolyte, and acid-base balances in rabbits submitted to antegrade enema with different solutions through appendicostomy. METHODS: Forty male New Zealand rabbits were submitted to appendicostomy, and distributed in 4 groups, according to the antegrade enema solution: PEG group, polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution (n=10; ISS group, isotonic saline solution (n=10; GS group, glycerin solution (n=10; SPS group, sodium phosphate solution (n=10. After being weighed, arterial blood gas analysis, red blood count, creatinine and electrolytes were measured at 4 times: preoperatively (T1; day 6 postop, before enema (T2; 4h after enema (T3; and 24h after T3 (T4. RESULTS: In PEG group occurred Na retention after 4h, causing alkalemia, sustained for 24h with HCO3 retention. In ISS group occurred isotonic water retention and hyperchloremic acidosis after 4h, which was partially compensated in 24h. GS group showed metabolic acidosis after 4h, compensated in 24h. In SPS group occurred hypernatremic dehydration, metabolic acidosis in 4h, and hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and metabolic alkalosis with partially compensated dehydration in 24h. CONCLUSIONS: All solutions used in this study caused minor alterations on water, electrolyte or acid-base balances. The most intense ones were caused by hypertonic sodium phosphate solution (SPS and isotonic saline solution (ISS and the least by polyethyleneglycol electrolyte solution (PEG and glycerin solution 12% (GS.OBJETIVO: Estudar os efeitos no equilíbrio hídrico, eletrolítico e ácido-base, do enema anterógrado com diferentes soluções em coelhos através de apendicostomia. MÉTODOS: 40 coelhos Nova Zelândia, machos, submetidos a apendicostomia, distribuídos em quatro grupos segundo a solução de enema: grupo PEG (n = 10 solução de polietilenoglicol com eletrólitos; grupo SF (n = 10 solução fisiológica; grupo SG (n = 10 solução glicerinada

  8. Pengalaman Komunikasi Pelanggan Zalora.co.id (Studi Fenomenologi Pelanggan Zalora.co.id)

    OpenAIRE

    Aji, Widya Andhika; Pradekso, Tandiyo; Ulfa, Nurist Surayya

    2013-01-01

    1PENGALAMAN KOMUNIKASI PELANGGAN ZALORA.CO.ID(Studi Fenomenologi Pelanggan Zalora.co.id)Oleh:Widya Andhika AjiFakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu PolitikUniversitas Diponegoro SemarangABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengalaman komunikasi danpemahaman penerimaan konsumen terkait pesan komunikasi pemasaran dalamberbelanja di Zalora.co.id. Dengan menggunakan sampel pada lima informandan metode wawancara, dapat ditarik kesimpulan: Pelanggan Zalora.co.idmemiliki pengalaman komunikasi ...

  9. Id-1 and Id-2 genes and products as markers of epithelial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desprez, Pierre-Yves [El Cerrito, CA; Campisi, Judith [Berkeley, CA

    2011-10-04

    A method for detection and prognosis of breast cancer and other types of cancer. The method comprises detecting expression, if any, for both an Id-1 and an Id-2 genes, or the ratio thereof, of gene products in samples of breast tissue obtained from a patient. When expressed, Id-1 gene is a prognostic indicator that breast cancer cells are invasive and metastatic, whereas Id-2 gene is a prognostic indicator that breast cancer cells are localized and noninvasive in the breast tissue.

  10. Gel electrolytes and electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischmann, Sven; Bunte, Christine; Mikhaylik, Yuriy V.; Viner, Veronika G.

    2017-09-05

    Gel electrolytes, especially gel electrolytes for electrochemical cells, are generally described. In some embodiments, the gel electrolyte layers comprise components a) to c). Component a) may be at least one layer of at least one polymer comprising polymerized units of: a1) at least one monomer containing an ethylenically unsaturated unit and an amido group and a2) at least one crosslinker. Component b) may be at least one conducting salt and component c) may be at least one solvent. Electrodes may comprise the components a), d) and e), wherein component a) may be at least one layer of at least one polymer as described herein. Component d) may be at least one electroactive layer and component e) may be at least one ceramic layer. Furthermore, electrochemical cells comprising component a) which may be at least one layer of at least one polymer as described herein, are also provided.

  11. Seebeck effect in electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikina, I; Shikin, V; Varlamov, A A

    2012-07-01

    We study Seebeck effect in liquid electrolytes, starting from its simple neutral analog--thermodiffusion (so-called Ludwig-Soret or Soret effect). It is observed that when two or more subsystems of mobile particles are subjected to the temperature gradient, various types of them respond to it differently. In the case when these fractions, with different mobility parameters (Soret coefficients), are oppositely charged (a case typical for electrolytes), the nonhomogeneous internal electric field is generated. The latter field prevents these fractions from space separation and determines the intensity of the appearing Seebeck effect.

  12. Níveis de lisina com dois balanços eletrolíticos para frangos de corte na fase de crescimento (22 a 40 dias Lysine level with two electrolytes balance for broiler chickens in the growing phase (22 a 40 day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Campestrini

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os níveis de lisina para frangos de corte na fase de crescimento (22 a 40 dias de idade utilizando-se dois balanços eletrolíticos. Foram utilizados 640 frangos de corte machos de 21 dias de idade, linhagem Cobb, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 × 2, composto de cinco níveis de lisina (1,062, 20, 40 e 60% acima e 20% abaixo do recomendado e dois balanços eletrolíticos (190 e 255 mEq/kg, com quatro repetições e 16 aves por unidade experimental. Não foi observada interação das variáveis estudadas, porém, os níveis de lisina influenciaram o peso final, o ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar e afetaram de forma linear o consumo de ração. Os melhores ajustes foram observados quando se utilizou o modelo descontinuo LRP, no qual valores acima de 1,089 e 1,14% de lisina não melhoraram o ganho de peso e tampouco a conversão alimentar. Entre os parâmetros sangüíneos avaliados, apenas o ácido úrico foi influenciado pelos níveis de lisina. Os rendimentos de carcaça e de cortes nobres não diferiram significativamente entre os níveis de lisina e os balanços eletrolíticos, contudo, a gordura abdominal foi influenciada pelo balanço eletrolítico da dieta. Níveis acima de 1,089 e 1,14% de lisina, respectivamente, não melhoram o desempenho das aves. Os níveis de lisina testados não influenciaram o rendimento de carcaça nem de cortes nobres.The lysine levels for chickens in the growing phase (22 to 40 days of age by using two different electrolytes balance were evaluated. Sixty-four hundred Cobb broiler male of 21 days old were allotted to a completely randomized design as a factorial arrangement of treatments, five lysine levels (1.062, 20, 40, and 60% above and 20% below of recommended levels and two electrolytes balance (190 and 255 mEq/kg, with four replicates and 16 broilers for experimental unit. There was no interaction among the variables studied, however

  13. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may also ... injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ear. ...

  14. Independence Day 2004 (ID04) / Raul Hindov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hindov, Raul

    2004-01-01

    Ülevaade 20.-22. veebruarini 2004 toimunud kaugluurepatrullide rännaku ja sõdurioskuste kompleksõppusest ID04 (Independence Day 2004 - Iseseisvuspäev 2004), millel osales 25 patrullvõistlusteks valmistuvat meest ja naist

  15. Electrolyte profiles in Nigerian patients with essential hypertension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... rich and poor societies although with differing pathoge- netic basis (Amory and Strouser, 1996; Fuentes et al.,. 2000; Van den Hoogen et al., 2000; Kearney et al. ... renal defects, whether primary or secondary, may adversely affect electrolyte and water balance leading to hypertension (Blaustein et al., 1991; ...

  16. Spin coating of electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, Joseph R.; Maclay, G. Jordan

    1989-01-01

    Methods for spin coating electrolytic materials onto substrates are disclosed. More particularly, methods for depositing solid coatings of ion-conducting material onto planar substrates and onto electrodes are disclosed. These spin coating methods are employed to fabricate electrochemical sensors for use in measuring, detecting and quantifying gases and liquids.

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to calcium and potassium and maintenance of normal acid-base balance (ID 400, 407) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    within metabolism (intracellular cation)”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. In the context of the proposed wordings, the Panel assumes that the claimed effects refer to the maintenance of normal acid-base balance. The Panel considers that maintenance of normal acid...... claims in relation to calcium and potassium and maintenance of normal acid-base balance. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from...... stakeholders. The food constituents that are the subject of the health claims are calcium and potassium. The Panel considers that calcium and potassium are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effects are “calcium contributes to acid/base balance within metabolism” and “mineral/potassium: key function...

  18. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  19. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A method for preparing polybenzimidazole or polybenzimidazole blend membranes and fabricating gas diffusion electrodes and membrane-electrode assemblies is provided for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Blend polymer electrolyte membranes based on PBI and various...... thermoplastic polymers for high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells have also been developed. Miscible blends are used for solution casting of polymer membranes (solid electrolytes). High conductivity and enhanced mechanical strength were obtained for the blend polymer solid electrolytes...... electrolyte membrane by hot-press. The fuel cell can operate at temperatures up to at least 200 °C with hydrogen-rich fuel containing high ratios of carbon monoxide such as 3 vol% carbon monoxide or more, compared to the carbon monoxide tolerance of 10-20 ppm level for Nafion$m(3)-based polymer electrolyte...

  20. Osmolality and electrolytes in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of febrile children with and without seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviranta, T; Tuomisto, L; Airaksinen, E M

    1996-02-01

    During acute febrile diseases mild disturbances of water and electrolyte balance occur frequently. It has been suggested that changes in electrolyte balance, in particular hyponatraemia, might predispose a child to convulsions during febrile illness; however, the changes of electrolytes in the CSF are not known. We have studied the effects of fever and convulsions on water and electrolyte balance in CSF and serum by measuring osmolality and electrolyte concentrations in children. The febrile population consisted of 60 children, 36 of whom had seizures during fever. Twenty-one children without convulsions and nine children with epileptic symptoms were nonfebrile controls. We noticed that CSF is subject to changes in osmolality and electrolyte concentration during fever, while convulsions do not exhibit such changes. CSF osmolality and sodium concentrations were lower in febrile children than in nonfebrile controls. The osmolality in febrile children with convulsions was 3.8% (P electrolyte balance. The alterations in CSF osmolality and sodium concentration do not, however, give an unambiguous explanation for the susceptibility to simple febrile seizures.

  1. Adolescents with Intellectual Disability Have Reduced Postural Balance and Muscle Performance in Trunk and Lower Limbs Compared to Peers without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Sven; Olsson, Josefine; Wallin, Louise; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Borje

    2013-01-01

    For adolescent people with ID, falls are more common compared to peers without ID. However, postural balance among this group is not thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to compare balance and muscle performance among adolescents aged between 16 and 20 years with a mild to moderate intellectual disability (ID) to age-matched…

  2. Haro sur l’idéologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Bertrand

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Consacrer une journée d’études à la question de l’idéologie dans les études littéraires, ce n’est pas réhabiliter une notion qui a porté toute la tradition sociocritique, de Lukàcs à Hamon, en passant par Barthes, Dubois, Duchet et tant d’autres, en référence à la célèbre définition qu’en avait donné Althusser dans Positions. Ce n’est pas non plus enterrer très idéologiquement une notion dont on découvrirait, en cette ère de postmodernité, l’incongruité opérationnelle. C’est pour le moins fai...

  3. Nanoporous hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Oligomer-suspended SiO2-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles are studied as porous media electrolytes. At SiO2 volume fractions, , bracketing a critical value y ≈ 0.29, the suspensions jam and their mechanical modulus increase by more than seven orders. For >y, the mean pore diameter is close to the anion size, yet the ionic conductivity remains surprisingly high and can be understood, at all , using a simple effective medium model proposed by Maxwell. SiO 2-polyethylene glycol hybrid electrolytes are also reported to manifest attractive electrochemical stability windows (0.3-6.3 V) and to reach a steady-state interfacial impedance when in contact with metallic lithium. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. Characterization of Inhibitor of differentiation (Id) proteins in human cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Rajiv R; Morgan, Brandie R; Anumanthan, Govindaraj; Sharma, Ajay; Chaurasia, Shyam S; Rieger, Frank G

    2016-05-01

    Inhibitor of differentiation (Id) proteins are DNA-binding transcription factors involved in cellular proliferation, migration, inflammation, angiogenesis and fibrosis. However, their expression and role in the cornea is unknown. The present study was undertaken to characterize the expression of Id proteins and their interactions with the pro-fibrotic cytokine Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGFβ1) and anti-fibrotic cytokine, bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7) in human cornea. Human donor corneas procured from Eye Bank were used. Id proteins were localized in human corneal sections using immunofluorescence. Primary cultures of human corneal fibroblasts (HCF) were established and treated with either TGFβ1 (5 ng/ml) or BMP7 (10 ng/ml) for 24 h in serum free medium. Expression of Id's in response to TGFβ1, BMP7 and TGFβ1 + BMP7 was analyzed by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot analysis. Id1 and Id2 proteins were ubiquitously expressed in the epithelial cells and stromal keratocytes in human cornea. The Id1 was localized to the basal epithelial cells as seen by immunohistochemistry. HCF expressed all known mammalian Id genes (Id1-Id4). In addition, Id1 and Id2 are selectively expressed in HCF. Treatment of human recombinant TGFβ1 (5 ng/ml) to serum-starved HCF showed a significant increase in Id genes (Id1, Id2 and Id4) at 2 h time point compared to BMP7 treatment, which showed time dependent increase in the expression of Id1-Id3 at 24-48 h. Combined treatment with TGFβ1 + BMP7 to HCF showed a significant increase in Id1 transcript and an increasing trend in Id3 and Id4 expression. The results of this study suggest that Id family of genes (Id1-Id4) are localized in the human cornea and expressed in the corneal fibroblasts. Also, Id's were differentially regulated with TGFβ1 and/or BMP7 in a time dependent manner and might serve as a therapeutic target in corneal fibrosis. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Solid polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  6. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.

    1993-04-06

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  7. Non-electrolytic microelectroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Chenang; Wang, Jianping; Rubinsky, Boris

    2017-09-01

    Micro and nano technologies are of increasing importance in microfluidics devices used for electroporation (electroporation - the permeabilization of the cell membrane with brief high electric field pulses). Electrochemical reactions of electrolysis occur whenever an electric current flows between an electrode and an ionic solution. It can have substantial detrimental effects, both on the cells and solutions during the electroporation. As electrolysis is a surface phenomenon, between electrodes and solution, the extent of electrolysis is increased in micro and nano electroporation over macro-electroporation, because the surface area of the electrodes in micro and nano electroporation is much larger. A possible way to eliminate the electrolytic effect is to develop non-electrolytic microelectroporation by coating the microelectroporation devices with a dielectric insulating layer. In this study, we examine the effect of a dielectric insulating layer on the performance of a singularity microelectroporation device that we have recently designed. Using numerical analysis, we study the effects of various design parameters including, input sinusoidal voltage amplitude and frequency, geometrical configuration and material electrical properties on the electroporation performance of the non-electrolytic microelectroporation device. In the simulation, we used properties of four real dielectric materials and four solutions of interest for microelectroporation. We characterized the effect of various design parameters of relevance to singularity based microelectroporation, on non-electrolytic microelectroporation. Interestingly, we found that the system behaves in some aspects as a filter and in many circumstances saturation of performance is reached. After saturation is reached, changes in parameters will not affect the performance of the device.

  8. Electrochemical polymer electrolyte membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Jianhua; Wilkinson, David P

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Polymer Electrolyte Membranes covers PEMs from fundamentals to applications, describing their structure, properties, characterization, synthesis, and use in electrochemical energy storage and solar energy conversion technologies. Featuring chapters authored by leading experts from academia and industry, this authoritative text: Discusses cutting-edge methodologies in PEM material selection and fabricationPoints out important challenges in developing PEMs and recommends mitigation strategies to improve PEM performanceAnalyzes the cur

  9. Electrolyte Concentrates Treat Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Wellness Brands Inc. of Boulder, Colorado, exclusively licensed a unique electrolyte concentrate formula developed by Ames Research Center to treat and prevent dehydration in astronauts returning to Earth. Marketed as The Right Stuff, the company's NASA-derived formula is an ideal measure for athletes looking to combat dehydration and boost performance. Wellness Brands also plans to expand with products that make use of the formula's effective hydration properties to help treat conditions including heat stroke, altitude sickness, jet lag, and disease.

  10. Acid-base balance, serum electrolytes and need for non-invasive ventilation in patients with hypercapnic acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admitted to an internal medicine ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavo, Alfonso; Renis, Maurizio; Polverino, Mario; Iannuzzi, Arcangelo; Polverino, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Hypoventilation produces or worsens respiratory acidosis in patients with hypercapnia due to acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). In these patients acid-base and hydroelectrolite balance are closely related. Aim of the present study was to evaluate acid-base and hydroelectrolite alterations in these subjects and the effect of non-invasive ventilation and pharmacological treatment. We retrospectively analysed 110 patients consecutively admitted to the Internal Medicine ward of Cava de' Tirreni Hospital for acute exacerbation of hypercapnic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. On admission all patients received oxygen with a Venturi mask to maintain arterial oxygen saturation at least >90 %, and received appropriate pharmacological treatment. Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) was started when, despite optimal therapy, patients had severe dyspnea, increased work of breathing and respiratory acidosis. Based on Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) data, we divided the 110 patients in 3 groups: A = 51 patients with compensated respiratory acidosis; B = 36 patients with respiratory acidosis + metabolic alkalosis; and C = 23 patients with respiratory acidosis + metabolic acidosis. 55 patients received only conventional therapy and 55 had conventional therapy plus NIV. The use of NIV support was lower in the patients belonging to group B than in those belonging to group A and C (25 %, vs 47 % and 96 % respectively; p < 0.01). A statistically significant association was found between pCO2 values and serum chloride concentrations both in the entire cohort and in the three separate groups. Our study shows that in hypercapnic respiratory acidosis due to AECOPD, differently from previous studies, the metabolic alkalosis is not a negative prognostic factor neither determines greater NIV support need, whereas the metabolic acidosis in addition to respiratory acidosis is an unfavourable element, since it determines an increased need

  11. Heat balance of a molten carbonate fuel cell production hydrogen for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell-CoCell; Waermehaushalt einer Karbonat-Brennstoffzelle zur Wasserstoffherstellung fuer eine Polymerelektrolyt-Brennstoffzelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamek, L.

    2006-10-17

    Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are being used in decentralised power plants, as they can reform hydrocarbon bound fuels internally, e.g. natural gas with a energy density of 10 kWh/m{sup 3} at standard conditions, and the efficiency of this mode of operation is around 50 %. However in comparison to other fuel cell systems the power density is only 5 kW/m{sup 3}. The power density of a polymerelectrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is much higher (50 kW/m{sup 3}). These systems can be run with an efficiency of 50 %, too. Therefore they need hydrogen as a fuel, with an energy density of 2,9 kWh/m{sup 3} at standard conditions. Efficiency decreases to 35 to 40% using Methane as fuel, because of the reforming losses. The power density than is 6 kW/m3 and therefore as high as for a MCFC-system. Acombination of MCFC and PEFC, the so called CoCell, offers the following advantages: - A highly energetic, hydrocarbon based fuel can be used, e.g. Methane. - A high electrical efficiency is achieved. - The power density of this system is higher than for a fuel cell with reformer. In the CoCell the MCFC is working as electricity producing reformer for the PEFC. The off heat of the MCFC is used for reforming, whereby hydrogen is available, being utilised further in the power dense PEFC. The reforming capacity of the MCFC is limited by the internal heat balance. If the endothermic reforming consumes more heat than supplied by the material streams and the fuel cell waste heat, the stack cools down. The performance of such a combined fuel cell system has been evaluated in this thesis using the thermodynamic simulation software Aspen. Calculations reducing the utilisation in the MCFC by various heating techniques showed, that additional heat is supplied most efficiently by increasing the current density of the MCFC. Thereby the stack is heated electrically and the power density of the system is increased by the improved power density of the MCFC. The reduction of the utilisation is achieved

  12. Tarbijakaitse ei sekku esialgu ID-pileti projekti / Urmas Seaver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seaver, Urmas, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna ID-pileti müügil teenustasu võtmist arvustanud riigi tarbijakaitse amet ei sekku esialgu käivituvasse projekti, sest linnavalitsus võimaldab osta kahest teeninduspunktist ID-piletit ka teenustasuta

  13. Group-ID based RFID Mutual Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEE, Y.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For passive type RFID tags, EPCglobal Class 1 Generation-2 Revision is used widely as a de facto standard. As it was designed for low cost, it is quite vulnerable to security issues, such as privacy concerns. This paper presents a new RFID mutual authentication protocol, which is designed to be configured on EPC Gen2 platform and to meet various security requirements while providing efficiency using PRNG (Pseudo Random Number Generator. Group-ID is used to minimize the authentication time. Security analysis of the proposed protocol is discussed.

  14. Solid state electrolyte systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-01

    Lanthanum gallates are a new family of solid electrolytes that exhibit high ionic conductivity and are stable to high temperatures. Compositions have been developed that are as much as a factor of two more conductive than yttria-stabilized zirconia at a given temperature, through partial replacement of lanthanum by calcium, strontium, and/or barium and through partial replacement of gallium by magnesium. Oxide powders were prepared using combustion synthesis techniques developed in this laboratory; these were sintered to >95% of theoretical density and consisted of a single crystalline phase. Electrical conductivities, electron and ion transference numbers, thermal expansion, and phase behavior were evaluated as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. A key advantage of the use of lanthanum gallate electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells is that the temperature of operation may be lowered to perhaps 800 C, yet provide approximately the same power density as zirconia-based cells operating at 1000 C. Ceramic electrolytes that conduct both oxygen ions and electrons are potentially useful to passively separate pure oxygen from an air source at low cost. In such materials, an oxygen ion flux in one direction is charge-compensated by an opposing electron flux. The authors have examined a wide range of mixed ion and electron conducting perovskite ceramics in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, where M = Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N = Pr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, as well as mixed conducting brownmillerite ceramics, and have characterized oxygen permeation behavior, defect chemistry, structural and phase stability, and performance as cathodes.

  15. ID-pileti kasutus laieneb transpordilt linnateenustele / Piret Peensoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peensoo, Piret

    2007-01-01

    Tallinn tahab laiendada ID-kaardi kasutamise võimalusi, näiteks võtta ID-kaart kasutusele loomaaia, botaanikaaia jm. piletite puhul, ning valmistab selleks ette riigihanget. Allan Alaküla selgitusi. Lisa: ID-pilet jõudis messistendile

  16. To ID or Not to ID? Changes in Classification Rates of Intellectual Disability Using "DSM-5"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazoglou, Aimilia; Jacobson, Lisa A.; McCabe, Marie; Kaufmann, Walter; Zabel, T. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition" ("DSM-5") diagnostic criteria for intellectual disability (ID) include a change to the definition of adaptive impairment. New criteria require impairment in one adaptive domain rather than two or more skill areas. The authors examined the diagnostic…

  17. Low physical fitness levels in older adults with ID : Results of the HA-ID study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is as important to aging adults with ID as in the general population, but to date, the physical fitness levels of this group are unknown. Comfortable walking speed, muscle strength (grip strength), muscle endurance (30s Chair stand) and cardiorespiratory endurance (10 m incremental

  18. ID genes mediate tumor reinitiation during breast cancer lung metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gaorav P.; Perk, Jonathan; Acharyya, Swarnali; de Candia, Paola; Mittal, Vivek; Todorova-Manova, Katia; Gerald, William L.; Brogi, Edi; Benezra, Robert; Massagué, Joan

    2007-01-01

    The establishment of distant metastases depends on the capacity of small numbers of cancer cells to regenerate a tumor after entering a target tissue. The mechanisms that confer this capacity remain to be defined. Here we identify a role for the transcriptional inhibitors of differentiation Id1 and Id3 as selective mediators of lung metastatic colonization in the triple negative [TN, i.e., lacking expression of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, and lacking Her2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) amplification] subgroup of human breast cancer. Although broad expression of Id1 has recently been documented in tumors of the rare metaplastic subtype, here we report that rare Id1-expressing cells are also present in the more common TN subset of human breast tumors but not in other subtypes. We also provide evidence that Id1 expression is enriched in clinically obtained hormone receptor negative lung metastases. Functional studies demonstrate that Id1 and its closely related family member Id3 are required for tumor initiating functions, both in the context of primary tumor formation and during metastatic colonization of the lung microenvironment. In vivo characterization of lung metastatic progression reveals that Id1 and Id3 facilitate sustained proliferation during the early stages of metastatic colonization, subsequent to extravasation into the lung parenchyma. These results shed light on the proliferative mechanisms that initiate metastatic colonization, and they implicate Id1 and Id3 as mediators of this malignant function in the TN subgroup of breast cancers. PMID:18048329

  19. High Energy Density Electrolytic Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David A.

    1996-01-01

    A new type of electrolytic capacitor which combines an electrolytic capacitor anode with an electrochemical capacitor cathode was developed. The resulting capacitor has a four time higher energy density than standard electrolytic capacitors, with comparable electric performance. The prototype, a 480 microFarad, 200 V device, has an energy density exceeding 4 J/cc. Now a 680 microFarad 50 V, MIL-style all tantalum device has been constructed and is undergoing qualification testing. Pending a favorable outcome, work will begin on other ratings. The potential for commercially significant development exists in applying this technology to aluminum-based electrolytic capacitors. It is possible to at least double the energy density of aluminum electrolytics, while using existing manufacturing methods, and without adding material expense. Data presented include electrical characteristics and performance measurements of the 200 V and 50 V hybrid capacitors and results from ongoing qualification testing of the MIL-style tantalum capacitors.

  20. DriveID: safety innovation through individuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Ben; Teo, Grace; Mouloua, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    The driving task is highly complex and places considerable perceptual, physical and cognitive demands on the driver. As driving is fundamentally an information processing activity, distracted or impaired drivers have diminished safety margins compared with non- distracted drivers (Hancock and Parasuraman, 1992; TRB 1998 a & b). This competition for sensory and decision making capacities can lead to failures that cost lives. Some groups, teens and elderly drivers for example, have patterns of systematically poor perceptual, physical and cognitive performance while driving. Although there are technologies developed to aid these different drivers, these systems are often misused and underutilized. The DriveID project aims to design and develop a passive, automated face identification system capable of robustly identifying the driver of the vehicle, retrieve a stored profile, and intelligently prescribing specific accident prevention systems and driving environment customizations.

  1. Id2 deletion attenuates Apc-deficient ileal tumor formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Biyajima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The expression level of inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2 is increased in colorectal carcinomas and is positively correlated with poor prognosis. However, the functional significance of Id2 in intestinal tumorigenesis has not been fully defined using genetic approaches. Here, we show that Id2 promotes ileal tumor initiation in Apc-deficient mice. Expression of Id2 was stimulated by Wnt signaling through the enhancer region of the Id2 promoter at the early stage of tumorigenesis in Apc+/Δ716 (ApcΔ716 mice. Genetic depletion of Id2 in ApcΔ716 mice caused ∼80% reduction in the number of ileal polyps, but had little effect on tumor size. Notably, the lack of Id2 increased the number of apoptotic cells in the normal crypt epithelium of the mice. Furthermore, DNA microarray analysis revealed that the expression level of Max dimerization protein 1 (Mxd1, known as a c-Myc antagonist, was specifically increased by Id2 deletion in the ileal intestinal epithelium of ApcΔ716 mice. In contrast, the protein level of c-Myc, but not the mRNA level, was decreased by loss of Id2 in these mice. These results indicate that loss of Id2 inhibits tumor initiation by up-regulation of Mxd1 and down-regulation of c-Myc in ApcΔ716 mice.

  2. Chloronquine upsets electrolyte balance in the rabbit | Akpantah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chloroquine is still being used by some people for acute attack of malaria. The effect of long term chloroquine administration was studied on some blood parameters in the rabbits. This was undertaken to assess the study. After the acclimatization period, they were divided into a control group 'A' and six experimental groups, ...

  3. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  4. Balancing Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of being an Active, More Powerful You means finding balance in your daily life: taking on the Must-dos and finding time for some Should Dos and Want-to-Dos. Sometimes, emotions and commitments can come into play and upset the balance.

  5. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, C. Austen; Xu, Kang; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  6. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  7. Water, electrolytes, vitamins and trace elements – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesalski, H. K.; Bischoff, S. C.; Boehles, H. J.; Muehlhoefer, A.

    2009-01-01

    A close cooperation between medical teams is necessary when calculating the fluid intake of parenterally fed patients. Fluids supplied parenterally, orally and enterally, other infusions, and additional fluid losses (e.g. diarrhea) must be considered. Targeted diagnostic monitoring (volume status) is required in patients with disturbed water or electrolyte balance. Fluid requirements of adults with normal hydration status is approximately 30–40 ml/kg body weight/d, but fluid needs usually increase during fever. Serum electrolyte concentrations should be determined prior to PN, and patients with normal fluid and electrolyte balance should receive intakes follwing standard recommendations with PN. Additional requirements should usually be administered via separate infusion pumps. Concentrated potassium (1 mval/ml) or 20% NaCl solutions should be infused via a central venous catheter. Electrolyte intake should be adjusted according to the results of regular laboratory analyses. Individual determination of electrolyte intake is required when electrolyte balance is initially altered (e.g. due to chronic diarrhea, recurring vomiting, renal insufficiency etc.). Vitamins and trace elements should be generally substituted in PN, unless there are contraindications. The supplementation of vitamins and trace elements is obligatory after a PN of >1 week. A standard dosage of vitamins and trace elements based on current dietary reference intakes for oral feeding is generally recommended unless certain clinical situations require other intakes. PMID:20049067

  8. Water, electrolytes, vitamins and trace elements – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Working group for developing the guidelines for parenteral nutrition of The German Association for Nutritional Medicine

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A close cooperation between medical teams is necessary when calculating the fluid intake of parenterally fed patients. Fluids supplied parenterally, orally and enterally, other infusions, and additional fluid losses (e.g. diarrhea must be considered. Targeted diagnostic monitoring (volume status is required in patients with disturbed water or electrolyte balance. Fluid requirements of adults with normal hydration status is approximately 30–40 ml/kg body weight/d, but fluid needs usually increase during fever. Serum electrolyte concentrations should be determined prior to PN, and patients with normal fluid and electrolyte balance should receive intakes follwing standard recommendations with PN. Additional requirements should usually be administered via separate infusion pumps. Concentrated potassium (1 mval/ml or 20% NaCl solutions should be infused via a central venous catheter. Electrolyte intake should be adjusted according to the results of regular laboratory analyses. Individual determination of electrolyte intake is required when electrolyte balance is initially altered (e.g. due to chronic diarrhea, recurring vomiting, renal insufficiency etc.. Vitamins and trace elements should be generally substituted in PN, unless there are contraindications. The supplementation of vitamins and trace elements is obligatory after a PN of >1 week. A standard dosage of vitamins and trace elements based on current dietary reference intakes for oral feeding is generally recommended unless certain clinical situations require other intakes.

  9. Commissioning of the IDS Neutron Detector and $\\beta$-decay fast-timing studies at IDS

    CERN Document Server

    Piersa, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The following report describes my scientific activities performed during the Summer Student Programme at ISOLDE. The main part of my project was focused on commissioning the neutron detector dedicated to nuclear decay studies at ISOLDE Decay Station (IDS). I have participated in all the steps needed to make it operational for the IS609 experiment. In the testing phase, we obtained expected detector response and calibrations confirmed its successful commissioning. The detector was mounted in the desired geometry at IDS and used in measurements of the beta-delayed neutron emission of $^8$He. After completing aforementioned part of my project, I became familiar with the fast-timing method. This technique was applied at IDS in the IS610 experiment performed in June 2016 to explore the structure of neutron-rich $^{130-134}$Sn nuclei. Since the main part of my PhD studies will be the analysis of data collected in this experiment, the second part of my project was dedicated to acquiring knowledge about technical de...

  10. Non-aqueous electrolytes for electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Dong, Jian; Amine, Khalil

    2016-06-14

    An electrolyte electrochemical device includes an anodic material and an electrolyte, the electrolyte including an organosilicon solvent, a salt, and a hybrid additiving having a first and a second compound, the hybrid additive configured to form a solid electrolyte interphase film on the anodic material upon application of a potential to the electrochemical device.

  11. Antireduction Insulator For Solid-Electrolyte Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlichta, Paul J.

    1990-01-01

    Depletion of oxygen from electrolyte prevented. Proposed to add layer of electrical insulation between solid electrolyte and portion of porous negative electrode under negative metal contact in solid-electrolyte cell. Helps maintain efficiency of cell by preventing "shadow" effect degrading portion of electrolyte under negative contact and sometimes near seals.

  12. [Electrolyte metabolism and emergency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, I; Ito, T; Kasai, N

    1983-02-01

    In outlining the pathology of various electrolyte metabolism abnormalities in cancer patients we considered the main clinical points between pathologies and emergency treatment. In regard to sodium (Na+) metabolism, one pathologic state that requires our attention is hypernatremia. Hypernatremia is accompanied with dehydration and is due to water loss, vomiting, diarrhea and renal insufficiency. One of the major causes of this condition is lack of the antidiuretic hormone due to intracranial metastasis of the tumor. When hypernatremia becomes severe, it is accompanied with circulatory failure, muscular asthenia, disorientation, convulsions, coma and other cerebral symptoms. Treatment consists of replenishing the water content by infusion of electrolyte solutions which should be carefully conducted after complete diagnose of the severity of the patient's pathological condition. Hyponatremia, like sick cell syndrome, is observed relatively frequently in cancer patients. When the serum Na level falls markedly, it induces cerebral edema and causes disorders of consciousness. The major treatment consists of providing both water and sodium supplements. Hyperkalemia is observed at the time of renal insufficiency, tissue lesions, vomiting, and diarrhea. When serum potassium level rises, it causes bradycardia, ventricular fibrillation, or cardiac arrest. It is important to diagnostically apprehend the severity of this condition using EKG and determining the serum K1+ level. For emergency treatment injection of calcium gluconate is very effective. Hypokalemia is often manifested by the loss of intestinal fluids due to diarrhea or during administration of diuretic agents. Clinical symptoms include neural paralysis but emergencies occur relatively infrequently. K C1 injections are used in treating this condition. Hypercalcemia is manifested in cancer patients during hyperparathyroidism. Its clinical symptoms include lassitude, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, and renal dys

  13. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formato, Richard M.; Kovar, Robert F.; Osenar, Paul; Landrau, Nelson; Rubin, Leslie S.

    2006-05-30

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  14. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formato, Richard M.; Kovar, Robert F.; Osenar, Paul; Landrau, Nelson; Rubin, Leslie S.

    2001-06-19

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  15. Disorders of Acid-Base Balance: New Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifter, Julian L; Chang, Hsin-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Disorders of acid-base involve the complex interplay of many organ systems including brain, lungs, kidney, and liver. Compensations for acid-base disturbances within the brain are more complete, while limitations of compensations are more apparent for most systemic disorders. However, some of the limitations on compensations are necessary to survival, in that preservation of oxygenation, energy balance, cognition, electrolyte, and fluid balance are connected mechanistically. This review aims to give new and comprehensive perspective on understanding acid-base balance and identifying associated disorders. All metabolic acid-base disorders can be approached in the context of the relative losses or gains of electrolytes or a change in the anion gap in body fluids. Acid-base and electrolyte balance are connected not only at the cellular level but also in daily clinical practice. Urine chemistry is essential to understanding electrolyte excretion and renal compensations. Many constructs are helpful to understand acid-base, but these models are not mutually exclusive. Electroneutrality and the close interconnection between electrolyte and acid-base balance are important concepts to apply in acid-base diagnoses. All models have complexity and shortcuts that can help in practice. There is no reason to dismiss any of the present constructs, and there is benefit in a combined approach.

  16. Electrolytic formation of carbon nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, W. K.; Terrones, M.; Hare, J. P.; Terrones, H.; Kroto, H. W.; Walton, D. R. M.

    1996-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes (with and without encapsulated material) as well as nanoparticles and onion-like structures have been generated by electrolysis in molten alkali halide salts using carbon electrodes under an argon atmosphere. The nature of the products depends upon several factors including the electrolysis voltage and current, depth of electrode immersion in the electrolyte, the length of time the current is maintained and the electrolyte.

  17. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  18. Cosolvent electrolytes for electrochemical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessells, Colin Deane; Firouzi, Ali; Motallebi, Shahrokh; Strohband, Sven

    2018-02-13

    A system and method for stabilizing electrodes against dissolution and/or hydrolysis including use of cosolvents in liquid electrolyte batteries for three purposes: the extension of the calendar and cycle life time of electrodes that are partially soluble in liquid electrolytes, the purpose of limiting the rate of electrolysis of water into hydrogen and oxygen as a side reaction during battery operation, and for the purpose of cost reduction.

  19. Cosolvent electrolytes for electrochemical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessells, Colin Deane; Firouzi, Ali; Motallebi, Shahrokh; Strohband, Sven

    2018-01-23

    A method for stabilizing electrodes against dissolution and/or hydrolysis including use of cosolvents in liquid electrolyte batteries for three purposes: the extension of the calendar and cycle life time of electrodes that are partially soluble in liquid electrolytes, the purpose of limiting the rate of electrolysis of water into hydrogen and oxygen as a side reaction during battery operation, and for the purpose of cost reduction.

