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Sample records for electrokinetic capillary kchromatography

  1. Selectivity in capillary electrokinetic separations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, R.A; de Jong, G.J.; Ensing, K

    1999-01-01

    This review gives a survey of selectivity modes in capillary electrophoresis separations in pharmaceutical analysis and bioanalysis. Despite the high efficiencies of these separation techniques, good selectivity is required to allow quantitation or identification of a Chemistry and Toxicology,

  2. Principles of Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography Applied in Pharmaceutical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancu, Gabriel; Simon, Brigitta; Rusu, Aura; Mircia, Eleonora; Gyéresi, Árpád

    2013-01-01

    Since its introduction capillary electrophoresis has shown great potential in areas where electrophoretic techniques have rarely been used before, including here the analysis of pharmaceutical substances. The large majority of pharmaceutical substances are neutral from electrophoretic point of view, consequently separations by the classic capillary zone electrophoresis; where separation is based on the differences between the own electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes; are hard to achieve. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, a hybrid method that combines chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles, extends the applicability of capillary electrophoretic methods to neutral analytes. In micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, surfactants are added to the buffer solution in concentration above their critical micellar concentrations, consequently micelles are formed; micelles that undergo electrophoretic migration like any other charged particle. The separation is based on the differential partitioning of an analyte between the two-phase system: the mobile aqueous phase and micellar pseudostationary phase. The present paper aims to summarize the basic aspects regarding separation principles and practical applications of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, with particular attention to those relevant in pharmaceutical analysis. PMID:24312804

  3. Principles of Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography Applied in Pharmaceutical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árpád Gyéresi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction capillary electrophoresis has shown great potential in areas where electrophoretic techniques have rarely been used before, including here the analysis of pharmaceutical substances. The large majority of pharmaceutical substances are neutral from electrophoretic point of view, consequently separations by the classic capillary zone electrophoresis; where separation is based on the differences between the own electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes; are hard to achieve. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, a hybrid method that combines chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles, extends the applicability of capillary electrophoretic methods to neutral analytes. In micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, surfactants are added to the buffer solution in concentration above their critical micellar concentrations, consequently micelles are formed; micelles that undergo electrophoretic migration like any other charged particle. The separation is based on the differential partitioning of an analyte between the two-phase system: the mobile aqueous phase and micellar pseudostationary phase. The present paper aims to summarize the basic aspects regarding separation principles and practical applications of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, with particular attention to those relevant in pharmaceutical analysis.

  4. Capillary electrokinetic chromatography of insulin and related synthetic analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, K; Buchberger, W; Himmelsbach, M

    2009-04-03

    With the implementation of recombinant DNA technology in the pharmaceutical industry, some synthetic insulins have been developed in order to improve the therapy of diabetes. These analogues differ only slightly in the amino acid sequence, therefore displaying a great challenge for analytical chemistry. Within the work presented in this paper, capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) with sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) as micelle-forming agent, and microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) with microemulsions consisting of SDS, n-octane and 1-butanol were investigated for the separation of human insulin and five synthetic analogues. Best results were achieved with a solvent-modified MEKC system consisting of 100mM sodium dodecyl sulphate and 15% acetonitrile in 10mM borate buffer (pH 9.2). A similar system based on perfluorooctanoic acid as micelle-forming agent in ammonium acetate (pH 9.2) was successfully employed for the hyphenation with a quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometer via a sheath-flow interface. In this case, detection limits at 10mg/L could be achieved.

  5. ENANTIOSEPARATION OF MALATHION, CRUFORMATE, AND FENSULFOTHION ORGANOSPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES BY MIXED-MODE ELECTROKINETIC CAPILLARY CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed-mode electrokinetic capillary chromatography (mixed-ECC) has been used for the enantioseparation of organophosphorus pesticides. In mixed-ECC, a combination of three pseudostationary phases including surfactants, neutral, and charged cyclodextrins, are used to resolve very ...

  6. Evaluation of poly([2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) cationic polymer capillary coating for capillary electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatography separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettrick, Julie R; Palmer, Christopher P

    2017-10-01

    Capillary electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatography are typically carried out in unmodified fused-silica capillaries under conditions that result in a strong negative zeta potential at the capillary wall and a robust cathodic electroosmotic flow. Modification of the capillary wall to reverse the zeta potential and mask silanol sites can improve separation performance by reducing or eliminating analyte adsorption, and is essential when conducting electrokinetic chromatography separations with cationic latex nanoparticle pseudo-stationary phases. Semipermanent modification of the capillary walls by coating with cationic polymers has proven to be facile and effective. In this study, poly([2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) polymers were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization and used as physically adsorbed semipermanent coatings for capillary electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatography separations. An initial synthesis of poly([2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) polymer coating produced strong and stable anodic electroosmotic flow of -5.7 to -5.4 × 10-4 cm2 /V⋅s over the pH range of 4-7. Significant differences in the magnitude of the electroosmotic flow and effectiveness were observed between synthetic batches, however. For electrokinetic chromatography separations, the best performing batches of poly([2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride) polymer performed as well as the commercially available cationic polymer polyethyleneimine, whereas polydiallylammonium chloride and hexadimethrine bromide did not perform well. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Electrokinetic preconcentration of magnetite core - carboxylic shell nanoparticles by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Daniel; Cacho, Carmen; Petr, Jan

    2017-05-26

    Online electrokinetic preconcentration of magnetite core/carboxylic shell nanoparticles (MNPs) was studied by capillary electrophoresis using reversed and suppressed electroosmotic flow (EOF). 50mM sodium borate pH 9.5 was used as a background electrolyte. CTAB additive was used to reverse EOF and commercial polyvinylalcohol (PVA)-coated capillaries were used for EOF suppressed studies. Analyses in PVA-coated capillaries were more reproducible and therefore, the setup was further optimized in terms of water plug injection time, sample injection time, and voltage. Within the optimal conditions, the MNPs dispersed in water are electrokinetically loaded into BGE consisting of 50mM sodium borate pH 9.5 using -10kV for 120s. In comparison with the hydrodynamic injection of 5s by 50mbar, the electrokinetic injection allows 860-fold preconcentration of MNPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography for routine analysis of different materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Injac Rade

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC has become a popular mode among the several capillary electro-migration techniques. Most drug analysis can be performed by using MEKC because of its wide applicability. Separation of very complex mixtures, determination of drugs in the biological materials, etc., can be successfully achieved by MEKC. This review surveys typical applications of MEKC analysis. Recent advances in MEKC, especially with solid-phase extraction and large-volume sample stacking, are described. Modes of electrokinetic chromatography including MEKC, a separation theory of MEKC, environmental friendly analysis, and selectivity manipulation in MEKC are also briefly mentioned.

  9. Capillary electrokinetic separation techniques for profiling of drugs and related products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.J; Somsen, G.W; de Jong, G.J.

    Capillary electrokinetic separation techniques offer high efficiency and peak capacity, and can be very useful for the analysis of samples containing a large variety of (unknown) compounds. Such samples are frequently met in impurity profiling of drugs (detection of potential impurities in a

  10. Capillary electrokinetic separations with optical detection. Technical progress report, February 1, 1993--January 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepaniak, M.J.

    1993-10-01

    This program seeks the development of capillary electrokinetic separation techniques and associated optical methods of detection. Fundamental studies of pertinent separation and band broadening mechanisms are being conducted, with the emphasis on understanding systems that include highly-ordered assemblies as running buffer additives. The additives include cyclodextrins, affinity reagents, and soluble (entangled) polymers and are employed with capillary electrophoresis, CE and/or micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, MECC modes of separation. The utility of molecular modeling techniques for predicting the effects of highly ordered assemblies on the retention behavior of isomeric compounds is under investigation. The feasibility of performing separations using a non-aqueous solvent/fullerene electrochromatographic system is being explored. The analytical methodologies associated with these capillary separation techniques are being advanced through the development of retention programming instumentation/techniques and new strategies for performing optical detection. The advantages of laser fluorimetry are extended through the inclusion of fluorogenic, reagents in the running buffer. These reagents include oligonucleotide intercalation reagents for detecting DNA fragments. Chemiluminescence detection using post-capillary reactors/flow cells is also in progress. Successful development of these separation and detection systems will fill current voids in the capabilities of capillary separation techniques.

  11. Capillary electrokinetic separations with optical detection. Technical progress report, February 1, 1994--January 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepaniak, M.J.

    1995-05-01

    This multifarious research program is dedicated to the development of capillary electrokinetic separation techniques and associated optical methods of detection. Currently, research is directed at three general objectives. First, fundamental studies of pertinent separation and band broadening mechanisms are being conducted, with the emphasis on achieving rapid separations and understanding separation systems that include highly-ordered assemblies as running buffer additives. Second, instrumentation and methodologies associated with these capillary separation techniques are being advanced. Third, applications of these separation and detection systems should fill current voids in the capabilities of capillary separation techniques. In particular, it should be possible to perform rapid, highly efficient, and selective separations of hydrophobic compounds (e.g., higher MW polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and fullerenes), certain optical isomers, DNA fragments, and various pollutants including certain heavy metals.

  12. PNEUMATIC MICROVALVE FOR ELECTROKINETIC SAMPLE PRECONCENTRATION AND CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS INJECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Yongzheng; Rausch, Sarah J.; Geng, Tao; Jambovane, Sachin R.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2014-10-27

    Here we show that a closed pneumatic microvalve on a PDMS chip can serve as a semipermeable membrane under an applied potential, enabling current to pass through while blocking the passage of charged analytes. Enrichment of both anionic and cationic species has been demonstrated, and concentration factors of ~70 have been achieved in just 8 s. Once analytes are concentrated, the valve is briefly opened and the sample is hydrodynamically injected onto an integrated microchip or capillary electrophoresis (CE) column. In contrast to existing preconcentration approaches, the membrane-based method described here enables both rapid analyte concentration as well as high resolution separations.

  13. Separation of D-lysergic acid diethylamide derivatives using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, M N; Fitzpatrick, F; Houdiere, F

    2000-03-01

    By adjusting column temperature and applied electric field, a fast separation in micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography was developed for the separation of D-lysergic acid diethylamide derivatives. A baseline separation of nine derivatives was accomplished with a run time of less than 12 min by utilizing elevated column temperature (60 degrees C) and an applied electric field of 387 V/cm. The number of plates generated per unit time for the separations completed at elevated temperatures was significantly higher when compared to separations at the same applied electric field but at lower temperatures (20 degrees C).

  14. Capillaries modified by noncovalent anionic polymer adsorption for capillary zone electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography and capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendahl, L; Hansen, S H; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2001-01-01

    capillaries was (4.9+/-0.1) x 10(-4) cm2V(-1)s(-1) in a pH-range of 2-10 (ionic strength = 30 mM). When alkaline compounds were used as test substances intracapillary and intercapillary migration time variations (n = 6) were less than 1% relative standard deviation (RSD) and 2% RSD, respectively in the entire...... pH range. The coating was fairly stable in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, and this made it possible to perform fast MEKC separations at low pH. When neutral compounds were used as test substances, the intracapillary migration time variations (n = 6) were less than 2% RSD in a pH range of 2...

  15. Preparation and evaluation of bonded linear polymethacrylate stationary phases for open tubular capillary electrokinetic chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Z.J.; Remcho, V.T. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1997-02-15

    A new procedure for the preparation of thick polymethacrylate films bonded in 25 {mu}m i.d. fused-silica capillaries is developed. The etched silica surface is first modified with an unsaturated organosilane, which is later incorporated into the polymer film. The capillary is then filled with a monomer solution, and polymerization is initiated by incubation at elevated temperature. This thermoinitiation method enables the use of ordinary polyimide-jacketed capillaries in preparing the columns. The effect of monomer concentration on the resulting polymer film was studied by open tubular capillary electrokinetic chromatography using p-hydroxybenzoates (parabens) as test solutes. Good separations were achieved using short capillaries. Run-to-run retention time reproducibility was excellent, with RSDs of 2% (n = 50) being representative. For the linear polymer films produced, retention of analytes increased as the monomer concentration increased to a certain value, at which point the capacity factors level off with further increases in monomer concentration. The electroosmotic flow velocity decreases with increasing monomer concentration. The efficiency for an unretained test probe (acetone) reaches 270 000 plates/m. 13 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Determination of ibuprofen and tetrazepam in human urine by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzas Nevado, J J; Rodríguez Flores, J; Castañeda Peñalvo, G; Rodríguez Dorado, R M

    2006-01-01

    A new micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography method (MEKC) is proposed for the determination of ibuprofen and tetrazepam in human urine samples over a concentration range of therapeutic interest. A fused silica capillary (60 cm x 75 microm) is used. Ibuprofen and tetrazepam are detected via UV detection at 220 and 228 nm, respectively. Separation is performed at 25 degrees C and at a separation voltage of 30 kV, with 15 mM borate buffer (pH 10.2) containing 40 mM sodium dodecylsulfate as the electrolyte solution. Under these conditions the analytes were separated in tetrazepam were obtained. These analytes were then determined in real urine using the technique.

  17. Analysis of different beta-lactams antibiotics in pharmaceutical preparations using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, M I Bailón; Rodríguez, L Cuadros; Cruces-Blanco, C

    2007-01-17

    The potential of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) for analyzing nine beta-lactams antibiotics (cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, oxacillin, penicillin G, penicillin V, ampicillin, nafcillin, piperacillin, amoxicillin) in different pharmaceutical preparations, have been demonstrated. An experimental design strategy has been applied to optimize the main variables: pH and buffer concentration, concentration of the micellar medium, separation voltage and capillary temperature. Borate buffer (26mM) at pH 8.5 containing 100mM sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was used as the background electrolyte. The method was validated. Linearity, limit of detection and quantitation and precision were established for each compound. The analysis of some of the beta-lactams in Orbenin capsules, Britapen tables and in Veterin-Micipen injectable, all used in human and veterinary medicine, have demonstrated the applicability of these technique for quality control in the pharmaceutical industry.

  18. Direct electrokinetic injection of inorganic cations from whole fruits and vegetables for capillary electrophoresis analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsoom, Umme; Guijt, Rosanne M; Boyce, Mary C; Townsend, Ashley T; Haselberg, Rob; Breadmore, Michael C

    2016-01-08

    A novel approach for the direct injection from plant tissues without any sample pre-treatment has been developed by simply placing a small piece of the tissue into a capillary electrophoresis vial followed by application of a voltage for electrokinetic injection. Separations of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium were achieved using a BGE comprising 10mM imidazole and 2.5mM 18-crown-6-ether at pH 4.5. The addition of 2% (m/v) hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose to the separation buffer allowed for precise and accurate electrokinetic injection of ions from the plant material by halting the movement of tissue fluid into the capillary. This method provides both qualitative and quantitative data of inorganic cations, with quantitation in zucchini, mushroom and apple samples in agreement with Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometric analysis (r(2)=0.98, n=9). This method provides a new way for rapid, quantitative analysis by eliminating sample preparation procedures, and has great potential for a range of applications in plant science and food chemistry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of monolithic capillary electrochromatography and micellar electrokinetic chromatography for the separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salwiński, Aleksander; Delépée, Raphaël

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric pollution of anthropic origin is recognized as a major risk factor for health, in particular for respiratory and cardio-vascular systems. Among these pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are placed on the list of US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as 'priority' pollutants and four of them are assigned as potential carcinogens by The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). In the present work two capillary techniques-micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and monolithic capillary electrochromatography (CEC)-were compared for the separation of eleven PAHs. Both techniques compared in the present work are fully compatible with every standard apparatus of capillary electrophoresis. For MEKC, enhancement of selectivity and decrease of the separation window of eleven PAHs were obtained with methanol:borate 25 mM (20/80, v/v) running buffer containing 10 mM of hydroxypropylated γ-cyclodextrins with low SDS content (25 mM). In case of CEC, two acrylate-based monolithic stationary phases (MSPs) were evaluated for their application in the separation of eleven PAHs. The best MSP based on butyl acrylate was compared with MEKC in terms of sample capacity, PAHs elution order, LOQ, efficiency and effect of pH. Influence of the hydrophobicity of mobile phase on the PAHs elution order was also studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of biogenic amines in fish implicated in food poisoning by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, S C; Chou, S S; Chang, P C; Hwang, D F

    2000-12-01

    A micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) method for the simultaneous determination of seven biogenic amines in fish was developed. The peaks of all components were successfully separated within 11.5 min. MECC was performed with 0.06 M sodium deoxycholate in 0.02 M borate buffer (pH 9.2)-methanol (95:5, v/v) solvent. The average recoveries for all components ranged from 84.4 to 100.3%. The application of this method to detect amines in fried marlin fillet implicated in a food poisoning incident indicated that a high level (56.24 mg/100 g) of histamine was present in the sample. Another 10 fish samples collected from markets were also analyzed and did not contain detectable levels of histamine (<2.5 mg/100 g).

  1. Differentiation between naproxen, naproxen-protein conjugates, and naproxen-lysine in plasma via micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography : a new approach in the bioanalysis of drug targeting preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, C.; Reichen, J; Visser, Jan; Meijer, D.K F; Thormann, W

    1997-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy through the targeting of drugs is a promising new approach that requires adequate analytical methods capable of differentiating between the free drug the drug carrier, and metabolites. Using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC), we report the separation of naproxen

  2. Analysis of selected withanolides in plant extract by capillary electrochromatography and microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkaoui, Samir; Cahours, Xavier; Veuthey, Jean-Luc

    2003-01-01

    Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) coupled with a diode-array detector was developed for the simultaneous analysis of natural steroidal compounds, withanolides including withaferin A, withacnistin and iochromolide. Optimal resolution was obtained with a microemulsion consisting of 70 mM octane, 800 mM 1-butanol, 100 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and 10 mM phosphate-borate buffer (pH 7) using a fused-silica capillary at 25 kV and 40 degrees C. Since this technique is not compatible with mass spectrometry detection, a capillary electrochromatographic method was developed to separate the investigated withanolides. The effects of mobile phase composition and pH were systematically investigated. Complete separation was obtained with a capillary electrochromatography (CEC) Hypersil C18 bonded silica column (packed length, 25 cmx100 microm ID and 375 microm OD), packed with 3 microm particles. The mobile phase consisted of formic acid-ammonia, pH 8 / acetonitrile (40/60 v/v); the voltage was set at 25 kV and the temperature at 20 degrees C. Under these conditions, resolution of these closely related compounds, including the critical pair withacnistin and iochromolide, was achieved in less than 5 min. The separations by MEEKC and CEC were compared with that obtained by reversed-phase liquid chromatography and showed similar retention order, indicating the analogy of the retention mechanism of these techniques. To further improve specificity and sensitivity, the developed CEC method was interfaced with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry using a Teflon connection between the CEC column and a void fused-silica capillary. Finally, the described methods were applied to the qualitative analysis of withanolides in Iochroma gesnerioides plant extract.

  3. Factors influencing the electrokinetic injection of oligonucleotides in capillary gel electrophoresis when using laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Buyun; Chen, Guanhua; Bartlett, Michael G

    2014-03-01

    Capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) is a powerful tool for the analysis of oligonucleotides owing to its extraordinary resolving power. However, the only feasible injection mode for CGE, electrokinetic injection, can cause bias of the injected amount and thus reproducibility issues for CGE methods. Although the source of the bias in electrokinetic injection for analysis of small molecules by capillary zone electrophoresis has long been identified, there are very few studies on electrokinetic injection issues for biological molecules analyzed by CGE. In this study, we report three issues related to electrokinetic injection for oligonucleotides. First, the relationship between the injection amount and the sample solution resistance is not always linear for oligonucleotides, as has been observed for small molecules. Second, the injecting water prior to an oligonucleotide sample dramatically improves the reproducibility of both the injected amount and resolution through a 'stacking-like' mechanism. Third, optimizing the gel concentration dramatically increases the amount of oligonucleotide that is injected into the column. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Simultaneous determination of lovastatin and citrinin in red yeast rice supplements by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigović, Biljana; Sertić, Miranda; Mornar, Ana

    2013-05-01

    Lovastatin is a main component of Monascus purpureus fermented red rice contributing to the lipid-lowering effect. Citrinin is a toxic fermentation by-product which can be found as a contaminant. An accurate, simple and rapid micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatographic method was developed for the first time for simultaneous determination of lovastatin present in lactone and hydroxy acid forms and citrinin in red rice products provided by different manufacturers and formulated in various dosage forms. Separation was achieved within only 2 min using 20 mM of phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 and 30 mM of sodium dodecyl sulphate at an applied voltage of 25 kV. Sensitivity crucial for detecting citrinin was enhanced by using an extended light path capillary. The results showed that the content of lovastatin and its acid form in dietary supplements were considerably different indicating the need for improved standardization in order to ensure efficiency and safety of these products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitative analysis of synthetic dyes in lipstick by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiderio, C; Marra, C; Fanali, S

    1998-06-01

    The separation of synthetic dyes, used as color additives in cosmetics, by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) is described in this study. The separation of seven dyes, namely eosine, erythrosine, cyanosine, rhodamine B, orange II, chromotrope FB and tartrazine has been achieved in about 3 min in an untreated fused silica capillary containing as background electrolyte a 25 mM tetraborate/phosphate buffer, pH 8.0, and 30 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate. The electrophoretic method exhibits precision and relatively high sensitivity. A detection limit (LOD, signal/noise = 3) in the range of 5-7.5 X 10(-7) M of standard compounds was recorded. Intra-day repeatability of all the studied dye determinations (8 runs) gave the following results (limit values), % standard deviation: 0.24-1.54% for migration time, 0.99-1.24% for corrected peak areas, 0.99-1.24% for corrected peak area ratio (analyte/internal standard) and 1.56-2.74% for peak areas. The optimized method was successfully applied to the analysis of a lipstick sample where eosine and cyanosine were present.

  6. Physico-chemical characterization of liposomes and drug substance-liposome interactions in pharmaceutics using capillary electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzen, Ulrik; Østergaard, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    of liposomes. The use of liposome electrokinetic chromatography and capillary electrophoresis for determination of liposome/water partitioning and characterization of drug-liposome interactions is reviewed. A number of studies indicate that capillary electrophoresis may have a role in the characterization......Liposomes are self-assembled phospholipid vesicles and have numerous research and therapeutic applications. In the pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences liposomes find use as models of biological membranes, partitioning medium and as drug carriers. The present review addresses the use of capillary...... of liposome drug delivery systems, e.g., for the investigation of encapsulation efficiency and drug leakage. The well-known characteristics of capillary electrophoresis, i.e., low sample volume requirement, high separation efficiency in aqueous media without a stationary phase, minimal sample preparation...

  7. Characterization of molds isolated from smoked paprika by PCR-RFLP and micellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Benito, María J; Martín, Alberto; Aranda, Emilio; Hernández, Alejandro; Córdoba, María G

    2009-12-01

    Molds are common contaminants of paprika meat products. The drying and storage stages of paprika processing are critical because they can provide molds with the conditions particularly appropriate for their growth and proliferation. Thus, an efficient and accurate characterization of the toxigenic molds of paprika is necessary. An RFLP analysis of the rRNA genes was performed by using a TaqI restriction enzyme. In addition, a micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) method was tested to analyze secondary metabolites produced by mold strains commonly found in paprika. This study was confirmed with a 5.8S-ITS region sequence analysis. A total of 31 isolates were identified by RFLP and MECC analysis. These showed stable RFLP profiles that were clearly different for the different genera and species, and were grouped into clusters together with the profiles of the 16 reference strains. MECC analysis provided additional characteristic peak patterns for the characterization of the mold species present. The characterized isolates were species of the genera Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., Cladosporium spp., Mucor spp. and Phlebia spp. The identifications were confirmed by the 5.8S-ITS region sequence analysis and by a BLAST search of the GenBank database. RFLP patterns with TaqI restriction enzyme and MECC profiles, either singly or combined, could be of great interest to distinguish molds in paprika.

  8. Comparison of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography on fingerprint of Cnidium monnieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Zhang, Xinyong; Tan, Xiying; Wu, Menghua; Xianga, Bingren

    2006-06-01

    In our studies, micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) was employed in fingerprint analysis of Cnidium monnieri for the first time. Average chromatography of 10 batches Cnidium monnieri from Jiangsu province, China, which have long been considered as the original and genuine herbal medicine, was first established as the characteristic fingerprint. Within 25 min the major effective components were separated by 18 mM borate, 12 mM phosphate and 50 mM SDS (pH 9.2) containing 20% methanol. The relative standard deviations of migration times and peak areas were less than 5%. As a new approach of fingerprint, MKCE was compared to the conventional approach-HPLC in our experiments. The fingerprint developed by HPLC comprised 8 peaks that were collected within 40 min. Relative standard deviation (RSD) values of retention times of corresponding peaks in HPLC analysis were very small (maximum 3% and average 0.9%). In conclusion, each two methods had its advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, besides HPLC, MEKC as a feasible method, could be used in the development of fingerprint of Cnidium monnieri.

  9. Determination of strobilurin fungicide residues in fruits and vegetables by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with sweeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Chen, Guan-hua; Wu, Xian; Shi, Jie; Guo, Dong-shan

    2014-02-01

    A new assay of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with sweeping was developed to determine azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and pyraclostrobin in fruits and vegetables. The key factors affecting resolution and peak height were studied and the optimum conditions were obtained for separation and enrichment. The running buffer consisted of 40 mM borate, 25 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate and 15% acetonitrile, and its pH was adjusted to 8.4. The sample was injected for 677 nL and the separation voltage was 25 kV. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors of azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and pyraclostrobin were 861, 550 and 403; the linear dynamic ranges were all 0.01-5.0 mg/L; the limits of detection were 0.002, 0.001 and 0.002 mg/kg; the recoveries of spiked samples were 85.1-98.5%, 87.5-97.0% and 89.1-99.1%, respectively. The assay can meet the requirement of maximum residue limits for these three strobilurin fungicides, and has been applied for determining their residues in fruits and vegetables.

  10. Separation of neutral compounds by capillary electrokinetic chromatography using polyethyleneimine as replaceable cationic pseudostationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maichel, B; Potocek, B; Gas, B; Chiari, M; Kenndler, E

    1998-09-01

    Polyethyleneimine (PEI, molecular weight 6 x 10(5) - 1 x 10(6)) is applied as a positively charged pseudostationary phase for electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) of uncharged mono- and oligophenols. EKC is carried out in PEI-coated fused-silica capillaries (with electroosmotic flow directed towards the anode) in 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer (pH 7.0, 20 mM) with PEI added to the solution in concentrations up to 0.70% w/v. The pseudostationary phase leads to a retardation of the solutes mainly according to the number (and the position) of the OH-groups of the separands, and is not influenced significantly by methyl groups. For 0.70% w/v PEI solution, for instance, the relative retention, rho, has values between 0.33 and 0.53. For the systems with the highest resolution of the separands (0.25-0.30% PEI) 190,000 plates per meter are observed. The results indicate that the separation selectivity is mainly caused by ion-dipole interactions between the OH-groups of the solutes and the pseudostationary phase.

  11. Rapid and sensitive microbial analysis by capillary isotachophoresis with continuous electrokinetic injection under field amplified conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Sui Ching; Nai, Yi Heng; Powell, Shane M; Macka, Mirek; Breadmore, Michael C

    2013-06-01

    A highly sensitive capillary isotachophoresis method with LIF detection for microbial analysis was developed. This allowed the reliable analysis of Escherichia coli bacteria with a LOD of 14 cells in a sample volume of 100 μL, or 1.35 × 10(2) cell/mL, which is 47 times lower than reported by CE-LIF and 148 times lower than CE-UV with on-line concentration. A leading electrolyte of 50 mM Tris-HCl was used while the cells were diluted in 5 mM Tris HEPES as the terminator. To facilitate detection, cells were stained with the universal nucleic acid fluorophore SYTO 9. Continuous electrokinetic injection of the cells from the terminator under field amplified conditions concentrated cells into a single peak at the leader/terminator boundary allowing quantitation by measurement of peak height. The method was applied to water collected from two local streams, with only filtration through a 5-μm syringe filter to remove large particulate matter followed by a ten times dilution in terminator, with total analysis time approximately 40 min. The detected cell numbers in the water samples by the isotachophoresis method were 3.70 × 10(5) cell/mL and 2.62 × 10(4) cell/mL, which were slightly higher than the 9.50 × 10(4) cell/mL and 1.96 × 10(4) cell/mL obtained by conventional microbiological plate counting. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Enantioselective recognition of radezolid by cyclodextrin modified capillary electrokinetic chromatography and electronic circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Katarzyna; Gruba, Ewa; Bocian, Wojciech; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta

    2017-05-30

    A method for the enantioseparation of radezolid (RAD), an analogue of a truly new class of antibacterial agents, oxazolidinones, was developed based on capillary electrokinetic chromatography using a cyclodextrin as a chiral pseudophase (CD-cEKC). The mechanism of RAD separation, together with its precursor, were investigated to directly define the relationship between the oxazolidinone structure and the complexation process. During the development of the method, anionic single isomer cyclodextrins were tested. They were ranked in order from hydrophilic to hydrophobic as follows: heptakis-(2,3-dihydroxy-6-sulfo)-β-cyclodextrin (HS-β-CD), heptakis-(2,3-diacetyl-6-sulfo)-β-cyclodextrin (HDAS-β-CD) and heptakis-(2,3-dimethyl-6-sulfo)-β-cyclodextrin (HDMS-β-CD). Experiments were performed at pH values of 2.5, 6.6, 8.2 and 9.6. The cyclodextrins that had an acetyl or methyl group at the C2 and C3 positions, referred to as HDAS-β-CD and HDMS-β-CD, respectively, exhibited partial and baseline separation of enantiomers in a low pH buffer. However, higher temperatures were required for HDAS-β-CD and acetonitrile addition was required for HDMS-β-CD. During the experiments, different organic solvents, varying in their amphiprotic or aprotic nature, were tested. The best results for the separation of enantiomers using the CD-cEKC method were obtained with 40mM HDMS-β-CD dissolved in a 50mM phosphate buffer (pH 2.5) with the addition of acetonitrile (65:35, v/v) at 27°C, reversed polarity and a voltage equal to 28kV. The apparent binding constants for each enantiomer to HDAS-β-CD or HDMS-β-CD were calculated. Finally, the stereochemistry of (S) and (R)-RAD and the behaviour of selected complex formations were established using electronic circular dichroism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Monitoring of cefepime in human serum and plasma by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography: Improvement of sample preparation and validation by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šestáková, Nela; Theurillat, Regula; Sendi, Parham; Thormann, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Cefepime monitoring in deproteinized human serum and plasma by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in presence of other drugs is reported. For micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, sample preparation comprised dodecylsulfate protein precipitation at pH 4.5 using an increased buffer concentration compared to that of a previous assay and removal of hydrophobic compounds with dichloromethane. This provided robust conditions for cefepime analysis in the presence of sulfamethoxazole and thus enabled its determination in samples of patients that receive cotrimoxazole. The liquid chromatography assay is based upon use of a column with a pentafluorophenyl-propyl modified and multiendcapped stationary phase and the coupling to electrospray ionization with a single quadrupole detector. The performances of both assays with multilevel internal calibration were assessed with calibration and control samples and both assays were determined to be robust. Cefepime levels monitored by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography in samples from patients that were treated with cefepime only and with cefepime and cotrimoxazole were found to compare well with those obtained by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Cefepime drug levels determined by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography could thereby be validated. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Electrokinetic supercharging in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis for online preconcentration and determination of tamoxifen and its metabolites in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Lee Yien; Breadmore, Michael C; See, Hong Heng

    2016-08-26

    An online preconcentration method, namely electrokinetic supercharging (EKS), was evaluated for the determination of tamoxifen and its metabolites in human plasma in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis with ultraviolet detection (NACE-UV). This method was comprehensively optimized in terms of the leading electrolyte (LE) and terminating electrolyte (TE) injection lengths, as well as electrokinetic sample injection time. The optimized EKS conditions employed were as follows: hydrodynamic injection (HI) of 10mM potassium chloride as LE at 150mbar for 36s (4% of total capillary volume). The sample was injected at 10kV for 300s, followed by HI of 10mM pimozide as TE at 150mbar for 36s (4% of total capillary volume). Separation was performed in 7.5mM deoxycholic acid sodium salt, 15mM acetic acid and 1mM 18-crown-6 in 100% methanol at +25kV with UV detection at 205nm. Under optimized conditions, the sensitivity was enhanced between 160- and 600-fold when compared with our previously developed method based on HI at 150mbar for 12s. The detection limit of the method for tamoxifen and its metabolites were 0.05-0.25ng/mL, with RSDs between 2.1% and 3.5%. Recoveries in spiked human plasma were 95.6%-99.7%. A comparison was also made between the proposed EKS approach and the standard field-amplified sample injection (FASI) technique. EKS proved to be 3-5 times more sensitive than the FASI. The new EKS method was applied to the analysis of tamoxifen and its metabolites in plasma samples from breast cancer patients after liquid-liquid extraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. On-line preconcentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate-protein complexes using electrokinetic supercharging method with a prefilled water plug in capillary sieving electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Kang, Mingchao; Liu, Zhen

    2011-09-01

    An electrokinetic supercharging (EKS) method with a prefilled water plug at the head column of capillary was developed for on-line preconcentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-protein complexes in capillary sieving electrophoresis (CSE). Conventional EKS is a combination of electrokinetic injection with transient isotachophoresis (tr-ITP). The capillary is first filled with background electrolyte, then an appropriate amount of a leading electrolyte is filled and electro-injection is carried out for certain duration. After that, terminating electrolyte is filled, and tr-ITP is subsequently initiated, followed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation. In this work, the performance of EKS was evaluated by integrating multiple sub-methods step by step, and a water plug containing polymer was introduced before electrokinetic injection in order to further improve the concentration effect. The positive effects of the sub-methods were verified, including molecular sieving effect of polymer, field enhanced sample injection (FESI) with and without a water plug, and transient isotachophoretic electrophoresis-based FESI. It was observed that analyte discrimination usually encountered in conventional electrokinetic injection was eliminated due to the similar charge to mass ratios of SDS-protein complexes. Based on these results, a hybrid on-line preconcentration method, EKS with injecting a water plug containing polymer before sample electrokinetic injection, was proposed and used to indiscriminately preconcentrate SDS-protein complexes, which provided a sensitivity enhancement factor of more than 1000. It was very suitable for the analysis of low-abundance proteins, providing the information of their molecular mass.

  16. Determination of caffeine and associated compounds in food, beverages, natural products, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injac, Rade; Srdjenovic, Branislava; Prijatelj, Matevz; Boskovic, Marija; Karljikovic-Rajic, Katarina; Strukelj, Borut

    2008-02-01

    A method is described for quantitating caffeine, theobromine, theophylline, paracetamol, propyphenazone, acetylsalicylic acid, salicylic acid, and codeine phosphate in corresponding real samples of food, beverages, natural products, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetic preparations by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. The separation is carried out at 25 degrees C and 25 kV, using a 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 9.0), 80 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate, and 7.5% (v/v) acetonitrile. UV detection is at 210 nm. The method is shown to be specific, accurate (recoveries over the range 98.9-101.2%), linear over the tested range (correlation coefficients>or=0.9993), and precise (relative standard deviation below 2.1%). The method is applied for the quantitative analysis of these compounds in different foods, beverages, natural products, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetic products.

  17. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography determination of +S and -R arotinolol in serum using UV detection and solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefnawy, Mohammed M

    2002-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of +S and -R arotinolol in serum by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography is described. Stereoselective resolution of the arotinolol enantiomers was achieved using 5 mM sodium taurocholate in 10 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer of pH 2.5. A 72-cm uncoated fused-silica capillary at a constant voltage of 15 kV was used for the analysis. The analytes of interest were extracted from serum using solid phase extraction. An octadecyl cartridge gave good recoveries in excess of 87% for both +S and -R arotinolol without any interference. The calibration curves were linear over the range of 50-500 ng ml(-1) with +S propranolol as the internal standard and the coefficient of determination was greater than 0.999 (n = 3). The limit of quantitation was 50 ng ml(-1) for each enantiomer and the detection limit using 1 ml serum and a UV detection set et 220 nm was 25 ng ml(-1) (S/N = 2). Precision and accuracy of the method were in the range 0.8-2.7% and 1.2-6.4%, respectively, for +S arotinolol and 1.1-3.9% and 2.2-6.5%, respectively, for -R arotinolol. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. A method for the determination of minoxidil in hair-regrowth formulations by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Gavin; Ramstad, Tore; Mills, Kent A; Dunn, Michael J

    2005-10-01

    A method based on micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) was developed for determination of minoxidil in Rogaine and competing products. The original intent of the work was to offer an orthogonal means to HPLC for testing illicit imitations of Rogaine. However, because the patent has since expired, we offer the procedure as a confirmatory measure to HPLC for assay of generic minoxidil products. The MEKC procedure complements an earlier method based on free solution capillary electrophoresis (FSCE), designed to the same end. Validation was carried out on both a Dionex CES-1, which utilizes gravity injection, and a PE-ABI 270HT, which employs vacuum injection. The procedure was validated for both active pharmaceutical ingredient and for minoxidil solutions. The run buffer is pH 7.0, 20 mM sodium phosphate, 20 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate, with 10% isopropanol; the internal standard is dl-tryptophan. The method bears the attributes of simplicity, ease of use, and short analysis time (12 min). It is selective with respect to known process and degradation impurities. High efficiency was achieved on the CES-1, with a plate count exceeding 200,000 for minoxidil at an elution time of 9 min. Although slight differences in performance were noted across the two instruments, results on both were in conformance with modern day validation expectations. Comparison of MEKC with HPLC resulted in slightly higher values for the former, but all results met registration specifications and internal targets.

  19. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography determination of alginic acid in pharmaceutical formulations after treatment with alginate lyase and UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Nicola

    2008-09-01

    A new highly specific and sensitive capillary electrophoresis method (electrokinetic chromatography with SDS) for the determination of the total alginic acid (AA) content in pharmaceutical formulations is described by means of capillary electrophoresis at 230 nm after treatment with alginate lyase [4.2.2.3] and separation of unsaturated products, Delta-oligomers (DeltaHexA-[HexA](n)), in particular, DP3 (DeltaHexA-HexA-HexA) and DP4 (DeltaHexA-HexA-HexA-HexA). Using a buffer constituted with 10 mM sodium borate and 50 mM SDS at pH 9.0, micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography was able to determine with very high resolution the AA Delta-oligomers produced by the action of the lyase (mainly DP3 and DP4) as one single species. The intra- and inter-day variations (CV%) were between 6.3 and 9.1 for migration time and between 2.5 and 5.7 for peak area, respectively. The calibration curve showed good linearity for the examined concentration range (60-360 ng) with an average correlation coefficient greater than 0.980. The lowest detection limit and the lowest quantitation limit of the method were 15 ng (0.25 mg/mL) and 40 ng (0.67 mg/mL), respectively. The intra- and inter-day variations in terms of CV% were 5.5 and 8.6%, respectively, and the intra- and inter-day accuracy was estimated to range from 4.1 to 8.9%, while the percent recoveries of AA were calculated to be 102, 97 and 93% for different AA amounts. Variations in temperatures, voltage and buffer composition in comparison with adopted conditions within a 10% limit do not modify the electrophoresis results. The evaluation of AA was performed in both solid and liquid pharmaceutical formulations also in the presence of other ingredients, in particular, aluminium, sodium and potassium bicarbonate, and emulsifying and flavouring agents. The quantitative results obtained were 101.2+/-3.4% of AA content in tablets and 98.4+/-2.8% in liquid formulation, in total conformity with the label claims.

  20. Spherical molecularly imprinted polymer particles : A promising tool for molecular recognition in capillary electrokinetic separations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, T; Mol, R; de Zeeuw, RA; de Jong, GJ; Sherrington, DC; Cormack, PAG; Ensing, K

    Spherical molecularly imprinted polymer particles obtained via precipitation polymerization, were introduced as a pseudostationary phase in capillary electrophoresis (CE) to study molecular recognition. Analyses were performed via a partial filling technique using (+)-ephedrine-imprinted

  1. Stability indicating method for sodium montelukast in pharmaceutical preparations by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, J; Malesuik, M D; Jablonski, A; Steppe, M

    2010-09-01

    A simple, reliable micellar electrokinetic chromatography method (MEKC) for the determination of sodium montelukast in coated tablets was developed and validated. Successful results were obtained with 10 mmol L(-1) borate buffer and 30 mmol L-(1) sodium dodecyl sulfate at pH 9.4, injection time of 5.0 s, an applied voltage of 25 kV and a column temperature of 25 degrees C. The detector response for sodium montelukast was linear over the concentration range from 20 to 100 microg mL(-1) (r = 0.9995). The intra and inter-day precision showed suitable results (RSD < 1.46%). The analytical method accuracy was 99.67% (RSD = 1.11%). The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.75 and 2.00 microg mL(-1) respectively. The method demonstrated robustness and showed to be viable for the sodium montelukast determination in pharmaceutical dosage form.

  2. Separation of steroids using vegetable oils in microemulsion electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirén, Heli; Vesanen, Sari; Suomi, Johanna

    2014-01-15

    The steroids, hydrocortisone, androstenedione, 17-α-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone, 17-α-methyltestosterone, and progesterone were separated with microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) and detected with UV absorption. The microemulsion phases were prepared from both artificial and vegetable oils, from them the first was made of alkane and alcohol and the latter from colza, olive, linseed, and walnut oils. The electrolyte solutions were made to emulsions using sodium dodecyl sulfate and alkaline tetraborate. The solution mixtures made from ethyl acetate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, 1-butanol, acetonitrile, and sodium tetraborate were used as the reference solutions to evaluate the performance of the vegetable oil emulsions. Our study showed that the lipophilic organic phase in the microemulsion did provide resolution improvements but not selectivity changes. The results also correlate with real interactions of the steroids with the lipophilic organic microemulsion phase. The quality of the oils between the manufacturers did not have importance, which was noticed from the equal behavior of the steroids in the vegetable oil emulsions. Detection limits of the steroids in vegetable oil emulsions were at the level of 0.20-0.43μg/L. Thus, they were 2-10 times higher than the concentrations in the partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography (PF-MEKC), which we have obtained earlier. The repeatability (RSD%) of the electrophoretic mobilities of the steroids was between 0.50 and 3.70. The RSD% values between the inter-day separations were below 1%, but when walnut and olive oils were used the values exceeded even 10%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimal conditions for determination of zinc bacitracin, polymyxin B, oxytetracycline and sulfacetamide in animal feed by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injac, Rade; Mlinaric, Ales; Djorjevic-Milic, Vukosava; Karljikovic-Rajic, Katarina; Strukelj, Borut

    2008-04-01

    A separation technique for zinc bacitracin, polymyxin B, oxytetracycline and sulfacetamide in animal feedstuffs by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) was developed. The running buffer was 20 mmol l(-1) borate, 20 mmol l(-1) phosphate, pH 8.4, containing 20 mmol l(-1) sodium dodecylsulphate and 10% (v/v) methanol. MEKC was performed at 25 degrees C; the applied voltage was 25 kV with a running pressure of 10 mbar. Simultaneous UV detection for all analytes was at 215 nm. The method was validated for specificity, accuracy, linearity, precision and robustness. It was shown to be specific, accurate (recoveries were 99.7 +/- 0.3, 99.9 +/- 0.9, 99.8 +/- 1.0 and 99.5 +/- 0.4, respectively, for oxytetracycline-, sulfacetamide-, polymyxin B- and zinc bacitracin-spiked samples of feed for cow, pigs, chicken and cattle), linear over the tested range (correlation coefficients > or =0.9987) and precise (RSDs below 1.8% for each analyte). The method was applied to determine zinc bacitracin, polymyxin B, oxytetracycline and sulfacetamide as additives in animal feed.

  4. Separation and determination of peptide metabolite of Bacillus licheniformis in a microbial fuel cell by high-speed capillary micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Bai, Ruiguang; Cai, Xiaoyu; Lin, Ping; Ma, Lihong

    2017-11-01

    A method using high-speed capillary micellar electrokinetic chromatography and a microbial fuel cell was applied to determine the metabolite of the peptides released by Bacillus licheniformis. Two peptides, l-carnosine and l-alanyl-l-glutamine were used as the substrate to feed Bacillus licheniformis in a microbial fuel cell. The metabolism process of the bacterium was monitored by analyzing the voltage outputs of the microbial fuel cell. A home-made spontaneous injection device was applied to perform high-speed capillary micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Under the optimized conditions, tryptophan, glycine, valine, tyrosine and the two peptides could be rapidly separated within 2.5 min with micellar electrokinetic chromatography mode. Then the method was applied to analyze the solutions sampled from the microbial fuel cell. After 92 h running, valine, as the metabolite, was successfully detected with concentration 3.90 × 10 -5 M. The results demonstrated that Bacillus licheniformis could convert l-carnosine and l-alanyl-l-glutamine into valine. The method employed in this work was proved to have great potential in analysis of metabolites, such as amino acids, for microorganisms. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Electrokinetic sorting and collection of fractions for preparative capillary electrophoresis on a chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalewski, D.R.; Schlautmann, Stefan; Schasfoort, Richardus B.M.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2008-01-01

    A microfabricated device capable of selecting and collecting multiple components from a mixture separated by capillary electrophoresis (CE) is described. This collection is automated and can be easily controlled by a set of rules defined by an operator, enabling fast and consistent operation. The

  6. Determination of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in mouse blood by capillary electrophoresis/ fluorescence spectroscopy with sweeping techniques in micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ching; Liu, Ju-Tsung; Chou, Shiu-Huey; Lin, Cheng-Huang

    2003-03-01

    The separation and on-line concentration of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in mouse blood was achieved by means of capillary electrophoresis/fluorescence spectroscopy using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the surfactant. Techniques involving on-line sample concentration, including sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography (sweeping-MEKC) and cation-selective exhaustive injection-sweep-micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CSEI-sweep-MEKC) were applied; the optimum on-line concentration and separation conditions were determined. In the analysis of an actual sample, LSD was found in a blood sample from a test mouse (0.1 mg LSD fed to a 20 g mouse; approximately 1/10 to the value of LD(50)). As a result, 120 and 30 ng/mL of LSD was detected at 20 and 60 min, respectively, after ingestion of the doses.

  7. A capillary micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the stereoselective quantitation of bioallethrin in biotic and abiotic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Mª Ángeles; Menéndez-López, Nuria; Boltes, Karina; Castro-Puyana, María; Marina, Mª Luisa

    2017-08-11

    A capillary micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was developed enabling the stereoselective separation of the insecticide bioallethrin. The use of sodium deoxycholate bile salt and acetyl-β-cyclodextrin (acetyl-β-CD) made possible the separation of bioallethrin stereoisomers with a high enantioresolution (7.4) in a short analysis time (6.5min). The analytical characteristics of the developed method were evaluated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, and limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) showing a good performance for the quantitation of bioallethrin stereoisomers with LODs of 0.2 and 0.3mg/L. The developed method was applied to the stereoselective analysis of a commercial bioallethrin pediculicide formulation and to evaluate the toxicity of bioallethrin stereoisomers on the growth of the unicellular freshwater green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and on the germination of the higher plant Sorghum bicolor (non-target organisms). The analysis of the commercial pediculicide showed a good agreement between the contents determined for the two stereoisomers and those labelled in the commercial samples. Different toxic responses and biodegradation profiles were found for each stereoisomer in ecotoxicity assays. The mixture of S/R stereoisomers of bioallethrin resulted more toxic than S-bioallethrin for green algae, with EC50 values of 1.10±0.06 for the mixture and of 1.73±0.05mg/L for the pure S-biallethrin (esbiol). Germination of plants seeds was also affected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Polyethylene glycol-stabilized lipid disks as model membranes in interaction studies based on electrokinetic capillary chromatography and quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainikka, Kati; Reijmar, Karin; Yohannes, Gebrenegus; Samuelsson, Jörgen; Edwards, Katarina; Jussila, Matti; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2011-07-01

    Distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC)/cholesterol/distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE)-polyethylene glycol 5000 [PEG(5000)] lipid disks, mimicking biological membranes, were used as pseudostationary phase in partial filling electrokinetic capillary chromatography (EKC) to study interactions between pharmaceuticals and lipid disks. Capillaries were coated either noncovalently with a poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone)-based copolymer or covalently with polyacrylamide to mask the negative charges of the fused-silica capillary wall and to minimize interactions between positively charged pharmaceuticals and capillary wall. Although the noncovalent copolymer coating method was faster, better stability of the covalent polyacrylamide coating at physiological pH 7.4 made it more reliable in partial filling EKC studies. Migration times of pharmaceuticals were proportional to the amount of lipids in the pseudostationary phase, and partition coefficients were successfully determined. Because the capillary coatings almost totally suppressed the electroosmotic flow, it was not practical to use the EKC-based method for partition studies involving large molecules with low mobilities. Hence, the applicability of the biomembrane mimicking lipid disks for interactions studies with large molecules was verified by the quartz crystal microbalance technique. Biotinylated lipid disks were then immobilized on streptavidin-coated sensor chip surface, and interactions with a high-molecular-mass molecule, lysozyme, were studied. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy and asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation were used to clarify the sizes of lipid disks used. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Separation and determination of alpinetin and cardamonin by reverse micelle electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shumin; Zhou, Lei; He, Wenying; Hu, Zhide

    2007-03-12

    A novel electokinetic capillary chromatography method, reverse sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles as pseudo-stationary phase, was developed for separation and detection of alpinetin and cardamonin. In this work, reverse micelles (RMs) have been firstly introduced into background electrolyte for electrophoresis separation. The optimum reverse SDS micelle system was formed with n-butyl chloride as continuous phase, SDS (20.9%, w/v) as the surfactant, W(0) (13.0, water-surfactant molar ratio), 18.0% (v/v) 1-butanol as the co-surfactant, 8.0% (v/v) acetonitrile (ACN), 1.5% (v/v) heptane, and a 60 mol L(-1) tris-(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) buffer, as dispersed phase. Linear relationships (correlation coefficients: 0.9961 for cardamonin and 0.9991 for alpinetin) between the peak areas and concentration of the two compounds were obtained (5.0-350.0 microg mL(-1) for cardamonin and 1.25-350.0 microg mL(-1) for alpinetin). The detection limits (S/N=3) for cardamonin and alpinetin were 0.19 and 0.14 microg mL(-1), respectively. The method was successfully applied for the quantification of alpinetin and cardamonin in Alpinia katsumadai Hayata and kuaiwei tablet with satisfactory recoveries in the range of 95.9-100.2%.

  10. Integration of the free liquid membrane into electrokinetic supercharging - capillary electrophoresis for the determination of cationic herbicides in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Mei Qi; Thang, Lee Yien; See, Hong Heng

    2017-01-20

    A new approach based on the integration of the free liquid membrane (FLM) into electrokinetic supercharging (EKS) was demonstrated to be a new powerful tool used in order to enhance online preconcentration efficiency in capillary electrophoresis (CE). A small plug of water immiscible organic solvent was used as a membrane interface during the electrokinetic sample injection step in EKS in order to significantly enhance the analyte stacking efficiency. The new online preconcentration strategy was evaluated for the determination of paraquat and diquat present in the environmental water samples. The optimised FLM-EKS conditions employed were as follows: hydrodynamic injection (HI) of 20mM potassium chloride as leading electrolyte at 50mbar for 75s (3% of the total capillary volume) followed by the HI of tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) as FLM at a 1mm length (0.1% of the capillary volume). The sample was injected at 10kV for 360s, followed by the HI of 20mM cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as terminating electrolyte at 50mbar for 50s (2% of the total capillary volume). The separation was performed in 12mM ammonium acetate and 30mM NaCl containing 20% MeOH at +25kV with UV detection at 205nm. Under optimised conditions, the sensitivity was enhanced between 1500- and 1866-fold when compared with the typical HI at 50mbar for 50s. The detection limit of the method for paraquat and diquat was 0.15-0.20ng/mL, with RSDs below 5.5%. Relative recoveries in spiked river water were in the range of 95.4-97.5%. A comparison was also made between the proposed approach with sole preconcentration of the field-enhanced sample injection (FASI) and EKS in the absence of the FLM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection for on-line enrichment in capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry: a sensitive method for measurement of ten haloacetic acids in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Zhu, Jiping; Aranda-Rodriguez, Rocio; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2011-11-07

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are by-products of the chlorination of drinking water containing natural organic matter and bromide. A simple and sensitive method has been developed for determination of ten HAAs in drinking water. The pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection (PAEKI), an on-line enrichment technique, was employed to introduce the sample into a capillary electrophoresis (CE)-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry system (ESI-MS/MS). HAAs were monitored in selected reaction monitoring mode. With 3 min of PAEKI time, the ten major HAAs (HAA10) in drinking water were enriched up to 20,000-fold into the capillary without compromising resolution. A simple solid phase clean-up method has been developed to eliminate the influence of ionic matrices from drinking water on PAEKI. Under conditions optimized for mass spectrometry, PAEKI and capillary electrophoresis, detection limits defined as three times ratio of signal to noise have been achieved in a range of 0.013-0.12 μg L(-1) for ten HAAs in water sample. The overall recoveries for all ten HAAs in drinking water samples were between 76 and 125%. Six HAAs including monochloro- (MCAA), dichloro- (DCAA), trichloro- (TCAA), monobromo- (MBAA), bromochloro- (BCAA), and bromodichloroacetic acids (BDCAA) were found in tap water samples collected. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Field-amplified sample injection-micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography for the analysis of bisphenol A, bisphenol F, and their diglycidyl ethers and derivatives in canned soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallart-Ayala, Héctor; Núñez, Oscar; Moyano, Encarnación; Galceran, Maria Teresa

    2010-05-01

    Conditions were established for the separation and analysis of bisphenol A, bisphenol F, and their diglycidyl ethers by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC). Good resolution was obtained for all compounds, although in order to achieve the separation of ortho-ortho, ortho-para, and para-para isomers of bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE), BFDGE x 2H(2)O and BFDGE x 2HCl, it was necessary to use a 25 microm id fused silica capillary. To increase sensitivity, a field-amplified sample injection (FASI)-MECC method was developed using 10 mM SDS solution as injection matrix and a 75 microm id fused silica capillary. Instrumental quality parameters such as LODs (0.999), and run-to-run and day-to-day precisions (RSD values lower than 12.5%) were determined. Finally, the suitability of the FASI-MECC method for the analysis of bisphenol A, bisphenol F, and their diglycidyl ethers in canned soft drinks was evaluated. Quantitation was performed by matrix-matched calibration using a plastic-bottled isotonic drink as matrix. The results showed that FASI-MECC is an economic method for the screening and quantitation of these kinds of compounds in soft drink beverages, with no loss of reproducibility, and effective at concentrations lower than the specific migration level values established by the European Union.

  13. Determination of Vancomycin in Human Serum by Cyclodextrin-Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography (CD-MEKC) and Application for PDAP Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiajing; Cao, Yuqing; Wu, Shengyuan; Wang, Shuowen; Zhao, Xin; Zhou, Tingting; Lou, Yuefen; Fan, Guorong

    2017-03-28

    A simple and sensitive cyclodextrin-micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (CD-MEKC) method with UV detection was developed and validated for the determination of vancomycin (VCM) in serum. The separation was achieved in 14 min at 25 °C with a fused-silica capillary column of 40.2 cm × 50 mm i.d. (effective length 30.2 cm) and a run buffer containing 25 mM borate buffer with 50 mM sodium dodecylsulfonate (SDS) (pH 9.5) and 2% sulfobutyl-β-cyclodextrin (sulfobutyl-β-CD). Under optimal conditions for biological samples, good separations with high efficiency and short analysis time were achieved. Several parameters affecting the drug separation from biological matrices were studied, including buffer types, concentrations, and pHs. The methods were validated over the range of 0.9998-99.98 µg/mL. Calibration curves of VCM also showed good linearity (r² > 0.999). Intra- and interday precisions (relative standard deviation, RSD) were less than 5.80% and 7.38%, and lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) were lower than 1.0 μg/mL. The mean recoveries ranged between 84.03% and 91.69%. The method was successfully applied for monitoring VCM concentrations in serum of patients with peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis (PDAP). The assay should be applicable to pharmacokinetic studies and routine therapeutic drug monitoring of this drug in serum.

  14. Determination of five quinolone antibiotic residues in foods by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with quantum dot indirect laser-induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hong-Lian; Chen, Guan-Hua; Guo, Xin; Chen, Ping; Cai, Qing-Hong; Tian, Yi-Fang

    2014-05-01

    A new assay was developed for the determination of five quinolone antibiotic residues in foods, loxacin, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, and norfloxacin, by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with indirect laser-induced fluorescence, in which cadmium telluride quantum dots were used as a fluorescent background substance. Some factors that affected the peak height and the resolution were examined. The optimized running buffer was composed of 20 mM SDS, 7.2 mg/L quantum dots, and 10 mM borate at pH 8.8. The separation voltage was 20 kV. Under these conditions, five quinolone antibiotic residues were separated successfully within 8 min. The detection limits ranged from 0.003 to 0.008 mg/kg; the linear dynamic ranges were all 0.01 ∼ 10 mg/kg; and the average recoveries of the spiked samples were 81.4 ∼ 94.6 %. The assay can meet the requirement of maximum residue limits to these five quinolone antibiotics in the regulations of the European Union and Japan and has been applied for determining their residues in animal-derived food.

  15. Determination of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in food products using electrokinetic flow analysis-ion pair solid phase extraction-capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fang; He, You-Zhao; Li, Lian; Fu, Guo-Ni; Xie, Hai-Yang; Gan, Wu-Er

    2008-06-16

    An electrokinetic flow analysis system (EFA), consisting of one electroosmotic pump, five solenoid valves and one on-line homemade solid phase extraction (SPE) unit, combined with capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was proposed to determine benzoic acid and sorbic acid in food products. Tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) was adopted as an ion pair reagent to improve the retention of the preservatives on C(8)-bonded silica sorbent, which was also used to remove sample matrices. By using the SPE unit, the EFA-SPE-CZE system was able to perform the SPE operation and CZE separation simultaneously. With a modified interface of EFA and CZE, the buffer consumption was reduced to 130 microL for each running. The preservatives were separated and determined under optimized conditions with p-hydroxybenzoic acid as an internal standard. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of peak area for each analyte was less than 3.1% (n=5) and the limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 10 to 20 ngmL(-1) (K=3, n=11).