  20. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  1. [Cancer and electrolytes imbalance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Hiroyuki

    2010-06-01

    The electrolyte imbalance in advanced cancer patients, including hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia and hyponatremia, can be induced by various factors. Hyperkalemia is occasionally induced by chemotherapy for very large malignant tumors, due to tumor lysis syndrome. Hypercalcemia and hyponatremia are often observed in patients with breast cancer, renal cancer, prostate cancer, and the like, as a paraneoplastic syndrome. Some part of hypercalcemia results from osteolysis, but the majority is induced by hormonal factors, such as parathyroid hormone-related protein. One of the paraneoplastic causes of hyponatremia is antidiuretic hormone-producing tumor. These disorders could be morbid or even motile, resulting from encephalopathy or arrhythmia in some cases. However, it should be kept in mind that they could be improved or cured by prompt treatment. Recently, after approval of the molecular targeted drugs for epidermal growth factor receptors, such as cetuximab and panitumumab, the incidence of hypomagnesia with use of these monoclonal antibodies, is relatively frequent. In addition, small molecular targeted drugs, such as m-TORinhibitors and ABL kinase inhibitors, also exert adverse reactions including hypomagnesia and hypophosphatemia. Careful monitoring of the serum concentration of magnesium and phosphate ions, to which little attention was paid previously, is a key issue in these cases.

  2. Electrolytes: Sodium Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Michael M; Mahowald, Megan

    2017-08-01

    Sodium disorders (ie, hyponatremia, hypernatremia) are common electrolyte disturbances in clinical medicine and are associated with increased rates of morbidity and mortality. Etiologies of hyponatremia are classified into four categories. The first is pseudohyponatremia, in which the sodium level is low due to hyperproteinemia, hyperlipidemia, or hyperglycemia. The other three categories are based on overall patient fluid status and include hypovolemic (commonly due to fluid loss), hypervolemic (commonly due to fluid retention from heart failure, cirrhosis, or renal failure), and euvolemic (most often because of syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone). Hypovolemic hyponatremia is managed by rehydration with isotonic saline. Hypervolemic hyponatremia is managed by addressing the underlying cause. Euvolemic hyponatremia is managed by restricting free water intake, addressing the underlying cause, and occasionally with drugs (eg, vasopressin receptor antagonists). Patients with severe or acutely symptomatic hyponatremia (eg, altered mental status, seizures), including those with acute symptomatic exercise-induced hyponatremia, require urgent treatment. This should consist of hypertonic saline administration along with monitoring of sodium levels to avoid overly rapid correction. Hypernatremia most often occurs because of water loss or inadequate water intake. Depending on severity, management involves oral or intravenous hypotonic fluids and addressing the underlying cause. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  3. MicroRNAs and intellectual disability (ID) in Down syndrome, X-linked ID, and Fragile X syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Siew, Wei-Hong; Tan, Kai-Leng; Babaei, Maryam Abbaspour; Cheah, Pike-See; Ling, King-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is one of the many features manifested in various genetic syndromes leading to deficits in cognitive function among affected individuals. ID is a feature affected by polygenes and multiple environmental factors. It leads to a broad spectrum of affected clinical and behavioral characteristics among patients. Until now, the causative mechanism of ID is unknown and the progression of the condition is poorly understood. Advancement in technology and research had ident...

  4. Balancing Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Balancing Acts Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of ... It was like watching a movie, but every couple of frames were skipping. It was disorienting," the ...

  5. Extending and implementing the Persistent ID pillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Car, Nicholas; Golodoniuc, Pavel; Klump, Jens

    2017-04-01

    The recent double decade anniversary of scholarly persistent identifier use has triggered journal special editions such as "20 Years of Persistent Identifiers". For such a publication, it is apt to consider the longevity of some persistent identifier (PID) mechanisms (Digital Object Identifiers) and the partial disappearance of others (Life Sciences IDs). We have previously postulated a set of "PID Pillars" [1] which are design principles aimed at ensuring PIDs can survive technology and social change and thus persist for the long term that we have drawn from our observations of PIDs at work over many years. The principles: describe how to ensure identifiers' system and organisation independence; codify the delivery of essential PID system functions; mandate a separation of PID functions from data delivery mechanisms; and require generation of policies detailing how change is handled. In this presentation, first we extend on our previous work of introducing the pillars by refining their descriptions, giving specific suggestions for each and presenting some work that addresses them. Second, we propose a baseline data model for persistent identifiers that, if used, would assist the separation of PID metadata and PID system functioning. This would allow PID system function specifics to change over time (e.g. resolver services or even resolution protocols) and yet preserve the PIDs themselves. Third, we detail our existing PID system — the PID Service [2] — that partially implements the pillars and describe both its successes and shortcomings. Finally, we describe our planned next-generation system that will aim to use the baseline data model and fully implement the pillars.

  6. Best practices for the implementation of the REAL ID Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The REAL ID Act specifies the minimum standards that must be used to produce and issue drivers license and : identification cards that are REAL ID compliant. Beginning in 2020, if a person does not possess a form of : identification that meets REA...

  7. A Contextual Model for Identity Management (IdM) Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Nathaniel J.

    2014-01-01

    The usability of Identity Management (IdM) systems is highly dependent upon design that simplifies the processes of identification, authentication, and authorization. Recent findings reveal two critical problems that degrade IdM usability: (1) unfeasible techniques for managing various digital identifiers, and (2) ambiguous security interfaces.…

  8. On the problem of the id in psychoanalytic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, M E

    1987-01-01

    The id per se has ceased being a topic for explicit speculation for some time in psychoanalysis. This paper first examines certain problems posed by the concept "id' via a close reading of a passage from Freud in which the complex and paradoxical interrelationship of ego and id is reviewed. Several aspects of the concept "id' are differentiated from each other. The implications of a dialectical relationship of ego and id are explored, as are the consequences for the understanding of the id of the anxieties imposed on the infant by its life situation and its "sensing' impulses and fleeing them before it can know them. The relationship of id impulse and infantile need to the concepts of intention and avowal is considered, and fundamental differences between the infant and adult human subject via-à-vis knowing and intending are clarified. These examinations pave the way for a critique of the recent work of Gill, Eagle, and especially, of Schafer, concerning metapsychology and the nature of psychoanalysis as a science. It is shown that some concept of id as a pre-intentional force operating in human lives and linking these lives to a nature beyond individual intending is necessarily implied in any adequate psychoanalytic science.

  9. ID-kaartide kasutajate arv on kahekordistunud / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 30. dets., lk. 5 (lühendatud). 2005. aasta lõpu seisuga on ID-kaart 812 000 eestimaalasel, kellest 20 000 on oma kaarti kasutanud ka e-teenuste jaoks. Lisa: ID-kaartide neli aastat

  10. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of Polyvinylalcohol Based Gel Electrolyte

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nirwan Syarif; Nurlisa Hidayanti; Edy Herianto Majlan; Monica Sari Jayanti

    2017-01-01

    Research on the effect of electrolyte ammonium salt, concentration electrolyte with plasticizer to ionic and electronic conductivity of polymer gel electrolyte has been conducted with the variations...

  11. A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Reis, Martina; Wang, Yongqi; Bono Maurizio Sacchi Bassi, Adalberto

    2013-11-01

    A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures is formulated. The intermolecular interactions among the constituents of the mixture are accounted for through additional freedom degrees to each constituent of the mixture. Balance equations for polar reacting continuum mixtures are accordingly formulated and a proper set of constitutive equations is derived with basis in the Müller-Liu formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, the non-equilibrium and equilibrium responses of the reacting mixture are investigated in detail by emphasizing the inner and reactive structures of the medium. From the balance laws and constitutive relations, the effects of molecular structure of constituents upon the fluid flow are studied. It is also demonstrated that the local thermodynamic equilibrium state can be reached without imposing that the set of independent constitutive variables is time independent, neither spatially homogeneous nor null. The resulting constitutive relations presented throughout this work are of relevance to many practical applications, such as swelling of clays, developing of bio and polymeric membranes, and use of electrorheological fluids in industrial processes. The first author acknowledges financial support from National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) and German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).

  12. Multivalent weak electrolytes - risky background electrolytes for capillary zone electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beckers, J. L.; Boček, Petr

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 12 (2002), s. 1942-1946 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/0044; GA ČR GA203/02/0023; GA ČR GA203/01/0401; GA AV ČR IAA4031703; GA AV ČR IAA4031103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : background electrolytes * capillary zone electrophoresis * multivalent electrolytes Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.325, year: 2002

  13. Hermetically Sealed Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwitt, Robert S.; Liu, Yanming; Elias, William

    1996-01-01

    Aluminum electrolytic capacitors are presently not allowed on NASA missions because they outgas water and organic vapors, as well as H2. As a consequence, for some applications, much larger and heavier packages of tantalum capacitors must be used. A hermetically sealed aluminum capacitor has been developed. This contains a nongassing electrolyte that was developed for this application so internal pressure would remain low. Capacitors rated from 250 V to 540 V have been operated under full load for thousands of hours at 85 and 105 C with good electrical performance and absence of gas generation. Electrolyte chemistry and seal engineering will be discussed, as well as the extension of this design concept to lower voltage ratings.

  14. High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gomez, Enrique Daniel

    2013-10-22

    A polymer that combines high ionic conductivity with the structural properties required for Li electrode stability is useful as a solid phase electrolyte for high energy density, high cycle life batteries that do not suffer from failures due to side reactions and dendrite growth on the Li electrodes, and other potential applications. The polymer electrolyte includes a linear block copolymer having a conductive linear polymer block with a molecular weight of at least 5000 Daltons, a structural linear polymer block with an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.7 Pa and an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm.sup.-1. The electrolyte is made under dry conditions to achieve the noted characteristics.

  15. Semiconductor electrolyte photovoltaic energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. W.; Anderson, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    Feasibility and practicality of a solar cell consisting of a semiconductor surface in contact with an electrolyte are evaluated. Basic components and processes are detailed for photovoltaic energy conversion at the surface of an n-type semiconductor in contact with an electrolyte which is oxidizing to conduction band electrons. Characteristics of single crystal CdS, GaAs, CdSe, CdTe and thin film CdS in contact with aqueous and methanol based electrolytes are studied and open circuit voltages are measured from Mott-Schottky plots and open circuit photo voltages. Quantum efficiencies for short circuit photo currents of a CdS crystal and a 20 micrometer film are shown together with electrical and photovoltaic properties. Highest photon irradiances are observed with the GaAs cell.

  16. Id1 induces apoptosis through inhibition of RORgammat expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiao-Hong

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Basic helix-loop-helix E proteins are transcription factors that play crucial roles in T cell development by controlling thymocyte proliferation, differentiation and survival. E protein functions can be repressed by their naturally occurring inhibitors, Id proteins (Id1-4. Transgenic expression of Id1 blocks T cell development and causes massive apoptosis of developing thymocytes. However, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely understood due to relatively little knowledge of the target genes regulated by E proteins. Results We designed a unique strategy to search for genes directly controlled by E proteins and found RORγt to be a top candidate. Using microarray analyses and reverse-transcriptase PCR assays, we showed that Id1 expression diminished RORγt mRNA levels in T cell lines and primary thymocytes while induction of E protein activity restored RORγt expression. E proteins were found to specifically bind to the promoter region of RORγt, suggesting their role in activating transcription of the gene. Functional significance of E protein-controlled RORγt expression was established based on the finding that RORγt rescued apoptosis caused by Id1 overexpression. Furthermore, expression of RORγt prevented Id1-induced p38 MAP kinase hyper-activation. Conclusion These results suggest that E protein-dependent RORγt gene expression aids the survival of developing thymocytes, which provides a possible explanation for the massive apoptosis found in Id1 transgenic mice.

  17. Biometric authentication for ID cards with hologram watermarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce Ferri, Lucilla; Mayerhoefer, Astrid; Frank, Marcus; Vielhauer, Claus; Steinmetz, Ralf

    2002-04-01

    We present an analysis of a new technique for the authentication of ID cardholders, based on the integration of a biometrics-based authentication system with digital watermarks. The chosen biometric authentication method is the dynamic signature verification of the ID cardholder, while we use a specific integrity watermark technique we developed, called Hologram Watermark, to embed and retrieve the off-line data onto an ID card. We take advantage of the fact, that two static biometric features (images of the user's face and signature) are already integral part of ID cards for manual verification and extent the stored biometric information by embedding on-line handwriting features of the signature as holographic watermarks in the overall image information of an ID card. Manipulation of any of the image information can be detected and will further disallow biometric verification of the forger. The Hologram Watermark technique produces content-related data using computer-generated hologram coding techniques. These data are embedded with watermarking techniques into the personal data printed on an ID card. The content-related data in this specific application are the dynamic features of the cardholder's signature. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the suitability of dynamic signature verification in combination with the Hologram Watermark technique, to facilitate automated user authentication based on information transparently embedded in ID cards.

  18. Effect of a Hippotherapy Intervention Program on Static Balance and Strength in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Arabatzi, Fotini; Dipla, Konstantina; Liga, Maria; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a hippotherapy program on static balance and strength in adolescents with intellectual disability (ID). Nineteen adolescents with moderate ID were assigned either an experimental group (n = 10) or a control group (n = 9). The experimental group attended a 10-week hippotherapy program. To assess…

  19. Water-balance response of Rhinella arenarum (Hensel, 1867) tadpoles to graduated increase in environmental osmolarity

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari,L.; de la Torre,FR.; Salibián,A.

    2010-01-01

    The water balance and the upper limit of osmotic tolerance of premetamorphic Rhinella arenarum larvae (Gosner's stage 26) was evaluated after semistatic incubation in electrolyte (NaCl) and non-electrolyte (mannitol) media following a protocol of progressively increased osmotic pressure. Wet and dry weights were measured to calculate the water content as a derived variable indicative of the hydric balance. Statistical analysis was performed using univariate and integrated multivariate analysi...

  20. Balancing Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Lene; Rossen, Camilla Blach; Buus, Niels

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how eight pregnant women diagnosed with depression managed the decision whether or not to take antidepressants during pregnancy. In total, 11 interviews were conducted and analysed by means of constructivist grounded theory. The major category constructed was Balancing risk...

  1. Balancing Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    is not thoroughly understood. In this paper I treat balance as a metaphor that we use to reason about several different actions in music production, such as adjusting levels, editing the frequency spectrum or the spatiality of the recording. This study is based on an exploration of a linguistic corpus of sound...

  2. Kallis ID-kaardi trükiliin / Kristina Traks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Traks, Kristina, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 7. juuli lk. 4. Väidetavalt maksis Eesti riik Trüb Baltic AS-ile ID-kaartide tootmisliini eest üle 100 miljoni krooni enam kui kaartide trükkimise seadmete väärtus. Diagramm: Käive kasvas poole võrra. Vt. samas Villy Paimetsa intervjuud Tarmo Loodusega; Trübil edukas aasta; ID-kaarti kasutab regulaarselt vaid paar protsenti selle omanikest; Villy Paimets. ID-kaarte trükitakse Hansapanga peamajas asuvas üliturvalises keldris

  3. Balanço eletrolítico e níveis de proteína bruta sobre parâmetros sangüíneos e ósseos de frangos de corte aos 21 dias de idade Electrolyte balance and crude protein levels on blood and bone parameters of 21 days broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Medeiros Vieites

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento com o objetivo de determinar os melhores valores de balanço eletrolítico (BE para frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias. Utilizaram-se 2.112 pintinhos da marca comercial Ross, machos, criados em boxes de galpão de alvenaria, cobertos com maravalha e alimentados com duas rações basais, uma com 20 e outra com 23% de proteína bruta (PB à base de milho e de farelo de soja, combinadas com níveis de BE de 00; 50; 100; 150; 200; 250; 300 e 350 mq/kg. Foi utilizado delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 8x2 (oito níveis de BE e dois níveis de PB, seis repetições e 22 aves por unidade experimental. Avaliaram-se os níveis sangüíneos de cálcio, fósforo e proteínas totais aos 21 dias de idade. As cinzas, o cálcio, o fósforo, o potássio, o sódio e o magnésio dos ossos também foram quantificados. Aos 21 dias de idade, os melhores valores estimados de BE foram 168 (20% PB e 245 (23% PB mEq/kg para o cálcio no sangue. O valor de BE obtido para o menor nível de proteínas totais foi de 189 (23% PB mEq/kg. Os melhores valores de BE no sangue foram os pontos de mínimo na curva de regressão. O melhor valor de BE para o cálcio no tibiotarso foi de 132 mEq/kg (23% PB. O BE da dieta deve situar-se entre 150 e 200 mEq/kg para frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade.An experiment was conducted to determine the best electrolyte balance (EB for broiler chicks from one to 21 days of age, based on blood and bone parameters. One day old chicks, male, Ross were reared on floor covered with shaving woods and fed with two corn-soybean meal based diet with 20 and 23% of crude protein (CP combined with 0; 50; 100; 150; 200; 250; 300 and 350 mEq/kg of EB. The experiment was analised as a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement of treatments (two CP levels and eight EB with six replicates of 22 chicks each. It were evaluated blood levels of calcium, phosphorus and total proteins

  4. Alfa-amilase em frangos de corte: efeitos do balanço eletrolítico e do nível protéico da dieta Alpha-amylase in broiler chickens: effects of electrolytic balance and dietary protein level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Piedade Monteiro

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido com pintos de corte macho para o estudo dos efeitos dos níveis de 20 e 23% de PB combinados com 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 mEq/kg de balanço dietético eletrolítico (BDE sobre a atividade da alfa-amilase pancreática de frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado. Dietas e água foram fornecidas ad libitum. Aos 1, 7, 14 e 21 dias, três aves de cada tratamento foram sacrificadas por deslocamento cervical para remoção do pâncreas, o qual foi removido, homogeneizado, congelado em nitrogênio líquido e liofilizado. Uma alíquota de cada amostra foi solubilizada em água deionizada e centrifugada a 7500 x g por 3 minutos a 4ºC, para determinação da atividade da alfa-amilase no sobrenadante. Aves alimentadas com 20% de PB apresentaram atividades específicas (U/mg de proteína superiores à daquelas que receberam 23%, exceto para os níveis de BDE de 100 a 200 mEq/kg, aos 14 dias. Observou-se tendência de aumento da atividade específica dos 7 aos 14 dias e redução dos 14 aos 21 dias. Para maior atividade específica de alfa-amilase, recomendam-se dietas com 20% de PB e 200 mEq/kg de BDE na fase pré-inicial e dietas com 20% de PB e 135 a 250 mEq/kg de BDE para frangos de corte dos 8 aos 21 dias de idade.An experiment was conducted with male broiler chicks to study the effects of 20 and 23% of crude protein (CP combined with 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 mEq/kg of dietary electrolytic balance (DEB on the pancreatic alpha-amylase activity from 1 to 21 days. A completely randomized factorial design was used. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. At days 1, 7, 14 and 21, three birds from each treatment were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, pancreas were removed, homogeneized and frozen in liquid nitrogen which were then freeze-dried. An aliquot of each sample was solubilized with deionized water and centrifuged at 7500 x g for three minutes at 4º

  5. MicroRNAs and intellectual disability (ID in Down syndrome, X-linked ID and Fragile X syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hong eSiew

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual disability (ID is one of the many features manifested in various genetic syndromes leading to deficits in cognitive function among affected individuals. ID is a feature affected by polygenes and multiple environmental factors. It leads to a broad spectrum of affected clinical and behavioural characteristics among patients. Until now, the causative mechanism of ID is unknown and the progression of the condition is poorly understood. Advancement in technology and research had identified various genetic abnormalities and defects as the potential cause of ID. However, the link between these abnormalities with ID is remained inconclusive and the roles of many newly discovered genetic components such as non-coding RNAs have not been thoroughly investigated. In this review, we aim to consolidate and assimilate the latest development and findings on a class of small non-coding RNAs known as microRNAs (miRNAs involvement in ID development and progression with special focus on Down syndrome and X-linked ID (including Fragile X syndrome.

  6. General characteristics of patients with electrolyte imbalance admitted to emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcı, Arif Kadri; Koksal, Ozlem; Kose, Ataman; Armagan, Erol; Ozdemir, Fatma; Inal, Taylan; Oner, Nuran

    2013-01-01

    Fluid and electrolyte balance is a key concept to understand for maintaining homeostasis, and for a successful treatment of many metabolic disorders. There are various regulating mechanisms for the equilibrium of electrolytes in organisms. Disorders of these mechanisms result in electrolyte imbalances that may be life-threatening clinical conditions. In this study we defined the electrolyte imbalance characteristics of patients admitted to our emergency department. This study was conducted in the Emergency Department (ED) of Uludag University Faculty of Medicine, and included 996 patients over 18 years of age. All patients had electrolyte imbalance, with various etiologies other than traumatic origin. Demographic and clinical parameters were collected after obtaining informed consent from the patients. The ethical committee of the university approved this study. The mean age of the patients was 59.28±16.79, and 55% of the patients were male. The common symptoms of the patients were dyspnea (14.7%), fever (13.7%), and systemic deterioration (11.9%); but the most and least frequent electrolyte imbalances were hyponatremia and hypermagnesemia, respectively. Most frequent findings in physical examination were confusion (14%), edema (10%) and rales (9%); and most frequent pathological findings in ECG were tachycardia in 24%, and atrial fibrillation in 7% of the patients. Most frequent comorbidity was malignancy (39%). Most frequent diagnoses in the patients were sepsis (11%), pneumonia (9%), and acute renal failure (7%). Electrolyte imbalances are of particular importance in the treatment of ED patients. Therefore, ED physicians must be acknowledged of their fluid-electrolyte balance dynamics and general characteristics.

  7. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan eAngulakshmi; Arul Manuel Stephan

    2015-01-01

    This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium–sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium–sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i) non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii) ionic liquids, (iii) solid polyme...

  8. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    The Nam Long Doan; Denise Gosselink; Yongguang Zhang; Mikhail Sadhu; Ho-Jae Cheang; Pu Chen; Yan Zhao

    2012-01-01

    This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S) batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  9. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Nam Long Doan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  10. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Yongguang; Gosselink, Denise; Doan, The Nam Long; Sadhu, Mikhail; Cheang, Ho-Jae; Chen, Pu

    2012-01-01

    This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S) batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes. PMID:24958296

  11. Numerical investigations on two-phase flow in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, C.Z.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical modeling plays an important role in understanding various transport processes in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). It can not only provide insights into the development of new PEFC architectures, but also optimize operating conditions for better cell performance. Water balance is

  12. On-line monitoring of electrolytes in hemodialysis: on the road towards individualizing treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, M.K.; Wieringa, F.P.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Kooman, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients depend on dialysis for removal of toxic waste products, fluid overload relief and maintenance of electrolyte balance. Dialysis prolongs millions of lives. To some extent, ESRD has become a manageable disease with a steadily growing dialysis

  13. Transcriptional Regulation of Metastatic [Id]entity by KLF17

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanicki, Marcin; Brugge, Joan S.

    2009-01-01

    A novel in vivo screening approach has identified KLF17 as a key metastasis suppressor gene that acts through regulation of Id1 transcription factor-dependent induction of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

  14. CRISP-ID: decoding CRISPR mediated indels by Sanger sequencing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dehairs, Jonas; Talebi, Ali; Cherifi, Yacine; Swinnen, Johannes V

    2016-01-01

    .... Here, we present CRISP-ID, a web application which uses a unique algorithm for genotyping up to three alleles from a single Sanger sequencing trace, providing a robust and readily accessible platform...

  15. 76 FR 22863 - Designation for the Lewiston, ID Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation for the Lewiston, ID Area AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: GIPSA is.... J. Dudley Butler, Administrator, Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration. BILLING...

  16. Identity Management ToolKit (IdM TK)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — With the IdM TK, authorized users can search and view identity and exception information from the Administrative Data Repository (ADR). Specifically, users can view...

  17. FDIC Institution Directory (ID) -- Insured Insitution Download File

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation — The FDIC's Institution Directory (ID) download file provides a list of all FDIC-insured institutions. The file includes demographic information related to the...

  18. Rechargeable solid polymer electrolyte battery cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotheim, Terji

    1985-01-01

    A rechargeable battery cell comprising first and second electrodes sandwiching a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a layer of a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said polymer blend and a layer of dry solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said layer of polymer blend and said second electrode.

  19. Electrolytes for magnesium electrochemical cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Sa, Niya; Proffit, Danielle Lee; Lipson, Albert; Liao, Chen; Vaughey, John T.; Ingram, Brian J.

    2017-07-04

    An electrochemical cell includes a high voltage cathode configured to operate at 1.5 volts or greater; an anode including Mg.sup.0; and an electrolyte including an ether solvent and a magnesium salt; wherein: a concentration of the magnesium salt in the ether is 1 M or greater.

  20. Id-1 and Id-2 genes and products as therapeutic targets for treatment of breast cancer and other types of carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith

    2014-09-30

    A method for treatment and amelioration of breast, cervical, ovarian, endometrial, squamous cells, prostate cancer and melanoma in a patient comprising targeting Id-1 or Id-2 gene expression with a delivery vehicle comprising a product which modulates Id-1 or Id-2 expression.

  1. PROSES DECISION TREE PADA DATAMINING DENGAN ALQORITMA ID3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LITA SARI MUCHLIS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article was study about decision process data meaning with algoritma ID3. Data meaning is an atomatic extraction process of large data. It was found with a contour data. Data meaning have a function to produce a different contour wich other. The function of classification of data meaning is helping write decision tree, the function with algoritma ID3. Key words: data meaning, classification, decision tree

  2. Biometrics and ID Cards — Enablers for Personal Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisen, Andreas

    The electronic ID card is a modernization and security project of the German Government. On the one hand, the multifunctional card is intended to boost security and the convenience of e-government and e-business applications. On the other hand, the new biometric ID card should allow citizens to use it as a travel document in the Schengen area and for specific destinations outside the European Union also in the future.

  3. Electrolyte addition to nonionic contrast media. Cardiac effects during experimental coronary arteriography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, H K

    1996-01-01

    Although the incidence of serious adverse effects is low during clinical coronary arteriography, life-threatening cardiovascular complications occasionally occur. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is most often seen during contrast media (CM) injection through a wedged catheter. A simulated wedged catheter model in dogs has therefore been developed. Further, patients with heart failure are at greater risk for CM-related side effects during coronary arteriography. Thus, an acute ischemic heart failure model has been used. The present thesis was designed to investigate the cardiac electrophysiologic and hemodynamic effects of CM during selective coronary arteriography in normal and failing hearts, and in particular the role of electrolyte addition to nonionic CM. The risk of spontaneously induced VF and the arrhythmogenic mechanisms were studied when using iso-osmolal and low-osmolal CM having different contents of electrolytes, and after pretreatment with antiarrhythmic drugs. Further, effects of adding electrolytes to nonionic CM during single and fast repeated injections in normal and failing hearts were studied. Also possible effects of oxygenating CM were studied. CM injection in a wedged catheter situation had a high risk for VF. Probably, VF was due to induced regional electrophysiologic changes in ventricular activation and repolarization. Pretreatment with antiarrhythmic drugs did not prevent VF. However, addition of low concentrations of electrolytes to nonionic CM reduced the risk for VF in a wedged catheter situation. The results indicate that side-effects of CM during coronary arteriography are related mainly to the passive washout of cardiac electrolytes. Electrolyte shifts during coronary arteriography may change the myocardial Na/Ca balance and cellular calcium control. The nonionic, iso-osmolal CM iodixanol, with a balanced content of sodium and calcium and the low-osmolal, nonionic CM iohexol, also with a balanced content of electrolytes, had about the

  4. BFR Electrolyte Additive Safety and Flammability Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-13

    Lithium-ion battery safety is a critical issue in the adoption of the chemistry to larger scale applications such as transportation and stationary storage. One of the critical components impacting the safety of lithium-ion batteries is their use of highly flammable organic electrolytes. In this work, brominated flame retardants (BFR’s) – an existing class of flame retardant materials – are incorporated as additives to lithium-ion battery electrolytes with the intention to reduce the electrolyte flammability and thereby improve safety. There are a few critical needs for a successful electrolyte additive: solubility in the electrolyte, electrochemical stability over the range of battery operation, and minimal detrimental effects on battery performance. Those detrimental effects can take the form of electrolyte specific impacts, such as a reduction in conductivity, or electrode impacts, such as SEI-layer modification or chemical instability to the active material. In addition to these needs, the electrolyte additive also needs to achieve its intended purpose, which in this case is to reduce the flammability of the electrolyte. For the work conducted as part of this SPP agreement three separate BFR materials were provided by Albemarle to be tested by Sandia as additives in a traditional lithium-ion battery electrolyte. The provided BFR materials were tribromo-neopentyl alcohol, tetrabromo bisphenol A, and tribromoethylene. These materials were incorporated as separate 4 wt.% additives into a traditional lithium-ion battery electrolyte and compared to said traditional electrolyte, designated Gen2.

  5. Electrolyte Additives for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Xiao; Hjuler, H.A.; Olsen, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Electrochemical characteristics of a series of modified phosphoric acid electrolytes containing fluorinated car on compounds and silicone fluids as additives are presented. When used in phosphoric acid fuel cells, the modified electrolytes improve the performance due to the enhanced oxygen......, as a fuel-cell performance with the modified electrolytes. Specific conductivity measurements of some of the modified phosphoric acid electrolytes are reported. At a given temperature, the conductivity of the C4F9SO3K-modified electrolyte decreases with an increasing amount of the additive; the conductivity...... of the remains at the same value as the conductivity of the pure phosphoric acid. At a given composition, the conductivity of any modified electrolyte increases with temperature. We conclude that the improved cell performance for modified electrolytes is not due to any increase in conductivity....

  6. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan eAngulakshmi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium-sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium-sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium-sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii ionic liquids, (iii solid polymer and (iv glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li-S cells is discussed.

  7. Cloning and shake flask expression of hrIDS-Like in Pichia pastoris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... Expression of hrIDS-Like. The hrIDS-Like was expressed in P. pastoris using the recombinant vector pPIC9-hIDS-Like (9.5 Kb). Growth curves in YPD-BMMY, growth-induction media and the. IDS activities are shown in Figure 3 (IDS activity controls in Table 1). Higher IDS-Like activity values were obtained.

  8. Improved Electrolytic Hydrogen Peroxide Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Patrick I.

    2005-01-01

    An improved apparatus for the electrolytic generation of hydrogen peroxide dissolved in water has been developed. The apparatus is a prototype of H2O2 generators for the safe and effective sterilization of water, sterilization of equipment in contact with water, and other applications in which there is need for hydrogen peroxide at low concentration as an oxidant. Potential applications for electrolytic H2O2 generators include purification of water for drinking and for use in industrial processes, sanitation for hospitals and biotechnological industries, inhibition and removal of biofouling in heat exchangers, cooling towers, filtration units, and the treatment of wastewater by use of advanced oxidation processes that are promoted by H2O2.

  9. On a Pioneering Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Adam Z.; Meyers, Jeremy P.

    2010-07-07

    "Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Model" is a seminal work that continues to form the basis for modern modeling efforts, especially models concerning the membrane and its behavior at the continuum level. The paper is complete with experimental data, modeling equations, model validation, and optimization scenarios. While the treatment of the underlying phenomena is limited to isothermal, single-phase conditions, and one-dimensional flow, it represents the key interactions within the membrane at the center of the PEFC. It focuses on analyzing the water balance within the cell and clearly demonstrates the complex interactions of water diffusion and electro-osmotic flux. Cell-level and system-level water balance are key to the development of efficient PEFCs going forward, particularly as researchers address the need to simplify humidification and recycle configurations while increasing the operating temperature of the stack to minimize radiator requirements.

  10. ID-Migraine™ questionnaire and accurate diagnosis of migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Ana Carolina Musser Tavares de; Souza, Jano Alves de; Moreira, Pedro Ferreira; Jurno, Mauro Eduardo; Velarde, Luis Guilhermo Coca

    2017-07-01

    To analyze the applicability of the Portuguese version of ID-MigraineTM in a sample of Brazilian patients. Patients with headache were recruited from the neurology outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital and submitted to the ID-MigraineTM questionnaire. The diagnosis of headache was made according to the ICHD-2 criteria. Of the 232 patients, 86% had migraine. The questionnaire showed a sensitivity of 92% (95%CI, 88% to 95%), specificity of 60% (95%CI, 43% to 77%) and a positive predictive value of 93% (95%CI, 89% to 96%). Our results were similar to other international studies of the ID-MigraineTM application. The Portuguese version is considered easy to use, and an appropriate screening tool for migraine diagnosis in our sample. Considering the characteristics of our health system, we can infer that this questionnaire would be beneficial in a Brazilian primary care setting; however, more studies are necessary.

  11. The Danish eID Case: Twenty years of Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam; Hoff, Frederik Villiam

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is to explain why there is still no qualified digital signature in Denmark as defined by the EU eSignatures Directive nor any other nationwide eID even though Denmark had an early start in eGovernment, and a high level of "e-readiness" compared to other nations. Laying out...... of intergovernmental coordination and lack of cooperation between public and private sector. However, with the recent tender on digital signatures won by the PBS and the roll-out of the NemID it seems that Denmark will finally - after twenty years of delay - have an eID which can be widely used in the public as well...

  12. Foundation analyzing of centrifugal ID fans in cement pla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Eskandari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was based on a finite-element model (FEM of large foundations such as induced draft (ID fans. Three-dimensional (3D linear analyses were performed under arbitrary static and dynamic loads for various modulus of elasticity of concrete (Ec (20, 25, 28 and 30 GPa and reinforcement (Es (200, 250, 300 GPa. FEM results were compared with the existing ID fan foundations (laboratory-based evidence to assess the accuracy of simulations made by the FEM. This study validated what constitutes a major departure from current thinking regarding material properties modeling of concrete under various loads to increase foundation for lifetime.

  13. Foundation analyzing of centrifugal ID fans in cement plants

    OpenAIRE

    Eskandari, Hamid; Nik, Morteza; Pakzad, Amir

    2017-01-01

    This research was based on a finite-element model (FEM) of large foundations such as induced draft (ID) fans. Three-dimensional (3D) linear analyses were performed under arbitrary static and dynamic loads for various modulus of elasticity of concrete (Ec) (20, 25, 28 and 30 GPa) and reinforcement (Es) (200, 250, 300 GPa). FEM results were compared with the existing ID fan foundations (laboratory-based evidence) to assess the accuracy of simulations made by the FEM. This study validated what c...

  14. Analisis Framing Berita Pembunuhan Engeline di Viva.co.id

    OpenAIRE

    Prakasa, Bagus

    2016-01-01

    The research is titled “Framing Analysis of Engeline Murdered News in Viva.co.id”. The purpose of this study is to know how Engeline murdered framed by viva.co.id. It also determines the way of viva.co.id constructed children violence news through Engeline case. The theory is used to peel this research is Media Social Construction Theory, Shoemaker and Reese Theory, Mass Communication, Framing Analysis, and Online Media. The object of this research is four articles that released on June 10, 2...

  15. Ablation of the ID2 gene results in altered circadian feeding behavior, and sex-specific enhancement of insulin sensitivity and elevated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Mathew

    Full Text Available Inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (ID2 is a helix-loop-helix transcriptional repressor rhythmically expressed in many adult tissues. Our earlier studies have demonstrated a role for ID2 in the input pathway, core clock function and output pathways of the mouse circadian system. We have also reported that Id2 null (Id2-/- mice are lean with low gonadal white adipose tissue deposits and lower lipid content in the liver. These results coincided with altered or disrupted circadian expression profiles of liver genes including those involved in lipid metabolism. In the present phenotypic study we intended to decipher, on a sex-specific basis, the role of ID2 in glucose metabolism and in the circadian regulation of activity, important components of energy balance. We find that Id2-/- mice exhibited altered daily and circadian rhythms of feeding and locomotor activity; activity profiles extended further into the late night/dark phase of the 24-hr cycle, despite mice showing reduced total locomotor activity. Also, male Id2-/- mice consumed a greater amount of food relative to body mass, and displayed less weight gain. Id2-/- females had smaller adipocytes, suggesting sexual-dimorphic programing of adipogenesis. We observed increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in male Id2-/- mice, which was exacerbated in older animals. FDG-PET analysis revealed increased glucose uptake by skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue of male Id2-/- mice, suggesting increased glucose metabolism and thermogenesis in these tissues. Reductions in intramuscular triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol were detected in male Id2-/- mice, highlighting its possible mechanistic role in enhanced insulin sensitivity in these mice. Our findings indicate a role for ID2 as a regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism, and in the circadian control of feeding/locomotor behavior; and contribute to the understanding of the development of obesity and diabetes, particularly in shift work

  16. Electrolytic hydrogen fuel production with solid polymer electrolyte technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titterington, W. A.; Fickett, A. P.

    1973-01-01

    A water electrolysis technology based on a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) concept is presented for applicability to large-scale hydrogen production in a future energy system. High cell current density operation is selected for the application, and supporting cell test performance data are presented. Demonstrated cell life data are included to support the adaptability of the SPE system to large-size hydrogen generation utility plants as needed for bulk energy storage or transmission. The inherent system advantages of the acid SPE electrolysis technology are explained. System performance predictions are made through the year 2000, along with plant capital and operating cost projections.

  17. 16th Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-29

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The 16th Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Symposium was devoted to all aspects of research, development, and engineering of...polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), as well as low-temperature direct-fuel cells using either anion or cation exchange membranes. The symposium...29-11-2016 1-Sep-2016 28-Feb-2017 Final Report: 16th Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Symposium The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this

  18. Electrolytic cell. [For separating anolyte and catholyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, J.S.; Hale, B.D.

    1984-09-14

    An apparatus is described for the separation of the anolyte and the catholyte during electrolysis. The electrolyte flows through an electrolytic cell between the oppositely charged electrodes. The cell is equipped with a wedge-shaped device, the tapered end being located between the electrodes on the effluent side of the cell. The wedge diverts the flow of the electrolyte to either side of the wedge, substantially separating the anolyte and the catholyte.

  19. Solid electrolytes general principles, characterization, materials, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hagenmuller, Paul

    1978-01-01

    Solid Electrolytes: General Principles, Characterization, Materials, Applications presents specific theories and experimental methods in the field of superionic conductors. It discusses that high ionic conductivity in solids requires specific structural and energetic conditions. It addresses the problems involved in the study and use of solid electrolytes. Some of the topics covered in the book are the introduction to the theory of solid electrolytes; macroscopic evidence for liquid nature; structural models; kinetic models; crystal structures and fast ionic conduction; interstitial motion in

  20. INFLUENCE OF TRADITIONAL DANCE TRAINING PROGRAMS ON DYNAMIC BALANCE OF PEOPLE WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY: A SHORT REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios K. Tsimaras

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional dance is gaining popularity as an intervention choice for improving poor balance ability of people with intellectual disability (ID. Balance improvement for individuals with ID through dance provides opportunities for participation in sport activities and promotes independent living. This short review provides in brief research evidence of dynamic balance improvement as measured by means of a balance deck in duration of 30, 45, and 60 sec intervals, highlighting the need to incorporate traditional dance programs in Physical Education (PE lessons applied on participants with ID. Overall, traditional dances provide emotional and cognitive interaction that has a direct positive effect on quality of life and successful motor performance of individuals with ID.

  1. Electrolyte chemistry control in electrodialysis processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Thomas D.; Severin, Blaine F.

    2017-12-26

    Methods for controlling electrolyte chemistry in electrodialysis units having an anode and a cathode each in an electrolyte of a selected concentration and a membrane stack disposed therebetween. The membrane stack includes pairs of cationic selective and anionic membranes to segregate increasingly dilute salts streams from concentrated salts stream. Electrolyte chemistry control is via use of at least one of following techniques: a single calcium exclusionary cationic selective membrane at a cathode cell boundary, an exclusionary membrane configured as a hydraulically isolated scavenger cell, a multivalent scavenger co-electrolyte and combinations thereof.

  2. Distribution of electrolytes in a flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Robert Mason; Smeltz, Andrew; Junker, Sven Tobias; Perry, Michael L.

    2017-12-26

    A method of determining a distribution of electrolytes in a flow battery includes providing a flow battery with a fixed amount of fluid electrolyte having a common electrochemically active specie, a portion of the fluid electrolyte serving as an anolyte and a remainder of the fluid electrolyte serving as a catholyte. An average oxidation state of the common electrochemically active specie is determined in the anolyte and the catholyte and, responsive to the determined average oxidation state, a molar ratio of the common electrochemically active specie between the anolyte and the catholyte is adjusted to increase an energy discharge capacity of the flow battery for the determined average oxidation state.

  3. Electrodeposition of Fe powder from acid electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESNA M. MAKSIMOVIC

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Polarization characteristics of the electrodeposition processes of Fe powders from sulfate and chloride electrolytes and the morphology of the obtained powders were investigated. The morphology depended on the anion presence in the electrolyte but not on the current density in the investigated range. A characteristic feature of the dendritic powder with cauliflower endings obtained from sulfate electrolyte is the presence of cone-like cavities and the crystallite morphology of the powders surface. On the other hand, Fe powders electrodeposited from chloride electrolyte appear in the form of agglomerates. A soap solution treatment applied as a method of washing and drying provides good protection from oxidation of the powders.

  4. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-03-31

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  5. The antibody response of pregnant Cameroonian women to VAR2CSA ID1-ID2a, a small recombinant protein containing the CSA-binding site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Leke, Rose G F; Salanti, Ali

    2014-01-01

    In pregnant women, Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes expressing the VAR2CSA antigen bind to chondroitin sulfate A in the placenta causing placental malaria. The binding site of VAR2CSA is present in the ID1-ID2a region. This study sought to determine if pregnant Cameroonian women...... was found between pregnant women and Cameroonian men, and no correlation between antibody levels at delivery and absence of placental malaria was found. Thus, the response to ID1-ID2a was not pregnancy specific, but predominantly against cross-reactivity epitopes, which may have been induced by other PfEMP1...... cross-reactive antibodies in women living in malaria endemic countries will alter the response to ID1-ID2a following vaccination with ID1-ID2a....

  6. Comparison of the optimized conditions for genotyping of ACE ID ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACE ID polymorphism is inevitable for genetic epidemiology of several cardiovascular and non cardiovascular diseases due to its direct influence on ACE activity level. In the present work, conditions were optimized for its analysis using conventional and direct blood PCR (DB PCR). Blood samples from nine normotensive ...

  7. Enhancing privacy of users in eID schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrishak, Kris; Erkin, Z.; Schaar, Remco

    2016-01-01

    In todays world transactions are increasingly being performed over the internet
    but require identication of users as in face-to-face transactions. In order to facilitate eGovernance as well as other eCommerce services Electronic Identiation
    (eID) schemes, which intend to provide unique and

  8. Enabling OpenID Authentication for VO-integrated Portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, R.; Yekkirala, V.; Baker, W.

    2012-09-01

    To support interoperating services that share proprietary data and other user-specific information, the VAO Project provides login services for browser-based portals built on the open standard, OpenID. To help portal developers take advantage of this service, we have developed a downloadable toolkit for integrating OpenID single sign-on support into any portal. This toolkit provides APIs in a few languages commonly used on the server-side as well as a command-line version for use in any language. In addition to describing how to use this toolkit, we also discuss the general VAO framework for single sign-on. While a portal may, if it wishes, support any OpenID provider, the VAO service provides a few extra features to support VO interoperability. This includes a portal's ability to retrieve (with the user's permission) an X.509 certificate representing the authenticated user so that the portal can access other restricted services on the user's behalf. Other standard features of OpenID allow portals to request other information about the user; this feature will be used in the future for sharing information about a user's group membership to enable sharing within a group of collaborating scientists.

  9. Blueprints for Complex Learning: The 4C/ID-Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.; Clark, Richard E.; de Croock, Marcel B. M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the four-component instructional design system (4C/ID-model) developed for the design of training programs for complex skills. Discusses the structure of training blueprints for complex learning and associated instructional methods, focusing on learning tasks, supportive information, just-in-time information, and part-task practice.…

  10. Screening of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from fermented idli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The objective of this study was to screen eight potential probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strains from fermented idli batter using in vitro assays such as bile tolerance, acid tolerance, transit ...

  11. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of tantalum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of our research on the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO process of tantalum in 12-tungstosilicic acid. For the characterization of microdischarges during PEO, real-time imaging and optical emission spectroscopy (OES were used. The surface morphology, chemical and phase composition of oxide coatings were investigated by AFM, SEM-EDS and XRD. Oxide coating morphology is strongly dependent on PEO time. The elemental components of PEO coatings are Ta, O, Si and W. The oxide coatings are partly crystallized and mainly composed of WO3, Ta2O5 and SiO2.

  12. Therapeutic approach to electrolyte emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaer, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, hypernatremia, hypocalcemia, and hypercalcemia are commonly seen in emergency medicine. Severe abnormalities in any of these electrolytes can cause potentially life-threatening consequences to the patient. It is essential that the clinician understand and correct (if possible) the underlying cause of each disorder and recognize the importance of the rates of correction, especially with serum sodium disorders. The recommended doses in this article might have to be adjusted to the individual patient, and these modifications must be adjusted again to the pathophysiology of the primary underlying disorder.

  13. [Cloning of ID4 gene expression regulation promoter and subcloning of recombinant ID4 promoter luciferase reporter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Huang, Yu; Yang, Bo; Chi, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Li-Hong; Zhang, Feng; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Lu, Xue-Chun

    2010-04-01

    The present study was aimed to clone ID4 gene promoter and upstream regulatory region, and to construct a series of recombinant promoter-luciferase reporter for exploring the mechanism of ID4 gene expression regulation. the upstream 5' flanking sequence of 2242 bp from transcriptional start site (TSS) and downstream 5' non-coding region of 212 bp on ID4 gene were searched out and downloaded from human genome databank of NCBI using whole length of ID4 gene cDNA as a probe; On-line promoter analysis softwares, including TESS and Genomax, were employed to analyze the characteristics of ID4 gene promoter and upstream regulatory elements. Then, based on the analytic results, PCR primers were designed and synthesized. Segmental amplification method was adopted to obtain two fragments of 1829 bp and 784 bp. The two fragments were inserted into the plasmid pGEM-T, transformed into TOP10 competent E. coli., and positive recombinants were screened respectively. Subsequently, restriction enzymes KpnI/NheI and KpnI/EcoRI were used to digest the above-mentioned two plasmids pGEM-T and pGL3, and ligation was completed by T4 DNA ligase. After transformation to TOP10 competent E. coli. and screening of positive colonies, the basic recombinant ID4 gene promoter-pGL3 was successfully constructed. KpnI/NheI double digestion and sequencing showed that the target fragment was 2 459 bp and consistent with the corresponding sequence of GenBank; Using the 2459 bp fragment as a template, 5 pairs of primers with identical 3' terminus and different 5' terminus were designed and synthesized for half-nest PCR amplification. 5 fragments with an interval of approximate 400 bp each other, i.e. 2112 bp, 1703 bp, 1290 bp, 784 bp and 496 bp, were produced and inserted into pGEM-T after recovery and purification for transformation to TOP10 competent E. coli. and screening of positive colonies. After that, KpnI/NheI was used to digest the above-mentioned five pGEM-T recombinant plasmids and pGL3 basic

  14. Colloidal Electrolytes and the Critical Micelle Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, L. G.

    1970-01-01

    Describes methods for determining the Critical Micelle Concentration of Colloidal Electrolytes; methods described are: (1) methods based on Colligative Properties, (2) methods based on the Electrical Conductivity of Colloidal Electrolytic Solutions, (3) Dye Method, (4) Dye Solubilization Method, and (5) Surface Tension Method. (BR)

  15. Response behaviour of oxygen sensing solid electrolytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Scharenborg, A.H.A.; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    The response time (t r) after a step change in oxygen partial pressure was investigated for some solid electrolytes used in Nernst type oxygen sensors. The electrolyte as well as the (porous) electrode material affect the value oft r. Stabilized Bi2O3 materials exhibit slower response rates (largert

  16. Relationship between some serum electrolytes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Trypanosoma brucei infection on changes in concentration of some serum electrolytes and the consequence of these changes on electrocardiographic (ECG) indices were investigated in dogs. The nature of association between each of the electrolytes and the various ECG indices were studied at different days ...

  17. The charge transport in polymeric gel electrolytes

    CERN Document Server

    Reiche, A

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present thesis consisted in the study of the charge transport in gel electrolytes, which were obtained by photopolymerization of oligo(ethylene glycol) sub n -dimethacrylates with n=3, 9, and 23, and the survey of structure and property relations for the optimization of the electrolyte composition. The pressure dependence of the electric conductivity was measured. (HSI)

  18. Fluid, electrolytes and nutrition: physiological and clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Dileep N

    2004-08-01

    Fluid and electrolyte balance is often poorly understood and inappropriate prescribing can cause increased post-operative morbidity and mortality. The efficiency of the physiological response to a salt or water deficit, developed through evolution, contrasts with the relatively inefficient mechanism for dealing with salt excess. Saline has a Na+:Cl- of 1:1 and can produce hyperchloraemic acidosis, renal vasoconstriction and reduced glomerular filtration rate. In contrast, the more physiological Hartmann's solution with a Na+:Cl- of 1.18:1 does not cause hyperchloraemia and Na excretion following infusion is more rapid. Salt and water overload causes not only peripheral and pulmonary oedema, but may also produce splanchnic oedema, resulting in ileus or acute intestinal failure. This overload may sometimes be an inevitable consequence of resuscitation, yet it may take 3 weeks to excrete this excess. It is important to avoid unnecessary additional overload by not prescribing excessive maintenance fluids after the need for resuscitation has passed. Most patients require 2-2.5 litres water and 60-100 mmol Na/d for maintenance in order to prevent a positive fluid balance. This requirement must not be confused with those for resuscitation of the hypovolaemic patient in whom the main aim of fluid therapy is repletion of the intravascular volume. Fluid and electrolyte balance is a vital component of the metabolic care of surgical and critically-ill patients, with important consequences for gastrointestinal function and hence nutrition. It is also of importance when prescribing artificial nutrition and should be given the same careful consideration as other nutritional and pharmacological needs.

  19. Investigation of electrolyte wetting in lithium ion batteries: Effects of electrode pore structures and solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yangping

    and surface tension of electrolyte is used to reflect performance of electrolyte wetting. There are very few reports about quantitative measurement about electrolyte wetting. Moreover, there are only simple qualitative observations, good, poor, and fair, were reported on the wettability of microporous separators. Therefore, development of a quantitative analysis method is critical to help understand the mechanism of how electrolyte wetting is affected by material properties and manufacturing processes. In this dissertation, a quantitative test method is developed to analyze the electrolyte wetting performance. Wetting rate, measured by wetting balance method, is used to quantitatively measure the speed of electrolyte wetting. The feasibility of the wetting rate is demonstrated by repeated test of wetting rate between electrolytes and electrodes. Various electrolytes from single solvents to complicated industrial level electrolytes are measured with baseline electrodes. Electrodes with different composition, active materials and manufacturing process, separator sheets with different materials and additives are also measured with baseline electrolyte. The wetting behaviors for different materials and manufacturing processes could be used to help improve the optimization of production process. It is very necessary to reveal the mechanism underlying electrolyte wetting, especially the effects of electrode pore microstructure. The Electrodes, which are composed of active material, binder and carbon black, are formed by production process (rheological processing, coating, drying), and post-production process (calendaring and slicing etc.). The pore structure is also complicated by the broad size range of pores from nanometer to tens micrometer. In this dissertation, a pore network concept, as revealed in the MIP test (mercury intrusion porosimetry), is employed to characterize the electrode pore structure. It is composed by the random pore cavity and connected part of pores

  20. Ionic liquids behave as dilute electrolyte solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbie, Matthew A; Valtiner, Markus; Banquy, Xavier; Fox, Eric T; Henderson, Wesley A; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2013-06-11

    We combine direct surface force measurements with thermodynamic arguments to demonstrate that pure ionic liquids are expected to behave as dilute weak electrolyte solutions, with typical effective dissociated ion concentrations of less than 0.1% at room temperature. We performed equilibrium force-distance measurements across the common ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C4mim][NTf2]) using a surface forces apparatus with in situ electrochemical control and quantitatively modeled these measurements using the van der Waals and electrostatic double-layer forces of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory with an additive repulsive steric (entropic) ion-surface binding force. Our results indicate that ionic liquids screen charged surfaces through the formation of both bound (Stern) and diffuse electric double layers, where the diffuse double layer is comprised of effectively dissociated ionic liquid ions. Additionally, we used the energetics of thermally dissociating ions in a dielectric medium to quantitatively predict the equilibrium for the effective dissociation reaction of [C4mim][NTf2] ions, in excellent agreement with the measured Debye length. Our results clearly demonstrate that, outside of the bound double layer, most of the ions in [C4mim][NTf2] are not effectively dissociated and thus do not contribute to electrostatic screening. We also provide a general, molecular-scale framework for designing ionic liquids with significantly increased dissociated charge densities via judiciously balancing ion pair interactions with bulk dielectric properties. Our results clear up several inconsistencies that have hampered scientific progress in this important area and guide the rational design of unique, high-free-ion density ionic liquids and ionic liquid blends.

  1. Pediatric anterior visual pathway gliomas: trends in fluid and electrolyte dynamics and their management nuances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devesh K; Behari, Sanjay; Jaiswal, Awadhesh K; Sahu, Rabi N; Srivastava, Arun K; Mehrotra, Anant; Dabadgaon, Preeti

    2015-03-01

    Trends in pre- and postoperative fluid, electrolyte and osmolarity changes, and incidence of diabetes insipidus (DI) were assessed in pediatric patients with anterior visual pathway gliomas (AVPGs). Thirty-three patients with AVPGs (age electrolyte balance, serum osmolarity, and DI status were noted. Chi-square test compared clinical/endocrinological parameters, and unpaired T test evaluated mean daily water/electrolyte changes (p value 3 cm), hydrocephalus [(NHI: n = 7, 41.18 %; HI: n = 12, 75 %), endocrinopathies (p = 0.047), Na(+)/K(+) derangements, and preoperative DI (n = 8, p = 0.004)] were present in the group HI. Increased postoperative urine output (almost double in those with hypothalamic involvement) and hypernatremia/hyperkalemia were seen in group HI until the sixth postoperative day (p electrolyte disturbances. Strict vigilance over postoperative fluid balance is mandatory during the first postoperative week. Rapidly rising serial serum sodium values without increased urine output mandates immediate central venous pressure measurement to detect DI associated with dehydration.

  2. Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauzi, Iqbal, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Research Groups, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the component’s composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of it’s characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 × 10{sup −6} S/cm up to 6.01 × 10{sup −4} S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 × 10{sup −3} S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

  3. Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, Iqbal; Arcana, I. Made

    2014-03-01

    Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the component's composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of it's characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 × 10-6 S/cm up to 6.01 × 10-4 S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 × 10-3 S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

  4. The effect of different rehydration drinks on post-exercise electrolyte excretion in trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouns, F; Kovacs, E M; Senden, J M

    1998-01-01

    Eight well-trained cyclists were dehydrated (median [P25-P75 percentiles]) 3.21 [2.97-3.56]% of body mass by cycling in the heat (28 C). During the first 2 h of recovery, the subjects randomly ingested ad libitum either a caffeinated soft drink (CC), a low Na+ mineral water (MW), or an isotonic carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES). Fluid intake and urine loss amounted respectively to 2.77 [2.34-2.85] kg, 1.00 [0.82-1.20] kg for CC, 2.15 [1.86-2.79] kg, 0.96 [0.40-1.49] kg for MW, and 2.86 [2.15-3.58] kg, 1.10 [0.86- 1.50] kg for CES. Electrolyte retention was calculated from electrolyte intake with the drink and loss with the urine. Consumption of CC and MW which were low in electrolytes resulted in marked loss of Na+, K+, Cl-, Mg2+ and Ca2+. Consumption of CES resulted in Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ retention while K+ and Cl- loss were not influenced. The significantly lower Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ loss with CES compared to both CC and MW may be explained by its higher electrolyte content in CES, compared to CC and MW, which only had minor amounts of these electrolytes. Furthermore, it was shown that CC potentiated urinary Mg2+ and Ca2+ excretion. It is concluded that: 1) Post-exercise MW or CC ingestion results in a negative electrolyte balance, 2) Caffeine containing beverages potentiate Mg2+ and Ca2+ excretion; 3) Consumption of CES containing moderate amounts of Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ results in sufficient replacement to compensate for urinary losses.

  5. GPON system with user controlled port-ID assignment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Yoshiuchi, Hideya

    2008-11-01

    Passive Optical Network (PON) system with characters of low-cost and high-efficiency has become a promising solution for access network in relieving the bandwidth bottleneck problem. PON system can provide high-speed optical subscriber networks with broad bandwidth and long distance transmission. In current telecommunication carriers' PON system, different service has its given priority which is configured by carriers based on common requirements. However, different users have their own requirement and inflexibility of the given default service priority causes users' inconvenience and frustration. In this paper, we propose a novel method of user controlled Port-IDentifier (Port-ID) assignment in a Gigabit-capable PON (GPON) system. This method provides users a more individualized priority determination mechanism for end users through assigning a multi-level Port-ID to different service. Then users can manage their own bandwidth based on their requirements for different service and carriers can provide a flexible service management mechanism.

  6. TINGKAT KEPUASAN PENGGUNA WEBSITE www.unud.ac.id

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rr.Sanita Eling Cipta Nesa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Popularitas link suatu situs website dapat ditingkatkan semaksimal mungkin dengan menganalisis dan mengevaluasi tingkat kepuasan penggunanya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis perkembangan situs website Universitas Udayana (UNUD sejauh mana tingkat kepuasan pengguna website www.unud.ac.id. Analisis tingkat kepuasan pengguna menggunakan kuesioner dengan metode variabel pernyataan End-User Computing Satisfaction (EUCS dan diukur dengan metode Kano. Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI digunakan untuk mengukuran skala tingkat kepuasan pengguna website. Analisis tingkat kepuasan pengguna website UNUD dengan metode Kano menyatakan bahwa sebagian besar atribut website berada pada kategori indifferent, namun atribut Homepages dan Accuracy pada kategori Must-be, dan Atribut Hits pada kategori Reverse. Pengolahan data CSI didapatkan nilai sebesar 69,23% sehingga konsumen dapat dikatakan “PUAS” dengan fasilitas dan kelengkapan isi yang disediakan website www.unud.ac.id.

  7. Entitlement Management: Ready to Enter the IdM Mainstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebel, Gerry; Wang, Alice

    Externalizing authorization processing from business applications has been a goal for architects and developers for many years. Recent compliance demands for more granular access control and policy transparency have increased the urgency to adopt an architectural model where authorization and entitlement management are consumed as a service rather than embedded within business applications. Major software vendors, such as Microsoft, Oracle, and SAP, are making significant steps to separate IdM functionality, including entitlement management from application logic. The market has also responded with a plethora of products that provide entitlement management and authorization functionality for commercial or custom-built application environments. Finally, the Extensible Access Control Markup Language (XACML) has emerged as the consensus authorization standard being supported by a growing number of IT and application vendors. Collectively, these forces form the basis of a nascent IdM market segment referred to as entitlement management.

  8. Oral salt supplements to compensate for jejunostomy losses: comparison of sodium chloride capsules, glucose electrolyte solution, and glucose polymer electrolyte solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, J M; Lennard-Jones, J E; Walker, E R; Farthing, M J

    1992-01-01

    Six patients with jejunostomies and residual jejunal lengths of 105 to 250 cm took the same food and water each day for eight study days. In random order, three methods of salt replacement were tested, each over 48 hours, against a period without added salt. During the three test periods the patients took 120 mmol of sodium chloride daily, as salt in gelatine capsules, as an isotonic glucose electrolyte (280 mOsmol/kg; 30 kcal) solution, and as a glucose polymer (Maxijul) solution (280 mOsmol/kg; 200 kcal). The daily stomal output remained constant for each patient during the four test periods but varied between patients from 0.60 to 2.84 kg (daily intestinal fluid balance 0.74-2.61 kg). Without a salt supplement, three patients lost more sodium from the stoma than they took in by mouth (-25, -94, and -101 mmol/day) and the mean sodium balance for all six subjects was -16 mmol (range -101 to 79) daily. Extra salt was absorbed with each form of supplement (p less than 0.05); no patient with the glucose electrolyte solution (mean 96, range 0 to 226 mmol), but one patient with the glucose-polymer solution (mean 96, range -25 to 164 mmol) and two with the salt capsules (mean 66, range -8 to 145 mmol) were in negative balance. Two patients vomited with the salt capsules. There was only a small increase in energy absorption (mean 115 kcal) with the glucose polymer solution compared with the glucose electrolyte solution. A sipped glucose electrolyte solution seems to be the optimal mode of sodium replacement in patients with a high output jejunostomy. PMID:1624155

  9. El sistema español de I+D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Facal, Javier

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available.Para centrar el lugar que ocupan las Bibliotecas y Centros de documentación en el Sistema de I+D, se resume la evolución de la política científica española desde los años cincuenta y se describe la estructura actual de este sistema, sus magnitudes principales y sus deficiencias.

  10. El sistema español de I+D

    OpenAIRE

    López Facal, Javier

    1997-01-01

    Not available.Para centrar el lugar que ocupan las Bibliotecas y Centros de documentación en el Sistema de I+D, se resume la evolución de la política científica española desde los años cincuenta y se describe la estructura actual de este sistema, sus magnitudes principales y sus deficiencias.

  11. ID based cryptography for secure cloud data storage

    OpenAIRE

    Kaaniche, Nesrine; Boudguiga, Aymen; Laurent, Maryline

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This paper addresses the security issues of storing sensitive data in a cloud storage service and the need for users to trust the commercial cloud providers. It proposes a cryptographic scheme for cloud storage, based on an original usage of ID-Based Cryptography. Our solution has several advantages. First, it provides secrecy for encrypted data which are stored in public servers. Second, it offers controlled data access and sharing among users, so that unauthorized us...

  12. ID'ing innate and innate-like lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verykokakis, Mihalis; Zook, Erin C; Kee, Barbara L

    2014-09-01

    The immune system can be divided into innate and adaptive components that differ in their rate and mode of cellular activation, with innate immune cells being the first responders to invading pathogens. Recent advances in the identification and characterization of innate lymphoid cells have revealed reiterative developmental programs that result in cells with effector fates that parallel those of adaptive lymphoid cells and are tailored to effectively eliminate a broad spectrum of pathogenic challenges. However, activation of these cells can also be associated with pathologies such as autoimmune disease. One major distinction between innate and adaptive immune system cells is the constitutive expression of ID proteins in the former and inducible expression in the latter. ID proteins function as antagonists of the E protein transcription factors that play critical roles in lymphoid specification as well as B- and T-lymphocyte development. In this review, we examine the transcriptional mechanisms controlling the development of innate lymphocytes, including natural killer cells and the recently identified innate lymphoid cells (ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3), and innate-like lymphocytes, including natural killer T cells, with an emphasis on the known requirements for the ID proteins. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlan U. Anderson

    2000-03-31

    This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and Testing of Planar Single Cells. During this time period substantial progress has been made in developing low temperature deposition techniques to produce dense, nanocrystalline yttrium-stabilized zirconia films on both dense oxide and polymer substrates. Progress has been made in the preparation and characterization of thin electrolytes and porous LSM substrates. Both of these tasks are essentially on or ahead of schedule. In our proposal, we suggested that the ZrO{sub 2}/Sc system needed to be considered as a candidate as a thin electrolyte. This was because microcrystalline ZrO{sub 2}/Sc has a significantly higher ionic conductivity than YSZ, particularly at the lower temperatures. As a result, some 0.5 micron thick film of ZrO{sub 2}/16% Sc on an alumina substrate (grain size 20nm) was prepared and the electrical conductivity measured as a function of temperature and oxygen activity. The Sc doped ZrO{sub 2} certainly has a higher conductivity that either 20nm or 2400nm YSZ, however, electronic conductivity dominates the conductivity for oxygen activities below 10{sup -15}. Whereas for YSZ, electronic conductivity is not a problem until the oxygen activity decreases below 10{sup -25}. These initial results show that the ionic conductivity of 20nm YSZ and 20nm ZrO{sub 2}/16% Sc are essentially the same and the enhanced conductivity which is observed for Sc doping in microcrystalline specimens is not observed for the same composition when it is nanocrystalline. In addition they show that the electronic conductivity of Sc doped ZrO{sub 2} is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that observed for YSZ. The conclusion one reaches is that for 0.5 to 1 micron thick nanocrystalline films, Sc doping of ZrO{sub 2} has no benefits compared to YSZ. As a result, electrolyte films of ZrO{sub 2}/Sc should not be considered as candidates

  14. Halothane anesthesia and serum electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, O M; Reinosa, J; Medina de Caraballo, M I; Silva, T

    1996-04-01

    The disparate observations on the effect of halothane anesthesia on the serum electrolyte levels in humans prompted us to carry out this work. In this study the levels of sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, chloride and inorganic phosphorus were determined in serum of 25 male and 15 female patients, with an age range of 15 to 40 years, who had various pathologies requiring surgery and who were given halothane anesthesia. Significant difference were detected in the concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium and inorganic phosphorus between presurgical and post-anesthesia induction samples. The truly striking finding in the present study was the significant increase in serum inorganic phosphorus in the intra-operative period. It is suspected that this increase is due to a defect in phosphorylating mechanisms which leads to a rapid hydrolysis of stored and preformed ATP.

  15. Numerical investigations on two-phase flow in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, C.Z.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical modeling plays an important role in understanding various transport processes in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). It can not only provide insights into the development of new PEFC architectures, but also optimize operating conditions for better cell performance. Water balance is critical to the operation of PEFCs, since the membrane needs to attain sufficient water for effective ionic conduction. On the other hand, too much water accumulating in PEFCs would result in mass tra...

  16. High resolution neutron imaging of water in the polymer electrolyte fuel cell membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Partha P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Makundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hussey, D S [NIST; Jacobson, D L [NIST; Arif, M [NIST

    2009-01-01

    Water transport in the ionomeric membrane, typically Nafion{reg_sign}, has profound influence on the performance of the polymer electrolyte fuel cell, in terms of internal resistance and overall water balance. In this work, high resolution neutron imaging of the Nafion{reg_sign} membrane is presented in order to measure water content and through-plane gradients in situ under disparate temperature and humidification conditions.

  17. Effect of electrolytic lesion of the dorsomedial striatum on sexual behaviour and locomotor activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Pulido, R; Hernández-Briones, Z S; Tamariz-Rodríguez, A; Hernández, M E; Aranda-Abreu, G E; Coria-Avila, G A; Manzo, J; García, L I

    2017-06-01

    Cortical motor areas are influenced not only by peripheral sensory afferents and prefrontal association areas, but also by the basal ganglia, specifically the striatum. The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and dorsolateral striatum are involved in both spatial and stimulus-response learning; however, each of these areas may mediate different components of learning. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of electrolytic lesion to the DMS on the learning and performance of sexual behaviour and locomotor activity in male rats. Once the subjects had learned to perform motor tests of balance, maze navigation, ramp ascent, and sexual behaviour, they underwent electrolytic lesion to the DMS. Five days later, the tests were repeated on 2 occasions and researchers compared performance latencies for each test. Average latency values for performance on the maze and balance tests were higher after the lesion. However, the average values for the ramp test and for sexual behaviour did not differ between groups. Electrolytic lesion of the DMS modifies the performance of locomotor activity (maze test and balance), but not of sexual behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Association between bipolar episodes and fluid and electrolyte homeostasis: a retrospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Eldar; Weizman, Abraham; Valevski, Avi; Fischel, Tsvi; Krivoy, Amir

    2014-12-01

    Imbalance of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis has been suggested to be associated with the neuropathological processes underlying bipolar disorder. However, longitudinal data regarding the association of bipolar episodes with fluid balance are still lacking. We hypothesized that mania may be associated with a relative fluid retention and hemodilution, and depression with a relative hemoconcentration. Patients with bipolar disorder (n = 43) admitted to a mental health center, both with depressive and manic episodes, were retrospectively followed between 2005 and 2013. Fluid balance and electrolyte serum indices were compared between their manic and depressive episodes. We adjusted for physical and psychiatric comorbidities and for psychotropic treatment, using two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. There was a significant reduction in serum fluid balance indices during mania compared to depression: mean hemoglobin concentration 13.9 ± 1.4 g/dL versus 14.5 ± 1.4 g/dL, paired t = -4.2, p imbalance of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis among bipolar episodes, which is suggestive for relative hemoconcentration during depressive episodes and relative hemodilution during manic episodes. These findings may eventually lead to novel therapeutic targets. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [Kidney, Fluid, and Acid-Base Balance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioji, Naohiro; Hayashi, Masao; Morimatsu, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Kidneys play an important role to maintain human homeostasis. They contribute to maintain body fluid, electrolytes, and acid-base balance. Especially in fluid control, we, physicians can intervene body fluid balance using fluid resuscitation and diuretics. In recent years, one type of fluid resuscitation, hydroxyl ethyl starch has been extensively studied in the field of intensive care. Although their effects on fluid resuscitation are reasonable, serious complications such as kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy occur frequently. Now we have to pay more attention to this important complication. Another topic of fluid management is tolvaptan, a selective vasopressin-2 receptor antagonist Recent randomized trial suggested that tolvaptan has a similar supportive effect for fluid control and more cost effective compared to carperitide. In recent years, Stewart approach is recognized as one important tool to assess acid-base balance in critically ill patients. This approach has great value, especially to understand metabolic components in acid-base balance. Even for assessing the effects of kidneys on acid-base balance, this approach gives us interesting insight. We should appropriately use this new approach to treat acid-base abnormality in critically ill patients.

  20. Id proteins regulate capillary repair and perivascular cell proliferation following ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lee

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI results in microvascular damage that if not normally repaired, may lead to fibrosis. The Id1 and 3 proteins have a critical role in promoting angiogenesis during development, tumor growth and wound repair by functioning as dominant negative regulators of bHLH transcription factors. The goal of this study was to determine if Id proteins regulate microvascular repair and remodeling and if increased Id1 expression results in decreased capillary loss following AKI. The effect of changes in Id expression in vivo was examined using Id1-/-, Id3RFP/+ (Id1/Id3 KO and Tek (Tie2-rtTA, TRE-lacz/TRE Id1 (TRE Id1 mice with doxycycline inducible endothelial Id1 and β-galactosidase expression. Id1 and 3 were co-localized in endothelial cells in normal adult kidneys and protein levels were increased at day 3 following ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI and contralateral nephrectomy. Id1/Id3 KO mice had decreased baseline capillary density and pericyte coverage and increased tubular damage following IRI but decreased interstitial cell proliferation and fibrosis compared with WT littermates. No compensatory increase in kidney size occurred in KO mice resulting in increased creatinine compared with WT and TRE Id1 mice. TRE Id1 mice had no capillary rarefaction within 1 week following IRI in comparison with WT littermates. TRE Id1 mice had increased proliferation of PDGFRβ positive interstitial cells and medullary collagen deposition and developed capillary rarefaction and albuminuria at later time points. These differences were associated with increased Angiopoietin 1 (Ang1 and decreased Ang2 expression in TRE Id1 mice. Examination of gene expression in microvascular cells isolated from WT, Id1/Id3 KO and TRE Id1 mice showed increased Ang1 and αSMA in Id1 overexpressing cells and decreased pericyte markers in cells from KO mice. These results suggest that increased Id levels following AKI result in microvascular remodeling associated with

  1. Frequencies of the precision ID ancestry panel markers in Basques using the Ion Torrent PGM(TM) platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, O; Ajuriagerra, J A; Alday, A; Alonso, S; Pérez, J A; Soto, A; Uriarte, I; Yurrebaso, I

    2017-09-12

    The Precision ID Ancestry Panel for the Ion Torrent PGM™ platform is able to genotype 165 autosomal SNPs by massively parallel sequencing (MPS). In the present study, we evaluated the depth of coverage, the locus strand balance and the heterozygote balance of the above panel. The SNPs rs1569175, rs2306040, rs9845457, rs1407434, and rs10007810 showed a low performance, due either to a low coverage, locus strand imbalance or heterozygote imbalance. To further to assess this panel, we analyzed 108 Basques. All loci proved to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and we did not detect any association between them with the exception of the pair rs3916235-rs4891825 in chromosome 18. The forensic parameters combined match probability and combined power of exclusion were estimated to be 3.13×10(-35) and 99.9972%, respectively. In conclusion, the Precision ID Ancestry panel along with this new MPS technology constitute a very promising tool for human identification and biogeographical ancestry inference in routine casework in the forensic field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. High conductivity electrolyte solutions and rechargeable cells incorporating such solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Charles Austen; Zhang, Sheng-Shui; Xu, Kang

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates generally to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery polymer electrolyte solutions as are used, for example, in electrochemical devices. More specifically, this invention relates to sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solvents and sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents.

  3. Sequence ID and annotation information - Gclust Server | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Data acquisition method - Data analysis method - Number of data entries - Data item Description Field 1 ID o...f amino acid sequence (Sequence ID) Field 2 Length of amino acid sequence Field 3

  4. Ekspert : mobiil-ID kasutamine valimistel turvariske ei tekita / Holger Roonemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roonemaa, Holger

    2008-01-01

    E-valimiste projektijuhi Taavi Martensi väitel pole põhjust kahelda mobiil-ID turvalisuses. Valimiskomisjoni esimehe Heiki Sibula meelest peaks m-ID kaarte välja andma kodakondsus- ja migratsiooniamet

  5. Electrolytic silver ion cell sterilizes water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, C. F.; Gillerman, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Electrolytic water sterilizer controls microbial contamination in manned spacecraft. Individual sterilizer cells are self-contained and require no external power or control. The sterilizer generates silver ions which do not impart an unpleasant taste to water.

  6. Multi-layered proton-conducting electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae H.; Dorris, Stephen E.; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2017-06-27

    The present invention provides a multilayer anode/electrolyte assembly comprising a porous anode substrate and a layered solid electrolyte in contact therewith. The layered solid electrolyte includes a first dense layer of yttrium-doped barium zirconate (BZY), optionally including another metal besides Y, Ba, and Zr (e.g., a lanthanide metal such as Pr) on one surface thereof, a second dense layer of yttrium-doped barium cerate (BCY), and an interfacial layer between and contacting the BZY and BCY layers. The interfacial layer comprises a solid solution of the BZY and BCY electrolytes. The porous anode substrate comprises at least one porous ceramic material that is stable to carbon dioxide and water (e.g., porous BZY), as well as an electrically conductive metal and/or metal oxide (e.g., Ni, NiO, and the like).

  7. [Cardiac arrhythmias caused by electrolyte imbalance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, M; Nakayama, K; Ishikawa, Y

    1996-08-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are known to be caused by many factors. Among them, electrolyte imbalance is the most important because of electrical activity of the heart is composed of transmembrane fluxes of Na+, Ca2+ and K+. In this review article, we describe the effects of high or low concentrations of these electrolytes on the active and passive electrical properties of the membrane in the cardiac tissues, and the mechanisms by which these electrolytes cause abnormal impulse formation and conduction in the heart. Antagonism and synergism of electrolytes and pathological conditions such as digitalis intoxication and ischemia are discussed with respect to not only cardiac electrophysiology but also cellular metabolism. A pathophysiological role of Mg2+ to maintain normal excitation and conduction of the heart is also pointed out.