  16. Electrophoretically mediated microanalysis for simultaneous on-capillary derivatization of standard amino acids followed by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celá, Andrea; Mádr, Aleš; Glatz, Zdeněk

    2017-05-26

    Amino acids are crucial compounds involved in most biochemical processes essential for life. Since their dynamic turnover reflects the actual physiology of the cell/organism, a turnover assessment may provide valuable information related to multiple physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The sensitive determination of amino acids is predominantly associated with their derivatization which might be laborious, time-consuming and difficult to standardize. However, capillary electrophoresis offers the automatic injection and mixing of reactants, incubation of the reaction mixture, separation and detection of the reaction products in one on-capillary procedure. Among the on-capillary mixing strategies, electrophoretically mediated microanalysis (EMMA) is superior in terms of mixing efficiency. In this paper, we present an optimization of EMMA for the simultaneous derivatization of standard amino acids by naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde/NaCN and its application to targeted human embryo metabolomics. For such a purpose, novel separation conditions were developed involving the background electrolyte, comprised of 73mM sodium dodecyl sulfate, 6.7 % (v/v) 1-propanol, 0.5mM (2-hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin and 135mM boric acid/sodium hydroxide buffer (pH 9.00). Finally, the optimized EMMA was compared to a fundamentally different mixing strategy, namely the transverse diffusion of laminar flow profiles, and proved to be also suitable for human plasma analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Myrosinase Compatible Simultaneous Determination of Glucosinolates and Allyl Isothiocyanate by Capillary Electrophoresis Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography (CE-MEKC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Sándor; Kiss-Szikszai, Attila; Szűcs, Zsolt; Nguyen, Nhat Minh; Vasas, Gábor

    2016-05-01

    The functional food Cruciferous vegetables contain glucosinolates which are decomposed by the myrosinase enzyme upon tissue damage. The isothiocyanates are the most frequent decomposition products. Because of their various bioactivities, these compounds and the myrosinase is of high interest to many scientific fields. Development of a capillary electrophoresis method capable of myrosinase-compatible, simultaneous quantification of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates. Capillary electrochromatography parameters were optimised, followed by optimisation of a myrosinase-compatible derivatisation procedure for isothiocyanates. Vegetable extracts (Brussels sprouts, horseradish, radish and watercress) were tested for myrosinase activity, glucosinolate content and isothiocyanate conversion rate. Allyl isothiocyanate was quantified in some food products. The method allows quantification of sinigrin, gluonasturtiin and allyl isothiocyanate after myrosinase compatible derivatisation in-vial by mercaptoacetic acid. The chromatograhpic separation takes 2.5 min (short-end injection) or 15 min (long-end injection). For the tested vegetables, measured myrosinase activity was between 0.960-27.694 and 0.461-26.322 µmol/min/mg protein, glucosinolate content was between 0-2291.8 and 0-248.5 µg/g fresh weight for sinigrin and gluconastrutiin, respectively. The possible specificity of plants to different glucosinolates was also shown. Allyl isothiocyanate release rate was different in different vegetables (73.13 - 102.13%). The method could also be used for quantification of allyl isothiocyanate from food products. The presented capillary electrophoresis method requires a minimal amount of sample and contains only a few sample preparation steps, and can be used in several applications (glucosinolate determination, myrosinase activity measurement, isothiocyanate release estimation). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Understanding mechanisms of pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection: application to analysis of bromate, arsenic and selenium species in drinking water by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Gavina, Jennilee; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2011-05-20

    The mechanism underlying the enrichment power by pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection (PAEKI) in capillary electrophoresis (CE) was investigated for on-line pre-concentration of arsenic [As(III) and As(V)], selenium [Se(IV) and Se(VI)] and bromate (BrO(3)(-)). Analyte diffusion behaviour from PAEKI sample plugs were evaluated by monitoring peak broadening as a function of stagnant time and position in the capillary. During PAEKI, anionic analytes accumulate at the sample-separation buffer boundary. We proposed that a counter-ion layer formed in PAEKI, where a cation layer was formed at the separation buffer side of boundary. The cation layer served as a soft boundary which impeded zone broadening via electrostatic attraction between layers. This effect likely played an important role in maintaining focused analyte bands by suppressing diffusion. Comparison of analyte behaviour in PAEKI injected sample plugs to behaviour in hydrodynamically injected ones proved the existence of a counter-ion layer. The dependence of analyte diffusion in PAEKI plugs on electrochemical properties (viscosity, conductivity, electrophoretic mobility) further supported the hypothesis. Additionally, it was noted that analytes with low electrophoretic mobility were more efficiently pre-concentrated by PAEKI and were less subject to forces of dispersion than analytes with greater electrophoretic mobility. PAEKI-CE coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS/MS) was then optimized and validated for detection of arsenic, selenium and bromate in water samples. On-line enrichment of the target analytes was achieved with 1-3 ng mL(-1) detection limits, which was below the maximum contaminant levels in drinking water for all five anions studied. Noteworthy, the potential of the method for unbiased detection of molecular species in untreated water was demonstrated. No contamination was detected in the water samples tested; however, recovery was 90-118% for spiked samples. The

  19. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography fingerprints combined with multivariate statistical analyses to evaluate the quality consistency and predict the fingerprint-efficacy relationship of Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (Danshen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujing; Yang, Lanping; Zhang, Jing; Shi, Min; Sun, Guoxiang

    2017-07-01

    Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography fingerprinting combined with quantification was successfully established and applied to evaluate the quality consistency of Danshen, which is a medicinal herb used to treat various diseases, especially coronary cerebrovascular diseases. A background electrolyte composed of 20 mmol/L sodium tetraborate, 90 mmol/L orthoboric acid, 25 mmol/L sodium phosphate monobasic dehydrate, and 65 mmol/L sodium dodecyl sulfate was used to separate compounds. To optimize micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography conditions, a response surface strategy was set up for orthogonal experimental design. In fingerprint assessments, a systematic quantified fingerprint method was established for integrated quality assessment of Danshen samples from qualitative and quantitative perspectives, by which the quality of 30 samples was well differentiated. The principal component analysis coupled with quantitative determination of two components was applied to explain that the quality consistency of the medicinal herb was relatively good within one harvest season, but poor among harvest seasons for the Danshen samples. In addition, the fingerprint-efficacy relationship between the chemical fingerprints and antioxidant activities was investigated utilizing orthogonal projection to latent structures, which provided important medicinal efficacy information for quality control. This work offered an efficient, holistic, and powerful approach to evaluate the quality consistency of Danshen samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.; Arnold, Don W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Neyer, David W.

    2001-01-01

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  1. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.

    2000-01-01

    A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump with a housing having chambers separated by a flexible member, fluid flow, including high pressure fluids, is controlled by the application of an electric potential, that can vary with time.

  2. Electrokinetic pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hencken, Kenneth R.; Sartor, George B.

    2004-08-03

    An electrokinetic pump in which the porous dielectric medium of conventional electrokinetic pumps is replaced by a patterned microstructure. The patterned microstructure is fabricated by lithographic patterning and etching of a substrate and is formed by features arranged so as to create an array of microchannels. The microchannels have dimensions on the order of the pore spacing in a conventional porous dielectric medium. Embedded unitary electrodes are vapor deposited on either end of the channel structure to provide the electric field necessary for electroosmotic flow.

  3. Capillary electrophoresis coupled to negative mode electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry using an electrokinetically-pumped nanospray interface with primary amines grafted to the interior of a glass emitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, Scott A; Schiavone, Nicole M; Arceo, Jennifer; Peuchen, Elizabeth H; Zhang, Zhenbin; Sun, Liangliang; Dovichi, Norman J

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate an electrokinetically pumped sheath flow nanospray interface for capillary electrophoresis coupled to negative mode electrospray mass spectrometry. In this interface, application of an electric field generates electro-osmotic flow at the interior of a glass emitter that is pulled to a 10-20µm inner diameter orifice. Electro-osmotic flow pumps liquid around the distal tip of the separation capillary, ensheathing analyte into the electrospray electrolyte. In negative ion mode, negative potential applied to an untreated glass emitter drives sheath flow away from the emitter orifice, decreasing the stability and efficiency of the spray. In this manuscript, we treat a portion of the interior of the electrospray emitter with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, which grafts primary amines to the interior. The amines take on a positive charge, which reverses electro-osmosis and generates stable sheath flow to the emitter orifice under negative potential. Negative mode operation is demonstrated by analyzing a metabolite extract from stage 1 Xenopus laevis embryos. Production of the treated emitters was quite reproducible. We evaluated the performance of three emitters using a set of amino acids; the relative standard deviation in peak intensity was 7% for the most intense component. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of salicylic acid using a magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-based solid-phase extraction procedure followed by an online concentration technique through micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hsuan; Huang, Chang-Wei; Fu, Shih-Feng; Wu, Mei-Yao; Wu, Tsunghsueh; Lin, Yang-Wei

    2017-01-06

    In this study, a magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-based solid-phase extraction procedure combined with the online concentration and separation of salicylic acid (SA) through micellar electrokinetic chromatography-UV detection (MEKC-UV) was developed. Under optimal experimental conditions, a good linearity in the range of 0.01-100μmolL-1 was obtained with a coefficient of correlation of 0.9999. The detection sensitivity of the proposed method exhibited an approximately 1026-fold improvement compared with a single MEKC method without online concentration, and the detection limit (S/N=3) was 3.80nmolL-1. The repeatability of the method was evaluated using intraday and interday RSDs (11.5% and 17.0%, respectively). The method was used to determine SA concentrations in tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Samsun) from the NN genotype, nn genotype, and Nt-NahG mutant strains, as well as in shampoo and ointment samples. Rapid extraction and separation (<50min), acceptable repeatability (RSD<17.0%), and high spiked recoveries (95.8%-102.4%) were observed for plants, detergents, and pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Electrokinetics after Smoluchowski

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyklema, J.

    2003-01-01

    Scientific achievements of Smoluchowski in the domain of electrokinetics and related fields are discussed in a historical context. Themes include theory and experiments in electro-osmosis, streaming currents and potentials, electrophoresis, surface conduction, the interpretation of electrokinetic

  6. Numerical electrokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, R; Dünweg, B

    2012-11-21

    A new lattice method is presented in order to efficiently solve the electrokinetic equations, which describe the structure and dynamics of the charge cloud and the flow field surrounding a single charged colloidal sphere, or a fixed array of such objects. We focus on calculating the electrophoretic mobility in the limit of small driving field, and systematically linearize the equations with respect to the latter. This gives rise to several subproblems, each of which is solved by a specialized numerical algorithm. For the total problem we combine these solvers in an iterative procedure. Applying this method, we study the effect of the screening mechanism (salt screening versus counterion screening) on the electrophoretic mobility, and find a weak non-trivial dependence, as expected from scaling theory. Furthermore, we find that the orientation of the charge cloud (i.e. its dipole moment) depends on the value of the colloid charge, as a result of a competition between electrostatic and hydrodynamic effects.

  7. Ultrafast electrokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhi Youssefi, Mehrnaz; Diez, Francisco Javier

    2016-03-01

    The influence of a high electric field applied on both fluid flow and particle velocities is quantified at large Peclet numbers. The experiments involved simultaneous particle image velocimetry and flow rate measurements. These are conducted in polydimethylsiloxane channels with spherical nonconducting polystyrene particles and DI water as the background flow. The high electric field tests produced up to three orders of magnitude higher electrokinetic velocities than any previous reports. The maximum electroosmotic velocity and electrophoretic velocity measured were 3.55 and 2.3 m/s. Electrophoretic velocities are measured over the range of 100 V/cm < E < 250 000 V/cm. The results are separated according to the different nonlinear theoretical models, including low and high Peclet numbers, and weak and strong concentration polarization. They show good agreement with the models. Such fast velocities could be used for flow separation, mixing, transport, control, and manipulation of suspended particles as well as microthrust generation among other applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Amperometric detection in the presence of carbon nanotubes dispersed in background electrolyte: Evaluating its suitability for capillary electrokinetic chromatography separations of polyphenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Mónica; Sánchez Arribas, Alberto; Bermejo, Esperanza; Zapardiel, Antonio; Chicharro, Manuel

    2015-08-01

    This work reports on the positive effects observed upon both the separation and analytical signals in electrophoretic separations of selected phenolic compounds when using aqueous BGE containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in connection to electrochemical detection (ECD). The influence of the presence of surfactant-coated CNTs in the BGE upon the amperometric response of probe compounds was evaluated under hydrodynamic regime in capillary flow injection experiments as well as electrophoretic separations. Among the surfactants employed to disperse CNTs within BGE, SDS shows the best results in terms of dispersion stability and degree of dispersion of the CNTs. ECD allows working with BGEs containing CNTs concentrations of, at least, 24.0 mg/L without increasing of baseline noise, on the opposite to that reported when using UV-visible detection, and the presence of CNTs in the BGE improves the electrochemical response of some of the tested compounds. These benefits were reflected in higher sensibility in the electrochemical signal and additional improved resolution in the electrophoretic separation of (±)-catechin and sinapic acid when using these BGE containing CNTs. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Changes in Electrokinetic Coupling Coefficients of Granite under Triaxial Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Kuwano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrokinetic phenomena are believed to be the most likely origin of electromagnetic signals preceding or accompanying earthquakes. The intensity of the source current due to the electrokinetic phenomena is determined by the fluid flux and the electrokinetic coupling coefficient called streaming current coefficient; therefore, how the coefficient changes before rupture is essential. Here, we show how the electrokinetic coefficients change during the rock deformation experiment up to failure. The streaming current coefficient did not increase before failure, but continued to decrease up to failure, which is explained in terms of the elastic closure of capillary. On the other hand, the streaming potential coefficient, which is the product of the streaming current coefficient and bulk resistivity of the rock, increased at the onset of dilatancy. It may be due to change in bulk resistivity. Our result indicates that the zeta potential of the newly created surface does not change so much from that of the preexisting fluid rock interface.

  10. Capillary electrophoresis of diuretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riekkola, M L; Jumppanen, J H

    1996-05-31

    The review surveys the application of capillary electrophoresis to the screening, identification and determination of diuretics and probenecid. The number of publications is still limited, but the studies already published clearly show that capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography are excellent alternatives for the investigation of diuretics. High accuracy identifications of diuretics and probenecid, even in urine samples, can be obtained when CZE is used with the marker techniques. This review paper has been written from the viewpoint of practical use and some hints are given for future CE studies on diuretics.

  11. Electrokinetics in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luong, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents the PhD research on electrokinetics in porous media. Electrokinetic phenomena are induced by the relative motion between a fluid and a solid surface and are directly related to the existence of an electric double layer between the fluid and the solid grain surface.

  12. Potential of capillary electrophoresis for the profiling of propolis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.J; Somsen, G.W; de Jong, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    The usefulness of capillary electrophoresis (CE) with diode array detection for the profiling of Propolis, a hive product, is investigated. Water extracts of Propolis were analyzed with both capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) at pH 7.0 and 9.3, and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC)

  13. AC Electrokinetics: Applications for Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, MP

    2000-01-01

    The phenomena of dielectrophoresis and electrorotation, collectively referred to as AC electrokinetics, have been used for many years to study, manipulate and separate particles on the nanotechnology, that is the precise manipulation of particles on the nanometre scale. In this paper we present the principles of AC electrokinetics for particle manipulation, review the current state of AC Electrokinetic techniques for the manipulation of particles on the nanometre scale, and consid...

  14. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI) technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method. PMID:28326222

  15. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Ha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method.

  16. Electrokinetics on superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Periklis; Deng, Xu; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2012-11-21

    On a superhydrophobic surface a liquid is exposed to a large air-water interface. The reduced wall friction is expected to cause a higher electro-osmotic mobility. On the other hand, the low charge density of a superhydrophobic surface reduces the electro-osmotic mobility. Due to a lack of experimental data it has not been clear so far whether the reduced wall friction or the reduced charge density dominate the electrokinetic mobilities. To separate the relative contributions of electrophoresis and electro-osmosis, the mobilities of colloids on a negatively charged hydrophilic, a superhydrophobic (Cassie) and a partially hydrophilized superhydrophobic (Cassie composite) coating were measured. To vary the charge density as well as its sign with respect to those of the colloids the partially hydrophilized surfaces were coated with polyelectrolytes. We analyzed the electrokinetic mobilities of negatively charged polystyrene colloids dispersed in aqueous medium on porous hydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces by confocal laser scanning electron microscopy. In all cases, the external electric field was parallel to the surface. The total electrokinetic mobilities on the superhydrophobic (Cassie) and negatively charged partially hydrophilized (Cassie composite) surfaces were similar, showing that electro-osmosis is small compared to electrophoresis. The positively charged Cassie composite surfaces tend to 'trap' the colloids due to attracting electrostatic interactions and rough morphology, reducing the mobility. Thus, either the charge density of the coatings in the Cassie composite state or its slip length is too low to enhance electro-osmosis.

  17. On-line concentration by field-enhanced sample injection with reverse migrating micelles in micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography for the analysis of coumarins from traditional Chinese medicine and human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting-Fu; Lv, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Yuan-Hong; Yue, Mei-E

    2010-06-01

    In this work, a simple, reproducible and sensitive micellar electrokinetic chromatography method was developed for the separation and determination of three coumarins, imperatorin (IM), isoimperatorin (IO) and osthole (OS) from traditional Chinese medicine and human serum. Field-enhanced sample injection with reverse migrating micelles was used for on-line concentration of the coumarins. The optimum buffer contained 50 mM H(3)PO(4), 160 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate, 20% acetonitrile and 15% 2-propanol, and the pH of buffer was 2.0. The sample solution was diluted with water containing 5 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate and injected for 15 s with -8 kV after injection of 2 s water plug. The effects of concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate and organic modifier, the sample matrix, the injection time of water plug, the injection voltage and injection time of sample on the separation and stacking efficiency were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the analytes were well separated and by optimizing the stacking conditions, about 93, 195 and 136 fold improvement in the detection sensitivity was obtained for IM, IO and OS. The contents of three coumarins in Angelica dahurica Benth, Radix Angelicae Pubescentis and Fructus Cnidii were successfully determined with satisfactory repeatability and recovery. The possibilities of using this method for the determination of three coumarins in spiked human serum were also tested. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Coupling of electrokinetic chromatography and mass spectrometry for profiling of drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, R.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis the potential of electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) – mass spectrometry (MS) has been evaluated, including its applicability to the impurity profiling of drugs. Over the past years, capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and EKC have gained acceptance as separation techniques next to

  19. ELECTROKINETICS, INC. INSITU BIO REMEDIATION BY ELECTROKINETIC INJECTION EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrokinetics, Inc. through a cooperative agreement with USEPA's NRMRL conducted a laboratory evaluation of electrokinetic transport as a means to enhance in-situ bioremediation of trichloroethene (TCE). Four critical aspects of enhancing bioremediation by electrokinetic inject...

  20. Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomasney, H. [ISOTRON Corp., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has assigned a priority to the advancement of technology for decontaminating concrete surfaces which have become contaminated with radionuclides, heavy metals, and toxic organics. This agency is responsible for decontamination and decommissioning of thousands of buildings. Electrokinetic extraction is one of the several innovative technologies which emerged in response to this initiative. This technique utilizes an electropotential gradient and the subsequent electrical transport mechanism to cause the controlled movement of ionics species, whereby the contaminants exit the recesses deep within the concrete. This report discusses the technology and use at the Oak Ridge k-25 plant.

  1. 20 Years of Fatty Acid Analysis by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcone Augusto Leal de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A review taking into account the literature reports covering 20 years of fatty acid analysis by capillary electrophoresis is presented. This paper describes the evolution of fatty acid analysis using different CE modes such as capillary zone electrophoresis, non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography and microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography employing different detection systems, such as ultraviolet-visible, capacitively coupled contactless conductivity, laser-induced fluorescence and mass spectrometry. In summary, the present review signals that CE seems to be an interesting analytical separation technique that is very useful for screening analysis or quantification of the usual fatty acids present in different matrices, offering short analysis times and a simple sample preparation step as inherent advantages in comparison with the classical methodology, making it a separation technique that is very attractive for quality control in industry and government agencies.

  2. Gradient elution in capillary electrochromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anex, D.; Rakestraw, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Yan, Chao; Dadoo, R.; Zare, R.N. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-08-01

    In analogy to pressure-driven gradient techniques in high-performance liquid chromatography, a system has been developed for delivering electroosmotically-driven solvent gradients for capillary electrochromatography (CEC). Dynamic gradients with sub-mL/min flow rates are generated by merging two electroosmotic flows that are regulated by computer-controlled voltages. These flows are delivered by two fused-silica capillary arms attached to a T-connector, where they mix and then flow into a capillary column that has been electrokinetically packed with 3-mm reversed-phase particles. The inlet of one capillary arm is placed in a solution reservoir containing one mobile phase and the inlet of the other is placed in a second reservoir containing a second mobile phase. Two independent computer-controlled programmable high-voltage power supplies (0-50 kV)--one providing an increasing ramp and the other providing a decreasing ramp--are used to apply variable high-voltage potentials to the mobile phase reservoirs to regulate the electroosmotic flow in each arm. The ratio of the electroosmotic flow rates between the two arms is changed with time according to the computer-controlled voltages to deliver the required gradient profile to the separation column. Experiments were performed to confirm the composition of the mobile phase during a gradient run and to determine the change of the composition in response to the programmed voltage profile. To demonstrate the performance of electroosmotically-driven gradient elution in CEC, a mixture of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was separated in less than 90 minutes. This gradient technique is expected to be well-suited for generating not only solvent gradients in CEC, but also other types of gradients such as pH- and ionic-strength gradients in capillary electrokinetic separations and analyses.

  3. Electrokinetic remediation prefield test methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodko, Dalibor (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Methods for determining the parameters critical in designing an electrokinetic soil remediation process including electrode well spacing, operating current/voltage, electroosmotic flow rate, electrode well wall design, and amount of buffering or neutralizing solution needed in the electrode wells at operating conditions are disclosed These methods are preferably performed prior to initiating a full scale electrokinetic remediation process in order to obtain efficient remediation of the contaminants.

  4. Tensorial Electrokinetics in Articular Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Boris; Quinn, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    Electrokinetic phenomena contribute to biomechanical functions of articular cartilage and underlie promising methods for early detection of osteoarthritic lesions. Although some transport properties, such as hydraulic permeability, are known to become anisotropic with compression, the direction-dependence of cartilage electrokinetic properties remains unknown. Electroosmosis experiments were therefore performed on adult bovine articular cartilage samples, whereby fluid flows were driven by electric currents in directions parallel and perpendicular to the articular surface of statically compressed explants. Magnitudes of electrokinetic coefficients decreased slightly with compression (from ∼−7.5 μL/As in the range of 0–20% compression to −6.0 μL/As in the 35–50% range) consistent with predictions of microstructure-based models of cartilage material properties. However, no significant dependence on direction of the electrokinetic coupling coefficient was detected, even for conditions where the hydraulic permeability tensor is known to be anisotropic. This contrast may also be interpreted using microstructure-based models, and provides insights into structure-function relationships in cartilage extracellular matrix and physical mediators of cell responses to tissue compression. Findings support the use of relatively simple isotropic modeling approaches for electrokinetic phenomena in cartilage and related materials, and indicate that measurement of electrokinetic properties may provide particularly robust means for clinical evaluation of cartilage matrix integrity. PMID:16798804

  5. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION: BASICS AND TECHNOLOGY STATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrokinetic remediation, variably named as electrochemical soil processing, electromigration, electrokinetic decontamination or electroreclamation uses electric currents to extract radionuclides, heavy metals, certain organic compounds, or mixed inorganic species and some orga...

  6. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: ELECTROKINETIC SOIL PROCESSING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrokinetic Soil Processing (or Electrokinetic Remediation) uses two series of electrodes (anodes and cathodes) positioned inside compartments that allow egress and ingress of pore fluids to the porous media. The compartments are filled with water or other process fluids and ...

  7. Measurement and interpretation of electrokinetic phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delgado, A.V.; Gonzalez-Caballero, F.; Hunter, R.J.; Koopal, L.K.; Lyklema, J.

    2005-01-01

    In this report, the status quo and recent progress in electrokinetics are reviewed. Practical rules are recommended for performing electrokinetic measurements and interpreting their results in terms of well-defined quantities, the most familiar being the ¿-potential or electrokinetic potential. This

  8. Measurement and interpretation of electrokinetic phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delgado, A.V.; Gonzalez-Caballero, F.; Hunter, R.J.; Koopal, L.K.; Lyklema, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this report, the status quo and recent progress in electrokinetics are reviewed. Practical rules are recommended for performing electrokinetic measurements and interpreting their results in terms of well-defined quantities, the most familiar being the zeta-potential or electrokinetic potential.

  9. Laboratory Experiment on Electrokinetic Remediation of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed-Ali, Alya H.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2011-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is a method of decontaminating soil containing heavy metals and polar organic contaminants by passing a direct current through the soil. An undergraduate chemistry laboratory is described to demonstrate electrokinetic remediation of soil contaminated with copper. A 30 cm electrokinetic cell with an applied voltage of 30…

  10. Separation of cationic analytes by nonionic micellar electrokinetic chromatography using polyoxyethylene lauryl ether surfactants with different polyoxyethylene length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirino, Joselito P; Kato, Masaru

    2014-09-01

    Although nonionic micellar electrokinetic chromatography is used for the separation of charged compounds that are not easily separated by capillary zone electrophoresis, the effect of the hydrophilic moiety of the nonionic surfactant has not been studied well. In this study, the separation of ultraviolet-absorbing amino acids was studied in electrokinetic chromatography using neutral polyoxyethylene lauryl ether surfactants (Adekatol) in the separation solution. The effect of the polyethylene moiety (the number of repeating units was from 6.5 to 50) of the hydrophobic test amino acids (methionine, tryptophan, and tysorine) was studied using a 10 cm effective length capillary. The separation mechanism was based on hydrophobic as well as hydrogen bonding interactions at the micellar surface, which was made of the polyoxyethylene moiety. The length of the polyoxyethylene moiety of the surfactants was not important in nonionic micellar electrokinetic chromatography mode. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Point: Proposing the Electrokinetic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Marcus J.; Kuppe, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    It is still not fully resolved how the glomerular filter works and why it never clogs. Several models have been proposed. In this review, we will compare the most widely used “pore model” to the more recent and refined “electrokinetic model” of glomerular filtration. The pore model assumes the existence of highly ordered regular pores, but it cannot provide a mechanistic explanation for several of the inherent characteristics of the glomerular filter. The electrokinetic model assumes that streaming potentials generate an electrical field along the filter surface which repels the negatively charged plasma proteins, preventing them from passing across the filter. The electrokinetic model can provide elegant mechanistic solutions for most of the unresolved riddles about the glomerular filter. PMID:25700457

  12. Modeling electrokinetics in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Bao, Jie; Pan, Wenxiao; Sun, Xin

    2017-07-01

    Using direct numerical simulations, we provide a thorough study regarding the electrokinetics of ionic liquids. In particular, modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations are solved to capture the crowding and overscreening effects characteristic of an ionic liquid. For modeling electrokinetic flows in an ionic liquid, the modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations are coupled with Navier-Stokes equations to study the coupling of ion transport, hydrodynamics, and electrostatic forces. Specifically, we consider the ion transport between two parallel charged surfaces, charging dynamics in a nanopore, capacitance of electric double-layer capacitors, electroosmotic flow in a nanochannel, electroconvective instability on a plane ion-selective surface, and electroconvective flow on a curved ion-selective surface. We also discuss how crowding and overscreening and their interplay affect the electrokinetic behaviors of ionic liquids in these application problems. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. ELECTROKINETICS AND CELL PHYSIOLOGY I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Roy A.; Haas, Felix L.

    1963-01-01

    Jensen, Roy A. (The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute, Houston) and Felix L. Haas. Electrokinetics and cell physiology. I. Experimental basis for electrokinetic cell studies. J. Bacteriol. 86:73–78. 1963.—The stable and regular electrokinetic pattern displayed by Bacillus subtilis cell populations was presented as the basis for precisely controlled experimental procedures. The course of electrokinetic behavior characteristic of a cell population was one which paralleled the overall physiology of the culture. The prospects of capitalizing upon this biological feature of the cell were considered in cases where portions of a cell population were separable with respect to some distinct physiological criterion. Such cell fractions may be associated with a discrete and detectable difference in the net charge residing upon the bacterial cell surface. Within a limited pore-size range, membrane filters lost or retained cells, depending upon the electrostatic interaction between cell and filter disc. Fractionation on membrane filters proved to be adjustable and could be controlled by selecting the proper ionic strength in the culture medium. Procedures of this kind have potential for the development of preparative techniques or, alternatively, as experimental vehicles for kinetic analysis. PMID:14051825

  14. Selectivity in microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, S; Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte; Honoré Hansen, S

    2000-01-01

    Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) is a most promising separation technique providing good selectivity and high separation efficiency of anionic, cationic as well as neutral solutes. In MEEKC lipophilic organic solvents dispersed as tiny droplets in an aqueous buffer by the use...

  15. Electrokinetic Power Generation from Liquid Water Microjets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2008-02-15

    Although electrokinetic effects are not new, only recently have they been investigated for possible use in energy conversion devices. We have recently reported the electrokinetic generation of molecular hydrogen from rapidly flowing liquid water microjets [Duffin et al. JPCC 2007, 111, 12031]. Here, we describe the use of liquid water microjets for direct conversion of electrokinetic energy to electrical power. Previous studies of electrokinetic power production have reported low efficiencies ({approx}3%), limited by back conduction of ions at the surface and in the bulk liquid. Liquid microjets eliminate energy dissipation due to back conduction and, measuring only at the jet target, yield conversion efficiencies exceeding 10%.

  16. A Comparison of Electrokinetic Method and Electrokinetic-electrodialytic Method for Soil Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gyenam; Kim, Seungsoo; Park, Ukrang; Han, Gyuseong; Moon, Jeikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The electrokinetic decontamination equipment and electrokinetic-elctrodialytic decontamination equipment were manufactured to decontaminate the contaminated soil. The removal efficiency according to the lapsed time by the electrokinetic decontamination equipment and the electrokinetic-elctrodialytic decontamination equipment was investigated through several experiments. The difference between the removal efficiency of the electrokinetic-elctrodialytic decontamination without anion exchange membrane and that of with anion exchange membrane was investigated through several experiments. In addition, the removal efficiency trend according to different cesium radioactivity of soil was drawn out through several experiments.

  17. Capillary Electrophoresis - Optical Detection Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepaniak, M. J.

    2001-08-06

    Molecular recognition systems are developed via molecular modeling and synthesis to enhance separation performance in capillary electrophoresis and optical detection methods for capillary electrophoresis. The underpinning theme of our work is the rational design and development of molecular recognition systems in chemical separations and analysis. There have been, however, some subtle and exciting shifts in our research paradigm during this period. Specifically, we have moved from mostly separations research to a good balance between separations and spectroscopic detection for separations. This shift is based on our perception that the pressing research challenges and needs in capillary electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatography relate to the persistent detection and flow rate reproducibility limitations of these techniques (see page 1 of the accompanying Renewal Application for further discussion). In most of our work molecular recognition reagents are employed to provide selectivity and enhance performance. Also, an emerging trend is the use of these reagents with specially-prepared nano-scale materials. Although not part of our DOE BES-supported work, the modeling and synthesis of new receptors has indirectly supported the development of novel microcantilevers-based MEMS for the sensing of vapor and liquid phase analytes. This fortuitous overlap is briefly covered in this report. Several of the more significant publications that have resulted from our work are appended. To facilitate brevity we refer to these publications liberally in this progress report. Reference is also made to very recent work in the Background and Preliminary Studies Section of the Renewal Application.

  18. Electrokinetic transport in liquid foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhomme, Oriane; Blanc, Baptiste; Joly, Laurent; Ybert, Christophe; Biance, Anne-Laure

    2017-09-01

    Investigating electrokinetic transport in a liquid foam is at the confluence of two well developed research areas. On one hand, the study of electrokinetic flows (i.e. surface-driven flows generated close to a charged interface) is fairly well understood in regards the solid/liquid interface. On the other hand, the flow of liquid in a 3D deformable network, i.e a foam, under a volume force such as gravity has been thoroughly studied over the past decade. The overlapping zone of these two frameworks is of great interest for both communities as it gives rise to challenging new questions such as: what is the importance of the nature of the charged interface, created by mobile and soluble surfactants in the case of foam, on electrokinetic transport? How does a foam behave when submitted to a surface-driven flow? Can we compensate a volume-driven flow, i.e. gravity, by a surface-driven flow, i.e. electroosmosis? In this review, we will explore these questions on three different scales: a surfactant laden interface, a foam film and a macroscopic foam. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. ELECTROKINETICS AND CELL PHYSIOLOGY II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Roy A.; Haas, Felix L.

    1963-01-01

    Jensen, Roy A. (The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute, Houston) and Felix L. Haas. Electrokinetics and cell physiology. II. Relationship of surface charge to onset of bacterial competence for genetic transformation. J. Bacteriol. 86:79–86. 1963.—A reliable cell fractionation scheme, which is sensitive to the electrokinetic properties of Bacillus subtilis cells, has been described in detail. Recipient cell populations, characterized by a wide range of competency for transformation to independence of nutritional markers, were subjected to electrokinetic fractionation. Results indicated that (i) physiological competency is directly related to the electrical charge on the cell surface, (ii) newly competent cells carry a maximal negative charge, (iii) the newly competent cell appears with spontaneous abruptness, (iv) a kinetic flow of competent cells from the highly charged fractions to the lower charged fractions indicates the progressive loss of the surface charge maintained by a competent cell, and (v), by token of the latter statement, cells competent to undergo transformation do so within a range of surface-charge values. PMID:14051826

  20. REMOVAL OF RADIONUCLIDES BY ELECTROKINETIC SOIL PROCESSING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrokinetics promises to be an innovative treatment process for in-situ treatment of soils and groundwater contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Electrokinetics refers to the movement of ionic liquids and charged particles relative to one another under the action ...

  1. Electrokinetics with "paper-and-pencil" devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Pratiti; Dey, Ranabir; Chakraborty, Suman

    2012-10-21

    We demonstrate the occurrence of electrokinetic phenomenon in paper substrates, by developing a simple "paper-and-pencil" device. The underlying electrokinetic phenomenon results in enhanced liquid transport through the paper-fibre matrix, which exhibits significant active electrical controllability and improved repeatability. These bear far-ranging consequences towards opening up a new paradigm of fluidics over small scales.

  2. Electrokinetic effects near a membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoste, David

    2009-03-01

    We discuss the electrostatic and electrokinetic contribution to the elastic moduli of a cell or artificial membrane placed in an electrolyte and driven by a DC electric field. The field drives ion currents across the membrane, through specific channels, pumps or natural pores. In steady state, charges accumulate in the Debye layers close to the membrane, modifying the membrane elastic moduli. We first study a model of a membrane of zero thickness, later generalizing this treatment to allow for a finite thickness and finite dielectric constant. Our results clarify and extend the results presented in [D. Lacoste, M. Cosentino Lagomarsino, and J. F. Joanny, Europhys. Lett., 77, 18006 (2007)], by providing a physical explanation for a destabilizing term proportional to kps^3 in the fluctuation spectrum, which we relate to a nonlinear (E^2) electro-kinetic effect called induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO). Recent studies of ICEO have focused on electrodes and polarizable particles, where an applied bulk field is perturbed by capacitive charging of the double layer and drives flow along the field axis toward surface protrusions; we predict similar ICEO flows around driven membranes, due to curvature-induced tangential fields within a non-equilibrium double layer, which hydrodynamically enhance protrusions.

  3. Dielectric decrement effects in electrokinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figliuzzi, Bruno; Chan, Wai Hong Ronald; Buie, Cullen; Moran, Jeffrey

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the nonlinear phenomena that occur in the electric double layer (EDL) that forms at charged surfaces is a key issue in electrokinetics. In recent studies, Nakayama and Andelman [J. Chem. Physics 2015] Hatlo et al. [EPL 2012], and Zhao and Zhai [JFM 2013] demonstrated that dielectric decrement significantly influences the ionic concentration in the electric double layer (EDL) at high zeta potential, leading to the formation of a condensed layer near the particle's surface. In this presentation, we apply the dielectric decrement model to study two archetypal problems in electrokinetics, namely the electrophoresis of particles with fixed surface charges and the electrophoresis of ideally polarizable particles. Our aim is to rely on numerical simulations to incorporate nonlinear effects including crowding effects due to the finite size of ions, dielectric decrement in the EDL, surface conduction, concentration polarization and advection in the bulk solution. In parallel, we derive a simplified composite layer model that enables us to obtain analytical estimates of the physical quantities involved in the physical description of the problem.

  4. Nonlinear electrokinetics at large voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazant, Martin Z [Department of Chemical Engineering and Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Sabri Kilic, Mustafa; Ajdari, Armand [Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Storey, Brian D [Franklin W Olin College of Engineering, Needham, MA 02492 (United States)], E-mail: bazant@mit.edu

    2009-07-15

    The classical theory of electrokinetic phenomena assumes a dilute solution of point-like ions in chemical equilibrium with a surface whose double-layer voltage is of order the thermal voltage, k{sub B}T/e=25 mV. In nonlinear 'induced-charge' electrokinetic phenomena, such as ac electro-osmosis, several volts {approx}100k{sub B}T/e are applied to the double layer, and the theory breaks down and cannot explain many observed features. We argue that, under such a large voltage, counterions 'condense' near the surface, even for dilute bulk solutions. Based on simple models, we predict that the double-layer capacitance decreases and the electro-osmotic mobility saturates at large voltages, due to steric repulsion and increased viscosity of the condensed layer, respectively. The former suffices to explain observed high-frequency flow reversal in ac electro-osmosis; the latter leads to a salt concentration dependence of induced-charge flows comparable to experiments, although a complete theory is still lacking.

  5. Capillary origami

    OpenAIRE

    Py, Charlotte; Reverdy, Paul; Doppler, L.; Bico, J.; Roman, B.; Baroud, Charles,

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The hairs of a wet dog rushing out from a pond assemble into bundles; this is a common example of the effect of capillary forces on flexible structures. From a practical point of the deformation and adhesion of compliant structures induced by interfacial forces may lead to disastrous effects in mechanical microsystems.

  6. Electrokinetic micro-fluid mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for efficiently and rapidly mixing liquids in a system operating in the creeping flow regime such as would be encountered in capillary-based systems. By applying an electric field to each liquid, the present invention is capable of mixing together fluid streams in capillary-based systems, where mechanical or turbulent stirring cannot be used, to produce a homogeneous liquid.

  7. Profiling of cocaine by micellar electrokinetic chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, MJ; van Hout, MWJ; Somsen, GW; Franke, JP; de Jong, GJ

    1998-01-01

    The potential of micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) for the profiling of cocaine samples is described. An MEKC system containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and methanol was optimized using a test mixture of cocaine, its common impurities (benzoylecgonine, norcocaine, tropacocaine, and

  8. Electrokinetics as a Propellantless Propulsion Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valone, Thomas

    This is a review of the worthwhile, innovative theories and concepts in electrogravitics and electrokinetics that could yield tremendous technological and economic dividends in both investment dollars and potential applications for future generations. Electrogravitics is most commonly associated with the 1918 work by Professor Nipher followed by the 1928 British patent #300,311 of T. Townsend Brown, the 1952 Special Inquiry File #24-185 of the Office of Naval Research into the "Electro-Gravity Device of Townsend Brown" and two widely circulated 1956 Aviation Studies Ltd. Reports on "Electrogravitics Systems" and "The Gravitics Situation." By definition, electrogravitics historically has had a purported relationship to gravity or the object's mass, as well as the applied voltage. An analysis of the 90-year old science of electrogravitics (or electrogravity) necessarily includes an analysis of electrokinetics. Electrokinetics, on the other hand, is more commonly associated with many patents of T. Townsend Brown as well as Agnew Bahnson, starting with the 1960 US patent #2,949,550 entitled, "Electrokinetic Apparatus." Electrokinetics, which often involves a capacitor and dielectric, has virtually no relationship that can be connected with mass or gravity. The Army Research Lab has recently issued a report on electrokinetics, analyzing the force on an asymmetric capacitor, while NASA has received three patents on the same design topic. To successfully describe and predict the purported motion in the direction of the positive terminal of the capacitor, it is desirable to use the classical electrokinetic field and force equations for the specific geometry involved. This initial review also suggests directions for further confirming measurements. This paper also reviews the published electrokinetic experiments by the Army Research Lab by Bahder and Fazi, California State University at Fullerton work by Woodward and Mahood, Erwin Saxl, and others.

  9. Quantitative determination of amygdalin epimers by cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoza, T; Matano, Y; Yamamoto, K; Kosaka, N; Tani, T

    2001-07-20

    A new capillary electrophoresis method was developed for the quantitative determination of the amygdalin epimers, amygdalin and neoamygdalin, which are biologically significant constituents in the crude drugs, namely Persicae Semen and Armeniacae Semen. The effects of surfactants, additives and other analytical parameters were studied. As a result, the resolution of two epimers was performed by cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography with a buffer containing alpha-cyclodextrin and sodium deoxycholate. By the application of this method, a simple, fast and simultaneous quantitative determinations of amygdalin epimers in the crude drugs (Persicae Semen and Armeniacae Semen) and the Chinese herbal prescriptions (Keishi-bukuryo-gan and Mao-to) were achieved.

  10. Electrokinetic Control of Viscous Fingering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzadeh, Mohammad; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2017-10-01

    We present a theory of the interfacial stability of two immiscible electrolytes under the coupled action of pressure gradients and electric fields in a Hele-Shaw cell or porous medium. Mathematically, our theory describes a phenomenon of "vector Laplacian growth," in which the interface moves in response to the gradient of a vector-valued potential function through a generalized mobility tensor. Physically, we extend the classical Saffman-Taylor problem to electrolytes by incorporating electrokinetic (EK) phenomena. A surprising prediction is that viscous fingering can be controlled by varying the injection ratio of electric current to flow rate. Beyond a critical injection ratio, stability depends only upon the relative direction of flow and current, regardless of the viscosity ratio. Possible applications include porous materials processing, electrically enhanced oil recovery, and EK remediation of contaminated soils.

  11. Electrokinetic properties of polymer colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micale, F. J.; Fuenmayor, D. Y.

    1986-01-01

    The surface of polymer colloids, especially polystyrene latexes, were modified for the purpose of controlling the electrokinetic properties of the resulting colloids. Achievement required a knowledge of electrical double layer charging mechanism, as a function of the electrolyte conditions, at the polymer/water interface. The experimental approach is to control the recipe formulation in the emulsion polymerization process so as to systematically vary the strong acid group concentration on the surface of the polymer particles. The electrophoretic mobility of these model particles will then be measured as a function of surface group concentration and as a function of electrolyte concentration and type. An effort was also made to evaluate the electrophoretic mobility of polystyrene latexes made in space and to compare the results with latexes made on the ground.

  12. Polymer nanoparticles in electrokinetic chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop, Jesse Samuel

    This dissertation reports the mobility, methylene selectivity, efficiency, linear solvation relationship (LSER) parameters, and practical chromatographic performance of a large set of NP PSPs and develops the first empirical relationships between NP architecture and chromatographic performance of NP PSPs in EKC. It is found that under typical EKC conditions ionic block chemistry has little effect on performance for 5-10 mer blocks. Solute-PSP interactions appear to be localized on the hydrophobic block of the copolymer with the length of alkyl chains on the hydrophobic block controlling the cohesively and hydrophobicity of the PSP. Small (100 nm) NP PSPs with small hydrophobic NP PSPs providing the best overall performance. This work provides the fundamental understanding of the behavior of RAFT polymerized NP PSPs essential for their further development and application in electrokinetic chromatography. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  13. AC Electrokinetic Phenomena Generated by Microelectrode Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robert; Oh, Jonghyun; Capurro, Jorge; Noh, Hongseok (Moses)

    2008-01-01

    The field of AC electrokinetics is rapidly growing due to its ability to perform dynamic fluid and particle manipulation on the micro- and nano-scale, which is essential for Lab-on-a-Chip applications. AC electrokinetic phenomena use electric fields to generate forces that act on fluids or suspended particles (including those made of dielectric or biological material) and cause them to move in astonishing ways1, 2. Within a single channel, AC electrokinetics can accomplish many essential on-chip operations such as active micro-mixing, particle separation, particle positioning and micro-pattering. A single device may accomplish several of those operations by simply adjusting operating parameters such as frequency or amplitude of the applied voltage. Suitable electric fields can be readily created by micro-electrodes integrated into microchannels. It is clear from the tremendous growth in this field that AC electrokinetics will likely have a profound effect on healthcare diagnostics3-5, environmental monitoring6 and homeland security7. In general, there are three AC Electrokinetic phenomena (AC electroosmosis, dielectrophoresis and AC electrothermal effect) each with unique dependencies on the operating parameters. A change in these operating parameters can cause one phenomena to become dominant over another, thus changing the particle or fluid behavior. It is difficult to predict the behavior of particles and fluids due to the complicated physics that underlie AC electrokinetics. It is the goal of this publication to explain the physics and elucidate particle and fluid behavior. Our analysis also covers how to fabricate the electrode structures that generate them, and how to interpret a wide number of experimental observations using several popular device designs. This video article will help scientists and engineers understand these phenomena and may encourage them to start using AC Electrokinetics in their research. PMID:19066515

  14. ELECTROKINETICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Laurence S.; Bull, Henry B.

    1935-01-01

    1. The question of the critical pore diameter for streaming potential is discussed. 2. The surface charge is calculated for cellulose in contact with solutions of K3PO4, K2CO3, K2SO4, KCl, and ThCl4. 3. The surface charge of cellulose in contact with a solution of 2 x 10–4 N NaCl is calculated as a function of temperature and is found to show a sharp break at 39°. This is interpreted in terms of the change of the specific heat of water. 4. A marked ion antagonism is found in NaCl:KCl, KCl:MgCl2, NaCl:MgCl2, NaCl:CaCl2, KCl:CaCl2, CaCl2:MgCl2 mixtures when the surface charge is calculated as a function of concentration. PMID:19872923

  15. Electrokinetic acceleration of DNA hybridization in microsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Kin Fong; Wang, Yun-Hsiang; Chen, Huai-Yi; Sun, Jia-Hong; Cheng, Ji-Yen

    2015-06-01

    In this work, electrokinetic acceleration of DNA hybridization was investigated by different combinations of frequencies and amplitudes of actuating electric signals. Because the frequencies from low to high can induce different kinds of electrokinetic forces, i.e., electroosmotic to electrothermal forces, this work provides an in-depth investigation of electrokinetic enhanced hybridization. Concentric circular Cr/Au microelectrodes of 350 µm in diameter were fabricated on a glass substrate and probe DNA was immobilized on the electrode surface. Target DNA labeled with fluorescent dyes suspending in solution was then applied to the electrode. Different electrokinetic forces were induced by the application of different electric signals to the circular microelectrodes. Local microfluidic vortexes were generated to increase the collision efficiency between the target DNA suspending in solution and probe DNA immobilized on the electrode surface. DNA hybridization on the electrode surface could be accelerated by the electrokinetic forces. The level of hybridization was represented by the fluorescent signal intensity ratio. Results revealed that such 5-min dynamic hybridization increased 4.5 fold of signal intensity ratio as compared to a 1-h static hybridization. Moreover, dynamic hybridization was found to have better differentiation ability between specific and non-specific target DNA. This study provides a strategy to accelerate DNA hybridization in microsystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. EREM 2001 - 3. symposium and status report on electrokinetic remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czurda, C.; Haus, R. (eds.); Hoetzl, H.

    2001-07-01

    Papers have been submitted by authors from around the world, reflecting the worldwide interest in electrokinetic remediation techniques. Therefore the symposium series plays a significant role in the presentation of recent advancements in electrochemical decontamination of polluted sediments on both scientific and technical level. In the field of potential cost-saving, innovative in-situ remediation technologies electrokinetics are already identified throughout the world. The main topics of the symposium are: electrokinetic models, electrokinetic transport processes, technical installation, combination of electroremediation with different remediation methods and the application in various electrokinetic field test demonstrations.

  17. Electrokinetics of non-Newtonian fluids: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cunlu; Yang, Chun

    2013-12-01

    This work presents a comprehensive review of electrokinetics pertaining to non-Newtonian fluids. The topic covers a broad range of non-Newtonian effects in electrokinetics, including electroosmosis of non-Newtonian fluids, electrophoresis of particles in non-Newtonian fluids, streaming potential effect of non-Newtonian fluids and other related non-Newtonian effects in electrokinetics. Generally, the coupling between non-Newtonian hydrodynamics and electrostatics not only complicates the electrokinetics but also causes the fluid/particle velocity to be nonlinearly dependent on the strength of external electric field and/or the zeta potential. Shear-thinning nature of liquids tends to enhance electrokinetic phenomena, while shear-thickening nature of liquids leads to the reduction of electrokinetic effects. In addition, directions for the future studies are suggested and several theoretical issues in non-Newtonian electrokinetics are highlighted. © 2013.

  18. Modeling electrokinetics in ionic liquids: General

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao [Physical and Computational Science Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Bao, Jie [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Pan, Wenxiao [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison WI USA; Sun, Xin [Physical and Computational Science Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2017-04-07

    Using direct numerical simulations we provide a thorough study on the electrokinetics of ionic liquids. In particular, the modfied Poisson-Nernst-Planck (MPNP) equations are solved to capture the crowding and overscreening effects that are the characteristics of an ionic liquid. For modeling electrokinetic flows in an ionic liquid, the MPNP equations are coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations to study the coupling of ion transport, hydrodynamics, and electrostatic forces. Specifically, we consider the ion transport between two parallel plates, charging dynamics in a 2D straight-walled pore, electro-osmotic ow in a nano-channel, electroconvective instability on a plane ion-selective surface, and electroconvective ow on a curved ion-selective surface. We discuss how the crowding and overscreening effects and their interplay affect the electrokinetic behaviors of ionic liquids in these application problems.

  19. Electrokinetic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    in similar experiments but without the bipolar electrodes. The new electrokinetic remediation design was tested on copper mine tailings with different applied electric fields, remediation times and pre-treatment. The results showed that the copper removal was increased from 8% (applying 20V for 8 days...... in sulphuric acidified tailings) without bipolar electrodes to 42% when bipolar electrodes were implemented. Furthermore, the results showed that in this system sulphuric acid addition prior to remediation was better than citric acid addition. In addition, applying a too strong electric field (even......Important process parameters to optimize in electrokinetic soil remediation are those influencing remediation time and power consumption since these directly affect the cost of a remediation action. This work shows how the electrokinetic remediation (EKR) process could be improved by implementing...

  20. Macroion adsorption-electrokinetic and optical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michna, Aneta

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies on macroion adsorption at solid/liquid interfaces evaluated by electrokinetic and optical methods are reviewed. In the first section a description of electrokinetic phenomena at a solid surface is briefly outlined. Various methods for determining both static and dynamic properties of the electrical double layer, such as the appropriate location of the slip plane, are presented. Theoretical approaches are discussed concerning quantitative interpretation of streaming potential/current measurements of homogeneous macroscopic interfaces. Experimental results are presented, involving electrokinetic characteristics of bare surfaces, such as mica, silicon, glass etc. obtained from various types of electrokinetic cells. The surface conductivity effect on zeta potential is underlined. In the next section, various theoretical approaches, proposed to determine a distribution of electrostatic potential and flow distribution within macroion layers, are presented. Accordingly, the influence of the uniform as well as non-uniform distribution of charges within macroion layer, the dissociation degree, and the surface conductance on electrokinetic parameters are discussed. The principles, the advantages and limits of optical techniques as well as AFM are briefly outlined in Section 4. The last section is devoted to the discussion of experimental data obtained by streaming potential/current measurements and optical methods, such as reflectometry, ellipsometry, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS), colloid enhancement, and fluorescence technique, for mono- and multilayers of macroions. Results of polycations (PEI, PAMAM dendrimers, PAH, PDADMAC) and polyanions (PAA, PSS) adsorption on mica, silicon, gold, and PTFE are quantitatively interpreted in terms of theoretical approaches postulating the three dimensional charge distribution or the random sequential adsorption model (RSA). Macroion bilayer formation, experimentally

  1. Optimization of the separation of lysergic acid diethylamide in urine by a sweeping technique using micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ching; Liu, Ju-Tsung; Lin, Cheng-Huang

    2002-07-25

    The separation and on-line concentrations of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), iso-lysergic acid diethylamide (iso-LSD) and lysergic acid N,N-methylpropylamide (LAMPA) in human urine were investigated by capillary electrophoresis-fluorescence spectroscopy using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an anionic surfactant. A number of parameters such as buffer pH, SDS concentration, Brij-30 concentration and the content of organic solvent used in separation, were optimized. The techniques of sweeping-micellar electrokinetic chromatography (sweeping-MEKC) and cation-selective exhaustive injection-sweep-micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CSEI-sweep-MEKC) were used for determining on-line concentrations. The advantages and disadvantages of this procedure with respect to sensitivity, precision and simplicity are discussed and compared. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science BV.

  2. Electrokinetic and hydraulic emplacement of amendments at a field trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, D. M.; Chowdhury, A. I.; Head, N.; Inglis, A.; Garcia, A. N.; Gerhard, J.; Reynolds, D. A.; Auger, M.; Austrins, L. M.; Hayman, J.; West, J.; Sidebottom, A.

    2016-12-01

    A range of innovative contaminated site remediation technologies have been developed and implemented, including reduction and oxidation based processes. However, achievement of remediation goals at many contaminated sites is still difficult achieve due to challenges associated with delivering amendments uniformly throughout contaminated zones, including low permeability media. The goal of this study was to evaluate the extent to which electrokinetics and hydraulic injection of amendments could uniformly distribute amendments in heterogeneous porous media, including clay, at a contaminated site. Electrokinetics is uniquely suited to uniformly distribute amendments in impermeable media, such as clay. The electrokinetic phase of the field study included five distinct transects: 1) Electrokinetics + an oxidant2) Electrokinetics + nanometals3) Electrokinetics + lactate4) Electrokinetics with no amendment5) ControlThis design enabled an assessment of the ability of electrokinetics to enhance the transport of amendments. Electrokinetics can induce amendment transport due to electromigration of dissolved constituents (e.g., oxidant and lactate), electrophoresis of charged particles (e.g., nanometals) or electroosmosis (i.e., transport of the bulk water phase). The extent to which these mechanisms transport amendments in the field will be discussed.Results from the electrokinetic field trial will be compared to a field trial where nanometals were hydraulically emplaced into heterogeneous porous media that included fill. This study provides crucial information needed for the design of uniform amendment delivery at contaminated sites for subsequent contaminant degradation.

  3. Chemometric Deconvolution of Continuous Electrokinetic Injection Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography Data for the Quantitation of Trinitrotoluene in Mixtures of Other Nitroaromatic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-24

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6110--14-9521 Chemometric Deconvolution of Continuous Electrokinetic Injection Micellar... Electrokinetic Chromatography Data for the Quantitation of Trinitrotoluene in Mixtures of Other Nitroaromatic Compounds February 24, 2014 Approved for...ABSTRACT Chemometric Deconvolution of Continuous Electrokinetic Injection Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography Data for the Quantitation of

  4. Induced charge effects on electrokinetic entry flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, Rama Aravind; Zhou, Yilong; Zhao, Cunlu; Hu, Guoqing; Song, Yongxin; Wang, Junsheng; Yang, Chun; Xuan, Xiangchun

    2017-06-01

    Electrokinetic flow, due to a nearly plug-like velocity profile, is the preferred mode for transport of fluids (by electroosmosis) and species (by electrophoresis if charged) in microfluidic devices. Thus far there have been numerous studies on electrokinetic flow within a variety of microchannel structures. However, the fluid and species behaviors at the interface of the inlet reservoir (i.e., the well that supplies the fluid and species) and microchannel are still largely unexplored. This work presents a fundamental investigation of the induced charge effects on electrokinetic entry flow due to the polarization of dielectric corners at the inlet reservoir-microchannel junction. We use small tracing particles suspended in a low ionic concentration fluid to visualize the electrokinetic flow pattern in the absence of Joule heating effects. Particles are found to get trapped and concentrated inside a pair of counter-rotating fluid circulations near the corners of the channel entrance. We also develop a depth-averaged numerical model to understand the induced charge on the corner surfaces and simulate the resultant induced charge electroosmosis (ICEO) in the horizontal plane of the microchannel. The particle streaklines predicted from this model are compared with the experimental images of tracing particles, which shows a significantly better agreement than those from a regular two-dimensional model. This study indicates the strong influences of the top/bottom walls on ICEO in shallow microchannels, which have been neglected in previous two-dimensional models.

  5. Enhanced Electrokinetic Remediation of Cadmium Contaminated Soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to remediate contaminated soil, a new technique of purging cadmium from soil is examined by enhanced electrokinetic method. It involves the passage of low level direct current between two electrodes in the soil to remove contaminant. An apparatus consisting of four principal parts; soil cell, electrode ...

  6. Electrokinetic sedimentation and dewatering of clay slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamedelhassan, E. [Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Electrokinetics is the application of a low voltage direct current across soil mass or soil slurry. It involves electro-osmosis, electromigration, and electrophoresis. Electrokinetics improves the sedimentation and dewatering by increasing the sedimentation velocity of soil particles by electrophoresis and draining water from soil pores by electro-osmosis. This presentation discussed a study that involved the electrokinetic sedimentation and dewatering of clay slurries. The objectives of the study were to accelerate the sedimentation by electrophoresis and enhance the dewatering and consolidation by electro-osmosis for two clay slurries. The presentation discussed the experimental program and provided several illustrations and photographs of the sedimentation configuration and dewatering process. Last, results of the experiment were presented. It was concluded that the the volume of the kaolinite/bentonite slurry in the electrokinetic test decreased by 63.6 per cent compared to a decrease of only 2.9 per cent in the control group. Next steps were identified as conducting a sedimentation and dewatering study with a solar panel as the source for direct current. tabs., figs.

  7. IMPROVING MARINE CLAYS WITH ELECTROKINETICS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paravita Sri Wulandari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The high water content in marine clays could loosen the bond of soil particles, resulting in low bearing capacity and high compressibility of the soil. Excessive settlements could happened to the structures built on it. An electrokinetic process was attempted to reduce the high water content of the marine clay. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effect of electrokinetic on marine clay improvement. This study focused on the use of electrokinetic to enhance the soil bearing capacity of marine clay by improving index properties of the marine clay. The result of this research was obtained by doing several analyses on water content, pH value, and soil particles of soil sample located between cathode and anode. Based on the results from laboratory testing, it can be concluded that electrokinetic process decreased the water content and pH value of soil surrounding the anode. Also, soil particles surrounding the anode became in close proximity. This indicated that as it became closer to the anode, soil became denser.

  8. Membrane-mediated capillary electrophoresis: interaction of cationic peptides with bicelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, John O; Holland, Lisa A

    2004-05-01

    Electrokinetic capillary chromatography is applied to determine the membrane affinity of peptides using both 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) micelles and DHPC/1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) bicelles under controlled conditions. The effect of temperature and the bicelle q value in surface association with cationic peptides is studied. The cationic peptides selected have a well-defined membrane structure (indolicidin), induced secondary structure (melittin, magainin 2), or do not possess classical secondary structure (atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) 1-28, 4-28, 5-27). Electrokinetic capillary chromatography facilitated by DMPC and DHPC additives provides a rapid means of estimating lipophilicity and screening for peptides that have membrane affinity.

  9. Determination of food colorants by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsi-Ya; Chuang, Chia-Ling; Chiu, Chen-Wen; Chung, Ming-Che

    2005-02-01

    A microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) method was developed to analyze and detect eight food colorants (tartrazine, fast green FCF, brilliant blue FCF, allura red AC, indigo carmine, sunset yellow FCF, new coccine, and carminic acid), which are commonly used as food additives in various food products. The effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant, organic modifier, cosurfactant, and oil were examined in order to optimize the separation. The amount of organic modifier (acetonitrile) and SDS surfactant were determined as apparent influences on the separation resolution while the type of oil and cosurfactant rarely affected the separation selectivity of the eight colorants. A highly efficient MEEKC separation method, where the eight colorants were separated with baseline resolution within 14 min, was achieved by using a microemulsion solution of pH 2.0 containing 3.31% SDS, 0.81% octane, 6.61% 1-butanol, and 10% acetonitrile. This optimal MEEKC method has a higher separation efficiency and similar detection limit when compared to conventional capillary electrophoresis (CE) method. Furthermore, a sample pretreatment is rarely needed when this MEEKC technique is used to analyze colorants in food products, whereas a suitable sample pretreatment (for example solid-phase extraction) has to be employed prior to CE separation in order to eliminate matrix interferences resulting from the constituents of the food sample.

  10. Electrokinetic Phenomena in Pencil Lead-Based Microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashar Bashirzadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of microchannels and associated electrodes to generate electrokinetic phenomena often involves costly materials and considerable effort. In this study, we used graphite pencil-leads as low cost, disposable 3D electrodes to investigate various electrokinetic phenomena in straight cylindrical microchannels, which were themselves fabricated by using a graphite rod as the microchannel mold. Individual pencil-leads were employed as the micro-electrodes arranged along the side walls of the microchannel. Efficient electrokinetic phenomena provided by the 3D electrodes, including alternating current electroosmosis (ACEO, induced-charge electroosmosis (ICEO, and dielectrophoresis (DEP, were demonstrated by the introduced pencil-lead based microfluidic devices. The electrokinetic phenomena were characterized by micro-particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV measurements and microscopy imaging. Highly efficient electrokinetic phenomena using 3D pencil-lead electrodes showed the affordability and ease of this technique to fabricate microfluidic devices embedded with electrodes for electrokinetic fluid and particle manipulations.