  8. Highly Quantitative Electrochemical Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrolytes & Solid Electrolyte Interphases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Mason K. Harrup; Harry W. Rollins

    2012-10-01

    The methods to measure solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) electrochemical properties and SEI formation capability of non-aqueous electrolyte solutions are not adequately addressed in the literature. And yet, there is a strong demand in new electrolyte generations that promote stabilized SEIs and have an influence to resolve safety, calendar life and other limitations of Li-ion batteries. To fill this gap, in situ electrochemical approach with new descriptive criteria for highly quantitative characterization of SEI and electrolytes is proposed. These criteria are: SEI formation capacity, SEI corrosion rate, SEI maintenance rate, and SEI kinetic stability. These criteria are associated with battery parameters like irreversible capacity, self-discharge, shelf-life, power, etc. Therefore, they are especially useful for electrolyte development and standard fast screening, allowing a skillful approach to narrow down the search for the best electrolyte. The characterization protocol also allows retrieving information on interfacial resistance for SEI layers and the electrochemical window of electrolytes, the other important metrics of characterization. The method validation was done on electrolyte blends containing phosphazenes, developed at Idaho National Laboratory, as 1.2M LiPF6 [80 % EC-MEC (2:8) (v/v) + 20% Phosphazene variety] (v/v), which were targeted for safer electrolyte variations.

  9. An Incremental Type Inference System for the Programming Language Id

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    contemporaries in the realm of functional langauges , namely, ML, Hope [14], Miranda, Haskell [27] etc. But the programming environment for Id is different from...example, if A and B are simple syntactic sets, then A -- B merely denotes the set of all total functions from A to B; if A and B are scott- domains ...are functions (maps) then, 1. Dom(fy) is the Domain of f. 2. Ran(f) is the Range of f. 3. f E A --+ B means that f is a function from A to B as

  10. RFID and Auto-ID in planning and logistics

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Erick C

    2011-01-01

    As RFID technology is becoming increasingly popular, the need has arisen to address the challenges and approaches to successful implementation. RFID and Auto-ID in Planning and Logistics: A Practical Guide for Military UID Applications presents the concepts for students, military personnel and contractors, and corporate managers to learn about RFID and other automatic information capture technologies, and their integration into planning and logistics functions. The text includes comparisons of RFID with technologies such as bar codes, satellite tags, and global positioning systems and provides

  11. CRISP-ID: decoding CRISPR mediated indels by Sanger sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehairs, Jonas; Talebi, Ali; Cherifi, Yacine; Swinnen, Johannes V

    2016-07-01

    The advent of next generation gene editing technologies has revolutionized the fields of genome engineering in allowing the generation of gene knockout models and functional gene analysis. However, the screening of resultant clones remains challenging due to the simultaneous presence of different indels. Here, we present CRISP-ID, a web application which uses a unique algorithm for genotyping up to three alleles from a single Sanger sequencing trace, providing a robust and readily accessible platform to directly identify indels and significantly speed up the characterization of clones.

  12. Quadruplex Integrated DNA (QuID Nanosensors for Monitoring Dopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Morales

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine is widely innervated throughout the brain and critical for many cognitive and motor functions. Imbalances or loss in dopamine transmission underlie various psychiatric disorders and degenerative diseases. Research involving cellular studies and disease states would benefit from a tool for measuring dopamine transmission. Here we show a Quadruplex Integrated DNA (QuID nanosensor platform for selective and dynamic detection of dopamine. This nanosensor exploits DNA technology and enzyme recognition systems to optically image dopamine levels. The DNA quadruplex architecture is designed to be compatible in physically constrained environments (110 nm with high flexibility, homogeneity, and a lower detection limit of 110 µM.

  13. Multiple-membrane multiple-electrolyte redox flow battery design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yushan; Gu, Shuang; Gong, Ke

    2017-05-02

    A redox flow battery is provided. The redox flow battery involves multiple-membrane (at least one cation exchange membrane and at least one anion exchange membrane), multiple-electrolyte (one electrolyte in contact with the negative electrode, one electrolyte in contact with the positive electrode, and at least one electrolyte disposed between the two membranes) as the basic characteristic, such as a double-membrane, triple electrolyte (DMTE) configuration or a triple-membrane, quadruple electrolyte (TMQE) configuration. The cation exchange membrane is used to separate the negative or positive electrolyte and the middle electrolyte, and the anion exchange membrane is used to separate the middle electrolyte and the positive or negative electrolyte.

  14. Design of a Test Bed for evaluating an Intrusion Detection System (IDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, Jung Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation And Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    Intrusion detection system (IDS) in domestic nuclear installation should be established in consideration of environmental and site-specific factors. Prior to this, a guidance of the IDS based on those factors at the specific nuclear facility should be provided. We have designed a concept of a test bed, which consists IDS and CCTV system, in order to execute several performance tests. The ultimate purpose of this study is to establish a test bed in which IDS could be evaluated and developed.

  15. Electrolyte Imbalance in Patients with Sheehan's Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Chur Hoan Lim; Ji Hyun Han; Joon Jin; Ji Eun Yu; Jin Ook Chung; Dong Hyeok Cho; Dong Jin Chung; Min Young Chung

    2015-01-01

    Background We investigated the prevalence of electrolyte imbalance and the relationship between serum electrolyte and anterior pituitary hormone levels in patients with Sheehan's syndrome. Methods In a retrospective study, we investigated 78 patients with Sheehan's syndrome. We also included 95 normal control subjects who underwent a combined anterior pituitary hormone stimulation test and showed normal hormonal responses. Results In patients with Sheehan's syndrome, the serum levels of sodiu...

  16. Hypercalcemia and electrolyte disturbances in malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barri, Y M; Knochel, J P

    1996-08-01

    Hypercalcemia and electrolyte abnormalities are common problems in patients with malignancy. In this article we discuss the pathophysiology, clinical features, and management of hypercalcemia, which is the most common metabolic abnormality. We also analyze the electrolyte disturbances that occur in association with malignancy, including hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypophosphatemia, and hyperkalemia. Recognition and treatment of these disturbances are important parts of the management of patients with malignant disease.

  17. Handheld Microneedle-Based Electrolyte Sensing Platform.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Philip R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rivas, Rhiana [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, David [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Edwards, Thayne L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koskelo, Markku [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shawa, Luay [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brener, Igal [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chavez, Victor H. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Polsky, Ronen [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories will provide technical assistance, within time and budget, to Requester on testing and analyzing a microneedle-based electrolyte sensing platform. Hollow microneedles will be fabricated at Sandia and integrated with a fluidic chip using plastic laminate prototyping technology available at Sandia. In connection with commercial ion selective electrodes the sensing platform will be tested for detection of electrolytes (sodium and/or potassium) within physiological relevant concent ration ranges.

  18. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlan U. Anderson; Fatih Dogan; Vladimir Petrovsky

    2003-03-31

    This report represents a summary of the work carried out on this project which started October 1999 and ended March 2003. A list of the publications resulting from the work are contained in Appendix A. The most significant achievements are: (1) Dense nanocrystalline zirconia and ceria films were obtained at temperatures < 400 C. (2) Nanocrystalline films of both ceria and zirconia were characterized. (3) We showed that under anodic conditions 0.5 to 1 micron thick nanocrystalline films of Sc doped zirconia have sufficient electronic conductivity to prevent them from being useful as an electrolyte. (4) We have developed a process by which dense 0.5 to 5 micron thick dense films of either YSZ or ceria can be deposited on sintered porous substrates which serve as either the cathode or anode at temperatures as low as 400 C. (5) The program has provided the research to produce two PhD thesis for students, one is now working in the solid oxide fuel cell field. (6) The results of the research have resulted in 69 papers published, 3 papers submitted or being prepared for publication, 50 oral presentations and 3 patent disclosures.

  19. 77 FR 55486 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Importer ID Input Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Importer ID Input... accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Importer ID Input Record (CBP Form 5106). This is a proposed...: Title: Importer ID Input Record. OMB Number: 1651-0064. Form Number: CBP Forms 5106. Abstract: The...

  20. ID-kaart võiks asendada firma uksekaarti / Eda-Liis Kann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kann, Eda-Liis, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    ID-kaarti saaks tänu selle elektroonilistele funktsioonidele kasutada ka ettevõtte uksekaardina. Kommenteerivad Olaf Orgse, Karin Niinas, Aivar Pau ja Andres Kuut. Lisa: Lähiajal võib ID-kaardiga liituda politsei; ID-kaart on populaarsem finantsasutustes

  1. Assessment of renal function and electrolytes in patients with thyroid dysfunction in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Nardos; Kebede, Tedla; Wolde, Mistire

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Studies demonstrated that abnormal thyroid functions may result in decreased or increased kidney size, kidney weight, and affect renal functions. In this regard, studies on the association of abnormal thyroid functions and renal function tests are scarcely found in Ethiopia. Objective To assess renal function and electrolytes in patients with thyroid dysfunction, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Cross sectional study was conducted from March 21/2015-May 27/2015 at Arsho Advanced Medical Laboratory. During the study period, 71 patients with thyroid dysfunction were eligible, and socio demographic data collected by structured questionnaire. Then blood sample was collected for thyroid function tests, renal function and blood electrolyte analysis. The collected data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. ANOVA and binary logistic regression were employed to evaluate the mean deference and associations of thyroid hormone with renal function and electrolyte balances. Results Among the renal function tests, serum uric acid, and creatinine mean values were significantly decreased in hyperthyroid patients; whereas, eGFR mean value was significantly increased in hyperthyroid study patients (P<0.05). Meanwhile, from the electrolyte measurements made, only the mean serum sodium value was significantly increased in hyperthyroid study participants. Binary logistic regression analysis on the association of thyroid dysfunction with electrolyte balance and renal function tests indicated that serum sodium, creatinine, eGFR values and hyperthyroidism have a statistical significant association at AOR 95% CI of 0.141(0.033-0.593, P=0.008); 16.236(3.481-75.739, P=0.001), and 13.797(3.261-58.67, P=0.001) respectively. Conclusion The current study reveals, thyroid abnormalities may lead to renal function alterations and also may disturb electrolyte balance. Knowledge of this significant association has worthwhile value for clinicians, to manage their patients' optimally. PMID

  2. Secure OpenID Authentication Model by Using Trusted Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ghazizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Internet online services has been very quick in recent years. Each online service requires Internet users to create a new account to use the service. The problem can be seen when each user usually needs more than one service and, consequently, has numerous accounts. These numerous accounts have to be managed in a secure and simple way to be protected against identity theft. Single sign-on (SSO and OpenID have been used to decrease the complexity of managing numerous accounts required in the Internet identity environment. Trusted Platform Module (TPM and Trust Multitenancy are great trusted computing-based technologies to solve security concerns in the Internet identity environment. Since trust is one of the pillars of security in the cloud, this paper analyzes the existing cloud identity techniques in order to investigate their strengths and weaknesses. This paper proposes a model in which One Time Password (OTP, TPM, and OpenID are used to provide a solution against phishing as a common identity theft in cloud environment.

  3. Improvement of the ID model for quantitative network data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Borgen; Damgaard, Christian Frølund; Dupont, Yoko Luise

    2015-01-01

    ,j: the probability for a visit made by the i’th pollinator species to take place in a flower of the j’th plant species; (2), qi,j: the probability for a visit received by the j’th plant species to be made by the i’th pollinator. The estimated mean values for pi,j and qi,j reflect the relative differences between......)1. This presentation will illustrate the application of the ID method based on a data set which consists of counts of visits by 152 pollinator species to 16 plant species. The method is based on two definitions of the underlying probabilities for each combination of pollinator and plant species: (1), pi...... recorded numbers of visits for different pollinator and plant species, and the estimated uncertainty of pi,j and qi,j decreases with higher numbers of recorded visits. This presentation will suggest some simple but important improvements of the ID method and validate this by showing how well the method can...

  4. [Forensic validation of goldeneye? DNA ID 26Y system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Que, Ting-zhi; Lin, Yuan; Zhao, Zhen-min; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Su-hua

    2014-12-01

    To perform the validation and analysis of forensic parameters of Goldeneye DNA ID 26Y system. Based on the validation rules of Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM), the kit was assessed from several parts, as test of PCR system, reproducibility, accuracy, and sensitivity, etc. And Y-STR loci of 517 unrelated healthy individuals from Eastern China were genotypes by this kit. The distribution and frequency of haplotype were calculated and forensic parameters of the kit were assessed. The complete profiles can be obtained even when the PCR reaction volume with 6.25 microL. And correct profile was obtained with DNA down to 125 pg. No reproducible peaks were detected with the DNA of common animals and microorganism with the kit. For the male-male mixture testing, average 70% of the minor alleles were obtained when the ratios of 1:19 and 19:1. For the male-female mixture testing, results showed that the sensitivity of the kit was no compromised with the addition of female samples. The validation studies demonstrated that Goldeneye DNA ID 26Y system has good sensitivity and specificity, and suitable for mixture testing. The polymorphism of 26 Y-STR loci included in this kit are good for forensic application.

  5. Revocable ID-Based Signature with Short Size over Lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hao Hung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past, many ID-based signature (IBS schemes based on the integer factorization or discrete logarithm problems were proposed. With the progress on the development of quantum technology, IBS schemes mentioned above would become vulnerable. Recently, several IBS schemes over lattices were proposed to be secure against attacks in the quantum era. As conventional public-key settings, ID-based public-key settings have to offer a revocation mechanism to revoke misbehaving or malicious users. However, in the past, little work focuses on the revocation problem in the IBS schemes over lattices. In this article, we propose a new revocable IBS (RIBS scheme with short size over lattices. Based on the short integer solution (SIS assumption, we prove that the proposed RIBS scheme provides existential unforgeability against adaptive chosen-message attacks. As compared to the existing IBS schemes over lattices, our RIBS scheme has better performance in terms of signature size, signing key size, and the revocation mechanism with public channels.

  6. Comparison of Perinatal Risk Factors Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Intellectual Disability (ID), and Co-Occurring ASD and ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieve, Laura A.; Clayton, Heather B.; Durkin, Maureen S.; Wingate, Martha S.; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    While studies report associations between perinatal outcomes and both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID), there has been little study of ASD with versus without co-occurring ID. We compared perinatal risk factors among 7547 children in the 2006-2010 Autism and Developmental Disability Monitoring Network classified as…

  7. Lithium carbon batteries with solid polymer electrolyte; Accumulateur lithium carbone a electrolyte solide polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrieu, X.; Boudin, F. [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France)

    1996-12-31

    The lithium carbon batteries studied in this paper use plasticized polymer electrolytes made with passive polymer matrix swollen by a liquid electrolyte with a high ionic conductivity (> 10{sup -3} S/cm at 25 deg. C). The polymers used to prepare the gels are polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and vinylidene poly-fluoride (PVdF). The electrochemical and physical properties of these materials are analyzed according to their composition. The behaviour of solid electrolytes with different materials of lithium ion insertion (graphite and LiNiO{sub 2}) are studied and compared to liquid electrolytes. The parameters taken into account are the reversible and irreversible capacities, the cycling performance and the admissible current densities. Finally, complete lithium ion batteries with gelled electrolytes were manufactured and tested. (J.S.) 2 refs.

  8. Alterations of Serum Electrolytes and Malondialdehyde in Cataract Patients Attending General Hospital Owerri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnodim Johnkennedy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out to determine the level of serum electrolyte and malondialdehyde in cataract patients. Material and Methods: 80 cataract patients within the age of 55 years to 75 years attending General Hospital Owerri for routine blood glucose check were used in this study. Also 80 apparently healthy subjects without cataract within the age of 55 years and 75 years were used as control. The level of electrolytes particularly sodium and potassium were measured. The levels of glucose, urea, creatinine were measured in order to rule out diabetes and kidney malfunction respectively in both study and control groups. Result:It was observed that the level of sodium and Malondialdehyde (MDA were significantly increased in cataract patients when compared with controls (p0.05. Conclusion: This observation shows that increased sodium level in cataract patients could probably result in elevation of aqueous humor of the lens which contributes to osmotic disorder across the lens membrane. This could aggravate the progression of cataract as a result of MDA elevation. Therefore, salt restricted diet could be beneficial to cataract patients by preventing electrolyte disorder, hypernatremia and maintain the electrolyte balance.

  9. Comparison of blood electrolytes and glucose during cardiopulmonary bypass in diabetic and non-diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golamreza Maasoumi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB during coronary artery bypass grafting is thought to contribute significantly to increased blood glucose level and altered blood electrolytes balance during the operation. In this (CABG study, blood electrolytes and glucose during CPB in insulin-dependent diabetic and non-diabetic patients were assessed with special emphasis on the trend of the changes. Materials and Methods: Blood glucose and electrolytes were assessed in 30 insulin-dependent diabetic and 30 non-diabetic patients, classified as class II and III American Society of Anesthesiologist, before, during, and after CPB. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to compare the trend of the changes during CPB for the two groups. Results: The trend in blood glucose level did not show any significant difference between two groups ( P = 0.59. For other blood factors, no significant between-group difference was detected except for PaCO 2 ( P = 0.002. Conclusion: The study suggested that the changes in blood electrolytes and the increase in blood glucose level do not differ between insulin dependent diabetic and non-diabetic patients.

  10. Novel Nonflammable Electrolytes for Secondary Magnesium Batteries and High Voltage Electrolytes for Electrochemcial Supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Brian

    2008-12-30

    Magnesium has been used successfully in primary batteries, but its use in rechargeable cells has been stymied by the lack of suitable non-aqueous electrolyte that can conduct Mg+2 species, combined with poor stripping and plating properties. The development of a suitable cathode material for rechargeable magnesium batteries has also been a roadblock, but a nonflammable electrolyte is key. Likewise, the development of safe high voltage electrochemical supercapaitors has been stymied by the use of flammable solvents in the liquid electrolyte; to wit, acetonitrile. The purpose of the research conducted in this effort was to identify useful compositions of magnesium salts and polyphosphate solvents that would enable magnesium ions to be cycled within a secondary battery design. The polyphosphate solvents would provide the solvent for the magnesium salts while preventing the electrolyte from being flammable. This would enable these novel electrolytes to be considered as an alternative to THF-based electrolytes. In addition, we explored several of these solvents together with lithium slats for use as high voltage electrolytes for carbon-based electrochemical supercapacitors. The research was successful in that: 1) Magnesium imide dissolved in a phosphate ester solvent that contains a halogented phosphate ester appears to be the preferred electrolyte for a rechargeable Mg cell. 2) A combination of B-doped CNTs and vanadium phosphate appear to be the cathode of choice for a rechargeable Mg cell by virtue of higher voltage and better reversibility. 3) Magnesium alloys appear to perform better than pure magnesium when used in combination with the novel polyphosphate electrolytes. Also, this effort has established that Phoenix Innovation's family of phosphonate/phosphate electrolytes together with specific lithium slats can be used in supercapacitor systems at voltages of greater than 10V.

  11. Targeted DNA vaccines for enhanced induction of Idiotype (Id-specific B and T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnete Brunsvik Fredriksen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Idiotopes (Id are antigenic determinants localized in variable (V regions of Ig. Id-specific T and B cells (antibodies play a role in immunotherapy of Id+ tumors. However, vaccine strategies that enhance Id-specific responses are needed. Methods: Id+ single chain Fragment variable (scFv from multiple myelomas and B cell lymphomas were prepared in a fusion format that bivalently target surface molecules on antigen presenting cells (APC. APC-specific targeting units were either scFv from APC-specific mAb (anti-MHCII, anti-CD40 or chemokines (MIP-1α, RANTES. Homodimeric Id-vaccines were injected intramuscularly or intradermally as plasmids in mice, combined with electroporation. Results: (i Transfected cells secreted plasmid-encoded Id+ fusion proteins to extracellular fluid followed by binding of vaccine molecules to APC. (ii Targeted vaccine molecules increased Id-specific B and T cell responses. (iii Bivalency and xenogeneic sequences both contributed to enhanced responses. (iv Targeted Id DNA vaccines induced tumor resistance against challenges with Id+ tumors. (v Human MIP-1α targeting units enhanced Id-specific responses in mice, due to a cross reaction with murine chemokine receptors. Thus, targeted vaccines designed for humans can be quality tested in mice. (vi Human Id+ scFv from 4 multiple myeloma patients were inserted into the vaccine format and were successfully tested in mice. (vii Human MIP-1α vaccine proteins enhanced human T cell responses in vitro (viii A hypothetical model for how the APC-targeted vaccine molecules enhance Id-specific T and B cells is presented. Conclusions: Targeted DNA Id-vaccines show promising results in preclinical studies, paving the way for testing in patients.

  12. Microbe-ID: an open source toolbox for microbial genotyping and species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier F. Tabima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of tools to identify species, genotypes, or novel strains of invasive organisms is critical for monitoring emergence and implementing rapid response measures. Molecular markers, although critical to identifying species or genotypes, require bioinformatic tools for analysis. However, user-friendly analytical tools for fast identification are not readily available. To address this need, we created a web-based set of applications called Microbe-ID that allow for customizing a toolbox for rapid species identification and strain genotyping using any genetic markers of choice. Two components of Microbe-ID, named Sequence-ID and Genotype-ID, implement species and genotype identification, respectively. Sequence-ID allows identification of species by using BLAST to query sequences for any locus of interest against a custom reference sequence database. Genotype-ID allows placement of an unknown multilocus marker in either a minimum spanning network or dendrogram with bootstrap support from a user-created reference database. Microbe-ID can be used for identification of any organism based on nucleotide sequences or any molecular marker type and several examples are provided. We created a public website for demonstration purposes called Microbe-ID (microbe-id.org and provided a working implementation for the genus Phytophthora (phytophthora-id.org. In Phytophthora-ID, the Sequence-ID application allows identification based on ITS or cox spacer sequences. Genotype-ID groups individuals into clonal lineages based on simple sequence repeat (SSR markers for the two invasive plant pathogen species P. infestans and P. ramorum. All code is open source and available on github and CRAN. Instructions for installation and use are provided at https://github.com/grunwaldlab/Microbe-ID.

  13. ID4 promotes AR expression and blocks tumorigenicity of PC3 prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komaragiri, Shravan Kumar; Bostanthirige, Dhanushka H.; Morton, Derrick J.; Patel, Divya; Joshi, Jugal; Upadhyay, Sunil; Chaudhary, Jaideep, E-mail: jchaudhary@cau.edu

    2016-09-09

    Deregulation of tumor suppressor genes is associated with tumorigenesis and the development of cancer. In prostate cancer, ID4 is epigenetically silenced and acts as a tumor suppressor. In normal prostate epithelial cells, ID4 collaborates with androgen receptor (AR) and p53 to exert its tumor suppressor activity. Previous studies have shown that ID4 promotes tumor suppressive function of AR whereas loss of ID4 results in tumor promoter activity of AR. Previous study from our lab showed that ectopic ID4 expression in DU145 attenuates proliferation and promotes AR expression suggesting that ID4 dependent AR activity is tumor suppressive. In this study, we examined the effect of ectopic expression of ID4 on highly malignant prostate cancer cell, PC3. Here we show that stable overexpression of ID4 in PC3 cells leads to increased apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation and migration. In addition, in vivo studies showed a decrease in tumor size and volume of ID4 overexpressing PC3 cells, in nude mice. At the molecular level, these changes were associated with increased androgen receptor (AR), p21, and AR dependent FKBP51 expression. At the mechanistic level, ID4 may regulate the expression or function of AR through specific but yet unknown AR co-regulators that may determine the final outcome of AR function. - Highlights: • ID4 expression induces AR expression in PC3 cells, which generally lack AR. • ID4 expression increased apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation and invasion. • Overexpression of ID4 reduces tumor growth of subcutaneous xenografts in vivo. • ID4 induces p21 and FKBP51 expression- co-factors of AR tumor suppressor activity.

  14. Balance Food and Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Features Spokespeople News Archive eNewsletters Calendar Balance Food and Activity What is Energy Balance? Energy is ... of calories just by breathing air and digesting food. You also burn a certain number of calories ( ...

  15. Balanced Scorecard voor inkoop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Honing, R.; Schotanus, Fredo

    2003-01-01

    Een Balanced Scorecard kan ontwikkeld worden voor de hele organisatie, maar ook voor onderdelen daarvan. In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op de ontwikkeling van een Balanced Scorecard voor de inkoopafdeling

  16. Skylab water balance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    The water balance of the Skylab crew was analyzed. Evaporative water loss using a whole body input/output balance equation, water, body tissue, and energy balance was analyzed. The approach utilizes the results of several major Skylab medical experiments. Subsystems were designed for the use of the software necessary for the analysis. A partitional water balance that graphically depicts the changes due to water intake is presented. The energy balance analysis determines the net available energy to the individual crewman during any period. The balances produce a visual description of the total change of a particular body component during the course of the mission. The information is salvaged from metabolic balance data if certain techniques are used to reduce errors inherent in the balance method.

  17. Forensic validation of the SNPforID 52-plex assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musgrave-Brown, Esther; Ballard, David; Balogh, Kinga

    2007-01-01

    The advantages of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing in forensic genetics are well known and include a wider choice of high-throughput typing platforms, lower mutation rates, and improved analysis of degraded samples. However, if SNPs are to become a realistic supplement to current short...... tandem repeat (STR) typing methods, they must be shown to successfully and reliably analyse the challenging samples commonly encountered in casework situations. The European SNPforID consortium, supported by the EU GROWTH programme, has developed a multiplex of 52 SNPs for forensic analysis...... in forensic casework. A total of 40 extracts were used in the study, each of which was sent to two of the five participating laboratories for typing in duplicate or triplicate. Laboratories were instructed to carry out their analyses as if they were dealing with normal casework samples. Results were reported...

  18. Entomopathogen ID: a curated sequence resource for entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Ramirez, José Luis; Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Labeda, David P

    2017-11-23

    We report the development of a publicly accessible, curated nucleotide sequence database of hypocrealean entomopathogenic fungi. The goal is to provide a platform for users to easily access sequence data from taxonomic reference strains. The database can be used to accurately identify unknown entomopathogenic fungi based on sequence data for a variety of phylogenetically informative loci. The database provides full multi-locus sequence alignment capabilities. The initial release contains data compiled for 525 strains covering the phylogenetic diversity of three important entomopathogenic families: Clavicipitaceae, Cordycipitaceae, and Ophiocordycipitaceae. Furthermore, Entomopathogen ID can be expanded to other fungal clades of insect pathogens, as sequence data becomes available. The database will allow isolate characterisation and evolutionary analyses. We contend that this freely available, web-accessible database will facilitate the broader community to accurately identify fungal entomopathogens, which will allow users to communicate research results more effectively.

  19. Applying Open Researchers and Contributors ID in scholarly journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghee Im

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Open Researchers and Contributors ID (ORCID launched its registry services in October 2012. Consequently, adding personal information to the ORCID registry became routine work for researchers. To add ORCID to an online article, the tag needs to be included in the Journal Article Tag Suite extensible markup language file, if such a file has been produced by the publisher. Subsequently, all co-authors’ ORCID can be easily and conveniently collected and then integrated into the manuscript management system. In the current age of information and the Internet, journals need to keep pace with the surge of new standards and technologies. Editors should be able to accept and apply these new systems rapidly.

  20. DeID - a data sharing tool for neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuebo; Wang, James; Wang, Anlin; Meng, Qingping; Prescott, Christian; Tsu, Loretta; Eckert, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Funding institutions and researchers increasingly expect that data will be shared to increase scientific integrity and provide other scientists with the opportunity to use the data with novel methods that may advance understanding in a particular field of study. In practice, sharing human subject data can be complicated because data must be de-identified prior to sharing. Moreover, integrating varied data types collected in a study can be challenging and time consuming. For example, sharing data from structural imaging studies of a complex disorder requires the integration of imaging, demographic and/or behavioral data in a way that no subject identifiers are included in the de-identified dataset and with new subject labels or identification values that cannot be tracked back to the original ones. We have developed a Java program that users can use to remove identifying information in neuroimaging datasets, while still maintaining the association among different data types from the same subject for further studies. This software provides a series of user interaction wizards to allow users to select data variables to be de-identified, implements functions for auditing and validation of de-identified data, and enables the user to share the de-identified data in a single compressed package through various communication protocols, such as FTPS and SFTP. DeID runs with Windows, Linux, and Mac operating systems and its open architecture allows it to be easily adapted to support a broader array of data types, with the goal of facilitating data sharing. DeID can be obtained at http://www.nitrc.org/projects/deid.

  1. The buffer effect in neutral electrolyte supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindt, Steffen T.; Skou, Eivind M.

    2016-02-01

    The observation that double-layer capacitors based on neutral aqueous electrolytes can have significantly wider usable potential windows than those based on acidic or alkaline electrolytes is studied. This effect is explained by a local pH change taking place at the electrode surfaces, leading to a change in the redox potential of water in opposite directions on the two electrodes, resulting in the wider stability window. The magnitude of this effect is suggested to be dependent on the buffer capacity, rather than the intrinsic pH value of the electrolyte. This is confirmed by studying the impact of addition of a buffer to such systems. It is shown that a 56 % higher dynamic storage capacity may be achieved, simply by controlling the buffer capacity of the electrolyte. The model system used, is based on a well-known commercial activated carbon (NORIT™ A SUPRA) as the electrode material, aqueous potassium nitrate as the electrolyte and potassium phosphates as the buffer system.

  2. Acute Symptomatic Seizures Caused by Electrolyte Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    In this narrative review we focus on acute symptomatic seizures occurring in subjects with electrolyte disturbances. Quite surprisingly, despite its clinical relevance, this issue has received very little attention in the scientific literature. Electrolyte abnormalities are commonly encountered in clinical daily practice, and their diagnosis relies on routine laboratory findings. Acute and severe electrolyte imbalances can manifest with seizures, which may be the sole presenting symptom. Seizures are more frequently observed in patients with sodium disorders (especially hyponatremia), hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia. They do not entail a diagnosis of epilepsy, but are classified as acute symptomatic seizures. EEG has little specificity in differentiating between various electrolyte disturbances. The prominent EEG feature is slowing of the normal background activity, although other EEG findings, including various epileptiform abnormalities may occur. An accurate and prompt diagnosis should be established for a successful management of seizures, as rapid identification and correction of the underlying electrolyte disturbance (rather than an antiepileptic treatment) are of crucial importance in the control of seizures and prevention of permanent brain damage.

  3. Negative Transference Numbers in Polymer Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Danielle; Timachova, Ksenia; Balsara, Nitash

    Energy density and safety of conventional lithium-ion batteries is limited by the use of flammable organic liquids as a solvent for lithium salts. Polymer electrolytes have the potential to address both limitations. The poor performance of batteries with polymer electrolytes is generally attributed to low ionic conductivity. The purpose of our work is to show that another transport property, the cation transference number, t +, of polymer electrolytes is fundamentally different from that of conventional electrolytes. Our experimental approach, based on concentrated solution theory, indicates that t + of mixtures of poly(ethylene oxide) and LiTFSI salt are negative over most of the accessible concentration window. In contrast, approaches based on dilute solution theory suggest that t + in the same system is positive. In addition to presenting a new approach for determining t +, we also present data obtained from the steady-state current method, pulsed-field-gradient NMR, and the current-interrupt method. Discrepancies between different approaches are resolved. Our work implies that in the absence of concentration gradients, the net fluxes of both cations and anions are directed toward the positive electrode. Conventional liquid electrolytes do not suffer from this constraint.

  4. Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum Employing Planar Anodes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Robert J. (Goldendale, WA); Mezner, Michael B. (Sandy, OR); Bradford, Donald R (Underwood, WA)

    2004-10-05

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising providing a molten salt electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell. A plurality of anodes and cathodes having planar surfaces are disposed in a generally vertical orientation in the electrolyte, the anodes and cathodes arranged in alternating or interleaving relationship to provide anode planar surfaces disposed opposite cathode planar surfaces, the anode comprised of carbon. Electric current is passed through anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes depositing aluminum at the cathodes and forming carbon containing gas at the anodes.

  5. Mathematical Modeling of Electrolyte Filtration through the Porous Cathode Blocks during Aluminum Electrolysis with Regard Interblock Seams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Anton S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates electrolyte filtration in the bottom of the aluminum electrolyzer cathode device using the mathematical modeling. Penetration of molten electrolyte in the heat insulation part of the lining is one of the main reasons of electrolyzer premature shutdown, because it leads to bottom destruction and excessive heat loss. This problem is considered a two-phase filtration of incompressible immiscible liquids in an inhomogeneous non-deformable porous body. The verification of the model on the problem of water filtration pin a porous medium has confirmed its adequacy. With the help of the developed mathematical model the dynamics of the impregnation of the lining of the cathode and electrolyte device defined thermal balance baths. Research has identified the speed of penetration of the melt in the bottom of the bath during service of the electrolyzer.

  6. Effect of furosemide oral solution versus furosemide tablets on diuresis and electrolytes in patients with moderate congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, N; Golik, A; Dishi, V; Zaidenstein, R; Weissgarten, J; Averbukh, Z; Modai, D

    1996-01-01

    Oral furosemide solution was claimed to produce a greater diuretic response than furosemide tablets in patients with congestive heart failure. The aim of this study was to assess this observation and to further investigate the effects on the electrolyte balance. We compared the effects of oral furosemide in tablets versus oral furosemide solution on serum levels as well as on 4- and cumulative 24-hour urinary volume and sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and zinc excretions in 10 patients with moderate congestive heart failure due to ischemic heart disease. Oral furosemide (40-80 mg) was given at the usual once-daily dosage. No change in serum electrolyte levels has been found. All urinary parameters, except zinc, were significantly greater during the first 4 h following oral solution as compared with tablets (volume p electrolytes remained within normal limits at 4 and 24 h.

  7. Ionic liquid-nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying

    2012-01-01

    We investigate physical and electrochemical properties of a family of organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes based on the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone) imide covalently tethered to silica nanoparticles (SiO 2-IL-TFSI). The ionic conductivity exhibits a pronounced maximum versus LiTFSI composition, and in mixtures containing 13.4 wt% LiTFSI, the room-temperature ionic conductivity is enhanced by over 3 orders of magnitude relative to either of the mixture components, without compromising lithium transference number. The SiO 2-IL-TFSI/LiTFSI hybrid electrolytes are thermally stable up to 400°C and exhibit tunable mechanical properties and attractive (4.25V) electrochemical stability in the presence of metallic lithium. We explain these observations in terms of ionic coupling between counterion species in the mobile and immobile (particle-tethered) phases of the electrolytes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Lithium and sodium batteries with polysulfide electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Mengliu

    2017-12-28

    A battery comprising: at least one cathode, at least one anode, at least one battery separator, and at least one electrolyte disposed in the separator, wherein the anode is a lithium metal or lithium alloy anode or an anode adapted for intercalation of lithium ion, wherein the cathode comprises material adapted for reversible lithium extraction from and insertion into the cathode, and wherein the separator comprises at least one porous, electronically conductive layer and at least one insulating layer, and wherein the electrolyte comprises at least one polysulfide anion. The battery provides for high energy density and capacity. A redox species is introduced into the electrolyte which creates a hybrid battery. Sodium metal and sodium-ion batteries also provided.

  9. Multi component equations of state for electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Yi; Thomsen, Kaj; de Hemptinne, Jean-Charles

    2007-01-01

    Four equations of state have been implemented and evaluated for multi component electrolyte solutions at 298.15K and 1 bar. The equations contain terms accounting for short-range and long-range interactions in electrolyte solutions. Short range interactions are described by one of the three...... equations of state, Peng-Robinson, Soave-Redlich-Kwong, or Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA). Long range interactions are described by either the simplified mean spherical approximation (MSA) solution of the Ornstein–Zernicke equation or the simplified Debye-Hückel term. An optional Born term is added...... to these electrostatic terms. The resulting electrolyte equations of state were tested by determining the optimal model parameters for the multi component test system consisting of H2O, Na+, H+, Ca2+, Cl-, OH-, SO42-. In order to describe the thermodynamics of this multi component system, ion specific parameters were...

  10. Multicomponent equations of state for electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Yi; Thomsen, Kaj; Hemptinne, Jean-Charles de

    2007-01-01

    Four equations of state have been implemented and evaluated for multicomponent electrolyte solutions at 298.15 K and 1 bar. The equations contain terms accounting for short-range and long-range interactions in electrolyte solutions. Short range interactions are described by one of the three...... equations of state, Peng-Robinson, Soave-Redlich-Kwong, or Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA). Long-range interactions are described by either the simplified mean spherical approximation (MSA) solution of the Ornstein-Zernicke equation or the simplified Debye-Huchel term. An optional Born term is added...... to these electrostatic terms. The resulting electrolyte equations of state were tested by determining the optimal model parameters for the multicomponent test system consisting of H2O, Na+, H+, Ca2+, Cl-, OH-, SO42-. To describe the thermodynamics of this multicomponent system, ion specific parameters were determined...

  11. DNA Attraction in Monovalent and Divalent Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Binquan; Aksimentiev, Aleksei

    2010-01-01

    The dependence of the effective force on the distance between two DNA molecules was directly computed from a set of extensive all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations revealed that in a monovalent electrolyte the effective force is repulsive at short and long distances, but can be attractive in the intermediate range. This attractive force is, however, too weak (~5pN per turn of a DNA helix) to induce DNA condensation in the presence of thermal fluctuations. In divalent electrolytes, DNA molecules were observed to form a bound state, where Mg2+ ions bridged minor groves of DNA. The effective force in divalent electrolytes was predominantly attractive, reaching a maximum of 42pN per one turn of a DNA helix. PMID:18975864

  12. The buffer effect in neutral electrolyte supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane Vindt, Steffen; Skou, Eivind M.