  11. AC Electrokinetics of Physiological Fluids for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Liu, Tingting; Lamanda, Ariana C; Sin, Mandy L Y; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C; Wong, Pak Kin

    2015-12-01

    Alternating current (AC) electrokinetics is a collection of processes for manipulating bulk fluid mass and embedded objects with AC electric fields. The ability of AC electrokinetics to implement the major microfluidic operations, such as pumping, mixing, concentration, and separation, makes it possible to develop integrated systems for clinical diagnostics in nontraditional health care settings. The high conductivity of physiological fluids presents new challenges and opportunities for AC electrokinetics-based diagnostic systems. In this review, AC electrokinetic phenomena in conductive physiological fluids are described followed by a review of the basic microfluidic operations and the recent biomedical applications of AC electrokinetics. The future prospects of AC electrokinetics for clinical diagnostics are presented. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  12. Electrokinetic instability in microchannel ferrofluid/water co-flows

    OpenAIRE

    Le Song; Liandong Yu; Yilong Zhou; Asher Reginald Antao; Rama Aravind Prabhakaran; Xiangchun Xuan

    2017-01-01

    Electrokinetic instability refers to unstable electric field-driven disturbance to fluid flows, which can be harnessed to promote mixing for various electrokinetic microfluidic applications. This work presents a combined numerical and experimental study of electrokinetic ferrofluid/water co-flows in microchannels of various depths. Instability waves are observed at the ferrofluid and water interface when the applied DC electric field is beyond a threshold value. They are generated by the elec...

  13. Electrokinetic enrichment and detection of neuropeptide for performance monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0074 Electrokinetic enrichment and detection of neuropeptide for performance monitor Nathan Swami VIRGINIA UNIV CHARLOTTESVILLE...2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 03 Jun 2014 to 02 Dec 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electrokinetic enrichment and detection of...optical detection, with minimal user intervention. In this project, we developed nano-slit devices and optimized the electrokinetic preconcentration

  14. Electrokinetic potential study from fluid flow in porous media

    OpenAIRE

    Syahruddin, Muhammad Hamzah

    2010-01-01

    Tulisan ini di publikasikan pada prosiding MICCE 2010 di Clarion Hotel Makassar Indonesia Electrokinetic potential can be generated by fluid flow in porous media. Electrokinetic potential value changes the several of physical properties in fluid of subsurface. For example salinity, hydraulic conductivity, pH, and temperature. This research is focused on electrokinetic potential study generated by fresh water flow in porous media. Therefore, elektrokinetic potential can be use to fluid flow...

  15. Electrokinetics Models for Micro and Nano Fluidic Impedance Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    1 ELECTROKINETICS MODELS FOR MICRO AND NANO FLUIDIC IMPEDANCE SENSORS Yi Wang*, Hongjun Song, Ketan Bhatt, Kapil Pant CFD Research Corporation...design continues to be a challenge. This paper presents high-fidelity models to resolve the electrokinetic transport process at the micro- and...nano-scale and capture the critical effects of various design parameters on the electrokinetic transport and sensor performance such as medium

  16. AC Electrokinetics of Physiological Fluids for Biomedical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yi; Liu,Tingting; Lamanda, Ariana C.; Sin, Mandy L. Y.; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C.; Wong, Pak Kin

    2014-01-01

    AC electrokinetics is a collection of processes for manipulating bulk fluid mass and embedded objects with AC electric fields. The ability of AC electrokinetics to implement the major microfluidic operations, such as pumping, mixing, concentration and separation, makes it possible to develop integrated systems for clinical diagnostics in non-traditional healthcare settings. The high conductivity of physiological fluids presents new challenges and opportunities for AC electrokinetics based dia...

  17. Determination of aggregation thresholds of UV absorbing anionic surfactants by frontal analysis continuous capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Saux, Thomas; Varenne, Anne; Gareil, Pierre

    2004-06-04

    Aggregation of anionic surfactants was investigated by frontal analysis continuous capillary electrophoresis (FACCE), a method involving the continuous electrokinetic introduction of the surfactant sample into the separation capillary. This process results in a partial separation of the monomeric and aggregated forms without perturbing the monomer-aggregate equilibrium. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) can then be easily derived from the height of the firstly detected migration front, corresponding to the monomeric form. This approach is exemplified with octyl and dodecylbenzenesulfonates and compared with conductimetry and surface tension measurements. FACCE turns out to be an effective method for the determination of CMC and intermediate aggregation phenomena with very small sample and short time requirements.

  18. Electrokinetic properties of the mammalian tectorial membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Page, Scott L.; Farrahi, Shirin; Sellon, Jonathan B.; Freeman, Dennis M.

    2013-01-01

    The tectorial membrane (TM) clearly plays a mechanical role in stimulating cochlear sensory receptors, but the presence of fixed charge in TM constituents suggests that electromechanical properties also may be important. Here, we measure the fixed charge density of the TM and show that this density of fixed charge is sufficient to affect mechanical properties and to generate electrokinetic motions. In particular, alternating currents applied to the middle and marginal zones of isolated TM segments evoke motions at audio frequencies (1–1,000 Hz). Electrically evoked motions are nanometer scaled (∼5–900 nm), decrease with increasing stimulus frequency, and scale linearly over a broad range of electric field amplitudes (0.05–20 kV/m). These findings show that the mammalian TM is highly charged and suggest the importance of a unique TM electrokinetic mechanism. PMID:23440188

  19. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bala Ramudu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself was used as the purging solution. Results showed that 49% reduction of cadmium concentration was achieved in the case of soil saturated (washed with ammonium citrate as well as purging solution also was ammonium citrate. The soil pH and washing solutions were the most important factors in controlling the removal of cadmium in electrokinetic remediation process.

  20. Immersed molecular electrokinetic finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Adrian M.; Liu, Wing K.

    2013-07-01

    A unique simulation technique has been developed capable of modeling electric field induced detection of biomolecules such as viruses, at room temperatures where thermal fluctuations must be considered. The proposed immersed molecular electrokinetic finite element method couples electrokinetics with fluctuating hydrodynamics to study the motion and deformation of flexible objects immersed in a suspending medium under an applied electric field. The force induced on an arbitrary object due to an electric field is calculated based on the continuum electromechanics and the Maxwell stress tensor. The thermal fluctuations are included in the Navier-Stokes fluid equations via the stochastic stress tensor. Dielectrophoretic and fluctuating forces acting on the particle are coupled through the fluid-structure interaction force calculated within the surrounding environment. This method was used to perform concentration and retention efficacy analysis of nanoscale biosensors using gold particles of various sizes. The analysis was also applied to a human papillomavirus.

  1. Electrokinetic removal of heavy metals from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puvvadi Venkata Sivapullaiah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Removal of heavy metal ions from soils by electrokinetic treatment has several advantages. The extent of removal, however, is both soil specific and ion specific. The conditions to be maintained have to be established based on laboratory studies. With a view to maximize the removal of metal ions the trends of removal of heavy metal ions such as iron, nickel and cadmium form a natural Indian kaolinitic red earth during different conditions maintained in the electrokinetic extraction process are studied. A laboratory electrokinetic extraction apparatus was assembled for this purpose. Attempts are also made to elucidate the mechanism of removal of the metal ions from soil. The composition of the flushing fluid, voltage and duration of extraction are varied. While dilute acetic acid has been used to neutralize the alkalinity that develops at the cathode, EDTA solution has been used to desorb heavy metals from clay surface. Generally the extent of removal was proportional to the osmotic flow. Nickel and Cadmium are more effectively removed than iron. The percentage removal of Ni is generally proportional to the osmotic flow but shows sensitivity to the pH of the system. There is an optimum voltage for removal of metal ions from soil. The removal of iron was negligible under different conditions studied.

  2. Electrokinetic transport in microchannels with random roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Moran [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kang, Qinjun [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We present a numerical framework to model the electrokinetic transport in microchannels with random roughness. The three-dimensional microstructure of the rough channel is generated by a random generation-growth method with three statistical parameters to control the number density, the total volume fraction, and the anisotropy characteristics of roughness elements. The governing equations for the electrokinetic transport are solved by a high-efficiency lattice Poisson?Boltzmann method in complex geometries. The effects from the geometric characteristics of roughness on the electrokinetic transport in microchannels are therefore modeled and analyzed. For a given total roughness volume fraction, a higher number density leads to a lower fluctuation because of the random factors. The electroosmotic flow rate increases with the roughness number density nearly logarithmically for a given volume fraction of roughness but decreases with the volume fraction for a given roughness number density. When both the volume fraction and the number density of roughness are given, the electroosmotic flow rate is enhanced by the increase of the characteristic length along the external electric field direction but is reduced by that in the direction across the channel. For a given microstructure of the rough microchannel, the electroosmotic flow rate decreases with the Debye length. It is found that the shape resistance of roughness is responsible for the flow rate reduction in the rough channel compared to the smooth channel even for very thin double layers, and hence plays an important role in microchannel electroosmotic flows.

  3. Estratégias de pré-concentração em eletroforese capilar: parte 2. Manipulação da velocidade da fase dispersa/secundária Preconcentration strategies in capillary electrophoresis: part 2. Manipulation of the disperse/secondary velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes L. de Moraes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes CE preconcentration strategies based on the effect of manipulation of the disperse/secondary velocity. Introduced by Terabe et al. in 1984, micellar electrokinetic chromatography is a powerful separation approach that increases the usage of electrokinetic phenomena for the separation of nonionic compounds. The main disadvantage of MEKC is the low concentration sensitivity associated with the limited optical path length for on-capillary photometric detection and the limited volume of sample solution that can be injected. This paper compiles on-line concentration strategies for neutral analytes by sample stacking and sweeping in micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

  4. FEASIBILITY OF ELECTROKINETIC SOIL REMEDIATION IN HORIZONTAL LASAGNA CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An integrated soil remediation technology called Lasagna has been developed that combines electrokinetics with treatment zones for use in low permeability soils where the rates of hydraulic and electrokinetic transport are too low to be useful for remediation of contaminants. The...

  5. Electrokinetic profiles of nonowoven cotton for absorbent incontinence material

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses recent work on cotton/synthetic nonwovens, their electrokinetic analysis, and their potential use in incontinence materials. Electrokinetic analysis is useful in exploring fiber surface polarity properties, and it is a useful tool to render a snap shot of the role of fiber char...

  6. Hybrid electrokinetic manipulation in high-conductivity media†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Sin, Mandy L. Y.; Liu, Tingting; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports a hybrid electrokinetic technique for label-free manipulation of pathogenic bacteria in biological samples toward medical diagnostic applications. While most electrokinetic techniques only function in low-conductivity buffers, hybrid electrokinetics enables effective operation in high-conductivity samples, such as physiological fluids (~1 S m−1). The hybrid electrokinetic technique combines short-range electrophoresis and dielectrophoresis, and long-range AC electrothermal flow to improve its effectiveness. The major technical hurdle of electrode instability for manipulating high conductivity samples is tackled by using a Ti–Au–Ti sandwich electrode and a 3-parallel-electrode configuration is designed for continuous isolation of bacteria. The device operates directly with biological samples including urine and buffy coats. We show that pathogenic bacteria and biowarfare agents can be concentrated for over 3 orders of magnitude using hybrid electrokinetics. PMID:21487576

  7. Electrokinetic Sample Preconcentration and Hydrodynamic Sample Injection for Microchip Electrophoresis Using a Pneumatic Microvalve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Yongzheng; Katipamula, Shanta; Geng, Tao; Prost, Spencer A.; Tang, Keqi; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2016-02-01

    A microfluidic platform was developed to perform online electrokinetic sample preconcentration and rapid hydrodynamic sample injection for electrophoresis using a single microvalve. The PDMS microchip consists of a separation channel, a side channel for sample introduction, and a control channel which is used as a pneumatic microvalve aligned at the intersection of the two flow channels. The closed microvalve, created by multilayer soft lithography, can serve as a preconcentrator under an applied electric potential, enabling current to pass through while blocking bulk flow. Once analytes are concentrated, the valve is briefly opened and the stacked sample is pressure injected into the separation channel for electrophoretic separation. Fluorescently labeled peptides were enriched by a factor of ~450 in 230 s. The performance of the platform was validated by the online preconcentration, injection and electrophoretic separation of fluorescently labeled peptides. This method enables both rapid analyte concentration and controlled injection volume for high sensitivity, high resolution capillary electrophoresis.

  8. Drug-plasma protein binding assay by electrokinetic chromatography-frontal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihama, Yasushi; Miwa, Toshinobu; Asakawa, Naoki

    2002-03-01

    We developed a rapid, microscale and reliable analytical method for binding of drugs to plasma proteins using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with ionic cyclodextrins (CD) combined with frontal analysis. These CDs were used as pseudostationary phases of electrokinetic chromatography (EKC). The CD-modified EKC (CDEKC) approach allowed us to separate anionic drugs from plasma proteins, whereas CZE could not separate these drugs from plasma proteins because they had a similar mobility like plasma proteins. CDs uniquely interact with these drugs but not with plasma proteins. Therefore, CDEKC could be coupled with frontal analysis to measure the binding of anionic drugs to plasma proteins. The binding values obtained by CDEKC were highly consistent with those determined by the ultrafiltration method. Our CDEKC approach should expand the applicability of CE to protein binding analysis.

  9. Solute-solvent interactions in micellar electrokinetic chromatography: V. Factors that produce peak splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ràfols, Clara; Poza, Ana; Fuguet, Elisabet; Rosés, Martí; Bosch, Elisabeth

    2002-08-01

    The experimental conditions that produce analyte peak splitting in micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) have been systematically investigated. The system studied was a neutral phosphate buffer and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles as pseudostationary phase. A number of analytes showing a wide variety of hydrophobicity values and several organic solvents as sample diluents have been tested. Peak splitting phenomena are mainly due to the presence of organic solvent in the sample solution. They increase with the hydrophobicity of the analyte and decrease with the increase of the surfactant concentration. When hydrophobic compounds are analyzed the suggested ways to avoid split peaks are: (i) the use of 1-propanol or 1-butanol as sample diluent instead of methanol or acetonitrile or (ii) the use of high concentration of surfactant in the separating solution when the analyte must be dissolved in pure methanol or acetonitrile.

  10. Assessment and Comparison of Electrokinetic and Electrokinetic-bioremediation Techniques for Mercury Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Nabila, A. T. A.; Nurshuhaila, M. S.; Zaidi, E.; Azim, M. A. M.; Farhana, S. M. S.

    2016-11-01

    Landfills are major sources of contamination due to the presence of harmful bacteria and heavy metals. Electrokinetic-Bioremediation (Ek-Bio) is one of the techniques that can be conducted to remediate contaminated soil. Therefore, the most prominent bacteria from landfill soil will be isolated to determine their optimal conditions for culture and growth. The degradation rate and the effectiveness of selected local bacteria were used to reduce soil contamination. Hence, this enhances microbiological activities to degrade contaminants in soil and reduce the content of heavy metals. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of isolated bacteria (Lysinibacillus fusiformis) to remove mercury in landfill soil. 5 kg of landfill soil was mixed with deionized water to make it into slurry condition for the purpose of electrokinetic and bioremediation. This remediation technique was conducted for 7 days by using 50 V/m of electrical gradient and Lysinibacillus fusiformis bacteria was applied at the anode reservoir. The slurry landfill soil was located at the middle of the reservoir while distilled water was placed at the cathode of reservoir. After undergoing treatment for 7 days, the mercury analyzer showed that there was a significant reduction of approximately up to 78 % of mercury concentration for the landfill soil. From the results, it is proven that electrokinetic bioremediation technique is able to remove mercury within in a short period of time. Thus, a combination of Lysinibacillus fusiformis and electrokinetic technique has the potential to remove mercury from contaminated soil in Malaysia.

  11. Capillary liquid chromatography using laser-based and mass spectrometric detection. Final technical progress report, September 1, 1989--January 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepaniak, M.J.; Cook, K.D.

    1992-09-01

    In the years following the 1986 seminal paper (J. Chromatogr. Sci., 24, 347-352) describing modern capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), the prominence of capillary electrokinetic separation techniques has grown. A related electrochromatographic technique is micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC). This report presents a brief synopsis of research efforts during the current 3-year period. In addition to a description of analytical separations-based research, results of efforts to develop and expand spectrometric detection for the techniques is reviewed. Laser fluorometric detection schemes have been successfully advanced. Mass spectrometric research was less fruitful, largely owing to personnel limitations. A regenerable fiber optic sensor was developed that can be used to remotely monitor chemical carcinogens, etc. (DLC)

  12. Determination of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) by application of online 77 K fluorescence spectroscopy and a sweeping technique in micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ching; Liu, Ju-Tsung; Lin, Cheng-Huang

    2002-10-16

    The principal advantage of the use of Shopl'skii effect (low temperature spectrum) is that spectral sharpening occurs both in absorption and emission. However, thus far using the technique of capillary electrophoresis/low temperature fluorescence spectroscopy (CE/LTFS) either at 77 or 4.2 K remains difficult to obtain an on-line spectrum, if the analyte is present at low concentration. This paper examines the feasibility of combining the techniques of online concentration and CE/LTFS to identify LSD and related compounds in urine at 77 K. To improve sensitivity, sweeping-micellar electrokinetic chromatography (sweeping-MEKC) and cation-selective exhaustive injection-sweep-micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CSEI-sweep-MEKC) were used for on-line concentration which resulted in detection limits of approximately 20 approximately 60 ppt, respectively.

  13. Modeling of electrokinetic desalination of bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    A model for the reactive transport of matter through porous media induced by an externally applied electric field is discussed. The Nernst–Planck–Poisson system of equations is used for modeling multi-species electro-diffusion transport phenomena, assuming chemical equilibrium during the process....... The system of equations includes the transport of water and the resulting advective flow of the aqueous species. The model takes into account transient change in porosity and its impact on transport. Test examples were performed and compared to experimental data for electrokinetic desalination treatment...

  14. Understanding electrokinetics at the nanoscale: A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsueh-Chia; Yossifon, Gilad

    2009-01-01

    Electrokinetics promises to be the microfluidic technique of choice for portable diagnostic chips and for nanofluidic molecular detectors. However, despite two centuries of research, our understanding of ion transport and electro-osmotic flow in and near nanoporous membranes, whose pores are natural nanochannels, remains woefully inadequate. This short exposition reviews the various ion-flux and hydrodynamic anomalies and speculates on their potential applications, particularly in the area of molecular sensing. In the process, we revisit several old disciplines, with some unsolved open questions, and we hope to create a new one. PMID:19693382

  15. Electrokinetics in Earth Sciences: A Tutorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jouniaux

    2012-01-01

    in porous media, to be included in the special issue “Electrokinetics in Earth Sciences” of International Journal of Geophysics. We describe the methodology used for self-potential (SP and for seismoelectromagnetic measurements, for both field and laboratory experiments and for modelling. We give a large bibliography on the studies performed in hydrology to detect at distance the water flow, to deduce the thickness of the aquifer and to predict the hydraulic conductivity. The observation of SP has also been proposed to detect fractures in boreholes, to follow the hydraulic fracturing, and to predict the earthquakes. Moreover, we detail the studies on geothermal applications.

  16. Intramedullary capillary haemangioma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, T

    2012-02-03

    Intramedullary capillary haemangioma is extremely rare and only four cases have been previously reported. We describe a further case, outlining the clinical, radiological, surgical and pathological features.

  17. Electrokinetics in oil recovery. Progress report 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller Nielsen, C.; Laursen, S. [DTU, Fysisk-Kemisk Inst. (Denmark); Jensen, A.B.; Reffstrup, J. [DTU, Lab. for Energiteknik (Denmark); Springer, N. [GEUS, Kerneanalyse Lab. (Denmark)

    1996-03-01

    The elaborate definitions of the different types of phenomenological coefficients of use in studies of complicated transport processes are developed. These constitute the basis for discussing experimental results of the electrokinetics experiments. Temperature dependence of the electric transport coefficients was determined in the range from laboratory temperature to reservoir temperature. The results are compared with calculated temperature dependences obtained by using simple theories and literature data of solution properties. Seemingly the temperature dependence of solution conductivity dominates the picture. Simple Helmholtz-Smoluchowski-Poisson-Boltzmann theory cannot account for the experimental findings. To test the applicability of the scheme of linear equations to describe the flow in the measurement cell, simultaneous application of a pressure difference and a voltage was studied. The results are reasonably satisfying. The linear approach with constant coefficients is found to be appropriate for small flows. The influence of plug treatment was investigated in a series of flushing experiments. Different kinds of oil and water flushing procedures were carried out as were flushings with different solvents. A steady-state of the oil displacement process seems to be reproducible. Some treatments do not influence the permeability but change the electric coefficients. Thus there are changes which cannot be detected by permeability measurements. The two-phase flow experiments were made to show the influence of applying an electric current to a plug in which spontaneous imbibition takes place. Evidently the electrokinetics lowers the residual oil saturation and increases the oil recovery rate. (EG) 13 refs.

  18. Electrokinetic trapping at the one nanometer limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Alexander P.; Cohen, Adam E.

    2011-01-01

    Anti-Brownian electrokinetic traps have been used to trap and study the free-solution dynamics of large protein complexes and long chains of DNA. Small molecules in solution have thus far proved too mobile to trap by any means. Here we explore the ultimate limits on trapping single molecules. We developed a feedback-based anti-Brownian electrokinetic trap in which classical thermal noise is compensated to the maximal extent allowed by quantum measurement noise. We trapped single fluorophores with a molecular weight of < 1 kDa and a hydrodynamic radius of 6.7 Å for longer than one second, in aqueous buffer at room temperature. This achievement represents an 800-fold decrease in the mass of objects trapped in solution, and opens the possibility to trap and manipulate any soluble molecule that can be fluorescently labeled. To illustrate the use of this trap, we studied the binding of unlabeled RecA to fluorescently labeled single-stranded DNA. Binding of RecA induced changes in the DNA diffusion coefficient, electrophoretic mobility, and brightness, all of which were measured simultaneously and on a molecule-by-molecule basis. This device greatly extends the size range of molecules that can be studied by room temperature feedback trapping, and opens the door to further studies of the binding of unmodified proteins to DNA in free solution. PMID:21562206

  19. Electrokinetics and flocculation studies of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhawan, N. [Punjab Engineering College, Chandigarh (India). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Coal from India contains 25-35 per cent ash content. This leads to high slag volume, lower calorific value and inferior coke. In order to remove ash content, coal is washed, however, it retains some water that makes it difficult to process. Mechanical dewatering is performed in which a large portion of solids is removed while the remainder remains in centrifuge. There is therefore a need to recover solids and water. This paper discussed the use of flocculation and electrokinetic studies such as the determination of the point of zero charge. The experimental studies considered factors such as turbidity, faster settling, and compactness. Flocculation is brought about by the action of high molecular weight materials such as polyelectrolytes, where the material physically forms a bridge between two or more particles, uniting the sold particles into a random, three-dimensional structure, which is loose and porous. This paper also described the materials and methods of the electrokinetic studies on coal samples. Materials that were described included nephelometer, zeta meter, and a flocculator. It was concluded that in selecting the best flocculant, the preference order should be turbidity; settling rate; dosage; and moisture content. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  20. Microtubule alignment and manipulation using AC electrokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppalapati, Maruti; Huang, Ying-Ming; Jackson, Thomas N; Hancock, William O

    2008-09-01

    The kinesin-microtubule system plays an important role in intracellular transport and is a model system for integrating biomotor-driven transport into microengineered devices. AC electrokinetics provides a novel tool for manipulating and organizing microtubules in solution, enabling new experimental geometries for investigating and controlling the interactions of microtubules and microtubule motors in vitro. By fabricating microelectrodes on glass substrates and generating AC electric fields across solutions of microtubules in low-ionic-strength buffers, bundles of microtubules are collected and aligned and the electrical properties of microtubules in solution are measured. The AC electric fields result in electro-osmotic flow, electrothermal flow, and dielectrophoresis of microtubules, which can be controlled by varying the solution conductivity, AC frequency, and electrode geometry. By mapping the solution conductivity and AC frequency over which positive dielectrophoresis occurs, the apparent conductivity of taxol-stabilized bovine-brain microtubules in PIPES buffer is measured to be 250 mS m(-1). By maximizing dielectrophoretic forces and minimizing electro-osmotic and electrothermal flow, microtubules are assembled into opposed asters. These experiments demonstrate that AC electrokinetics provides a powerful new tool for kinesin-driven transport applications and for investigating the role of microtubule motors in development and maintenance of the mitotic spindle.

  1. Development of microtitre plates for electrokinetic assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, J. P. H.; Goater, A. D.; Menachery, A.; Pethig, R.; Rizvi, N. H.

    2007-02-01

    Electrokinetic processes have wide ranging applications in microsystems technology. Their optimum performance at micro and nano dimensions allows their use both as characterization and diagnostic tools and as a means of general particle manipulation. Within analytical studies, measurement of the electrokinesis of biological cells has the sensitivity and selectivity to distinguish subtle differences between cell types and cells undergoing changes and is gaining acceptance as a diagnostic tool in high throughput screening for drug discovery applications. In this work the development and manufacture of an electrokinetic-based microtitre plate is described. The plate is intended to be compatible with automated sample loading and handling systems. Manufacturing of the microtitre plate, which employs indium tin oxide microelectrodes, has been entirely undertaken using excimer and ultra-fast pulsed laser micromachining due to its flexibility in materials processing and accuracy in microstructuring. Laser micromachining has the ability to rapidly realize iterations in device prototype design while also having the capability to be scaled up for large scale manufacture. Device verification is achieved by the measurement of the electrorotation and dielectrophoretic properties of yeast cells while the flexibility of the developed microtitre plate is demonstrated by the selective separation of live yeast from polystyrene microbeads.

  2. Electrokinetic focusing and filtration of cells in a serpentine microchannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Christopher; Zhu, Junjie; Wang, Gaoyan; Tzeng, Tzuen-Rong J.; Xuan, Xiangchun

    2009-01-01

    Focusing cells into a single stream is usually a necessary step prior to counting and separating them in microfluidic devices such as flow cytometers and cell sorters. This work presents a sheathless electrokinetic focusing of yeast cells in a planar serpentine microchannel using dc-biased ac electric fields. The concurrent pumping and focusing of yeast cells arise from the dc electrokinetic transport and the turn-induced ac∕dc dielectrophoretic motion, respectively. The effects of electric field (including ac to dc field ratio and ac field frequency) and concentration (including buffer concentration and cell concentration) on the cell focusing performance were studied experimentally and numerically. A continuous electrokinetic filtration of E. coli cells from yeast cells was also demonstrated via their differential electrokinetic focusing in a serpentine microchannel. PMID:20216971

  3. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN SITU ELECTROKINETIC EXTRACTION SYSTEM - SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed an in situ soil remediation system that uses electrokinetic principles to remediate hexavalent chromium-contaminated unsaturated or partially saturated soils. The technology involves the in situ application of direct current to the...

  4. Electrokinetic effects on detection time of nanowire biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaling; Guo, Qingjiang; Wang, Shunqiang; Hu, Walter

    2012-01-01

    We develop a multiphysics model to study the contribution of electrokinetics on the biomolecular detection process and provide a physical explanation of the two to three orders of magnitude difference in detection time between experimental results and theoretical predications at ultralow concentration. The electrokinetic effects, including electrophoretic force and electroosmotic flow, have been systematically studied under various sensor design and test conditions. In a typical single nanowire-based sensor, it is found that electrokinetic effects could result in a reduction of detection time over 90 times, compared with that induced by pure biomolecular diffusion. The detection time difference is further enhanced by increasing the applied gate voltage or the number of nanowires. It is proposed that accelerated biomolecular detection at ultralow concentration could be achieved by appropriate combinations of electrokinetic effects and nanowire sensor design. PMID:22550358

  5. Theory of electrostatics and electrokinetics of soft particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2009-12-01

    We investigate theoretically the electrostatics and electrokinetics of a soft particle, i.e. a hard particle covered with an ion-penetrable surface layer of polyelectrolytes. The electric properties of soft particles in an electrolyte solution, which differ from those of hard particles, are essentially determined by the Donnan potential in the surface layer. In particular, the Donnan potential plays an essential role in the electrostatics and electrokinetics of soft particles. Furthermore, the concept of zeta potential, which is important in the electrokinetics of hard particles, loses its physical meaning in the electrokinetics of soft particles. In this review, we discuss the potential distribution around a soft particle, the electrostatic interaction between two soft particles, and the motion of a soft particle in an electric field.

  6. Theory of electrostatics and electrokinetics of soft particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshima, Hiroyuki, E-mail: ohshima@rs.noda.tus.ac.j [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Institute of Colloid and Interface Science, Center for Colloid and Interface Science, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    We investigate theoretically the electrostatics and electrokinetics of a soft particle, i.e. a hard particle covered with an ion-penetrable surface layer of polyelectrolytes. The electric properties of soft particles in an electrolyte solution, which differ from those of hard particles, are essentially determined by the Donnan potential in the surface layer. In particular, the Donnan potential plays an essential role in the electrostatics and electrokinetics of soft particles. Furthermore, the concept of zeta potential, which is important in the electrokinetics of hard particles, loses its physical meaning in the electrokinetics of soft particles. In this review, we discuss the potential distribution around a soft particle, the electrostatic interaction between two soft particles, and the motion of a soft particle in an electric field. (topical review)

  7. Theory of electrostatics and electrokinetics of soft particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Ohshima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate theoretically the electrostatics and electrokinetics of a soft particle, i.e. a hard particle covered with an ion-penetrable surface layer of polyelectrolytes. The electric properties of soft particles in an electrolyte solution, which differ from those of hard particles, are essentially determined by the Donnan potential in the surface layer. In particular, the Donnan potential plays an essential role in the electrostatics and electrokinetics of soft particles. Furthermore, the concept of zeta potential, which is important in the electrokinetics of hard particles, loses its physical meaning in the electrokinetics of soft particles. In this review, we discuss the potential distribution around a soft particle, the electrostatic interaction between two soft particles, and the motion of a soft particle in an electric field.

  8. Separation of neutral compounds by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte; Hansen, Steen Honore'; Pedersen-Bjergaard, S

    2001-01-01

    The selectivity of microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) was studied utilizing some uncharged model compounds like aromatic amides, steroids, and esters of nicotinic acid. The cosurfactant of the microemulsion was found to be the most important factor affecting the selectivity...

  9. Electrokinetic strengthening of a marine sediment using intermittent current

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Micic S; Shang J.Q; Lo K.Y; Lee Y.N; Lee S.W

    2001-01-01

    An experimental program on electrokinetic strengthening of a marine sediment using intermittent current was conducted on a high-salinity marine clay recovered from a land reclamation site on the Korean coast...

  10. Theory of electrostatics and electrokinetics of soft particles

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroyuki Ohshima

    2009-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the electrostatics and electrokinetics of a soft particle, i.e. a hard particle covered with an ion-penetrable surface layer of polyelectrolytes. The electric properties of soft particles in an electrolyte solution, which differ from those of hard particles, are essentially determined by the Donnan potential in the surface layer. In particular, the Donnan potential plays an essential role in the electrostatics and electrokinetics of soft particles. Furthermore, th...

  11. DNA aggregation and cleavage in CGE induced by high electric field in aqueous solution accompanying electrokinetic sample injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoxue; Mori, Satomi; Xu, Zhongqi; Hayakawa, Shinjiro; Hirokawa, Takeshi

    2013-12-01

    The phenomenon of peak area decrease due to high injection voltage (Vinj , e.g. 10-30 kV, 200-600 V/cm in the 50 cm capillary) was found in the analysis of very dilute DNA fragments (electrokinetic supercharging-CGE. The possibility of DNA cleavage in aqueous solution was suggested, in addition to the aggregation phenomenon that is already known. The analysis of intentionally voltage-affected fragments (at 200 V/cm) also showed decreased peak areas depending on the time of the voltage being applied. Computer simulation suggested that a high electric field (a few kV/cm or more) could be generated partly between the electrode and the capillary end during electrokinetic injection (EKI) process. After thorough experimental verification, it was found that the factors affecting the damage during EKI were the magnitude of electric field, the distance between tips of electrode and capillary (De/c ), sample concentration and traveling time during EKI in sample vials. Furthermore, these factors are correlating with each other. A low conductivity of diluted sample would cause a high electric field (over a few hundred volts per centimeter), while the longer De/c results in a longer traveling time during EKI, which may cause a larger degree of damage (aggregation and cleavage) on the DNA fragments. As an important practical implication of this study, when the dilute DNA fragments (sub mg/L) are to be analyzed by CGE using EKI, injection voltage should be kept as low as possible. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Electrokinetic instability in microchannel ferrofluid/water co-flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Le; Yu, Liandong; Zhou, Yilong; Antao, Asher Reginald; Prabhakaran, Rama Aravind; Xuan, Xiangchun

    2017-04-01

    Electrokinetic instability refers to unstable electric field-driven disturbance to fluid flows, which can be harnessed to promote mixing for various electrokinetic microfluidic applications. This work presents a combined numerical and experimental study of electrokinetic ferrofluid/water co-flows in microchannels of various depths. Instability waves are observed at the ferrofluid and water interface when the applied DC electric field is beyond a threshold value. They are generated by the electric body force that acts on the free charge induced by the mismatch of ferrofluid and water electric conductivities. A nonlinear depth-averaged numerical model is developed to understand and simulate the interfacial electrokinetic behaviors. It considers the top and bottom channel walls’ stabilizing effects on electrokinetic flow through the depth averaging of three-dimensional transport equations in a second-order asymptotic analysis. This model is found accurate to predict both the observed electrokinetic instability patterns and the measured threshold electric fields for ferrofluids of different concentrations in shallow microchannels.

  13. Performance and selectivity of cationic nanoparticle pseudo-stationary phases in electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettrick, Julie R; Williamson, Nathan H; Sutton, Adam T; Palmer, Christopher P

    2017-03-01

    Electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) is a powerful analytical technique that uses an ionic pseudo-stationary phase (PSP) to separate neutral compounds. Although anionic surfactants are the most common choice for PSP, cationic latex nanoparticles are an attractive alternative. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization was used to synthesize several types of diblock copolymers that self-assemble into latex nanoparticles, which were characterized by a variety of techniques including diffusion NMR. The performance of each nanoparticle as a PSP was studied by using a homologous series of ketones and linear solvation energy relationships (LSER) analysis. A cationic homopolymer coating was found to be necessary to prevent band broadening caused by analyte interactions with nanoparticles adsorbed to the capillary surface. No significant difference in methylene selectivity or LSER parameters was observed between nanoparticles with different cationic shells, but differences were observed between nanoparticles with different hydrophobic cores. Cationic latex nanoparticles behaved more like anionic latex nanoparticles than like cationic surfactants, suggesting that selectivity is primarily driven by the hydrophobic portion of a PSP. Cationic latex nanoparticles in combination with a homopolymer cationic capillary coating are an excellent choice for EKC analyses where an anodic electroosmotic flow is required. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Simultaneous determination of ten preservatives in ten kinds of foods by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-Jing; Xie, Na; Zhao, Shan; Wu, Yu-Chen; Li, Jiang; Wang, Zhi

    2015-08-15

    An improved micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography method (MEKC) for the simultaneous determination of ten preservatives in ten different kinds of food samples was reported. An uncoated fused-silica capillary with 50 μm i.d. and 70 cm total length was used. Under the optimized conditions, the linear response was observed in the range of 1.2-200mg/L for the analytes. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N=3) and limits of quantitation (LOQ, S/N=10) ranging from 0.4 to 0.5mg/L and 1.2 to 1.5mg/L, respectively were obtained. The method was used for the determination of sorbic and benzoic acids in two FAPAS® (Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme) proficiency test samples (jam and chocolate cake). The results showed that the current method with simple sample pretreatment and small reagent consumption could meet the needs for routine analysis of the ten preservatives in ten types of food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Method and apparatus for electrokinetic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Patrick Ismail (Inventor); Stejic, George (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Controlled electrokinetic transport of constituents of liquid media can be achieved by connecting at least two volumes containing liquid media with at least one dielectric medium with opposing dielectric surfaces in direct contact with said liquid media, and establishing at least one conduit across said dielectric medium, with a conduit inner surface surrounding a conduit volume and at least a first opening and a second opening opposite to the first opening. The conduit is arranged to connect two volumes containing liquid media and includes a set of at least three electrodes positioned in proximity of the inner conduit surface. A power supply is arranged to deliver energy to the electrodes such that time-varying potentials inside the conduit volume are established, where the superposition of said potentials represents at least one controllable traveling potential well that can travel between the opposing conduit openings.

  16. Superhydrophobic nanofluidic channels for enhanced electrokinetic conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checco, Antonio; Al Hossain, Aktaruzzaman; Rahmani, Amir; Black, Charles; Doerk, Gregory; Colosqui, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    We present current efforts in the development of novel slit nanofluidic channels with superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces designed to enhance hydrodynamic conductivity and improve selective transport and electrokinetic energy conversion efficiencies (mechanical-electrical energy conversion). The nanochannels are fabricated on silicon wafers using UV lithography, and their internal surface is patterned with conical nanostructures (feature size and spacing 30 nm) defined by block copolymer self-assembly and plasma etching. These nanostructures are rendered superhydrophobic by passivation with a hydrophobic silane monolayer. We experimentally characterize hydrodynamic conductivity, effective zeta potentials, and eletrokinetic flows for the patterned nanochannels, comparing against control channels with bare surfaces. Experimental observations are rationalized using both continuum-based modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. Scientific and technical knowledge produced by this work is particularly relevant for sustainable energy conversion and storage, separation processes and water treatment using nanoporous materials. The ONR Contract # N000141613178 and NSF-CBET award# 1605809.

  17. Computer simulation of electrokinetics in colloidal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, R.; Starchenko, V.; Dünweg, B.

    2013-11-01

    The contribution gives a brief overview outlining how our theoretical understanding of the phenomenon of colloidal electrophoresis has improved over the decades. Particular emphasis is put on numerical calculations and computer simulation models, which have become more and more important as the level of description became more detailed and refined. Due to computational limitations, it has so far not been possible to study "perfect" models. Different complementary models have hence been developed, and their various strengths and deficiencies are briefly discussed. This is contrasted with the experimental situation, where there are still observations waiting for theoretical explanation. The contribution then outlines our recent development of a numerical method to solve the electrokinetic equations for a finite volume in three dimensions, and describes some new results that could be obtained by the approach.

  18. Electrokinetic desalination of glazed ceramic tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ferreira, Celia; Christensen, Iben Vernegren

    2010-01-01

    Electrokinetic desalination is a method where an applied electric DC field is the driving force for removal of salts from porous building materials. In the present paper, the method is tested in laboratory scale for desalination of single ceramic tiles. In a model system, where a tile...... was contaminated with NaCl during submersion and subsequently desalinated by the method, the desalination was completed in that the high and problematic initial Cl(-) concentration was reduced to an unproblematic concentration. Further conductivity measurements showed a very low conductivity in the tile after...... renovation due to damage of the glazing from the presence of salts. These tiles were severely contaminated with both chlorides and nitrates, and one of the tiles also contained sulphates though at a low concentration. The charge transfer was too low in the experiments to obtain full desalination...

  19. New amphiphilic aminosaccharide derivatives as chiral selectors in capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horimai, T; Arai, T; Sato, Y

    2000-04-14

    Two amphiphilic aminosaccharide derivatives were investigated as chiral selector additives in capillary electrophoresis. Each substance has a glucosamine backbone carrying three hydrocarbon chains as the hydrophobic region and three carboxylic groups as the hydrophilic region, which is an artificial biologically active compound. Using each compound as a chiral selector, the optical resolution of dansylated amino acids or new quinolone antibacterial agents (NQs) was observed. Increasing the concentration of the chiral selector or the ionic strength of running solution led to successful optical resolution. In consideration of the chemical structure of each selector and the migration behavior of the enantiomers, the resolution seemed to be based on micellar electrokinetic chromatography mode. Both selectors differed in their enantioselectivity for dansylated amino acids or NQs although the chemical structures were similar.

  20. Measurement of Nitroaromatic Explosives by Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography in Waters Collected Along a Tropical Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-07

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6110--14-9504 Measurement of Nitroaromatic Explosives by Micellar Electrokinetic ... Electrokinetic Chromatography in Waters Collected Along a Tropical Estuary Braden C. Giordano, Michael T. Montgomery, Christopher L. Osburn,1 and Cameron...MilliQ water. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) was used to detect nitroaromatic compounds added to samples collected from a tropical

  1. On the capabilities of nano electrokinetic thrusters for space propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, F. J.; Hernaiz, G.; Miranda, J. J.; Sureda, M.

    2013-02-01

    A theoretical analysis considering the capabilities of nano electrokinetic thrusters for space propulsion is presented. The work describes an electro-hydro-dynamic model of the electrokinetic flow in nano-channels and represents the first attempt to exploit the advantages of the electrokinetic effect as the basis for a new class of nano-scale thrusters suitable for space propulsion. Among such advantages are their small volume, fundamental simplicity, overall low mass, and actuation efficiency. Their electrokinetic efficiency is affected by the slip length, surface charge, pH and molarity. These design variables are analyzed and optimized for the highest electrokinetic performance inside nano-channels. The optimization is done for power consumption, thrust and specific impulse resulting in high theoretical efficiency ˜99% with corresponding high thrust-to-power ratios. Performance curves are obtained for the electrokinetic design variables showing that high molarity electrolytes lead to high thrust and specific impulse values, whereas low molarities provide highest thrust-to-power ratios and efficiencies. A theoretically designed 100 nm wide by 1 μm long emitter optimized using the ideal performance charts developed would deliver thrusts from 5 to 43 μN, specific impulse from 60 to 210 s, and would have power consumption between 1-15 mW. It should be noted that although this is a detail analytical analysis no prototypes exist and any future experimental work will face challenges that could affect the final performance. By designing an array composed of thousands of these single electrokinetic emitters, it would result in a flexible and scalable propulsion system capable of providing a wide range of thrust control for different mission scenarios and maintaining very high efficiencies and thrust-to-power ratio by varying the number of emitters in use at any one time.

  2. Electrokinetic demonstration at the unlined chromic acid pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Hankins, M.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mattson, E.D. [Salt-Unsat, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Duda, P.M. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Heavy-metal contaminated soils are a common problem at Department of Energy (DOE)-operated sites and privately owned facilities throughout the nation. One emerging technology which can remove heavy metals from soil in situ is electrokinetics. To conduct electrokinetic (EK) remediation, electrodes are implanted into the ground, and a direct current is imposed between the electrodes. Metal ions dissolved in the soil pore water migrate towards an electrode where they can be removed. The electrokinetic program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been focusing on electrokinetic remediation for unsaturated soils. A patent was awarded for an electrokinetic electrode system designed at SNL for applications to unsaturated soils. Current research described in this report details an electrokinetic remediation field demonstration of a chromium plume that resides in unsaturated soil beneath the SNL Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL). This report describes the processes, site investigation, operation and monitoring equipment, testing procedures, and extraction results of the electrokinetic demonstration. This demonstration successfully removed chromium contamination in the form of chromium(VI) from unsaturated soil at the field scale. After 2700 hours of operation, 600 grams of Cr(VI) was extracted from the soil beneath the SNL CWL in a series of thirteen tests. The contaminant was removed from soil which has moisture contents ranging from 2 to 12 weight percent. This demonstration was the first EK field trial to successfully remove contaminant ions from and soil at the field scale. Although the new patented electrode system was successful in removing an anionic contaminant (i.e., chromate) from unsaturated sandy soil, the electrode system was a prototype and has not been specifically engineered for commercialization. A redesign of the electrode system as indicated by the results of this research is suggested for future EK field trials.

  3. Field Testing of High Current Electrokinetic Nanoparticle Treatment for Corrosion Mitigation in Reinforced Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Henry; Alexander, Joshua; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal; Calle, Luz marina

    2010-01-01

    Electrokinetic Nanoparticle (EN) treatment was used as a rapid repair measure to mitigate chloride induced corrosion of reinforced concrete in the field. EN treatment uses an electric field to transport positively charged nanoparticles to the reinforcement through the concrete capillary pores. Cylindrical reinforced concrete specimens were batched with 4.5 wt % salt content (based on cement mass). Three distinct electrokinetic treatments were conducted using high current density (up to 5 A/m2) to form a chloride penetration barrier that was established in 5 days, as opposed to the traditional 6-8 weeks, generally required for electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE). These treatments included basic EN treatment, EN with additional calcium treatment, and basic ECE treatment. Field exposures were conducted at the NASA Beachside Corrosion Test Site, Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA. The specimens were subjected to sea water immersion at the test site as a posttreatment exposure. Following a 30-day post-treatment exposure period, the specimens were subjected to indirect tensile testing to evaluate treatment impact. The EN treated specimens exhibited 60% and 30% increases in tensile strength as compared to the untreated controls and ECE treated specimens respectively. The surfaces of the reinforcement bars of the control specimens were 67% covered by corrosion products. In contrast, the EN treated specimens exhibited corrosion coverage of only 4%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a dense concrete microstructure adjacent to the bars of the treated specimens as compared to the control and ECE specimens. Energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) analysis of the polished EN treated specimens showed a reduction in chloride content by a factor of 20 adjacent to the bars. This study demonstrated that EN treatment was successful in forming a chloride penetration barrier rapidly. This work also showed that the chloride barrier was effective when samples were exposed to

  4. Sensitive enantioanalysis of β-blockers via field-amplified sample injection combined with water removal in microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanhua; Zhang, Huige; Rahman, Zia Ur; Wang, Weifeng; Li, Xi; Chen, Hongli; Chen, Xingguo

    2014-10-01

    In this study, an on-line sample preconcentration technique, field-amplified sample injection combined with water removal by electroosmotic flow (EOF) pump, was applied to realize a highly sensitive chiral analysis of β-blocker enantiomers by MEEKC. The introduction of a water plug in capillary before the electrokinetic injection provided the effective preconcentration of chiral compounds. And then the water was moving out of the column from the injection end under the effect of the EOF, which avoided dilution of the stacked β-blocker enantiomers concentration suffering from the presence of water in separation buffer. Moreover, the addition of H3 PO4 and methanol in the sample solution greatly improved the enhancement efficiency further. Under optimized conditions, more than 2700-fold enhancement in sensitivity was obtained for each enantiomer of bupranolol (BU), alprenolol (AL), and propranolol (PRO) via electrokinetic injection. LODs were 0.10, 0.10, 0.12, 0.11, 0.02, and 0.02 ng/mL for S-BU, R-BU, S-AL, R-AL, S-PRO, and R-PRO, respectively. Eventually, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of BU, AL, and PRO in serum samples with good recoveries ranging from 93.4 to 98.2%. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Two-phase Lattice Boltzmann modelling of streaming potentials: influence of the air-water interface on the electrokinetic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Eve-Agnès; Toussaint, Renaud; Jouniaux, Laurence

    2017-02-01

    The streaming potential phenomenon is an electrokinetic effect that occurs in porous media. It is characterized by an electrokinetic (EK) coefficient. The aim of this paper is to simulate the EK coefficient in unsaturated conditions using the Lattice Boltzmann method in a 2-D capillary channel. The multiphase flow is simulated with the model of Shan & Chen. The Poisson-Boltzmann equation is solved by implementing the model of Chai & Shi. The streaming potential response shows a non-monotonous behaviour due to the combination of the increase of charge density and decrease of flow velocity with decreasing water saturation. Using a ζ potential of -20 mV at the air-water interface, an enhancement of a factor 5-30 of the EK coefficient, compared to the saturated state, can be observed due to the positive charge excess at this interface which is magnified by the fluid velocity away from the rock surface. This enhancement is correlated to the fractioning of the bubbles, and to the dynamic state of these bubbles, moving or entrapped in the crevices of the channel.

  6. Electrokinetics and soil decontamination: concepts and overview (Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Karim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrokinetic decontamination and extraction have been proven to be one of the most viable, cost effective and emerging techniques in removing contaminants, especially heavy metals from soils for about last five decades. Basic concepts and an overview of the electrokinetic extraction processes and their potential applications in geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering have been reviewed based on the literature and presented in this paper. Primarily, theoretical and laboratory experimental studies related to electroreclamation of soils are summarised in brief with basic concepts of electrokinetic processes. The paper has been divided into different sections that include history of electrokinetics, background and concepts, modelling, parameter effects, instrumentation, contaminant extraction, field applications, and summary and recommendation. Based on the review it is obvious that the field application of electrokinetic technology to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils /sediments is very limited and site specific. Additional laboratory studies and more pilot- and full-scale information from field applications are critical to the further understanding of the technology and to customize the process in different field conditions.

  7. Hybrid continuum-atomistic approach to model electrokinetics in nanofluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amani, Ehsan, E-mail: eamani@aut.ac.ir; Movahed, Saeid, E-mail: smovahed@aut.ac.ir

    2016-06-07

    In this study, for the first time, a hybrid continuum-atomistic based model is proposed for electrokinetics, electroosmosis and electrophoresis, through nanochannels. Although continuum based methods are accurate enough to model fluid flow and electric potential in nanofluidics (in dimensions larger than 4 nm), ionic concentration is too low in nanochannels for the continuum assumption to be valid. On the other hand, the non-continuum based approaches are too time-consuming and therefore is limited to simple geometries, in practice. Here, to propose an efficient hybrid continuum-atomistic method of modelling the electrokinetics in nanochannels; the fluid flow and electric potential are computed based on continuum hypothesis coupled with an atomistic Lagrangian approach for the ionic transport. The results of the model are compared to and validated by the results of the molecular dynamics technique for a couple of case studies. Then, the influences of bulk ionic concentration, external electric field, size of nanochannel, and surface electric charge on the electrokinetic flow and ionic mass transfer are investigated, carefully. The hybrid continuum-atomistic method is a promising approach to model more complicated geometries and investigate more details of the electrokinetics in nanofluidics. - Highlights: • A hybrid continuum-atomistic model is proposed for electrokinetics in nanochannels. • The model is validated by molecular dynamics. • This is a promising approach to model more complicated geometries and physics.

  8. Drift Modified Longitudinal Electrokinetic Mode in Colloids Laden Semiconductor Quantum Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Chaudhary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dispersion and absorption characteristics of electrokinetic wave in unmagnetised extrinsic semiconductor with streaming carriers are analytically investigated. By using quantum hydrodynamic model, a linear dispersion relation is derived for longitudinal electrokinetic wave in colloids laden semiconductor plasma under slow electrokinetic mode regime. Results indicate that quantum effect through Bohm potential significantly modifies the dispersion and absorption characteristics of electrokinetic wave spectrum. The outcome is hoped to add substantially to the present knowledge of wave spectrum of longitudinal electrokinetic wave in colloids laden quantum semiconductor plasma subjected to a dc electric field along the direction of wave propagation.

  9. Coupling bioleaching and electrokinetics to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qingyun; Yu, Zhen; Pang, Ya; Wang, Yueqiang; Cai, Zhihong

    2015-04-01

    In this study, bioleaching was coupled with electrokinetics (BE) to remove heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb) from contaminated soil. For comparison, bioleaching (BL), electrokinetics (EK), and the chemical extraction method were also applied alone to remove the metals. The results showed that the BE method removed more heavy metals from the contaminated soil than the BL method or the EK method alone. The BE method was able to achieve metal solubilization rates of more than 70 % for Cu, Zn and Cr and of more than 40 % for Pb. Within the range of low current densities (electrokinetics can effectively remediate heavy metal-contaminated soils and that preliminary tests should be conducted before field operation to detect the lowest current density for the greatest metal removal.

  10. Hair analysis for methamphetamine, ketamine, morphine and codeine by cation-selective exhaustive injection and sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Hui; Lee, Maw-Rong; Lee, Ren-Jye; Ko, Wei-Kung; Wu, Shou-Mei

    2007-03-23

    We established a capillary electrophoretic method with high sensitivity and specificity for testing hair taken from addicts. After pretreatment of hair sample, the cation-selective exhaustive injection and sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CSEI-Sweep-MEKC) was used to test for the presence of abused drugs in human hair. These drugs include morphine (M), codeine (C), ketamine (K) and methamphetamine (MA). First, an uncoated fused-silica capillary (40 cm, 50 microm I.D.) was filled with phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 2.5) containing 30% methanol, followed by high conductivity buffer (100 mM phosphate, 6.9 kPa for 99.9 s). Electrokinetic injection (10 kV, 600 s) was used to load samples and to enhance sensitivity. Stacking steps and separations were performed at -20 kV with detection at 200 nm, using phosphate buffer (25 mM, pH 2.5) containing 20% methanol and 100 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate. Using CSEI-Sweep-MEKC, the analytes could be simultaneously analyzed and have a detection limit down to the level of picogram per milligram hair. During method validation, calibration plots were linear (r > or = 0.999) over a range of 0.15-80 ng/mg hair for MA and K, 0.3-30 ng/mg hair for C and 0.5-50 ng/mg hair for M. The limits of detection were 50 pg/mg hair for MA and K, 100 pg/mg hair for C and 200 pg/mg hair for M (S/N=3, sampling 600 s at 10 kV). Our method was applied for analysis of real hair samples taken from addicts. The addicts' specimens were also analyzed by LC-MS, and showed good coincidence of results. This method has proven feasible for application in detecting trace levels of abused drugs in forensic analysis.

  11. Gas-Filled Capillary Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauer, L. C.; Kimura, W. D.

    2006-11-01

    We have developed a 1-D, quasi-steady-state numerical model for a gas-filled capillary discharge that is designed to aid in selecting the optimum capillary radius in order to guide a laser beam with the required intensity through the capillary. The model also includes the option for an external solenoid B-field around the capillary, which increases the depth of the parabolic density channel in the capillary, thereby allowing for propagation of smaller laser beam waists. The model has been used to select the parameters for gas-filled capillaries to be utilized during the Staged Electron Laser Acceleration — Laser Wakefield (STELLA-LW) experiment.

  12. Chiral separation by capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gübitz, G; Schmid, M G

    2000-01-01

    The state of art in chiral capillary electrochromatography is reviewed. Chiral separations by capillary electrochromatography were carried out using capillaries packed with chiral stationary phases or achiral stationary phases in combination with a chiral selector added to the mobile phase. Furthermore, the use of open tubular capillaries containing the chiral selector coated to the capillary wall was also reported. Among other separation principles moleculary imprinted polymers represent a challenging approach for chiral capillary electrochromatography. A recent trend is the use of polymeric continuous beds with a chiral selector incorporated.

  13. Determination of Nicotine in Tobacco by Chemometric Optimization and Cation-Selective Exhaustive Injection in Combination with Sweeping-Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hui Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicotine is a potent chemical that excites the central nervous system and refreshes people. It is also physically addictive and causes dependence. To reduce the harm of tobacco products for smokers, a law was introduced that requires tobacco product containers to be marked with the amount of nicotine as well as tar. In this paper, an online stacking capillary electrophoresis (CE method with cation-selective exhaustive injection sweeping-micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CSEI-sweeping-MEKC is proposed for the optimized analysis of nicotine in tobacco. A higher conductivity buffer (160 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3 zone was injected into the capillary, allowing for the analytes to be electrokinetically injected at a voltage of 15 kV for 15 min. Using 50 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate and 25% methanol in the sweeping buffer, nicotine was detected with high sensitivity. Thus, optimized conditions adapted from a chemometric approach provided a 6000-fold increase in the nicotine detection sensitivity using the CSEI-sweeping-MEKC method in comparison to normal CZE. The limits of detection were 0.5 nM for nicotine. The stacking method in combination with direct injection which matrix components would not interfere with assay performance was successfully applied to the detection of nicotine in tobacco samples.

  14. Biomimetic Unidirectional Capillary Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Eric; Moran, Patrick; Dahl, Jason

    2017-11-01

    In arid environments animals require specialized adaptations to collect adequate water. The Texas horned lizard (P. cornutum) has superhydrophylic skin which draws water out of moist soil or directly from water sources. The water then makes its way into the lizard's unidirectional capillary system, made of overlapping scales, which serves to channel water to its mouth. Testing different channel geometries, repeated ``D'' shaped chambers as in Commans et al. (2015) and truncated isosceles triangle chambers, as found in P. cornutum, we show the ability to have passive, unidirectional, fluid transport. Tests were carried out with the capillaries in a horizontal configuration. While both capillary geometries produced the desired traits, the triangular chambers showed superior unidirectionality, with no observed back flow, while ``D'' chambers showed back flow under testing conditions. The chambers provided similar flow rates. These types of channel systems will find use in microfluidics, notably in medical, printing, and lab-on-chip applications.

  15. How Capillary Rafts Sink

    CERN Document Server

    Protiere, S; Aristoff, J; Stone, H

    2010-01-01

    We present a fluid dynamics video showing how capillary rafts sink. Small objects trapped at an interface are very common in Nature (insects walking on water, ant rafts, bubbles or pollen at the water-air interface, membranes...) and are found in many multiphase industrial processes. Thanks to Archimedes principle we can easily predict whether an object sinks or floats. But what happens when several small particles are placed at an interface between two fluids. In this case surface tension also plays an important role. These particles self-assemble by capillarity and thus form what we call a "capillary raft". We show how such capillary rafts sink for varying sizes of particles and define how this parameter affects the sinking process.

  16. Salt Induced Decay of Masonry and Electrokinetic Repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    without increased salt content. The types and concentrations of salts found in relation to building stone vary greatly and depend on the stone type and the environment around the building. In general most common salts are sulphates, chlorides and nitrates. These include CaSO4, Na2SO4, MgSO4,KCl and KNO3...... from brick masonry and also how much the removal rate can be increased by application of the electric field compared to diffusion alone. Some main differences occur between electrokinetic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil and electrokinetic removal of salts from brick masonry. The ions...

  17. Parallel analysis and orthogonal identification of N-glycans with different capillary electrophoresis mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Hua-tao [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); NUS Environmental Research Institute, 5A Engineering Drive 1, T-Lab Building, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Su, Min; Rifai, Farida Nur [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Li, Pingjing [NUS Environmental Research Institute, 5A Engineering Drive 1, T-Lab Building, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Li, Sam F.Y., E-mail: chmlifys@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); NUS Environmental Research Institute, 5A Engineering Drive 1, T-Lab Building, Singapore 117411 (Singapore)

    2017-02-08

    The deep involvement of glycans or carbohydrate moieties in biological processes makes glycan patterns an important direction for the clinical and medicine researches. A multiplexing CE mapping method for glycan analysis was developed in this study. By applying different CE separation mechanisms, the potential of combined parallel applications of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) for rapid and accurate identification of glycan was investigated. The combination of CZE and MEKC demonstrated enhancing chromatography separation capacity without the compromises of sample pre-treatment and glycan concentration. The separation mechanisms for multiplexing platform were selected based on the orthogonalities of the separation of glycan standards. MEKC method exhibited promising ability for the analysis of small GU value glycans and thus complementing the unavailability of CZE. The method established required only small amount of samples, simple instrument and single fluorescent labelling for sensitive detection. This integrated method can be used to search important glycan patterns appearing in biopharmaceutical products and other glycoproteins with clinical importance. - Highlights: • Cross-validation of analytes in complex samples was done with different CE separation mechanisms. • A simple strategy is used to confirm peak identification and extend capacity of CE separation. • The method uses small amount of sample, simple instrument and single fluorescent labeling. • Selection of mechanisms is based on orthogonalities of GU values of glycan standards. • Micellar electrokinetic chromatography was suitable for analysis of small or highly sialylated glycans.

  18. MICELLAR ELECTROKINETIC CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY (R823292)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combination of micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) with mass spectrometry (MS) is very attractive for the direct identification of analyte molecules, for the possibility of selectivity enhancement, and for the structure confirmation and analysis in a MS-MS mode. The...