    2016-01-01

    to a change in the redox potential of water in opposite directions on the two electrodes, resulting in the wider stability window. The magnitude of this effect is suggested to be dependent on the buffer capacity, rather than the intrinsic pH value of the electrolyte. This is confirmed by studying the impact...... of addition of a buffer to such systems. It is shown that a 56 % higher dynamic storage capacity may be achieved, simply by controlling the buffer capacity of the electrolyte. The model system used, is based on a well-known commercial activated carbon (NORIT™ A SUPRA) as the electrode material, aqueous...... potassium nitrate as the electrolyte and potassium phosphates as the buffer system....

  13. REMOVAL OF COPPER ELECTROLYTE CONTAMINANTS BY ADSORPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Gabai

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Selective adsorbents have become frequently used in industrial processes. Recent studies have shown the possibility of using adsorption to separate copper refinery electrolyte contaminants, with better results than those obtained with conventional techniques. During copper electrorefinning, many impurities may be found as dissolved metals present in the anode slime which forms on the electrode surface, accumulated in the electrolyte or incorporated into the refined copper on the cathode by deposition. In this study, synthetic zeolites, chelating resins and activated carbons were tested as adsorbents to select the best adsorbent performance, as well as the best operating temperature for the process. The experimental method applied was the finite bath, which consists in bringing the adsorbent into contact with a finite volume of electrolyte while controlling the temperature. The concentration of metals in the liquid phase was continuously monitored by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS

  14. Clinical significance of up-regulated ID1 expression in Chinese de novo acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing-Dong; Yang, Lei; Zhu, Xiao-Wen; Wen, Xiang-Mei; Yang, Jing; Guo, Hong; Chen, Qin; Yao, Dong-Ming; Ma, Ji-Chun; Lin, Jiang; Qian, Jun

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the clinical significance of ID1 expression in Chinese de novo AML patients. Real-time quantitative PCR was carried out to detect the status of ID1 expression in 102 de novo AML patients and 28 controls. ID1 transcript level was significantly increased in AML compared to normal controls (p=0.029). The age in the patients with high ID1 expression is significantly older than in those with low ID1 expression (p=0.044). ID1 overexpression occurred with the highest frequency in the patients with poor karyotype (7/7, 100%), lower frequency in the patients with intermediate karyotype (28/60, 47%), and the lowest frequency in the patients with favorable karyotype (12/31, 39%). Both whole AML and non-M3 patients with high ID1 expression had significantly lower rate of complete remission than those with low ID1 expression (p=0.007 and 0.038). ID1 high-expressed patients showed significantly shorter overall survival (OS) than ID1 low-expressed patients in both whole AML and non-M3 according to Kaplan-Meier analysis (p=0.007 and 0.040). However, multivariate analysis indicated that ID1 overexpression was not an independent risk factor in both whole AML and non-M3 patients. However, the adverse impact of ID1 overexpression on outcome was revealed by both Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate analysis in the non-M3 patients less than 60 years old. Our study reveals that ID1 overexpression may be associated with higher risk karyotype classification and act as an independent risk factor in young non-M3 patients.

  15. Recent results on aqueous electrolyte cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin

    2011-03-01

    The improved safety of aqueous electrolytes makes aqueous lithium-ion batteries an attractive alternative to commercial cells utilizing flammable and expensive organic electrolytes. Two important issues relating to their use have been addressed in this work. One is the extension of the usable voltage range by the incorporation of lithium salts, and the other is the investigation of a useful negative electrode reactant, LiTi 2(PO 4) 3. The electrochemical stability of aqueous lithium salt solutions containing two lithium salts, LiNO 3 and Li 2SO 4, has been characterized using a constant current technique. In both cases, concentrated solutions had effective electrolyte stability windows substantially greater than that of pure water under standard conditions. At an electrolyte leakage current of 10 μA cm -2 between two platinum electrodes in 5 M LiNO 3 the cell voltage can reach 2.0 V, whereas with a leakage current of 50 μA cm -2 it can reach 2.3 V. LiTi 2(PO 4) 3 was synthesized using a Pechini method and cycled in pH-neutral Li 2SO 4. At a reaction potential near the lower limit of electrolyte stability, an initial discharge capacity of 118 mAh g -1 was measured at a C/5 rate, while about 90% of this discharge capacity was retained after 100 cycles. This work demonstrates that it is possible to have useful aqueous electrolyte lithium-ion batteries using the LiTi 2(PO 4) 3 anode with cell voltages of 2 V and above. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Stimulation of human cheek cell Na+/H+ antiporter activity by saliva and salivary electrolytes: amplification by nigericin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, G S; Leifert, W R; Burnard, S L; Head, R J; McMurchie, E J

    1996-01-26

    Proton-dependent, ethylisopropylamiloride (EIPA)-sensitive Na+ uptake (Na+/H+ antiporter) studies were performed to examine if saliva, and ionophores which alter cellular electrolyte balance, could influence the activity of the cheek cell Na+/H+ antiporter. Using the standard conditions of 1 mmol/l Na+, and a 65:1 (inside:outside) proton gradient in the assay, the uniport ionophores valinomycin (K+) and gramicidin (Na+) increased EIPA-sensitive Na+ uptake by 177% (p < 0.01) and 227% (p < 0.01), respectively. The dual antiporter ionophore nigericin (K(+)-H+) increased EIPA-sensitive Na+ uptake by 654% (p < 0.01), with maximal Na+ uptake achieved by 1 min and at an ionophore concentration of 50 mumol/l, with an EC50 value 6.4 mumol/l. Pre-incubation of cheek cells with saliva or the low molecular weight (MW) components of saliva (saliva activating factors, SAF) for 2 h at 37 degrees C, also significantly stimulated EIPA-sensitive Na+ uptake. This stimulation could be mimicked by pre-incubation with 25 mmol/l KCl or K(+)-phosphate buffer. Pre-incubating cheek cells with SAF and the inclusion of 20 mumol/l nigericin in the assay, produced maximum EIPA-sensitive Na+ uptake. After pre-incubation with water, 25 mmol/l K(+)-phosphate or SAF, with nigericin in all assays, the initial rate of proton-gradient dependent, EIPA-sensitive Na+ uptake was saturable with respect to external Na+, with Km values of 0.9, 1.7, and 1.8 mmol/l, and Vmax values of 13.4, 25.8, and 31.1 nmol/mg protein/30 sec, respectively. With 20 mumol/l nigericin in the assay, Na+ uptake was inhibited by either increasing the [K+]o in the assay, with an ID50 of 3 mmol/l. These results indicate that nigericin can facilitate K+i exchange for H+o and the attending re-acidification of the cheek cell amplifies 22Na+ uptake via the Na+/H+ antiporter. The degree of stimulation of proton-dependent, EIPA-sensitive Na+ uptake is therefore dependent, in part, on the intracellular [K+]i.

  17. Theory of electrohydrodynamic instabilities in electrolytic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, R.; Alexander, S.

    1990-01-01

    The paper develops the theory of the hydrodynamic stability of an electrolytic cell as a function of the imposed electric current. A new electrohydrodynamic instability is encountered when the current is forced to exceed the Nernst limit. The convection is driven by the volume force exerted by the electric field on space charges in the electrolyte. This intrinsic instability is found to be easily masked by extrinsic convection sources such as gravity or stirring. A linear stability analysis is performed and a dimensionless number Le is derived whose value determines the convection pattern.

  18. Small domain-size multiblock copolymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistorino, Jonathan; Eitouni, Hany Basam

    2016-09-20

    New block polymer electrolytes have been developed which have higher conductivities than previously reported for other block copolymer electrolytes. The new materials are constructed of multiple blocks (>5) of relatively low domain size. The small domain size provides greater protection against formation of dendrites during cycling against lithium in an electrochemical cell, while the large total molecular weight insures poor long range alignment, which leads to higher conductivity. In addition to higher conductivity, these materials can be more easily synthesized because of reduced requirements on the purity level of the reagents.

  19. Solid electrolytes strengthened by metal dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauf, R.J.; Morgan, C.S.

    1981-10-05

    An improvement in solid electrolytes of advanced secondary batteries of the sodium-sulfur, sodium-halogen, and like combinations is achieved by providing said battery with a cermet electrolyte containing a metal dispersion ranging from 0.1 to 10.0 vol. % of a substantially nonreactive metal selected from the group consisting essentially of Pt, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Nb, their alloys, and their physical mixtures in the elemental or uncombined state, the remainder of said cermet being an ion-conductive ceramic material.

  20. Classical thermodynamics of non-electrolyte solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Van Ness, H C

    1964-01-01

    Classical Thermodynamics of Non-Electrolyte Solutions covers the historical development of classical thermodynamics that concerns the properties of vapor and liquid solutions of non-electrolytes. Classical thermodynamics is a network of equations, developed through the formal logic of mathematics from a very few fundamental postulates and leading to a great variety of useful deductions. This book is composed of seven chapters and begins with discussions on the fundamentals of thermodynamics and the thermodynamic properties of fluids. The succeeding chapter presents the equations of state for

  1. Spatial control of the energy metabolism of yeast cells through electrolytic generation of oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnke, Christian; Mair, Thomas; Witte, Hartmut; Reiher, Antje; Hauser, Marcus J B; Krost, Alois

    2009-11-03

    The metabolic dynamics of yeast cells is controlled by electric pulses delivered through a spatially extended yeast cell/Au electrode interface. Concomitant with voltage pulses, oxygen is generated electrolytically at the electrode surface and delivered to the cells. The generation of oxygen was investigated in dependence of the applied voltage, width of the voltage pulses and temperature of the electrolytic solution. The local oxygen pulses at the electrodes lead to a transient activation of the aerobic energy metabolism of the yeast cells causing a perturbation in their energy balance. The effect of these local perturbations on the temporal dynamics of glycolysis in yeast cells is quantified in dependence of the energy state of cells.

  2. Spatial control of the energy metabolism of yeast cells through electrolytic generation of oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnke, Christian; Mair, Thomas; Witte, Hartmut; Reiher, Antje; Hauser, Marcus J. B.; Krost, Alois

    2009-12-01

    The metabolic dynamics of yeast cells is controlled by electric pulses delivered through a spatially extended yeast cell/Au electrode interface. Concomitant with voltage pulses, oxygen is generated electrolytically at the electrode surface and delivered to the cells. The generation of oxygen was investigated in dependence of the applied voltage, width of the voltage pulses and temperature of the electrolytic solution. The local oxygen pulses at the electrodes lead to a transient activation of the aerobic energy metabolism of the yeast cells causing a perturbation in their energy balance. The effect of these local perturbations on the temporal dynamics of glycolysis in yeast cells is quantified in dependence of the energy state of cells.

  3. Inhibitor of differentiation 4 (Id4 is a potential tumor suppressor in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey Jason PW

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhibitor of differentiation 4 (Id4, a member of the Id gene family is also a dominant negative regulator of basic helix loop helix (bHLH transcription factors. Some of the functions of Id4 appear to be unique as compared to its other family members Id1, Id2 and Id3. Loss of Id4 gene expression in many cancers in association with promoter hypermethylation has led to the proposal that Id4 may act as a tumor suppressor. In this study we provide functional evidence that Id4 indeed acts as a tumor suppressor and is part of a cancer associated epigenetic re-programming. Methods Data mining was used to demonstrate Id4 expression in prostate cancer. Methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP analysis was performed to understand molecular mechanisms associated with Id4 expression in prostate cancer cell lines. The effect of ectopic Id4 expression in DU145 cells was determined by cell cycle analysis (3H thymidine incorporation and FACS, expression of androgen receptor, p53 and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 and p21 by a combination of RT-PCR, real time-PCR, western blot and immuno-cytochemical analysis. Results Id4 expression was down-regulated in prostate cancer. Id4 expression was also down-regulated in prostate cancer line DU145 due to promoter hyper-methylation. Ectopic Id4 expression in DU145 prostate cancer cell line led to increased apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation due in part by an S-phase arrest. In addition to S-phase arrest, ectopic Id4 expression in PC3 cells also resulted in prolonged G2/M phase. At the molecular level these changes were associated with increased androgen receptor (AR, p21, p27 and p53 expression in DU145 cells. Conclusion The results suggest that Id4 acts directly as a tumor suppressor by influencing a hierarchy of cellular processes at multiple levels that leads to a decreased cell proliferation and change in morphology that is possibly mediated through induction of previously

  4. An Insoluble Titanium-Lead Anode for Sulfate Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdman, Alla

    2005-05-11

    measurable anode weight loss during this time period. Quantitative chemical analysis of the anode surface showed that the lead content after testing remained at its initial level. No lead dissolution or transfer from the anode to the product occurred.A key benefit of the titanium-lead anode design is that cobalt additions to copper electrolyte should be eliminated. Cobalt is added to the electrolyte to help stabilize the lead oxide surface of conventional lead anodes. The presence of the titanium intimately mixed with the lead should eliminate the need for cobalt stabilization of the lead surface. The anode should last twice as long as the conventional lead anode. Energy savings should be achieved due to minimizing and stabilizing the anode-cathode distance in the electrowinning cells. The anode is easily substitutable into existing tankhouses without a rectifier change.The copper electrowinning test data indicate that the titanium-lead anode is a good candidate for further testing as a possible replacement for a conventional lead anode. A key consideration is the cost. Titanium costs have increased. One of the ways to get the anode cost down is manufacturing the anodes with fewer cylinders. Additional prototypes having different number of cylinders were constructed for a long-term commercial testing in a circuit without cobalt. The objective of the testing is to evaluate the need for cobalt, investigate the effect of decreasing the number of cylinders on the anode performance, and to optimize further the anode design in order to meet the operating requirements, minimize the voltage, maximize the life of the anode, and to balance this against a reasonable cost for the anode. It is anticipated that after testing of the additional prototypes, a whole cell commercial test will be conducted to complete evaluation of the titanium-lead anode costs/benefits.

  5. Performance of Lithium Polymer Cells with Polyacrylonitrile based Electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perera, Kumudu; Dissanayake, M.A.K.L.; Skaarup, Steen

    2006-01-01

    The performance of lithium polymer cells fabricated with Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based electrolytes was studied using cycling voltammetry and continuous charge discharge cycling. The electrolytes consisted of PAN, ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC) and lithium trifluoromethanesulfo...

  6. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  7. Synthesis and analysis of processes with electrolyte mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Gani, Rafiqul; Rasmussen, Peter

    1995-01-01

    A computer aided system for synthesis, design and simulation of crystallization and fractional crystallization processes with electrolyte mixtures is presented. The synthesis methodology is based on the use of computed solubility diagrams for the corresponding electrolyte systems....

  8. Habits of fluid and electrolytes intake in elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzija Pašalić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dehydration develops when the body fluid losses exceed fluid intake. It may occur during exercise, heat stress, restricted fluid intake, or any combination of these. Marginal dehydration (loss of > 2% body weight can compromise aerobic exercise performance, particularly in hot weather conditions, and may disturb fluid and electrolyte balance. The aim of the study was to determine the quantity, type and dynamic of fluid intake during athletic performance in endurance sports (football and basketball in two age categories: juniors (under the age of 18 and seniors (over the age of 18.Methods: Research included 100 athletes playing in Premier League in Bosnia-Herzegovina. We formed groups by sport type (football and basketball and age (<18 and ≥18 years. Questionnaire with questions about the fluid intake habits was used for data collection.    Results: There were 53 football players and 47 basketball players. All the participants were male. Average age of the participants was 19.3 ± 4.58. Habit of weighing before and after training was present in less than 44% of players among all the groups. Seniors were more frequently measuring their weight compared to junior players (p=0.01. Basketball players and players younger than 18 years were most frequently taking more than 2L of water per day. Most of the players, regardless of sport type or age group were not taking at least ½ L of isotonic fluid before the training. Signs of dehydration were more frequently observed in players under 18 years old, with most frequent sign being dry throat and sudden fatigue.Conclusion: Water and electrolytes intake before, during and after training of the athletes were inadequate regardless of type of sports and the age of athletes.

  9. A prospective randomized trial of two solutions for intrapartum amnioinfusion: effects on fetal electrolytes, osmolality, and acid-base status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, E K; Blakemore, K J

    1996-10-01

    Our purpose was to compare the effects of intrapartum amnioinfusion with normal saline solution versus lactated Ringer's solution plus physiologic glucose on neonatal electrolytes and acid-base balance. Patients undergoing amnioinfusion for obstetric indications were randomized to receive normal saline solution or lactated Ringer's solution plus physiologic glucose at standardized amnioinfusion rates. Data were collected prospectively on maternal demographics, course of labor, and maternal and neonatal outcome. Arterial cord blood was obtained for analysis of electrolytes, glucose, osmolality, lactic acid, and blood gases. Control subjects with normal fetal heart rate patterns, and clear amniotic fluid not receiving amnioinfusion were studied concurrently. Data were collected on 59 patients (21 normal saline solution, 18 lactated Ringer's solution plus physiologic glucose, and 20 controls). Maternal demographics, course of labor, and neonatal outcome were similar in all three groups. Cesarean sections were performed more often in the amnioinfusion groups (33.3% for normal saline solution, 38.9% for lactated Ringer's solution plus physiologic glucose) than in the control group (5.0%), p electrolytes, glucose, osmolality, lactic acid, and blood gases were not altered by amnioinfusion with either solution. Intrapartum amnioinfusion with normal saline solution or lactated Ringer's solution plus physiologic glucose has no effect on neonatal electrolytes or acid-base balance.

  10. Quantitative characterization of ion pairing and cluster formation in strong 1:1 electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alan A; Pappu, Rohit V

    2007-06-14

    Aqueous solutions of 1:1 strong electrolytes are considered to be the prototype for complete ionic dissociation. Nonetheless, clustering of strong 1:1 electrolytes has been widely reported in all atom molecular dynamics simulations, and their presence is indirectly implicated in a diverse range of experimental results. Is there a physical basis for nonidealities such as ion pairing and cluster formation in aqueous solutions of strong 1:1 electrolytes? We attempt to answer this question by direct comparison of results from detailed molecular dynamics simulations to experimentally observed properties of 1:1 electrolytes. We report the analysis of a series of lengthy molecular dynamics simulations of alkali-halide solutions carried out over a wide range of physiologically relevant concentrations using explicit representations of water molecules. We find evidence for pronounced nonideal behavior of ions at all concentrations in the form of ion pairs and clusters which are in rapid equilibrium with dissociated ions. The phenomenology for ion pairing seen in these simulations is congruent with the multistep scheme proposed by Eigen and Tamm based on data from ultrasonic absorption experiments. For a given electrolyte, we show that the dependence of cluster populations on concentration can be described through a single set of equilibrium constants. We assess the accuracy of calculated ion pairing constants by favorable comparison to estimates obtained by Fuoss and co-workers and based on conductometric experiments. Ion pairs and clusters form on length scales where the size of individual water molecules is as important as the hard core radius of ions. Ion pairing results as a balance between the favorable Coulomb interactions and the unfavorable partial desolvation of ions needed to form a pair.

  11. Increasing security and privacy in user-centric identity management: The IdM card approach

    OpenAIRE

    Marx, R.; Simo Fhom, H.; Scheuermann, D.; Bayarou, K.M.; Perez, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe how security and privacy can be increased in user-centric Identity Management (IdM) by the introduction of a so-called IdM card. This IdM card securely stores and processes identity data of the card owner, an end user. The card represents a trusted device that supports the user in managing its digital identities and also in performing secure and privacy-enhanced service authentication and authorization.

  12. Regulation of Id2 expression in EL4 T lymphoma cells overexpressing growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigent, Douglas A

    2009-01-01

    In previous studies, we have shown that overexpression of growth hormone (GH) in cells of the immune system upregulates proteins involved in cell growth and protects from apoptosis. Here, we report that overexpression of GH in EL4 T lymphoma cells (GHo) also significantly increased levels of the inhibitor of differentiation-2 (Id2). The increase in Id2 was suggested in both Id2 promoter luciferase assays and by Western analysis for Id2 protein. To identify the regulatory elements that mediate transcriptional activation by GH in the Id2 promoter, promoter deletion analysis was performed. Deletion analysis revealed that transactivation involved a 301-132bp region upstream to the Id2 transcriptional start site. The pattern in the human GHo Jurkat T lymphoma cell line paralleled that found in the mouse GHo EL4 T lymphoma cell line. Significantly less Id2 was detected in the nucleus of GHo EL4 T lymphoma cells compared to vector alone controls. Although serum increased the levels of Id2 in control vector alone cells, no difference was found in the total levels of Id2 in GHo EL4 T lymphoma cells treated with or without serum. The increase in Id2 expression in GHo EL4 T lymphoma cells measured by Id2 promoter luciferase expression and Western blot analysis was blocked by the overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of STAT5. The results suggest that in EL4 T lymphoma cells overexpressing GH, there is an upregulation of Id2 protein that appears to involve STAT protein activity.

  13. MOVIH-IDS: A mobile-visualization hybrid intrusion detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero Cosío, Álvaro; Corchado Rodríguez, Emilio; Pellicer Figueras, María A.; Abraham, Ajith P.

    2009-01-01

    A novel hybrid artificial intelligent system for Intrusion Detection, called MOVIH-IDS, is presented in this study. A hybrid model built by means of a multiagent system that incorporates an unsupervised connectionist Intrusion Detection System (IDS) has been defined to guaranty an efficient computer network security architecture. This hybrid IDS facilitates the intrusion detection in dynamic networks, in a more flexible and adaptable manner. The proposed improvement of the system in this pape...

  14. The Implementation of C-ID, R2D2 Model on Learning Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayanto, Yudi Hari; Rusmawan, Putu Ngurah

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this research are to find out, (1) whether C-ID, R2D2 model is effective to be implemented on learning Reading comprehension, (2) college students' activity during the implementation of C-ID, R2D2 model on learning Reading comprehension, and 3) college students' learning achievement during the implementation of C-ID, R2D2 model on…

  15. Metabolic changes and nutrient repletion in lambs provided with electrolyte solutions before and after feed and water deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, N A

    1996-02-01

    Providing feeder calves and lambs with electrolyte solutions before and(or) after a transport period could potentially reduce tissue shrink and speed repletion of nutrients and weight that are lost during transport. This trial was conducted to determine metabolic changes and nutrient repletion in lambs provided with electrolyte solutions before and after feed and water deprivation. Solutions were 1) deionized water, 2) ES1 (g/10 L: NaCl, 2.0; K carbonate, 2.8; Mg sulfate.7H2O, 2.0; equal mixture of amino acids [Lys, Thr, Phe, His, Trp, Met, Leu, Ile, and Val], .45; and phosphoric acid to pH 7.0), 3) ES2 (twice the concentrations as in ES1), and ES3 (g/10 L: NaCl 2.0; K carbonate, 8.0; Mg sulfate.7H2O, 4.0; amino acid mixture from ES1, .45; and phosphoric acid to pH 7.0). Eight Suffolk x Hampshire crossbred lambs (average BW 35 +/- 2 kg) were used in an 8 x 8 Latin square design with treatments arranged in a 2 x 4 factorial. Main treatments consisted of two deprivation electrolyte solutions (deionized water or ES1) and four realimentation electrolyte solutions (deionized water, ES1, ES2, and ES3). Lambs were limit-fed (600 g/d, as-fed basis) before and after a 3-d feed and water deprivation phase. Lambs provided the ES1 solution during the pre-deprivation phase had greater (P electrolytes in the solution was doubled (i.e., ES2 solution), Na, K, and Mg retentions were increased (P electrolytes in the electrolyte solution may need to be increased to improve nutrient balance.

  16. Caffeine ingestion and fluid balance: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J; Griffin, J

    2003-12-01

    Caffeine and related methylxanthine compounds are recognized as having a diuretic action, and consumers are often advised to avoid beverages containing these compounds in situations where fluid balance may be compromised. The aim of this review is to evaluate the available literature concerning the effect of caffeine ingestion on fluid balance and to formulate targeted and evidence-based advice on caffeinated beverages in the context of optimum hydration. A literature search was performed using the Medline database of articles published in the medical and scientific literature for the period of January 1966-March 2002. Subject headings and key words used in this search were: tea, coffee, caffeine, diuresis, fluid balance and water-electrolyte balance. A secondary search was performed using the bibliographies of publications identified in the initial search. The available literature suggests that acute ingestion of caffeine in large doses (at least 250-300 mg, equivalent to the amount found in 2-3 cups of coffee or 5-8 cups of tea) results in a short-term stimulation of urine output in individuals who have been deprived of caffeine for a period of days or weeks. A profound tolerance to the diuretic and other effects of caffeine develops, however, and the actions are much diminished in individuals who regularly consume tea or coffee. Doses of caffeine equivalent to the amount normally found in standard servings of tea, coffee and carbonated soft drinks appear to have no diuretic action. The most ecologically valid of the published studies offers no support for the suggestion that consumption of caffeine-containing beverages as part of a normal lifestyle leads to fluid loss in excess of the volume ingested or is associated with poor hydration status. Therefore, there would appear to be no clear basis for refraining from caffeine containing drinks in situations where fluid balance might be compromised.

  17. Generating unique IDs from patient identification data using security models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Emad A; Slack, Jonathan C; Naugler, Christopher T

    2016-01-01

    The use of electronic health records (EHRs) has continued to increase within healthcare systems in the developed and developing nations. EHRs allow for increased patient safety, grant patients easier access to their medical records, and offer a wealth of data to researchers. However, various bioethical, financial, logistical, and information security considerations must be addressed while transitioning to an EHR system. The need to encrypt private patient information for data sharing is one of the foremost challenges faced by health information technology. We describe the usage of the message digest-5 (MD5) and secure hashing algorithm (SHA) as methods for encrypting electronic medical data. In particular, we present an application of the MD5 and SHA-1 algorithms in encrypting a composite message from private patient information. The results show that the composite message can be used to create a unique one-way encrypted ID per patient record that can be used for data sharing. The described software tool can be used to share patient EMRs between practitioners without revealing patients identifiable data.

  18. Generating unique IDs from patient identification data using security models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of electronic health records (EHRs has continued to increase within healthcare systems in the developed and developing nations. EHRs allow for increased patient safety, grant patients easier access to their medical records, and offer a wealth of data to researchers. However, various bioethical, financial, logistical, and information security considerations must be addressed while transitioning to an EHR system. The need to encrypt private patient information for data sharing is one of the foremost challenges faced by health information technology. Method: We describe the usage of the message digest-5 (MD5 and secure hashing algorithm (SHA as methods for encrypting electronic medical data. In particular, we present an application of the MD5 and SHA-1 algorithms in encrypting a composite message from private patient information. Results: The results show that the composite message can be used to create a unique one-way encrypted ID per patient record that can be used for data sharing. Conclusion: The described software tool can be used to share patient EMRs between practitioners without revealing patients identifiable data.

  19. L’idéologie : une notion bien embarrassante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Maingueneau

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Je ne pense pas être la personne la mieux placée pour réfléchir sur l’intérêt que présente la notion d’idéologie pour ceux qui étudient la littérature. Le travail conceptuel sur cette notion a plutôt été le fait de la génération antérieure à la mienne. Je suppose que si l’on m’a sollicité pour en parler, c’est parce que de l’intérieur de l’analyse du discours j’ai été amené à me confronter – quoique dans un cadre théorique et méthodologique très différent – à des questions du même ordre. Faut...

  20. Time-and-ID-Based Proxy Reencryption Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambombo Mtonga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Time- and ID-based proxy reencryption scheme is proposed in this paper in which a type-based proxy reencryption enables the delegator to implement fine-grained policies with one key pair without any additional trust on the proxy. However, in some applications, the time within which the data was sampled or collected is very critical. In such applications, for example, healthcare and criminal investigations, the delegatee may be interested in only some of the messages with some types sampled within some time bound instead of the entire subset. Hence, in order to carter for such situations, in this paper, we propose a time-and-identity-based proxy reencryption scheme that takes into account the time within which the data was collected as a factor to consider when categorizing data in addition to its type. Our scheme is based on Boneh and Boyen identity-based scheme (BB-IBE and Matsuo’s proxy reencryption scheme for identity-based encryption (IBE to IBE. We prove that our scheme is semantically secure in the standard model.

  1. Molecular characterization of lactobacilli isolated from fermented idli batter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Jayaprabha Agaliya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria are non pathogenic organism widely distributed in nature typically involved in a large number of spontaneous food fermentation. The purpose of this study was to characterize the bacteriocinogenic lactobacilli from fermented idli batter which can find application in biopreservation and biomedicine. Eight most promising lactobacilli were chosen from twenty two isolates based on their spectrum of activity against other lactic acid bacteria and pathogens. The eight lactobacilli were characterized based on the various classical phenotypic tests, physiological tests and biochemical tests including various carbohydrate utilization profiles. All isolates were homo fermentative, catalase, and gelatin negative. Molecular characterization was performed by RAPD, 16S rRNA analysis, 16S ARDRA, and Multiplex PCR for species identification. RAPD was carried out using the primer R2 and M13. Five different clusters were obtained based on RAPD indicating strain level variation. 16S rRNA analysis showed 99 to 100% homology towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The restriction digestion pattern was similar for all the isolates with the restriction enzyme AluI. The subspecies were identified by performing Multiplex PCR using species specific primer. Among the five clusters, three clusters were clearly identified as Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis.

  2. Pros and Cons of ID vs. 3D Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in computing capability have led to tremendous improvements in 3D modeling. Entire active regions are being simulated in what might be described as a first principles way, in which plasma heating is treated self consistently rather than through the specification of heating functions. There are limitations to this approach, however, as actual heating mechanisms on the Sun involve spatial scales orders of magnitude smaller than what these simulations can resolve. Other simulations begin to resolve these scales, but they only treat a tiny volume and do not include the all important coupling with larger scales or with other parts of the atmosphere, and so cannot be readily compared with observations. Finally, ID hydrodynamic models capture the field-aligned evolution of the plasma extremely well and are ideally suited for data comparison, but they treat the heating in a totally ad hoc manner. All of these approaches have important contributions to make, but we must be aware of their limitations. I will highlight some of the strengths. and weaknesses of each.

  3. Comparison of activity coefficient models for electrolyte systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Yi; ten Kate, Antoon; Mooijer, Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Three activity coefficient models for electrolyte solutions were evaluated and compared. The activity coefficient models are: The electrolyte NRTL model (ElecNRTL) by Aspentech, the mixed solvent electrolyte model (MSE) by OLI Systems Inc., and the Extended UNIQUAC model from the Technical Univer...

  4. Electrolytes for Wide Operating Temperature Lithium-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Provided herein are electrolytes for lithium-ion electrochemical cells, electrochemical cells employing the electrolytes, methods of making the electrochemical cells and methods of using the electrochemical cells over a wide temperature range. Included are electrolyte compositions comprising a lithium salt, a cyclic carbonate, a non-cyclic carbonate, and a linear ester and optionally comprising one or more additives.

  5. Modelling electrolyte conductivity in a water electrolyzer cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael; Kirkegaard, Julius Bier

    2012-01-01

    An analytical model describing the hydrogen gas evolution under natural convection in an electrolyzer cell is developed. Main purpose of the model is to investigate the electrolyte conductivity through the cell under various conditions. Cell conductivity is calculated from a parallel resistor...... for electrolyte conductivity from combinations of pressure, current density and electrolyte width among others....

  6. Conductivity behaviour of polymer gel electrolytes: Role of polymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 26; Issue 3 ... Polymer is an important constituent of polymer gel electrolytes along with salt and solvent. ... Although the polymer added provides mechanical stability to the electrolytes yet its effect on the conductivity behaviour of gel electrolytes as well as the interaction ...

  7. Performance characteristics of a gelled-electrolyte valve-regulated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    12 V/25 AH gelled-electrolyte valve-regulated lead-acid batteries have been assembled in-house ... 1997). In the technical literature, the debate over the rela- ... in-house. It is found that while the performance of the gelled-electrolyte VRLA battery is similar to both the. AGM–VRLA and flooded-electrolyte lead-acid batteries.

  8. EFFECT OF MULTIPARITY ON ELECTROLYTE COMPOSITION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    Summary: Pregnancy affects the physiology of the pregnant woman particularly the endocrine, cardiovascular and the renal systems. This work was therefore set to ascertain the state of electrolytes in pregnancy and how it affects blood pressure using multiparity as a factor. One hundred and twenty (120) women were used ...

  9. Ionic-Liquid-Tethered Nanoparticles: Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Moganty, Surya S.

    2010-10-22

    A new class of solventless electrolytes was created by tethering ionic liquids to hard inorganic ZrO2 nanostructures (see picture; NIM=nanoscale ionic material). These hybrid fluids exhibit exceptional redox stability windows, excellent thermal stability, good lithium transference numbers, long-term interfacial stability in the presence of a lithium anode and, when doped with lithium salt, reasonable ionic conductivities.

  10. Haematological and serum electrolyte responses in goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2016-07-21

    Jul 21, 2016 ... 2000; Lobo et al., 2013). In addition to the neuro- endocrine and metabolic changes, acid-base and electrolyte status of animals are also altered peri- operatively (Andersen & Wang, 2000; Rassam &. Counsell, 2005; Kwak et al., 2010). Traumatic injuries such as fractures and their causative agents have ...

  11. Anhydrous hydrogen fluoride electrolyte battery. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not Available

    1972-06-26

    It is an object of the invention to provide a primary cell or battery using ammonium fluoride--anhydrous hydrogen fluoride electrolyte having improved current and power production capabilities at low temperatures. It is operable at temperatures substantially above the boiling point of hydrogen fluoride. (GRA)

  12. Evaluation of electrolyte imbalance among tuberculosis patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adebimpe Wasiu Olalekan

    2015-02-24

    Feb 24, 2015 ... a Department of Community Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria b Central ... were significantly decreased in TB patients on treatment compared to new case tuberculosis NCT ... electrolyte values in controls with pulmonary tuberculosis patients on ...

  13. Physical properties of molten carbonate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, T.; Yanagida, M.; Tanimoto, K. [Osaka National Research Institute (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Recently many kinds of compositions of molten carbonate electrolyte have been applied to molten carbonate fuel cell in order to avoid the several problems such as corrosion of separator plate and NiO cathode dissolution. Many researchers recognize that the addition of alkaline earth (Ca, Sr, and Ba) carbonate to Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} eutectic electrolytes is effective to avoid these problems. On the other hand, one of the corrosion products, CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ion is found to dissolve into electrolyte and accumulated during the long-term MCFC operations. This would affect the performance of MCFC. There, however, are little known data of physical properties of molten carbonate containing alkaline earth carbonates and CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. We report the measured and accumulated data for these molten carbonate of electrical conductivity and surface tension to select favorable composition of molten carbonate electrolytes.

  14. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

    2012-12-04

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  15. Electrolyte Imbalance in Patients with Sheehan's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chur Hoan Lim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated the prevalence of electrolyte imbalance and the relationship between serum electrolyte and anterior pituitary hormone levels in patients with Sheehan's syndrome.MethodsIn a retrospective study, we investigated 78 patients with Sheehan's syndrome. We also included 95 normal control subjects who underwent a combined anterior pituitary hormone stimulation test and showed normal hormonal responses.ResultsIn patients with Sheehan's syndrome, the serum levels of sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, magnesium, and inorganic phosphate were significantly lower than those in control subjects. The prevalence of hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypophosphatemia in patients with Sheehan's syndrome was 59.0% (n=46, 26.9% (n=21, 35.9% (n=28, 47.4% (n=37, and 23.1% (n=18, respectively. Levels of sodium and ionized calcium in serum were positively correlated with levels of all anterior pituitary hormones (all P<0.05. Levels of potassium in serum were positively correlated with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH and growth hormone (GH levels (all P<0.05. Levels of inorganic phosphate in serum were positively correlated with levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and GH (all P<0.05, and levels of magnesium in serum were positively correlated with delta ACTH (P<0.01.ConclusionElectrolyte imbalance was common in patients with Sheehan's syndrome. Furthermore, the degree of anterior pituitary hormone deficiency relates to the degree of electrolyte disturbance in patients with this disease.

  16. Electrolytes in the cornea: a therapeutic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrage, N F; Flick, S; Redbrake, C; Reim, M

    1996-12-01

    Reported here are the results of electrolyte measurements in different layers of 70 apparently normal human corneas. Samples were examined by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis under calibrated conditions in a scanning electron microscope. The method allows the simultaneous quantitative analysis of, among others, sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). The results are related to the dry weight of the analyzed samples. Four distinct layers, subepithelium, middle stroma, posterior stroma and Descemet's membrane, were analysed in each cornea. In the middle stroma we found concentrations of: sodium 0.609 +/- 0.13, chloride 0.557 +/- 0.115, potassium 0.058 +/- 0.02 and phosphorus 0.038 +/- 0.01 (mol/kg dry weight) [corrected]. The collation of normal electrolyte concentrations provides reference values for future studies on changes of the corneal electrolyte composition in diseased or injured eyes. The electrolyte composition of rinsing fluids or eye drops should be adjusted to that of the corneal stroma. Phosphate buffer, for example, is not a good vehicle for topical eye treatments and should be replaced by organic buffering systems.

  17. Electromagnetic excitation of ultrasound in electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankovsky, N. S.

    1996-11-01

    An electromagnetic explanation is given in earlier experimental evidence for the possibility of exciting acoustic signals by a transient electric field in an electrolyte. The theory is in agreement with experimental observations of acoustic signals excited by some elementary electric signals. The described mechanism can be applied to the construction of ultrasonic transducers operating in liquids or in living tissues.