  19. Electrokinetic confinement of axonal growth for dynamically configurable neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honegger, Thibault; Scott, Mark A.; Yanik, Mehmet F.; Voldman, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Axons in the developing nervous system are directed via guidance cues, whose expression varies both spatially and temporally, to create functional neural circuits. Existing methods to create patterns of neural connectivity in vitro use only static geometries, and are unable to dynamically alter the guidance cues imparted on the cells. We introduce the use of AC electrokinetics to dynamically control axonal growth in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. We find that the application of modest voltages at frequencies on the order of 105 Hz can cause developing axons to be stopped adjacent to the electrodes while axons away from the electric fields exhibit uninhibited growth. By switching electrodes on or off, we can reversibly inhibit or permit axon passage across the electrodes. Our models suggest that dielectrophoresis is the causative AC electrokinetic effect. We make use of our dynamic control over axon elongation to create an axon-diode via an axon-lock system that consists of a pair of electrode `gates' that either permit or prevent axons from passing through. Finally, we developed a neural circuit consisting of three populations of neurons, separated by three axon-locks to demonstrate the assembly of a functional, engineered neural network. Action potential recordings demonstrate that the AC electrokinetic effect does not harm axons, and Ca2+ imaging demonstrated the unidirectional nature of the synaptic connections. AC electrokinetic confinement of axonal growth has potential for creating configurable, directional neural networks. PMID:23314575

  20. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge by an electrokinetic process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, A.B.; Couto, N.; Mateus, E.P.

    , the matrix volume will be significantly reduced and, at the same time, organic contaminants (such as PCB, PAH, …) will be thermally destructed. However, heavy metals still remain in the ashes and, to “re-use” them as fertilizer, inorganic contaminants should be removed. Electrokinetic transport process (EK...

  1. Electrokinetic copper and iron migration in anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virkutyte, J.; Sillanpää, M.J.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2006-01-01

    The application of low-level direct electric current (0.15 mA cm¿2) as an electrokinetic technique to treat copper-contaminated mesophilic anaerobic granular sludge was investigated. The sludge was obtained from a full scale UASB reactor treating paper-mill wastewater and was artificially

  2. Trajectory Control of Self-Propelled Micromotors Using AC Electrokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizumi, Yoshitaka; Honegger, Thibault; Berton, Kevin; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Peyrade, David

    2015-11-11

    3D control of the motion of self-powered micromotors is demonstrated using AC electrokinetics by applying an AC electric field on indium tin oxide transparent electrodes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. An AC electrokinetics facilitated biosensor cassette for rapid pathogen identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Mengxing; Mohan, Ruchika; Lu, Yi; Liu, Tingting; Mach, Kathleen E; Sin, Mandy L Y; McComb, Mason; Joshi, Janhvi; Gau, Vincent; Wong, Pak Kin; Liao, Joseph C

    2013-07-07

    To develop a portable point-of-care system based on biosensors for common infectious diseases such as urinary tract infection, the sensing process needs to be implemented within an enclosed fluidic system. On chip sample preparation of clinical samples remains a significant obstacle to achieving robust sensor performance. Herein AC electrokinetics is applied in an electrochemical biosensor cassette to enhance molecular convection and hybridization efficiency through electrokinetics induced fluid motion and Joule heating induced temperature elevation. Using E. coli as an exemplary pathogen, we determined the optimal electrokinetic parameters for detecting bacterial 16S rRNA in the biosensor cassette based on the current output, signal-to-noise ratio, and limit of detection. In addition, a panel of six probe sets targeting common uropathogenic bacteria was demonstrated. The optimized parameters were also validated using patient-derived clinical urine samples. The effectiveness of electrokinetics for on chip sample preparation will facilitate the implementation of point-of-care diagnosis of urinary tract infection in the future.

  4. Hybrid electrokinetics for separation, mixing, and concentration of colloidal particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Mandy L Y; Shimabukuro, Yusuke; Wong, Pak Kin

    2009-04-22

    The advent of nanotechnology has facilitated the preparation of colloidal particles with adjustable sizes and the control of their size-dependent properties. Physical manipulation, such as separation, mixing, and concentration, of these colloidal particles represents an essential step for fully utilizing their potential in a wide spectrum of nanotechnology applications. In this study, we investigate hybrid electrokinetics, the combination of dielectrophoresis and electrohydrodynamics, for active manipulation of colloidal particles ranging from nanometers to micrometers in size. A concentric electrode configuration, which is optimized for generating electrohydrodynamic flow, has been designed to elucidate the effectiveness of hybrid electrokinetics and define the operating regimes for different microfluidic operations. The results indicate that the relative importance of electrohydrodynamics increases with decreasing particle size as predicted by a scaling analysis and that electrohydrodynamics is pivotal for manipulating nanoscale particles. Using the concentric electrodes, we demonstrate separation, mixing, and concentration of colloidal particles by adjusting the relative strengths of different electrokinetic phenomena. The effectiveness of hybrid electrokinetics indicates its potential to serve as a generic technique for active manipulation of colloidal particles in various nanotechnology applications.

  5. Hybrid electrokinetics for separation, mixing, and concentration of colloidal particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sin, Mandy L Y; Shimabukuro, Yusuke; Wong, Pak Kin [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)], E-mail: pak@email.arizona.edu

    2009-04-22

    The advent of nanotechnology has facilitated the preparation of colloidal particles with adjustable sizes and the control of their size-dependent properties. Physical manipulation, such as separation, mixing, and concentration, of these colloidal particles represents an essential step for fully utilizing their potential in a wide spectrum of nanotechnology applications. In this study, we investigate hybrid electrokinetics, the combination of dielectrophoresis and electrohydrodynamics, for active manipulation of colloidal particles ranging from nanometers to micrometers in size. A concentric electrode configuration, which is optimized for generating electrohydrodynamic flow, has been designed to elucidate the effectiveness of hybrid electrokinetics and define the operating regimes for different microfluidic operations. The results indicate that the relative importance of electrohydrodynamics increases with decreasing particle size as predicted by a scaling analysis and that electrohydrodynamics is pivotal for manipulating nanoscale particles. Using the concentric electrodes, we demonstrate separation, mixing, and concentration of colloidal particles by adjusting the relative strengths of different electrokinetic phenomena. The effectiveness of hybrid electrokinetics indicates its potential to serve as a generic technique for active manipulation of colloidal particles in various nanotechnology applications.

  6. AC Electrokinetics Facilitated Biosensor Cassette for Rapid Pathogen Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Mengxing; Mohan, Ruchika; Lu, Yi; Liu, Tingting; Mach, Kathleen E.; Sin, Mandy L. Y.; McComb, Mason; Joshi, Janhvi; Gau, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    To develop a portable point-of-care system based on biosensors for common infectious diseases such as urinary tract infection, the sensing process needs to be implemented within an enclosed fluidic system. On chip sample preparation of clinical samples remains a significant obstacle to achieve robust sensor performance. Herein AC electrokinetics is applied in an electrochemical biosensor cassette to enhance molecular convection and hybridization efficiency though electrokinetic induced fluid motion and Joule heating induced temperature elevation. Using E. coli as an exemplary pathogen, we determined the optimal electrokinetic parameters for detecting bacterial 16S rRNA in the biosensor cassette based on the current output, signal-to-noise ratio, and limit of detection. In addition, a panel of six probe sets targeting common uropathogenic bacteria was demonstrated. The optimized parameters were also validated using patient-derived clinical urine samples. The effectiveness of electrokinetic for on chip sample preparation will facilitate the implementation of point-of-care diagnosis of urinary tract infection in the future. PMID:23626988

  7. Hybrid continuum-atomistic approach to model electrokinetics in nanofluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amani, Ehsan; Movahed, Saeid

    2016-06-07

    In this study, for the first time, a hybrid continuum-atomistic based model is proposed for electrokinetics, electroosmosis and electrophoresis, through nanochannels. Although continuum based methods are accurate enough to model fluid flow and electric potential in nanofluidics (in dimensions larger than 4 nm), ionic concentration is too low in nanochannels for the continuum assumption to be valid. On the other hand, the non-continuum based approaches are too time-consuming and therefore is limited to simple geometries, in practice. Here, to propose an efficient hybrid continuum-atomistic method of modelling the electrokinetics in nanochannels; the fluid flow and electric potential are computed based on continuum hypothesis coupled with an atomistic Lagrangian approach for the ionic transport. The results of the model are compared to and validated by the results of the molecular dynamics technique for a couple of case studies. Then, the influences of bulk ionic concentration, external electric field, size of nanochannel, and surface electric charge on the electrokinetic flow and ionic mass transfer are investigated, carefully. The hybrid continuum-atomistic method is a promising approach to model more complicated geometries and investigate more details of the electrokinetics in nanofluidics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. ELECTROKINETIC DEVICE AND METHOD FOR CONSOLIDATING POROUS MATERIALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a device and an associated electrokinetic method which allows the pores (superficial and deep) of a porous material to be filled, by forcing the precipitation therein of a product of low solubility in water by creating an electric field which will mobilise the cations and...

  9. Determination of voriconazole in human serum and plasma by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurillat, Regula; Zimmerli, Stefan; Thormann, Wolfgang

    2010-12-15

    The micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) separation and analysis of voriconazole and UK 115794 (internal standard) were examined and an assay for determination of voriconazole in human plasma and serum was developed. The MEKC medium comprises a 2:15 (v/v) mixture of methanol and a pH 9.3 buffer composed of 5mM Na(2)B(4)O(7), 7 mM Na(2)HPO(4) and 54 mM SDS. Sample preparation is based upon liquid/liquid extraction with ethylacetate and dichloromethane (75%/25%) at physiological pH. Using this approach with 250 microl serum or plasma and reconstitution of the dried extract into 100 microl of a buffer composed of 0.5mM Na(2)B(4)O(7) and 0.7 mM Na(2)HPO(4) (pH 9.3), the detection and quantitation limits were determined to be 0.1 and 0.2 microg/ml, respectively, a sensitivity that is suitable for therapeutic drug monitoring of voriconazole (provisional therapeutic range: 1-6 microg/ml) in human plasma and serum samples. The method was validated and compared to an HPLC method, showing excellent agreement between the two for a set of 91 samples that stemmed from patients being treated with voriconazole. The MEKC assay is also demonstrated to be suitable to explore pharmacokinetic data of voriconazole. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental monitoring of phenolic pollutants in water by cloud point extraction prior to micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stege, Patricia W; Sombra, Lorena L; Messina, Germán A; Martinez, Luis D; Silva, María F

    2009-05-01

    Many aromatic compounds can be found in the environment as a result of anthropogenic activities and some of them are highly toxic. The need to determine low concentrations of pollutants requires analytical methods with high sensitivity, selectivity, and resolution for application to soil, sediment, water, and other environmental samples. Complex sample preparation involving analyte isolation and enrichment is generally necessary before the final analysis. The present paper outlines a novel, simple, low-cost, and environmentally friendly method for the simultaneous determination of p-nitrophenol (PNP), p-aminophenol (PAP), and hydroquinone (HQ) by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography after preconcentration by cloud point extraction. Enrichment factors of 180 to 200 were achieved. The limits of detection of the analytes for the preconcentration of 50-ml sample volume were 0.10 microg L(-1) for PNP, 0.20 microg L(-1) for PAP, and 0.16 microg L(-1) for HQ. The optimized procedure was applied to the determination of phenolic pollutants in natural waters from San Luis, Argentina.

  11. Using micellar electrokinetic chromatography for the highly efficient preconcentration and separation of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-Ken

    2009-03-20

    In this paper, we report the use of micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) for the highly efficient preconcentration and separation of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). We used the reversed electrode polarity stacking mode (REPSM) of the MEKC system for the on-line enhancement and separation of the Au NPs. Several parameters had dramatic effects on the systems' performance, including the concentration of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) surfactant, the presence of salts in the NP solution, the pH of the running electrolyte, and the temperature of the capillary. Under the optimized conditions [buffer: SDS (70 mM) and 3-cyclohexylamino-1-propanesulfonic acid (CAPS; 10 mM) at pH 10.0; applied voltage: 20 kV; operating temperature: 25 degrees C; additive: sodium dihydrogenphosphate (NaH(2)PO(4), 10 mM); REPSM strategy for sample preconcentration], the number of theoretical plates for the 5.3- and 40.1-nm-diameter Au NPs were 3000 and (an ultrahigh) 2.1 x 10(6), respectively; in addition, the detection sensitivities toward the Au NPs were enhanced ca. 20- and 380-fold, respectively, relative to those obtained using standard MEKC analysis conditions. Furthermore, monitoring the electropherograms using diode-array detection allowed us to identify and characterize the sizes of the separated NPs from their UV-vis spectra. Our findings suggest that MEKC is a highly efficient tool for both the preconcentration and separation of NPs.

  12. Environmental monitoring of phenolic pollutants in water by cloud point extraction prior to micellar electrokinetic chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stege, Patricia W.; Sombra, Lorena L.; Messina, German A.; Martinez, Luis D. [National University of San Luis, CONICET, INQUISAL, Department of Chemistry, San Luis (Argentina); Silva, Maria F. [Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Departamento de Biomatematica y Fisicoquimica, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Mendoza (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnologicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-05-15

    Many aromatic compounds can be found in the environment as a result of anthropogenic activities and some of them are highly toxic. The need to determine low concentrations of pollutants requires analytical methods with high sensitivity, selectivity, and resolution for application to soil, sediment, water, and other environmental samples. Complex sample preparation involving analyte isolation and enrichment is generally necessary before the final analysis. The present paper outlines a novel, simple, low-cost, and environmentally friendly method for the simultaneous determination of p-nitrophenol (PNP), p-aminophenol (PAP), and hydroquinone (HQ) by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography after preconcentration by cloud point extraction. Enrichment factors of 180 to 200 were achieved. The limits of detection of the analytes for the preconcentration of 50-ml sample volume were 0.10{mu}g L{sup -1} for PNP, 0.20 {mu}g L{sup -1} for PAP, and 0.16{mu}g L{sup -1} for HQ. The optimized procedure was applied to the determination of phenolic pollutants in natural waters from San Luis, Argentina. (orig.)

  13. Identification of ɛ-caprolactam, melamine and urea in polyvinylpyrrolidone powders by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, A

    2014-03-01

    A sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar electrokinetic chromatography (SDS-MEKC) method for the simultaneous separation and identification of ɛ-caprolactam, melamine and urea deliberately added to polyvinylpyrrolidone (povidone) products has been developed. All samples to be analyzed contained paracetamol as an internal marker (IM). The optimized separations were performed in 50mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 2% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in fused silica capillaries with UV absorption detection at 200nm. The method was validated with respect to repeatability and intermediate precision, selectivity and robustness with satisfactory results. The relative migration times (RMT) were found to be between 0.03% and 0.13% for intra-day precision and between 0.50% and 0.60% for inter-day precision in four days. The detection limits were determined to be 1.3 (11.5μM), 0.4 (3.5μM) and 41μg/ml (0.4mM) for ɛ-caprolactam, melamine and urea, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Separation and sweeping of flavonoids by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography using mixed anionic and cationic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jun; Dun, Wen-Liang

    2011-03-15

    In this report, a novel means for the separation and sweeping of flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, calycosin, ononin and calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside) by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography using mixed anionic and cationic surfactants as modified pseudostationary phase was presented. The optimized background electrolyte consisted of 0.5% (w/v) ethyl acetate, 2.0% (w/v) SDS, 9 mM DTAC, 4.0% (w/v) 1-butanol and 10mM sodium borate or 25 mM phosphoric acid. We systematically investigated the separation and preconcentration conditions, including the concentrations of surfactant, types of sweeping, sample matrix, the effect of high salt or acetonitrile, and sample injection volume. It was found that the use of mixed surfactants significantly enhanced the separation efficiency through the change of the efficient electrophoretic mobility of analytes. Compared with normal sample injection, 185-508-fold sensitivity enhancement in terms of limit of detection was achieved through effective sweeping of large sample volume at 50 mbar pressure (up to 45% capillary length). At last, the proposed method was suitable for the determination of Radix Astragali sample. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ambient pressure effects on the electrokinetic potential of Zeonor-water interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Vishal; Kirby, Brian J

    2011-09-01

    Using phase-sensitive streaming potential experiments in a vacuum chamber, we demonstrate that lowering the ambient pressure of the air surrounding a hydrophobic, Zeonor microfluidic substrate results in a decrease in the time scale required for equilibration of the electrokinetic potential. At ambient air pressures below 0.74 atm, the electrokinetic potential changes from ∼-84 mV to ∼-11 mV in 5 h, while the same decrease occurs in a period of over 200 h when the system is at 1 atm. Returning a sub-atmospheric system (where the electrokinetic potential had equilibrated to -11 mV) to atmospheric pressure did not result in any additional change in the electrokinetic potential. This can be described as a type of hysteresis of the electrokinetic potential with dissolved gas concentration. No time or pressure dependence was observed for the electrokinetic potential of hydrophilic (silica) substrates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Practical capillary electrophoresis

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberger, Robert

    2000-01-01

    In the 1980s, capillary electrophoresis (CE) joined high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as the most powerful separation technique available to analytical chemists and biochemists. Published research using CE grew from 48 papers in the year of commercial introduction (1988) to 1200 in 1997. While only a dozen major pharmaceutical and biotech companies have reduced CE to routine practice, the applications market is showing real or potential growth in key areas, particularly in the DNA marketplace for genomic mapping and forensic identification. For drug development involving small molecules (including chiral separations), one CE instrument can replace 10 liquid chromatographs in terms of speed of analysis. CE also uses aqueous rather than organic solvents and is thus environmentally friendlier than HPLC. The second edition of Practical Capillary Electrophoresis has been extensively reorganized and rewritten to reflect modern usage in the field, with an emphasis on commercially available apparatus and ...

  17. Electrokinetic Particle Transport in Micro-Nanofluidics Direct Numerical Simulation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Shizhi

    2012-01-01

    Numerous applications of micro-/nanofluidics are related to particle transport in micro-/nanoscale channels, and electrokinetics has proved to be one of the most promising tools to manipulate particles in micro/nanofluidics. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of electrokinetic particle transport in micro-/nanoscale channels is crucial to the development of micro/nano-fluidic devices. Electrokinetic Particle Transport in Micro-/Nanofluidics: Direct Numerical Simulation Analysis provides a fundamental understanding of electrokinetic particle transport in micro-/nanofluidics involving elect

  18. Electromagnetohydrodynamic flow of blood and heat transfer in a capillary with thermal radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, A. [Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Shit, G.C., E-mail: gopal_iitkgp@yahoo.co.in [Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai 600113 (India)

    2015-03-15

    This paper presents a comprehensive theoretical study on heat transfer characteristics together with fully developed electromagnetohydrodynamic flow of blood through a capillary, having electrokinetic effects by considering the constant heat flux at the wall. The effect of thermal radiation and velocity slip condition have been taken into account. A rigorous mathematical model for describing Joule heating in electro-osmotic flow of blood including the Poisson–Boltzmann equation, the momentum equation and the energy equation is developed. The alterations in the thermal transport phenomenon, induced by the variation of imposed electromagnetic effects, are thoroughly explained through an elegant mathematical formalism. Results presented here pertain to the case where the height of the capillary is much greater than the thickness of electrical double layer comprising the stern and diffuse layers. The essential features of the electromagnetohydrodynamic flow of blood and associated heat transfer characteristics through capillary are clearly highlighted by the variations in the non-dimensional parameters for velocity profile, temperature profile and the Nusselt number. The study reveals that the temperature of blood can be controlled by regulating Joule heating parameter. - Highlights: • Electromagnetohydrodynamic flow of blood in capillary is studied. • Potential electric field is applied for driving elecroosmotic flow of blood. • Effect of thermal radiation, Joule heating and velocity slip is investigated. • Thermal radiation bears the significant change in the temperature field.

  19. Transport of nanoparticles and reacting biomolecules in micro- and nanofluidic electrokinetic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Thomas Mikio

    Micro and nanofluidic systems are ideal platforms for breakthrough bioanalytical tools. In particular, transport in nanoscale channels has been shown to be different than microscale systems because of unique coupled physics associated with wall interactions, electrokinetic surface phenomena and hydrodynamic confinement. Furthermore, understanding the effects of reaction kinetics during capillary electrophoresis is necessary for reliable bioanalytical tools with reacting species. We present experimental data and numerical simulation to elucidate the dominant physics at these lengths scales toward enabling nanofluidic bioanalytical devices. First, we present an experimental study to measure the effect channel height and ionic strength on the electrophoretic mobility of spherical nanoparticles and short single strand (ss) and double strand (ds) DNA with channel depths ranging from 20 microns to 100 nm. We find increased hydrodynamic drag in confinement, nanoparticle rotation effects for spherical analytes in sheer flows, non-uniform electro-osmotic velocity profiles, and electrostatic repulsion of thick electric double layers to be important effects on transport. Second, we present an experimental study of electrokinetic separations of short, complementary ss and dsDNA in microchannels. We find different phenomena are significant for the three different DNA lengths in the study (10nt, 20nt, and 50nt). Reaction kinetic effects are significant for the shortest length DNA, where the melting temperature is comparable to room temperature. For longer 20 and 50nt DNA, the melting temperatures are sufficiently high and reaction kinetic effects are constant. In addition, the 50 nt ssDNA contour length is greater than the persistence length and we find changes in electrophoretic mobility with ionic strength resulting from changes in conformation. Finally, we present numerical simulations of the previous study on separations of reacting DNA. Reaction kinetics can affect the

  20. Modeling Electrokinetic Flows by the Smoothed Profile Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xian; Beskok, Ali; Karniadakis, George Em

    2010-01-01

    We propose an efficient modeling method for electrokinetic flows based on the Smoothed Profile Method (SPM) [1–4] and spectral element discretizations. The new method allows for arbitrary differences in the electrical conductivities between the charged surfaces and the the surrounding electrolyte solution. The electrokinetic forces are included into the flow equations so that the Poisson-Boltzmann and electric charge continuity equations are cast into forms suitable for SPM. The method is validated by benchmark problems of electroosmotic flow in straight channels and electrophoresis of charged cylinders. We also present simulation results of electrophoresis of charged microtubules, and show that the simulated electrophoretic mobility and anisotropy agree with the experimental values. PMID:20352076

  1. Increasing the Sensitivity of ELISA using Multiplexed Electrokinetic Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheow, Lih Feng; Ko, Sung Hee; Kim, Sung Jae; Kang, Kwan Hyoung; Han, Jongyoon

    2010-01-01

    We developed a novel method to increase the sensitivity of standard Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) using a multiplexed electrokinetic concentration chip. The poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) molecular concentrator1 was used to trap and collect charged fluorescent product of target-bound enzyme turnover reaction of ELISA that occurred in a standard 96 well plate. Detection sensitivities of both Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) and CA 19-9 (a human pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer marker) ELISAs in serum are enhanced ~100 fold with a low CV of electrokinetic accumulation step. This chip can be directly applied to enhance the readout sensitivity of a wide range of existing ELISA kits at concentrations below the current detection limit. PMID:20307052

  2. Sheathless electrokinetic particle separation in a bifurcating microchannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; Lu, Xinyu; Song, Yongxin; Wang, Junsheng; Li, Dongqing

    2016-01-01

    Particle separation has found practical applications in many areas from industry to academia. Current electrokinetic particle separation techniques primarily rely on dielectrophoresis, where the electric field gradients are generated by either active microelectrodes or inert micro-insulators. We develop herein a new type of electrokinetic method to continuously separate particles in a bifurcating microchannel. This sheath-free separation makes use of the inherent wall-induced electrical lift to focus particles towards the centerline of the main-branch and then deflect them to size-dependent flow paths in each side-branch. A theoretical model is also developed to understand such a size-based separation, which simulates the experimental observations with a good agreement. This electric field-driven sheathless separation can potentially be operated in a parallel or cascade mode to increase the particle throughput or resolution. PMID:27703590

  3. Reduction of waste solution volume generated on electrokinetic remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gye-Nam; Koo, Dae-Seo; Kim, Seung-Soo; Jeong, Jung-Whan; Han, Gyu-Seong; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, for the reduction of volume of metal oxides generated in cathode chamber, the optimum pH of waste electrolyte in cathode chamber were drawn out through several experiments with the manufactured electrokinetic decontamination equipment. Also, the required time to reach to below the clearance concentration level for self- disposal was estimated through experiments using the manufactured electrokinetic decontamination equipment. A diagram of soil decontamination process for the removal of uranium from contaminated soil was drawn out. The optimum pH of waste electrolyte in cathode chamber for the reduction of volume of metal oxides was below 2.35. Also, when the initial uranium concentration of the soils were 7-20 Bq/g, the required times to reach to below the clearance concentration level for self- disposal were 25-40 days. A diagram of soil decontamination process for the removal of uranium from contaminated soil was drawn out.

  4. Electrokinetics: insights from simulation on the microscopic scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, Benjamin; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio

    2013-04-01

    Electrokinetic effects, i.e. the coupled hydrodynamic and electric phenomena which occur near charged interfaces, constitute a challenge to theorists due to the variety of length and time scales involved. We discuss recent advances in the modelling of these phenomena, emphasising the interplay between the molecular specificity and the collective induced flows that emerge. We discuss the complementary simulation methodologies that have been developed either to focus on the molecular aspects of electrokinetics or on their effective properties on larger scales, as well as the proposed hybrid schemes that can incorporate both aspects. We highlight the insights that molecular studies have brought on the nature of interfacial charges and their implications for kinetic phenomena in confined fluids and also discuss advances in a number of relevant contexts.

  5. Electrokinetic determination of the buffer capacity of Andisols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Mario V; Hernández-Luis, Felipe; Benjumea, Dora; Grandoso, Domingo; Lemus, Mercedes; Arbelo, Carmen D

    2007-05-25

    Among methods which involve the flow of electric current, the electro-remediation techniques have shown useful both for the removal of polluting species, and for obtaining a series of parameters in relatively laboratory simple experiments which can be used to characterize soils. This technique was applied in the present study to obtain experimental results with two soils from Tenerife. The capacity of the method as methodology for the measurement of the buffering capacity of these soils during electrokinetic experiments was analyzed. The results obtained on electrokinetic determination of buffer capacity correlated quite well with behaviour observed in the pH curves. The technique was promising for soil description primarily because important information could be obtained in shorter time periods than those required when using routine laboratory methods of soil analysis.

  6. Joule Heating Effects on Electrokinetic Flow Instabilities in Ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumme, Christian; Shaw, Ryan; Zhou, Yilong; Prabhakaran, Rama; Xuan, Xiangchun

    We have demonstrated in our earlier work that the application of a tangential electric field can draw fluid instabilities at the interface of a ferrofluid/water co-flow. These electrokinetic flow instabilities are produced primarily by the mismatch of electric conductivities of the two fluids. We demonstrate in this talk that the Joule heating induced fluid temperature rises and gradients can significantly suppress the electrokinetic flow instabilities. We also develop a two-dimensional depth-averaged numerical model to predict the fluid temperature, flow and concentration fields in the two-fluid system with the goal to understand the Joule heating effects on electric field-driven ferrofluid flow instabilities. This work was supported by the Honors and Creative Inquiry programs at Clemson University.

  7. Bubble-free electrokinetic flow with propylene carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritharan, Deepa; Chen, Abraham Simpson; Aluthgama, Prabhath; Naved, Bilal; Smela, Elisabeth

    2015-10-01

    For electroosmotic pumping, a large direct-current (DC) electric field (10+ V/cm) is applied across a liquid, typically an aqueous electrolyte. At these high voltages, water undergoes electrolysis to form hydrogen and oxygen, generating bubbles that can block the electrodes, cause pressure fluctuations, and lead to pump failure. The requirement to manage these gases constrains system designs. This article presents an alternative polar liquid for DC electrokinetic pumping, propylene carbonate (PC), which remains free of bubbles up to at least 10 kV/cm. This offers the opportunity to create electrokinetic devices in closed configurations, which we demonstrate with a fully sealed microfluidic hydraulic actuator. Furthermore, the electroosmotic velocity of PC is similar to that of water in PDMS microchannels. Thus, water could be substituted by PC in existing electroosmotic pumps. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Direct Injection of Seawater for the Analysis of Nitroaromatic Explosives and their Degradation Products by Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    micellar electrokinetic chromatography Braden C. Giordanoa,∗, Dean S. Burgib, Greg E. Collinsa a Uanited States Naval Research Laboratory, Chemistry... electrokinetic chromatography Seawater Nitroaromatic explosives Stacking a b s t r a c t Practical considerations for the injection and separation of...nitroaromatic explosives in seawater sam- ple matrices are discussed. The use of high surfactant concentrations and long electrokinetic injections

  9. DURIP: Electrokinetic Injection and Separation System for Analysis of Protein and Peptide Transport, Adsorption and Kinetics Instrumentation Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-18

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: We requested equipment necessary to build an electrokinetic injection and separation system for the analysis of protein...Jul-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: DURIP: Electrokinetic Injection and Separation System for Analysis of... electrokinetic , peptide transport, adsorption, darkfield, nanofluidics REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR

  10. Ion guiding in alumina capillaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhász, Z.; Sulik, B.; Biri, S.

    2009-01-01

    Transmission of a few keV impact energy Ne ions through capillaries in anodic alumina membranes has been studied with different ion counting methods using an energy dispersive electrostatic spectrometer, a multichannel plate (MCP) array and sensitive current-measurement. In the present work, we...... focus our attention to the measurements with the MCP array. The alumina capillaries were prepared by electro-chemical oxidation of aluminium foils. For the present experiments guiding of 3-6 keV Ne ions has been studied in two samples with capillary diameter of about 140 nm and 260 nm and with capillary...

  11. A simple novel device for air sampling by electrokinetic capture

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Julian; Gandhi, Prasanthi; Shekhawat, Gajendra; Frazier, Angel; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2015-01-01

    Background A variety of different sampling devices are currently available to acquire air samples for the study of the microbiome of the air. All have a degree of technical complexity that limits deployment. Here, we evaluate the use of a novel device, which has no technical complexity and is easily deployable. Results An air-cleaning device powered by electrokinetic propulsion has been adapted to provide a universal method for collecting samples of the aerobiome. Plasma-induced charge in aer...

  12. Using water plug-assisted analyte focusing by micelle collapse in combination with microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography for analyzing phthalate esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Hsi-Chun; Liao, Hsiao-Wei; Kuo, Ching-Hua

    2016-05-06

    Phthalate plasticizers are widely used in the plastics industry, but they have been detected in soft drinks, pharmaceuticals and food products. This study developed a method that uses water plug-assisted analyte focusing by micelle collapse and microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (WPA-AFMC-MEEKC) for quantifying benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) in pediatric pharmaceuticals. The AFMC strategy was applied to improve the detection sensitivity, and a short water plug was introduced to assist micelle collapse in the micelle dilution zone for sample stacking. To carry neutral phthalates into the capillary through electrokinetic injection, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was added to the sample solution, and 8mM SDS was selected as the optimal concentration. The optimized background solution (BGS) contained 16.13mM phosphate buffer (pH=2.5), 150mM SDS, 0.75% n-octane (v/v), 5% 1-butanol (BuOH), 22.5% acetonitrile (ACN), and 15% isopropanol (IPA). Under the optimal separation conditions, four phthalates could be quantified within 20min with enhancement factors of 58, 200, 86 and 90 for DIDP, DEHP, BBP, and DBP, respectively, compared to the conventional MEEKC mode. The limits of detection were within the range of 0.047-0.010μgmL(-1). The accuracy of the method was within the range of 96-117%. The WPA-AFMC-MEEKC method was applied for the analysis of six pediatric pharmaceuticals, and the results demonstrated that the developed method is sensitive and accurate, allowing it to be used for quality control of pediatric pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimization of an electrokinetic mixer for microfluidic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Hendryk; Heuveline, Vincent; Barz, Dominik P. J.

    2012-01-01

    This work is concerned with the investigation of the concentration fields in an electrokinetic micromixer and its optimization in order to achieve high mixing rates. The mixing concept is based on the combination of an alternating electrical excitation applied to a pressure-driven base flow in a meandering microchannel geometry. The electrical excitation induces a secondary electrokinetic velocity component, which results in a complex flow field within the meander bends. A mathematical model describing the physicochemical phenomena present within the micromixer is implemented in an in-house finite-element-method code. We first perform simulations comparable to experiments concerned with the investigation of the flow field in the bends. The comparison of the complex flow topology found in simulation and experiment reveals excellent agreement. Hence, the validated model and numerical schemes are employed for a numerical optimization of the micromixer performance. In detail, we optimize the secondary electrokinetic flow by finding the best electrical excitation parameters, i.e., frequency and amplitude, for a given waveform. Two optimized electrical excitations featuring a discrete and a continuous waveform are discussed with respect to characteristic time scales of our mixing problem. The results demonstrate that the micromixer is able to achieve high mixing degrees very rapidly. PMID:22712034

  14. AC Electrokinetic Cell Separation on a Microfluidic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Zachary; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2009-03-01

    Rapid cell separation and collection is demonstrated through the integration of electrokinetic pumps, dielectrophoretic (DEP) traps and field driven valves into a well designed microfluidic channel loop. We present the ground-up design and analysis of this fully functional microfluidic device for the rapid separation and collection of live and dead yeast cells and malaria red blood cells (RBCs) at low concentrations. DEP cell sorting and concentration schemes are based on the exploitation of cell specific DEP crossover frequencies (cof's). A rigorous DEP study of yeast and RBCs is presented and used to determine optimal conditions for cell separation. By utilizing a glutaraldehyde crosslinking cell fixation reaction that is sensitive to cell membrane protein concentration, we demonstrate the ability to further amplify these differences between healthy and unhealthy cells as well as stabilize their DEP cof's. Pumping is achieved with a new type of electrokinetic flow, AC electrothermal electro-osmosis (ETEO) and is shown to scale inversely with the field induced debye length and drive fluid velocities in excess of 6 mm/sec. The well characterized electrokinetic phenomena are integrated into a microchannel loop with a specifically designed electrode field penetration length for low concentration cell separation and concentration.

  15. Experimental verification of Faradaic charging in ac electrokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wee Yang; Lam, Yee Cheong; Rodríguez, Isabel

    2009-04-23

    This paper investigates the phenomenon of Faradaic charging in ac electrokinetics. Faradaic reactions were suggested as a key effect responsible for the reversal of pumping direction in ac micropumps. However, this hypothesis has yet to be proven convincingly and directly. Here we present an ion detection strategy to determine the production of ions through Faradaic hydrolytic reactions originating from direct application of voltage to electrolytic solutions during ac electrokinetics. Experiments were performed with symmetrical planar electrodes aligned along a microfluidic channel. Fluorescein, a pH-dependent dye, was employed as the pH indicator for the detection of ion production. Images were captured for analysis at various voltage levels. From analyzing the fluorescence intensity and its distribution, it can be concluded that the production of ions from hydrolytic reactions takes place and increases with the ac voltage. The coefficient of deviation indicates a significant enhancement at ac voltage above 11 V(pp). Lastly, we demonstrate a strategy using dc-biased ac electrokinetics to achieve controllability in direction and magnitude of the net fluid flow in pumping application.

  16. Electrokinetics of polar liquids in contact with nonpolar surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hsiu; Ferguson, Gregory S; Chaudhury, Manoj K

    2013-06-25

    Zeta potentials of several polar protic (water, ethylene glycol, and formamide) as well as polar aprotic (dimethyl sulfoxide) liquids were measured in contact with three nonpolar surfaces using closed-cell electroosmosis. The test surfaces were chemisorbed monolayers of alkyl siloxanes, fluoroalkyl siloxanes, and polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS) grafted on glass slides. All these liquids exhibited substantial electrokinetics in contact with the nonpolar surfaces with these observations: the electrokinetic effect on the fluorocarbon-coated surface is the strongest and on a PDMS grafted surface, the effect is the weakest. Even though these hygroscopic liquids contain small amounts of water, the current models of charging based on the adsorption of hydroxide ions at the interface or the dissociation of pre-existing functionalities (e.g., silanol groups) appear to be insufficient to account for the various facets of the experimental observations. The results illustrate how ubiquitous the phenomenon of electrokinetics is with polar liquids contacting such apparently passive nonpolar surfaces. We hope that these results will inspire further experimental and theoretical studies in this important area of research that has potential practical implications.

  17. Alcohols and wide-bore capillaries in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras, S P; Jussila, M; Sinervo, K; Riekkola, M L

    1999-09-01

    The feasibility of using C1-C5 alcohols as electrolyte solutions in nonaqueous capillary zone electrophoresis was investigated. The separation of basic narcotic analgesics and acidic diuretics was modified by changing the alcohol in an electrolyte solution containing alcohol-acetonitrile-acetic acid (50:49:1, v/v) and 20 mM ammonium acetate while other experimental conditions were kept constant. The alcohols studied were methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and 1-pentanol. The results indicate that even longer-chain alcohols can be used in nonaqueous capillary zone electrophoresis and, because of the lower currents they allow, they are especially advantageous in wider capillaries. Basic analytes were separated in 200 microm and 320 microm ID capillaries with 1-butanol-acetonitrile-acetic acid (50:49:1, v/v) containing 20 mM ammonium acetate as electrolyte solution. Problems related to the use of wide-bore capillaries are discussed.

  18. Chemoelectronic mobilization of chemical species in low-conductivity fluids: new electrokinetic effect.

    OpenAIRE

    Haber, N

    1982-01-01

    An electrokinetic phenomenon is reported here which differs from its classical counterparts most distinctively by nonlinear conductivity and mobility. Neither purely electrolytic nor electrostatic in nature, this phenomenon is presumed to involve subtle charge transfer effects and association reactions permitting a controlled "chemoelectric" mobilization. In its electrokinetic manifestation, this phenomenon can be used to mobilize chemical species commonly with migration rates orders of magni...

  19. Electrokinetic coupling in unsaturated porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revil, A.; Linde, N.; Cerepi, A.; Jougnot, D.; Matthai, S.; Finsterle, S.

    2007-02-27

    We consider a charged porous material that is saturated bytwo fluid phases that are immiscible and continuous on the scale of arepresentative elementary volume. The wetting phase for the grains iswater and the nonwetting phase is assumed to be an electricallyinsulating viscous fluid. We use a volume-averaging approach to derivethe linear constitutive equations for the electrical current density aswell as the seepage velocities of the wetting and nonwetting phases onthe scale of a representative elementary volume. These macroscopicconstitutive equations are obtained by volume-averaging Ampere's lawtogether with the Nernst Planck equation and the Stokes equations. Thematerial properties entering the macroscopic constitutive equations areexplicitly described as functions of the saturation of the water phase,the electrical formation factor, and parameters that describe thecapillary pressure function, the relative permeability function, and thevariation of electrical conductivity with saturation. New equations arederived for the streaming potential and electro-osmosis couplingcoefficients. A primary drainage and imbibition experiment is simulatednumerically to demonstrate that the relative streaming potential couplingcoefficient depends not only on the water saturation, but also on thematerial properties of the sample, as well as the saturation history. Wealso compare the predicted streaming potential coupling coefficients withexperimental data from four dolomite core samples. Measurements on thesesamples include electrical conductivity, capillary pressure, thestreaming potential coupling coefficient at various level of saturation,and the permeability at saturation of the rock samples. We found verygood agreement between these experimental data and the modelpredictions.

  20. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography fingerprinting combined with chemometrics as an efficient strategy for evaluating the quality consistency and predicting the antioxidant activity of Lianqiao Baidu pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuai; Sun, Guoxiang; Yang, Lanping; Zhang, Jing

    2017-07-01

    An approach combining micellar electrokinetic chromatography fingerprinting with chemometrics was developed to evaluate the quality consistency of Lianqiao Baidu pills, which are traditional Chinese patent medicines composed of 19 herbs used mainly to treat skin ulcers, common cold, rheumatism, herpes, and constipation. The triangle optimization method was employed to choose a satisfactory background electrolyte, with the information index, I, as an objective function for assessing the capillary electrophoresis conditions. Then, under the optimal conditions, the micellar electrokinetic chromatography fingerprints of 28 batches of samples were established, and five marker compounds were quantitatively determined simultaneously. A limited-ratio quantified fingerprint method was introduced to evaluate the chromatographic fingerprints both qualitatively and quantitatively. Principle component analysis revealed that the 28 batches of samples can be clustered according to different manufacturers. Moreover, the relationship between the fingerprint and the antioxidant activity was explored by orthogonal partial least-squares regression, which provided critical medicinal efficacy information for quality control. The present study establishes a powerful and reliable method for monitoring the quality consistency of Lianqiao Baidu pill. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Vacuum scanning capillary photoemission microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aseyev, S.A.; Cherkun, A P; Mironov, B N

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of a conical capillary in a scanning probe microscopy for surface analysis. The probe can measure photoemission from a substrate by transmitting photoelectrons along the capillary as a function of probe position. The technique is demonstrated on a model substrate consisting...

  2. Recent applications of AC electrokinetics in biomolecular analysis on microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    AC electrokinetics is a generic term that refers to an induced motion of particles and fluids under nonuniform AC electric fields. The AC electric fields are formed by application of AC voltages to microelectrodes, which can be easily integrated into microfluidic devices by standard microfabrication techniques. Moreover, the magnitude of the motion is large enough to control the mass transfer on the devices. These advantages are attractive for biomolecular analysis on the microfluidic devices, in which the characteristics of small space and microfluidics have been mainly employed. In this review, I describe recent applications of AC electrokinetics in biomolecular analysis on microfluidic devices. The applications include fluid pumping and mixing by AC electrokinetic flow, and manipulation of biomolecules such as DNA and proteins by various AC electrokinetic techniques. Future prospects for highly functional biomolecular analysis on microfluidic devices with the aid of AC electrokinetics are also discussed.

  3. High electrokinetic energy conversion efficiency in charged nanoporous nitrocellulose/sulfonated polystyrene membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldrup, Sofie; Catalano, Jacopo; Hansen, Michael Ryan; Wagner, Manfred; Jensen, Grethe Vestergaard; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Bentien, Anders

    2015-02-11

    The synthesis, characterization, and electrokinetic energy conversion performance have been investigated experimentally in a charged polymeric membrane based on a blend of nitrocellulose and sulfonated polystyrene. The membrane is characterized by a moderate ion exchange capacity and a relatively porous structure with average pore diameter of 11 nm. With electrokinetic energy conversion, pressure can be converted directly into electric energy and vice versa. From the electrokinetic transport properties, a remarkably large intrinsic maximum efficiency of 46% is found. It is anticipated that the results are an experimental verification of theoretical models that predict high electrokinetic energy conversion efficiency in pores with high permselectivity and hydrodynamic slip flow. Furthermore, the result is a promising step for obtaining efficient low-cost electrokinetic generators and pumps for small or microscale applications.

  4. On hydraulics of capillary tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Aloyan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the laws of motion of water in the capillary tubes, taken as a model for flowing well, on the analogical net count device. For capillary tube the lower limit value of flow rate is empirically determined above which the total hydraulic resistance of the capillary is practically constant. The specificity of the phenomenon is that the regime of motion, by a Reynolds number, for a given flow rate still remains laminar. This circumstance can perplex the specialists, so the author invites them to the scientific debate on the subject of study. Obviously, to identify the resulting puzzle it is necessary to conduct a series of experiments using capillaries of different lengths and diameters and with different values of overpressure. The article states that in tubes with very small diameter the preliminary magnitude of capillary rise of water in the presence of flow plays no role and can be neglected.

  5. Chiral Capillary Electrophoresis-Mass Spectrometry: Developments and Applications in the Period 2010-2015: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yijin; Shamsi, Shahab A

    2016-11-01

    The sensitive detection of chiral compounds by capillary electrophoresis (CE) in biological samples remains a significant challenge and is currently considered a bottleneck in many chiral analysis projects. Chiral CE-MS can significantly improve the limit of detection and provide high sensitivity compared with chiral CE-UV. Chiral selectors such as modified cyclodextrins (CDs) and polymeric surfactants (a.k.a. molecular micelles, MoMs) in electrokinetic chromatography (EKC), micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC) have been developed to address the need for high sensitivity by CE-MS. However, several problems remain to be investigated to fully understand the potential of these hyphenation modes. This review provides introduction to major chiral CE-MS modes for the novice and highlights the important working principles of each mode of chiral CE-MS. Next, recent practical developments and progress in chiral CE-MS dating from January 2010 to September 2015 are described. The achievements in clinical and biomedical sciences using a variety of chiral selectors such as CDs and MoMs in EKC-MS, MEKC-MS and CEC-MS are discussed. Finally, conclusions and future prospects of CE-MS in chiral analysis are drafted. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. An on-line stacking capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui-Ling; Tsai, Yi-Hsuan; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Lin, Yi-Hui

    2015-12-24

    The objective of this study was to establish a practical and reliable analytical method for monitoring trace amounts of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its metabolites in biological samples. A novel on-line preconcentration capillary electrophoresis method combining large volume sample injection, anion selective exhaustive injection and sweeping was developed to enhance analytical sensitivity. A background buffer composed with 30mM phosphate buffer (pH 2.5) containing 40% methanol and 100mM SDS was used to suppress the electroosmotic flow of the uncoated fused silica capillary (40cm×50μm i.d.). High conductivity buffer (200mM phosphate, pH 2.5) was injected for analyte accumulation. The samples, prepared in phosphate buffer or Tris buffer, were introduced by hydrodynamic injection and electrokinetic injection. After sweeping, the separation was performed in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) mode at -15kV. During the method validation, the coefficient of determination of the regression curve was measured at greater than 0.993, and the relative standard deviation and relative error were lower than 11.06% and 9.24%, respectively. Under optimized conditions, an improvement of up to 2000-fold higher sensitivity was achieved. This method was applied to the analysis of urine samples, indicating that it could be satisfactorily utilized in the toxicological and clinical monitoring of cannabis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography for the analysis of D-amygdalin and its epimer in apricot kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S H; Jung, H; Kim, N; Shin, D H; Chung, D S

    2000-01-14

    We have developed a simple, rapid and reproducible method for the determination of D-amygdalin and its epimer by using micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). Separation of D-amygdalin was performed in a 20 mM sodium borate buffer (pH 8.5) containing 300 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate using a bare fused-silica capillary. The eluates were monitored by the absorbance at 210 nm. The applied electric field was 278 V/cm, and the time needed for the separation of D-amygdalin did not exceed 6 min. The calibration curve for D-amygdalin showed excellent linearity in the concentration range of 5-500 microg/ml. The migration time and the corrected peak area show relative standard deviations (n=6) of 0.86% and 1.48%, respectively. The limit of detection (S/N=3) for D-amygdalin was 2 microg/ml. Under acidic and neutral conditions, amygdalin exists only as the D-form; however, under basic conditions, it shows both the D- and L-forms with a concentration ratio of 1:1.3 (D-amygdalin/L-amygdalin). Results of HPLC, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, and mass spectrometry reconfirmed the identification of D-amygdalin and its epimer. The number of theoretical plates of D-amygdalin is about 100,000 in MEKC, which is significantly higher than approximately 8,000 of HPLC. This method has been successfully applied to the determination of amygdalin epimers in various apricot kernel extracts and pharmaceutical products.

  8. On-line simultaneous and rapid separation of anions and cations from a single sample using dual-capillary sequential injection-capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudry, Adam J; Guijt, Rosanne M; Macka, Mirek; Hutchinson, Joseph P; Johns, Cameron; Hilder, Emily F; Dicinoski, Greg W; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Haddad, Paul R; Breadmore, Michael C

    2013-06-05

    A novel capillary electrophoresis (CE) approach has been developed for the simultaneous rapid separation and identification of common environmental inorganic anions and cations from a single sample injection. The method utilised a sequential injection-capillary electrophoresis instrument (SI-CE) with capacitively-coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) constructed in-house from commercial-off-the-shelf components. Oppositely charged analytes from a single sample plug were simultaneously injected electrokinetically onto two separate capillaries for independent separation and detection. Injection was automated and may occur from a syringe or be directly coupled to an external source in a continuous manner. Software control enabled high sample throughput (17 runs per hour for the target analyte set) and the inclusion of an isolation valve allowed the separation capillaries to be flushed, increasing throughput by removing slow migrating species as well as improving repeatability. Various environmental and industrial samples (subjected only to filtering) were analysed in the laboratory with a 3 min analysis time which allowed the separation of 23 inorganic and small organic anions and cations. Finally, the system was applied to an extended automated analysis of Hobart Southern Water tap water for a period of 48 h. The overall repeatability of the migration times of a 14 analyte standard sample was less than 0.74% under laboratory conditions. LODs ranged from 5 to 61 μg L(-1). The combination of automation, high confidence of peak identification, and low limits of detection make this a useful system for the simultaneous identification of a range of common inorganic anions and cations for discrete or continuous monitoring applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrokinetics for removal of low-level radioactivity from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamukcu, S. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Wittle, J.K. [Electro-Petroleum, Inc., Wayne, PA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The electrokinetic process is an emerging technology for in situ soil decontamination in which chemical species, both ionic and nonionic, are transported to an electrode site in soil. These products are subsequently removed from the ground via collection systems engineered for each specific application. The work presented here describes part of the effort undertaken to investigate electrokinetically enhanced transport of soil contaminants in synthetic systems. These systems consisted of clay or clay-sand mixtures containing known concentrations of a selected heavy-metal salt solution. These metals included surrogate radionuclides such as Sr, Cs and U, and an anionic species of Cr. Degree of removal of these metals from soil by the electrokinetic treatment process was assessed through the metal concentration profiles generated across the soil between the electrodes. Removals of some metal species up to 99% were achieved at the anode or cathode end of the soil upon 24 to 48 hours of treatment or a maximum of 1 pore volume of water displacement toward the cathode compartment. Transient pH change through the soil had an effect on the metal movement, as evidenced by accumulation of the metals at the discharge ends of the soil specimens. This accumulation was attributed to the precipitation of the metal and increased cation retention capacity of the clay in high pH environment at the cathode end. In general, the reduced mobility and dissociation of the ionic species as they encounter areas of higher ionic concentration in their path of migration resulted in the accumulation of the metals at the discharge ends of the soil specimens.

  10. Electrokinetic-enhanced bioremediation of organic contaminants: a review of processes and environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, R T; Harbottle, M J; Smith, J W N; Thornton, S F

    2014-07-01

    There is current interest in finding sustainable remediation technologies for the removal of contaminants from soil and groundwater. This review focuses on the combination of electrokinetics, the use of an electric potential to move organic and inorganic compounds, or charged particles/organisms in the subsurface independent of hydraulic conductivity; and bioremediation, the destruction of organic contaminants or attenuation of inorganic compounds by the activity of microorganisms in situ or ex situ. The objective of the review is to examine the state of knowledge on electrokinetic bioremediation and critically evaluate factors which affect the up-scaling of laboratory and bench-scale research to field-scale application. It discusses the mechanisms of electrokinetic bioremediation in the subsurface environment at different micro and macroscales, the influence of environmental processes on electrokinetic phenomena and the design options available for application to the field scale. The review also presents results from a modelling exercise to illustrate the effectiveness of electrokinetics on the supply electron acceptors to a plume scale scenario where these are limiting. Current research needs include analysis of electrokinetic bioremediation in more representative environmental settings, such as those in physically heterogeneous systems in order to gain a greater understanding of the controlling mechanisms on both electrokinetics and bioremediation in those scenarios. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling electrokinetic flows by consistent implicit incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenxiao; Kim, Kyungjoo; Perego, Mauro; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Parks, Michael L.

    2017-04-01

    We present a consistent implicit incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (I2SPH) discretization of Navier-Stokes, Poisson-Boltzmann, and advection-diffusion equations subject to Dirichlet or Robin boundary conditions. It is applied to model various two and three dimensional electrokinetic flows in simple or complex geometries. The accuracy and convergence of the consistent I2SPH are examined via comparison with analytical solutions, grid-based numerical solutions, or empirical models. The new method provides a framework to explore broader applications of SPH in microfluidics and complex fluids with charged objects, such as colloids and biomolecules, in arbitrary complex geometries.

  12. Modeling electrokinetic flows by consistent implicit incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wenxiao; Kim, Kyungjoo; Perego, Mauro; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Parks, Michael L.

    2017-04-01

    We present an efficient implicit incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (I2SPH) discretization of Navier-Stokes, Poisson-Boltzmann, and advection-diffusion equations subject to Dirichlet or Robin boundary conditions. It is applied to model various two and three dimensional electrokinetic flows in simple or complex geometries. The I2SPH's accuracy and convergence are examined via comparison with analytical solutions, grid-based numerical solutions, or empirical models. The new method provides a framework to explore broader applications of SPH in microfluidics and complex fluids with charged objects, such as colloids and biomolecules, in arbitrary complex geometries.

  13. ELECTROKINETIC DENSIFICATION OF COAL FINES IN WASTE PONDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. James Davis

    1999-12-18

    The objective of this research was to demonstrate that electrokinetics can be used to remove colloidal coal and mineral particles from coal-washing ponds and lakes without the addition of chemical additives such as salts and polymeric flocculants. The specific objectives were: Design and develop a scaleable electrophoresis apparatus to clarify suspensions of colloidal coal and clay particles; Demonstrate the separation process using polluted waste water from the coal-washing facilities at the coal-fired power plants in Centralia, WA; Develop a mathematical model of the process to predict the rate of clarification and the suspension electrical properties needed for scale up.

  14. Surface Tension and Capillary Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Alan J.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the shortcomings of textbook explanations of surface tension, distinguishing between concepts of tension and capillary rise. The arguments require only a clear understanding of Newtonian mechanics, notably potential energy. (DF)

  15. Applications and theory of electrokinetic enrichment in micro-nanofluidic chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueye; Zhang, Shuai; Zhang, Lei; Yao, Zhen; Chen, Xiaodong; Zheng, Yue; Liu, Yanlin

    2017-09-01

    This review reports the progress on the recent development of electrokinetic enrichment in micro-nanofluidic chips. The governing equations of electrokinetic enrichment in micro-nanofluidic chips are given. Various enrichment applications including protein analysis, DNA analysis, bacteria analysis, viruses analysis and cell analysis are illustrated and discussed. The advantages and difficulties of each enrichment method are expatiated. This paper will provide a particularly convenient and valuable reference to those who intend to research the electrokinetic enrichment based on micro-nanofluidic chips.

  16. Fully compatible and ultra-sensitive micellar electrokinetic chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using sheathless porous-tip interfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-González, David; Haselberg, Rob; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; García-Campaña, Ana M; de Jong, Gerhardus J; Somsen, Govert W

    2017-11-17

    The on-line coupling of micellar electrokinetic chromatography and mass spectrometry (MEKC-MS) is often hampered by incompatibility problems leading to reduced separation performance and unfavorable limits of detection (LODs). Here we propose a new selective and highly sensitive MEKC-MS/MS method employing a sheathless porous-tip interface in combination with a micellar phase comprised of semi-volatile surfactant molecules. Carbamate pesticides (CRBs) were selected as representative model compounds being neutral toxic pollutants potentially present at trace levels in environmental water samples. A background electrolyte of 75mM perfluorooctanoic acid adjusted to pH 9.0 with ammonium hydroxide allowed efficient separation of 15 CRBs and appeared fully compatible with electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS. Interfacing parameters, such as the distance between the capillary tip and mass-spectrometer inlet, ESI voltage, and dry gas temperature and flow were optimized in order to attain good spray stability and high analyte signal-to-noise ratios. For CRBs the LODs ranged from 0.2 to 3.9ngL-1 (13nL injected, i.e., 2% of capillary volume), representing an improvement for certain CRBs of more than 300-fold when compared with conventional sheath-liquid interfacing. Good linearity (R2>0.99) and satisfactory reproducibility were obtained for all CRBs with interday RSD values for peak area and migration time of 4.0-11.3% and below 1.5%, respectively. Analysis of spiked mineral water showed that the new MEKC-MS/MS method allows selective and quantitative determination of CRB concentrations below the maximum residue limit of 100ngL-1 without the need for sample preconcentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Multispecies reactive transport modelling of electrokinetic remediation of harbour sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Matteo; Ceccarini, Alessio; Iannelli, Renato

    2017-03-15

    We implemented a numerical model to simulate transport of multiple species and geochemical reactions occurring during electrokinetic remediation of metal-contaminated porous media. The main phenomena described by the model were: (1) species transport by diffusion, electromigration and electroosmosis, (2) pH-dependent buffering of H + , (3) adsorption of metals onto particle surfaces, (4) aqueous speciation, (5) formation and dissolution of solid precipitates. The model was applied to simulate the electrokinetic extraction of heavy metals (Pb, Zn and Ni) from marine harbour sediments, characterized by a heterogeneous solid matrix, high buffering capacity and aged pollution. A good agreement was found between simulations of pH, electroosmotic flow and experimental results. The predicted residual metal concentrations in the sediment were also close to experimental profiles for all of the investigated metals. Some removal overestimation was observed in the regions close to the anode, possibly due to the significant metal content bound to residual fraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A multiscale analysis of electrokinetic transport in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Shima; Bazant, Martin Z.; Mani, Ali

    2017-11-01

    A wide range of applications, including electrochemical energy conversion, deionization, and lab-on-a-chip devices involve transport phenomena in porous media or networks of microchannels. Transport in such systems is governed by electrokinetic phenomena describing the coupling between fluid flow, ion transport, and electrostatic effects. In these systems, surface conduction through electric double layers (EDLs) can lead to nonlinear dynamics such as deionization shocks. Additionally, when pore size varies randomly in space, electrokinetic effects can generate internally induced flow loops, leading to enhanced mixing and increased effective diffusivity. We have developed an efficient computational model that can accurately capture the aforementioned nonlinearities inside porous media by modeling a porous medium as a network of pores each governed by one-dimensional partial differential equations. Using this model, we demonstrate simulations of massive networks of pores, and discuss the impact of pore size variability and random connectivity on macroscopic behavior and transport rates in porous media. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF).

  19. Electrokinetic treatment of an agricultural soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arylein; Cameselle, Claudio; Gouveia, Susana; Hansen, Henrik K

    2016-07-28

    The high organic matter content in agricultural soils tends to complex and retain contaminants such as heavy metals. Electrokinetic remediation was tested in an agricultural soil contaminated with Co(+2), Zn(+2), Cd(+2), Cu(+2), Cr(VI), Pb(+2) and Hg(+2). The unenhanced electrokinetic treatment was not able to remove heavy metals from the soil due to the formation of precipitates in the alkaline environment in the soil section close to the cathode. Moreover, the interaction between metals and organic matter probably limited metal transportation under the effect of the electric field. Citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used in the catholyte as complexing agents in order to enhance the extractability and removal of heavy metals from soil. These complexing agents formed negatively charged complexes that migrated towards the anode. The acid front electrogenerated at the anode favored the dissolution of heavy metals that were transported towards the cathode. The combined effect of the soil pH and the complexing agents resulted in the accumulation of heavy metals in the center of the soil specimen.