  18. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, James M. (Saint Paul, MN); Pham, Phat T. (Little Canada, MN); Frey, Matthew H. (Cottage Grove, MN); Hamrock, Steven J. (Stillwater, MN); Haugen, Gregory M. (Edina, MN); Lamanna, William M. (Stillwater, MN)

    2010-11-23

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  19. International Symposium on Polymer Electrolytes (1st)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    Laboratoire de Chimie Macromoldculaire et Papeti~re, Ecole Franfaise de Papeterie (INPG), BP 65, 38402 Saint Martin d’H~res cedex, France. INTRODUCTION The use...Ilo iii i 14J SOLID POLYMER ELECTROLYTES WITH STABLE ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES C. Carrb, T. Hamaide, A. Guyot. Laboratoire des.Natbriaux Organiques

  20. Polymeric Electrolytic Hygrometer For Harsh Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Daniel D.; Shakkottai, Parthasarathy; Venkateshan, Shakkottai P.

    1989-01-01

    Design of polymeric electrolytic hygrometer improved to meet need for reliable measurements of relative humidity in harsh environments of pulpmills and papermills. Redesigned sensor head features shorter, more-rigidly-held sensing element, less vulnerable than previous version to swell and loss of electrical contact. Useful for control of batch dryers in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  1. Surface tension of aqueous electrolyte solutions. Thermodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drzymala, J.; Lyklema, J.

    2012-01-01

    A thermodynamic theory is developed for obtaining the enthalpic and entropic contributions to the surface excess Gibbs energy of electrolyte solutions from the dependence of the surface tension on concentration and temperature. For elaboration, accurate activity coefficients in solution as functions

  2. Ultrasonic hydrometer. [Specific gravity of electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, C.A.

    1982-03-09

    The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time t between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance d between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time t, the sonic velocity V is calculated with the equation V = 2d/t. The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0 and 40/sup 0/C and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation.

  3. Effectiveness of carnosine on disturbed electrolytes homeostasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We aimed to assess the effect of well known antioxidant carnosine on disturbed plasma and intraerythrocytes electrolytes and Na+-K+-ATPase activity by cisplatin. 24 male albino Wistar rats were selected and divided into 4 groups: Group I = untreated control; Group II = cisplatin control (received cisplatin at a dose of 3 mg/ ...

  4. Relationship between some serum electrolytes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-02-03

    Feb 3, 2014 ... Ajibola & Oyewale/Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences (2014) 12(1): 36-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sokjvs.v12i1.6. Relationship between some serum electrolytes and electrocardiographic indices of Trypanosoma brucei infected dogs. ES Ajibola. 1*. & JO Oyewale. 2. 1. College of Veterinary Medicine, ...

  5. Analysis of electrolyte transport through charged nanopores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, P.B.; Roij, van R.; Bazant, M.Z.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the classical problem of flow of electrolyte solutions through charged capillary nanopores or nanotubes as described by the capillary pore model (also called "space charge" theory). This theory assumes very long and thin pores and uses a one-dimensional flux-force formalism which

  6. Analysis of electrolyte transport through charged nanopores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, P. B.; Roij, R. van; Bazant, M. Z.; Biesheuvel, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the classical problem of the flow of an electrolyte solution through charged capillaries (nanopores). In the limit where the length of the capillary is much larger than its radius, the problem can be simplified to a one-dimensional averaged flux-force formalism that relates the relevant

  7. Macroscopic Modeling of Polymer-Electrolyte Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, A.Z.; Newman, J.

    2007-04-01

    In this chapter, the various approaches for the macroscopic modeling of transport phenomena in polymer-electrolyte membranes are discussed. This includes general background and modeling methodologies, as well as exploration of the governing equations and some membrane-related topic of interest.

  8. New polysaccharide-based polymer electrolytes; Nouveaux electrolytes polymeres a base de polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez-Morales, P.; Le Nest, J.F.; Gandini, A. [Ecole Francaise de Papeterie et des Industries Graphique, 38 - Saint Martin d`Heres (France)

    1996-12-31

    Polysaccharides like cellulose and chitosan are known for their filmic properties. This paper concerns the synthesis and the study of chitosan-based polymer electrolytes. A preliminary work concerns the study of glucosamine reactivity. The poly-condensation of chitosan ethers (obtained by reaction with ethylene oxide or propylene oxide) with bifunctional and monofunctional oligo-ethers leads to the formation of thin lattices (10 {mu}m) having excellent mechanical properties. The presence of grafted polyether chains along the polysaccharide skeleton allows to modify the vitreous transition temperature and the molecular disorder of the system. Two type of polymer electrolytes have been synthesized: electrolytes carrying a dissolved alkaline metal salt and ionomers. The analysis of their thermal, dynamical mechanical, nuclear magnetic relaxation, electrical, and electrochemical properties shows that this new class of polymer electrolytes has the same performances as ethylene poly-oxide based amorphous lattices plus the advantage of having good filmic properties. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  9. Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with Liquid or Inorganic Solid Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xingwen; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2017-11-21

    Electrode-electrolyte interfacial properties play a vital role in the cycling performance of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. The issues at an electrode-electrolyte interface include electrochemical and chemical reactions occurring at the interface, formation mechanism of interfacial layers, compositional/structural characteristics of the interfacial layers, ionic transport across the interface, and thermodynamic and kinetic behaviors at the interface. Understanding the above critical issues is paramount for the development of strategies to enhance the overall performance of Li-S batteries. Liquid electrolytes commonly used in Li-S batteries bear resemblance to those employed in traditional lithium-ion batteries, which are generally composed of a lithium salt dissolved in a solvent matrix. However, due to a series of unique features associated with sulfur or polysulfides, ether-based solvents are generally employed in Li-S batteries rather than simply adopting the carbonate-type solvents that are generally used in the traditional Li+-ion batteries. In addition, the electrolytes of Li-S batteries usually comprise an important additive, LiNO3. The unique electrolyte components of Li-S batteries do not allow us to directly take the interfacial theories of the traditional Li+-ion batteries and apply them to Li-S batteries. On the other hand, during charging/discharging a Li-S battery, the dissolved polysulfide species migrate through the battery separator and react with the Li anode, which magnifies the complexity of the interfacial problems of Li-S batteries. However, current Li-S battery development paths have primarily been energized by advances in sulfur cathodes. Insight into the electrode-electrolyte interfacial behaviors has relatively been overshadowed. In this Account, we first examine the state-of-the-art contributions in understanding the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on the Li-metal anode and sulfur cathode in conventional liquid-electrolyte Li

  10. Idaho National Laboratory Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Intrusion Detection System (SCADA IDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jared Verba; Michael Milvich

    2008-05-01

    Current Intrusion Detection System (IDS) technology is not suited to be widely deployed inside a Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) environment. Anomaly- and signature-based IDS technologies have developed methods to cover information technology-based networks activity and protocols effectively. However, these IDS technologies do not include the fine protocol granularity required to ensure network security inside an environment with weak protocols lacking authentication and encryption. By implementing a more specific and more intelligent packet inspection mechanism, tailored traffic flow analysis, and unique packet tampering detection, IDS technology developed specifically for SCADA environments can be deployed with confidence in detecting malicious activity.

  11. Medication identification in pediatric asthma (MED ID): The reliability and validity of a novel screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Sean M; Fernandez, I Diana; Ossip, Deborah J; Halterman, Jill S

    2016-11-18

    To evaluate the reliability and validity of medication identification (MED ID), a novel survey assessing caregiver-perceived ability to identify inhaled asthma medications. We analyzed baseline data from the School-Based Asthma Care for Teens trial in Rochester, NY. Caregivers of adolescents with persistent asthma named the inhaled medications used by their child and identified medications on a pictorial chart. Accurate identification was defined as completed matches between listed names and selected images. Caregivers answered the MED ID survey of four scaled questions on perceived ability to identify inhaled medications. We determined internal consistency reliability using Cronbach's alpha; examined concurrent validity by comparing MED ID sum scores with accurate identification using bivariate and multivariate analyses; and assessed the diagnostic utility of MED ID through receiver operating characteristic analysis. 126 caregivers (76% of enrolled) reported >1 inhaled medication; 52% of caregivers accurately identified medications. Two MED ID questions were removed during analysis. The two remaining questions had a score range of 2-10 points; higher scores indicate greater caregiver-perceived ability to identify medications. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.603. Accurate identification of medications was associated with a higher mean MED ID score (8.6 vs 7.6, p = 0.01). Accuracy was most strongly associated with MED ID scores ≥8 points (88% vs 60%, p MED ID scores ≥8 points (0.638). The two-item MED ID survey is a reliable and valid way to assess caregiver's ability to identify inhaled asthma medications.

  12. Achieving Payoffs from an Industry Cloud Ecosystem at BankID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eaton, Ben; Hallingby, Hanne Kristine; Nesse, Per-Jonny

    2014-01-01

    BankID is an industry cloud owned by Norwegian banks. It provides electronic identity, authentication and electronic signing capabilities for banking, merchant and government services. More than 60% of the population uses BankID services. As the broader ecosystem around BankID evolved, challenges......—arising from tensions between different parts of the ecosystem—had to be resolved. The four lessons learned from the BankID case will help others to build an industry cloud and establish a healthy ecosystem to service a broad user base....

  13. Use of the backslopping method for accelerated and nutritionally enriched idli fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Neha; Ananthanarayan, Laxmi

    2015-08-15

    Idli is a cereal-legume-based fermented food, widely consumed in India. It is popular for its nutritional content, sour taste and appetising aroma. The fermentation time of idli batter varies from 12 to 14 h. A reduction in fermentation time of idli batter is of great significance for large-scale idli production units since it will reduce the batch time and will lead to a greater output. Accelerated fermentation can be potentially achieved by using the backslopping method. The inoculum for backslopping was optimally fermented (12 h) idli batter, dried at room temperature. Backslopping reduced the fermentation time of idli batter from the conventional 12 h to 3 h while successfully maintaining sensory attributes of the product. In the idlis prepared by backslopped expedited batter, thiamine was found to be 50% higher; while reduction of anti-nutrients phytate (11%) and trypsin inhibitor (16%) was higher than the conventionally fermented (12 h) idli batter. Backslopping not only accelerated idli batter fermentation but also enhanced its nutritional value. A similar process can be designed for other fermented foods, to expedite fermentation thus reducing the time requirement. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. The ID23-2 structural biology microfocus beamline at the ESRF

    OpenAIRE

    Flot, David; Mairs, Trevor; Giraud, Thierry; Guijarro, Matias; Lesourd, Marc; Rey, Vicente; van Brussel, Denis; Morawe, Christian; Borel, Christine; Hignette, Olivier; Chavanne, Joel; Nurizzo, Didier; McSweeney, Sean; Mitchell, Edward

    2009-01-01

    The first phase of the ESRF beamline ID23 to be constructed was ID23-1, a tunable MAD-capable beamline which opened to users in early 2004. The second phase of the beamline to be constructed is ID23-2, a monochromatic microfocus beamline dedicated to macromolecular crystallography experiments. Beamline ID23-2 makes use of well characterized optical elements: a single-bounce silicon (111) monochromator and two mirrors in Kirkpatrick–Baez geometry to focus the X-ray beam. A major design goal of...

  15. ID-pilet teeb Tallinnas võidukäiku / Anneli Lepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepp, Anneli

    2006-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 12. jaan. lk 3. Tallinna transpordiameti peaökonomisti Mart Moosuse sõnul moodustas ID-pilet 60,7% ühistranspordi piletituludest, Tartus oli vastav näitaja aga alla 1%. Tartut teenindava bussifirma AS Connex Eesti finantsjuht Tiina Telling peab suure erinevuse põhjuseks asjaolu, et Tallinnas on ID-pilet paberpiletist 40-88% soodsam, Tartus hinnavahe aga puudub või on lausa negatiivne ID-pileti kahjuks. Lisa: ID-pilet

  16. Evaluation of Candida ID, a New Chromogenic Medium for Fungal Isolation and Preliminary Identification of Some Yeast Species

    OpenAIRE

    Fricker-Hidalgo, H.; Orenga, S.; Lebeau, B.; Pelloux, H.; Brenier-Pinchart, M. P.; Ambroise-Thomas, P; Grillot, R

    2001-01-01

    Candida ID, a new chromogenic medium, allows identification of Candida albicans (blue colonies) and preliminary identification into a group of four species (pink colonies). In comparison with Albicans ID2 and Sabouraud gentamicin chloramphenicol on 446 fungal strains, Candida ID allowed the isolation of more species than Albicans ID 2 (95.5% versus 91.2%).

  17. Table of 3D organ model IDs and organ names (PART-OF Tree) - BodyParts3D | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available item Description concept id ID of the corresponding FMA (Foundational Model of Anatomy). representation id I...D of the corresponding 3D representation. en English name. Basically, a preferred

  18. Composition and particle size of electrolytic copper powders prepared in water-containing dimethyl sulfoxide electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamyrbekova, Aigul'; Abzhalov, B. S.; Mamyrbekova, Aizhan

    2017-07-01

    The possibility of the electroprecipitation of copper powder via the cathodic reduction of an electrolyte solution containing copper(II) nitrate trihydrate and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is shown. The effect electrolysis conditions (current density, concentration and temperature of electrolyte) have on the dimensional characteristics of copper powder is studied. The size and shape of the particles of the powders were determined by means of electron microscopy; the qualitative composition of the powders, with X-ray diffraction.

  19. Preliminary Evaluations of Polymer-based Lithium Battery Electrolytes Under Development for the Polymer Electrolyte Rechargeable Systems Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Bennett, William R.

    2003-01-01

    A component screening facility has been established at The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to evaluate candidate materials for next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. Procedures have been implemented to provide standardized measurements of critical electrolyte properties. These include ionic conductivity, electronic resistivity, electrochemical stability window, cation transference number, salt diffusion coefficient and lithium plating efficiency. Preliminary results for poly(ethy1ene oxide)-based polymer electrolyte and commercial liquid electrolyte are presented.

  20. Aplication of Balanced Scorecard

    OpenAIRE

    Fixová, Markéta

    2011-01-01

    This thesis that deals with the issue of "Application of the Balanced Scorecard method" focuses on establishing a strategy of the K company that makes its business in the field of transport and logistics. For the purposes of this study a method of Balanced Scorecard is used to express the strategic goals. Linking of these is shown in a strategy map. Theoretical part evaluates importance and reasons for chosing the Balanced Scorecard technique. Analysis of current situation finished with the S...

  1. Supersaturated Electrolyte Solutions: Theory and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmailov, Alexander F.; Myerson, Allan S.; Na, Han-Soo

    1995-01-01

    Highly supersaturated electrolyte solutions can be prepared and studied employing an electrodynamic levitator trap (ELT) technique. The ELT technique involves containerless suspension of a microdroplet thus eliminating dust, dirt, and container walls which normally cause heterogeneous nucleation. This allows very high supersaturations to be achieved. A theoretical study of the experimental results obtained for the water activity in microdroplets of various electrolyte solutions is based on the development of the Cahn-Hilliard formalism for electrolyte solutions. In the approach suggested the metastable state for electrolyte solutions is described in terms of the conserved order parameter omega(r,t) associated with fluctuations of the mean solute concentration n(sub 0). Parameters of the corresponding Ginzburg-Landau free energy functional which defines the dynamics of metastable state relaxation are determined and expressed through the experimentally measured quantities. A correspondence of 96-99 % between theory and experiment for all solutions studied was achieved and allowed the determination of an analytical expression for the spinodal concentration n(sub spin), and its calculation for various electrolyte solutions at 298 K. The assumption that subcritical solute clusters consist of the electrically neutral Bjerrum pairs has allowed both analytical and numerical investigation of the number-size N(sub c) of nucleation monomers (aggregates of the Bjerrum pairs) which are elementary units of the solute critical clusters. This has also allowed estimations for the surface tension Alpha, and equilibrium bulk energy Beta per solute molecule in the nucleation monomers. The dependence of these properties on the temperature T and on the solute concentration n(sub 0) through the entire metastable zone (from saturation concentration n(sub sat) to spinodal n(sub spin) is examined. It has been demonstrated that there are the following asymptotics: N(sub c), = I at spinodal

  2. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of Titanium Aluminides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, R.; Sieber, M.; Grund, T.; Lampke, T.; Wielage, B.

    2016-03-01

    Due to their outstanding specific mechanical and high-temperature properties, titanium aluminides exhibit a high potential for lightweight components exposed to high temperatures. However, their application is limited through their low wear resistance and the increasing high-temperature oxidation starting from about 750 °C. By the use of oxide ceramic coatings, these constraints can be set aside and the possible applications of titanium aluminides can be extended. The plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) represents a process for the generation of oxide ceramic conversion coatings with high thickness. The current work aims at the clarification of different electrolyte components’ influences on the oxide layer evolution on alloy TNM-B1 (Ti43.5Al4Nb1Mo0.1B) and the creation of compact and wear resistant coatings. Model experiments were applied using a ramp-wise increase of the anodic potential in order to show the influence of electrolyte components on the discharge initiation and the early stage of the oxide layer growth. The production of PEO layers with technically relevant thicknesses close to 100 μm was conducted in alkaline electrolytes with varying amounts of Na2SiO3·5H2O and K4P2O7 under symmetrically pulsed current conditions. Coating properties were evaluated with regard to morphology, chemical composition, hardness and wear resistance. The addition of phosphates and silicates leads to an increasing substrate passivation and the growth of compact oxide layers with higher thicknesses. Optimal electrolyte compositions for maximum coating hardness and thickness were identified by statistical analysis. Under these conditions, a homogeneous inner layer with low porosity can be achieved. The frictional wear behavior of the compact coating layer is superior to a hard anodized layer on aluminum.

  3. Simpler and More Accurate: Weighing the Mercury in Electrolytic Cells by Radiotracer Dilution Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Weight of mercury in electrolytic cell of soda industry is usually measured gravimetrically, which is typical labor work in character. Error sources of the gravimetric method might have come from the fact that some mercury’s are usually trapped in the cell due to complicated structure of electrolytic cell. This cause unknown errors. In addition, formation of amalgam at the cathode may cause a further uncertainty in the measurement. Total error from gravimetric method is 4% on average. Radiotracer dilution method provides advantages either for simplification of procedure and reduction of measurement error. In this experiment radioisotope mercury 203Hg, which was prepared in nuclear reactor was used to examine 13 of 14 electrolytic cells of soda plant. Each electrolytic cell was designed containing approximately 700 kg inactive mercury. Before injection, the radioisotope mercury was mixed with non radioisotope mercury in a bath to obtain a suitable injection aliquots and standard references. Calibration curve, which was derived from two stage dilution processes taken from standard references, was used to examine degree of mixing between radioisotope and non radioisotope mercury and it was also used in weight calculation of non radioisotope mercury in electrolytic cell. Injection was carried out simply by pouring the injection aliquots into the flowing mercury at the inlet side of the cell. Mercury samples from the cells were extracted at regular time intervals and filled into vials for counting. This was done for the primary conformation of the completeness of mixing of the tracer with the non radioisotope mercury in each cell. When complete mixing is achieved, the unknown quantity of mercury in each cell was calculated based on mass balance principle. From the calculation the weight of mercury in each electrolytic cell was not the same and maximum error of measurement obtained from this method is 2.48 %. Compared to gravimetrically error

  4. Balance Toward Language Mastery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Virginia R Heslinga

    2017-01-01

    .... Augmentative, alternative, interactive, accommodating, and enriching strategies using sign language aid learners in balancing the skills needed to mastery of one language or multiple languages...

  5. How Strong is the "Fake ID Effect?" An Examination Using Propensity Score Matching in Two Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogner, John; Martinez, Julia A; Miller, Bryan Lee; Sher, Kenneth J

    2016-12-01

    Underage college students who obtain and use false identification (fake ID) are at risk for negative outcomes. However, it is currently unclear how uniquely the fake ID itself serves as a vehicle to subsequent harm (i.e., the "fake ID effect") over and above general and trait-related risk factors (e.g., deviant peers, low self-control). To investigate whether the "fake ID effect" would hold after accounting for phenotypic risk, we utilized propensity score matching (PSM) in a cross-sectional sample of 1,454 students, and a longitudinal replication sample of 3,720 undergraduates. Individuals with a fake ID were matched with individuals without a fake ID, in terms of a number of trait-based and social risk factors. These matched groups were then compared on 5 problematic outcomes (i.e., frequent binge drinking, alcohol-related problems, arrests, marijuana use, and hard drug use). Findings showed that "fake ID effects" were substantially-although not fully-diminished following PSM. The "fake ID effect" remained strongest for alcohol-related arrests. This may relate to issues of enforcement and students' willingness to engage in deviant behavior with a fake ID, or it may be a function of combined processes. Overall, the findings suggest that interventions should not only be aimed at reducing the fake ID-related alcohol access specifically, but should also be aimed more generally toward at-risk youths' access to alcohol. Future research might examine whether fake IDs have their strongest potency as moderators of the effects of risky traits-such as impulsiveness-on drinking outcomes. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. ID4 methylation predicts high risk of leukemic transformation in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Xu, Xiao-Ping; Lin, Guo-Wei

    2010-05-01

    Epigenetic gene silencing due to promoter methylation is observed in human cancers like acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Little is known about aberrant methylation in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), a heterogeneous clonal stem cell disorder with a approximately 30% risk of transformation into secondary AML. Recent evidence demonstrated that ID4, a negative regulator of transcription, may act as a tumor-suppressor gene. To clarify the role of ID4 in MDS, we employed methylation-specific PCR (MSP) to examine the methylation status of ID4 in 144 adult de novo MDS patients. We found that ID4 methylation was present in 35.4% (n=51) of these MDS patients and methylaiton was correlated significantly with World Health Organization (WHO) subtypes and International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) risk groups. Patients with advanced stages of WHO subtypes (45.8% vs. 21.3%, P=0.002) and higher risk IPSS subgroups (45.7% vs. 26.0%, P=0.014) exhibited a significantly higher frequency of ID4 methylation. The median survival of patients with ID4 methylation was shorter than patients without ID4 methylation (12.2 months vs. 26.9 months, P=0.005). Multivariate analysis indicated that ID4 methylation status was the independent factor that impacted leukemia-free survival (LFS). Disease in patients with ID4 methylation progressed more rapidly than those without ID4 methylation (P=0.047, HR=2.11). Our results suggest that ID4 may be a therapeutic target in MDS. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High-speed readout method of ID information on a large amount of electronic tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagate, Wataru; Sasabe, Masahiro; Nakano, Hirotaka

    2006-10-01

    An electronic tag such as RFID is expected to create new services that cannot be achieved by the traditional bar code. Specifically, in a distribution system, simultaneous readout method of a large amount of electronic tags embedded in products is required to reduce costs and time. In this paper, we propose novel methods, called Response Probability Control (RPC), to accomplish this requirement. In RPC, a reader firstly sends an ID request to electronic tags in its access area. It succeeds reading information on a tag only if other tags do not respond. To improve the readout efficiency, the reader appropriately controls the response probability in accordance with the number of tags. However, this approach cannot entirely avoid a collision of multiple responses. When a collision occurs, ID information is lost. To reduce the amount of lost data, we divide the ID registration process into two steps. The reader first gathers the former part of the original ID, called temporal ID, according to the above method. After obtaining the temporal ID, it sequentially collects the latter part of ID, called remaining ID, based on the temporal ID. Note that we determine the number of bits of a temporal ID in accordance with the number of tags in the access area so that each tag can be distinguishable. Through simulation experiments, we evaluate RPC in terms of the readout efficiency. Simulation results show that RPC can accomplish the readout efficiency 1.17 times higher than the traditional method where there are a thousand of electronic tags whose IDs are 128 bits.

  8. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2015-11-12

    The present invention is generally related to electrolytes containing anion receptor additives to enhance the power capability of lithium-ion batteries. The anion receptor of the present invention is a Lewis acid that can help to dissolve LiF in the passivation films of lithium-ion batteries. Accordingly, one aspect the invention provides electrolytes comprising a lithium salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and an anion receptor additive; and wherein the electrolyte solution is substantially non-aqueous. Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte.

  9. Electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Jow, T Richard; Borodin, Oleg; Ue, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Electrolytes for Lithium and Lithium-ion Batteries provides a comprehensive overview of the scientific understanding and technological development of electrolyte materials in the last?several years. This book covers key electrolytes such as LiPF6 salt in mixed-carbonate solvents with additives for the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries as well as new electrolyte materials developed recently that lay the foundation for future advances.?This book also reviews the characterization of electrolyte materials for their transport properties, structures, phase relationships, stabilities, and impurities.

  10. A Comparative Study of Electrolyte Flow and Slime Particle Transport in a Newly Designed Copper Electrolytic Cell and a Laboratory-Scale Conventional Electrolytic Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Weizhi; Wang, Shijie; Free, Michael L.

    2017-10-01

    An innovative copper electrolytic cell was designed with its inlet at the cell top and its outlet near the cell bottom, in opposite to conventional electrolytic cells. It was modeled in COMSOL Multiphysics to simulate copper electrorefining process. Unlike conventional electrorefining cells, downward electrolyte flows are more dominant in the fluid flow field in this cell, which leads to faster settlement of slime particles and less contamination to the cathode. Copper concentration profiles, electrolyte flow velocity field, slime particle movements, and slime particle distributions were obtained as simulation results, which were compared with those in a laboratory-scale conventional electrolytic cell. Advantages of the newly designed electrolytic cell were found: copper ions are distributed more uniformly in the cell with a thinner diffusion layer near the cathode; stronger convection exists in the inter-electrode domain with dominant downward flows; and slime particles have larger possibilities to settle down and are less likely to reach the cathode.

  11. Identifying Balance in a Balanced Scorecard System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravamudhan, Suhanya; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, strategic management concepts seem to be gaining greater attention from the academicians and the practitioner's alike. Balanced Scorecard (BSC) concept is one such management concepts that has spread in worldwide business and consulting communities. The BSC translates mission and vision statements into a comprehensive set of…

  12. Double electrolyte sensor for monitoring hydrogen permeation rate in steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Y.J. [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaihua College, Huaihua 418008 (China); Yu, G., E-mail: yuganghnu@163.co [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Ou, A.L.; Hu, L.; Xu, W.J. [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} Designed an amperometric hydrogen sensor with double electrolytes. {yields} Explained the principle of determining hydrogen permeation rate. {yields} Verified good stability, reproducibility and correctness of the developed sensor. {yields} Field on-line monitoring the susceptivity of hydrogen induced cracks. - Abstract: An amperometric hydrogen sensor with double electrolytes composed of a gelatiniform electrolyte and KOH solution has been developed to determine the permeation rate of hydrogen atoms in steel equipment owing to hydrogen corrosion. The gelatiniform electrolyte was made of sodium polyacrylate (PAAS), carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) and 0.2 mol dm{sup -3} KOH solution. The results show that the gelatiniform electrolyte containing 50 wt.% polymers has suitable viscosity and high electrical conductivity. The consistent permeation curves were detected by the sensor of the double electrolyte and single liquid KOH electrolyte, respectively. The developed sensor has good stability and reproducibility at room temperature.

  13. Balanço eletrolítico e níveis de proteína bruta sobre o desempenho, o rendimento de carcaça e a umidade da cama de frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade Effects of electrolyte balance and crude protein levels on performance, carcass yield and broiler litter of broiler from 1 to 42 days old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Medeiros Vieites

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento com o objetivo de determinar os melhores valores de balanço eletrolítico (BE para frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade. Na fase inicial, utilizaram-se 2.112 pintinhos machos da linhagem comercial Ross, criados em boxes de galpão de alvenaria cobertos com maravalha e alimentados com duas rações basais, uma com 20 e outra com 23% de proteína bruta (PB à base de milho e de farelo de soja, combinadas com níveis de BE de 0; 50; 100; 150; 200; 250; 300 e 350 mq/kg. Na fase de crescimento, utilizaram-se 1.728 frangos oriundos da fase inicial e apenas uma ração basal com 20% de PB. Foi utilizado delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 8 x 2 (oito níveis de BE e duas seqüências protéicas, seis repetições e 18 aves por unidade experimental na fase de crescimento. Avaliaram-se o ganho de peso (GP, o consumo de ração (CR, a conversão alimentar (CA, o rendimento de carcaça, os cortes nobres e a matéria seca na cama das aves aos 42 dias de idade. Os melhores valores de BE estimados foram 179 (20-20% PB e 185 (23-20% PB mEq/kg e valores similares foram encontrados para os maiores CR, 193 (20-20% PB e 192 (23-20% PB mEq/kg. A CA teve como melhor valor estimado 159 (23-20% mEq/kg, um pouco abaixo dos valores de BE obtidos para GP e CR. Para o rendimento de carcaça e de cortes nobres, os melhores valores de BE foram similares aos de desempenho. Os valores de BE obtidos para os maiores teores de matéria seca na cama das aves foram 138 (20-20% e 148 (23-20% mEq/kg. Considerando-se os dados obtidos, recomenda-se um valor de BE na faixa de 160 a 190 mEq/kg como ótimo para frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade.An trial was conducted to determine the best electrolyte balance (EB for broilers from 1 to 42 days old. In the first phase of the experiment 2,112 Ross chicks male were reared in the floor covered with shaving woods and fed two corn-soybean meal based diet: one with 20

  14. Leadership: A Balancing Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining balance in leadership can be difficult because balance is affected by the personality, strengths, and attitudes of the leader as well as the complicated environment within and outside the community college itself. This article explores what being a leader at the community college means, what the threats are to effective leadership, and…

  15. Conclusion: The balanced company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm; Jensen, Inger

    2013-01-01

    This concluding chapter brings together the various research findings of the book "The balanced company - organizing for the 21st Century" and develops a general overview of their implications for our understanding of the balancing processes unfolding in companies and organizations....

  16. THERMOREGULATION IN CHILDREN: EXERCISE, HEAT STRESS & FLUID BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawnda A. Morrison

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the specific physiological strategies of thermoregulation in children, a brief literary update relating exercise to heat stress in girls and boys as well as a discussion on fluid balance strategies for children who are performing exercise in the heat. Both sport performance and thermoregulation can be affected by the body’s water and electrolyte content. The recommendations for pre-pubertal fluid intake have been generalized from adult literature, including a limited concession for the physiological differences between adults and children. Considering these body fluid shifts, carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks are thought to be an essential tool in combating dehydration as a result of active hyperthermia (i.e. exercise, thus we examine current hydration practices in exercising children. Finally, this review summarizes research which examines the relationship between cognition and hypohydration on young athletes’ performance.

  17. Rethinking Social Network Assessment for Students with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) in Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenman, Laura T.; Farley-Ripple, Elizabeth; Culnane, Mary; Freedman, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Social networks of persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) have been characterized as smaller and less diverse than those of typical peers. Advocates have focused on strengthening those social networks by expanding circles of social support, protection, and friendship. As young adults with ID experience increasing levels of community…

  18. The Mathematica package TopoID and its application to the Higgs boson production cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, Jens

    2016-07-15

    We present the Mathematica package TopoID which aims at the automation of several steps in multiloop calculations. The algorithm which lies at the very core of the package is described and illustrated with an example. The main features of TopoID are stated and some of them are briefly demonstrated for NLO or NNLO Higgs boson production.

  19. 77 FR 37696 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Importer ID Input Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Importer ID Input... Input Record (CBP Form 5106). This request for comment is being made pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction... concerning the following information collection: Title: Importer ID Input Record. OMB Number: 1651-0064. Form...

  20. 78 FR 67383 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Importer ID Input Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities; Importer ID Input... Input Record (CBP Form 5106). This request for comment is being made pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction... concerning the following information collection: Title: Importer ID Input Record. OMB Number: 1651-0064. Form...

  1. Ubiquitin-SUMO Circuitry Controls Activated Fanconi Anemia ID Complex Dosage in Response to DNA Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbs-Seymour, Ian; Oka, Yasuyoshi; Rajendra, Eeson

    2015-01-01

    We show that central components of the Fanconi anemia (FA) DNA repair pathway, the tumor suppressor proteins FANCI and FANCD2 (the ID complex), are SUMOylated in response to replication fork stalling. The ID complex is SUMOylated in a manner that depends on the ATR kinase, the FA ubiquitin ligase...

  2. Differential interactions between Notch and ID factors control neurogenesis by modulating Hes factor autoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boareto, Marcelo; Iber, Dagmar; Taylor, Verdon

    2017-10-01

    During embryonic and adult neurogenesis, neural stem cells (NSCs) generate the correct number and types of neurons in a temporospatial fashion. Control of NSC activity and fate is crucial for brain formation and homeostasis. Neurogenesis in the embryonic and adult brain differ considerably, but Notch signaling and inhibitor of DNA-binding (ID) factors are pivotal in both. Notch and ID factors regulate NSC maintenance; however, it has been difficult to evaluate how these pathways potentially interact. Here, we combined mathematical modeling with analysis of single-cell transcriptomic data to elucidate unforeseen interactions between the Notch and ID factor pathways. During brain development, Notch signaling dominates and directly regulates Id4 expression, preventing other ID factors from inducing NSC quiescence. Conversely, during adult neurogenesis, Notch signaling and Id2/3 regulate neurogenesis in a complementary manner and ID factors can induce NSC maintenance and quiescence in the absence of Notch. Our analyses unveil key molecular interactions underlying NSC maintenance and mechanistic differences between embryonic and adult neurogenesis. Similar Notch and ID factor interactions may be crucial in other stem cell systems. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Cloning and shake flask expression of hrIDS- Like in Pichia pastoris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The human Iduronate-2-sulfate sulfatase (hIDS-Like) was cloned into the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris under the control of alcohol oxidase promoter (AOX1) and the -mating factor signal peptide (a-factor). Six clones were identified by PCR. Using clone IDS28, the enzyme was secreted into the culture medium, ...

  4. Documenting the Undocumented: A Review of the United States' First Municipal ID Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagunes, Paul F.; Levin, Brian M.; Ditlmann, Ruth K.

    2012-01-01

    The City of New Haven, CT, sought to promote the assimilation of its immigrants by becoming the first American city to provide a government-backed ID, the Elm City Resident Card, to all residents. This article tests the policy's effectiveness in commerce. We find that Hispanics/Latinos are asked to present an ID more than Whites/Anglos, showing…

  5. Overexpression of Id1 in transgenic mice promotes mammary basal stem cell activity and breast tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Hee-Young; Jang, Ki-Seok; Min, Kyueng-Whan; Jang, Si-Hyong; Woo, Jong-Kyu; Oh, Seung Hyun; Kong, Gu

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitor of differentiation/DNA binding (Id)1 is a crucial regulator of mammary development and breast cancer progression. However, its effect on stemness and tumorigenesis in mammary epithelial cells remains undefined. Herein, we demonstrate that Id1 induces mammary tumorigenesis by increasing normal and malignant mammary stem cell (MaSC) activities in transgenic mice. MaSC-enriched basal cell expansion and increased self-renewal and in vivo regenerative capacity of MaSCs are observed in the mammary glands of MMTV-Id1 transgenic mice. Furthermore, MMTV-Id1 mice develop ductal hyperplasia and mammary tumors with highly expressed basal markers. Id1 also increases breast cancer stem cell (CSC) population and activity in human breast cancer lines. Moreover, the effects of Id1 on normal and malignant stem cell activities are mediated by the Wnt/c-Myc pathway. Collectively, these findings provide in vivo genetic evidence of Id1 functions as an oncogene in breast cancer and indicate that Id1 regulates mammary basal stem cells by activating the Wnt/c-Myc pathway, thereby contributing to breast tumor development. PMID:25938540

  6. Sexual abuse involving children with an intellectual disability (ID): a narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissink, I.B.; van Vugt, E.S.; Moonen, X.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Hendriks, J.

    2015-01-01

    The current paper provides a narrative review of the literature on sexual abuse, involving children with Intellectual Disability (ID). The thirteen articles that were found and met our criteria vary in their definitions of sexual abuse and in how ID was determined. Still, they do paint a general

  7. Clarté des idées innées ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøsler, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    Der gives en analyse af begreberne 'evidens' og 'medfødte idéer' hos Descartes og Locke samt hos de franske oplysningsfilosoffer.......Der gives en analyse af begreberne 'evidens' og 'medfødte idéer' hos Descartes og Locke samt hos de franske oplysningsfilosoffer....

  8. Piletikontrolörid saavad kolm korda rohkem ID-kaardi lugejaid / Dagne Hanschmidt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanschmidt, Dagne

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 22. veebr. lk. 4. AS Falck saab Tallinna linnavalitsuselt 40 uut ID-pileti kontrollseadet, praegu on ID-pileti lugeja vaid igal kolmandal piletikontrolöril. Lisa: Järjekindlad jänesed

  9. Extending the Intermediate Data Structure (IDS for longitudinal historical databases to include geographic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Hedefalk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Intermediate Data Structure (IDS is a standardised database structure for longitudinal historical databases. Such a common structure facilitates data sharing and comparative research. In this study, we propose an extended version of IDS, named IDS-Geo, that also includes geographic data. The geographic data that will be stored in IDS-Geo are primarily buildings and/or property units, and the purpose of these geographic data is mainly to link individuals to places in space. When we want to assign such detailed spatial locations to individuals (in times before there were any detailed house addresses available, we often have to create tailored geographic datasets. In those cases, there are benefits of storing geographic data in the same structure as the demographic data. Moreover, we propose the export of data from IDS-Geo using an eXtensible Markup Language (XML Schema. IDS-Geo is implemented in a case study using historical property units, for the period 1804 to 1913, stored in a geographically extended version of the Scanian Economic Demographic Database (SEDD. To fit into the IDS-Geo data structure, we included an object lifeline representation of all of the property units (based on the snapshot time representation of single historical maps and poll-tax registers. The case study verifies that the IDS-Geo model is capable of handling geographic data that can be linked to demographic data.