  20. Viscoelastic effects on electrokinetic particle focusing in a constricted microchannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinyu; DuBose, John; Joo, Sang Woo; Qian, Shizhi

    2015-01-01

    Focusing suspended particles in a fluid into a single file is often necessary prior to continuous-flow detection, analysis, and separation. Electrokinetic particle focusing has been demonstrated in constricted microchannels by the use of the constriction-induced dielectrophoresis. However, previous studies on this subject have been limited to Newtonian fluids only. We report in this paper an experimental investigation of the viscoelastic effects on electrokinetic particle focusing in non-Newtonian polyethylene oxide solutions through a constricted microchannel. The width of the focused particle stream is found NOT to decrease with the increase in DC electric field, which is different from that in Newtonian fluids. Moreover, particle aggregations are observed at relatively high electric fields to first form inside the constriction. They can then either move forward and exit the constriction in an explosive mode or roll back to the constriction entrance for further accumulations. These unexpected phenomena are distinct from the findings in our earlier paper [Lu et al., Biomicrofluidics 8, 021802 (2014)], where particles are observed to oscillate inside the constriction and not to pass through until a chain of sufficient length is formed. They are speculated to be a consequence of the fluid viscoelasticity effects. PMID:25713690

  1. Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography for analysis of phthalates in soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sung-Yu; Wang, Chun-Chi; Wu, Shou-Mei

    2013-12-15

    Microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) is proposed for analysis of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in soft drinks. However, the instability of microemulsion is a critical issue. In this research, a novel material, Pluronic® F-127, which has the properties of polymer and surfactant, was added for stabilizing the microemulsion in the MEEKC system. Our data demonstrate that the presence of Pluronic® F-127 (0.05-0.30%) also helps enhance resolution of highly hydrophobic compounds, DBP and DEHP. The electrokinetic injection of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) including sample (-10 kV, 20 s) was introduced in this MEEKC system and this yielded about 25-fold sensitivity enhancement compared with hydrodynamic injection (1 psi, 10 s). During method validation, calibration curves were linear (r≥0.99), within a range of 75-500 ng/mL for DBP and 150-1000 ng/mL for DEHP. As the precision and accuracy assays, absolute values of relative standard deviation (RSD) and relative error (RE) in intraday (n=3) and interday (n=5) observations were less than 4.93%. This method was further applied for analyzing six commercial soft drinks and one was found containing 453.67 ng/mL of DEHP. This method is considered feasible for serving as a tool for analysis of highly hydrophobic molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of electrokinetic soil flushing to four herbicides: A comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, E Vieira; Souza, F; Saez, C; Cañizares, P; Lanza, M R V; Martinez-Huitle, C A; Rodrigo, M A

    2016-06-01

    In this work, four bench-scale plants containing soil spiked with four herbicides (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), oxyfluorfen, chlorsulfuron and atrazine) undergo treatment consisting of an electrokinetic soil flushing (EKSF). Results clearly demonstrate that efficiency of EKSF depends on the chemical characteristic of the pesticide used. The amount of pesticide collected in the anode well is more significant than that collected in the cathode wells, indicating that the electromigration is much more important than drainage by electro-osmotic flux for this application. After 15 d of treatment, the 2,4-D is the pesticide most efficiently removed (95% of removal), while chlorsulfuron is the pesticide more resilient to the treatment. Additionally, volatilization was found to be a process of the major significance in the application of electrokinetic techniques to soil polluted with herbicides and because of that it should always be taken into account in the future design of full-scale processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nonlinear electrokinetic effects in insulator-based dielectrophoretic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianru; Dingari, Naga Neehar; Buie, Cullen R

    2017-10-01

    Insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) has emerged as a powerful tool for multiple biomicrofluidic operations, such as cell separation and concentration. The key feature for iDEP systems is the alteration of insulating microchannel geometries to create strong electric field gradients. Under AC electric fields, this strong electric field gradient can affect fluid flow by (at least) two nonlinear electrokinetic phenomena; (a) electrothermal flow due to Joule heating and (b) induced charge electroosmosis (ICEO) near the microchannel constrictions of small (but finite) permittivity and conductivity. This paper presents an experimental and theoretical study on the interplay of electrothermal and ICEO flows near microchannel constrictions with various geometries and fluid ionic strengths, which are crucial design factors for iDEP systems. Temperature rise and fluid velocities in 2D Gaussian-shaped constrictions were studied experimentally with supporting analytical estimations and numerical simulations. Additionally, we show qualitatively distinct recirculating flow patterns in 2D and 3D microchannel constrictions used for iDEP systems. Approximate analytical expressions for electrothermal and ICEO velocity scales are provided as a function of constriction geometry, bulk electrolyte concentration, and the applied electric field. Insights from this study will be useful in designing microfluidic systems for electrokinetic particle manipulation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Probing size-dependent electrokinetics of hematite aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kedra-Królik, Karolina; Rosso, Kevin M.; Zarzycki, Piotr

    2017-02-01

    Aqueous particle suspensions of many kinds are stabilized by the electrostatic potential developed at their surfaces from reaction with water and ions. An important and less well understood aspect of this stabilization is the dependence of the electrostatic surface potential on particle size. Surface electrostatics are typically probed by measuring particle electrophoretic mobilities and quantified in the electrokinetic potential (f), using commercially available Zeta Potential Analyzers (ZPA). Even though ZPAs provide frequency-spectra (histograms) of electrophoretic mobility and hydrodynamic diameter, typically only the maximal-intensity values are reported, despite the information in the remainder of the spectra. Here we propose a mapping procedure that inter-correlates these histograms to extract additional insight, in this case to probe particle size-dependent electrokinetics. Our method is illustrated for a suspension of prototypical iron (III) oxide (hematite, a-Fe2O3). We found that the electrophoretic mobility and f-potential are a linear function of the aggregate size. By analyzing the distribution of surface site types as a function of aggregate size we show that site coordination increases with increasing aggregate diameter. This observation explains why the acidity of the iron oxide particles decreases with increasing particle size.

  5. Improving electrokinetic microdevice stability by controlling electrolysis bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwi Yong; Barber, Cedrick; Minerick, Adrienne R

    2014-07-01

    The voltage-operating window for many electrokinetic microdevices is limited by electrolysis gas bubbles that destabilize microfluidic system causing noise and irreproducible responses above ∼3 V DC and less than ∼1 kHz AC at 3 Vpp. Surfactant additives, SDS and Triton X-100, and an integrated semipermeable SnakeSkin® membrane were employed to control and assess electrolysis bubbles from platinum electrodes in a 180 by 70 μm, 10 mm long microchannel. Stabilized current responses at 100 V DC were observed with surfactant additives or SnakeSkin® barriers. Electrolysis bubble behaviors, visualized via video microscopy at the electrode surface and in the microchannels, were found to be influenced by surfactant function and SnakeSkin® barriers. Both SDS and Triton X-100 surfactants promoted smaller bubble diameters and faster bubble detachment from electrode surfaces via increasing gas solubility. In contrast, SnakeSkin® membranes enhanced natural convection and blocked bubbles from entering the microchannels and thus reduced current disturbances in the electric field. This data illustrated that electrode surface behaviors had substantially greater impacts on current stability than microbubbles within microchannels. Thus, physically blocking bubbles from microchannels is less effective than electrode functionalization approaches to stabilize electrokinetic microfluidic systems. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Constructal view of electrokinetic transfer through porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorente, Sylvie [Laboratory Materials and Durability of Constructions, Department of Civil Engineering, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, Toulouse 31077 (France)

    2007-05-07

    This paper proposes to apply constructal theory to the optimization of ionic transfer by electrokinetics through porous media. By using an external electrical source (potential difference, or current), the ions from the pore solution of a saturated porous medium can be transferred (channelled) in an accelerated fashion, while the direction of their transport can be controlled by the electrodes position and polarity. The constructal law of maximization of flow access is used to optimize the electrokinetic process in two ways: (i) in time and (ii) in space. In (i), the ionic transport is shown to be driven by a diffusive mechanism before convection due to electrical effects which dominate the transfer. Constructal theory explains how the combination of the two mechanisms corresponds to an optimization of transport in time. In an application to ionic decontamination, the optimal location of the electrodes is determined from the constructal law by setting the diffusive ionic flow rate equal to the ionic flow rate due to electrical effects.

  7. Interrelations between charging, structure and electrokinetics of nanometric polyelectrolyte films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Jérôme F L; Küttner, David; Nitschke, Mirko; Werner, Carsten; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2011-10-15

    Streaming current, surface conductivity and swelling data of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) thin films are analyzed on the basis of the theory for diffuse soft interfaces (J.F.L. Duval, R. Zimmermann, A. L. Cordeiro, N. Rein, C. Werner, Langmuir 25 (2009) 10691). Focus is put on ways to unravel the electroosmotic and migration contributions of the measured surface conductivity, which is crucial for appropriate electrokinetic analysis of films carrying high densities of dissociable groups. Results demonstrate that the osmotically-driven swelling of the PAA films with increasing pH is accompanied by an increase in diffuseness for the interphasial polymer segment density distribution. This heterogeneity is particularly marked at low ionic strength with a non-monotonous dependence of the streaming current on pH and the presence of a maximum at pH∼6.5. The analysis of the PEI films evidences heterogeneous swelling with lowering pH, i.e. upon protonation of the amine groups. The characteristic decay length in the interphasial PEI segment density distribution is found to be nearly independent of the pH, which is in line with the moderate swelling determined by ellipsometry. A critical discussion is given on the strengths and limitations of electrokinetics/surface conductivity for quantifying the coupled electrohydrodynamic and structural properties of moderately to highly swollen polyelectrolyte thin films. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Amplified electrokinetic response by concentration polarization near nanofluidic channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Jae; Li, Leon D; Han, Jongyoon

    2009-07-07

    Ion concentration polarization is the fundamental transport phenomenon that occurs near ion-selective membranes, but this important membrane phenomenon has been poorly understood due to theoretical and experimental challenges. Here, we report the first direct measurements of detailed flow and electric potential profiles within and near the depletion region. This work is an important step toward a full characterization of this coupled transport problem. Using microfabricated electrodes integrated with the microfluidic device, we measured and confirmed that the electric field inside an ion depletion region is amplified more than 30-fold compared to outside of the depletion zone due to the highly nonuniform ion concentration distribution along the microchannel. As a result, the electrokinetic motion of both fluid (electroosmosis) and particle (electrophoresis) was significantly amplified. The detailed flow profile within the depletion zone was also measured for the first time by optically tracking photobleached neutral dye molecules. We further showed that the amplified electrokinetic flows generated in this device may be used as a field-controlled, microfluidic fluid pump and switch.

  9. A validated micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the quantitation of dexamethasone, ondansetron and aprepitant, antiemetic drugs, in organogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Florence; Lecoeur, Marie; Duhaut, Marion; Odou, Pascal; Vaccher, Claude; Foulon, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    A micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was developed for the determination of three anti-vomiting drugs (aprepitant, dexamethasone and ondansetron) in pharmaceutical formulations. The method was optimized using a central composite design (CCD). Four main factors (borate buffer concentration, pH, methanol content and sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration) were optimized in order to obtain best resolutions and peak efficiencies in a minimum runtime. The separation was performed in a fused-silica capillary. After optimization, the background electrolyte consisted of a borate buffer (62.5mM, pH 8.75) containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (77.5mM) and methanol (3.75%). Under these conditions, a complete separation of each antiemetic drug and its respective internal standards was achieved in 38min. The method was validated with trueness values from 94.9 to 107.2% and precision results (repeatability and intermediate precision) lower than 5.9%. MEKC-UV was the first method allowing the separation of aprepitant, dexamethasone and ondansetron and was suitable for the quantitation of these three antiemetic drugs in organogel formulations. The rapid sample preparation coupled with an automated separation technique make this method convenient for quality control of extemporaneous magistral ready-to-use formulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES IN SITU ELECTROKINETIC EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY; INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency evaluated the In-Situ Electrokinetic Extraction (ISEE) system at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.The SITE demonstration results show ...

  11. Entropy Analysis on Electro-Kinetically Modulated Peristaltic Propulsion of Magnetized Nanofluid Flow through a Microchannel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muhammad Mubashir Bhatti; Mohsen Sheikholeslami; Ahmed Zeeshan

    2017-01-01

    A theoretical and a mathematical model is presented to determine the entropy generation on electro-kinetically modulated peristaltic propulsion on the magnetized nanofluid flow through a microchannel with joule heating...

  12. Integrating Electrokinetic and Bioremediation Process for Treating Oil Contaminated Low Permeability Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Bimastyaji Surya; Effendi, Agus Jatnika; Helmy, Qomarudin

    2018-02-01

    Traditional oil mining activities always ignores environmental regulation which may cause contamination in soil and environment. Crude oil contamination in low-permeability soil complicates recovery process because it requires substantial energy for excavating and crushing the soil. Electrokinetic technology can be used as an alternative technology to treat contaminated soil and improve bioremediation process (biostimulation) through transfer of ions and nutrient that support microorganism growth. This study was conducted using a combination of electrokinetic and bioremediation processes. Result shows that the application of electrokinetic and bioremediation in low permeability soils can provide hydrocarbon removal efficiency up to 46,3% in 7 days operation. The highest amount of microorganism can be found in 3-days operation, which is 2x108 CFU/ml using surfactant as flushing fluid for solubilizing hydrocarbon molecules. Enhancing bioremediation using electrokinetic process is very potential to recover oil contaminated low permeability soil in the future.

  13. Experimental validation of the electrokinetic theory and development of seismoelectric interferometry by cross-correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, E.C.; Grobbe, N.; Schakel, M.D.; De Ridder, S.A.L.; Slob, E.C.; Smeulders, D.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally validate a relatively recent electrokinetic formulation of the streaming potential (SP) coefficient as developed by Pride (1994). The start of our investigation focuses on the streaming potential coefficient, which gives rise to the coupling of mechanical and electromagnetic

  14. Comparative study of simultaneous removal of As, Cu, and Pb using different combinations of electrokinetics with bioleaching by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-A; Lee, Keun-Young; Lee, Byung-Tae; Kim, Soon-Oh; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2012-11-01

    Different designs of electrokinetics were applied to simultaneously remove arsenic, copper, and lead from contaminated soils. Single electrokinetics (control) resulted in superior removal efficiencies for Cu (73.5%) and Pb (88.5%), though the removal of As (3.11%) was relatively little. Sequential bioelectrokinetics of bioleaching with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and electrokinetics enhanced the removal of As (25%), while Pb exhibited a significant decrease in removal efficiency (10.6%), due to the formation of insoluble compounds. In order to improve the overall performance, integrated bioelectrokinetics was designed by inoculating A. ferrooxidans into the electrolyte after 5 or 15 days of electrokinetics. Lead (75.8%) and copper (72%) were effectively removed through electrokinetics, after which arsenic (35%) was more efficiently removed by bioleaching-enhanced electrokinetics. A pilot-scale experiment indicated that integrated bioelectrokinetics is an effective means of remediation of soils contaminated with multiple heavy metals and arsenic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Remediation of chromium-contaminated soil by electrokinetics and electrokinetics coupled with CaAl-LDH permeable reaction barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunfeng; Xia, Wei; Hou, Hetian; Zhang, Jia; Qian, Guangren

    2017-09-01

    The remediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated soil was investigated by electrokinetic (EK) and permeable-reactive-barrier assisted electrokinetic (EK-PRB). The medium of PRB was hydrocalumite (CaAl-LDH). The results showed that removal efficiency of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in EK-PRB and EK system was 96.49 and 85.50%, respectively. Simultaneously, the removal efficiency of total chromium (TCr) was 69.34 and 40.97% after 120-h treatment. The XRD, FTIR, and XPS analyses indicated that the reactive barrier media of CaAl-LDH successfully captured the chromium. Besides, the migration rate of chromium in EK-PRB was relatively faster than EK, since the media of PRB captured chromium in-time and reduced the influence of chromium accumulation on the migration of chromium. Moreover, the trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) was generated in EK/EK-PRB, and the chromium was stabilized in soil with the chemical speciations of oxidizable and residual fractions. Therefore, the treatment of EK-PRB and EK both increased the removal of chromium and decreased its environmental risks.

  16. Enhanced on-chip SERS based biomolecular detection using electrokinetically active microwells†

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Yun Suk; Chung, Aram J.; Cordovez, Bernardo; Erickson, David

    2008-01-01

    Here we present a novel microfluidic technique for on-chip surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based biomolecular detection, exploiting the use of electrokinetically active microwells. Briefly, the chip comprises of a series of microfluidic channels containing embedded microwells that, when electrically actuated, either locally attract or repulse species from solution through a combination of electrokinetic effects. We demonstrate that the approach combines the advantages of existing h...

  17. Effective medium approximation and exact formulae for electrokinetic phenomena in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, P M

    2003-01-01

    Electrokinetic phenomena in porous media are studied by application of the effective medium theory and the theory of duality transformation. We deduce new exact relations and analytical formulae for the effective constants of the macroscopic tensor. We also prove that the effective tensors obtained by these approaches coincide for 2D problems. The obtained results for the electrokinetic processes are closely related to similar results derived for piezoelectric composites because of a common mathematical background.

  18. Electrokinetic remediation of fluorine-contaminated soil and its impact on soil fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Shufa; Liu, Yana; Xu, Jingming

    2015-11-01

    Compared to soil pollution by heavy metals and organic pollutants, soil pollution by fluorides is usually ignored in China. Actually, fluorine-contaminated soil has an unfavorable influence on human, animals, plants, and surrounding environment. This study reports on electrokinetic remediation of fluorine-contaminated soil and the effects of this remediation technology on soil fertility. Experimental results showed that electrokinetic remediation using NaOH as the anolyte was a considerable choice to eliminate fluorine in contaminated soils. Under the experimental conditions, the removal efficiency of fluorine by the electrokinetic remediation method was 70.35%. However, the electrokinetic remediation had a significant impact on the distribution and concentrations of soil native compounds. After the electrokinetic experiment, in the treated soil, the average value of available nitrogen was raised from 69.53 to 74.23 mg/kg, the average value of available phosphorus and potassium were reduced from 20.05 to 10.39 mg/kg and from 61.31 to 51.58 mg/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, the contents of soil available nitrogen and phosphorus in the anode regions were higher than those in the cathode regions, but the distribution of soil available potassium was just the opposite. In soil organic matter, there was no significant change. These experiment results suggested that some steps should be taken to offset the impacts, after electrokinetic treatment.

  19. A device for reduction of metal oxides generated in electrokinetic separation equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gye-Nam; Kim, Seung-Soo; Kim, Il-Gook; Jeong, Jung-Whan; Choi, Jong-Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    For a reduction of waste electrolyte volume and metal oxide volume, the reuse period of the waste electrolyte in the electrokinetic decontamination experiment and the method of a reduction of metal oxide volume in the cathode chamber were drawn out through several experiments with the manufactured 1.2 ton electrokinetic decontamination equipment. The optimum pH of electrolyte in cathode chamber for a reduction of volume of metal oxides was below 2.35. Indoor electrokinetic decontamination equipment for treatment of 1.2 tons of the contaminated soil per batch was manufactured to remove uranium from soil with high removal efficiency during a short time. For a reduction of waste electrolyte volume and metal oxide volume, the reuse period of waste electrolyte in the electrokinetic decontamination experiment and the method of a reduction of metal oxide volume in the cathode chamber were drawn out through several experiments with the manufactured electrokinetic equipment. Indoor electrokinetic decontamination equipment for treatment of 1.2 tons of the contaminated soil was manufactured to remove uranium from soil during a short time.

  20. Integration of electrokinetics and chemical oxidation for the remediation of creosote-contaminated clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isosaari, P; Piskonen, R; Ojala, P; Voipio, S; Eilola, K; Lehmus, E; Itävaara, M

    2007-06-01

    Remediation of clayey soils that are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a challenging task that may require integration of several technologies. The benefits of integrating in situ electrokinetic remediation with chemical oxidation were evaluated in laboratory-scale experiments lasting for 8 weeks. A voltage gradient of 48 V/m of direct current and 4.7 V/m of alternating current and periodic additions of chemical oxidants were applied to creosote-contaminated soil. Electrokinetically enhanced oxidation with sodium persulphate resulted in better PAH removal (35%) than either electrokinetics (24%) or persulphate oxidation (12%) alone. However, the improvement was shown only within 1/3 (5 cm) of the soil compartment. Electrokinetics did not improve the performance of Fenton oxidation. Both chemical oxidants created more positive oxidation-reduction potential than electrokinetic treatment alone. On the other hand, persulphate treatment impaired the electroosmotic flow rate. Elemental analyses showed reduction in the natural Al and Ca concentrations, increase in Zn, Cu, P and S concentrations and transfer of several metal cations towards the cathode. In conclusion, the results encourage to further optimisation of an integrated remediation technology that combines the beneficial effects of electrokinetics, persulphate oxidation and Fenton oxidation.

  1. Isolation and characterization of heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria adapted to electrokinetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengmei; Guo, Shuhai; Hartog, Niels; Yuan, Ye; Yang, Xuelian

    2016-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria capable of growing under electrokinetic conditions were isolated using an adjusted acclimation and enrichment procedure based on soil contaminated with heavy PAHs in the presence of an electric field. Their ability to degrade heavy PAHs under an electric field was individually investigated in artificially contaminated soils. The results showed that strains PB4 (Pseudomonas fluorescens) and FB6 (Kocuria sp.) were the most efficient heavy PAH degraders under electrokinetic conditions. They were re-inoculated into a polluted soil from an industrial site with a PAH concentration of 184.95 mg kg(-1). Compared to the experiments without an electric field, the degradation capability of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Kocuria sp. was enhanced in the industrially polluted soil under electrokinetic conditions. The degradation extents of total PAHs were increased by 15.4 and 14.0% in the electrokinetic PB4 and FB6 experiments (PB4 + EK and FB6 + EK) relative to the PB4 and FB6 experiments without electrokinetic conditions (PB4 and FB6), respectively. These results indicated that P. fluorescens and Kocuria sp. could efficiently degrade heavy PAHs under electrokinetic conditions and have the potential to be used for the electro-bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil, especially if the soil is contaminated with heavy PAHs.

  2. Enhanced electrokinetic manipulation and impedance sensing using FPGA digital signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Steven N.; Sweatman, Denis R.

    2006-01-01

    Electrokinetic manipulation of microscopic biological particles, such as bacteria and other cells, is useful in the technology of lab-on-a-chip devices and micro-total-analysis systems (μTAS). In electrokinetic manipulation, non-uniform electric fields are used to exploit the dielectric properties of suspended biological microparticles, to induce forces and torques on the particles. The electric fields are produced by planar electrode arrays patterned on electrically-insulating substrates. Biological microparticles are dielectrically-heterogeneous structures. Each different type of biological cell has a distinct dielectric frequency response signature. This dielectric distinction allows specificity when manipulating biological microparticles using electrokinetics. Electrokinetic microbiological particle manipulation has numerous potential applications in biotechnology, such as the separation and study of cancerous cells, determining the viability of cells, as well as enabling more automation and parallelization in microbiological research and pathology. This paper presents microfabricated devices for the manipulation of biological microparticles using electrokinetics. Methods of impedance sensing for determining microparticle concentration and type are also discussed. This paper also presents methods of using digital signal processing systems to enhance the manipulation and sensing of the microbiological particles. A Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based system is demonstrated which is used to digitally synthesize signals for electrokinetic actuation, and to process signals for impedance sensing.

  3. A novel combination of anaerobic bioleaching and electrokinetics for arsenic removal from mine tailing soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun-Young; Yoon, In-Ho; Lee, Byung-Tae; Kim, Soon-Oh; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2009-12-15

    This study provides evidence that a hybrid method integrating anaerobic bioleaching and electrokinetics is superior to individual methods for arsenic (As) removal from mine tailing soil. Bioleaching was performed using static reactors in batch tests and flow conditions in column test, and each test was sequentially combined with electrokinetics. In the bioleaching, indigenous bacteria were stimulated by the injection of carbon sources into soil, leading to the mobilization of As with the concurrent release of Fe and Mn. Compared with the batch-type bioleaching process, the combined process showed enhanced removal efficiency in the equivalent time. Although the transport fluid bioleaching conditions were inadequate for As removal, despite long treatment duration, when followed by electrokinetics the combined process achieved 66.5% removal of As from the soil. The improvement of As removal after the combined process was not remarkable, compared with single electrokinetics, whereas a cost reduction of 26.4% was achieved by the reduced duration of electrokinetics. The As removal performance of electrokinetics was significantly dependent on the chemical species of As converted via microbial metal reduction in the anaerobic bioleaching. The synergistic effect of the combined process holds the promise of significant time and cost savings in As remediation.

  4. Impacts on oil recovery from capillary pressure and capillary heterogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bognoe, Thomas

    2008-07-01

    The main conclusions drawn from this thesis are; 7 scientific papers are published on a broad variety of subjects, and describes in detail the experiments and research treated in this thesis. Scientific research has been performed, investigating the subjects of capillary pressure and capillary heterogeneities from different angles. This thesis discusses the findings in this study and aims to illustrate the benefits of the results obtained for further development of other experiments, and/or even the industrial benefits in field development. The methods for wettability alteration have developed throughout the work. From producing heterogeneous wettability alterations, the methods have improved to giving both radial and lateral uniform wettability alterations, which also remains unaltered throughout the duration of the experimental work. The alteration of wettability is dependent on initial water saturation, flow rate, aging time and crude oil composition. Capillary pressure and relative permeability curves have been measured for core plugs at different wettabilities using conventional centrifuge methods. The trends observed are mostly consistent with theory. The production mechanisms of strongly and moderately water wet chalk has been investigated. At strongly water wet conditions in fractured chalk; the flow is governed by capillary forces, showing strong impact from the fractures. At moderately water wet conditions, the impact of the fractures are absent, and a dispersed water front is observed during the displacement. The oil recovery is about the same, at the two wettabilities. Fracture crossing mechanisms at the same wettability conditions have been mapped. And the observations are consistent with those of the water floods. During strongly water wet displacement, the fracture crossing is occurring once the inlet core has reached endpoint of spontaneous imbibition. At moderately water wet conditions the fracture crossing is less abrupt, and creation of wetting

  5. Optothermally actuated capillary burst valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Johan; Bilenberg, Brian; Kristensen, Anders; Marie, Rodolphe

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate the optothermal actuation of individual capillary burst valves in an all-polymer microfluidic device. The capillary burst valves are realised in a planar design by introducing a fluidic constriction in a microfluidic channel of constant depth. We show that a capillary burst valve can be burst by raising the temperature due to the temperature dependence of the fluid surface tension. We address individual valves by using a local heating platform based on a thin film of near infrared absorber dye embedded in the lid used to seal the microfluidic device [L. H. Thamdrup et al., Nano Lett. 10, 826-832 (2010)]. An individual valve is burst by focusing the laser in its vicinity. We demonstrate the capture of single polystyrene 7 μm beads in the constriction triggered by the bursting of the valve.

  6. Extreme ultraviolet capillary discharge lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah; West, Andrew; Tallents, Greg

    2017-10-01

    An extreme ultraviolet capillary discharge laser has recently been installed at the University of York. The laser produces EUV radiation of wavelength 46.9nm, with pulse durations of approximately 1.2ns and energies of up to 50 μJ. A population inversion is produced by a high voltage electrical discharge passing through an argon filled capillary tube. Within the capillary, radial pinching of the argon plasma through JxB force causes the pressure and temperature of the plasma to increase which causes amplification between 3p -3s (J = 0-1) transitions producing EUV radiation. Laser optimisation, calibration of detectors and designs for initial experiments to produce warm dense matter by focusing onto solid targets are presented. The plasmas formed by the EUV laser irradiation of solid targets can be shown to produce warm dense matter in a regime where the ionization equilibrium is dominated by radiative ionization.

  7. Electrokinetic In Situ Treatment of Metal-Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Clausen, Christian A., III; Geiger, Cherie; Reinhart, Debra

    2004-01-01

    An electrokinetic technique has been developed as a means of in situ remediation of soils, sludges, and sediments that are contaminated with heavy metals. Examples of common metal contaminants that can be removed by this technique include cadmium, chromium, zinc, lead, mercury, and radionuclides. Some organic contaminants can also be removed by this technique. In the electrokinetic technique, a low-intensity direct current is applied between electrodes that have been implanted in the ground on each side of a contaminated soil mass. The electric current causes electro-osmosis and migration of ions, thereby moving aqueous-phase subsurface contaminants from one electrode to the other. The half reaction at the anode yields H+, thereby generating an acid front that travels from the anode toward the cathode. As this acid front passes through a given location, the local increase in acidity increases the solubility of cations that were previously adsorbed on soil particles. Ions are transported towards one electrode or the other which one depending on their respective electric charges. Upon arrival at the electrodes, the ionic contaminants can be allowed to become deposited on the electrodes or can be extracted to a recovery system. Surfactants and other reagents can be introduced at the electrodes to enhance rates of removal of contaminants. Placements of electrodes and concentrations and rates of pumping of reagents can be adjusted to maximize efficiency. The basic concept of electrokinetic treatment of soil is not new. What is new here are some of the details of application and the utilization of this technique as an alternative to other techniques (e.g., flushing or bioremediation) that are not suitable for treating soils of low hydraulic conductivity. Another novel aspect is the use of this technique as a less expensive alternative to excavation: The cost advantage over excavation is especially large in settings in which contaminated soil lies near and/or under

  8. Can an electro-kinetic mechanism explain artificial earthquakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Guillaume; Glover, Paul; Novikov, Victor

    2010-05-01

    Researchers of the Joint Institute for High Temperatures of the Russian Academy of Sciences have carried out a large number of current injection experiments using a 4.2 km long dipole at the Bishkek Research Station in the Chu valley area of the Kyrgyz mountains (northern Tien Shan). The current is generated using Pulsed Magneto-Hydrodynamic (MHD) generators that can produce 2800 amperes at 1350 volts for up to 12.1 seconds. They have found that the number of earthquakes in the region within 150 km of the injection site increased by over 10 standard deviations of the background seismicity. The probability of this occurring by chance is only one in every thousand million million (10^15) measurements. It is certain, therefore, that we can generate earthquakes by current injection. However, no satisfactory physical mechanism for it currently exists. Paul Glover has suggested that an electro-kinetic mechanism may be the missing causal link. In his theory the injected current creates a three-dimensional electric field in the subsurface. The electro-kinetic mechanism uses the electric field to move the pore fluid at depth. If the pore fluid flows into a fault zone it may accumulate and transiently raise the pore fluid pressure within the fault zone. It is known that increases of pore fluid pressure within fault zones more than a critical pressure of 0.05 MPa are sufficient to trigger an earthquake if the fault has sufficient accumulated strain. Earthquakes are therefore possible while the pore fluid pressure is over the critical pressure. While the electro-kinetic drive has been well studied around the world, it is uncertain if the mechanism can provide fluid pressures sufficient to trigger earthquakes up to 150 km from the injection point. In this work we present two dimensional numerical modelling of the proposed coupled mechanism using a finite element approach and using the software package Comsol Multiphysics. The initial results are promising and indicate that (i

  9. Genetic variability of Artemisia capillaris (Wormwood capillary) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic variability among individuals of Artemisia capillaris from state of Terengganu, Malaysia was examined by using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. The samples were collected from differences regional in Terengganu State. The genomic DNA was extracted from the samples leaves.

  10. Physicochemical and numerical modeling of electrokinetics in inhomogenous matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel

    , for example, that formation of gypsum is a limiting factor in the desalination of sulfate-contaminated bricks or stones, and that there is a connection between the presence of magnesium and the capacity of buffering the alkaline front produced in the cathodic reaction. 2.Using the chemical equilibrium model...... and the surface charge, but also the chemical equilibrium condition between the chemical species in the electrolyte. Apart from this new approach for the distribution of species under chemical equilibrium conditions, some conclusions were drawn from the simulations. For example, concentration profiles for the non...... into porous solid matrices of different kinds. These techniques are typically denoted as electrokinetic treatments. In these kind of electrochemically-induced transport processes, the driving force is related the concentration gradients and the unbalanced in ionic charge produced by the electrochemical...

  11. Nanoscale actuation of electrokinetic flows on thermoreversible surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paumier, Guillaume; Sudor, Jan; Gue, Anne-Marie; Vinet, Françoise; Li, Meng; Chabal, Yves J; Estève, Alain; Djafari-Rouhani, Mehdi

    2008-03-01

    We report on a novel approach for controlling nanohydrodynamic properties at the solid-liquid interfaces through the use of stimuli-responding polymer coatings. The end-tethered polymers undergo a phase separation upon external activation. The reversible change in the thickness and polarity of the grafted polymers yields in a dynamic control of the surface-generated, electrokinetic phenomena. Nonactivated, swollen polymers are thicker than the electrical double layer (EDL) and prohibit the development of an EOF even on charged surfaces. On the other hand, activated polymer chains shrink and become thinner than the EDL and allow for the EOF to build up unimpeded. We show here that, for given experimental conditions, the EOF velocity on the shrunken surface is 35 times greater than the one on the nonactivated surface. Furthermore, we reveal that coupling of such surfaces with dense arrays of thermal actuators developed in our laboratory can lead to novel micro- and nanofluidic devices.

  12. Electrokinetic treatment of firing ranges containing tungsten-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braida, Washington [Center for Environmental Systems, Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point on Hudson, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)], E-mail: wbraida@stevens.edu; Christodoulatos, Christos; Ogundipe, Adebayo; Dermatas, Dimitris [Center for Environmental Systems, Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point on Hudson, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); O' Connor, Gregory [US Army, Environmental Technology Division, Picatinny, NJ 07806 (United States)

    2007-11-19

    Tungsten-based alloys and composites are being used and new formulations are being considered for use in the manufacturing of different types of ammunition. The use of tungsten heavy alloys (WHA) in new munitions systems and tungsten composites in small caliber ammunition could potentially release substantial amounts of this element into the environment. Although tungsten is widely used in industrial and military applications, tungsten's potential environmental and health impacts have not been thoroughly addressed. This necessitates the research and development of remedial technologies to contain and/or remove tungsten from soils that may serve as a source for water contamination. The current work investigates the feasibility of using electrokinetics for the remediation of tungsten-contaminated soils in the presence of other heavy metals of concern such as Cu and Pb with aim to removing W from the soil while stabilizing in situ, Pb and Cu.

  13. Entropic Electrokinetics: Recirculation, Particle Separation, and Negative Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgaretti, Paolo; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Rubi, J. Miguel

    2014-09-01

    We show that when particles are suspended in an electrolyte confined between corrugated charged surfaces, electrokinetic flows lead to a new set of phenomena such as particle separation, mixing for low-Reynolds micro- and nanometric devices, and negative mobility. Our analysis shows that such phenomena arise, for incompressible fluids, due to the interplay between the electrostatic double layer and the corrugated geometrical confinement and that they are magnified when the width of the channel is comparable to the Debye length. Our characterization allows us to understand the physical origin of such phenomena, therefore, shedding light on their possible relevance in a wide variety of situations ranging from nano- and microfluidic devices to biological systems.

  14. Electrokinetic Hydrogen Generation from Liquid WaterMicrojets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2007-05-31

    We describe a method for generating molecular hydrogen directly from the charge separation effected via rapid flow of liquid water through a metal orifice, wherein the input energy is the hydrostatic pressure times the volume flow rate. Both electrokinetic currents and hydrogen production rates are shown to follow simple equations derived from the overlap of the fluid velocity gradient and the anisotropic charge distribution resulting from selective adsorption of hydroxide ions to the nozzle surface. Pressure-driven fluid flow shears away the charge balancing hydronium ions from the diffuse double layer and carries them out of the aperture. Downstream neutralization of the excess protons at a grounded target electrode produces gaseous hydrogen molecules. The hydrogen production efficiency is currently very low (ca. 10-6) for a single cylindrical jet, but can be improved with design changes.

  15. An improved electrokinetic method to consolidate porous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feijoo, Jorge; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Nóvoa, X. R.

    2017-01-01

    Consolidation is considered one of the major restoration treatments applied on cultural heritage. This kind of treatment is focused on to preserve the external weathered layers of stone reducing their degradation caused by external alteration agents (mainly water and soluble salts). However...... the consolidation using commercial products have some limitations, such as: (1) low penetrability; (2) no chemical and mineralogical affinity with the material to treat and (3) release of toxic compounds (VOCs), during the solvent evaporation. In the last years, a new consolidation method based on electrokinetic...... techniques was developed. This method allows filling some pores by the precipitation of an inorganic compound. As a result the method allows increasing the penetration depth of current consolidation treatments. However, this method needs to be improved since: (1) no special care is taking in controlling...

  16. Electrokinetic Enhanced Permanganate Delivery for Low Permeability Soil Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A. I.; Gerhard, J.; Reynolds, D. A.; Sleep, B. E.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    Contaminant mass sequestered in low permeability zones (LPZ) in the subsurface has become a significant concern due to back diffusion of contaminants, leading to contaminant rebound following treatment of the high permeability strata. In-situ remediation technologies such as in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) are promising, however, successful delivery of oxidants into silts and clays remains a challenge. Electrokinetics (EK) has been proposed as a technique that can overcome this challenge by delivering oxidants into low permeability soils. This study demonstrates the ability of EK to facilitate permanganate delivery into silt for treatment of trichloroethene (TCE). A two-dimensional sandbox was packed with alternate vertical layers of coarse sand and silt contaminated with high concentrations of aqueous phase TCE. Nine experiments were conducted to compare EK-enhanced in-situ chemical oxidation (EK-ISCO) to ISCO alone or EK alone. Frequent groundwater sampling at multiple locations combined with image analysis provided detailed mapping of TCE, permanganate, and manganese dioxide mass distributions. EK-ISCO successfully delivered the permanganate throughout the silt cross-section while ISCO without EK resulted in permanganate delivery only to the edges of the silt layer. EK-ISCO resulted in a 4.4 order-of-magnitude (OoM) reduction in TCE concentrations in the coarse sand compared to a 3.5 OoM reduction for ISCO alone. This study suggests that electrokinetics coupled with ISCO can achieve enhanced remediation of lower permeability strata, where remediation technologies for successful contaminant mass removal would otherwise be limited.

  17. Pneumatic v electrokinetic lithotripsy in treatment of ureteral stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorreuther, R; Klotz, T; Heidenreich, A; Nayal, W; Engelmann, U

    1998-06-01

    Recently, a new device (Combilith) for electrokinetic lithotripsy (EKL) has become available which is very similar to the well-known device for pneumatic (ballistic) lithotripsy (Swiss Lithoclast). The Lithoclast uses air pressure to push a projectile within the handpiece against the end of a metal probe, which is thereby accelerated and thrown like a jackhammer against the stone. In principle, the same stroking movement of a small metal probe is provided by EKL; the difference is that instead of a projectile, a magnetic core within the handpiece is accelerated by the electromagnetic principle. This paper compares the clinical efficacy and the features of the two devices. Testing the devices on a stone model, taking into account stone propulsion, the systems turned out to equally effective regarding stone disintegration. However, stone displacement was more pronounced with the Lithoclast applied on easily breaking stones. In a second experiment, an optoelectronic movement-measuring apparatus (Zimmer camera) was employed to measure the range and velocity of the movement of the probe tip without any contact. The linear acceleration velocity ranged from 5 to a maximum of 12.5 m/sec with both systems, but the maximum height of the stroke was 2.5 mm with the Lithoclast and 1 mm with EKL. After the initial break-up of soft stones, further impact of the probe tip against the stone resulted merely in propulsion; thus, the greater probe stroke height is the cause of the stone displacement. In a clinical trial, 22 ureteral stones were treated with the Lithoclast and 35 with the EKL. The two devices were equally effective in terms of stone disintegration and safety margin. Fixation using a Dormia basket was necessary in 12 cases (8 Lithoclast, 4 EKL). Although a difference in probe stroke height was noted when comparing pneumatic and electrokinetic lithotripsy, there were no clinically significant differences in the efficacy of stone fragmentation or stone-free rates. At the

  18. Electrokinetic motion of a rectangular nanoparticle in a nanochannel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Movahed, Saeid; Li Dongqing, E-mail: dongqing@mme.uwaterloo.ca [University of Waterloo, Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering (Canada)

    2012-08-15

    This article presents a theoretical study of electrokinetic motion of a negatively charged cubic nanoparticle in a three-dimensional nanochannel with a circular cross-section. Effects of the electrophoretic and the hydrodynamic forces on the nanoparticle motion are examined. Because of the large applied electric field over the nanochannel, the impact of the Brownian force is negligible in comparison with the electrophoretic and the hydrodynamic forces. The conventional theories of electrokinetics such as the Poisson-Boltzmann equation and the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski slip velocity approach are no longer applicable in the small nanochannels. In this study, and at each time step, first, a set of highly coupled partial differential equations including the Poisson-Nernst-Plank equation, the Navier-Stokes equations, and the continuity equation was solved to find the electric potential, ionic concentration field, and the flow field around the nanoparticle. Then, the electrophoretic and hydrodynamic forces acting on the negatively charged nanoparticle were determined. Following that, the Newton second law was utilized to find the velocity of the nanoparticle. Using this model, effects of surface electric charge of the nanochannel, bulk ionic concentration, the size of the nanoparticle, and the radius of the nanochannel on the nanoparticle motion were investigated. Increasing the bulk ionic concentration or the surface charge of the nanochannel will increase the electroosmotic flow, and hence affect the particle's motion. It was also shown that, unlike microchannels with thin EDL, the change in nanochannel size will change the EDL field and the ionic concentration field in the nanochannel, affecting the particle's motion. If the nanochannel size is fixed, a larger particle will move faster than a smaller particle under the same conditions.

  19. Integrated strong cation-exchange hybrid monolith coupled with capillary zone electrophoresis and simultaneous dynamic pH junction for large-volume proteomic analysis by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenbin; Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Yan, Xiaojing; Dovichi, Norman J

    2015-06-01

    A sulfonate-silica hybrid strong cation-exchange (SCX) monolith was synthesized at the proximal end of a capillary zone electrophoresis column and used for on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) sample preconcentration. Sample was prepared in an acidic buffer and deposited onto the SCX-SPE monolith and eluted using a basic buffer. Electrophoresis was performed in an acidic buffer. This combination of buffers results in formation of a dynamic pH junction, which allows use of relatively large elution buffer volume while maintaining peak efficiency and resolution. All experiments were performed with a 50 µm ID capillary, a 1cm long SCX-SPE monolith, a 60cm long separation capillary, and a electrokinetically pumped nanospray interface. The volume of the capillary is 1.1 µL. By loading 21 µL of a 1×10(-7) M angiotensin II solution, an enrichment factor of 3000 compared to standard electrokinetic injection was achieved on this platform while retaining efficient electrophoretic performance (N=44,000 plates). The loading capacity of the sulfonate SCX hybrid monolith was determined to be ~15 pmol by frontal analysis with 10(-5) M angiotensin II. The system was also applied to the analysis of a 10(-4) mg/mL bovine serum albumin tryptic digest; the protein coverage was 12% and 11 peptides were identified. Finally, by loading 5.5 µL of a 10(-3) mg/mL E. coli digest, 109 proteins and 271 peptides were identified in a 20 min separation; the median separation efficiency generated by these peptides was 25,000 theoretical plates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Measurement of carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine by FASI capillary electrophoresis UV detection: applications on biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinellu, Angelo; Sotgia, Salvatore; Campesi, Ilaria; Franconi, Flavia; Deiana, Luca; Carru, Ciriaco

    2011-05-15

    A field amplified sample injection (FASI) capillary electrophoresis method with UV detection was developed for the separation and detection of carnosine-related peptides carnosine (Car), anserine (Ans) and homocarnosine (Hcar). The imidazole dipeptides were baseline-separated within 10 min by using 50 mmol/L Tris phosphate pH 2.2 as running buffer. The samples were diluted in water and directly injected on the capillary without complex cleanup and/or sample derivatization procedures. Using the electrokinetic injection, a sensitivity improvement of about 500-fold was achieved without any loss of separation efficiency if compared to the conventional sample injection. The detection limits for carnosine, anserine, and homocarnosine were between 0.4 and 0.5 nmol/L, thus improving of 10-100-fold the LOD of previous described methods based on laser induced fluorescence or chemiluminescence detection. This method has been applied to the analysis of homogenized rat tissue (heart, muscle and brain) and human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mild electrokinetic treatment of cadmium-polluted manure for improved applicability in greenhouse soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Chi, Guangyu; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi

    2017-10-01

    Applications of cadmium (Cd) and salinity-containing manures contribute to Cd pollution and salinization in greenhouse soils. In this study, chicken manure polluted with Cd (5.6 mg/kg) was mildly electrokinetically treated (0.25 V/cm) for 48 h with intermittent replacement of catholyte with 20 mM acetic acid solution to remove Cd and salinity for application without need of post-treatment in greenhouse soil. The electrokinetic treatment created pH conditions mainly ranging from 5.0 to 8.0 within the manure for minimizing re-precipitation of desorbed Cd and evaporative loss of ammonium. However, without manure pre-acidification, electrokinetic treatment resulted in negligible removal of total Cd but 61.7% of increase in the small fraction of exchangeable Cd, due to poor desorption but enhanced formation of exchangeable Cd. In contrast, manure pre-acidification with 20 mM acetic acid favored Cd desorption, leading to electrokinetic removal of exchangeable, carbonate-bound, and total Cd by 32.2%, 34.5%, and 14.5%, respectively. Mild electrokinetic treatment of manure with and without pre-acidification resulted in similar removal of salinity (72.3% and 68.0%), similar pH condition (7.2 and 7.4), and basically same evaporative loss of ammonium (14.6% and 14.2%). Overall, the mild electrokinetic treatment considerably lowered the risk of Cd and the salinity from the pre-acidified manure for improved applicability in greenhouse soil, and more studies are needed to enhance the performance of electrokinetic Cd removal from manure.

  2. Determining lead, cadmium and mercury in cosmetics using sweeping via dynamic chelation by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Ling; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Chen, Yen-Ling

    2017-03-01

    International limits have been established for metal impurities in cosmetics to prevent overexposure to heavy metal ions. Sweeping via dynamic chelation was developed using capillary electrophoresis to analyze lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) impurities in cosmetics. The sweeping via dynamic chelation mechanism involves a large volume of metal ions being swept by a small quantity of chelating agents that were electrokinetically injected into the capillary to chelate metal ions and increase the detection sensitivity. The optimized conditions were as follows: Firstly, the capillary was rinsed by a 0.6 mM TTAB solution to reverse the EOF. The sample solution, which was diluted using 25 mM ammonium acetate (pH 6.0), was injected into the capillary using a pressure of 3.5 psi for 99.9 s. Then, EDTA was injected at -25 kV for 1 min from the EDTA buffer (25 mM ammonium acetate containing 0.6 mM TTAB and 5 mM EDTA), and the metal ions were swept and stacked simultaneously. Finally, the separation was performed at -20 kV using a separation buffer (100 mM ammonium acetate (pH 6.0)). A small quantity of chelating agents introduced into the capillary could yield 33-, 50- and 100-fold detection improvements for Pb, Cd and Hg, respectively, more sensitive than conventional capillary zone electrophoresis. Correlation coefficients greater than 0.998 indicated that this method exhibited good linearity. The relative standard deviation and relative error were less than 8.7%, indicating high precision and accuracy. The recovery value of the homemade lotion, which was employed to simulate the real sample matrix, was 93-104%, which indicated that the sample matrix does not affect the quantitative results. Finally, commercial cosmetics were employed to demonstrate the feasibility of the method to determine Pb, Cd and Hg without complicated sample pretreatment. Graphical Abstract The procedure of analyzing metal ions in cosmetics by sweeping via dynamic chelation.

  3. Rapid Particle Patterning in Surface Deposited Micro-Droplets of Low Ionic Content via Low-Voltage Electrochemistry and Electrokinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sidelman, Noam; Moshik, Cohen; Kolbe, Anke; Zalevsky, Zeev; Herrmann, Andreas; Richter, Shachar

    2015-01-01

    Electrokinetic phenomena are a powerful tool used in various scientific and technological applications for the manipulation of aqueous solutions and the chemical entities within them. However, the use of DC-induced electrokinetics in miniaturized devices is highly limited. This is mainly due to

  4. High-Throughput Analysis With 96-Capillary Array Electrophoresis and Integrated Sample Preparation for DNA Sequencing Based on Laser Induced Fluorescence Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Gang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to improve the fluorescence detection for the multiplexed capillary array electrophoresis, extend its use beyond the genomic analysis, and to develop an integrated micro-sample preparation system for high-throughput DNA sequencing. The authors first demonstrated multiplexed capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) separations in a 96-capillary array system with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Migration times of four kinds of fluoresceins and six polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are normalized to one of the capillaries using two internal standards. The relative standard deviations (RSD) after normalization are 0.6-1.4% for the fluoresceins and 0.1-1.5% for the PAHs. Quantitative calibration of the separations based on peak areas is also performed, again with substantial improvement over the raw data. This opens up the possibility of performing massively parallel separations for high-throughput chemical analysis for process monitoring, combinatorial synthesis, and clinical diagnosis. The authors further improved the fluorescence detection by step laser scanning. A computer-controlled galvanometer scanner is adapted for scanning a focused laser beam across a 96-capillary array for laser-induced fluorescence detection. The signal at a single photomultiplier tube is temporally sorted to distinguish among the capillaries. The limit of detection for fluorescein is 3 x 10-11 M (S/N = 3) for 5-mW of total laser power scanned at 4 Hz. The observed cross-talk among capillaries is 0.2%. Advantages include the efficient utilization of light due to the high duty-cycle of step scan, good detection performance due to the reduction of stray light, ruggedness due to the small mass of the galvanometer mirror, low cost due to the simplicity of components, and flexibility due to the independent paths for excitation and emission.

  5. Quenched phosphorescence detection in cyclodextrin-based electrokinetic chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt, J.; Roman, D.A.; Ariese, F.; Brinkman, U.A.T.; Gooijer, C.

    2002-01-01

    Quenched phosphorescence detection is a sensitive detection method recently introduced in capillary zone electrophoresis. It is based on the dynamic quenching interaction of the analytes (quenchers) with a phosphorophore, 1-bromo-4-naphthalenesulfonate (BrNS), present in the separation buffer. In

  6. Enhanced electrokinetic remediation of lead-contaminated soil by complexing agents and approaching anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Zou, Hua; Ji, Minhui; Li, Xiaolin; Li, Liqiao; Tang, Tang

    2014-02-01

    Optimizing process parameters that affect the remediation time and power consumption can improve the treatment efficiency of the electrokinetic remediation as well as determine the cost of a remediation action. Lab-scale electrokinetic remediation of Pb-contaminated soils was investigated for the effect of complexant ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and acetic acid and approaching anode on the removal efficiency of Pb. When EDTA was added to the catholyte, EDTA dissolved insoluble Pb in soils to form soluble Pb-EDTA complexes, increasing Pb mobility and accordingly removal efficiency. The removal efficiency was enhanced from 47.8 to 61.5 % when the EDTA concentration was increased from 0.1 to 0.2 M, showing that EDTA played an important role in remediation. And the migration rate of Pb was increased to 72.3 % when both EDTA and acetic acid were used in the catholyte. The "approaching anode electrokinetic remediation" process in the presence of both EDTA and acetic acid had a higher Pb-removal efficiency with an average efficiency of 83.8 %. The efficiency of electrokinetic remediation was closely related to Pb speciation. Exchangeable and carbonate-bounded Pb were likely the forms which could be removed. All results indicate that the approaching anode method in the presence of EDTA and acetic acid is an advisable choice for electrokinetic remediation of Pb-contaminated soil.

  7. Experimental Study and ANN Dual-Time Scale Perturbation Model of Electrokinetic Properties of Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Munteanu, Cristian R; Fernandez-Lozano, Carlos; Pazos, Alejandro; Ran, Tao; Tan, Zhiliang; Yu, Yizun; Zhou, Chuanshe; Tang, Shaoxun; González-Díaz, Humberto

    2017-01-01

    The electrokinetic properties of the rumen microbiota are involved in cell surface adhesion and microbial metabolism. An in vitro study was carried out in batch culture to determine the effects of three levels of special surface area (SSA) of biomaterials and four levels of surface tension (ST) of culture medium on electrokinetic properties (Zeta potential, ξ; electrokinetic mobility, μe), fermentation parameters (volatile fatty acids, VFAs), and ST over fermentation processes (ST-a, γ). The obtained results were combined with previously published data (digestibility, D; pH; concentration of ammonia nitrogen, c(NH3-N)) to establish a predictive artificial neural network (ANN) model. Concepts of dual-time series analysis, perturbation theory (PT), and Box-Jenkins Operators were applied for the first time to develop an ANN model to predict the variations of the electrokinetic properties of microbiota. The best dual-time series Radial Basis Functions (RBR) model for ξ of rumen microbiota predicted ξ for >30,000 cases with a correlation coefficient >0.8. This model provided insight into the correlations between electrokinetic property (zeta potential) of rumen microbiota and the perturbations of physical factors (specific surface area and surface tension) of media, digestibility of substrate, and their metabolites (NH3-N, VFAs) in relation to environmental factors.

  8. Experimental Study and ANN Dual-Time Scale Perturbation Model of Electrokinetic Properties of Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrokinetic properties of the rumen microbiota are involved in cell surface adhesion and microbial metabolism. An in vitro study was carried out in batch culture to determine the effects of three levels of special surface area (SSA of biomaterials and four levels of surface tension (ST of culture medium on electrokinetic properties (Zeta potential, ξ; electrokinetic mobility, μe, fermentation parameters (volatile fatty acids, VFAs, and ST over fermentation processes (ST-a, γ. The obtained results were combined with previously published data (digestibility, D; pH; concentration of ammonia nitrogen, c(NH3-N to establish a predictive artificial neural network (ANN model. Concepts of dual-time series analysis, perturbation theory (PT, and Box-Jenkins Operators were applied for the first time to develop an ANN model to predict the variations of the electrokinetic properties of microbiota. The best dual-time series Radial Basis Functions (RBR model for ξ of rumen microbiota predicted ξ for >30,000 cases with a correlation coefficient >0.8. This model provided insight into the correlations between electrokinetic property (zeta potential of rumen microbiota and the perturbations of physical factors (specific surface area and surface tension of media, digestibility of substrate, and their metabolites (NH3-N, VFAs in relation to environmental factors.

  9. Pb2+ ions mobility perturbation by iron particles during electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfiqar, Waqas; Iqbal, Muhammad Asad; Butt, Mehwish Khalid

    2017-02-01

    Electrokinetic (EK) remediation is one of the most useful approaches for de-contamination of soils. However, it is unclear that how and when the electrokinetic remediation gives advantages over other remediation techniques in soil. This study was designed to find the influence of Fe2+ particles on the mobility of Pb2+ ions, during electrokinetic remediation, in soil contaminated purposely by lead nitrate Pb(NO3)2. Two types of electrokinetic experiments were performed, by using iron and graphite electrodes. The Fe2+ ions from the iron electrodes, produced due to acidic environment in anode compartment, affected the mobility of lead particles by precipitating as Fe(OH)2. Fe2+ ions enhance the adsorption of lead ions in soil. The results show Fe2+ ions of lower ionic conductivity decreased mobility of other particles in soil. Electrokinetic remediation for up to 120 h with iron electrodes is shown to be less effective for removal of lead. In contrast, graphite electrodes were 15 times more effective in lead removal from soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Capillary waves with surface viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Denner, Fabian; Morgan, Neal; van Wachem, Berend; Dini, Daniele

    2017-11-01

    Experiments over the last 50 years have suggested a correlation between the surface (shear) viscosity and the stability of a foam or emulsion. With recent techniques allowing more accurate measurements of the elusive surface viscosity, we examine this link theoretically using small-amplitude capillary waves in the presence of the Marangoni effect and surface viscosity modelled via the Boussinesq-Scriven model. The surface viscosity effect is found to contribute a damping effect on the amplitude of the capillary wave with subtle differences to the effect of the convective-diffusive Marangoni transport. The general wave dispersion is augmented to take into account the Marangoni and surface viscosity effects, and a first-order correction to the critical damping wavelength is derived. The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Shell University Technology Centre for fuels and lubricants.

  11. Investigation of solvent effects in capillary electrophoresis for the separation of biological porphyrin methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Chang, Chi K; Huie, Carmen W

    2005-09-01

    The effects of organic solvents on the capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation of a number of important biological porphyrin methyl esters - six weakly basic, hydrophobic cyclic tetrapyrroles possessing two and four to eight methyl ester groups around the periphery of the porphyrin ring - were investigated in the mode of micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC), microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC), and nonaqueous CE. In aqueous MEKC, partial separation of the six neutral porphyrin methyl esters was obtained with an organic modifier (acetonitrile) in the concentration range between 20 and 40%, in which sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) molecules might be present in the form of SDS micelles and/or SDS micelle-like aggregates. Relatively stable SDS micelles can be formed in nonaqueous MEKC using formamide as the separation medium, but the separation of the target analytes remained unsatisfactory. Improved resolution of all six porphyrin methyl esters was obtained using MEEKC with the running buffer consisting of 0.8% w/w n-heptane (oil phase), 2.25% w/w SDS and 1.0% w/w Brij 35 (mixed surfactant), 6.6% w/w 1-butanol (cosurfactant), and 30% v/v 2-propanol (second cosurfactant), but reproducibility in terms of peak areas for certain porphyrins (especially uroporphyrin I octamethyl ester) was found to be very poor. Best separation performances were achieved with nonaqueous CE separations in which the weakly basic porphyrin methyl esters were protonated under strongly acidic conditions (e.g., using 10 mM perchloric acid) in mixed organic solvents. For example, using a 50:50 mixture of methanol and acetonitrile as the separation medium, baseline separation of all six (positively charged) porphyrin methyl esters can be obtained within 3 min and the average precision (RSD, N = 13) in terms of migration time and peak area were 0.55 and 2.16%, respectively.

  12. Centrifuge modelling of capillary rise

    OpenAIRE

    Depountis, N.; DAVIES, MCR; Harris, C; Burkhart, S; THOREL, L; A. Rezzoug; Konig, D; Merrifield, C; CRAIG, WH

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports results from centrifuge tests designed to investigate capillary rise in soils subjected to different gravitational fields. The experimental programme is part of the EU-funded NECER project (Network of European Centrifuges for Environmental Geotechnic Research), whose objective is to investigate the appropriateness of geotechnical centrifuge modelling for the investigation of geoenvironmental problems, particularly with reference to partially saturated soils. The tests were ...

  13. A simple novel device for air sampling by electrokinetic capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Julian; Gandhi, Prasanthi; Shekhawat, Gajendra; Frazier, Angel; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad; Gilbert, Jack A

    2015-12-27

    A variety of different sampling devices are currently available to acquire air samples for the study of the microbiome of the air. All have a degree of technical complexity that limits deployment. Here, we evaluate the use of a novel device, which has no technical complexity and is easily deployable. An air-cleaning device powered by electrokinetic propulsion has been adapted to provide a universal method for collecting samples of the aerobiome. Plasma-induced charge in aerosol particles causes propulsion to and capture on a counter-electrode. The flow of ions creates net bulk airflow, with no moving parts. A device and electrode assembly have been re-designed from air-cleaning technology to provide an average air flow of 120 lpm. This compares favorably with current air sampling devices based on physical air pumping. Capture efficiency was determined by comparison with a 0.4 μm polycarbonate reference filter, using fluorescent latex particles in a controlled environment chamber. Performance was compared with the same reference filter method in field studies in three different environments. For 23 common fungal species by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), there was 100 % sensitivity and apparent specificity of 87 %, with the reference filter taken as "gold standard." Further, bacterial analysis of 16S RNA by amplicon sequencing showed equivalent community structure captured by the electrokinetic device and the reference filter. Unlike other current air sampling methods, capture of particles is determined by charge and so is not controlled by particle mass. We analyzed particle sizes captured from air, without regard to specific analyte by atomic force microscopy: particles at least as low as 100 nM could be captured from ambient air. This work introduces a very simple plug-and-play device that can sample air at a high-volume flow rate with no moving parts and collect particles down to the sub-micron range. The performance of the device is

  14. Capillary stretching of elastic fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protiere, Suzie; Stone, Howard A.; Duprat, Camille

    2014-11-01

    Fibrous media consisting of constrained flexible fibers can be found in many engineered systems (membranes in filters, woven textile, matted paper). When such materials interact with a liquid, the presence of liquid/air interfaces induces capillary forces that deform the fibers. To model this interaction we study the behaviour of a finite volume of liquid deposited on two parallel flexible fibers clamped at both ends. A tension along the fibers is imposed and may be varied. We show that the system undergoes various morphological changes as the interfiber distance, the elasticity and the tension of the fibers are varied. For a certain range of parameters, the liquid spreads along the fibers and pulls them together, leading to the ``zipping'' of the fibers. This capillary adhesion can then be enhanced or reduced by changing the tension within the fibers. We will show that balancing stretching and capillary forces allows the prediction of this transition as well as the conditions for which detachment of the fibers occurs. These results may be used to prevent the clogging of fibrous membranes or to optimize the capture of liquids.

  15. Electrokinetic Focusing and Separation of Mammalian Cells in Conductive Biological Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian Gao; Riahi, Reza; Sin, Mandy L. Y.; Zhang, Shufeng; Wong, Pak Kin

    2014-01-01

    Active manipulation of cells, such as trapping, focusing, and isolation, is essential for various bioanalytical applications. Herein, we report a hybrid electrokinetic technique for manipulating mammalian cells in physiological fluids. This technique applies a combination of negative dielectrophoretic force and hydrodynamic drag force induced by electrohydrodynamics, which is effective in conductive biological fluids. With a three-electrode configuration, the stable equilibrium positions of cells can be adjusted for separation and focusing applications. Cancer cells and white blood cells can be positioned and isolated into specific locations in the microchannel under both static and dynamic flow conditions. To investigate the sensitivity of the hybrid electrokinetic process, AC voltage, frequency, and bias dependences of the cell velocity were studied systematically. The applicability of the hybrid electrokinetic technique for manipulating cells in physiological samples is demonstrated by continuous focusing human breast adenocarcinoma spiked in urine, buffy coats, and processed blood samples with 98% capture efficiency. PMID:22937529

  16. Soft particle analysis of electrokinetics of biological cells and their model systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Kimiko; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2011-03-01

    In this article, we review the applications of a novel theory (Ohshima 2009 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 10 063001) to the analysis of electrokinetic data for various soft particles, that is, particles covered with an ion-permeable surface layer of polyelectrolytes. Soft particles discussed in this review include various biological cells and hydrogel-coated particles as a model of biological cells. Cellular transformations increase the concentration of sialic acid of glycoproteins and are associated with blocked biosynthesis of glycolipids and aberrant expression of the developmentally programmed biosynthetic pathway. The change in shape or biological function of cells may affect their surface properties and can be detected by electrokinetic measurements. The experimental results were analyzed with Ohshima's electrokinetic formula for soft particles and soft surfaces. As a model system, hydrogel surfaces that mimic biological surfaces were also prepared and their surface properties were studied.

  17. Recent Progress and Perspectives in the Electrokinetic Characterization of Polyelectrolyte Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Zimmermann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the charge, structure and molecular interactions of/within polymeric substrates defines an important analytical challenge in materials science. Accordingly, advanced electrokinetic methods and theories have been developed to investigate the charging mechanisms and structure of soft material coatings. In particular, there has been significant progress in the quantitative interpretation of streaming current and surface conductivity data of polymeric films from the application of recent theories developed for the electrohydrodynamics of diffuse soft planar interfaces. Here, we review the theory and experimental strategies to analyze the interrelations of the charge and structure of polyelectrolyte layers supported by planar carriers under electrokinetic conditions. To illustrate the options arising from these developments, we discuss experimental and simulation data for plasma-immobilized poly(acrylic acid films and for a polyelectrolyte bilayer consisting of poly(ethylene imine and poly(acrylic acid. Finally, we briefly outline potential future developments in the field of the electrokinetics of polyelectrolyte layers.

  18. Soft particle analysis of electrokinetics of biological cells and their model systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makino, Kimiko; Ohshima, Hiroyuki, E-mail: makino@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp, E-mail: ohshima@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    In this article, we review the applications of a novel theory (Ohshima 2009 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 10 063001) to the analysis of electrokinetic data for various soft particles, that is, particles covered with an ion-permeable surface layer of polyelectrolytes. Soft particles discussed in this review include various biological cells and hydrogel-coated particles as a model of biological cells. Cellular transformations increase the concentration of sialic acid of glycoproteins and are associated with blocked biosynthesis of glycolipids and aberrant expression of the developmentally programmed biosynthetic pathway. The change in shape or biological function of cells may affect their surface properties and can be detected by electrokinetic measurements. The experimental results were analyzed with Ohshima's electrokinetic formula for soft particles and soft surfaces. As a model system, hydrogel surfaces that mimic biological surfaces were also prepared and their surface properties were studied. (topical review)

  19. The apparent hydrodynamic slip of polymer solutions and its implications in electrokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berli, Claudio L A

    2013-03-01

    The apparent hydrodynamic slip of polymer solutions is a result of polymer depletion at channel walls, and its fluid dynamic effects are well known. This work reviews the evidences of apparent slip in electrokinetics, and discusses practical consequences in the following fields: (i) electrokinetic transport of polymer solutions in microchannels, which is of interest for the design and operation of microfluidic chips, particularly for electrophoresis; (ii) electroosmotic pumping, where it has been observed that the employment of polymer solutions greatly enhances the output pressure; and (iii) electrokinetic energy conversion, where the apparent slip also contributes to improve the conversion efficiency. In all cases, critical discussions are taken from basic physical concepts. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Soft particle analysis of electrokinetics of biological cells and their model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Kimiko; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2011-04-01

    In this article, we review the applications of a novel theory (Ohshima 2009 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater.10 063001) to the analysis of electrokinetic data for various soft particles, that is, particles covered with an ion-permeable surface layer of polyelectrolytes. Soft particles discussed in this review include various biological cells and hydrogel-coated particles as a model of biological cells. Cellular transformations increase the concentration of sialic acid of glycoproteins and are associated with blocked biosynthesis of glycolipids and aberrant expression of the developmentally programmed biosynthetic pathway. The change in shape or biological function of cells may affect their surface properties and can be detected by electrokinetic measurements. The experimental results were analyzed with Ohshima's electrokinetic formula for soft particles and soft surfaces. As a model system, hydrogel surfaces that mimic biological surfaces were also prepared and their surface properties were studied.

  1. Soft particle analysis of electrokinetics of biological cells and their model systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimiko Makino and Hiroyuki Ohshima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the applications of a novel theory (Ohshima 2009 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 10 063001 to the analysis of electrokinetic data for various soft particles, that is, particles covered with an ion-permeable surface layer of polyelectrolytes. Soft particles discussed in this review include various biological cells and hydrogel-coated particles as a model of biological cells. Cellular transformations increase the concentration of sialic acid of glycoproteins and are associated with blocked biosynthesis of glycolipids and aberrant expression of the developmentally programmed biosynthetic pathway. The change in shape or biological function of cells may affect their surface properties and can be detected by electrokinetic measurements. The experimental results were analyzed with Ohshima's electrokinetic formula for soft particles and soft surfaces. As a model system, hydrogel surfaces that mimic biological surfaces were also prepared and their surface properties were studied.

  2. Using electrokinetic phenomena and electrical resistance tomography to characterize the movement of subsurface fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Abelardo L.; Cooper, John F.; Daily, William D.

    1996-01-01

    This invention relates generally to the remote detections of subsurface liquid contaminants using in combination a geophysical technique known as ERT and an EKS. Electrokinetic transport is used to enhance the ability of electrical resistance tomography (ERT) to detect position and movement of subsurface contaminant liquids, particles or ions. ERT images alone are difficult to interpret because of natural inhomogeneities in soil composition and electrical properties. By subtracting two or more ERT images obtained before and after field induced movement, a high contrast image of a plume of distinct electrokinetic properties can be seen. The invention is applicable to important subsurface characterization problems including, as examples, (1) detection of liquid-saturated plumes of contaminants such as those associated with leaks from underground storage tanks containing hazardous concentrated electrolytes, (2) detection and characterization of soils contaminated with organic pollutants such as droplets of gasoline; and (3) monitoring the progress of electrokinetic containment or clean up of underground contamination.

  3. Electrode-based AC electrokinetics of proteins: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Eva-Maria; Bier, Frank F; Hölzel, Ralph

    2017-11-23

    Employing electric phenomena for the spatial manipulation of bioparticles from whole cells down to dissolved molecules has become a useful tool in biotechnology and analytics. AC electrokinetic effects like dielectrophoresis and AC electroosmosis are increasingly used to concentrate, separate and immobilize DNA and proteins. With the advance of photolithographical micro- and nanofabrication methods, novel or improved bioanalytical applications benefit from concentrating analytes, signal enhancement and locally controlled immobilization by AC electrokinetic effects. In this review of AC electrokinetics of proteins, the respective studies are classified according to their different electrode geometries: individual electrode pairs, interdigitated electrodes, quadrupole electrodes, and 3D configurations of electrode arrays. Known advantages and disadvantages of each layout are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Progression of Diabetic Capillary Occlusion: A Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Fu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An explanatory computational model is developed of the contiguous areas of retinal capillary loss which play a large role in diabetic maculapathy and diabetic retinal neovascularization. Strictly random leukocyte mediated capillary occlusion cannot explain the occurrence of large contiguous areas of retinal ischemia. Therefore occlusion of an individual capillary must increase the probability of occlusion of surrounding capillaries. A retinal perifoveal vascular sector as well as a peripheral retinal capillary network and a deleted hexagonal capillary network are modelled using Compucell3D. The perifoveal modelling produces a pattern of spreading capillary loss with associated macular edema. In the peripheral network, spreading ischemia results from the progressive loss of the ladder capillaries which connect peripheral arterioles and venules. System blood flow was elevated in the macular model before a later reduction in flow in cases with progression of capillary occlusions. Simulations differing only in initial vascular network structures but with identical dynamics for oxygen, growth factors and vascular occlusions, replicate key clinical observations of ischemia and macular edema in the posterior pole and ischemia in the retinal periphery. The simulation results also seem consistent with quantitative data on macular blood flow and qualitative data on venous oxygenation. One computational model applied to distinct capillary networks in different retinal regions yielded results comparable to clinical observations in those regions.

  5. Current characteristics of λ-DNA molecules/polystyrene nanoparticles in TBE buffer solution through micro/nanofluidic capillaries under DC electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yifei; Zhao, Wei; Xue, Jing; Sun, Dan; Wang, Kaige; Wang, Guiren; Li, Junjie; Bai, Jintao; Gu, Changzhi

    2017-03-01

    In practical applications of biochips and bio-sensors, electrokinetic mechanisms are commonly employed to manipulate single bio-molecules and analyze their characteristics. To accurately and flexibly control the movement of single-molecule within micro/nanofluidic channels which are the basic components of Lab-chips, the current signals in micro/nanocapillaries filled with solutions of DNA molecules or polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles are systematically studied. Experimental results indicate that the current response along the micro/nanocapillaries can be significantly influenced by the diameter of the capillaries and the pH value of the solutions. Specifically, when there is only a pure (TBE) solution, the electric conductance does not monotonically decrease with decreasing the diameter of the capillaries, but slightly increases with decreasing the capillary diameter. When λ-DNA molecules or PS nanoparticles are added into the TBE buffer, the size effect on the electric conductance of the solutions are quite different. Although in the former, the electric conductance behaves differently from that in the pure TBE solution and decreases with the decreasing diameter, in the latter, the change is similar to that in the pure TBE solution. Besides, an abnormal ‘falling’ of the electric conductance is observed in a capillary with diameter of 200 nm. The investigation will significantly enhance the understanding on the electric properties of the solutions of biomolecules and particles in micro/nanofluidics. This is especially helpful for designing functional Lab-chip devices.

  6. Enantioresolution in electrokinetic chromatography-complete filling technique using sulfated gamma-cyclodextrin. Software-free topological anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escuder-Gilabert, Laura; Martín-Biosca, Yolanda; Medina-Hernández, María José; Sagrado, Salvador

    2016-10-07

    Few papers have tried to predict the resolution ability of chiral selectors in capillary electrophoresis for the separation of the enantiomers of chiral compounds. In a previous work, we have used molecular information available on-line to establish enantioresolution levels of basic compounds using highly sulfated β-CD (HS-β-CD) as chiral selector in electrokinetic chromatography-complete filling technique (EKC-CFT). The present study is a continuation of this previous work, introducing some novelties. In this work, the ability of sulfated γ-cyclodextrin (S-γ-CD) as chiral selector in EKC-CFT is modelled for the first time. Thirty-three structurally unrelated cationic and neutral compounds (drugs and pesticides) are studied. Categorical enantioresolution levels (RsC, 0 or 1) are assigned from experimental enantioresolution values obtained at different S-γ-CD concentrations. Novel topological parameters connected to the chiral carbon (C(*)-parameters) are introduced. Four C(*)-parameters and a topological parameter of the whole molecule (aromatic atom count) are the most important variables according to a discriminant partial least squares-variable selection process. It suggests the preponderance of the topology adjacent to the chiral carbon to anticipate the RsC levels. A software-free anticipation protocol for new molecules is proposed. Over the current set of molecules evaluated, 100% of correct anticipations (resolved and non-resolved compounds) are obtained, while anticipation of some compounds remains undetermined. A criterion is introduced to alert on compounds which should not be anticipated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Secondary side TSP deposit buildup: lab test investigation focused on electrokinetic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barale, M.; Guillodo, M.; Foucault, M., E-mail: Morgan.Barale@areva.com [AREVA NP SAS, Technical Centre, Le Creusot (France); Ryckelynck, N.; Clinard, M-H.; Chahma, F.; Brun, C. [AREVA NP SAS, Chemistry and Radiochemistry Group, Paris (France); Corredera, G. [Electricite de France, Centre d' Expertise et d' Inspection dans les domaines de la Realisation et de l' Exploitation, Saint-Denis (France)

    2010-07-01

    Deposit buildup which caused the clogging of the 'foils' of the upper tube-support-plates (TSP) inside a PWR steam generator of French NPPs in 2006 presents certain similarities with deposits observed in lab tests performed in secondary coolant chemistry at the Technical Centre of AREVA NP in 2002. The mechanism of TSP clogging seems not to present obvious phenomenological links with the fouling of the free span of SG since deposits buildup is quite uniform and is currently related to a surface boiling effect due to the surface heat flux. A specific mechanism could account for TSP clogging. In particular, electrokinetic effects were investigated by EDF-CEIDRE and AREVA NP SAS in the framework of a lab test program started in 2007. The electrokinetic approach is to consider that the coupling of local hydrodynamic and surface electrochemistry could lead to the formation of a very localized and heterogeneous deposit at the leading edge between both TSP and SG tubing material. Electrokinetic effects can lead to the oxidation and/or the precipitation of ferrous ions and to a variation of the electrokinetic potential which can produce strong attraction of iron oxide colloids. These electrokinetic effects are dependent of the T/H and local hydrodynamic conditions and surface electrochemistry explaining. The objective of this EDF-AREVA lab test program is to investigate the role of secondary chemistry coolant (pH, DH, N{sub 2}H{sub 4}, amine, redox) and of the nature of materials (SS, Ni base alloy) on deposit buildup. Properties of oxide surface and zeta potential of oxidized metallic materials have been also determined at temperature to understand their potential contribution on mechanism of TSP clogging in secondary side chemistry coolant. In this paper, a set of specific experiments carried out in this frame have been presented and discussed, paying particular attention to the effects of electrokinetic considerations and surface charges at oxide

  8. Influence of nickel speciation on electrokinetic sediment remediation efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajić Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a bench-scale investigation of nickel removal during electrokinetic (EK remediation of sediment, and the dependency of removal efficacies upon the speciation of the metal, as influenced by the duration of the nickel-sediment interaction. The sediment used in this study was from the Grand Backa canal (Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia. The sediment used is anaerobic and the nickel pollution has been aged for several years, so it is mostly sorbed by sulphides and organic mater (57%. In EXP I, conventional EK remediation was conducted on this sediment for 7 days, but was ineffective (0% removal. EXP II investigated the influence of the duration of nickel sorption onto the sediment, by contaminating the sediment with additional nickel. In this sediment, nickel appeared mainly in the most mobile, acid-soluble fraction, and was thus available for migration towards the cathode. Consequently, conventional EK remediation of this sediment resulted in significantly better nickel removal (23% than EXP I. During EXP III, the same spiked sediment was investigated using an increased applied current density, with no significant increase in removal efficacy. This study demonstrates that metal-sediment interaction duration affects efficacy of metal removal during EK remediation.

  9. Electrokinetic flows in liquid crystal thin films with fixed anchoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Christopher; Viñals, Jorge

    We study ionic and mass transport in a liquid crystalline fluid film in its nematic phase under an applied electrostatic field. Both analytic and numerical solutions are given for some prototypical configurations of interest in electrokinetics: Thin films with spatially nonuniform nematic director that are either periodic or comprise a set of isolated disclinations. We present a quantitative description of the mechanisms inducing spatial charge separation in the nematic, and of the structure and magnitude of the resulting flows. The fundamental solutions for the charge distribution and flow velocities induced by disclinations of topological charge $m=-1/2, 1/2$ and $1$ are given. These solutions allow the analysis of several designer flows, such as "pusher" flows created by three colinear disclinations, the flow induced by an immersed spherical particle (equivalent to an $m=1$ defect) and its accompanying $m=-1$ hyperbolic hedgehog defect, and the mechanism behind nonlinear ionic mobilities when the imposed field is perpendicular to the line joining the defects.

  10. Electrokinetically modulated peristaltic transport of power-law fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Prakash; Chakraborty, Jeevanjyoti; Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Chakraborty, Suman

    2016-01-01

    The electrokinetically modulated peristaltic transport of power-law fluids through a narrow confinement in the form of a deformable tube is investigated. The fluid is considered to be divided into two regions - a non-Newtonian core region (described by the power-law behavior) which is surrounded by a thin wall-adhering layer of Newtonian fluid. This division mimics the occurrence of a wall-adjacent cell-free skimming layer in blood samples typically handled in microfluidic transport. The pumping characteristics and the trapping of the fluid bolus are studied by considering the effect of fluid viscosities, power-law index and electroosmosis. It is found that the zero-flow pressure rise is strongly dependent on the relative viscosity ratio of the near-wall depleted fluid and the core fluid as well as on the power-law index. The effect of electroosmosis on the pressure rise is strongly manifested at lower occlusion values, thereby indicating its importance in transport modulation for weakly peristaltic flow. It is also established that the phenomenon of trapping may be controlled on-the-fly by tuning the magnitude of the electric field: the trapping vanishes as the magnitude of the electric field is increased. Similarly, the phenomenon of reflux is shown to disappear due to the action of the applied electric field. These findings may be applied for the modulation of pumping in bio-physical environments by means of external electric fields. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Velocity field measurements of electrokinetic flow past a conductive cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canpolat, Cetin; Beskok, Ali

    2011-11-01

    Using the micro particle-image-velocimetry technique, electrokinetic (EK) flow past a conductive circular cylinder (D=0.67 mm) is measured in a rectangular cross-section PDMS/glass microchannel (H=0.1 mm, W=1.0 mm and L=5.3 mm). EK transport in such a system experiences electrophoresis (EP) of the PIV particles, electroosmotic flow (EOF) due to the channel walls, and induced charge electroosmotic (ICEO) flow due to the conductive cylinder. Experiments are conducted using 1xPBS buffer diluted in DI water, and the buffer pH is fixed at 2.05 using HCl solution. This pH value is shown to nearly eliminate the electrophoresis of 0.5 micron carboxylate modified spherical micro-particles used in the PIV studies. Suppression of EP enabled direct measurements of local ICEO flow and its interaction with the global EOF in the channel. By systematically varying the applied electric field from 5 V to 40 V, changes in the velocity field are recorded and correlated with the theoretical trends of EOF and ICEO flow. C.C. acknowledges the support of TUBITAK for this study.

  12. Electrokinetics of pH-regulated zwitterionic polyelectrolyte nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Li-Hsien; Tai, Yi-Hsuan; Wang, Nan; Hsu, Jyh-Ping; Qian, Shizhi

    2012-12-07

    The electrokinetic behavior of pH-regulated, zwitterionic polyelectrolyte (PE) nanoparticles (NPs) in a general electrolyte solution containing multiple ionic species is investigated for the first time. The NPs considered are capable of simulating entities such as proteins, biomolecules, and synthetic polymers. The applicability of the model proposed is verified by the experimental data of succinoglycan nanoparticles available in the literature. We show that, in addition to their effective charge density, counterion condensation, double-layer polarization, and electro-osmotic flow of unbalanced counterions inside the double layer all significantly affect the electrophoretic behaviors of NPs. Our model successfully predicts many interesting electrophoretic behaviors, which qualitatively agree with experimental observations available in the literature. In contrast, because the effects of double-layer polarization and charge regulation are neglected, the existing theoretical models fail to explain the experimental results. The results gathered provide necessary information for the interpretation of relevant electrophoresis data in practice, and for nanofluidic applications such as biomimetic ion channels and nanopore-based sensing of single biomolecules.

  13. Q-tensor model for electrokinetics in nematic liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovkach, O. M.; Conklin, Christopher; Calderer, M. Carme; Golovaty, Dmitry; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.; Viñals, Jorge; Walkington, Noel J.

    2017-05-01

    We use a variational principle to derive a mathematical model for a nematic electrolyte in which the liquid crystalline component is described in terms of a second-rank order parameter tensor. The model extends the previously developed director-based theory and accounts for the presence of disclinations and possible biaxiality. We verify the model by considering a simple but illustrative example of liquid crystal-enabled electro-osmotic flow around a stationary dielectric spherical particle placed at the center of a large cylindrical container filled with a nematic electrolyte. Assuming homeotropic anchoring of the nematic on the surface of the particle and uniform distribution of the director on the surface of the container, we consider two configurations with a disclination equatorial ring and with a hyperbolic hedgehog, respectively. The computed electro-osmotic flows show a strong dependence on the director configurations and on the anisotropies of dielectric permittivity and electric conductivity of the nematic, characteristic of liquid crystal-enabled electrokinetics. Further, the simulations demonstrate space charge separation around the dielectric sphere, even in the case of isotropic permittivity and conductivity. This is in agreement with the induced-charge electroosmotic effect that occurs in an isotropic electrolyte when an applied field acts on the ionic charge it induces near a polarizable surface.

  14. Moving charged particles in lattice Boltzmann-based electrokinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuron, Michael; Rempfer, Georg; Schornbaum, Florian; Bauer, Martin; Godenschwager, Christian; Holm, Christian; de Graaf, Joost

    2016-12-01

    The motion of ionic solutes and charged particles under the influence of an electric field and the ensuing hydrodynamic flow of the underlying solvent is ubiquitous in aqueous colloidal suspensions. The physics of such systems is described by a coupled set of differential equations, along with boundary conditions, collectively referred to as the electrokinetic equations. Capuani et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 121, 973 (2004)] introduced a lattice-based method for solving this system of equations, which builds upon the lattice Boltzmann algorithm for the simulation of hydrodynamic flow and exploits computational locality. However, thus far, a description of how to incorporate moving boundary conditions into the Capuani scheme has been lacking. Moving boundary conditions are needed to simulate multiple arbitrarily moving colloids. In this paper, we detail how to introduce such a particle coupling scheme, based on an analogue to the moving boundary method for the pure lattice Boltzmann solver. The key ingredients in our method are mass and charge conservation for the solute species and a partial-volume smoothing of the solute fluxes to minimize discretization artifacts. We demonstrate our algorithm's effectiveness by simulating the electrophoresis of charged spheres in an external field; for a single sphere we compare to the equivalent electro-osmotic (co-moving) problem. Our method's efficiency and ease of implementation should prove beneficial to future simulations of the dynamics in a wide range of complex nanoscopic and colloidal systems that were previously inaccessible to lattice-based continuum algorithms.

  15. The influence of soft layer electrokinetics on bacterial electroporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Jeffrey; Dingari, Naga Neehar; Buie, Cullen

    2015-11-01

    Electroporation of mammalian cells has received a significant amount of theoretical attention over the last decade because of its ability to deliver biologically active molecules into cells using short and strong electric field pulses. However, application of the same theory to bacterial electroporation presents significant challenges because of the presence of charged soft layers around bacteria. The soft layer charge distribution has been found to significantly influence bacterial electrophoretic mobility and polarizability because it alters the electric potential spatial distribution around the cell envelope. In addition, the RC charging time scale of both the soft layer and electric double layer is of the order of microseconds, which is also of similar order of magnitude as the pore creation time scale. Therefore in this study, we investigate the influence of soft layer electrokinetics on the spatial pore distribution and the temporal pore radius evolution during bacteria electroporation, which are quantitative measures of a bacterium's amenability to electroporation. The study will have significant impact on designing and optimizing bacteria electroporation platforms for gene and drug delivery applications.

  16. Alternating current electrokinetics enhanced in situ capacitive immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Ren, Yukun; Cui, Haochen; Yuan, Quan; Wu, Jie; Eda, Shigetoshi; Jiang, Hongyuan

    2015-02-01

    A rapid in situ capacitive immunoassay is presented herein. Conventional immunoassay typically relies on diffusion for transport of analytes in many cases causing long detection time and lack of sensitivity. By integrating alternating current electrokinetics (ACEK) and impedance sensing, this work provides a rapid in situ capacitive affinity biosensing. ACEK induces both fluid flow and particle motion, conveying target molecules toward electrodes immobilized with probes, resulting in rapid enrichment of target molecules and a capacitance change at the ''electrode-fluid'' interface. The benefit of ACEK enhanced immunoassay was demonstrated using the antigen and antibody from Johne's disease (JD) as an example. To clarify the importance of DEP and ACET effects for binding reaction, two different electrode pattern designs for capacitive immunoassay are studied. The asymmetric array and symmetric electrodes exhibit very similar response at lower electric field due to DEP effects, while asymmetric array has remarkable higher response at high-electric field because the convection becomes more important at high field. The disease positive and negative serum samples are distinguished in few minutes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Electrokinetic desalination of sandstones for NaCl removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben V.

    2012-01-01

    Salt induced decay is a serious threat to many historic stone and brick buildings and monuments. Further salt decay can be problematic in more recent buildings, as well, causing repeated plaster and paint peeling and increased hygroscopic moisture content. There is a need for development of relia......Salt induced decay is a serious threat to many historic stone and brick buildings and monuments. Further salt decay can be problematic in more recent buildings, as well, causing repeated plaster and paint peeling and increased hygroscopic moisture content. There is a need for development...... of reliable methods to remove the damaging salts in order to stop the decay. Electrokinetic desalination of fired clay bricks have previously shown efficient in laboratory scale and in the present work the method is tested for desalination of Cotta and Posta sandstones, which both have lower porosity than...... the bricks studied. The stones were contaminated with NaCl by submersion prior to the desalination experiments, where an electric DC field was applied to the stones from electrodes placed in clay poultice. Two poultice types were tested: calcareous clay used brick production and a mixture of kaolinite...

  18. Analysis of rhubarb anthraquinones and bianthrones by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shao-Wen; Yeh, Pei-Chen

    2005-01-04

    In this work a method of microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) has been developed for the analysis of nine anthraquinones and bianthrones in rhubarb. This study employed di-n-butyl tartrate as oil substance to make up the microemulsion. The composition of the microemulsion was 0.5% (w/w) di-n-butyl tartrate, 0.6% (w/w) SDS, 1.2% (w/w) 1-butanol and 97.7% (w/w) 10 mM sodium borate buffer, pH of the buffer being 9.2. Acetonitrile was added to the emulsion to improve the separation. The volume ratio between the emulsion solution and acetonitrile of an optimized separation was 70:30. With the optimized conditions all of the nine analytes were baseline-separated in peaks of good shapes within 20 min. After validation the method was used to analyze the components in a rhubarb sample. A solid-phase extraction procedure was employed. Five anthraquinones and two bianthrones had been detected in the sample and their amounts were determined. The method should be able to be used for the quantitative analysis of the main active components of rhubarb crude drugs.

  19. Impurity profiling of atropine sulfate by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Yaser; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2007-07-27

    An oil-in-water microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) method has been developed and validated for the determination of atropine, its major degradation products (tropic acid, apoatropine and atropic acid) and related substances from plants material (noratropine, 6-hydroxyhyoscyamine, 7-hydroxyhyoscyamine, hyoscine and littorine). Separation of atropine and all impurities was optimized by varying the voltage, the nature of the oil droplet and the buffer, as well as the organic modifier (methanol, 2-propanol or acetonitrile) and the surfactant type and concentration. The optimum O/W microemulsion background electrolyte (BGE) solution consists of 0.8% (w/w) octane, 6.62% (w/w) 1-butanol, 2.0% (w/w) 2-propanol, 4.44% (w/w) SDS and 86.14% (w/w) 10 mM sodium tetraborate buffer pH 9.2. In order to shorten the analysis time a voltage gradient was applied. The validation was performed with respect to specificity, linearity, range, limit of quantification and detection, precision, accuracy and robustness. The established method allowed the detection and determination of atropine sulfate related substances at impurity levels given in the European Pharmacopoeia. Good agreement was obtained between the established MEEKC method and the traditional RP-HPLC method.

  20. Modeling of Electrokinetic Processes Using the Nernst-Plank-Poisson System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Electrokinetic processes are known as the mobilization of species within the pore solution of porous materials under the effect of an external electric field. A finite elements model was implemented and used for the integration of the coupled Nernst-Plank-Poisson system of equations in order...... to simulate the transport process of ionic species and the modeling of electrokinetic remediation techniques. The electrode half-reactions were included in the model. The charge unbalance produced was used for satisfying the voltage differences applied as boundary conditions in the system. In addition to this...

  1. Power-law electrokinetic behavior as a direct probe of effective surface viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Yuki; Netz, Roland R.; Bonthuis, Douwe Jan

    2017-02-01

    An exact solution to the Poisson-Boltzmann and Stokes equations is derived to describe the electric double layer with inhomogeneous dielectric and viscosity profiles in a lateral electric field. In the limit of strongly charged surfaces and low salinity, the electrokinetic flow magnitude follows a power law as a function of the surface charge density. Remarkably, the power-law exponent is determined by the interfacial dielectric constant and viscosity, the latter of which has eluded experimental determination. Our approach provides a novel method to extract the effective interfacial viscosity from standard electrokinetic experiments. We find good agreement between our theory and experimental data.

  2. Chemoelectronic mobilization of chemical species in low-conductivity fluids: new electrokinetic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, N

    1982-01-01

    An electrokinetic phenomenon is reported here which differs from its classical counterparts most distinctively by nonlinear conductivity and mobility. Neither purely electrolytic nor electrostatic in nature, this phenomenon is presumed to involve subtle charge transfer effects and association reactions permitting a controlled "chemoelectric" mobilization. In its electrokinetic manifestation, this phenomenon can be used to mobilize chemical species commonly with migration rates orders of magnitude greater than can be achieved electrophoretically and is shown to induce the movement of nonpolar molecules, such as aromatic hydrocarbons, at rates exceeding several centimeters per minute in easily achievable voltage gradients. The operational technique, developed as a separations method used for demonstrating the effect, is called "electromolecular propulsion".

  3. Investigation of microflow reversal by ac electrokinetics in orthogonal electrodes for micropump design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Wu, Jie

    2008-01-01

    Orthogonal electrodes have been reported to produce high velocity microflows when excited by ac signals, showing potential for micropumping applications. This paper investigates the microflow reversal phenomena in such orthogonal electrode micropumps. Three types of microflow fields were observed by changing the applied electric signals. Three ac electrokinetic processes, capacitive electrode polarization, Faradaic polarization, and the ac electrothermal effect, are proposed to explain the different flow patterns, respectively. The hypotheses were corroborated by impedance analysis, numerical simulations, and velocity measurements. The investigation of microflow reversal can improve the understanding of ac electrokinetics and hence effectively manipulate fluids. PMID:19693404

  4. Capillary pumped loop body heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Theodore D. (Inventor); Wren, deceased, Paul (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A capillary pumped loop for transferring heat from one body part to another body part, the capillary pumped loop comprising a capillary evaporator for vaporizing a liquid refrigerant by absorbing heat from a warm body part, a condenser for turning a vaporized refrigerant into a liquid by transferring heat from the vaporized liquid to a cool body part, a first tube section connecting an output port of the capillary evaporator to an input of the condenser, and a second tube section connecting an output of the condenser to an input port of the capillary evaporator. A wick may be provided within the condenser. A pump may be provided between the second tube section and the input port of the capillary evaporator. Additionally, an esternal heat source or heat sink may be utilized.

  5. Polydopamine coated capillaries for CE separations

    OpenAIRE

    Partyka, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We have tested CE separation of selected samples in capillaries with polydopamine modified surface. The capillaries were modified by polydopamine or polydopamine with an additive. The polydopamine coating with additive represents a simple and effective procedure for capillary alteration by another modificator such as hydroxyethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose etc. In this work, we represent separation data from PrinCE system with UV detection for peptides, proteins and oligosaccha...

  6. Oxygen exchange in silicone rubber capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineken, F G; Predecki, P K; Filley, G F

    1978-06-01

    Capillaries of 7 and 12.5 mu diameter have been fabricated in silicone rubber. Whole blood treated with heparin has been perfused through these capillaries. Under flowing conditions, no clotting or other clumping effects have been observed and red cells appear to maintain a constant velocity. Oxygen transfer data to and from saline perfusing the 12.5 mu diameter capillaries have been obtained in order to determine how rapidly O2 will permeate the silicone rubber film. The data indicate that the capillaries simulate lung tissue oxygen exchange and will allow for the first time the experimental determination of oxygen exchange kinetics in flowing whole blood.

  7. Capillary rafts and their destabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protiere, Suzie; Abkarian, Manouk; Aristoff, Jeffrey; Stone, Howard

    2010-11-01

    Small objects trapped at an interface are very common in Nature (insects walking on water, ant rafts, bubbles or pollen at the water-air interface, membranes...) and are found in many multiphase industrial processes. The study of such particle-laden interfaces is therefore of practical as well as fundamental importance. Here we report experiments on the self-assembly of spherical particles into capillary rafts at an oil-water interface and elucidate how such rafts sink. We characterize different types of sinking behavior and show that it is possible to obtain "armored droplets," whereby the sinking oil is encapsulated within a shell of particles.

  8. Capillary electrophoresis theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Paul D

    1992-01-01

    This book is designed to be a practical guide, used by wide audience, including those new to CE, those more experienced, routine users, those interested in technology development, and those involved with applications research. References have been emphasized to allow the reader to explore the detailed specifics and theoretical foundations.This book draws together the rapidly evolving, diverse, and multidisciplinary subject of capillary electrophoresis (CE). It is designed as a practical guide to be used by a wide audience, including those new to CE as well as more experienced users. T

  9. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu

    2016-01-08

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  10. Mixed Fluid Conditions: Capillary Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Santamarina, Carlos

    2017-07-06

    Mixed fluid phenomena in porous media have profound implications on soil-atmosphere interaction, energy geotechnology, environmental engineering and infrastructure design. Surface tension varies with pressure, temperature, solute concentration, and surfactant concentration; on the other hand, the contact angle responds to interfacial tensions, surface topography, invasion velocity, and chemical interactions. Interfaces are not isolated but interact through the fluid pressure and respond to external fields. Jumps, snap-offs and percolating wetting liquids along edges and crevices are ubiquitous in real, non-cylindrical porous networks. Pore- and macroscale instabilities together with pore structure variability-and-correlation favor fluid trapping and hinder recovery efficiency. The saturation-pressure characteristic curve is affected by the saturation-history, flow-rate, the mechanical response of the porous medium, and time-dependent reactive and diffusive processes; in addition, there are salient differences between unsaturation by internal gas nucleation and gas invasion. Capillary forces add to other skeletal forces in the porous medium and can generate open-mode discontinuities when the capillary entry pressure is high relative to the effective stress. Time emerges as an important variable in mixed-fluid conditions and common quasi-static analyses may fail to capture the system response.

  11. Photochemically Activated Motors: From Electrokinetic to Diffusion Motion Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kuan; Fraxedas, Jordi; Sepulveda, Borja; Esplandiu, Maria J

    2017-12-14

    Self-propelled micro/nanomotors that can transform chemical energy from the surrounding environment into mechanical motion are cutting edge nanotechnologies with potential applications in biomedicine and environmental remediation. These applications require full understanding of the propulsion mechanisms to improve the performance and controllability of the motors. In this work, we demonstrate that there are two competing chemomechanical mechanisms at semiconductor/metal (Si/Pt) micromotors in a pump configuration under visible light exposure. The first propulsion mechanism is driven by an electro-osmotic process stemmed from a photoactivation reaction mediated by H2O2, which takes place in two separated redox reactions at the Si and Pt interfaces. One reaction involves the oxidation of H2O2 at the silicon side, and the other the H2O2 reduction at the metal side. The second mechanism is not light responsive and is triggered by the redox decomposition of H2O2 exclusively at the Pt surface. We show that it is possible to enhance/suppress one mechanism over the other by tuning the surface roughness of the micromotor metal. More specifically, the actuation mechanism can be switched from light-controlled electrokinetics to light-insensitive diffusio-osmosis by only increasing the metal surface roughness. The different actuation mechanisms yield strikingly different fluid flow velocities, electric fields, and light sensitivities. Consequently, these findings are very relevant and can have a remarkable impact on the design and optimization of photoactivated catalytic devices and, in general, on bimetallic or insulating-metallic motors.

  12. Electrokinetic particle-electrode interactions at high frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yariv, Ehud; Schnitzer, Ory

    2013-01-01

    We provide a macroscale description of electrokinetic particle-electrode interactions at high frequencies, where chemical reactions at the electrodes are negligible. Using a thin-double-layer approximation, our starting point is the set of macroscale equations governing the “bounded” configuration comprising of a particle suspended between two electrodes, wherein the electrodes are governed by a capacitive charging condition and the imposed voltage is expressed as an integral constraint. In the large-cell limit the bounded model is transformed into an effectively equivalent “unbounded” model describing the interaction between the particle and a single electrode, where the imposed-voltage condition is manifested in a uniform field at infinity together with a Robin-type condition applying at the electrode. This condition, together with the standard no-flux condition applying at the particle surface, leads to a linear problem governing the electric potential in the fluid domain in which the dimensionless frequency ω of the applied voltage appears as a governing parameter. In the high-frequency limit ω≫1 the flow is dominated by electro-osmotic slip at the particle surface, the contribution of electrode electro-osmosis being O(ω-2) small. That simplification allows for a convenient analytical investigation of the prevailing case where the clearance between the particle and the adjacent electrode is small. Use of tangent-sphere coordinates allows to calculate the electric and flows fields as integral Hankel transforms. At large distances from the particle, along the electrode, both fields decay with the fourth power of distance.

  13. Binary electrokinetic separation of target DNA from background DNA primers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Conrad D.; Derzon, Mark Steven

    2005-10-01

    This report contains the summary of LDRD project 91312, titled ''Binary Electrokinetic Separation of Target DNA from Background DNA Primers''. This work is the first product of a collaboration with Columbia University and the Northeast BioDefense Center of Excellence. In conjunction with Ian Lipkin's lab, we are developing a technique to reduce false positive events, due to the detection of unhybridized reporter molecules, in a sensitive and multiplexed detection scheme for nucleic acids developed by the Lipkin lab. This is the most significant problem in the operation of their capability. As they are developing the tools for rapidly detecting the entire panel of hemorrhagic fevers this technology will immediately serve an important national need. The goal of this work was to attempt to separate nucleic acid from a preprocessed sample. We demonstrated the preconcentration of kilobase-pair length double-stranded DNA targets, and observed little preconcentration of 60 base-pair length single-stranded DNA probes. These objectives were accomplished in microdevice formats that are compatible with larger detection systems for sample pre-processing. Combined with Columbia's expertise, this technology would enable a unique, fast, and potentially compact method for detecting/identifying genetically-modified organisms and multiplexed rapid nucleic acid identification. Another competing approach is the DARPA funded IRIS Pharmaceutical TIGER platform which requires many hours for operation, and an 800k$ piece of equipment that fills a room. The Columbia/SNL system could provide a result in 30 minutes, at the cost of a few thousand dollars for the platform, and would be the size of a shoebox or smaller.

  14. Scale-up on electrokinetic remediation: Engineering and technological parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Vizcaíno, Rubén [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical & Environmental Technologies, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Navarro, Vicente; León, María J. [Geoenvironmental Group, Civil Engineering School, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Camilo José Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Risco, Carolina [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical & Environmental Technologies, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Rodrigo, Manuel A., E-mail: manuel.rodrigo@uclm.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Sciences & Technologies, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Sáez, Cristina; Cañizares, Pablo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Sciences & Technologies, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2016-09-05

    Highlights: • Moisture and compaction of soil must be re-establish in Scale-up of EKR. • Degree of compaction of soil depends on moisture, type of soil and EKR reactor. • Scale of EKR process determines the energy consumption in the treatment. • Electroosmosis and electromigration processes are favoured in prototype scale. • In real scale EKR processes it is important determine evaporation and leaks effects. - Abstract: This study analyses the effect of the scale-up of electrokinetic remediation (EKR) processes in natural soils. A procedure is proposed to prepare soils based on a compacting process to obtaining soils with similar moisture content and density to those found in real soils in the field. The soil used here was from a region with a high agrarian activity (Mora, Spain). The scale-up study was performed in two installations at different scales: a mock-up pilot scale (0.175 m{sup 3}) and a prototype with a scale that was very similar to a real application (16 m{sup 3}). The electrode configuration selected consisted of rows of graphite electrodes facing each other located in electrolyte wells. The discharge of 20 mg of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid [2,4-D] per kg of dry soil was treated by applying an electric potential gradient of 1 V cm{sup −1}. An increase in scale was observed to directly influence the amount of energy supplied to the soil being treated. As a result, electroosmotic and electromigration flows and electric heating are more intense than in smaller-scale tests (24%, 1% and 25%, respectively respect to the values in prototype). In addition, possible leaks were evaluated by conducting a watertightness test and quantifying evaporation losses.

  15. Bulk conductivity of soft surface layers : experimental measurement and electrokinetic implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yezek, L.P.

    2005-01-01

    Conductivity measurements were carried out on a family of polyacrylamide-co-sodium acrylate gels cross-linked with N,N¿ -methylenebisacrylamide in a homemade electrokinetic cell. The conductivity data allowed the equilibrium Donnan potential difference between the bulk gel and the bulk electrolyte

  16. Removal of Uranium in Soil Using Large-scale Electrokinetic Decontamination Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gye Nam; Kim, Il gook; Jeong, Jung Whan; Kim, Seung Soo; Choi, Jong Won [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    A method to remediate a large volume of radioactive soil should be developed. Until now the soil washing method has been studied to remediate soil contaminated with uranium, cobalt, cesium, and so on. However, it has a lower removal efficiency of nuclide from soils and generated a large volume of waste-solution. In addition, its application to the soil composed of fine particle is impossible. Thus, the electrokinetic method has been studied as a new technology for soil remediation recently. In this study, for a reduction of the waste electrolyte volume, the reuse period of waste electrolyte in the electrokinetic decontamination experiment through several experiments with the manufactured 1.2 ton electrokinetic decontamination equipment. In addition, the time required to reach below the clearance concentration level for self- disposal was estimated through several experiments using the manufactured electrokinetic decontamination equipment. When the initial uranium concentrations in the soils were 7.0-20.0 Bq/g, the times required to reach below the clearance concentration level for self-disposal were 25-40 days with the waste and reclaimed electrolytes.

  17. Electric double layer and electrokinetic potential of pectic macromolecules in sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuljanin Tatjana A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrokinetic potential is an important property of colloidal particles and, regarding the fact that it is a well defined and easily measurable property, it is considered to be a permanent characteristic of a particular colloidal system. In fact, it is a measure of electrokinetic charge that surrounds the colloidal particle in a solution and is in direct proportion with the mobility of particles in an electric field. Gouy-Chapman-Stern-Graham's model of electric double layer was adopted and it was proven experimentally that the addition of Cu++ ions to sugar beet pectin caused a reduction in the negative electrokinetic potential proportional to the increase of Cu++ concentration. Higher Cu++ concentrations increased the proportion of cation specific adsorption (Cu++ and H+ with regard to electrostatic Coulombic forces. Consequently, there is a shift in the shear plane between the fixed and diffuse layers directed towards the diffuse layer, i.e. towards its compression and decrease in the electrokinetic potential or even charge inversion of pectin macromolecules.

  18. Some Issues of Development and Mathematical Modeling of Superconducting Electrokinetic Energy Storage Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolentsev, N. I.; Kondrin, S. A.; Bondarev, Yu L.; Gilmetdinov, M. F.; Kazantsev, A. M.; Sirekanyan, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    In this research paper, some results of experimental sample elaboration of the superconducting electrokinetic energy storage unit (SCEESU-1), mathematical modeling and the practical application are given. The inflexibility of the superconducting contactless suspension of rotor-flywheel of the energy storage unit is calculated. The results of computer simulation of suspension stability under the external disturbing effects are presented.

  19. Electrokinetics of diffuse soft interfaces. III. Interpretation of data on the polyacrylamide/water interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yezek, L.P.; Duval, J.F.L.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2005-01-01

    Streaming potential measurements were carried out on a family of polyacrylamide-co-sodium acrylate gels cross-linked with N,N¿- methylenebisacrylamide in a homemade electrokinetic cell. Measurements of the ionic conductivity within thin films of these gels allowed the equilibrium Donnan potential

  20. Faradaic double layer depolarization in electrokinetics: Onsager relations and substrate limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van H.P.; Duval, J.F.L.

    2007-01-01

    More often than not, the measurement of interfacial potentials by means of electrokinetic techniques is affected by interfering processes that may relax or even annihilate their primary response function. Among these processes are faradaic ones, provided that the substrate is sufficiently conducting

  1. Characterization of flowreversal in anodically bonded glass-based AC electrokinetic micropumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Misha Marie; Olesen, Laurits Højgaard; Brask, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Microfluidic chips have been fabricated to study electrokinetic pumping generated by a low voltage AC signal applied to an asymmetric electrode array. A measurement procedure has been established and followed carefully resulting in a high degree of reproducibility of the measurements. Depending...

  2. Electrokinetics of diffuse soft interfaces. 2. Analysis based on the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duval, J.F.L.

    2005-01-01

    In a previous study (Langmuir 2004, 20, 10324), the electrokinetic properties of diffuse soft layers were theoretically investigated within the framework of the Debye-H¿ckel approximation valid in the limit of sufficiently low values for the Donnan potential. In the current paper, the

  3. Heavy metal removal from shooting range soil by hybrid electrokinetics with bacteria and enhancing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2010-12-15

    This study presents a method for heavy metal removal from a shooting range soil by a newly suggested hybrid technology. Active bioaugmentation was performed using Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans in the bioleaching step, and each test was sequentially combined with acid-enhanced and EDTA-enhanced electrokinetics. The results of the bioleaching processes indicated that S-oxidizing bacteria enhanced the mobility of heavy metals in the soil, based on their chemical forms. This process improved the final removal efficiencies of Cu and Zn in the hybrid electrokinetics. In the case of Pb, however, anglesite (PbSO(4)) has been easily formed in the bioleaching step from sulfate, a byproduct of S oxidation. Despite the potential negative effect on combining acid-enhanced electrokinetics, this problem was overcome by the application of an electrokinetic EDTA injection. Moreover, this method showed enhanced removal efficiency for Pb (92.7%) that was superior to that of an abiotic process. This hybrid method of EDTA-enhanced bioelectrokinetics demonstrated an adequate removal efficiency of heavy metals, especially Pb, with lower power consumption and eco-friendly soil conditions.

  4. Effect of alternating bioremediation and electrokinetics on the remediation of n-hexadecane-contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sa; Guo, Shuhai; Li, Fengmei; Yang, Xuelian; Teng, Fei; Wang, Jianing

    2016-04-01

    This study demonstrated the highly efficient degradation of n-hexadecane in soil, realized by alternating bioremediation and electrokinetic technologies. Using an alternating technology instead of simultaneous application prevented competition between the processes that would lower their efficiency. For the consumption of the soil dissolved organic matter (DOM) necessary for bioremediation by electrokinetics, bioremediation was performed first. Because of the utilization and loss of the DOM and water-soluble ions by the microbial and electrokinetic processes, respectively, both of them were supplemented to provide a basic carbon resource, maintain a high electrical conductivity and produce a uniform distribution of ions. The moisture and bacteria were also supplemented. The optimal DOM supplement (20.5 mg·kg-1 glucose; 80-90% of the total natural DOM content in the soil) was calculated to avoid competitive effects (between the DOM and n-hexadecane) and to prevent nutritional deficiency. The replenishment of the water-soluble ions maintained their content equal to their initial concentrations. The degradation rate of n-hexadecane was only 167.0 mg·kg-1·d-1 (1.9%, w/w) for the first 9 days in the treatments with bioremediation or electrokinetics alone, but this rate was realized throughout the whole process when the two technologies were alternated, with a degradation of 78.5% ± 2.0% for the n-hexadecane after 45 days of treatment.

  5. Application of Electrokinetic Stabilisation (EKS) Method for Soft Soil: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, ATS; Azim, MAM; Syakeera, NN; Jefferson, IF; Rogers, CDF

    2017-08-01

    Soil properties such as low shear strength, excessive compression, collapsing behavior, high swell potential are some of the undesirable properties of soils in geotechnical engineering and those properties would cause severe distress to the structures. To solve these, an innovative stabilization of Electrokinetic (EKS) has been introduced. Electrokinetic is an applicable technique to transport charged particles and fluid in an electric potential. The EKS demonstrates changes in soil pH due to electrolysis reactions, water flow between the electrodes and migration of ions towards the cathode. This treatment has proven its efficiency in consolidating organic, peat and clayey silt as well as less expensive than other methods. Otherwise, this method also gives advantage by not disturbing site. The primary objective of this review is to discuss the application of electrokinetic and to investigate the current knowledge of electrokinetic in geotechnical application through a literature search and review, including consideration of certain aspects related to the soft soil application that may be relevant to the future study and at the same time addressing some key issues and their implications on soil behaviors.

  6. Atmospheric pressure photoionization for enhanced compatibility in on-line micellar electrokinetic chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, Roelof; De Jong, Gerhardus J.; Somsen, Govert W.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) is presented as a novel means for the combination of micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and mass spectrometry (MS). The on-line coupling is achieved using an adapted sheath flow interface installed on an orthogonal APPI source. Acetone or

  7. Electrokinetic properties and conductance relaxation of polystyrene and silver iodide plugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoven, van den J.J.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis describes an experimental study on the electrokinetic and electrical properties of concentrated polystyrene and silver iodide dispersions. The purpose of the study is to obtain information on the structure of the electrical double layer at the solid-liquid interface. Special

  8. Enhanced electrokinetic remediation of fluorine-contaminated soil by applying an ammonia continuous circulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Shufa; Zhou, Ming; Zhang, Shuangyan [Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang (China)

    2016-02-15

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of ammonia continuous circulation enhanced electrokinetic remediation of fluorine contaminated soil and to analyze its influence on soil pH after remediation. An experimental study was carried out in self-made electrokinetic apparatus. The voltage gradient was set at 1.0V/cm and ammonia water with different concentrations was used as electrolyte which circulated in series. Comparative studies were made by using deionized water as electrolyte which circulated separately in one experiment and continuously in another. According to the experiment the continuous circulation of ammonia water increased the current value during the remediation process and maintained current through the soil cell stabler, which not only increased fluorine migration but also reduced energy consumption. Among the given ammonia concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1 and 0.2mol/L) the removal rate increased with ammonia concentration. 0.2mol/L had the highest current (26.8mA), and the removal rate amounted up to 57.3%. By using ammonia circulation enhanced electrokinetic technology, the difference between pH values of cathode soil and anode soil became smaller. Ammonia continuous circulation enhanced electrokinetics can effectively remediate fluorine contaminated soil and the residual ammonia in the soil can also improve soil fertility.

  9. Copper and trace element fractionation in electrokinetically treated methanogenic anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virkutyte, J.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Sillanpaa, M.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of electrokinetic treatment (0.15 mA cm(-2)) on the metal fractionation in anaerobic granular sludge artificially contaminated with copper (initial copper concentration 1000 mg kg(-1) wet sludge) was studied. Acidification of the sludge (final pH 4.2 in the sludge bed) with the intention

  10. Influence of temperature and hydraulic conductivity of soil on electrokinetic decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gye-Nam; Kim, Seung-Soo; Jeong, Jung-Whan; Choi, Jong-Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The electrokinetic process holds great promise for the decontamination of contaminated soil because it has a high removal efficiency and is time-effective for low permeability. Electrokinetic decontamination can be used to treat soil contaminated with inorganic species and radionuclides. The main mechanisms of a contaminant's movement in an electrical field involved in electrokinetic technology are the electro-migration of the ionic species and electro-osmosis. Electro-migration probably contributes significantly to the removal of contaminants, especially at high concentrations of ionic contaminants and/or a high hydraulic permeability of soil. The cathode reaction should be depolarized to avoid the generation of hydroxides and their transport in soil. The selected liquid, also known as a purging reagent, should induce favorable pH conditions in soil, and/or interact with the incorporated heavy metals so that these heavy metals are removed from the soil. The removal efficiencies of uranium from contaminated soil in manufactured laboratory electrokinetic decontamination equipment were proportional to the elapsed time. The removal efficiencies of uranium for 2 days were 77-87%. In addition, the removal efficiencies according to the elapsed time after 2 days were reduced. When 75, 80, and 85℃ electrolyte temperatures in the cathode chamber were applied, the time required for the removal efficiency of uranium to reach 92% was 6, 5 and 4 days.

  11. Electrokinetically driven microfluidic chips with surface-modified chambers for heterogeneous immunoassays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodge, A.; Fluri, K.; Verpoorte, E.; De Rooij, N.F.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the first example of a microfluidic chip for heterogeneous bioassays using a locally immobilized biospecitic layer and operated electrokinetically. The reaction chamber has picoliter dimensions and is integrated into a network of microchannels etched in glass. The high affinity

  12. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of phenols by acetonitrile stacking coupled with sweeping-micellar electrokinetic chromatography with large-volume injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hui; Liu, Shuhui; Meng, Zhaofu; Hu, Shibing

    2014-09-26

    The current routes to couple dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) with capillary electrophoresis (CE) are evaporation of water immiscible extractants and backextraction of analytes. The former is not applicable to extractants with high boiling points, the latter being effective only for acidic or basic analytes, both of which limit the further application of DLLME-CE. In this study, with 1-octanol as a model DLLME extractant and six phenols as model analytes, a novel method based on acetonitrile stacking and sweeping is proposed to accomplish large-volume injection of 1-octanol diluted with a solvent-saline mixture before micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Brij-35 and β-cyclodextrin were employed as pseudostationary phases for sweeping and also for improving the compatibility of sample zone and aqueous running buffer. A short solvent-saline plug was used to offset the adverse effect of the water immiscible extractant on focusing efficiency. The key parameters affecting separation and concentration were systematically optimized; the effect of Brij-35 and 1-octanol on focusing mechanism was discussed. Under the optimized conditions, with ∼ 30-fold concentration enrichment by DLLME, the diluted extractant (8×) was then injected into the capillary with a length of 21 cm (42% of the total length), which yielded the overall improvements in sensitivity of 170-460. Limits of detection and qualification ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 ng/mL and 1.0 to 3.4 g/mL, respectively. Acceptable repeatability lower than 3.0% for migration time and 9.0% for peak areas were obtained. The developed method was successfully applied for analysis of the phenol pollutants in real water samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrokinetics of the silica and aqueous electrolyte solution interface: Viscoelectric effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Lun; Daiguji, Hirofumi; Dunstan, David E; Davidson, Malcolm R; Harvie, Dalton J E

    2016-08-01

    The manipulation of biomolecules, fluid and ionic current in a new breed of integrated nanofluidic devices requires a quantitative understanding of electrokinetics at the silica/water interface. The conventional capacitor-based electrokinetic Electric Double Layer (EDL) models for this interface have some known shortcomings, as evidenced by a lack of consistency within the literature for the (i) equilibrium constants of surface silanol groups, (ii) Stern layer capacitance, (iii) zeta (ζ) potential measured by various electrokinetic methods, and (iv) surface conductivity. In this study, we consider how the experimentally observable viscoelectric effect - that is, the increase of the local viscosity due to the polarisation of polar solvents - affects electrokinetcs at the silica/water interface. Specifically we consider how a model that considers viscoelectric effects (the VE model) performs against two conventional electrokinetic models, namely the Gouy-Chapman (GC) and Basic Stern capacitance (BS) models, in predicting four fundamental electrokinetic phenomena: electrophoresis, electroosmosis, streaming current and streaming potential. It is found that at moderate to high salt concentrations (>5×10(-3)M) predictions from the VE model are in quantitative agreement with experimental electrokinetic measurements when the sole additional adjustable parameter, the viscoelectric coefficient, is set equal to a value given by a previous independent measurement. In contrast neither the GS nor BS models is able to reproduce all experimental data over the same concentration range using a single, robust set of parameters. Significantly, we also show that the streaming current and potential in the moderate to high surface charge range are insensitive to surface charge behaviour (including capacitances) when viscoelectric effects are considered, in difference to models that do not consider these effects. This strongly questions the validity of using pressure based

  14. Electrokinetic investigations on the system polystyrene/aqueous electrolyte solution : verification of model theories on dilute and concentrated dispersions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Put, van der A.G.

    1980-01-01

    This thesis presents a systematic experimental and theoretical study on electrokinetic and electroconducting properties of disperse systems. The increasing interest in transport processes through charged porous systems has recently brought about a corresponding growth of models and theories since

  15. The Capillary Fluidics of Espresso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Nathan; Wollman, Drew; Graf, John; Weislogel, Mark

    2014-11-01

    Espresso is enjoyed by tens of millions of people daily. The coffee is distinguished by a complex low density colloid of emulsified oils. Due to gravity, these oils rise to the surface forming a foam lid called the crema. In this work we present a variety of large length scale capillary fluidic effects for espresso in a gravity-free environment. Drop tower tests are performed to establish brief microgravity conditions under which spontaneous capillarity-driven behavior is observed. Because the variety of espresso drinks is extensive, specific property measurements are made to assess the effects of wetting and surface tension for `Italian' espresso, caffe latte, and caffe Americano. To some, the texture and aromatics of the crema play a critical role in the overall espresso experience. We show how in the low-g environment this may not be possible. We also suggest alternate methods for enjoying espresso aboard spacecraft. NASA NNX09AP66A, Glenn Research Center.

  16. Capillary Discharge XUV Radiation Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nevrkla

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A device producing Z-pinching plasma as a source of XUV radiation is described. Here a ceramic capacitor bank pulse-charged up to 100 kV is discharged through a pre-ionized gas-filled ceramic tube 3.2 mm in diameter and 21 cm in length. The discharge current has amplitude of 20 kA and a rise-time of 65 ns. The apparatus will serve as experimental device for studying of capillary discharge plasma, for testing X-ray optics elements and for investigating the interaction of water-window radiation with biological samples. After optimization it will be able to produce 46.9 nm laser radiation with collision pumped Ne-like argon ions active medium. 

  17. Capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.D.; Wahl, J.H.; Goodlett, D.R.; Hofstadler, S.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1993-07-01

    The hallmarks of GC/MS are its speed, selectivity, and sensitivity. Unfortunately, however, both GC and the conventional ionization methods used in MS require sample volatilization. The 1980's saw the genesis and rapid development of a high-resolution separation method, capillary electrophoresis (CE). The ability to manipulate and inject extremely small sample volumes, steps that are generally problematic with LC, provides a basis for using CE to confront extreme analytical challenges. In addition, CE has the flexibility provided by a range of formats and a plethora of methods for manipulating injection conditions and separation specificity. Currently at least a dozen laboratories are actively involved in developing and applying CE/MS techniques. Although the focus here is on CE/MS using electrospray ionization interfaces, other methods have been reported. 51 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Paramecium swimming in capillary tube

    CERN Document Server

    Jana, Saikat; Jung, Sunghwan

    2010-01-01

    Swimming organisms in their natural habitat navigate through a wide array of geometries and chemical environments. Interaction with the boundaries is ubiquitous and can significantly modify the swimming characteristics of the organism as observed under ideal conditions. We study the dynamics of ciliary locomotion in Paramecium multimicronucleatum and observe the effect of the solid boundaries on the velocities in the near field of the organism. Experimental observations show that Paramecium executes helical trajectories that slowly transition to straight line motion as the diameter of the capillary tubes decrease. Theoretically this system is modeled as an undulating cylinder with pressure gradient and compared with experiments; showing that such considerations are necessary for modeling finite sized organisms in the restrictive geometries.

  19. Capillary electrophoresis for the characterization of quantum dots after non-selective or selective bioconjugation with antibodies for immunoassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Edward PC

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Capillary electrophoresis coupled with laser-induced fluorescence was used for the characterization of quantum dots and their conjugates to biological molecules. The CE-LIF was laboratory-built and capable of injection (hydrodynamic and electrokinetic from sample volumes as low as 4 μL via the use of a modified micro-fluidic chip platform. Commercially available quantum dots were bioconjugated to proteins and immunoglobulins through the use of established techniques (non-selective and selective. Non-selective techniques involved the use of EDCHCl/sulfo-NHS for the conjugation of BSA and myoglobin to carboxylic acid-functionalized quantum dots. Selective techniques involved 1 the use of heterobifunctional crosslinker, sulfo-SMCC, for the conjugation of partially reduced IgG to amine-functionalized quantum dots, and 2 the conjugation of periodate-oxidized IgGs to hydrazide-functionalized quantum dots. The migration times of these conjugates were determined in comparison to their non-conjugated QD relatives based upon their charge-to-size ratio values. The performance of capillary electrophoresis in characterizing immunoconjugates of quantum dot-labeled IgGs was also evaluated. Together, both QDs and CE-LIF can be applied as a sensitive technique for the detection of biological molecules. This work will contribute to the advancements in applying nanotechnology for molecular diagnosis in medical field.