  10. Wicked ID: Conceptual Framework for Considering Instructional Design as a Wicked Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    The process of instructional design has parallels in other design disciplines. Software design is one that has experienced intense attention in the last 30 or so years, and many lessons learned there can be applied to ID. Using software design as a springboard, this concept paper seeks to propose a new approach to ID. It suggests that…

  11. Improving HybrID: How to best combine indirect and direct encoding in evolutionary algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Helms

    Full Text Available Many challenging engineering problems are regular, meaning solutions to one part of a problem can be reused to solve other parts. Evolutionary algorithms with indirect encoding perform better on regular problems because they reuse genomic information to create regular phenotypes. However, on problems that are mostly regular, but contain some irregularities, which describes most real-world problems, indirect encodings struggle to handle the irregularities, hurting performance. Direct encodings are better at producing irregular phenotypes, but cannot exploit regularity. An algorithm called HybrID combines the best of both: it first evolves with indirect encoding to exploit problem regularity, then switches to direct encoding to handle problem irregularity. While HybrID has been shown to outperform both indirect and direct encoding, its initial implementation required the manual specification of when to switch from indirect to direct encoding. In this paper, we test two new methods to improve HybrID by eliminating the need to manually specify this parameter. Auto-Switch-HybrID automatically switches from indirect to direct encoding when fitness stagnates. Offset-HybrID simultaneously evolves an indirect encoding with directly encoded offsets, eliminating the need to switch. We compare the original HybrID to these alternatives on three different problems with adjustable regularity. The results show that both Auto-Switch-HybrID and Offset-HybrID outperform the original HybrID on different types of problems, and thus offer more tools for researchers to solve challenging problems. The Offset-HybrID algorithm is particularly interesting because it suggests a path forward for automatically and simultaneously combining the best traits of indirect and direct encoding.

  12. Asymmetric adsorption in an open electrolytic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousiadi, S.; Lelidis, I.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the effect of adsorption-desorption phenomenon of ions in an asymmetric electrolytic cell at open circuit conditions. Our approach is based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck theory for electrolytes and the kinetic model of Langmuir for the description of adsorption-desorption phenomena on the electrodes. When the electrodes are immersed into the solution, selective ion adsorption takes place. It is shown, that the selective ion adsorption is responsible for generating an electrical potential difference between the electrodes of the cell. The analytical expressions for the potential difference and for the charge distribution are calculated. Finally, the time evolution of the system is investigated and the relaxation times of the problem are deduced numerically.

  13. Progress in Electrolyte-Free Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzheng eLu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC represents a clean electrochemical energy conversion technology with characteristics of high conversion efficiency and low emissions. It is one of the most important new energy technologies in the future. However, the manufacture of SOFCs based on the structure of anode/electrolyte/cathode is complicated and time-consuming. Thus, the cost for the entire fabrication and technology is too high to be affordable and challenges still hinder commercialization. Recently, a novel type of Electrolyte -free fuel cell (EFFC with single component was invented which could be the potential candidate for the next generation of advanced fuel cells. This paper briefly introduces the EFFC, working principle, performance and advantages with updated research progress. A number of key R&D issues about EFFCs have been addressed and future opportunities and challenges are discussed.

  14. Plasma electrolytic polishing of metalized carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falko Böttger-Hiller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Efficient lightweight structures require intelligent materials that meet versatile functions. Especially, carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs are gaining relevance. Their increasing use aims at reducing energy consumption in many applications. CFRPs are generally very light in weight, while at the same time being extremely stiff and strong (specific strength: CFRPs: 1.3 Nm kg–1, steel: 0.27 Nm kg–1; specific stiffness: CFRPs: 100 Nm kg–1, steel: 25 Nm kg–1. To increase performance and especially functionality of CFRPs, the integration of microelectronic components into CFRP parts is aspired. The functionalization by sensors, actuators and electronics can enable a high lightweight factor and a new level of failure-safety. The integration of microelectronic components for this purpose requires a working procedure to provide electrical contacts for a reliable connection to energy supply and data interfaces. To overcome this challenge, metalized carbon fibers are used. Metalized fibers are, similar to the usual reinforcing fibers, able to be soldered and therefore easy to incorporate into CFRPs. Unfortunately, metalized fibers have to be pre-treated by flux-agents. Until now, there is no flux which is suitable for mass production without destroying the polymer of the CFRP. The process of plasma electrolytic polishing (PeP could be an option, but is so far not available for copper. Thus, in this study, plasma electrolytic polishing is transferred to copper and its alloys. To achieve this, electrolytic parameters as well as the electrical setup are adapted. It can be observed that the gloss and roughness can be adjusted by means of this procedure. Finally, plasma electrolytic polishing is used to treat thin copper layers on carbon fibers.

  15. Anti-perovskite solid electrolyte compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yusheng; Daemen, Luc Louis

    2015-12-26

    Solid electrolyte antiperovskite compositions for batteries, capacitors, and other electrochemical devices have chemical formula Li.sub.3OA, Li.sub.(3-x)M.sub.x/2OA, Li.sub.(3-x)N.sub.x/3OA, or LiCOX.sub.zY.sub.(1-z), wherein M and N are divalent and trivalent metals respectively and wherein A is a halide or mixture of halides, and X and Y are halides.

  16. Ion-Chain Dynamics in Polymer Electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos, L. D.; Videira, A. L. L.

    1996-01-01

    Representing polyether-salt systems by chains of interacting coordination shells, defined by the cation and by its nearest ligands, we derive the interaction potential between closest shells -- the inter-shells potential -- in terms of two-electron polarization effects. Values are presented for monovalent-based crystalline poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, electrolytes. For the eutectic composition $\\text{PEO}_{12} \\text{EuBr}_3$, the inter-shells energy is evaluated also by relating the empirical v...

  17. Aqueous Electrolytes: Model Parameters and Process Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj

    This thesis deals with aqueous electrolyte mixtures. The Extended UNIQUAC model is being used to describe the excess Gibbs energy of such solutions. Extended UNIQUAC parameters for the twelve ions Na+, K+, NH4+, H+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, HSO4-, OH-, CO32-, HCO3-, and S2O82- are estimated. A computer...... program including a steady state process simulator for the design, simulation, and optimization of fractional crystallization processes is presented....

  18. PERSONAL BRANDING PRABOWO SUBIANTO (ANALISIS ISI KUANTITATIF PERSONAL BRANDING PRABOWO SUBIANTO DI SITUS BERITA ONLINE REPUBLIKA.CO.ID DAN TEMPO.CO.ID TANGGAL 9 JUNI - 9 JULI 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Agus Prakoso

    2016-09-01

    berita kedua media tersebut. Frekuensi berita berjumlah 107 di Republika.co.id dan 51 berita di Tempo.co.id Ragam berita Republika.co.id didominasi konsep Spesialisasi sebesar 22,4% dari 107 berita, sedangkan pada Tempo.co.id didominasi konsep Nama baik sebesar 23,5% dari 51 berita. Sumber berita pada Republika.co.id mayoritas berasal dari Liputan langsung sebesar 42,9% dari 107 berita sedangkan pada Tempo.co.id mayoritas berasal dari Intelektual sebesar 54,9% dari 51 berita.

  19. Id-1 promotes osteosarcoma cell growth and inhibits cell apoptosis via PI3K/AKT signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Liang; Liao, Qi; Tang, Qiang [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang 300006 (China); Deng, Huan [Department of Pathology, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006 (China); Chen, Lu, E-mail: chenlu0578@163.com [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang 300006 (China)

    2016-02-12

    Accumulating evidence reveals that Id-1 is upregulated and functions as a potential tumor promoter in several human cancer types. However, the role of Id-1 in osteosarcoma (OS) is unknown. In present study, we found that Id-1 expression was elevated in OS tissues than adjacent normal bone tissues. More importantly, we demonstrated that overexpression of Id-1 is significantly correlated with tumor progression and poor survival in OS patients. Furthermore, increased expression of Id-1 was observed in OS cell lines and ectopic expression of Id-1 significantly enhanced in vitro cell proliferation and promoted in vivo tumor growth, whereas knockdown of Id-1 suppressed OS cells growth. Moreover, our experimental data revealed that Id-1 promotes cell proliferation by facilitating cell cycle progression and inhibits cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, the effects of Id-1 in OS cells is at least partly through activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Therefore, we identified a tumorigenic role of Id-1 in OS and suggested a potential therapeutic target for OS patients. - Highlights: • Id-1 expression is positively correlated in OS patients with poor prognosis. • Overexpression of Id-1 promotes OS cell growth in vitro and in vivo. • Id-1induces cell cycle progression and inhibits cell apoptosis. • PI3K/Akt signaling pathway contributed to the oncogenic effects of Id-1 in OS cells.

  20. FHL2 interacts with and acts as a functional repressor of Id2 in human neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Weidong; Wu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yali; Meng, Yuanguang; Si, Yiling; Yang, Jie; Fu, Xiaobing; Yu, Li

    2009-07-01

    Inhibitor of differentiation 2 (Id2) is a natural inhibitor of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. Although Id2 is well known to prevent differentiation and promote cell-cycle progression and tumorigenesis, the molecular events that regulate Id2 activity remain to be investigated. Here, we identified that Four-and-a-half LIM-only protein 2 (FHL2) is a novel functional repressor of Id2. Moreover, we demonstrated that FHL2 can directly interact with all members of the Id family (Id1-4) via an N-terminal loop-helix structure conserved in Id proteins. FHL2 antagonizes the inhibitory effect of Id proteins on basic helix-loop-helix protein E47-mediated transcription, which was abrogated by the deletion mutation of Ids that disrupted their interaction with FHL2. We also showed a competitive nature between FHL2 and E47 for binding Id2, whereby FHL2 prevents the formation of the Id2-E47 heterodimer, thus releasing E47 to DNA and restoring its transcriptional activity. FHL2 expression was remarkably up-regulated during retinoic acid-induced differentiation of neuroblastoma cells, during which the expression of Id2 was opposite to that. Ectopic FHL2 expression in neuroblastoma cells markedly reduces the transcriptional and cell-cycle promoting functions of Id2. Altogether, these results indicate that FHL2 is an important repressor of the oncogenic activity of Id2 in neuroblastoma cells.

  1. Microbial Electrolytic Carbon Capture for Carbon Negative and Energy Positive Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Huang, Zhe; Rau, Greg H; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-07-07

    Energy and carbon neutral wastewater management is a major goal for environmental sustainability, but current progress has only reduced emission rather than using wastewater for active CO2 capture and utilization. We present here a new microbial electrolytic carbon capture (MECC) approach to potentially transform wastewater treatment to a carbon negative and energy positive process. Wastewater was used as an electrolyte for microbially assisted electrolytic production of H2 and OH(-) at the cathode and protons at the anode. The acidity dissolved silicate and liberated metal ions that balanced OH(-), producing metal hydroxide, which transformed CO2 in situ into (bi)carbonate. Results using both artificial and industrial wastewater show 80-93% of the CO2 was recovered from both CO2 derived from organic oxidation and additional CO2 injected into the headspace, making the process carbon-negative. High rates and yields of H2 were produced with 91-95% recovery efficiency, resulting in a net energy gain of 57-62 kJ/mol-CO2 captured. The pH remained stable without buffer addition and no toxic chlorine-containing compounds were detected. The produced (bi)carbonate alkalinity is valuable for wastewater treatment and long-term carbon storage in the ocean. Preliminary evaluation shows promising economic and environmental benefits for different industries.

  2. The effect of porosity on performance of phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celik Muhammet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A polybenzimidazole (PBI based polymer electrolyte fuel cells, which called high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (HT-PEMS, operate at higher temperatures (120-200°C than conventional PEM fuel cells. Although it is known that HT-PEMS have some of the significant advantages as non-humidification requirements for membrane and the lack of liquid water at high temperature in the fuel cell, the generated water as a result of oxygen reduction reaction causes in the degradation of these systems. The generated water absorbed into membrane side interacts with the hydrophilic PBI matrix and it can cause swelling of membrane, so water transport mechanism in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA needs to be well understood and water balance must be calculated in MEA. Therefore, the water diffusion transport across the electrolyte should be determined. In this study, various porosity values of gas diffusion layers are considered in order to investigate the effects of porosity on the water management for two phase flow in fuel cell. Two-dimensional fuel cell with interdigitated flow-field is modelled using COMSOL Multiphysics 4.2a software. The operating temperature and doping level is selected as 160°C and 6.75mol H3PO4/PBI, respectively.

  3. The effect of porosity on performance of phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Muhammet; Genc, Gamze; Elden, Gulsah; Yapici, Huseyin

    2016-03-01

    A polybenzimidazole (PBI) based polymer electrolyte fuel cells, which called high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (HT-PEMS), operate at higher temperatures (120-200°C) than conventional PEM fuel cells. Although it is known that HT-PEMS have some of the significant advantages as non-humidification requirements for membrane and the lack of liquid water at high temperature in the fuel cell, the generated water as a result of oxygen reduction reaction causes in the degradation of these systems. The generated water absorbed into membrane side interacts with the hydrophilic PBI matrix and it can cause swelling of membrane, so water transport mechanism in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) needs to be well understood and water balance must be calculated in MEA. Therefore, the water diffusion transport across the electrolyte should be determined. In this study, various porosity values of gas diffusion layers are considered in order to investigate the effects of porosity on the water management for two phase flow in fuel cell. Two-dimensional fuel cell with interdigitated flow-field is modelled using COMSOL Multiphysics 4.2a software. The operating temperature and doping level is selected as 160°C and 6.75mol H3PO4/PBI, respectively.

  4. Are Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids Dilute Electrolytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alpha A; Vella, Dominic; Perkin, Susan; Goriely, Alain

    2015-01-02

    An important question in understanding the structure of ionic liquids is whether ions are truly "free" and mobile, which would correspond to a concentrated ionic melt, or are rather "bound" in ion pairs, that is, a liquid of ion pairs with a small concentration of free ions. Recent surface force balance experiments from different groups have given conflicting answers to this question. We propose a simple model for the thermodynamics and kinetics of ion pairing in ionic liquids. Our model takes into account screened ion-ion, dipole-dipole, and dipole-ion interactions in the mean-field limit. The results of this model suggest that almost two-thirds of the ions are free at any instant, and ion pairs have a short lifetime comparable to the characteristic time scale for diffusion. These results suggest that there is no particular thermodynamic or kinetic preference for ions to reside in pairs. We therefore conclude that ionic liquids are concentrated, rather than dilute, electrolytes.

  5. Formation of Reversible Solid Electrolyte Interface on Graphite Surface from Concentrated Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Dongping; Tao, Jinhui; Yan, Pengfei; Henderson, Wesley A.; Li, Qiuyan; Shao, Yuyan; Helm, Monte L.; Borodin, Oleg; Graff, Gordon L.; Polzin, Bryant; Wang, Chong-Min; Engelhard, Mark; Zhang, Ji-Guang; De Yoreo, James J.; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2017-02-10

    Interfacial phenomena have always been key determinants for the performance of energy storage technologies. The solid electrolyte interfacial (SEI) layer, pervasive on the surfaces of battery electrodes for numerous chemical couples, directly affects the ion transport, charge transfer and lifespan of the entire energy system. Almost all SEI layers, however, are unstable resulting in the continuous consumption of the electrolyte. Typically, this leads to the accumulation of degradation products on/restructuring of the electrode surface and thus increased cell impedance, which largely limits the long-term operation of the electrochemical reactions. Herein, a completely new SEI formation mechanism has been discovered, in which the electrolyte components reversibly self-assemble into a protective surface coating on a graphite electrode upon changing the potential. In contrast to the established wisdom regarding the necessity of employing the solvent ethylene carbonate (EC) to form a protective SEI layer on graphite, a wide range of EC-free electrolytes are demonstrated for the reversible intercalation/deintercalation of Li+ cations within a graphite lattice, thereby providing tremendous flexibility in electrolyte tailoring for battery couples. This novel finding is broadly applicable and provides guidance for how to control interfacial reactions through the relationship between ion aggregation and solvent decomposition at polarized interfaces.

  6. Fabrication of cylinder type solid electrolyte electrolytic cell. Entojo kotai denkaishitsugata denkai seru no seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuru, C.; Nagata, K.; Sasai, T.

    1994-03-18

    With the conventional cylinder type solid electrolyte fuel cell (cylinder type SOFC), the fuel electrode is formed on a supporting tube, and then subjected to heat treatment after the electrolyte is formed. At this time, nickel of the fuel electrode melts to block up pores, and nickel of the fuel electrode must be once made to nickel oxide and reduced to nickel again to avoid blocking up. This invention is concerned with sequential formation of the air electrode having comparatively high conductivity in high temperature oxidizing atmosphere and solid electrolyte of perovskite oxide on the periphery of the cylindrical supporting tube of the cylinder type SOFC, densification of the said air electrode and the solid electrolyte by heat treatment under oxidation atmosphere, and the formation of the fuel electrode on the outermost layer. The oxidation and reduction processes of nickel of the fuel electrode can be eliminated by forming the air electrode and electrolyte in sequence on the supporting tube followed by heat treatment. 1 fig.

  7. Nonaqueous Electrolyte Development for Electrochemical Capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Xu; S. P. Ding; T. R. Jow

    1999-09-01

    The objectives of this project were to demonstrate and develop new nonaqueous electrolytes that enable the development of high power (in excess of 2 kW/kg) and high energy (in excess of 8 Wh/kg) capacitors. Electrochemical capacitors are attractive to use because of their long cycle life and inherent high-power (or fast charge/discharge) capabilities. To realize the inherent high-power nature of the capacitor, the resistance of the capacitor needs to be low. The main focus of this project is on the ionic part of capacitor resistance, which is largely determined by the electrolyte, especially the electrolyte's conductivity. To achieve the objectives of this project, two approaches were used. The first was to search for the proper solvent mixtures within the commercially available quaternary ammonium salts such as tetraethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (Et4NBF4) or tetraethyl ammonium hexafluorophosphate (Et4NPF6). The second approach was to use the commonly available solvent system s but develop new salts. Substantial advances were made in quaternary ammonium salts and solvent systems were identified that can withstand high voltage operations. However, improvement in the salt alone is not sufficient. Improvements in the low-temperature stability of a capacitor rely not only on the salts but also on the solvents. Likewise, the high-temperature stability of the capacitor will depend not only on the salts but also on the solvents and carbon electrode materials.

  8. Electrolyte Imbalance in Patients with Sheehan's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chur Hoan; Han, Ji Hyun; Jin, Joon; Yu, Ji Eun; Chung, Jin Ook; Cho, Dong Hyeok; Chung, Dong Jin; Chung, Min Young

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the prevalence of electrolyte imbalance and the relationship between serum electrolyte and anterior pituitary hormone levels in patients with Sheehan's syndrome. In a retrospective study, we investigated 78 patients with Sheehan's syndrome. We also included 95 normal control subjects who underwent a combined anterior pituitary hormone stimulation test and showed normal hormonal responses. In patients with Sheehan's syndrome, the serum levels of sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, magnesium, and inorganic phosphate were significantly lower than those in control subjects. The prevalence of hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypophosphatemia in patients with Sheehan's syndrome was 59.0% (n=46), 26.9% (n=21), 35.9% (n=28), 47.4% (n=37), and 23.1% (n=18), respectively. Levels of sodium and ionized calcium in serum were positively correlated with levels of all anterior pituitary hormones (all PElectrolyte imbalance was common in patients with Sheehan's syndrome. Furthermore, the degree of anterior pituitary hormone deficiency relates to the degree of electrolyte disturbance in patients with this disease.

  9. Hindered Glymes for Graphite-Compatible Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmukaraj, Devaraj; Grugeon, Sylvie; Laruelle, Stephane; Armand, Michel

    2015-08-24

    Organic carbonate mixtures are used almost exclusively as lithium battery electrolyte solvents. The linear compounds (dimethyl carbonate, diethyl carbonate, ethyl methyl carbonate) act mainly as thinner for the more viscous and high-melting ethylene carbonate but are the least stable component and have low flash points; these are serious handicaps for lifetime and safety. Polyethers (glymes) are useful co-solvents, but all formerly known representatives solvate Li(+) strongly enough to co-intercalate in the graphite negative electrode and exfoliate it. We have put forward a new electrolyte composition comprising a polyether to which a bulky tert-butyl group is attached ("hindered glyme"), thus completely preventing co-intercalation while maintaining good conductivity. This alkyl-carbonate-free electrolyte shows remarkable cycle efficiency of the graphite electrode, not only at room temperature, but also at 50 and 70 °C in the presence of lithium bis(fluorosulfonimide). The two-ethylene-bridge hindered glyme has a high boiling point and a flash point of 80 °C, a considerable advantage for safety. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Water Balance Simulations of a PEM Fuel Cell Using a Two-Fluid Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, Torsten; Odgaard, Madeleine; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2010-01-01

    A previously published computational multi-phase model of a polymer-electrolyte membrane fuel cell has been extended in order to account for the anode side and the electrolyte membrane. The model has been applied to study the water balance of a fuel cell during operation under various humidificat...... net water transport coefficient. Thus we can reduce flooding at the cathode and may obtain improved cell performance due to a better humidified membrane. The results also suggest that membrane dehydration may occur at either anode or cathode depending on the net water transport....

  11. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  12. Energy balance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhurandhar, N V; Schoeller, D; Brown, A W

    2015-01-01

    -reports of EI and PAEE are imperfect, but nevertheless deserving of use, to a view commensurate with the evidence that self-reports of EI and PAEE are so poor that they are wholly unacceptable for scientific research on EI and PAEE. While new strategies for objectively determining energy balance......Energy intake (EI) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) are key modifiable determinants of energy balance, traditionally assessed by self-report despite its repeated demonstration of considerable inaccuracies. We argue here that it is time to move from the common view that self...... of energy balance....

  13. Ankylosing Spondylitis and Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckun, Alper; Sezer, Ilhan

    2017-10-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that mainly affects axial joints and the changes in the vertebrae cause typical kyphotic posture. In patients with ankylosing spondylitis, the postural changes, including cervical flexion, decreased lumbar lordosis, posterior rotation of pelvis, hip extension, knee flexion, and plantar flexion of ankle along with kyphosis, may occur in the upcoming terms of the disease and may negatively affect balance. Joint and eye involvements; muscular, vestibular and proprioceptional changes can also affect balance. This review evaluates the ankylosing spondylitis-equilibrium relationship together with posture and other parameters of balance.

  14. Effect and pathway of Id1 on the cell growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-yan LI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the effects of Id1 on proliferation and apoptosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC cells in vitroand its mechanism. Methods  Human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell NP69 and CNE1 were cultured in vitro. Small interfering RNA and expression vector of Id1 were transfected into NP69 and CNE1 cells respectively. NP69 cells transfected with Id1 siRNA or control plasmid Scramble for 72h (named NP69si-Id1 and NP69-NC respectively, and CNE1 cells transfected with pcDNA3.1-Id1 and control pcDNA3.1 for 48h (named CNE1-Id1 and CNE1-Vector respectively were collected. The effect of siRNA or pcDNA3.1-Id1 on the expression level of Id1 was evaluated by reverse transcriptase-PCR and Western blotting. MTT assay was performed to compare the effects of DDP on proliferation of both CNE1-Id1 and CNE1-Vector and both NP69si-Id1 and NP69-NC. CalcuSyn software was used to calculate the IC50 values of cells to cisplatin (DDP. After the 1μg/ml DDP and nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells were coincubated for 24 hours, the expressions of cell apoptotic protein caspase-3, Bax, Bad, and the Thr308 and Ser473 phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt were analyzed by Western blotting. Results  Obviously lower Id1 mRNA and protein levels were detected in NP69si-Id1 cells as compared with NP69-NC cells and obviously higher Id1 mRNA and protein levels in CNE1-Id1 cells than in CNE1-Vector were found. The IC50 value of the NP69si-Id1 cells for DDP (0.207±0.008μg/ ml was significantly lower than the NP69-NC cells (0.405±0.009μg/ml, P < 0.05, and the IC50 value of CNE1-d1 cells for DDP (0.671±0.012μg/ml was significantly higher than that of CNE1-Vector (0.445±0.008/ml, P < 0.05. Western blotting results indicated that the fault zone of caspase-3 increased, and Akt phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473 decreased in NP69si-Id1 than in NP69-NC, while the fault zone decreased, and Akt phosphorylation at Thr308 and Ser473 increased more significantly in CNE

  15. Bio-fortification and shelf-life extension of idli batter using curry leaves (Murraya koenigii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelliah, R; Ramakrishnan, S R; Premkumar, D; Antony, U

    2016-06-01

    Among several traditional foods of India, idli is one of the most popular and commonly consumed steamed products. A new method of adding Murraya koenigii (curry leaves) to idli batter as a vehicle for fortification and extension of shelf-life has been developed. Dried curry leaves powder was incorporated with other ingredients like rice and dehusked black gram in different proportions to optimize the most palatable formulation. Rate of fermentation and microbial changes in the batter; nutritional qualities, texture and sensory properties of the prepared product were assessed. Incorporation of curry leaves powder (5 %) in idli batter increased the shelf-life and also increased the flavour, texture and appearance of the idli. The calcium content of the prepared idli was 10 times more than that of the control idli, while dietary fiber content increased by 18.6 %. Anti-microbial activity of the curry leaves in idli batter extended the shelf-life from 2 to 5 days when stored at 30 °C.

  16. Influence of the Distribution of Tag IDs on RFID Memoryless Anti-Collision Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cmiljanic, Nikola; Landaluce, Hugo; Perallos, Asier; Arjona, Laura

    2017-08-17

    In recent years, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has become very popular. The main feature of this technology is that RFID tags do not require close handling and no line of sight is required between the reader and the tags. RFID is a technology that uses radio frequencies in order to identify tags, which do not need to be positioned accurately relative to the reader. Tags share the communication channel, increasing the likelihood of causing a problem, viz., a message collision. Tree based protocols can resolve these collisions, but require a uniform tag ID distribution. This means they are very dependent of the distribution of the IDs of the tags. Tag IDs are written in the tag and contain a predefined bit string of data. A study of the influence of the tag ID distribution on the protocols' behaviour is proposed here. A new protocol, called the Flexible Query window Tree (FQwT) is presented to estimate the tag ID distribution, taking into consideration the type of distribution. The aim is to create a flexible anti-collision protocol in order to identify a set of tags that constitute an ID distribution. As a result, the reader classifies tags into groups determined by using a distribution estimator. Simulations show that the FQwT protocol contributes to significant reductions in identification time and energy consumption regardless of the type of ID distribution.

  17. The ID23-2 structural biology microfocus beamline at the ESRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flot, David; Mairs, Trevor; Giraud, Thierry; Guijarro, Matias; Lesourd, Marc; Rey, Vicente; van Brussel, Denis; Morawe, Christian; Borel, Christine; Hignette, Olivier; Chavanne, Joel; Nurizzo, Didier; McSweeney, Sean; Mitchell, Edward

    2010-01-01

    The first phase of the ESRF beamline ID23 to be constructed was ID23-1, a tunable MAD-capable beamline which opened to users in early 2004. The second phase of the beamline to be constructed is ID23-2, a monochromatic microfocus beamline dedicated to macromolecular crystallography experiments. Beamline ID23-2 makes use of well characterized optical elements: a single-bounce silicon (111) monochromator and two mirrors in Kirkpatrick-Baez geometry to focus the X-ray beam. A major design goal of the ID23-2 beamline is to provide a reliable, easy-to-use and routine microfocus beam. ID23-2 started operation in November 2005, as the first beamline dedicated to microfocus macromolecular crystallography. The beamline has taken the standard automated ESRF macromolecular crystallography environment (both hardware and software), allowing users of ID23-2 to be rapidly familiar with the microfocus environment. This paper describes the beamline design, the special considerations taken into account given the microfocus beam, and summarizes the results of the first years of the beamline operation.

  18. In Balance With

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Kessel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 'In Balance With' (2012 is a live performance with Courtney Kessel and her daughter, Chloé, sitting at opposite ends of a seesaw. During the 30-minute performance, Kessel adds items representative of their lives to Chloé's side of the seesaw. After each group of items is added, she returns to her side to check the balance. Toys, violin, research books, food, pots, tools, and laundry are strapped on to the seesaw. The audience witnesses the struggle to create a balance between work, home, research, and play as a single mother and artist. As equilibrium is achieved, Kessel stills labors to maintain the balance until Chloé is ready to get down, thus signaling that her work can only happen when her daughter is cared for and occupied.

  19. The Balancing Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.

    2008-05-01

    This essay is being proposed as part of a book titled: "Motherhood: The Elephant in the Laboratory." It offers professional and personal advice on how to balance working in the research field with a family life.

  20. Ames Balance Calibration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Operations at the lab include calibrating balances for the Ames Wind Tunnels as well as for approved outside projects. Ames has a large inventory of TASK multi-piece...

  1. Balance Disorders (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... implant (a surgically implanted device that helps overcome problems in the inner ear, or cochlea) listening therapy with an audiologist (which uses music and sounds to help kids adapt their hearing and balance) When to See a Doctor It's ...

  2. VEGF and Id-1 in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: prognostic significance and impact on angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadou, D; Sergentanis, T N; Sakellariou, S; Filippakis, G M; Zagouri, F; Vlachodimitropoulos, D; Psaltopoulou, T; Lazaris, A C; Patsouris, E; Zografos, G C

    2014-10-01

    The significance of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and inhibitor of differentiation/DNA synthesis (Id-1) in tumor neoangiogenesis and tumor progression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is still unclear. Given the central role of VEGF in cancer angiogenesis and the inconclusive results on Id-1 expression in PDAC, it is of great interest to investigate whether Id-1 and VEGF expression are associated with angiogenesis and prognosis in PDAC. Paraffin-embedded specimens from 60 consecutive patients with PDAC were immunostained for VEGF, Id-1 and CD34 and staining quantification was assessed by Image analysis system. The correlations among the expression of individual angiogenic factors and microvessel density (MVD), clinicopathologic features and clinical prognosis were analyzed. Id-1 and VEGF Positive Activity Indices (PAIs) closely correlated with each other. MVD positively correlated with both Id-1 and VEGF expression. More advanced T and N status correlated with more intense expression of Id-1, VEGF and higher MVD. With regard to prognostic significance higher Id-1 PAI (adjusted HR = 1.69, 95%CI: 1.10-2.59, p = 0.017), higher VEGF PAI (adjusted HR = 2.66, 95%CI: 1.09-6.50, p = 0.032), and MVD (adjusted HR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.27-1.88, p < 0.001) were associated with poorer survival. VEGF and Id-1 overexpression were found to be associated with high MVD and emerged as adverse prognostic factors in terms of patient survival in PDAC. The potential of selective anti-angiogenic targeting therapy for pancreatic malignancies should prompt further validation of the present findings in studies encompassing larger samples and more elaborate techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. E47 and Id1 interplay in epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Cubillo

    Full Text Available E12/E47 proteins (encoded by E2A gene are members of the class I basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcription factors (also known as E proteins. E47 has been described as repressor of E-cadherin and inducer of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. We reported previously that EMT mediated by E47 in MDCK cells occurs with a concomitant overexpression of Id1 and Id3 proteins. Id proteins belong to class V of HLH factors that lack the basic domain; they dimerise with E proteins and prevent their DNA interaction, thus, acting as dominant negative of E proteins. Here, we show that E47 interacts with Id1 in E47 overexpressing MDCK cells that underwent a full EMT as well as in mesenchymal breast carcinoma and melanoma cell lines. By conducting chromatin immunoprecipitation assays we demonstrate that E47 binds directly to the endogenous E-cadherin promoter of mesenchymal MDCK-E47 cells in a complex devoid of Id1. Importantly, our data suggest that both E47 and Id1 are required to maintain the mesenchymal phenotype of MDCK-E47 cells. These data support the collaboration between E47 and Id1 in the maintenance of EMT by mechanisms independent of the dominant negative action of Id1 on E47 binding to E-cadherin promoter. Finally, the analysis of several N0 breast tumour series indicates that the expression of E47 and ID1 is significantly associated with the basal-like phenotype supporting the biological significance of the present findings.

  4. A case of difficult management of fluid-electrolyte imbalance in choroid plexus papilloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Atsushi; Nishimura, Shinjitsu; Fujita, Tomoaki; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Nishijima, Michiharu

    2014-01-01

    A 22-month-old boy presented with nausea and gradual deterioration of gait disturbance. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated an intraventricular mass lesion in the right lateral ventricle. He was referred to our department 3 weeks after onset. Acute hydrocephalus gradually proceeded 4 days after admission, and external ventricular drainage (EVD) was performed. EVD revealed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) overproduction (800-1,500 mL/day) under constant pressure of 10 cm H2O above external auditory meatus. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a multi-lobular mass in the inferior horn of the right lateral ventricle. A choroid plexus tumor was suspected. The ratio of blood urea nitrogen:creatinine (BUN:Cre) remained between 30 and 40, and hemoglobin was between 14.0-17.0 mg/dL, suggesting marked dehydration. Serum sodium varied between 117 and 140 mmol/L, and serum potassium between 2.2 mmol/L and 6.9 mmol/L. The amount of EVD was unstable and fluid balance management was difficult. Hypotonic fluid with sodium chloride supplement was used to adjust the fluid and electrolyte imbalance. Surgical removal of the tumor was performed 6 days after EVD and tumor was grossly and totally removed. The high BUN:Cre ratio decreased to about 15 and hemoglobin recovered to 7.5-9.0 mg/dL after removal. Electrolytes returned to the normal range. Overproduction of CSF also markedly improved to electrolyte imbalance due to over-drainage after EVD, which could not be effectively controlled before tumor removal. Cautious fluid management and emergent surgical resection might be required to manage the overproduction of CSF and fluid-electrolyte imbalance.

  5. Energy Balance and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, James O.; Wyatt, Holly R.; Peters, John C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the interplay among energy intake, energy expenditure and body energy stores and illustrates how an understanding of energy balance can help develop strategies to reduce obesity. First, reducing obesity will require modifying both energy intake and energy expenditure and not simply focusing on either alone. Food restriction alone will not be effective in reducing obesity if human physiology is biased toward achieving energy balance at a high energy flux (i.e. at a high level of energy intake and expenditure). In previous environments a high energy flux was achieved with a high level of physical activity but in today's sedentary environment it is increasingly achieved through weight gain. Matching energy intake to a high level of energy expenditure will likely be more a more feasible strategy for most people to maintain a healthy weight than restricting food intake to meet a low level of energy expenditure. Second, from an energy balance point of view we are likely to be more successful in preventing excessive weight gain than in treating obesity. This is because the energy balance system shows much stronger opposition to weight loss than to weight gain. While large behavior changes are needed to produce and maintain reductions in body weight, small behavior changes may be sufficient to prevent excessive weight gain. In conclusion, the concept of energy balance combined with an understanding of how the body achieves balance may be a useful framework in helping develop strategies to reduce obesity rates. PMID:22753534

  6. Balances instruments, manufacturers, history

    CERN Document Server

    Robens, Erich; Kiefer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The book deals mainly with direct mass determination by means of a conventional balances. It covers the history of the balance from the beginnings in Egypt earlier than 3000 BC to recent developments. All balance types are described with emphasis on scientific balances. Methods of indirect mass determination, which are applied to very light objects like molecules and the basic particles of matter and celestial bodies, are included.  As additional guidance, today’s manufacturers are listed and the profile of important companies is reviewed. Several hundred photographs, reproductions and drawings show instruments and their uses. This book includes commercial weighing instruments for merchandise and raw materials in workshops as well as symbolic weighing in the ancient Egyptian’s ceremony of ‘Weighing of the Heart’, the Greek fate balance, the Roman  Justitia, Juno Moneta and Middle Ages scenes of the Last Judgement with Jesus or St. Michael and of modern balances. The photographs are selected from the...

  7. Prospective studies exploring the possible impact of an ID3 polymorphism on changes in obesity measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendstrup, Mathilde; Appel, Emil V R; Sandholt, Camilla H

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Changes in fat mass depend on adipogenesis and angiogenesis, mechanisms regulated by the inhibitor of differentiation-3 (ID3). Id3 knockout mice showed attenuated increases in BMI and visceral fat mass. We hypothesized that the ID3 missense variant (rs11574-A) would lead to an attenuated...... increase over time in fat mass, BMI, waist circumference (WC), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) in humans. METHODS: The genotyped study populations included the Obesity Research Group - Genetics (ORGGEN) cohort, a cohort of men with obesity (N = 716) and of randomly selected men (N = 826) from the Danish draft...

  8. The paradox of IDs: an account of an ethnographic experience in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Peirano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern world, IDs are indispensable objects, without which we cannot prove that we are who we say we are. We need material substantiation that attests to the authenticity of our self-identification. This paper is an account of an ethnographic experience about IDs and identification processes in the US, based on the examination of two events in which Eliot Spitzer, the New York State governor from January 2007 to March 2008, was a central figure. A comparison with the Brazilian scenario is present throughout the paper, and it ends by focusing on the ID theft phenomenon.

  9. STATA Programs for Using the Intermediate Data Structure (IDS to Construct Files for Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Quaranta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Intermediate Data Structure (IDS provides a common structure for storing and sharing historical demographic data. The structure also facilitates the construction of different open-access software to extract information from these tables and construct new variables. The article Using the Intermediate Data Structure (IDS to Construct Files for Analysis (Quaranta 2015 presented a series of concepts and programs that allow the user to construct a rectangular episodes file for longitudinal statistical analysis using data stored in the IDS. The current article discusses, in detail, each of these programs, describing their technicalities, structure and syntax, and also explaining how they can be used.

  10. Using the Intermediate Data Structure (IDS to Construct Files for Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Quaranta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of longitudinal historical micro-level demographic data for research presents many challenges. The Intermediate Data Structure (IDS was developed to try to solve some of these challenges by facilitating the storing and sharing of such data. This article proposes an extension to the IDS, which allows the standardization and storage of constructed variables. It also describes how to produce a rectangular episodes file for statistical analysis from data stored in the IDS and presents programs developed for such purpose.

  11. Break down of losses in thin electrolyte SOFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Rasmus; Hagen, Anke; Ramousse, S.