  20. Aggregation behavior of fullerenes in aqueous solutions: a capillary electrophoresis and asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astefanei, Alina; Núñez, Oscar; Galceran, Maria Teresa; Kok, Wim Th; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    In this work, the electrophoretic behavior of hydrophobic fullerenes [buckminsterfullerene (C60), C70, and N-methyl-fulleropyrrolidine (C60-pyrr)] and water-soluble fullerenes [fullerol (C60(OH)24); polyhydroxy small gap fullerene, hydrated (C120(OH)30); C60 pyrrolidine tris acid (C60-pyrr tris acid); and (1,2-methanofullerene C60)-61-carboxylic acid (C60CHCOOH)] in micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) was evaluated. The aggregation behavior of the water-soluble compounds in MECC at different buffer and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) concentrations and pH values of the background electrolyte (BGE) was studied by monitoring the changes observed in the electrophoretic pattern of the peaks. Broad and distorted peaks that can be attributed to fullerene aggregation were obtained in MECC which became narrower and more symmetric by working at low buffer and SDS concentrations (below the critical micelle concentration, capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) conditions). For the characterization of the suspected aggregates formed (size and shape), asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used. The results showed that the increase in the buffer concentration promoted the aggregation of the particles, while the presence of SDS micelles revealed multiple peaks corresponding to particles of different aggregation degrees. Furthermore, MECC has been applied for the first time for the analysis of C60 in two different cosmetic products (i.e., anti-aging serum and facial mask).

  1. Characterization of phthalocyanine functionalized quantum dots by dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler, and capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-García, Gonzalo; Oluwole, David O; Nxele, Siphesihle Robin; d'Orlyé, Fanny; Nyokong, Tebello; Bedioui, Fethi; Varenne, Anne

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we characterized different phtalocyanine-capped core/shell/shell quantum dots (QDs) in terms of stability, ζ-potential, and size at various pH and ionic strengths, by means of capillary electrophoresis (CE), and compared these results to the ones obtained by laser Doppler electrophoresis (LDE) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The effect of the phthalocyanine metallic center (Zn, Al, or In), the number (one or four), and nature of substituents (carboxyphenoxy- or sulfonated-) of functionalization on the phthalocyanine physicochemical properties were evaluated. Whereas QDs capped with zinc mono-carboxyphenoxy-phtalocyanine (ZnMCPPc-QDs) remained aggregated in the whole analyzed pH range, even at low ionic strength, QDs capped with zinc tetracarboxyphenoxy phtalocyanine (ZnTPPc-QDs) were easily dispersed in buffers at pH equal to or higher than 7.4. QDs capped with aluminum tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (AlTSPPc-QDs) and indium tetracarboxyphenoxy phthalocyanines (InTCPPc-QDs) were stable in aqueous suspension only at pH higher than 9.0 due to the presence of functional groups bound to the metallic center of the phthalocyanine. The ζ-potential values determined by CE for all the samples decreased when ionic strength increased, being well correlated with the aggregation of the nanoconjugates at elevated salt concentrations. The use of electrokinetic methodologies has provided insights into the colloidal stability of the photosensitizer-functionalized QDs in physiological relevant solutions and thereby, its usefulness for improving their design and applications for photodynamic therapy. Graphical Abstract Schematic illustration of the phthalocyanine capped QDs nanoconjugates and the capillary electrophoresis methods applied for size and ζ-potential characterization.

  2. Citric-acid preacidification enhanced electrokinetic remediation for removal of chromium from chromium-residue-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fansheng; Xue, Hao; Wang, Yeyao; Zheng, Binghui; Wang, Juling

    2018-02-01

    Electrokinetic experiments were conducted on chromium-residue-contaminated soils collected from a chemical plant in China. Acidification-electrokinetic remediation technology was proposed in order to solve the problem of removing inefficient with ordinary electrokinetic. The results showed that electrokinetic remediation removal efficiency of chromium from chromium-contaminated soil was significantly enhanced with acidizing pretreatment. The total chromium [Cr(T)] and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] removal rate of the group acidized by citric acid (0.9 mol/L) for 5 days was increased from 6.23% and 19.01% in the acid-free experiments to 26.97% and 77.66% in the acidification-treated experiments, respectively. In addition, part of chromium with the state of carbonate-combined will be converted into water-soluble state through acidification to improve the removal efficiency. Within the appropriate concentration range, the higher concentration of acid was, the more chromium was released. So the removal efficiency of chromium depended on the acid concentration. The citric acid is also a kind of complexing agent, which produced complexation with Cr that was released by the electrokinetic treatment and then enhanced the removal efficiency. The major speciation of chromium that was removed from soils by acidification-electrokinetics remediation was acid-soluble speciation, revivification speciation and oxidation speciation, which reduced biological availability of chromium.

  3. Electrokinetic stringency control in self-assembled monolayer-based biosensors for multiplex urinary tract infection diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Sin, Mandy L Y; Pyne, Jeff D; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C; Wong, Pak Kin

    2014-01-01

    Rapid detection of bacterial pathogens is critical toward judicious management of infectious diseases. Herein, we demonstrate an in situ electrokinetic stringency control approach for a self-assembled monolayer-based electrochemical biosensor toward urinary tract infection diagnosis. The in situ electrokinetic stringency control technique generates Joule heating induced temperature rise and electrothermal fluid motion directly on the sensor to improve its performance for detecting bacterial 16S rRNA, a phylogenetic biomarker. The dependence of the hybridization efficiency reveals that in situ electrokinetic stringency control is capable of discriminating single-base mismatches. With electrokinetic stringency control, the background noise due to the matrix effects of clinical urine samples can be reduced by 60%. The applicability of the system is demonstrated by multiplex detection of three uropathogenic clinical isolates with similar 16S rRNA sequences. The results demonstrate that electrokinetic stringency control can significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the biosensor for multiplex urinary tract infection diagnosis. Urinary tract infections remain a significant cause of mortality and morbidity as secondary conditions often related to chronic diseases or to immunosuppression. Rapid and sensitive identification of the causative organisms is critical in the appropriate management of this condition. These investigators demonstrate an in situ electrokinetic stringency control approach for a self-assembled monolayer-based electrochemical biosensor toward urinary tract infection diagnosis, establishing that such an approach significantly improves the biosensor's signal-to-noise ratio. © 2013.

  4. Impact of carbonate on the efficiency of heavy metal removal from kaolinite soil by the electrokinetic soil remediation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouhadi, V.R., E-mail: vahidouhadi@yahoo.ca [Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yong, R.N. [RNY Geoenvironmental Research, North Saanich (Canada); Shariatmadari, N. [Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saeidijam, S.; Goodarzi, A.R.; Safari-Zanjani, M. [Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    While the feasibility of using electrokinetics to decontaminate soils has been studied by several authors, the effects of soil composition on the efficiency of this method of decontamination has yet to be fully studied. This study focuses its attention on the effect of 'calcite or carbonate' (CaCO{sub 3}) on removal efficiency in electrokinetic soil remediation. Bench scale experiments were conducted on two soils: kaolinite and natural-soil of a landfill in Hamedan, Iran. Prescribed quantities of carbonates were mixed with these soils which were subsequently contaminated with zinc nitrate. After that, electrokinetic experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency of electrokinetic remediation. The results showed that an increase in the quantity of carbonate caused a noticeable increase on the contaminant retention of soil and on the resistance of soil to the contaminant removal by electrokinetic method. Because the presence of carbonates in the soil increases its buffering capacity, acidification is reduced, resulting in a decrease in the rate of heavy metal removed from the contaminant soil. This conclusion was validated by the evaluation of efficiency of electrokinetic method on a soil sample from the liner of a waste disposal site, with 28% carbonates.

  5. Sub-Grid Modeling of Electrokinetic Effects in Micro Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. P.

    2005-01-01

    Advances in micro-fabrication processes have generated tremendous interests in miniaturizing chemical and biomedical analyses into integrated microsystems (Lab-on-Chip devices). To successfully design and operate the micro fluidics system, it is essential to understand the fundamental fluid flow phenomena when channel sizes are shrink to micron or even nano dimensions. One important phenomenon is the electro kinetic effect in micro/nano channels due to the existence of the electrical double layer (EDL) near a solid-liquid interface. Not only EDL is responsible for electro-osmosis pumping when an electric field parallel to the surface is imposed, EDL also causes extra flow resistance (the electro-viscous effect) and flow anomaly (such as early transition from laminar to turbulent flow) observed in pressure-driven microchannel flows. Modeling and simulation of electro-kinetic effects on micro flows poses significant numerical challenge due to the fact that the sizes of the double layer (10 nm up to microns) are very thin compared to channel width (can be up to 100 s of m). Since the typical thickness of the double layer is extremely small compared to the channel width, it would be computationally very costly to capture the velocity profile inside the double layer by placing sufficient number of grid cells in the layer to resolve the velocity changes, especially in complex, 3-d geometries. Existing approaches using "slip" wall velocity and augmented double layer are difficult to use when the flow geometry is complicated, e.g. flow in a T-junction, X-junction, etc. In order to overcome the difficulties arising from those two approaches, we have developed a sub-grid integration method to properly account for the physics of the double layer. The integration approach can be used on simple or complicated flow geometries. Resolution of the double layer is not needed in this approach, and the effects of the double layer can be accounted for at the same time. With this

  6. Field-amplified online sample stacking capillary electrophoresis UV detection for plasma malondialdehyde measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinellu, Angelo; Sotgia, Salvatore; Deiana, Luca; Carru, Ciriaco

    2011-07-01

    Malondialdehyde (MDA) determination is the most widely used method for monitoring lipid peroxidation. Here, we describe an easy field-amplified sample injection (FASI) CE method with UV detection for the detection of free plasma MDA. MDA was detected within 8 min by using 200 mmol/L Tris phosphate pH 5.0 as running buffer. Plasma samples treated with ACN for protein elimination were directly injected on capillary without complex cleanup and/or sample derivatization procedures. Using electrokinetic injection, the detection limit in real sample was 3 nmol/L, thus improving of about 100-fold the LOD of the previous described methods based on CE. Precision tests indicate a good repeatability of our method both for migration times (CV = 1.11%) and for areas (CV = 2.05%). Moreover, a good reproducibility of intra- and inter-assay tests was obtained (CV = 2.55% and CV = 5.14%, respectively). Suitability of the method was tested by measuring MDA levels in 44 healthy volunteers. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Capillary condensation between disks in two dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Tamir; Ipsen, John Hjorth

    1997-01-01

    Capillary condensation between two two-dimensional wetted circular substrates (disks) is studied by an effective free energy description of the wetting interface. The interfacial free-energy potential is developed on the basis of the theory for the wetting of a single disk, where interfacial...... capillary fluctuations play a dominant role. A simple approximative analytical expression of the interfacial free energy is developed and is validated numerically. The capillary condensation is characterized by the analysis of the coverage of the condensed phase, its stability, and asymptotic behaviors...

  8. Dual-channel capillary electrophoresis for simultaneous determination of cations and anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opekar, František; Tůma, Petr

    2016-05-13

    An original electrophoresis apparatus for simultaneous rapid determination of cations and anions has been designed and tested. The separation part of the apparatus consists of two identical fused-silica capillaries, each with a length of 10.5cm and inner diameter of 25μm. The injection space is formed by the crossing of four channels in a plexiglass cross-piece. The capillaries pass through two opposing channels and their injection ends are located opposite one another at a distance of approx. 0.5mm in the centre of the crossing point. The exit ends of the capillaries are placed in vessels containing the background electrolyte in which are immersed the electrodes of a high-voltage source. Contactless conductivity detectors with semi-cylindrical electrodes are located 2cm from the exit ends of the capillaries. The injection part of the apparatus consists of two piezoelectric micro-pumps bringing the solution through another channel in the cross-piece to the injection ends of the capillary. During the injection, the sample is brought through one of them and is injected electrokinetically for a defined time. Then the sample zone is forced out of the injection space by a stream of background electrolyte from the second micro-pump. The timing of the injection process is computer-controlled. Thus the equipment can be considered to constitute electrophoresis in one capillary with injection into its centre. The use of short capillaries and miniature micro-pumps without other mechanical components enabled the construction of the apparatus on a board with dimensions of 20×25cm. The proposed equipment was used to test simultaneous separation of a mixture of cations and anions, NH4(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Sr(2+), Ba(2+), Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), ClO3(-) and F(-), in BGE with composition 500mM HAc+20mM Tris+2mM 18-crown-6 (pH 3.3). Baseline separation of all the components was achieved in time less than 1min. Quantification of the content of nitrate nitrogen (determined as

  9. Robust analysis of the hydrophobic basic analytes loratadine and desloratadine in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids by sweeping-cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Awady, Mohamed; Belal, Fathalla; Pyell, Ute

    2013-09-27

    The analysis of hydrophobic basic analytes by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) is usually challenging because of the tendency of these analytes to be adsorbed onto the inner capillary wall in addition to the difficulty to separate these compounds as they exhibit extremely high retention factors. A robust and reliable method for the simultaneous determination of loratadine (LOR) and its major metabolite desloratadine (DSL) is developed based on cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MEKC) with acidic sample matrix and basic background electrolyte (BGE). The influence of the sample matrix on the reachable focusing efficiency is studied. It is shown that the application of a low pH sample solution mitigates problems associated with the low solubility of the hydrophobic basic analytes in aqueous solution while having advantages with regard to on-line focusing. Moreover, the use of a basic BGE reduces the adsorption of these analytes in the separation compartment. The separation of the studied analytes is achieved in less than 7min using a BGE consisting of 10mmolL(-1) disodium tetraborate buffer, pH 9.30 containing 40mmolL(-1) SDS and 20mmolL(-1) hydroxypropyl-β-CD while the sample solution is composed of 10mmolL(-1) phosphoric acid, pH 2.15. A full validation study of the developed method based on the pharmacopeial guidelines is performed. The method is successfully applied to the analysis of the studied drugs in tablets without interference of tablet additives as well as the analysis of spiked human urine without any sample pretreatment. Furthermore, DSL can be detected as an impurity in LOR bulk powder at the stated pharmacopeial limit (0.1%, w/w). The selectivity of the developed method allows the analysis of LOR and DSL in combination with the co-formulated drug pseudoephedrine. It is shown that in CD-MEKC with basic BGE, solute-wall interactions are effectively suppressed allowing the development of efficient and precise

  10. Capillary detectors for high resolution tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Annis, P

    1997-01-01

    We present a new tracking device based on glass capillary bundles or layers filled with highly purified liquid scintillator and read out at one end by means of image intensifiers and CCD devices. A large-volume prototype consisting of 5 × 105 capillaries with a diameter of 20 μm and a length of 180 cm and read out by a megapixel CCD has been tested with muon and neutrino beams at CERN. With this prototype a two track resolution of 33 μm was achieved with passing through muons. Images of neutrino interactions in a capillary bundle have also been acquired and analysed. Read-out chains based on Electron Bombarded CCD (EBCCD) and image pipeline devices are also investigated. Preliminary results obtained with a capillary bundle read out by an EBCCD are presented.

  11. Capillary electrochromatography using fibers as stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, K; Watanabe, H; Saito, Y; Takeichi, T

    2001-10-01

    Fiber-packed capillary columns have been evaluated in chromatographic performance in capillary electrochromatography (CEC). The change of electroosmotic flow (EOF) velocity and selectivity using different kinds of fiber materials was examined. Although the EOF velocity among the different fiber packed columns was almost the same, retention of parabens was larger on the Kevlar-packed column than on the Zylon-packed one, and was larger on the as-span-type fiber-packed column than on the high-modulus-type packed one. Using 200 microm ID x 5 cm Kevlar packed column combined with a 100 microm ID x 20 cm precolumn capillary and a 530 microm ID x 45 cm postcolumn capillary, the separation of three parabens within 30 s was achieved. Other compounds were also separated in a few minutes by the fiber-packed CEC method.

  12. Pediatric Nasal Lobular Capillary Hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M. Virbalas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. LCH is a benign vascular growth of the skin and mucous membranes commonly affecting the head and neck. Since it was first described in the nineteenth century, this entity has been variously known as “human botryomycosis” and “pyogenic granuloma.” The shifting nomenclature reflects an evolving understanding of the underlying pathogenesis. We review the histopathology of and current epidemiological data pertaining to LCH which suggests that the development of these lesions may involve a hyperactive inflammatory response influenced by endocrine factors. We report two new cases of pediatric lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH of the nasal cavity and review current theories regarding the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of nasal LCH. Methods. Retrospective case series. Case Series. Two adolescent females presented with symptoms of recurrent epistaxis, nasal obstruction, and epiphora. Both patients underwent computed tomography imaging and biopsy of their intranasal mass. The tumors were excised using image-guided transnasal endoscopic technique. Seven other cases of nasal LCH have been reported to date in the pediatric population. Conclusion. Nasal LCH is a rare cause of an intranasal mass and is associated with unilateral epistaxis, nasal obstruction, and epiphora. We advocate for image-guided endoscopic excision of LCH in the adolescent population.

  13. Nonlinear waves in capillary electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Sandip; Chen, Zhen

    2011-01-01

    Electrophoretic separation of a mixture of chemical species is a fundamental technique of great usefulness in biology, health care and forensics. In capillary electrophoresis the sample migrates in a microcapillary in the presence of a background electrolyte. When the ionic concentration of the sample is sufficiently high, the signal is known to exhibit features reminiscent of nonlinear waves including sharp concentration ‘shocks’. In this paper we consider a simplified model consisting of a single sample ion and a background electrolyte consisting of a single co-ion and a counterion in the absence of any processes that might change the ionization states of the constituents. If the ionic diffusivities are assumed to be the same for all constituents the concentration of sample ion is shown to obey a one dimensional advection diffusion equation with a concentration dependent advection velocity. If the analyte concentration is sufficiently low in a suitable non-dimensional sense, Burgers’ equation is recovered, and thus, the time dependent problem is exactly solvable with arbitrary initial conditions. In the case of small diffusivity either a leading edge or trailing edge shock is formed depending on the electrophoretic mobility of the sample ion relative to the background ions. Analytical formulas are presented for the shape, width and migration velocity of the sample peak and it is shown that axial dispersion at long times may be characterized by an effective diffusivity that is exactly calculated. These results are consistent with known observations from physical and numerical simulation experiments. PMID:20238181

  14. Monoclonal gammopathy missed by capillary zone electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Schild, Christof; Egger, Florence; Kaelin-Lang, Alain; Nuoffer, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    Background: Serum protein electrophoresis is used as a screening test for monoclonal gammopathies. Here, we present a case of a high-concentration monoclonal immunoglobulin (M-protein) that was missed by serum protein electrophoresis on a Capillarys 2 capillary zone electrophoresis system. The aim of our study was to identify the reason for the failure of the system to detect the M-protein. Methods: M-protein solubility was examined in response to temperature, pH, ionic strength, the chaotrop...

  15. Capillary breakup of fluid threads within confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guoqing; Xue, Chundong; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-11-01

    Fluid thread breakup is a widespread phenomenon in nature, industry, and daily life. Driven by surface tension (or capillarity) at low flow-rate condition, the breakup scenario is usually called capillary instability or Plateau-Rayleigh instability. Fluid thread deforms under confinement of ambient fluid to form a fluid neck. Thinning of the neck at low flow-rate condition is quasistatic until the interface becomes unstable and collapses to breakup. Underlying mechanisms and universalities of both the stable and unstable thinning remain, however, unclear and even contradictory. Here we conduct new numerical and experimental studies to show that confined interfaces are not only stabilized but also destabilized by capillarity at low flow-rate condition. Capillary stabilization is attributed to confinement-determined internal pressure that is higher than capillary pressure along the neck. Two origins of capillary destabilization are identified: one is confinement-induced gradient of capillary pressure along the interface; the other is the competition between local capillary pressure and internal pressure. This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11402274, 11272321, and 11572334).

  16. Impact of pore size variability and network coupling on electrokinetic transport in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Shima; Bazant, Martin Z.; Mani, Ali

    2016-11-01

    We have developed and validated an efficient and robust computational model to study the coupled fluid and ion transport through electrokinetic porous media, which are exposed to external gradients of pressure, electric potential, and concentration. In our approach a porous media is modeled as a network of many pores through which the transport is described by the coupled Poisson-Nernst-Planck-Stokes equations. When the pore sizes are random, the interactions between various modes of transport may provoke complexities such as concentration polarization shocks and internal flow circulations. These phenomena impact mixing and transport in various systems including deionization and filtration systems, supercapacitors, and lab-on-a-chip devices. In this work, we present simulations of massive networks of pores and we demonstrate the impact of pore size variation, and pore-pore coupling on the overall electrokinetic transport in porous media.

  17. Migration time shift of analytes in micellar electrokinetic chromatography induced by stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziomba, Szymon; Ciura, Krzesimir; Markuszewski, Michał J; Wielgomas, Bartosz

    2017-07-01

    A significant shift of migration time of nonretained compounds (ascorbic acid and cysteine) in micellar electrokinetic chromatography was observed under variation of sample matrix composition. The shift was affected by borate buffer concentration in sample matrix, sample injection time, and pH of BGE (80 mM SDS, Tris/HCl). Surprisingly, longer migration time of analyte was recorded at higher pH of separation buffer. These observations were linked to transient isotachophoresis process. Computer simulation with Simul5 software was conducted to support this hypothesis. The manuscript documents rarely reported in the literature phenomenon of isotachophoresis in micellar electrokinetic chromatography. The analytical potential of described observations was also discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. In Situ Electrokinetic Enhancement for Self-Assembled-Monolayer-Based Electrochemical Biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Mandy L. Y.; Liu, Tingting; Pyne, Jeffrey D.; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C.; Kin Wong, Pak

    2014-01-01

    This study reports a multifunctional electrode approach which directly implements electrokinetic enhancement on a self-assembled-monolayer-based electro-chemical sensor for point-of-care diagnostics. Using urinary tract infections as a model system, we demonstrate that electrokinetic enhancement, which involves in situ stirring and heating, can enhance the sensitivity of the strain specific 16S rRNA hybridization assay for 1 order of magnitude and accelerate the time-limiting incubation step with a 6-fold reduction in the incubation time. Since the same electrode platform is used for both electrochemical signal enhancement and electrochemical sensing, the multifunctional electrode approach provides a highly effective strategy toward fully integrated lab-on-a-chip systems for various biomedical applications. PMID:22397486

  19. Short channel effects on electrokinetic energy conversion in solid-state nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; He, Yuhui; Tsutsui, Makusu; Miao, Xiang Shui; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2017-04-01

    The ion selectivity of nanopores due to the wall surface charges is capable of inducing strong coupling between fluidic and ionic motion within the system. This interaction opens up the prospect of operating nanopores as nanoscale devices for electrokinetic energy conversion. However, the very short channel lengths make the ionic movement and fluidics inside the pore to be substantially affected by the ion depletion/accumulation around the pore ends. Based on three-dimensional electrokinetic modeling and simulation, we present a systematic theoretical study of nanopore electrical resistance, fluidic impedance, and streaming conductance. Our results show that by utilizing the short channel effect and preparing slippery nanopores the energy conversion efficiency can be dramatically increased to about 9% under large salt concentrations.

  20. Matrix changes and side effects induced by electrokinetic treatment of porous and particulate materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Gry

    of porous stone materials to hinder decay. However, in addition to the removal of target ions in these systems, matrix changes may occur during the electrochemical treatment. For a broader implementation of the electrokinetic methods it is important to understand changes in the matrix composition......Transport of ions in an applied electric field holds many applications within both civil and environmental engineering, e.g. for removal of chlorides from concrete to hinder reinforcement corrosion, remediation of heavy metals from soils and other waste materials and recently for desalination...... for different types of materials. The overall aim of this PhD-project is to evaluate matrix changes and side effects induced by electrokinetic treatment of porous and particulate materials.During electro-remediation protons are produced at the anode and hydroxyl ions are produced at the cathode. The consequent...

  1. Field Testing of Rapid Electrokinetic Nanoparticle Treatment for Corrosion Control of Steel in Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Henry E.; Alexander, Joshua B.; Kupwade-Patil,Kunal; Calle, Luz Marina

    2009-01-01

    This work field tested the use of electrokinetics for delivery of concrete sealing nanoparticles concurrent with the extraction of chlorides. Several cylinders of concrete were batched and placed in immersion at the Kennedy Space Center Beach Corrosion Test Site. The specimens were batched with steel reinforcement and a 4.5 wt.% (weight percent) content of sodium chloride. Upon arrival at Kennedy Space Center, the specimens were placed in the saltwater immersion pool at the Beach Corrosion Test Site. Following 30 days of saltwater exposure, the specimens were subjected to rapid chloride extraction concurrent with electrokinetic nanoparticle treatment. The treatments were operated at up to eight times the typical current density in order to complete the treatment in 7 days. The findings indicated that the short-term corrosion resistance of the concrete specimens was significantly enhanced as was the strength of the concrete.

  2. Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing with electrokinetics enhanced biosensors for diagnosis of acute bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Lu, Yi; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C; Wong, Pak Kin

    2014-11-01

    Rapid pathogen detection and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) are required in diagnosis of acute bacterial infections to determine the appropriate antibiotic treatment. Molecular approaches for AST are often based on the detection of known antibiotic resistance genes. Phenotypic culture analysis requires several days from sample collection to result reporting. Toward rapid diagnosis of bacterial infection in non-traditional healthcare settings, we have developed a rapid AST approach that combines phenotypic culture of bacterial pathogens in physiological samples and electrochemical sensing of bacterial 16S rRNA. The assay determines the susceptibility of pathogens by detecting bacterial growth under various antibiotic conditions. AC electrokinetic fluid motion and Joule heating induced temperature elevation are optimized to enhance the sensor signal and minimize the matrix effect, which improve the overall sensitivity of the assay. The electrokinetics enhanced biosensor directly detects the bacterial pathogens in blood culture without prior purification. Rapid determination of the antibiotic resistance profile of Escherichia coli clinical isolates is demonstrated.

  3. Numerical study of dc-biased ac-electrokinetic flow over symmetrical electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang Ng, Wee; Ramos, Antonio; Cheong Lam, Yee; Rodriguez, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of DC-biased AC-electrokinetic (DC-biased ACEK) flow over a pair of symmetrical electrodes. The flow mechanism is based on a transverse conductivity gradient created through incipient Faradaic reactions occurring at the electrodes when a DC-bias is applied. The DC biased AC electric field acting on this gradient generates a fluid flow in the form of vortexes. To understand more in depth the DC-biased ACEK flow mechanism, a phenomenological model is developed to study the effects of voltage, conductivity ratio, channel width, depth, and aspect ratio on the induced flow characteristics. It was found that flow velocity on the order of mm/s can be produced at higher voltage and conductivity ratio. Such rapid flow velocity is one of the highest reported in microsystems technology using electrokinetics. PMID:22662084

  4. Electrokinetics of charged spherical colloidal particles taking into account the effect of ion size constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, J J; Aranda-Rascón, M J; Grosse, C; Horno, J

    2011-04-01

    The electrokinetic properties of suspended spherical particles are examined using a modified standard electrokinetic model, which takes into account the finite ion size and considers that the minimum approach distance of ions to the particle surface need not be equal to their effective radius in the bulk solution. We calculate the conductivity increment and the electrophoretic mobility and present a detailed interpretation of the obtained results, based on the analysis of the equilibrium and field-induced ion concentrations, as well as the convective fluid flow in the neighborhood of the particle surface. We show that when charge reversal takes place, the sign of the concentration polarization remains unchanged while the sign of the electrophoretic mobility only changes under favorable circumstances. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. On benchmark problems, challenges, and competitions in electrokinetics-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurák, Zdeněk; Foret, František

    2015-07-01

    In this critical review, we comment on the absence of widely shared benchmark problems and relevant challenges or even attractive competitions in the field of electrokinetics. We argue that in some other scientific domains that are, similarly as electrokinetics, strongly multidisciplinary, the existence of these tools is very beneficial because it stimulates the discussion about what constitutes the bottleneck of further progress, allows easier exploitation of results provided by other scientific and engineering disciplines, and, last but not least, makes the research domain attractive and visible to a broader public, including students. The goal of this review is to provoke some discussion that might perhaps lead to compensating for these shortcomings. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Ripple structure-generated hybrid electrokinetics for on-chip mixing and separating of functionalized beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, I-Fang; Chiang, Sheng-Chuan; Chung, Cheng-Che; Yeh, Trai-Ming; Chang, Hsien-Chang

    2014-11-01

    We present an electrokinetics-based microfluidic platform that is capable of on-chip manipulating, mixing, and separating microparticles through adjusting the interrelated magnitudes of dielectrophoresis and AC electroosmosis. Hybrid electrokinetic phenomenon is generated from an electric field-induced micro-ripple structure made of ultraviolet-curable glue. Size-dependent particle separation and selective removal over the ripple structure is demonstrated successfully. Varying the waveform from sine-wave to square-wave allows generating a fluid convection at specific positions to mix the antibody-functionalized beads and antigen. Potential application in the bead-based immunoassay was also demonstrated for immuno-reaction and subsequently separating the bead-bead aggregate and non-binding beads on-chip.

  7. Electrokinetic migration studies on removal of chromium and uranyl ions from 904-A trench soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibler, J.P.; Meaker, T.F.; O' Steen, A.B.

    1992-09-30

    This report describes a laboratory-scale study, in which electrokinetic migration technology was used to remove chromium and uranium, as well as other ions, from soil taken from a bore hole adjacent to the 904-A trench at the Savannah River Technology Center. Imposition of an electric current on humid (not saturated) soil successfully caused cations to migrate through the pore water of the soil to the cathode, where they were captured in an ISOLOCKTm polymer matrix and in a cation exchange resin incorporated in the polymer. Chemicals circulated through the anode/polymer and cathode/polymer were able to control pH excursions in the electrokinetic-cells by reacting with the H[sup +] and OH[sup [minus

  8. Sample stacking and sweeping in microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography under pH-suppressed electroosmotic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinhua; Qi, Shengda; Zhang, Huige; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide

    2008-05-30

    Two on-line sample concentration techniques, sample stacking and sweeping under pH-suppressed electroosmotic flow, were evaluated in microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography. The concept of stacking with anion selective electrokinetic injection and a water plug in a reverse-migrating microemulsion (SASIW-RMME) was brought forward in this article. Six flavonoids were concentrated using a microemulsion consisting of 80 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate, 1.2% (v/v) ethyl acetate, 0.6% (v/v) 1-butanol, 10% acetonitrile (v/v) and 50 mM phosphoric acid (pH* 1.8). Significant detector response improvements were achieved. The limits of detection were in the low ng/ml level. Finally, the sample of Fructus aurantii Immaturus was analyzed using sweeping technique.

  9. Review of aqueous chiral electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) with an emphasis on chiral microemulsion EKC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Kimberly A; Foley, Joe P

    2007-08-01

    The separation of enantiomers using electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) with chiral microemulsions is comprehensively reviewed through December 1, 2006. Aqueous chiral EKC separations based on other pseudostationary phases such as micelles and vesicles or on other chiral selectors such as CDs, crown ethers, glycopeptides, ligand exchange moeities are also reviewed from both mechanistic and applications perspective for the period of January 2005 to December 1, 2006.

  10. Modelling of electrokinetic phenomena for capture of PEGylated ribonuclease A in a microdevice with insulating structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Gomez, Marco A.; Rito-Palomares, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis of PEGylated proteins results in a mixture of protein-polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugates and the unreacted native protein. From a ribonuclease A (RNase A) PEGylation reaction, mono-PEGylated RNase A (mono-PEG RNase A) has proven therapeutic effects against cancer, reason for which there is an interest in isolating it from the rest of the reaction products. Experimental trapping of PEGylated RNase A inside an electrokinetically driven microfluidic device has been previously demonstrated. Now, from a theoretical point of view, we have studied the electrokinetic phenomena involved in the dielectrophoretic streaming of the native RNase A protein and the trapping of the mono-PEG RNase A inside a microfluidic channel. To accomplish this, we used two 3D computational models, a sphere and an ellipse, adapted to each protein. The effect of temperature on parameters related to trapping was also studied. A temperature increase showed to rise the electric and thermal conductivities of the suspending solution, hindering dielectrophoretic trapping. In contrast, the dynamic viscosity of the suspending solution decreased as the temperature rose, favoring the dielectrophoretic manipulation of the proteins. Also, our models were able to predict the magnitude and direction of the velocity of both proteins indicating trapping for the PEGylated conjugate or no trapping for the native protein. In addition, a parametric sweep study revealed the effect of the protein zeta potential on the electrokinetic response of the protein. We believe this work will serve as a tool to improve the design of electrokinetically driven microfluidic channels for the separation and recovery of PEGylated proteins in one single step. PMID:27375815

  11. Concentric-flow electrokinetic injector enables serial crystallography of ribosome and photosystem II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, Raymond G.; Gati, Cornelius; Laksmono, Hartawan; Dao, E. Han; Gul, Sheraz; Fuller, Franklin; Kern, Jan; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Brewster, Aaron S.; Young, Iris D.; Michels-Clark, Tara; Aquila, Andrew; Liang, Mengning; Hunter, Mark S.; Koglin, Jason E.; Boutet, Sébastien; Junco, Elia A.; Hayes, Brandon; Bogan, Michael J.; Hampton, Christina Y.; Puglisi, Elisabetta V.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Stan, Claudiu A.; Zouni, Athina; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Soltis, S. Michael; Puglisi, Joseph D.; DeMirci, Hasan

    2015-11-30

    We describe a concentric-flow electrokinetic injector for efficiently delivering microcrystals for serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography analysis that enables studies of challenging biological systems in their unadulterated mother liquor. We used the injector to analyze microcrystals of Geobacillus stearothermophilus thermolysin (2.2-Å structure), Thermosynechococcus elongatus photosystem II (<3-Å diffraction) and Thermus thermophilus small ribosomal subunit bound to the antibiotic paromomycin at ambient temperature (3.4-Å structure).

  12. Electrothermal transport in biological systems : an analytical approach for electrokinetically-modulated peristaltic flow

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, D.; Sharma, A; Beg, OA; Tiwari, A.

    2017-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to investigate the combined viscous electro-osmotic flow and heat transfer in a finite length micro-channel with peristaltic wavy walls. The influence of Joule heating is included. The unsteady two-dimensional conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy conservation with viscous dissipation, heat absorption and electro-kinetic body force, are formulated in a Cartesian co-ordinate system. The Joule heating term appears as a quadratic function of axial...

  13. A multiscale theoretical investigation of electric measurements in living bone : piezoelectricity and electrokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, T; Capiez-Lernout, E; Kaiser, J; Naili, S; Rohan, E; Sansalone, V

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents a theoretical investigation of the multiphysical phenomena that govern cortical bone behaviour. Taking into account the piezoelectricity of the collagen-apatite matrix and the electrokinetics governing the interstitial fluid movement, we adopt a multiscale approach to derive a coupled poroelastic model of cortical tissue. Following how the phenomena propagate from the microscale to the tissue scale, we are able to determine the nature of macroscopically observed electric phenomena in bone.

  14. Influence of the Chemical Interactions on the Removal Rate of Different Salts in Electrokinetic Desalination Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Electrokinetic desalination techniques have been successfully applied for the prevention of salt-induced deterioration problems of masonry and other construction materials. A mathematical model for electrochemical desalination treatments is described, based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck system...... and sculptures. Simulations of the desalination treatment of brick samples contaminated with these target contaminants are shown. The influence of the chemical interactions on the efficiency is highlighted in the results....

  15. Electrokinetics of Polar Liquids in Contact with Non-Polar Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chih-Hsiu; Ferguson, Gregory S.; Chaudhury, Manoj K.

    2014-01-01

    Zeta potentials of several polar protic (water, ethylene glycol, formamide) as well as polar aprotic (dimethyl sulfoxide) liquids were measured in contact with three non-polar surfaces using closed-cell electro-osmosis. The test surfaces were chemisorbed monolayers of alkyl siloxanes, fluoroalkyl siloxanes and polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS) grafted on glass slides. All these liquids exhibited substantial electrokinetics in contact with the non-polar surfaces with these observations: the electro...

  16. The transport behavior of As, Cu, Pb, and Zn during electrokinetic remediation of a contaminated soil using electrolyte conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jung-Seok; Kwon, Man Jae; Choi, Jaeyoung; Baek, Kitae; O’Loughlin, Edward J.

    2014-12-01

    Electrokinetic remediation (also known as electrokinetics) is a promising technology for removing metals from fine-grained soils. However, few studies have been conducted regarding the transport behavior of multi-metals during electrokinetics. We investigated the transport of As, Cu, Pb, and Zn from soils during electrokinetics, the metal fractionation before and after electrokinetics, the relationships between metal transport and fractionation, and the effects of electrolyte conditioning. The main transport mechanisms of the metals were electroosmosis and electromigration during the first two weeks and electromigration during the following weeks. The direction of electroosmotic flow was from the anode to the cathode, and the metals in the dissolved and reducible-oxides fractions were transported to the anode or cathode by electromigration according to the chemical speciation of the metal ions in the pore water. Moreover, a portion of the metals that were initially in the residual fraction transitioned to the reducible and soluble fractions during electrokinetic treatment. However, this alteration was slow and resulted in decreasing metal removal rates as the electrokinetic treatment progressed. In addition, the use of NaOH, H3PO4, and Na2SO4 as electrolytes resulted in conditions that favored the precipitation of metal hydroxides, phosphates, and sulfates in the soil. These results demonstrated that metal removal was affected by the initial metal fractionation, metal speciation in the pore solution, and the physical–chemical parameters of the electrolytes, such as pH and electrolyte composition. Therefore, the treatment time, use of chemicals, and energy consumption could be reduced by optimizing pretreatment and by choosing appropriate electrolytes for the target metals.

  17. Insights into head-column field-amplified sample stacking: Part II. Study of the behavior of the electrophoretic system after electrokinetic injection of cationic compounds across a short water plug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šesták, Jozef; Thormann, Wolfgang

    2017-08-25

    Part I on head-column field-amplified sample stacking comprised a detailed study of the electrokinetic injection of a weak base across a short water plug into a phosphate buffer at low pH. The water plug is converted into a low conductive acidic zone and cationic analytes become stacked at the interface between this and a newly formed phosphoric acid zone. The fundamentals of electrokinetic processes occurring thereafter were studied experimentally and with computer simulation and are presented as part II. The configuration analyzed represents a discontinuous buffer system. Computer simulation revealed that the phosphoric acid zone at the plug-buffer interface becomes converted into a migrating phosphate buffer plug which corresponds to the cationically migrating system zone of the phosphate buffer system. Its mobility is higher than that of the analytes such that they migrate behind the system zone in a phosphate buffer comparable to the applied background electrolyte. The temporal behaviour of the current and the conductivity across the water plug were monitored and found to reflect the changes in the low conductivity plug. Determination of the buffer flow in the capillary revealed increased pumping caused by the mismatch of electroosmosis within the low conductivity plug and the buffer. This effect becomes elevated with increasing water plug length. For plug lengths up to 1% of the total column length the flow quickly drops to the electroosmotic flow of the buffer and simulations with experimentally determined current and flow values predict negligible band dispersion and no loss of resolution for both low and large molecular mass components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pyrene removal from contaminated soil using electrokinetic process combined with surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Enayat Hashemi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyrene is one of the stable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that is considered as an important pollutants, because of extensive distribution in the environment and carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Among the various treatment techniques, electrokinetic method is an environmental- friendly process for organic and mineral pollutants adsorbed to soil with fine pore size the same as clay and low hydraulic conductivity soils. For improving the efficiency of pyrene removal from soil, soulobilization of pyrene from soil could be used by surfactants. Materials and Methods : In this study, clay soil was selected as model because of the specific properties. Combined method using surfactant and electrokinetic was applied for pyrene removal from soil. Experiments were designed using response surface methodology (RSM, and effect of three variables includes surfactant concentration, voltage and surfactant type were evaluated for pyrene removal from contaminated soil. Results: Pyrene removal using anionic surfactants(SDS and nonionic surfactants(TX100 as a solubilizing agents has high removal efficiency. In the optimum condition with 95% confidence coefficient, utilizing mixed surfactants of sodium dodecyl sulfate and triton X-100 with the same volume, induced of 18.54 volt and 6.53 percent surfactant concentration have 94.6% pyrene removal efficiency. Conclusion:: Results of this study shows that electrokinetic process combined with surfactant as solubilizing agent could be applied as an efficient method for treating the pyrene-contaminated soils.

  19. Electrokinetic motion of a spherical polystyrene particle at a liquid-fluid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junyan; Song, Yongxin; Li, Dongqing

    2018-01-01

    Electrokinetic movement of spherical polystyrene particles at different liquid-fluid interfaces was experimentally investigated in this paper. A novel method was developed to place the particles rightly at the interfaces formed in a large plastic container. The velocity was measured by an optical microscope. The experimental results show that the particles (3, 5 and 10μm in diameter) at the water-air interface, water-dodecane interface and NaCl solution-air interface move in the opposite direction of the applied electric field. The magnitude of the particles' velocity increases linearly with the increase in the applied electric field. Moreover, for particles of the same size, the electrokinetic velocity at the liquid-fluid interfaces is larger than particles' electrophoretic velocity in the bulk liquid phase. Under the same electric field, however, the electrokinetic velocity of smaller particles at the liquid-fluid interfaces is larger than that of larger particles. Such results are attributed to the surface charges at the liquid-fluid interface and the particle-liquid interface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of steric interactions on the dielectric and electrokinetic properties in colloidal suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, José Juan; Horno, José; Grosse, Constantino

    2015-11-15

    One of the main assumptions of the standard electrokinetic model is that ions behave as point like entities. In this work we remove this assumption and analyze the main consequences of finite ionic size on the dielectric and electrokinetic properties of colloidal suspensions. We represent the steric interactions by means of the Bikerman and the Carnahan-Starling equations and solve numerically the standard linearized electrokinetic equations in the stationary and the frequency domains, for surface charge density and electrolyte solution concentration values typically encountered in colloidal suspensions. In all cases the steric interactions improve upon the predictions of the standard model since the surface potential, the electrophoretic mobility, and the conductivity and permittivity increments increase. However, the corrections introduced by the Bikerman equation are generally small: less than 10% as compared to the standard model. On the contrary, the Carnahan-Starling equation leads to corrections to the surface potential versus surface charge and the electrophoretic mobility values that easily surpass 10% and can attain values as high as 50%. Corrections to the conductivity and permittivity increments are smaller but still non negligible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Analytical investigation of electrokinetic effects of micropolar fluids in nanofluidic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhaodong; Jian, Yongjun; Wang, Lin; Yang, Liangui

    2017-08-01

    The effects of microstructure of fluid particles on the electrokinetic phenomena are investigated analytically based on a micropolar fluid model, where micro-rotation of fluid particles and material parameters like viscosity and angular viscosity coefficients are involved. Meanwhile, the influences of velocity slip at the surface of a nanofluidic channel and overlapped electrical double layers (EDLs) are incorporated. Results indicate that the introduction of micropolarity will significantly affect the electrokinetic effects, especially in the case of overlapped EDLs. Qualitatively, it leads to evident reductions in the flow rate, streaming current, and streaming potential relative to Newtonian fluids. The velocity slip is an opposing and competitive mechanism which tends to increase the flow rate, streaming current, and potential. Furthermore, the interplay between the micropolarity and slip effects is studied in detail. The influence of micropolarity on the electrokinetic energy conversion (EKEC) efficiency depends on the ionic Peclet number R. For small values of R (e.g., R = 0.1), the EKEC efficiency for micropolar fluids may exceed that for Newtonian fluids in some range of parameter K in the case of overlapped EDLs for nanochannels. However, for R ≥ 0.2, the EKEC efficiency for micropolar fluids is always less than that for Newtonian fluids.

  2. Reversible electrokinetic adsorption barriers for the removal of atrazine and oxyfluorfen from spiked soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Dos Santos, E; Sáez, C; Cañizares, P; Martínez-Huitle, C A; Rodrigo, M A

    2017-01-15

    This study demonstrates the application of reversible electrokinetic adsorption barrier (REKAB) technology to soils spiked with low-solubility pollutants. A permeable reactive barrier (PRB) of granular activated carbon (GAC) was placed between the anode and cathode of an electrokinetic (EK) soil remediation bench-scale setup with the aim of enhancing the removal of two low-solubility herbicides (atrazine and oxyfluorfen) using a surfactant solution (sodium dodecyl sulfate) as the flushing fluid. This innovative study focused on evaluating the interaction between the EK system and the GAC-PRB, attempting to obtain insights into the primary mechanisms involved. The obtained results highlighted the successful treatment of atrazine and oxyfluorfen in contaminated soils. The results obtained from the tests after 15days of treatment were compared with those obtained using the more conventional electrokinetic soil flushing (EKSF) technology, and very important differences were observed. Although both technologies are efficient for removing the herbicides from soils, REKAB outperforms EKSF. After the 15-day treatment tests, only approximately 10% of atrazine and oxyfluorfen remained in the soil, and adsorption onto the GAC bed was an important removal mechanism (15-17% of herbicide retained). The evaporation loses in REKAB were lower than those obtained in EKSF (45-50% compared to 60-65%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Uncertainty Quantification of Nonlinear Electrokinetic Response in a Microchannel-Membrane Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Shima; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Mani, Ali

    2015-11-01

    We have conducted uncertainty quantification (UQ) for electrokinetic transport of ionic species through a hybrid microfluidic system using different probabilistic techniques. The system of interest is an H-configuration consisting of two parallel microchannels that are connected via a nafion junction. This system is commonly used for ion preconcentration and stacking by utilizing a nonlinear response at the channel-nafion junction that leads to deionization shocks. In this work, the nafion medium is modeled as many parallel nano-pores where, the nano-pore diameter, nafion porosity, and surface charge density are independent random variables. We evaluated the resulting uncertainty on the ion concentration fields as well as the deionization shock location. The UQ methods predicted consistent statistics for the outputs and the results revealed that the shock location is weakly sensitive to the nano-pore surface charge and primarily driven by nano-pore diameters. The present study can inform the design of electrokinetic networks with increased robustness to natural manufacturing variability. Applications include water desalination and lab-on-a-chip systems. Shima is a graduate student in the department of Mechanical Engineering at Stanford University. She received her Master's degree from Stanford in 2011. Her research interests include Electrokinetics in porous structures and high performance computing.

  4. A rapid electrochemical biosensor based on an AC electrokinetics enhanced immuno-reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, I-Fang; Yang, Hsiao-Lan; Chung, Cheng-Che; Chang, Hsien-Chang

    2013-08-21

    Fluorescent labelling and chromogenic reactions that are commonly used in conventional immunoassays typically utilize diffusion dominated transport of analytes, which is limited by slow reaction rates and long detection times. By integrating alternating current (AC) electrokinetics and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), we construct an immunochip for rapid, sensitive, and label-free detection. AC electroosmosis (ACEO) and positive dielectrophoresis (DEP), induced by a biased AC electric field, can rapidly convect and trap the analyte onto an EIS working electrode within a few minutes. This allows the change of electron-transfer resistance (ΔRet) caused by the antibody-antigen (IgG-protein A) binding to be measured and quantified in real time. The measured impedance change achieves a plateau after electrokinetic concentration for only 90 s, and the detection limit is able to reach 200 pg ml⁻¹. Compared to the conventional incubation method, the electrokinetics-enhanced method is approximately 100 times faster in its reaction time, and the detection limit is reduced by 30 times. The ΔRet of the positive response is two orders of magnitude higher than the negative control, demonstrating excellent specificity for practical applications.

  5. Multiphase electrodes for microbead control applications: integration of DEP and electrokinetics for bio-particle positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yantzi, J D; Yeow, J T W; Abdallah, S S

    2007-05-15

    Advances in microfabrication have introduced new possibilities for automated, high-throughput biomedical investigations and analysis. Physical effects such as dielectrophoresis (DEP) and AC electrokinetics can be used to manipulate particles in solution to coordinate a sequence of bioanalytical processing steps. DEP is accomplished with non-uniform electric fields that can polarize particles (microbeads, cells, viruses, DNA, proteins, etc.) in suspension causing translational or rotational movement. AC electrokinetics is another phenomena involved with movement of particles in suspension with electric fields and is comprised of both electro-thermal and electro-osmotic effects. This paper investigates single layer electrodes that are effective for particle localization and clustering based on DEP and AC electrokinetic effects. We demonstrate a novel multi-electrode setup capable of clustering particles into an array of discrete bands using activated and electrically floating electrodes. These bands shift to adjacent regions on the electrode surface by altering the electrode activation scheme. The predictability of particle placement to specific locations provides new opportunities for integration and coordination with raster scanning lasers or a charge coupled device (CCD) for advanced biomedical diagnostic devices, and more sophisticated optical interrogation techniques.

  6. Clarification of Colloidal Particles in Lake and River Water Using AC Electrokinetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtar M.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scenery of clear water of a lake or river is always a fascinating view. The clarity of a water is subjected to the water free from colloidal particles. Lake or river usually have foreign colloidal particles such as sand, mud, foreign particle, etc. which make the water cloudy. Usually the cloudy water become clear because of natural sedimentation process. However it is not easy to clarify cloudy water of a lake or river and make it clear especially if the sediment of colloidal particle is influence or disturb by water current. The approach by AC Electrokinetic phenomenon able to manipulate colloidal particles in a suspension. It can separate, trap or sort colloidal particle which made the phenomenon as possible reliable option for clarifying lake or river water from colloidal particles hence make it clear water. This work will simulate the process of clarification of colloidal suspension using AC Electrokinetic phenomenon in a lab. Electrodes were fabricated on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO coated glass slide using laser etching technique. The electrode which poses unique geometry will be able to demonstrate electric field gradient as soon as it is introduced with electrical signal. Base on the surface potential of the colloids and the surface potential of the electrode, the colloids will be manipulated. This phenomenon is known as AC Electrokinetics. This can be regarded as guided sedimentation process. The trapped colloidal particle can be now easily extracted or remove from the water thus transform the water from cloudy to clear hence complete water clarification process.

  7. Ex-situ field application of electrokinetics for remediation of shooting-range soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun-Young; Kim, Hyun-A; Lee, Woo-Chun; Kim, Soon-Oh; Lee, Jong-Un; Kwon, Young-Ho; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2012-01-01

    Electrokinetic process for remediation of a shooting-range site was evaluated in this study. By field operation for 100 days, the newly designed electrokinetic system was evaluated for process stability, performance, and efficiency. The field site of this study was an abandoned military shooting range located in the Civilian Control Line of South Korea. The target area, only, was heavily contaminated by Pb and Cu to a depth of 0.5 m. After dry-sieving of the field soil to separate particulate Pb, two cells in a hexagonal (two-dimensional) arrangement, including ten anodes outside the cell and two cathodes in the middle, were prepared. The pH of each electrolyte was adjusted by use of concentrated HNO(3), resulting in acid-enhanced electrokinetics. The monitoring results indicated that overall removal of heavy metals (Pb, Cu) was achieved, and that both heavy metals were removed from outside the cell. The average final efficiency of removal of Pb and Cu was 39.5 ± 35 and 63.8 ± 12%, respectively. Although the feasibility of this system was confirmed, for commercialization of the process confirmed drawbacks must be improved by further study.

  8. Experimental Validation of the Electrokinetic Theory and Development of Seismoelectric Interferometry by Cross-Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Schoemaker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally validate a relatively recent electrokinetic formulation of the streaming potential (SP coefficient as developed by Pride (1994. The start of our investigation focuses on the streaming potential coefficient, which gives rise to the coupling of mechanical and electromagnetic fields. It is found that the theoretical amplitude values of this dynamic SP coefficient are in good agreement with the normalized experimental results over a wide frequency range, assuming no frequency dependence of the bulk conductivity. By adopting the full set of electrokinetic equations, a full-waveform wave propagation model is formulated. We compare the model predictions, neglecting the interface response and modeling only the coseismic fields, with laboratory measurements of a seismic wave of frequency 500 kHz that generates electromagnetic signals. Agreement is observed between measurement and electrokinetic theory regarding the coseismic electric field. The governing equations are subsequently adopted to study the applicability of seismoelectric interferometry. It is shown that seismic sources at a single boundary location are sufficient to retrieve the 1D seismoelectric responses, both for the coseismic and interface components, in a layered model.

  9. Electrokinetic remediation of manganese and ammonia nitrogen from electrolytic manganese residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jiancheng; Liu, Renlong; Liu, Zuohua; Du, Jun; Tao, Changyuan

    2015-10-01

    Electrolytic manganese residue (EMR) is a solid waste found in filters after sulphuric acid leaching of manganese carbonate ore, which mainly contains manganese and ammonia nitrogen and seriously damages the ecological environment. This work demonstrated the use of electrokinetic (EK) remediation to remove ammonia nitrogen and manganese from EMR. The transport behavior of manganese and ammonia nitrogen from EMR during electrokinetics, Mn fractionation before and after EK treatment, the relationship between Mn fractionation and transport behavior, as well as the effects of electrolyte and pretreatment solutions on removal efficiency and energy consumption were investigated. The results indicated that the use of H2SO4 and Na2SO4 as electrolytes and pretreatment of EMR with citric acid and KCl can reduce energy consumption, and the removal efficiencies of manganese and ammonia nitrogen were 27.5 and 94.1 %, respectively. In these systems, electromigration and electroosmosis were the main mechanisms of manganese and ammonia nitrogen transport. Moreover, ammonia nitrogen in EMR reached the regulated level, and the concentration of manganese in EMR could be reduced from 455 to 37 mg/L. In general, the electrokinetic remediation of EMR is a promising technology in the future.

  10. Ligand-enhanced electrokinetic remediation of metal-contaminated marine sediments with high acid buffering capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Matteo; Iannelli, Renato; Losito, Gabriella

    2016-06-01

    The suitability of electrokinetic remediation for removing heavy metals from dredged marine sediments with high acid buffering capacity was investigated. Laboratory-scale electrokinetic remediation experiments were carried out by applying two different voltage gradients to the sediment (0.5 and 0.8 V/cm) while circulating water or two different chelating agents at the electrode compartments. Tap water, 0.1 M citric acid and 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions were used respectively. The investigated metals were Zn, Pb, V, Ni and Cu. In the unenhanced experiment, the acid front could not propagate due to the high acid buffering capacity of the sediments; the production of OH(-) ions at the cathode resulted in a high-pH environment causing the precipitation of CaCO3 and metal hydroxides. The use of citric acid prevented the formation of precipitates, but solubilisation and mobilisation of metal species were not sufficiently achieved. Metal removal was relevant when EDTA was used as the conditioning agent, and the electric potential was raised up to 0.8 V/cm. EDTA led to the formation of negatively charged complexes with metals which migrated towards the anode compartment by electromigration. This result shows that metal removal from sediments with high acid buffering capacity may be achieved by enhancing the electrokinetic process by EDTA addition when the acidification of the medium is not economically and/or environmentally sustainable.

  11. Electrokinetic migration studies on removal of chromium and uranyl ions from 904-A trench soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibler, J.P.; Meaker, T.F.; O`Steen, A.B.

    1992-09-30

    This report describes a laboratory-scale study, in which electrokinetic migration technology was used to remove chromium and uranium, as well as other ions, from soil taken from a bore hole adjacent to the 904-A trench at the Savannah River Technology Center. Imposition of an electric current on humid (not saturated) soil successfully caused cations to migrate through the pore water of the soil to the cathode, where they were captured in an ISOLOCKTm polymer matrix and in a cation exchange resin incorporated in the polymer. Chemicals circulated through the anode/polymer and cathode/polymer were able to control pH excursions in the electrokinetic-cells by reacting with the H{sup +} and OH{sup {minus}} generated at the anode and cathode, respectively. The study indicates that ions adsorbed on the surface of the soil as well as those in the pores of soil particles can be caused to migrate through the soil to an appropriate electrode. After 10 days of operation at 20--25 V and 2 mA, approximately 65% of the chromium was removed from two 3.5 kg soil samples. A 57% removal of uranium was achieved. The study shows that electrokinetic migration, using the ISOLOCK{trademark} polymer will be effective as an in situ treatment method for the removal of metal ion contaminants in soil adjacent to the 904-A trench.

  12. Electrokinetic Manipulation Integrated Plasmonic-Photonic Hybrid Raman Nanosensors with Dually Enhanced Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Wang, Zheng; Li, Erwen; Liang, Zexi; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Xu, Xiaochuan; Wang, Alan X; Chen, Ray T; Fan, Donglei

    2017-03-24

    To detect biochemicals with ultrahigh sensitivity, efficiency, reproducibility, and specificity has been the holy grail in the development of nanosensors. In this work, we report an innovative type of photonic-plasmonic hybrid Raman nanosensor integrated with electrokinetic manipulation by rational design, which offers dual mechanisms that enhance the sensitivity for molecule detection directly in solution. For the first time, we integrate large arrays of synthesized plasmonic nanocapsules with densely surface distributed silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) on lithographically patterned photonic crystal slabs via electric-field assembling. With the interdigital microelectrodes, the applied electric fields not only assemble the hybrid plasmonic nanocapsules on photonic crystal slabs, but also generate electrokinetic flows that focus analyte molecules to the Ag hot spots on the nanocapsules for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection. The synergistic effects of plasmonic-photonic resonance and the electrokinetic molecular focusing can promote the SERS enhancement factor (EF) robustly to ∼2 × 109. Various molecules including SERS probing molecules, nucleobases, and unsafe food additives can be detected directly from suspension. The innovative mechanism, design, and fabrication reported in this work can inspire a new paradigm for achieving high-performance Raman nanosensors, which is pivotal for lab-on-chip disease diagnosis and environmental protection.

  13. Dual cloud point extraction coupled with hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography for simultaneous determination of trace phenolic estrogens in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yingying; Li, Jinhua; Liu, Junshen; Lu, Wenhui; Ma, Jiping; Chen, Lingxin

    2013-07-01

    A dual cloud point extraction (dCPE) off-line enrichment procedure coupled with a hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection online enrichment technique was successfully developed for simultaneous preconcentration of trace phenolic estrogens (hexestrol, dienestrol, and diethylstilbestrol) in water samples followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) analysis. Several parameters affecting the extraction and online injection conditions were optimized. Under optimal dCPE-two-step injection-MEKC conditions, detection limits of 7.9-8.9 ng/mL and good linearity in the range from 0.05 to 5 μg/mL with correlation coefficients R(2) ≥ 0.9990 were achieved. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 83 to 108% were obtained with lake and tap water spiked at 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mL, respectively, with relative standard deviations (n = 6) of 1.3-3.1%. This method was demonstrated to be convenient, rapid, cost-effective, and environmentally benign, and could be used as an alternative to existing methods for analyzing trace residues of phenolic estrogens in water samples.