    2006-01-01

    The contributions of the individual components of the cell (anode, cathode, and electrolyte) to the cell resistance were determined experimentally, directly from impedance spectra obtained from a full cell. It was an anode supported thin electrolyte cell, consisting of a YSZ electrolyte, a Ni/YSZ.......1 eV, respectively, which is in relatively good agreement with literature values. The anode resistance was 0.24 Omega cm(2) and the cathode resistance was 0.58 Omega cm(2) at 700 degrees C, corresponding to 23% and 56% of the total resistance, respectively.......The contributions of the individual components of the cell (anode, cathode, and electrolyte) to the cell resistance were determined experimentally, directly from impedance spectra obtained from a full cell. It was an anode supported thin electrolyte cell, consisting of a YSZ electrolyte, a Ni...

  12. Two-dimensional, isothermal, multi-component model for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahinpey, N.; Jagannathan, A.; Idem, R. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

    2007-07-01

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device which is more efficient than an internal combustion engine in converting fuel to power. Numerous fuel cell models have been developed by a number of authors accounting for the various physical processes. Earlier models were restricted to being one dimensional, steady-state, and isothermal while more recent two-dimensional models had several limitations. This paper presented the results of a study that developed a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell using a finite element method to solve a multi-component transport model coupled with flow in porous media, charge balance, electrochemical kinetics, and rigorous water balance in the membrane. The mass transport, momentum transport, and electrochemical processes occurring in the membrane electrolyte and catalyst layers were modeled. The local equilibrium was assumed at the interfaces and the model was combined with the kinetics and was analytically solved for the anodic and cathodic current using an agglomerate spherical catalyst pellet. The paper compared the modeling results with previously published experimental data. The study investigated the effects of channel and bipolar plate shoulder size, porosity of the electrodes, temperature, relative humidity and current densities on the cell performance. It was concluded that smaller sized channels and bipolar plate shoulders were required to obtain higher current densities, although larger channels were satisfactory at moderate current densities. 13 refs., 5 figs.

  13. DNA Based Electrolyte/Separator for Lithium Battery Application (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-07

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2016-0302 DNA BASED ELECTROLYTE/SEPARATOR FOR LITHIUM BATTERY APPLICATION (POSTPRINT) Jitendra Kumar1, Fahima...BASED ELECTROLYTE/SEPARATOR FOR LITHIUM BATTERY APPLICATION (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-15-D-5405-0001 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...OH 45469 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 DNA based electrolyte/separator for lithium battery

  14. Watt and joule balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian A.

    2014-04-01

    The time is fast approaching when the SI unit of mass will cease to be based on a single material artefact and will instead be based upon the defined value of a fundamental constant—the Planck constant—h . This change requires that techniques exist both to determine the appropriate value to be assigned to the constant, and to measure mass in terms of the redefined unit. It is important to ensure that these techniques are accurate and reliable to allow full advantage to be taken of the stability and universality provided by the new definition and to guarantee the continuity of the world's mass measurements, which can affect the measurement of many other quantities such as energy and force. Up to now, efforts to provide the basis for such a redefinition of the kilogram were mainly concerned with resolving the discrepancies between individual implementations of the two principal techniques: the x-ray crystal density (XRCD) method [1] and the watt and joule balance methods which are the subject of this special issue. The first three papers report results from the NRC and NIST watt balance groups and the NIM joule balance group. The result from the NRC (formerly the NPL Mk II) watt balance is the first to be reported with a relative standard uncertainty below 2 × 10-8 and the NIST result has a relative standard uncertainty below 5 × 10-8. Both results are shown in figure 1 along with some previous results; the result from the NIM group is not shown on the plot but has a relative uncertainty of 8.9 × 10-6 and is consistent with all the results shown. The Consultative Committee for Mass and Related Quantities (CCM) in its meeting in 2013 produced a resolution [2] which set out the requirements for the number, type and quality of results intended to support the redefinition of the kilogram and required that there should be agreement between them. These results from NRC, NIST and the IAC may be considered to meet these requirements and are likely to be widely debated

  15. Energy-balanced algorithm for RFID estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jumin; Wang, Fangyuan; Li, Dengao; Yan, Lijuan

    2016-10-01

    RFID has been widely used in various commercial applications, ranging from inventory control, supply chain management to object tracking. It is necessary for us to estimate the number of RFID tags deployed in a large area periodically and automatically. Most of the prior works use passive tags to estimate and focus on designing time-efficient algorithms that can estimate tens of thousands of tags in seconds. But for a RFID reader to access tags in a large area, active tags are likely to be used due to their longer operational ranges. But these tags use their own battery as energy supplier. Hence, conserving energy for active tags becomes critical. Some prior works have studied how to reduce energy expenditure of a RFID reader when it reads tags IDs. In this paper, we study how to reduce the amount of energy consumed by active tags during the process of estimating the number of tags in a system and make the energy every tag consumed balanced approximately. We design energy-balanced estimation algorithm that can achieve our goal we mentioned above.

  16. The effect of tolvaptan on renal excretion of electrolytes and urea nitrogen in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tomoko S; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Murata, Mai; Kuroda, Kishio; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Yasutaka; Shimada, Akie; Matsushita, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Taira; Amano, Atsushi

    2016-09-13

    Adequate fluid management is an important component of patient care following cardiac surgery. Our aim in this study was to determine the benefits of tolvaptan, an oral selective vasopressin-2 receptor antagonist that causes electrolyte-free water diuresis, in postoperative fluid management. We prospectively examined the effect of tolvaptan on renal excretion of electrolytes and urea nitrogen in cardiac surgery patients. Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery were randomized to receive conventional loop diuretics (Group C, n = 30) or conventional loop diuretic therapy plus tolvaptan (Group T, n = 27). Fractional excretions of sodium (FENA), potassium (FEK) and urea nitrogen (FEUN) were measured in both groups during post-surgical hospitalization. Urine output was greater with tolvaptan (Group T) than without it (Group C), and some patients in Group C required intravenous as well as oral loop diuretics. Serum sodium concentrations decreased after surgery in Group C, but were unchanged in Group T (postoperative day [POD] 3, 139.8 ± 3.5 vs. 142.3 ± 2.6 mEq/L, p = 0.006). However, postoperative FENA values in Group C did not decrease, and the values were similar in both groups. Serum potassium levels remained lower and FEK values remained higher than the preoperative values, but only in Group C (all p tolvaptan. Patients treated only with loop diuretics showed a continuous excretion of sodium and potassium that led to electrolyte imbalance, whereas the combination of loop diuretics and tolvaptan increased renal urea nitrogen elimination. Tolvaptan therefore appears to be an effective diuretic that minimally affects serum electrolytes while adequately promoting the elimination of urea nitrogen from the kidneys in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. The present study is registered with the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (ID: UMIN000011039 ).

  17. Vaidlus ID-pileti teenustasu üle tüürib kohtu poole / Urmas Seaver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seaver, Urmas, 1973-

    2005-01-01

    Hoolimata Tarbijakaitseameti nõudmisest ei pea Tallinna linnavalitsus vajalikuks kaotada ID-pileti ostmisel lisanduvat kuni kuuekroonist lisatasu, kuna seadus lubab teenustasu võtta. Lisa: Teenustasud ID-pileti ostmisel

  18. Non-aqueous electrolyte for high voltage rechargeable magnesium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Robert Ellis; Lane, George Hamilton; Jilek, Robert E; Hwang, Jaehee

    2015-02-10

    An electrolyte for use in electrochemical cells is provided. The properties of the electrolyte include high conductivity, high Coulombic efficiency, and an electrochemical window that can exceed 3.5 V vs. Mg/Mg.sup.+2. The use of the electrolyte promotes the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of Mg without the use of any Grignard reagents, other organometallic materials, tetraphenyl borate, or tetrachloroaluminate derived anions. Other Mg-containing electrolyte systems that are expected to be suitable for use in secondary batteries are also described.

  19. Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.S.; Geng, L.; Skotheim, T.A.

    1996-07-23

    The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity. 2 figs.

  20. Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hung-Sui (East Setauket, NY); Geng, Lin (Coram, NY); Skotheim, Terje A. (Shoreham, NY)

    1996-07-23

    The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity.

  1. Polyethylene Glycol Without Electrolytes for Children With Constipation and Encopresis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loening-Baucke, Vera

    2002-01-01

    .... METHODSTwenty-eight children treated with polyethylene glycol without electrolytes were compared with 21 children treated with milk of magnesia to evaluate the efficiency, acceptability, side effects...

  2. Autogenous electrolyte, non-pyrolytically produced solid capacitor structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Donald J.; Armstrong, Pamela S.; Panitz, Janda Kirk G.

    1998-01-01

    A solid electrolytic capacitor having a solid electrolyte comprising manganese dioxide dispersed in an aromatic polyamide capable of further cure to form polyimide linkages, the solid electrolyte being disposed between a first electrode made of valve metal covered by an anodic oxide film and a second electrode opposite the first electrode. The electrolyte autogenously produces water, oxygen, and hydroxyl groups which act as healing substances and is not itself produced pyrolytically. Reduction of the manganese dioxide and the water molecules released by formation of imide linkages result in substantially improved self-healing of anodic dielectric layer defects.

  3. Monitoring electrolyte concentrations in redox flow battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, On Kok; Sopchak, David Andrew; Pham, Ai Quoc; Kinoshita, Kimio

    2015-03-17

    Methods, systems and structures for monitoring, managing electrolyte concentrations in redox flow batteries are provided by introducing a first quantity of a liquid electrolyte into a first chamber of a test cell and introducing a second quantity of the liquid electrolyte into a second chamber of the test cell. The method further provides for measuring a voltage of the test cell, measuring an elapsed time from the test cell reaching a first voltage until the test cell reaches a second voltage; and determining a degree of imbalance of the liquid electrolyte based on the elapsed time.

  4. Autogenous electrolyte, non-pyrolytically produced solid capacitor structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, D.J.; Armstrong, P.S.; Paintz, J.K.G.

    1998-04-01

    This report discusses the design of a solid electrolytic capacitor having a solid electrolyte comprised of manganese dioxide dispersed in an aromatic polyamide capable of to forming polyimide linkages. This solid electrolyte being disposed between a first electrode made of valve metal covered by an anodic oxide film and a second electrode opposite the first electrode. The electrolyte autogenously produces water, oxygen, and hydroxyl groups which act as healing substances and is not itself produced pyrolytically. Reduction of the manganese dioxide and the water molecules released by formation of imide linkages result in substantially improved self-healing of anodic dielectric layer defects.

  5. New Solid Polymer Electrolytes for Improved Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehemann, David G.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work was to identify, synthesize and incorporate into a working prototype, next-generation solid polymer electrolytes, that allow our pre-existing solid-state lithium battery to function better under extreme conditions. We have synthesized polymer electrolytes in which emphasis was placed on the temperature-dependent performance of these candidate electrolytes. This project was designed to produce and integrate novel polymer electrolytes into a lightweight thin-film battery that could easily be scaled up for mass production and adapted to different applications.

  6. Aging Methodologies and Prognostic Health Management for Electrolytic Capacitors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Understanding the ageing mechanisms of electronic components critical avionics systems such as the GPS and INAV are of critical importance. Electrolytic capacitors...

  7. Effects of oxide incorporation in proton conducting organic electrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Sörgel, Seniz

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the effects of incorporation of various types of oxide particles (e.g. ZrO2, TiO2, Al2O3) into proton conducting organic electrolytes is investigated. As a weak liquid model electrolyte, moderately proton conducting imidazole is chosen. As a highly proton conducting strong polymer electrolyte, and simultaneously practically very important electrolyte, Nafion® is selected for the second part of the work. In the first part of this work, for the first time, the applicabilit...

  8. Metal-air flow batteries using oxygen enriched electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian-ping; Andrei, Petru; Shellikeri, Annadanesh; Chen, Xujie

    2017-08-01

    A metal air flow battery includes an electrochemical reaction unit and an oxygen exchange unit. The electrochemical reaction unit includes an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, and an ionic conductive membrane between the anode and the cathode, an anode electrolyte, and a cathode electrolyte. The oxygen exchange unit contacts the cathode electrolyte with oxygen separate from the electrochemical reaction unit. At least one pump is provided for pumping cathode electrolyte between the electrochemical reaction unit and the oxygen exchange unit. A method for producing an electrical current is also disclosed.

  9. Changes in the water-electrolyte balance and myocardial structure induced by acute focal ischaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazanova, L I; Bardakhchian, E A

    1985-01-01

    In experiments carried out on 14 mongrel dogs the ischaemic and the intact myocardial areas were subjected to comprehensive biochemical and electron-microscopic examination 30 min after ligation of the anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery. It has been found that a 30-min occlusion of the coronary artery causes a rise in sodium content, potassium loss and a total water content increase in the ischaemic zone due to a rise in its bound fraction. Morphological changes in histohaemic barriers and in microcirculation which are most pronounced in the zone of the ischaemic lesion correspond to biochemical changes. Whereas destructive changes occur in cardiomyocytes from the ischaemic zone, some adaptive processes have been found to occur in the intact areas of the myocardium.

  10. Toxicity Effect of Delsate® Herbicide on Serum Electrolyte Balance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a notable variation in potassium activity which might be as a result of much accumulation of delsate and signs observed were symptoms of anorexia, convulsions and tetany. The level of Ca2+ exposed to delsate for 96 hours decreased significantly in relation to respective control and indicated that exposed fish ...

  11. Particle simulation of electrolytic ion motions for noise in electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, In-Young; Lee, Jungwoo; Seo, Munkyo; Park, Chan Hyeong

    2016-12-01

    We conduct particle simulation for drain current noise in electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors, to simulate how the thermal motion of charged particles near the interface affects the electrical current noise in the channel. We consider three cases: bulk electrolytes without and with charged spheres located at two different distances from the electrolyte-dielectric interface. Our results show that the drain current noise from noise sources in the electrolyte can be modeled by the sum of Lorentzian spectra, whose corner frequencies are determined by the RC product of the resistances of the bulk electrolyte and the region between the charged spheres and the interface, and the capacitance of the dielectric. Also, as the charged spheres approach the electrolyte-dielectric interface, the noise level increases, in agreement with the published experimental results.

  12. DS1 IDS (PLASMA WAVE SPECTROMETER) DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set present plasma wave spectrometer data from the IDS instrument flown aboard the Deep Space 1 spacecraft. The data are observations of Comet 19P/Borrelly...

  13. Representing a Combat ID Analysis Tool within an Agent Based Constructive Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dean, D.; Mistry, B.; Spaans, M.; Vincent, A.; Hossain, A.

    2009-01-01

    Motivation - This paper describes an approach for the development of a model which represents complex human factors relationships relating to Combat Identification (Combat ID). Research approach - The human factors relationships were incorporated within an experimental Agent Based Model (ABM), using

  14. ID-kaart Euroopa Liidu piiridel üha tuttavam / Airi Ilisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilisson, Airi, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    Eesti isikutunnistusega Euroopa Liidu sisepiiride ületamisel märkimisväärseid probleeme esinenud pole, Eesti piirilt on tulnud tagasi saata juhiloaga riiki siseneda soovivaid välismaalasi. Lisa: ID-kaardiga Euroopa piiridel

  15. 78 FR 773 - Hartford Financial Services Group, Inc., Commercial/Actuarial/Information Delivery Services (IDS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hartford Financial Services Group, Inc., Commercial/Actuarial/ Information Delivery Services (IDS)/Corporate & Financial Reporting Group, Hartford, CT; Notice of Affirmative... workers of Hartford Financial Services Group, Inc., Commercial/ Actuarial/Information Delivery Services...

  16. Id-1 gene and gene products as therapeutic targets for treatment of breast cancer and other types of carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith

    2014-08-19

    A method for treatment of breast cancer and other types of cancer. The method comprises targeting and modulating Id-1 gene expression, if any, for the Id-1 gene, or gene products in breast or other epithelial cancers in a patient by delivering products that modulate Id-1 gene expression. When expressed, Id-1 gene is a prognostic indicator that cancer cells are invasive and metastatic.

  17. The Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) to Differentiate Balance Deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Horak, Fay B.; Wrisley, Diane M.; Frank, James

    2009-01-01

    Background: Current clinical balance assessment tools do not aim to help therapists identify the underlying postural control systems responsible for poor functional balance. By identifying the disordered systems underlying balance control, therapists can direct specific types of intervention for different types of balance problems.

  18. Stability measurements of compost trough electrolytic respirometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Arias, V.; Fernandez, F. J.; Rodriguez, L.; Villasenor, J.

    2009-07-01

    An experimental technique for compost stability measurements based on electrolytic respirometry was optimized and subsequently applied to a composting process. Anaerobically digested sewage sludge mixed with reed was composted during 90 days in a pilot scale rotary drum with forced aeration. Periodic solid samples were taken, and a previously optimized respirometric procedure was applied to them in order to measure the oxygen consumption. The resirometric experiments were made directly with a few grams of solid samples, optimum moisture and 37 degree centigrade during 96h. (Author)

  19. Adsorption from solutions of non-electrolytes

    CERN Document Server

    Kipling, J J

    1965-01-01

    Adsorption from Solutions of Non-Electrolytes provides a general discussion of the subject, which has so far been given little or no attention in current textbooks of physical chemistry. A general view of the subject is particularly needed at a time when we wish to see how far it will be possible to use theories of solutions to explain the phenomena of adsorption. The book opens with an introductory chapter on the types of interface, aspects of adsorption from solution, types of adsorption, and classification of systems. This is followed by separate chapters on experimental methods, adsorption

  20. Electrolyte-plasma hardening of circular saws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyulyapin, A. N.; Tyurin, Yu. N.; Traino, A. I.; Yusupov, V. S.

    1998-01-01

    Cold circular saws with an external diameter of 600-900 mm and a disk thickness of 5-8 mm are used for cutting measured pieces of bent shapes and pipes in lines of shaping mills. Strict requirements are imposed on the quality of the circular saws, namely, they should possess high wear resistance of the teeth and withstand the loads exerted by the cut bent shapes in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the disk. A method of electrolyte-plasma hardening of circular saws with the use of pulse heating has been developed in order to meet these requirements.

  1. A new electrolytic magnesium production process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ram A.

    1996-10-01

    In this article, existing magnesium chloride electrolysis and thermal magnesium oxide reduction processes for producing magnesium are described and their limitations are pointed out. The theoretical background of a patented new process is outlined. In this process, magnesium oxide is dissolved in a rare-earth-chloride-containing electrolyte and electrolyzed to produce magnesium and oxygen like that of alumina in the Hall-Héroult process. It is also shown that the efficiency of the existing magnesium chloride electrolysis process should be improved greatly by adding a rare-earth chloride. In both cases, the magnesium produced is expected to be free from detrimental iron, nickel, copper, and boron impurities.

  2. Cantera and Cantera Electrolyte Thermodynamics Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-10-19

    Cantera is a suite of object-oriented software tools for problems involving chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, and/or transport processes. It is a multi-organizational effort to create and formulate high quality 0D and 1D constitutive modeling tools for reactive transport codes.Institutions involved with the effort include Sandia, MIT, Colorado School of Mines, U. Texas, NASA, and Oak Ridge National Labs. Specific to Sandia's contributions, the Cantera Electrolyte Thermo Objects (CETO) packages is comprised of add-on routines for Cantera that handle electrolyte thermochemistry and reactions within the overall Cantera package. Cantera is a C++ Cal Tech code that handles gas phase species transport, reaction, and thermodynamics. With this addition, Cantera can be extended to handle problems involving liquid phase reactions and transport in electrolyte systems, and phase equilibrium problemsinvolving concentrated electrolytes and gas/solid phases. A full treatment of molten salt thermodynamics and transport has also been implemented in CETO. The routines themselves consist of .cpp and .h files containing C++ objects that are derived from parent Cantera objects representing thermodynamic functions. They are linked unto the main Cantera libraries when requested by the user. As an addendum to the main thermodynamics objects, several utility applications are provided. The first is multiphase Gibbs free energy minimizer based on the vcs algorithm, called vcs_cantera. This code allows for the calculation of thermodynamic equilibrium in multiple phases at constant temperature and pressure. Note, a similar code capability exists already in Cantera. This version follows the same algorithm, but gas a different code-base starting point, and is used as a research tool for algorithm development. The second program, cttables, prints out tables of thermodynamic and kinetic information for thermodynamic and kinetic objects within Cantera. This program serves as a "Get the

  3. Improved Cyclability of Liquid Electrolyte Lithium/Sulfur Batteries by Optimizing Electrolyte/Sulfur Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng S. Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A liquid electrolyte lithium/sulfur (Li/S cell is a liquid electrochemical system. In discharge, sulfur is first reduced to highly soluble Li2S8, which dissolves into the organic electrolyte and serves as the liquid cathode. In solution, lithium polysulfide (PS undergoes a series of complicated disproportionations, whose chemical equilibriums vary with the PS concentration and affect the cell’s performance. Since the PS concentration relates to a certain electrolyte/sulfur (E/S ratio, there is an optimized E/S ratio for the cyclability of each Li/S cell system. In this work, we study the optimized E/S ratio by measuring the cycling performance of Li/S cells, and propose an empirical method for determination of the optimized E/S ratio. By employing an electrolyte of 0.25 m LiSO3CF3-0.25 m LiNO3 dissolved in a 1:1 (wt:wt mixture of dimethyl ether (DME and 1,3-dioxolane (DOL in an optimized E/S ratio, we show that the Li/S cell with a cathode containing 72% sulfur and 2 mg cm−2 sulfur loading is able to retain a specific capacity of 780 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.5 mA cm−2 between 1.7 V and 2.8 V.

  4. ACE I/D polymorphism in Indian patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rai, Taranjit Singh; Dhandapany, Perundurai Subramaniam; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh

    2008-01-01

    The study was carried to determine the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism with the risk of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM).......The study was carried to determine the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism with the risk of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM)....

  5. On the KDD’99 Dataset: Support Vector Machine Based Intrusion Detection System (IDS) with Different Kernels

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Al MehediHasan; Mohammed Nasser; Biprodip Pal

    2013-01-01

    The success of any Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a complicated problem due to its nonlinearity and the quantitative or qualitative network traffic data stream with many features. To get rid of this problem, several types of intrusion detection methods have been proposed and shown different levels of accuracy. This is why, the choice of the effective and robust method for IDS is very important topic in information security. Support vector machine (SVM) has been employed to provide potent...

  6. Accumulo/Hadoop, MongoDB, and Elasticsearch Performance for Semi Structured Intrusion Detection (IDS) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Intrusion Detection (IDS) Data prepared by Ralph P Ritchey ICF, Inc. 7125 Thomas Edison Drive, Suite 100 Columbia, MD 21046 under...Performance for Semi-Structured Intrusion Detection (IDS) Data prepared by Ralph P Ritchey ICF, Inc. 7125 Thomas Edison Drive, Suite 100...NUMBER ARL APP 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) ICF, Inc. 7125 Thomas Edison Drive, Suite

  7. DroID: the Drosophila Interactions Database, a comprehensive resource for annotated gene and protein interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Guozhen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Charting the interactions among genes and among their protein products is essential for understanding biological systems. A flood of interaction data is emerging from high throughput technologies, computational approaches, and literature mining methods. Quick and efficient access to this data has become a critical issue for biologists. Several excellent multi-organism databases for gene and protein interactions are available, yet most of these have understandable difficulty maintaining comprehensive information for any one organism. No single database, for example, includes all available interactions, integrated gene expression data, and comprehensive and searchable gene information for the important model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. Description DroID, the Drosophila Interactions Database, is a comprehensive interactions database designed specifically for Drosophila. DroID houses published physical protein interactions, genetic interactions, and computationally predicted interactions, including interologs based on data for other model organisms and humans. All interactions are annotated with original experimental data and source information. DroID can be searched and filtered based on interaction information or a comprehensive set of gene attributes from Flybase. DroID also contains gene expression and expression correlation data that can be searched and used to filter datasets, for example, to focus a study on sub-networks of co-expressed genes. To address the inherent noise in interaction data, DroID employs an updatable confidence scoring system that assigns a score to each physical interaction based on the likelihood that it represents a biologically significant link. Conclusion DroID is the most comprehensive interactions database available for Drosophila. To facilitate downstream analyses, interactions are annotated with original experimental information, gene expression data, and confidence scores. All data in

  8. Andreev conductance in the d plus id(')-wave superconducting states of graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Y. J.; Yao, D. X.; Carlson, E. W.; Chen, H. D.; Hu, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    We show that effective superconducting orders generally emerge at low energy in the superconducting state of graphene with conventionally defined pairing symmetry. We study a particular interesting example, the d(x2-y2)+id(xy)(') spin singlet pairing state in graphene which can be generated by electronic correlation. We find that effectively the d+id(')-wave state is a state with mixed s-wave and exotic p+ip-wave ...

  9. Analisis Kesalahan Penerapan Qawa'id Pada Buku Ajar Bahasa Arab

    OpenAIRE

    Amrullah, Muhammad Afif

    2015-01-01

    Still the presence of errors in the application of qawa''id Arabic Arabic textbook writing in the neighborhood Dikdasmen PWM DIY shows that the preparation of textbooks are not of good quality. This research aims to locate faults textbook writing so that it can immediately be repaired. As of this writing done on the application of qawa'id Arabic in textbook writing. The procedure used: data collection, classification or grouping error, frequency error types, the identification of the scope of...

  10. A PATHOGENETIC ROLE OF TRANSCRIPTION COREPRESSOR Id2 IN BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Mineev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to evaluate a possible role of Id2 (inhibitor of DNA-binding 2 in pathogenesis of bronchial asthma (BA. We have examined six healthy control persons, nine patients with allergic bronchial asthma (ABA and twenty-four patients with non-allergic bronchial asthma (NABA. The Id2 mRNA expression was evaluated by means of real-time PCR.No significant differences in Id2 mRNA expression levels were revealed between the control and asthma groups. Correlation analysis of Id2 mRNA expression has revealed significant positive correlation with AID (activation-induced cytidine deaminase mRNA levels and peripheric blood eosinophil contents in ABA. Healthy persons demonstrate strong positive correlation between Id2 mRNA expression and serum IgE levels, like as with ε-chain mRNA contents.It was suggested that the Id2 dysfunction may take place in the BA patients. These changes affect negative control over the AID expression, which is important for switching B-cells to IgE production.

  11. Hyperlink Management System and ID Converter System: enabling maintenance-free hyperlinks among major biological databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanishi, Tadashi; Nakaoka, Hajime

    2009-07-01

    Hyperlink Management System (HMS) is a system for automatically updating and maintaining hyperlinks among major public databases in the field of life science. We daily create corresponding tables of data IDs of major databases for human genes and proteins, and provide a CGI-program that returns correct and up-to-date URLs for showing data of various databases that correspond to user-specified IDs. The HMS can deal with various IDs: accession numbers of International Nucleotide Sequence Databases, HUGO Gene Symbols and IDs of UniProt, PDB, H-InvDB and others, and it can return URLs of various databases: H-InvDB, HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee Database, NCBI Entrez Gene, UniProt, PDB and others. For example, 23 297 pages of Locus view of H-InvDB are reachable by using HUGO Gene Symbols through the HMS. Not only the CGI-program, the HMS provides a Web page for finding and opening URLs of these databases. Although hyperlinking is an effective way of relating biological data among different databases, updating hyperlinks has been a laborious work. The HMS fully automates the job, enabling maintenance-free hyperlinks. We also developed the ID Converter System (ICS) for simply converting data IDs by using corresponding tables in the HMS. The HMS and ICS are freely available at http://biodb.jp/.

  12. Can ID repetitive elements serve as cis-acting dendritic targeting elements? An in vivo study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasneem Khanam

    Full Text Available Dendritic localization of mRNA/RNA involves interaction of cis-elements and trans-factors. Small, non-protein coding dendritic BC1 RNA is thought to regulate translation in dendritic microdomains. Following microinjections into cultured cells, BC1 RNA fused to larger mRNAs appeared to impart transport competence to these chimeras, and its 5' ID region was proposed as the cis-acting dendritic targeting element. As these ID elements move around rodent genomes and, if transcribed, form a long RNA stem-loop, they might, thereby, lead to new localizations for targeted gene products. To test their targeting ability in vivo we created transgenic mice expressing various ID elements fused to the 3' UTR of reporter mRNA for Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein. In vivo, neither ID elements nor the BC1 RNA coding region were capable of transporting EGFP RNA to dendrites, although the 3' UTR of alpha-CaMKII mRNA, an established cis-acting element did produce positive results. Other mRNAs containing naturally inserted ID elements are also not found in neuronal dendrites. We conclude that the 5' ID domain from BC1 RNA is not a sufficient dendritic targeting element for mRNAs in vivo.

  13. Chemical Passivation of Li(exp +)-Conducting Solid Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William; Whitacre, Jay; Lim, James

    2008-01-01

    Plates of a solid electrolyte that exhibits high conductivity for positive lithium ions can now be passivated to prevent them from reacting with metallic lithium. Such passivation could enable the construction and operation of high-performance, long-life lithium-based rechargeable electrochemical cells containing metallic lithium anodes. The advantage of this approach, in comparison with a possible alternative approach utilizing lithium-ion graphitic anodes, is that metallic lithium anodes could afford significantly greater energy-storage densities. A major impediment to the development of such cells has been the fact that the available solid electrolytes having the requisite high Li(exp +)-ion conductivity are too highly chemically reactive with metallic lithium to be useful, while those solid electrolytes that do not react excessively with metallic lithium have conductivities too low to be useful. The present passivation method exploits the best features of both extremes of the solid-electrolyte spectrum. The basic idea is to coat a higher-conductivity, higher-reactivity solid electrolyte with a lower-conductivity, lower-reactivity solid electrolyte. One can then safely deposit metallic lithium in contact with the lower-reactivity solid electrolyte without incurring the undesired chemical reactions. The thickness of the lower-reactivity electrolyte must be great enough to afford the desired passivation but not so great as to contribute excessively to the electrical resistance of the cell. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated in experiments on plates of a commercial high-performance solid Li(exp +)- conducting electrolyte. Lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) was the solid electrolyte used for passivation. LiPON-coated solid-electrolyte plates were found to support electrochemical plating and stripping of Li metal. The electrical resistance contributed by the LiPON layers were found to be small relative to overall cell impedances.

  14. The Balanced Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Controlling the sustainability of production processes and ethical employment of the work force in suppliers' production facilities far away from the home country has resulted in new challenges for managers. They now have to consider how important it is for customers, investors and employees to see...... that a company is respected in wider society and behaves according to ethical standards. Strategists and Leaders need to make balanced choices about long-term goals and the allocation of resources. They need to analyse, understand and adjust strategies to market, political, value and technology related changes...... through control or trust. Human resource specialists need to make balanced decisions about how to design tasks and jobs in order to make them attractive as well as motivating. Marketers need to make balanced decisions about how to market products in the light of what is now important in consumers...

  15. Extraordinary hall balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S. L.; Liu, Y.; Collins-McIntyre, L. J.; Hesjedal, T.; Zhang, J. Y.; Wang, S. G.; Yu, G. H.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoresistance (MR) effects are at the heart of modern information technology. However, future progress of giant and tunnelling MR based storage and logic devices is limited by the usable MR ratios of currently about 200% at room-temperature. Colossal MR structures, on the other hand, achieve their high MR ratios of up to 106% only at low temperatures and high magnetic fields. We introduce the extraordinary Hall balance (EHB) and demonstrate room-temperature MR ratios in excess of 31,000%. The new device concept exploits the extraordinary Hall effect in two separated ferromagnetic layers with perpendicular anisotropy in which the Hall voltages can be configured to be carefully balanced or tipped out of balance. Reprogrammable logic and memory is realised using a single EHB element. PACS numbers: 85.75.Nn,85.70.Kh,72.15.Gd,75.60.Ej. PMID:23804036

  16. Sport-specific balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemková, Erika

    2014-05-01

    This review includes the latest findings based on experimental studies addressing sport-specific balance, an area of research that has grown dramatically in recent years. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the postural sway response to different forms of exercise under laboratory and sport-specific conditions, to examine how this effect can vary with expertise, and to provide examples of the association of impaired balance with sport performance and/or increasing risk of injury. In doing so, sports where body balance is one of the limiting factors of performance were analyzed. While there are no significant differences in postural stability between athletes of different specializations and physically active individuals during standing in a standard upright position (e.g., bipedal stance), they have a better ability to maintain balance in specific conditions (e.g., while standing on a narrow area of support). Differences in magnitude of balance impairment after specific exercises (rebound jumps, repeated rotations, etc.) and mainly in speed of its readjustment to baseline are also observed. Besides some evidence on an association of greater postural sway with the increasing risk of injuries, there are many myths related to the negative influence of impaired balance on sport performance. Though this may be true for shooting or archery, findings have shown that in many other sports, highly skilled athletes are able to perform successfully in spite of increased postural sway. These findings may contribute to better understanding of the postural control system under various performance requirements. It may provide useful knowledge for designing training programs for specific sports.

  17. Skin irritation testing of antimicrobial conjugated electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Kristin N; Nguyen, Phuong A H; Whitten, David G; Canavan, Heather E

    2017-04-20

    Each year, the United States spends about $20 billion to treat people who have been infected with antibiotic resistant bacteria. Even so, the development of new antibiotics has slowed considerably since the mid-20th century. As a result, researchers are looking into developing synthetic compounds and materials with antimicrobial activities such as those made by the Schanze and Whitten groups [ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3, 2820 (2011)]. Previously, they have demonstrated that poly(phenylene ethynylene) (PPE) based electrolytes and oligomeric end-only phenylene ethynylene (EO-OPE) based electrolytes possess strong biocidal activity. However, before the PPE and OPE can be used with humans, skin irritation tests are required to ensure their safety. In this work, in vitro skin assays are used to predict in vivo irritation. Tissues were conditioned for 24 h, exposed to test substances for 1 h, and then tested for viability using colorimetric and cytokine assays. Concentrations up to 50 μg/ml were tested. Viability assays and cytokine (IL-1α) assays demonstrated that the two polymers, three symmetric oligomers, and three "end only" oligomers were nonirritants. In addition, electrospun mats consisting of several promising compounds, including poly(caprolactone), were evaluated. Therefore, all test substances are conservatively classified as nonirritants after a 1 h exposure time period.

  18. Mathematical modeling of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ruy; Gonzalez, Ernesto R.

    Fuel cells with a polymer electrolyte membrane have been receiving more and more attention. Modeling plays an important role in the development of fuel cells. In this paper, the state-of-the-art regarding modeling of fuel cells with a polymer electrolyte membrane is reviewed. Modeling has allowed detailed studies concerning the development of these cells, e.g. in discussing the electrocatalysis of the reactions and the design of water-management schemes to cope with membrane dehydration. Two-dimensional models have been used to represent reality, but three-dimensional models can cope with some important additional aspects. Consideration of two-phase transport in the air cathode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell seems to be very appropriate. Most fuel cells use hydrogen as a fuel. Besides safety concerns, there are problems associated with production, storage and distribution of this fuel. Methanol, as a liquid fuel, can be the solution to these problems and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are attractive for several applications. Mass transport is a factor that may limit the performance of the cell. Adsorption steps may be coupled to Tafel kinetics to describe methanol oxidation and methanol crossover must also be taken into account. Extending the two-phase approach to the DMFC modeling is a recent, important point.

  19. Endurance testing with Li/Na electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, E.T.; Remick, R.J.; Sishtla, C.I. [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), under subcontract to M-C Power Corporation under DOE funding, has been operating bench-scale fuel cells to investigate the performance and endurance issues of the Li/Na electrolyte because it offers higher ionic conductivity, higher exchange current densities, lower vapor pressures, and lower cathode dissolution rates than the Li/K electrolyte. These cells have continued to show higher performance and lower decay rates than the Li/K cells since the publication of our two previous papers in 1994. In this paper, test results of two long-term 100-cm{sup 2} bench scale cells are discussed. One cell operated continuously at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} for 17,000 hours with reference gases (60H{sub 2}/20CO{sub 2}/20H{sub 2}O fuel at 75% utilization and 30CO{sub 2}/70 air oxidant humidified at room temperature at 50% utilization). The other cell operated at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} for 6900 hours at 3 atm with system gases (64H{sub 2}/16CO{sub 2}/20H{sub 2}O at 75% utilization and an M-C Power system-defined oxidant at 40% utilization). Both cells have shown the highest performance and longest endurance among IGT cells operated to date.

  20. Neurologic manifestations of major electrolyte abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diringer, M

    2017-01-01

    The brain operates in an extraordinarily intricate environment which demands precise regulation of electrolytes. Tight control over their concentrations and gradients across cellular compartments is essential and when these relationships are disturbed neurologic manifestations may develop. Perturbations of sodium are the electrolyte disturbances that most often lead to neurologic manifestations. Alterations in extracellular fluid sodium concentrations produce water shifts that lead to brain swelling or shrinkage. If marked or rapid they can result in profound changes in brain function which are proportional to the degree of cerebral edema or contraction. Adaptive mechanisms quickly respond to changes in cell size by either increasing or decreasing intracellular osmoles in order to restore size to normal. Unless cerebral edema has been severe or prolonged, correction of sodium disturbances usually restores function to normal. If the rate of correction is too rapid or overcorrection occurs, however, new neurologic manifestations may appear as a result of osmotic demyelination syndrome. Disturbances of magnesium, phosphate and calcium all may contribute to alterations in sensorium. Hypomagnesemia and hypocalcemia can lead to weakness, muscle spasms, and tetany; the weakness from hypophosphatemia and hypomagnesemia can impair respiratory function. Seizures can be seen in cases with very low concentrations of sodium, magnesium, calcium, and phosphate. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.