  14. Electrokinetic Stringency Control in Self-Assembled Monolayer-based Biosensors for Multiplex Urinary Tract Infection Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Sin, Mandy L. Y.; Pyne, Jeff D.; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C.; Wong, Pak Kin

    2013-01-01

    Rapid detection of bacterial pathogens is critical toward judicious management of infectious diseases. Herein, we demonstrate an in situ electrokinetic stringency control approach for a self-assembled monolayer-based electrochemical biosensor toward urinary tract infection diagnosis. The in situ electrokinetic stringency control technique generates Joule heating induced temperature rise and electrothermal fluid motion directly on the sensor to improve its performance for detecting bacterial 16S rRNA, a phylogenetic biomarker. The dependence of the hybridization efficiency reveals that in situ electrokinetic stringency control is capable of discriminating single-base mismatches. With electrokinetic stringency control, the background noise due to the matrix effects of clinical urine samples can be reduced by 60%. The applicability of the system is demonstrated by multiplex detection of three uropathogenic clinical isolates with similar 16S rRNA sequences. The results demonstrate that electrokinetic stringency control can significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the biosensor for multiplex urinary tract infection diagnosis. PMID:23891989

  15. Effect of electrokinetics on biodesulfurization of the model oil by Rhodococcus erythropolis PTCC1767 and Bacillus subtilis DSMZ 3256.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshagh, Fatemeh; Mokhtarani, Babak; Mortaheb, Hamid Reza

    2014-09-15

    Biodesulfurization of the model oil using Rhodococcus erythropolis PTCC1767 (R. erythropolis) and Bacillus subtilis DSMZ 3256 (B. subtilis) strains assisted by applying electrokinetic was investigated as a novel method for desulfurization. The yield of biodesulfurization is low because it takes long time to be completed. Electrokinetic reduces the process time and accelerates degradation of the sulfur compounds. A mixture of normal hexadecane with 10mM dibenzotiophene (DBT) was employed as the model oil. The biodesulfurization experiments were initially performed. The results represented 34% and 62% DBT conversions after 1 and 6 days by R. erythropolis and the biodesulfurization yields were 11% and 36%, respectively. However, the DBT conversions for B. subtilis strain after 1 and 6 days were 31% and 55% and the biodesulfurization yields were 9% and 31%, respectively. The electrokinetic biodesulfurization experiments were studied at different current densities and the optimum current density was selected. According to the results, DBT conversion and biodesulfurization yield for R. erythropolis after 3 days were 76% and 39%, respectively, at the current density of 7.5 mA/cm(2). At the same conditions, the DBT conversion and biodesulfurization yield for B. subtilis were 71% and 37%, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the electrokinetic significantly reduces the biodesulfurization time. The combination of electrokinetic and biodesulfurization has the potential to obtain 'zero sulfur' products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Remediation of 137Cs contaminated concrete using electrokinetic phenomena and ionic salt washes in nuclear energy contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew J; Joyce, Malcolm J; Boxall, Colin

    2017-10-15

    This work describes the first known the use of electrokinetic treatments and ionic salt washes to remediate concrete contaminated with 137Cs. A series of experiments were performed on concrete samples, contaminated with K+ and 137Cs, using a bespoke migration cell and an applied electric field (60V potential gradient and current limit of 35mA). Additionally, two samples were treated with an ionic salt wash (≤400molm-3 of KCl) alongside the electrokinetic treatment. The results show that the combined treatment produces removal efficiencies three times higher (>60%) than the electrokinetic treatment alone and that the decontamination efficiency appears to be proportional to the initial degree of contamination. Furthermore, the decontamination efficiencies are equivalent to previous electrokinetic studies that utilised hazardous chemical enhancement agents demonstrating the potential of the technique for use on nuclear licensed site. The results highlight the relationship between the initial contamination concentration within the concrete and achievable removal efficiency of electrokinetic treatment and other treatments. This information would be useful when selecting the most appropriate decontamination techniques for particular contamination scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Restructuring and aging in a capillary suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koos, Erin; Kannowade, Wolfgang; Willenbacher, Norbert

    2014-12-01

    The rheological properties of capillary suspensions, suspensions with small amounts of an added immiscible fluid, are dramatically altered with the addition of the secondary fluid. We investigate a capillary suspension to determine how the network ages and restructures at rest and under applied external shear deformation. The present work uses calcium carbonate suspended in silicone oil (11 % solids) with added water as a model system. Aging of capillary suspensions and their response to applied oscillatory shear is distinctly different from particulate gels dominated by the van der Waals forces. The suspensions dominated by the capillary force are very sensitive to oscillatory flow, with the linear viscoelastic regime ending at a deformation of only 0.1% and demonstrating power-law aging behavior. This aging persists for long times at low deformations or for shorter times with a sudden decrease in the strength at higher deformations. This aging behavior suggests that the network is able to rearrange and even rupture. This same sensitivity is not demonstrated in shear flow where very high shear rates are required to rupture the agglomerates returning the apparent viscosity of capillary suspensions to the same viscosity as for the pure vdW suspension. A transitional region is also present at intermediate water contents wherein the material response depends very strongly on the type, strength, and duration of the external forcing.

  18. The optimisation of electrokinetic remediation for heavy metals and radioactivity contamination on Holyrood-Lunas soil (acrisol species) in Sri Gading Industrial Area, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Johar, S; Embong, Z

    2015-11-01

    The optimisation of electrokinetic remediation of an alluvial soil, locally named as Holyrood-Lunas from Sri Gading Industrial Area, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia, had been conducted in this research. This particular soil was chosen due to its relatively high level of background radiation in a range between 139.2 and 539.4 nGy h(-1). As the background radiation is correlated to the amount of parent nuclides, (238)U and (232)Th, hence, a remediation technique, such as electrokinetic, is very useful in reducing these particular concentrations of heavy metal and radionuclides in soils. Several series of electrokinetics experiments were performed in laboratory scale in order to study the influence of certain electrokinetic parameters in soil. The concentration before (pre-electrokinetic) and after the experiment (post-electrokinetic) was determined via X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis technique. The best electrokinetic parameter that contributed to the highest achievable concentration removal of heavy metals and radionuclides on each experimental series was incorporated into a final electrokinetic experiment. Here, High Pure Germanium (HPGe) was used for radioactivity elemental analysis. The XRF results suggested that the most optimised electrokinetic parameters for Cr, Ni, Zn, As, Pb, Th and U were 3.0 h, 90 volts, 22.0 cm, plate-shaped electrode by 8 × 8 cm and in 1-D configuration order whereas the selected optimised electrokinetic parameters gave very low reduction of (238)U and (232)Th at 0.23 ± 2.64 and 2.74 ± 23.78 ppm, respectively. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Dynamics of colloidal particles with capillary interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Alvaro; Oettel, Martin; Dietrich, S

    2010-07-01

    We investigate the dynamics of colloids at a fluid interface driven by attractive capillary interactions. At submillimeter length scales, the capillary attraction is formally analogous to two-dimensional gravity. In particular it is a nonintegrable interaction and it can be actually relevant for collective phenomena in spite of its weakness at the level of the pair potential. We introduce a mean-field model for the dynamical evolution of the particle number density at the interface. For generic values of the physical parameters the homogeneous distribution is found to be unstable against large-scale clustering driven by the capillary attraction. We also show that for the instability to be observable, the appropriate values for the relevant parameters (colloid radius, surface charge, external electric field, etc.) are experimentally well accessible. Our analysis contributes to current studies of the structure and dynamics of systems governed by long-ranged interactions and points toward their experimental realizations via colloidal suspensions.

  20. Novel absorption detection techniques for capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Yongjun [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1994-07-27

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has emerged as one of the most versatile separation methods. However, efficient separation is not sufficient unless coupled to adequate detection. The narrow inner diameter (I.D.) of the capillary column raises a big challenge to detection methods. For UV-vis absorption detection, the concentration sensitivity is only at the μM level. Most commercial CE instruments are equipped with incoherent UV-vis lamps. Low-brightness, instability and inefficient coupling of the light source with the capillary limit the further improvement of UV-vis absorption detection in CE. The goals of this research have been to show the utility of laser-based absorption detection. The approaches involve: on-column double-beam laser absorption detection and its application to the detection of small ions and proteins, and absorption detection with the bubble-shaped flow cell.

  1. Quantification of Vortex Generation Due to Non-Equilibrium Electrokinetics at the Micro/Nanochannel Interface: Spectral Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Jun Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on our investigation of a low Reynolds number non-equilibrium electrokinetic flow in a micro/nanochannel platform. Non-equilibrium electrokinetic phenomena include so-called concentration polarization in a moderate electric field and vortex formation in a high electric field. We conducted a spectral analysis of non-equilibrium electrokinetic vortices at a micro/nanochannel interface. We found that periodic vortices are formed while the frequency varies with the applied voltages and solution concentrations. At a frequency as high as 60 Hz, vortex generation was obtained with the strongest electric field and the lowest concentration. The power spectra show increasing frequency with increasing voltage or decreasing concentration. We expect that our spectral analysis results will be useful for micromixer developers in the micromachine research field.

  2. Rapid Particle Patterning in Surface Deposited Micro-Droplets of Low Ionic Content via Low-Voltage Electrochemistry and Electrokinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidelman, Noam; Cohen, Moshik; Kolbe, Anke; Zalevsky, Zeev; Herrman, Andreas; Richter, Shachar

    2015-08-01

    Electrokinetic phenomena are a powerful tool used in various scientific and technological applications for the manipulation of aqueous solutions and the chemical entities within them. However, the use of DC-induced electrokinetics in miniaturized devices is highly limited. This is mainly due to unavoidable electrochemical reactions at the electrodes, which hinder successful manipulation. Here we present experimental evidence that on-chip DC manipulation of particles between closely positioned electrodes inside micro-droplets can be successfully achieved, and at low voltages. We show that such manipulation, which is considered practically impossible, can be used to rapidly concentrate and pattern particles in 2D shapes in inter-electrode locations. We show that this is made possible in low ion content dispersions, which enable low-voltage electrokinetics and an anomalous bubble-free water electrolysis. This phenomenon can serve as a powerful tool in both microflow devices and digital microfluidics for rapid pre-concentration and particle patterning.

  3. Basic principles of electrolyte chemistry for microfluidic electrokinetics. Part II: Coupling between ion mobility, electrolysis, and acid-base equilibria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persat, Alexandre; Suss, Matthew E; Santiago, Juan G

    2009-09-07

    We present elements of electrolyte dynamics and electrochemistry relevant to microfluidic electrokinetics experiments. In Part I of this two-paper series, we presented a review and introduction to the fundamentals of acid-base chemistry. Here, we first summarize the coupling between acid-base equilibrium chemistry and electrophoretic mobilities of electrolytes, at both infinite and finite dilution. We then discuss the effects of electrode reactions on microfluidic electrokinetic experiments and derive a model for pH changes in microchip reservoirs during typical direct-current electrokinetic experiments. We present a model for the potential drop in typical microchip electrophoresis device. The latter includes finite element simulation to estimate the relative effects of channel and reservoir dimensions. Finally, we summarize effects of electrode and electrolyte characteristics on potential drop in microfluidic devices. As a whole, the discussions highlight the importance of the coupling between electromigration and electrophoresis, acid-base equilibria, and electrochemical reactions.

  4. Basic principles of electrolyte chemistry for microfluidic electrokinetics. Part I: Acid-base equilibria and pH buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persat, Alexandre; Chambers, Robert D; Santiago, Juan G

    2009-09-07

    We review fundamental and applied acid-base equilibrium chemistry useful to microfluidic electrokinetics. We present elements of acid-base equilibrium reactions and derive rules for pH calculation for simple buffers. We also present a general formulation to calculate pH of more complex, arbitrary mixtures of electrolytes, and discuss the effects of ionic strength and temperature on pH calculation. More practically, we offer advice on buffer preparation and on buffer reporting. We also discuss "real world" buffers and likely contamination sources. In particular, we discuss the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide on buffer systems, namely, the increase in ionic strength and acidification of typical electrokinetic device buffers. In Part II of this two-paper series, we discuss the coupling of acid-base equilibria with electrolyte dynamics and electrochemistry in typical microfluidic electrokinetic systems.

  5. The investigation on cationic exchange capacity of zeolites: the use as selective ion trappers in the electrokinetic soil technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursini, Ornella; Lilla, Edo; Montanari, Roberta

    2006-09-21

    The cation exchange capacity (CEC) of porous zeolites allows to adsorb in the framework cavities the cations as pollutant heavy metal ions. We investigate the CEC behaviour of different zeolites in different experimental conditions; in solution where the ion's mobility is spontaneous and free and in the electrokinetic system where the ion's mobility is driven by the electric field. The aim of this study is to investigate if the CEC is an useful property to create a special interface region of zeolites, that if placed in the electrokinetic cell, just before the cathode, could allow to capture and concentrate the heavy metallic ions, during their migrating process. The zeolite 13X investigated in the electrokinetic proofs, retains a good high ions adsorption, even if quite smaller than the relevant free solution condition and well acts as confined trap for the heavy metal ions. In fact no trace of metallic deposition are present on the electrode's surface.

  6. Passive recruitment of circulating leukocytes into capillary sprouts from existing capillaries in a microfluidic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzan, Omid; Burns, Jennie M; Robichaux, Jennifer L; Murfee, Walter L; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2011-06-07

    Recent evidence implicating leukocytes in angiogenesis raises the question of whether leukocytes and other cells circulating with the blood in microvascular networks can home to capillary sprouts intraluminally. This study describes an investigation of leukocyte trafficking in sprouting capillaries fabricated using soft lithography. The leukocytes passing with whole blood through existing capillaries were able to enter microfabricated capillary sprouts of variable length and sprouting angle due to the mechanical interaction with red blood cells (RBCs) at the sprouting bifurcation, in spite of the complete absence of blood flow through the blind-ended sprouts or any chemoattractants. The RBCs formed "comet tails" (the densely packed cellular trains forming behind leukocytes as they move through narrow capillaries) and effectively pushed leukocytes into the microfabricated sprouts while bypassing them at the sprouting bifurcation. Individual sprouts filled with several leukocytes, as wells as RBCs and platelets, were observed. The results of this study suggest that (i) blood cells are likely present in capillary sprouts throughout their development, (ii) leukocytes and other circulating cells may use this mechanism to home to capillary sprouts intraluminally for direct engraftment, and (iii) tissues may use this phenomenon as another mechanism for local recruitment of leukocytes from the blood stream.

  7. Quality by Design approach in the development of a solvent-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography method: finding the design space for the determination of amitriptyline and its impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanetto, S; Orlandini, S; Pasquini, B; Del Bubba, M; Pinzauti, S

    2013-11-13

    A solvent-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography method was set up for the simultaneous determination of the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline (AMI) and its main impurities. The method was developed following Quality by Design (QbD) principles according to ICH Guideline Q8(R2). QbD approach made it possible to find the design space (DS), where quality was assured. After a scouting phase, aimed at selecting a suitable capillary electrophoresis pseudostationary phase, risk assessment tools were employed to define the critical process parameters (CPPs) to be considered in a screening phase (applied voltage, concentration and pH of the background electrolyte, concentration of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate, of the cosurfactant n-butanol and of the organic modifiers acetonitrile and urea). The effects of the seven selected CPPs on critical quality attributes (CQAs), namely resolution values between critical peak pairs and analysis time, were investigated throughout the knowledge space by means of a symmetric screening matrix. Response surface study was then carried out on four selected CPPs by applying a Doehlert Design. Monte-Carlo simulations were performed in order to estimate the probability of meeting the desired specifications on CQAs, and thus to define the DS by means of a risk of failure map. Additional points at the edges of the DS were tested in order to verify the requirements for CQAs to be fulfilled. A control strategy was implemented by defining system suitability tests. The developed method was validated following ICH Guideline Q2(R1), including robustness assessment by Plackett-Burman design, and was applied to the analysis of real samples of amitriptyline coated tablets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Study of the mechanism of acetonitrile stacking and its application for directly combining liquid-phase microextraction with micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingru; Feng, Jing; Shi, Ludi; Liu, Laping; He, Hui; Fan, Yingying; Hu, Shibin; Liu, Shuhui

    2016-08-26

    Acetonitrile stacking is an online concentration method that is distinctive due to its inclusion of a high proportion of organic solvent in sample matrices. We previously designed a universal methodology for the combination of liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) using acetonitrile stacking and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) mode, thereby achieving large-volume injection of the diluted LPME extractant and the online concentration. In this report, the methodology was extended to the analysis of highly substituted hydrophobic chlorophenols in wines using diethyl carbonate as the extractant. Additionally, the mechanism of acetonitrile stacking was studied. The results indicated that the combination of LPME and MEKC exhibited good analytical performance: with ∼40-fold concentration by LPME, a 20-cm (33% of the total length) sample plug injection of an eight-fold dilution of diethyl carbonate with the organic solvent-saline solution produced enrichments higher by a factor of 260-791. Limits of qualification ranged from 5.5 to 16.0ng/mL. Acceptable reproducibilities of lower than 1.8% for migration time and 8.6% for peak areas were obtained. A dual stacking mechanism of acetonitrile stacking was revealed, involving transient isotachophoresis plus pH-junction stacking. The latter was associated with a pH shift induced by the presence of acetonitrile. The pseudo-stationary phase (Brij-35) played an important role in reducing the CE running time by weakening the isotachophoretic migration of the analyte ions following Cl(-) ions. The combination of acetonitrile stacking and nonionic micelle-based MEKC appears to be a perfect match for introducing water-immiscible LPME extractants into an aqueous CE system and can thus significantly expand the application of LPME-CE in green analytical chemistry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Intracerebral Capillary Hemangioma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, In Young; Kim, Jae Kyun; Byun, Jun Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Chung Ang University Medical Center, Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Eon Sub [Dept. of Radiology, Chung Ang University Medical Center, Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Intracerebral capillary hemangiomas are very rare benign vascular tumors that mostly occur during infancy. We described a 69-year-old man with generalized tonic-clonic seizures who was diagnosed with an intracranial mass. Multidetector computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography studies were performed for evaluation of brain, and there was a well-enhancing mass found in the right temporal lobe without a definite feeding vessel. The patient underwent surgery and the pathologic examination demonstrated marked proliferation of small vessels with a lobular pattern in the brain parenchyma, which was confirmed to be capillary hemangioma.

  10. Validation of capillary blood analysis and capillary testing mode on the epoc Point of Care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory test in transport is a critical component of patient care, and capillary blood is a preferred sample type particularly in children. This study evaluated the performance of capillary blood testing on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System (Alere Inc. Methods: Ten fresh venous blood samples was tested on the epoc system under the capillary mode. Correlation with GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory was examined for Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pO2, pCO2, and pH, and correlation with serum tested on Vitros 5600 (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics was examined for creatinine. Eight paired capillary and venous blood was tested on epoc and ABL800 (Radiometer for the correlation of Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Capillary blood from 23 apparently healthy volunteers was tested on the epoc system to assess the concordance to reference ranges used locally. Results: Deming regression correlation coefficients for all the comparisons were above 0.65 except for ionized Ca2+. Accordance of greater than 85% to the local reference ranges were found in all assays with the exception of pO2 and Cl-. Conclusion: Data from this study indicates that capillary blood tests on the epoc system provide comparable results to reference method for these assays, Na+, K+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Further validation in critically ill patients is needed to implement the epoc system in patient transport. Impact of the study: This study demonstrated that capillary blood tests on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System give comparable results to other chemistry analyzers for major blood gas and critical tests. The results are informative to institutions where pre-hospital and inter-hospital laboratory testing on capillary blood is a critical component of patient point of care testing. Keywords: Epoc, Capillary, Transport, Blood gas, Point of care

  11. Elastic deformation due to tangential capillary forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, S.; Marchand, Antonin; Andreotti, Bruno; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus

    2011-01-01

    A sessile liquid drop can deform the substrate on which it rests if the solid is sufficiently “soft.” In this paper we compute the detailed spatial structure of the capillary forces exerted by the drop on the solid substrate using a model based on Density Functional Theory. We show that, in addition

  12. Ameliorative potential of Artemisia Capillaris Formula on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Artemisia Capillaris Formula (ACF), a traditional Chinese medicinal therapy, has been used clinically in China to treat Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) for many years. However, the mechanism of action of this treatment on NAFLD is still unknown. The goal of the present study is to test whether ...

  13. Capillary-Patterns for Biometric Authentication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paloma Benedicto, J.; Bruekers, A.A.M.; Presura, C.N.; Garcia Molina, G.

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we present a method using the capillary structuresunder the "distal interphalangeal joint" (DIP joint), which is located between the second and third (distal) phalanges of the finger, for achieving secure biometric authentication. Images of the DIPjoint are acquired using a

  14. Numerical simulations of capillary barrier field tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, C.E. [Univ. of Wollongong (Australia); Stormont, J.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Numerical simulations of two capillary barrier systems tested in the field were conducted to determine if an unsaturated flow model could accurately represent the observed results. The field data was collected from two 7-m long, 1.2-m thick capillary barriers built on a 10% grade that were being tested to investigate their ability to laterally divert water downslope. One system had a homogeneous fine layer, while the fine soil of the second barrier was layered to increase its ability to laterally divert infiltrating moisture. The barriers were subjected first to constant infiltration while minimizing evaporative losses and then were exposed to ambient conditions. The continuous infiltration period of the field tests for the two barrier systems was modelled to determine the ability of an existing code to accurately represent capillary barrier behavior embodied in these two designs. Differences between the field test and the model data were found, but in general the simulations appeared to adequately reproduce the response of the test systems. Accounting for moisture retention hysteresis in the layered system will potentially lead to more accurate modelling results and is likely to be important when developing reasonable predictions of capillary barrier behavior.

  15. Monoclonal gammopathy missed by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Christof; Egger, Florence; Kaelin-Lang, Alain; Nuoffer, Jean-Marc

    2011-07-01

    Serum protein electrophoresis is used as a screening test for monoclonal gammopathies. Here, we present a case of a high-concentration monoclonal immunoglobulin (M-protein) that was missed by serum protein electrophoresis on a Capillarys 2 capillary zone electrophoresis system. The aim of our study was to identify the reason for the failure of the system to detect the M-protein. M-protein solubility was examined in response to temperature, pH, ionic strength, the chaotropic agent urea and the reducing agent 2-mercaptoethanol. Precipitation of the M-protein was not cold-induced, but solubility decreased at pH 8.5 or higher, when the pH approached the apparent isoelectric point. The M-protein also precipitated in alkaline Capillarys 2 electrophoresis buffer (pH 10), which was the reason for the false-negative electrophoresis result. Precipitation of the M-protein was not related to the ionic strength of the buffer. Solubility improved in presence of urea. Pre-treatment of serum with 2-mercaptoethanol revealed the missing M-protein peak of 36 g/L on the electropherogram. This case shows that insolubility of M-proteins in alkaline buffer is one possible cause of false-negative results on capillary zone electrophoresis systems. False-negative results should be considered, especially when accompanying laboratory results are inconsistent with the electropherogram.

  16. Imbibition of ``Open Capillary'': Fundamentals and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Marie; Kawano, Ryuji; Kamiya, Koki; Okumura, Ko

    2015-11-01

    Control or transportation of small amount of liquid is one of the most important issues in various contexts including medical sciences or pharmaceutical industries to fuel delivery. We studied imbibition of ``open capillary'' both experimentally and theoretically, and found simple scaling laws for both statics and dynamics of the imbibition, similarly as that of imbibition of capillary tubes. Furthermore, we revealed the existence of ``precursor film,'' which developed ahead of the imbibing front, and the dynamics of it is described well by another scaling law for capillary rise in a corner. Then, to show capabilities of open capillaries, we demonstrated two experiments by fabricating micro mixing devices to achieve (1) simultaneous multi-color change of the Bromothymol blue (BTB) solution and (2) expression of the green florescent protein (GFP). This research was partly supported by ImPACT Program of Council for Science, Technology and Innovation (Cabinet Office, Government of Japan). M. T. is supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Research Fellowships for Young Scientists.

  17. Electrokinetic motion of a spherical micro particle at an oil-water interface in microchannel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengfa; Li, Mengqi; Song, Yongxin; Pan, Xinxiang; Li, Dongqing

    2017-09-19

    The electrokinetic motion of a negatively charged spherical particle at an oil-water interface in a microchannel is numerically investigated and analyzed in this paper. A three-dimensional (3D) transient numerical model is developed to simulate the particle electrokinetic motion. The channel wall, the surface of the particle and the oil-water interface are all considered negatively charged. The effects of the direct current (DC) electric field, the zeta potentials of the particle-water interface and the oil-water interface, and the dynamic viscosity ratio of oil to water on the velocity of the particle are studied in this paper. In addition, the influences of the particle size are also discussed. The simulation results show that the micro-particle with a small value of negative zeta potential moves in the same direction of the external electric field. However, if the zeta potential value of the particle-water interface is large enough, the moving direction of the particle is opposite to that of the electric field. The velocity of the particle at the interface increases with the increase in the electric field strength and the particle size, but decreases with the increase in the dynamic viscosity ratio of oil to water, and the absolute value of the negative zeta potentials of both the particle-water interface and the oil-water interface. This work is the first numerical study of the electrokinetic motion of a charged particle at an oil-water interface in a microchannel. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Electrokinetic and thermodynamic analysis of the adsorption process of N-cetylpyridinium chloride on polyester fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Jiménez, M; Padilla-Weigand, R; Ortega, A Ontiveros; Perea-Carpio, R

    2002-08-01

    An electrokinetic and thermodynamic analysis of the adsorption process of N-cetylpyridinium chloride on polyester fabric is described in the present work. The electrokinetic study was performed by means of electrophoretic mobility measurements of the polyester-surfactant system. The most significant result is the increase in electrokinetic potential, zeta, toward more positive values as the surfactant concentration in the dispersion medium is raised. Given the molecular structure of N-cetylpyridinium chloride (N-CP-Cl), which contains a pyridinium group, positively charged, it is feasible that such increase in |zeta| is due to the electrostatic attraction between the carboxyl groups of polyester, ionized at pH 8.5, and the pyridinium group of the surfactant. The uptake of N-CP-Cl by the fiber is experimentally determined at four temperatures: the strong increase in the amount of the surfactant incorporated onto the fiber as the initial concentration of N-CP-Cl is larger shows that the electrostatic attraction between the fiber and the surfactant is the main mechanism of the adsorption of the surfactant onto the fiber. The obtained data on the kinetics and thermodynamics of adsorption of N-cetylpyridinium chloride onto the polyester, standard free energy, enthalpy, and entropy related to the process of adsorption are in accordance with our hypothesis on the mechanisms of adsorption. From a different point of view, the efficient coverage of polyester by N-CP-Cl is also demonstrated by the changes experienced by the surface free energy of polyester upon treatment with N-CP-Cl.

  19. Singular deposit formation in PWR due to electrokinetic phenomena - application to SG clogging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillodo, M.; Muller, T.; Barale, M.; Foucault, M. [AREVA NP SAS, Technical Centre (France); Clinard, M.-H.; Brun, C.; Chahma, F. [AREVA NP SAS, Chemistry and Radiochemistry Group (France); Corredera, G.; De Bouvier, O. [Electricite de France, Centre d' Expertise de I' inspection dans les domaines de la Realisation et de l' Exploitation (France)

    2009-07-01

    The deposits which cause clogging of the 'foils' of the tube support plates (TSP) in Steam Generators (SG) of PWR present two characteristics which put forward that the mechanism at the origin of their formation is different from the mechanism that drives the formation of homogeneous deposits leading to the fouling of the free spans of SG tubes. Clogging occurs near the leading edge of the TSP and the deposits appear as diaphragms localized between both TSP and SG tubing materials, while the major part of the tube/TSP interstice presents little or no significant clogging. This type of deposit seems rather comparable to the ones which were reproduced in Lab tests to explain the flow rate instabilities observed on a French unit during hot shutdown in the 90's. The deposits which cause TSP clogging are owed to a discontinuity of the streaming currents in the vicinity of a surface singularity (orifices, scratches ...) which, in very low conductivity environment, produce local potential variations and/or current loop in the metallic pipe material due to electrokinetic effects. Deposits can be built by two mechanisms which may or not coexist: (i) accumulation of particles stabilized by an electrostatic attraction due to the local variation of electrokinetic potential, and (ii) crystalline growth of magnetite produced by the oxidation of ferrous ions on the anodic branch of a current loop. Lab investigations carried out by AREVA NP Technical Centre since the end of the 90's showed that this type of deposit occurs when the redox potential is higher than a critical value, and can be gradually dissolved when the potential becomes lower than this value which depends on the 'Material - Chemistry' couple. Special emphasis will be given in this paper to the TSP clogging of SG in PWR secondary coolant dealing particularly with the potential strong effect of electrokinetic phenomena in low conductive environment and in high temperature conditions

  20. Microemulsion and micellar electrokinetic chromatography of Hematoporphyrin D: a starting material of hematoporphyrin derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Chang, C K; Huie, Carmen W

    2005-02-01

    An investigation of the basic factors which govern the microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) separation of Hematoporphyrin D and its base hydrolysis product, hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD), was performed. These model compounds contain a complex mixture of porphyrin monomers, dimers and/or oligomers, and were utilized to gain insights into the MEEKC/micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) separation of samples containing highly lipophilic substances. For example, the organic modifier/cosurfactant (1-butanol) and/or oil phase (e.g., 1-octanol in comparison to ethyl acetate) were found to have an apparent influence on the separation selectivity of Hematoporphyrin D, the extent of which was dependent on the chemical nature of the surfactant employed (e.g., sodium dodecyl sulfate vs. sodium cholate). An interesting and important finding was that the presence of an organic modifier (methanol or acetonitrile at a concentration of 20% or higher) in the sample matrix as well as in the run buffer was essential for the optimal MEEKC or MEKC separation of a number of porphyrin monomers (including hematoporphyrin IX and its acetates, most likely hydroxyacetate, diacetate, and vinyl acetate, as well as its dehydration products, hydroxyethylvinyldeuteroporphyrin and protoporphyrin) contained in Hematoporphyrin D. On the other hand, the use of these optimized conditions for the MEEKC or MEKC separation of various oligomeric porphyrin species in HpD were unsatisfactory. As HpD is a well-known and effective photosensitizing agent in photodynamic therapy (a new approach for cancer treatment), the improved separation and characterization of various monomeric and oligomeric porphyrin species in HpD and its starting material, such as Hematoporphyrin D, is a challenging and important task.

  1. Nanoparticle-based capillary electroseparation of proteins in polymer capillaries under physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, C.; Harwigsson, I.; Becker, K.

    2010-01-01

    of nanoparticles, i.e. in CE mode, the protein samples adsorbed completely to the capillary walls and could not be recovered. In contrast, nanoparticle-based capillary electroseparation resolved green fluorescent protein from several of its impurities within I min. Furthermore, a mixture of native green...... fluorescent protein and two of its single-amino-acid-substituted variants was separated within 2.5 min with efficiencies of 400 000 plates/m. The nanoparticles prevent adsorption by introducing a large interacting surface and by obstructing the attachment of the protein to the capillary wall. A one...... at protein friendly conditions. The developed capillary-based method facilitates future electrochromatography of proteins on polymer-based microchips under physiological conditions and enables the initial optimization of separation conditions in parallel to the chip development....

  2. Electrokinetics as alternative technological operation when creating agroecosystems in complex climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsev, E. G.; Malozyomov, B. V.; Rozhkova, M. V.

    2017-10-01

    It was proposed to use electrokinetic phenomena for the cultivation of agricultural products, taking into account the multifactority of technology and the presence of relaxation phenomena. It is forecasted to use new approaches to reduce energy costs for the process of moistening the root-layer of soil and saving natural resources. The proposed technology will make it possible to get rid of a number of irrationally used natural resources. This is especially true for the Crimean region and the Volga region. Using this technology in Uzbekistan will allow the elimination of the Aral catastrophe and restoration of the natural balance in this region.

  3. Flow reversal at low voltage and low frequency in a microfabricated ac electrokinetic pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Misha Marie; Olesen, Laurits Højgaard; Brask, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Microfluidic chips have been fabricated in Pyrex glass to study electrokinetic pumping generated by a low-voltage ac bias applied to an in-channel asymmetric metallic electrode array. A measurement procedure has been established and followed carefully resulting in a high degree of reproducibility...... of the measurements over several days. A large coverage fraction of the electrode array in the microfluidic channels has led to an increased sensitivity allowing for pumping measurements at low bias voltages. Depending on the ionic concentration a hitherto unobserved reversal of the pumping direction has been...

  4. ac electrokinetic micropumps: The effect of geometrical confinement, Faradaic current injection, and nonlinear surface capacitance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Laurits Højgaard; Bruus, Henrik; Ajdari, A.

    2006-01-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that ac electrokinetic micropumps permit integrable, local, and fast pumping (velocities similar to mm/s) with low driving voltage of a few volts only. However, they also displayed many quantitative and qualitative discrepancies with existing theories. We...... therefore extend the latter theories to account for three experimentally relevant effects: (i) vertical confinement of the pumping channel, (ii) Faradaic currents from electrochemical reactions at the electrodes, and (iii) nonlinear surface capacitance of the Debye layer. We report here that these effects...... indeed affect the pump performance in a way that we can rationalize by physical arguments....

  5. Electrolyte conditioning-enhanced electrokinetic remediation of arsenic-contaminated mine tailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kitae; Kim, Do-Hyung; Park, Sung-Woo; Ryu, Byung-Gon; Bajargal, Tserennyam; Yang, Jung-Seok

    2009-01-15

    Feasibility of electrolyte conditioning with strong acidic or alkaline solution on electrokinetic remediation of arsenic-contaminated mine tailing was investigated in the laboratory. The mine tailing contained calcium oxide of more than 50%. At alkaline condition, arsenic was precipitated with calcium, and formed calcium arsenate which is very stable solid. Catholyte conditioning with strong acidic solution and anolyte conditioning with strong alkaline solution showed similar efficiency to remove arsenic. At 4mAcm(-2) of current density, the removal efficiency of arsenic was 62% after 28 days operation with catholyte conditioning with 0.1M nitric acid.

  6. Validation of capillary blood analysis and capillary testing mode on the epoc Point of Care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jing; Edwards, Rachel; Chairez, Janette; Devaraj, Sridevi

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory test in transport is a critical component of patient care, and capillary blood is a preferred sample type particularly in children. This study evaluated the performance of capillary blood testing on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System (Alere Inc). Ten fresh venous blood samples was tested on the epoc system under the capillary mode. Correlation with GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory) was examined for Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pO2, pCO2, and pH, and correlation with serum tested on Vitros 5600 (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics) was examined for creatinine. Eight paired capillary and venous blood was tested on epoc and ABL800 (Radiometer) for the correlation of Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Capillary blood from 23 apparently healthy volunteers was tested on the epoc system to assess the concordance to reference ranges used locally. Deming regression correlation coefficients for all the comparisons were above 0.65 except for ionized Ca2+. Accordance of greater than 85% to the local reference ranges were found in all assays with the exception of pO2 and Cl-. Data from this study indicates that capillary blood tests on the epoc system provide comparable results to reference method for these assays, Na+, K+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Further validation in critically ill patients is needed to implement the epoc system in patient transport. This study demonstrated that capillary blood tests on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System give comparable results to other chemistry analyzers for major blood gas and critical tests. The results are informative to institutions where pre-hospital and inter-hospital laboratory testing on capillary blood is a critical component of patient point of care testing.

  7. A complete soil hydraulic model accounting for capillary and adsorptive water retention, capillary and film conductivity, and hysteresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakai, Masaru; Van Genuchten, Martinus Th; Alazba, A. A.; Setiawan, Budi Indra; Minasny, Budiman

    2015-01-01

    A soil hydraulic model that considers capillary hysteretic and adsorptive water retention as well as capillary and film conductivity covering the complete soil moisture range is presented. The model was obtained by incorporating the capillary hysteresis model of Parker and Lenhard into the hydraulic

  8. Amine Analysis Using AlexaFluor 488 Succinimidyl Ester and Capillary Electrophoresis with Laser-Induced Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian G. Kendall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent probes enable detection of otherwise nonfluorescent species via highly sensitive laser-induced fluorescence. Organic amines are predominantly nonfluorescent and are of analytical interest in agricultural and food science, biomedical applications, and biowarfare detection. Alexa Fluor 488 N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester (AF488 NHS-ester is an amine-specific fluorescent probe. Here, we demonstrate low limit of detection of long-chain (C9 to C18 primary amines and optimize AF488 derivatization of long-chain primary amines. The reaction was found to be equally efficient in all solvents studied (dimethylsulfoxide, ethanol, and N,N-dimethylformamide. While an organic base (N,N-diisopropylethylamine is required to achieve efficient reaction between AF488 NHS-ester and organic amines with longer hydrophobic chains, high concentrations (>5 mM result in increased levels of ethylamine and propylamine in the blank. Optimal incubation times were found to be >12 hrs at room temperature. We present an initial capillary electrophoresis separation for analysis using a simple micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC buffer consisting of 12 mM sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS and 5 mM carbonate, pH 10. Limits of detection using the optimized labeling conditions and these separation conditions were 5–17 nM. The method presented here represents a novel addition to the arsenal of fluorescent probes available for highly sensitive analysis of small organic molecules.

  9. Transient electro-magneto-hydrodynamic two-phase blood flow and thermal transport through a capillary vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, I A; Abdulhameed, M; Vieru, D; Shafie, S

    2016-12-01

    Therapies with magnetic/electromagnetic field are employed to relieve pains or, to accelerate flow of blood-particles, particularly during the surgery. In this paper, a theoretical study of the blood flow along with particles suspension through capillary was made by the electro-magneto-hydrodynamic approach. Analytical solutions to the non-dimensional blood velocity and non-dimensional particles velocity are obtained by means of the Laplace transform with respect to the time variable and the finite Hankel transform with respect to the radial coordinate. The study of thermally transfer characteristics is based on the energy equation for two-phase thermal transport of blood and particles suspension with viscous dissipation, the volumetric heat generation due to Joule heating effect and electromagnetic couple effect. The solution of the nonlinear heat transfer problem is derived by using the velocity field and the integral transform method. The influence of dimensionless system parameters like the electrokinetic width, the Hartman number, Prandtl number, the coefficient of heat generation due to Joule heating and Eckert number on the velocity and temperature fields was studied using the Mathcad software. Results are presented by graphical illustrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A sensitive non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometric method for multiresidue analyses of beta-agonists in pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anurukvorakun, Oraphan; Buchberger, Wolfgang; Himmelsbach, Markus; Klampel, Christian W; Suntornsuk, Leena

    2010-06-01

    Non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (NACE-MS) was developed for trace analyses of beta-agonists (i.e. clenbuterol, salbutamol and terbutaline) in pork. The NACE was in 18 mM ammonium acetate in methanol-acetonitrile-glacial acetic acid (66 : 33 : 1, v/v/v) using a voltage of 28 kV. The hyphenation of CE with a time-of-flight MS was performed by electrospray ionization interface employing 5 mM ammonium acetate in methanol-water (80 : 20, v/v) as the sheath liquid at a flow rate of 2 microL/min. Method sensitivity was enhanced by a co-injection technique (combination of hydrodynamic and electrokinetic injection) using a pressure of 50 mbar and a voltage of 10 kV for 12 s. The method was validated in comparison with HPLC-MS-MS. The NACE-MS procedure provided excellent detection limits of 0.3 ppb for all analytes. Method linearity was good (r(2) > 0.999, in a range of 0.8-1000 ppb for all analytes). Precision showed %RSDs of Health, Thailand using HPLC-MS-MS method. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Detection of chlorogenic acid in honeysuckle using infrared-assisted extraction followed by capillary electrophoresis with UV detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhuxing; Zang, Shuliang; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a novel infrared-assisted extraction method coupled capillary electrophoresis (CE) is employed to determine chlorogenic acid from a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), honeysuckle. The effects of pH and the concentration of the running buffer, separation voltage, injection time, IR irradiation time, and anhydrous ethanol in the extraction concentration were investigated. The optimal conditions were as follows: extraction time, 30 min; extraction solvent, 80% (v/v) ethanol in water solution; and 50 mmol/L borate buffer (pH 8.7) was used as the running buffer at a separation voltage of 16 kV. The samples were injected electrokinetically at 16 kV for 8 s. Good linearity (r(2) > 0.9996) was observed over the concentration ranges investigated, and the stability of the solutions was high. Recoveries of the chlorogenic acid were from 95.53% to 106.62%, and the relative standard deviation was below 4.1%. By using this novel IR-assisted extraction method, a higher extraction efficiency than those extracted with conventional heat-reflux extraction was found. The developed IR-assisted extraction method is simple, low-cost, and efficient, offering a great promise for the quick determination of active compounds in TCM. The results indicated that IR-assisted extraction followed by CE is a reliable method for quantitative analysis of active ingredient in TCM. © The Author [2011]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  12. The enhancement of synthesized wastewater on non-uniform electrokinetic remediation of a Cd-spiked natural clayey soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ying-Ying; Zhao, Chaocheng; Li, Hongjiang; An, Hui

    2017-10-27

    It is usually very difficult to achieve satisfactory extraction efficiencies in electrokinetic remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils of high acid/base buffer capacity. Enhancement agent is often required. In this study, synthesized citric acid industrial wastewater (CAIW) is used as the enhancement agent to remediate cadmium-spiked natural clayey soil from Shanghai, China. Four electrokinetic extraction experiments were carried out to evaluate the enhancement effects of CAIW on the remediation of metal-spiked clayed soil of high buffer capacity and the effects of treatment time and initial cadmium concentration on the migration of cadmium in the specimen. The results of electrokinetic experiments indicated that CAIW can efficiently enhance the transport of cadmium in comparison with HNO3 of the same pH. Cadmium mobilization was enhanced with prolonged treatment time from 104 to 261.2 h, but the average cadmium removal efficiency was not significantly enhanced. A non-uniform cadmium distribution in the specimen was observed after the enhanced electrokinetic experiments due to the localized electrical gradients with an electrical gradient of approximately 1 V/cm and a ratio of the distance between electrodes of the same polarity to the outer diameter of electrode of 2.8 (50:18 mm).

  13. Comparison of migration modeling in micellar electrokinetic chromatography by linear regression and by use of an artificial neural network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metting, HJ; van Zomeren, PV; van der Ley, CP; Coenegracht, PMJ; de Jong, GJ

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations of modifier (methanol or acetonitrile) and surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate SDS) in the running buffer are important factors influencing the mobility of analytes in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). Response surfaces of the effective mobility can be used to predict

  14. Removal of Pb from sewage sludge by electrokinetics: effect of pH and washing solution type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanay, Ozge; Hasar, Halil; Koçer, Nilufer Nacar; Ozdemir, Ozgur

    2009-10-01

    In this study, the effect of pH and washing solution on the removal of lead from sewage sludge by electrokinetics was investigated. The six experimental runs were carried out at two different pH values--3 and 4--using acetic acid, nitric acid and phosphoric acid. In addition, the sequential chemical extraction scheme according to the BCR's (Community Bureau of Reference) guidelines was applied to the sludge samples to evaluate the effect of acidic solutions on Pb fractionation during electrokinetic processes. Using nitric acid as the washing solution resulted in the highest removal efficiency of Pb (39%) amongst all the experiments. Acetic acid also provided similar removal percentages (37% and 38%) at different pre-acidification conditions. On the other hand, the removal efficiencies were 36% and 27% with pre-acidification using phosphoric acid at pH 3 and 4, respectively, resulting in the lowest efficiencies. The results obtained by BCR analysis showed that the metal present near the anode partitioned in to more mobile forms while the metal near the cathode partitioned in to less mobile forms, such as precipitated or adsorbed forms, as the electrokinetic process proceeded. The inter-fractional transformations of Pb formed only when using acetic acid. The similar percentages obtained by using different washing solutions indicated that the type of acid used as washing solution was less effective than the values of pH for removal of Pb from sewage sludge during the electrokinetic process.

  15. Development of three-dimensional integrated microchannel-electrode system to understand the particles' movement with electrokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, J; Obara, H; Sapkota, A; Takei, M

    2016-03-01

    An optical transparent 3-D Integrated Microchannel-Electrode System (3-DIMES) has been developed to understand the particles' movement with electrokinetics in the microchannel. In this system, 40 multilayered electrodes are embedded at the 2 opposite sides along the 5 square cross-sections of the microchannel by using Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems technology in order to achieve the optical transparency at the other 2 opposite sides. The concept of the 3-DIMES is that the particles are driven by electrokinetic forces which are dielectrophoretic force, thermal buoyancy, electrothermal force, and electroosmotic force in a three-dimensional scope by selecting the excitation multilayered electrodes. As a first step to understand the particles' movement driven by electrokinetic forces in high conductive fluid (phosphate buffer saline (PBS)) with the 3-DIMES, the velocities of particles' movement with one pair of the electrodes are measured three dimensionally by Particle Image Velocimetry technique in PBS; meanwhile, low conductive fluid (deionized water) is used as a reference. Then, the particles' movement driven by the electrokinetic forces is discussed theoretically to estimate dominant forces exerting on the particles. Finally, from the theoretical estimation, the particles' movement mainly results from the dominant forces which are thermal buoyancy and electrothermal force, while the velocity vortex formed at the 2 edges of the electrodes is because of the electroosmotic force. The conclusions suggest that the 3-DIMES with PBS as high conductive fluid helps to understand the three-dimensional advantageous flow structures for cell manipulation in biomedical applications.

  16. Trace analysis of three antihistamines in human urine by on-line single drop liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography and its application to pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenhua; Chen, Yunsheng; Chen, Gaopan; Xi, Jing; Chen, Yaowen; Yang, Jianying; Xu, Ning

    2012-09-01

    A rapid and efficient dual preconcentration method of on-line single drop liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (SD-LLLME) coupled to sweeping micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) was developed for trace analysis of three antihistamines (mizolastine, chlorpheniramine and pheniramine) in human urine. Three analytes were firstly extracted from donor phase (4 mL urine sample) adjusted to alkaline condition (0.5 M NaOH). The unionized analytes were subsequently extracted into a drop of n-octanol layered over the urine sample, and then into a microdrop of acceptor phase (100 mM H(3)PO(4)) suspended from a capillary inlet. The enriched acceptor phase was on-line injected into capillary with a height difference and then analyzed directly by sweeping MEKC. Good linear relationships were obtained for all analytes in a range of 6.25 × 10(-6) to 2.5 × 10(-4)g/L with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.987. The proposed method achieved limits of detections (LOD) varied from 1.2 × 10(-7) to 9.5 × 10(-7)g/L based on a signal-to-noise of 3 (S/N=3) with 751- to 1372-fold increases in detection sensitivity for analytes, and it was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of three antihistamines in human urine after an oral administration. The results demonstrated that this method was a promising combination for the rapid trace analysis of antihistamines in human urine with the advantages of operation simplicity, high enrichment factor and little solvent consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Single cell antimicrobial susceptibility testing by confined microchannels and electrokinetic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Donna D.; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C.; Wong, Pak Kin

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant pathogens are an emerging global health problem. In addition to the need of developing new antibiotics in the pipeline, the ability to rapidly determine the antibiotic resistance profiles of bacteria represents one of the most crucial steps toward the management of infectious diseases and the prevention of multidrug-resistant pathogens. Here, we report a single cell antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) approach for rapid determination of the antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens. By confining individual bacteria in gas permeable microchannels with dimensions comparable to a single bacterium, the antibiotic resistance of the bacteria can be monitored in real-time at the single cell level. To facilitate the dynamic loading of the bacteria into the confined microchannels for observation, AC electrokinetics is demonstrated for capturing bacteria to defined locations in high-conductivity AST buffer. The electrokinetic technique achieves a loading efficiency of about 75% with a negligible effect on the bacterial growth rate. To optimize the protocol for single cell AST, the bacterial growth rate of individual bacteria under different antibiotic conditions has been determined systematically. The applicability of single cell AST is demonstrated by the rapid determination of the antimicrobial resistant profiles of uropathogenic clinical isolates in Mueller-Hinton media and in urine. The antibiotic resistance profiles of bacteria can be determined in less than one hour compared to days in standard culture-based AST techniques. PMID:23445209

  18. Silver nanoparticle/fibrinogen bilayers - Mechanism of formation and stability determined by in situ electrokinetic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, Monika; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Oćwieja, Magdalena; Wojnar, Dominika; Żeliszewska, Paulina

    2017-11-08

    The kinetics of negatively charged silver nanoparticle (AgNP) deposition on the supporting fibrinogen monolayers of well-characterized coverage was determined by the atomic force microscopy (AFM). The kinetics was quantitatively interpreted in terms of the hybrid random sequential adsorption model. The electrokinetic properties of the fibrinogen monolayers and fibrinogen/AgNP bilayers were thoroughly characterized in situ by the streaming potential measurements. These results were interpreted in terms of the general electrokinetic model expressing the particle coverage in terms of the zeta potential of the bilayers. This allowed one to determine the adsorption constants and the binding energy of AgNPs, which was equal to -20.8 and -21.3 kT for pH 3.5 and 7.4, respectively. These results confirmed the end-on mechanism of fibrinogen adsorption and the presence of positively charged spots at its molecule at pH 7.4 where it exhibits an average negative charge. Besides significance to basic science, the obtained results can be exploited for developing a procedure for producing AgNP monolayers of well-defined coverage and controlled particle release profile. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Fabrication and electrokinetic motion of electrically anisotropic Janus droplets in microchannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengqi; Li, Dongqing

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents experimental investigations of the fabrication and the motion of electrically anisotropic Janus droplets in a microchannel under externally applied direct current (DC) electrical field. The fabrication method of the Janus droplets is presented first. To begin, oil droplets are coated uniformly with positively charged nanoparticles in the aluminum oxide nanoparticle suspension. The electrically anisotropic Janus droplets are formed when the nanoparticles are accumulated to one side of the droplets in response to externally applied DC electric field. The surface coverage of the Janus droplets by nanoparticles can be adjusted by controlling the concentration of the nanoparticle suspension. The flow fields around the Janus droplets moving in a microchannel were observed with tracing particles. Finally, the electrokinetic velocity of the Janus droplets in a microchannel was measured. The effects of the strength of the electrical field, the surface coverage of the Janus droplets by nanoparticles, the size of the droplets as well as the electrolyte concentration on the electrokinetic velocity of the Janus droplets were studied. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. DNA Motion Induced by Electrokinetic Flow near an Au Coated Nanopore Surface as Voltage Controlled Gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Manabu; Kato, Yuta; Ishida, Kentaro; Hyun, Changbae; Li, Jiali

    2014-01-01

    The diffusion and drift motion of λ DNA molecules on Au coated membrane surface near nanopores prior to their translocation through solid-state nanopores are investigated using fluorescence microscopy. With the capability of controlling electric potential at the Au surface as a gate voltage, Vgate, the motions of DNA molecules vary dramatically near the nanopores in our observations, presumably generated by electrokinetic flow. We carefully investigate theses DNA motions with different values of Vgate in order to alter the densities and polarities of counterions; which are expected to change the flow speed or direction, respectively. Depending on Vgate, our observations have revealed the critical distance from a nanopore for DNA molecules to be attracted or to be repelled, DNA’s anisotropic and unsteady drifting motions and accumulations of DNA molecules near the nanopore entrance. Further finite element method (FEM) numerical simulations indicate that the electrokinetic flow could explain these unusual DNA motions near metal collated gated nanopores qualitatively. Finally, we demonstrate the possibility to control the speed and direction of DNA motion near or through a nanopore, for example, recapturing a single DNA molecule multiple times with AC voltages on the Vgate. PMID:25611963

  1. New Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatographic Method for Analyzing Idebenone in Pediatric Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contin, Mario; Buontempo, Fabián; García Becerra, Cristian; Dobrecky, Cecilia; Lucangioli, Silvia; Tripodi, Valeria

    2017-03-01

    A novel, simple and reliable method based on micellar electrokinetic chromatography with ultraviolet detection was developed to analyze idebenone in a pediatric formulation. Idebenone is a synthetic short chain benzoquinone that acts as an electron carrier in the mitochondrial electron transport chain facilitating the production of adenosine triphosphate. It can be found in two different redox states that differ in their physiological properties. Idebenone has been investigated as a treatment in several neurological disorders like Friedreich's ataxia, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, mitochondrial encephalomyopathies and senile dementia. Accordingly, a micellar electrokinetic chromatography was employed to discriminate both redox forms. The final optimized system was validated in terms of selectivity, linearity (r2 0.992), limit of detection (0.5 µg/mL), limit of quantification (1.8 µg/mL), intra- and inter-day precision (RSD ≤ 2) and accuracy in terms of recovery studies (99.3-100.5%). Robustness was studied following a Plackett-Burman design. Finally, the validated system was applied to the analysis of idebenone in a pediatric formulation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Enhanced on-chip SERS based biomolecular detection using electrokinetically active microwells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Yun Suk; Chung, Aram J; Cordovez, Bernardo; Erickson, David

    2009-02-07

    Here we present a novel microfluidic technique for on-chip surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based biomolecular detection, exploiting the use of electrokinetically active microwells. Briefly, the chip comprises of a series of microfluidic channels containing embedded microwells that, when electrically actuated, either locally attract or repulse species from solution through a combination of electrokinetic effects. We demonstrate that the approach combines the advantages of existing homogeneous (solution phase) and heterogeneous (surface phase) on-chip techniques by enabling active mixing to enhance the rate of binding between the SERS enhancers and the biomolecular targets as well as rapid concentration of the product for surface phase optical interrogation. This paper describes the chip design and fabrication procedure, experimental results illustrating the optimal conditions for our concentration and mixing processes, and a numerical analysis of the flow pattern. To demonstrate the usefulness of the device we apply it to the quantitative detection of nucleic acid sequences associated with Dengue virus serotype 2. We report a limit of detection for Dengue sequences of 30 pM and show excellent specificity against other serotypes.

  3. Effects of biomolecules on the electrokinetics of colloidal nanoparticles in liquid suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midelet, C.; Lin, J.-Y.; Tsang, S.; Sun, C.-l.; Midelet, J.; Kanaras, A. G.; Le Pioufle, B.; Français, O.; Werts, M. H. V.

    2017-02-01

    Electric fields can induce various types of motion in liquid suspensions of colloidal nanoparticles. These electrokinetic phenomena depend on the parameters of the electric field (frequency, amplitude, 3D topology), the particles (size, shape, composition) and the suspending liquid (polarizability, ionic strength, pH). In particular, the dielectrophoretic force on submicron colloidal particles is dependent on the properties of the electric double layer (the "ion cloud") around these particles. This dependence provides a mechanism for detecting and quantifying interactions between biomolecules and these nanoparticles, which can be combined with optical and spectroscopic measurements. Here, we report on functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles that are tracked inside microfluidic systems by dark-field video-microscopy. A high-gradient AC electric field is set up using transparent micro-electrodes. Electrohydrodynamic motion of the entire fluid and dielectrophoretic trapping of individual particles can be analyzed quantitatively by numerical methods. By switching the electric field synchronously with the video acquisition, the effect of biomolecules on the electrokinetic trapping can be quantified. The electromicrofluidic devices allow also for rapid measurement of diffusion coefficients.

  4. An automated, high-throughput experimental system for induced charge electrokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascall, Andrew J; Squires, Todd M

    2010-09-21

    Recent experiments in induced charge electrokinetics (ICEK) have shown that the standard theory generally overpredicts experimentally observed velocities. Such discrepancies reduce the efficacy of practical ICEK devices, and highlight our incomplete understanding of electrokinetic phenomena. Here, we present an automated experimental system that allows for the rapid collection of ICEK data under a variety of conditions ( approximately 1000 per day) to help develop and constrain new theories. We demonstrate this system by studying the ICEK slip flows over electrodes that have been controllably "contaminated" with a dielectric layer, either SiO(2) or an alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer, of known thickness. We also develop a theory that accounts for the effects of the dielectric coatings surface chemistry that yields quantitative agreement with experiments over nearly a thousand distinct conditions in the SiO(2) system and present an additional three thousand experiments of flows over alkanethiol monolayers. Our experimental system allows the direct interrogation of the physico-chemical effects that influence ICEK flows and for the optimization of these flows in lab-on-a-chip systems.

  5. Modeling of electrokinetic reactive transport in micropore using a coupled lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Moran

    2015-05-01

    It is well known that a solid surface will be charged when it comes into contact with liquid, especially with electrolyte solutions. The surface charge influences ion distribution and transport and, therefore, affects the chemical reaction. Such an effect may become significant in micropores/nanopores when the electrical double layer thickness is comparable to the pore size, but this has never been well studied. This work investigates the coupled electrokinetic and reactive transport in micropores using mesoscopic modeling. We established a numerical framework by coupling multiple lattice Boltzmann models to combine all effects on ion transport from convection, diffusion and electrokinetics, and therefore, on heterogeneous reactions in micropore. After validations, the mechanism of surface charge effects on reactive transport is studied for an ion precipitation case and a solid dissolution case. The results show that two factors, transport and reaction, compete in such complicated processes based on their characteristic rates. When the transport rate, including diffusion and convection, is much lower than the reaction rate, i.e., the transport-dominated process, the surface charge significantly reduces the reaction. Otherwise for a reaction-dominated process, the surface charge effect may be negligible.

  6. Electrokinetic device design and constraints for use in high conductance solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineck, D P; Lewis, J M; Heller, M J

    2017-06-01

    The quest for new cell-free DNA and exosome biomarker-based molecular diagnostics require fast and efficient sample preparation techniques. Conventional methods for isolating these biomarkers from blood are both time-consuming and laborious. New electrokinetic microarray devices using dielectrophoresis (DEP) to isolate cell-free DNA and exosome biomarkers have now greatly improved the sample preparation process. Nevertheless, these devices still have some limitations when used with high conductance biological fluids, e.g. blood, plasma, and serum. This study demonstrates that electrochemical damage may occur on the platinum electrodes of DEP microarray devices. It further examines two model device designs that include a parallel wire arrangement and a planar array. Effective isolation of fluorescent beads with parallel wires is shown under low-conductance conditions (10-4  S/m), but electrothermal flow overcomes DEP forces under high conductance conditions (>0.1 S/m). Planar devices are shown to be effective under high conductance conditions (∼1 S/m) without the deleterious effects of electrothermal flow. This study provides new insights into design compromises and limitations for producing future electrokinetic devices for better performance with high conductance solutions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Data on flow cell optimization for membrane-based electrokinetic energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østedgaard-Munck, David Nicolas; Catalano, Jacopo; Birch Kristensen, Mette; Bentien, Anders

    2017-12-01

    This article elaborates on the design and optimization of a specialized flow cell for the measurement of direct conversion of pressure into electrical energy (Electrokinetic Energy Conversion, EKEC) which has been presented in Østedgaard-Munck et al. (2017) [1]. Two main flow cell parameters have been monitored and optimized: A) the hydraulic pressure profile on each side of the membrane introduced by pumps recirculating the electrolyte solution through the flow fields and B) the electrical resistance between the current collectors across the combined flow cell. The latter parameter has been measured using four-point Electrochemical Impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for different flow rates and concentrations. The total cell resistance consists of contributions from different components: the membrane [Formula: see text], anode charge transfer [Formula: see text], cathode charge transfer [Formula: see text], and ion diffusion in the porous electrodes [Formula: see text]. The intrinsic membrane properties of Nafion 117 has been investigated experimentally in LiI/I 2 solutions with concentrations ranging between 0.06 and 0.96 M and used to identify the preferred LiI/I 2 solution concentration. This was achieved by measuring the solution uptake, internal solution concentration and ion exchange capacity. The membrane properties were further used to calculate the transport coefficients and electrokinetic Figure of merit in terms of the Uniform potential and Space charge models. Special attention has been put on the streaming potential coefficient which is an intrinsic property.

  8. The Use of Electrical Resistivity Method to Mapping The Migration of Heavy Metals by Electrokinetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Ayuni, S. A.; Ezree, A. M.; Nizam, Z. M.; Aziman, M.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Norshuhaila, M. S.; Zaidi, E.

    2017-08-01

    The presence of heavy metals contamination in soil environment highly needs innovative remediation. Basically, this contamination was resulted from ex-mining sites, motor workshop, petrol station, landfill and industrial sites. Therefore, soil treatment is very important due to metal ions are characterized as non-biodegradable material that may be harmful to ecological system, food chain, human health and groundwater sources. There are various techniques that have been proposed to eliminate the heavy metal contamination from the soil such as bioremediation, phytoremediation, electrokinetic remediation, solidification and stabilization. The selection of treatment needs to fulfill some criteria such as cost-effective, easy to apply, green approach and high remediation efficiency. Electrokinetic remediation technique (EKR) offers those solutions in certain area where other methods are impractical. While, electrical resistivity method offers an alternative geophysical technique for soil subsurface profiling to mapping the heavy metals migration by the influece of electrical gradient. Consequently, this paper presents an overview of the use of EKR to treat contaminated soil by using ERM method to verify their effectiveness to remove heavy metals.

  9. Electrokinetic pixels with biprimary inks for color displays and color-temperature-tunable smart windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S; Hsieh, W L; Smith, N; Goulding, M; Heikenfeld, J

    2015-06-10

    We report on the advanced implementation of the biprimary color system in applications where subtractive color is performed inside a single pixel to alter the magnitude and color of reflection (electronic paper displays) or the optical transmission and color temperature (smart windows). A novel device structure can switch between four states: clear, black, either of two complementary colors from RGB and CMY sets, and also mixed states between one of these four states. The device structure utilizes an electrokinetic pixel structure, which combines the spectral performance of in-plane electrophoretic devices with the improved switching speeds of vertical electrophoresis. The electrophoretic dispersions are dual-particle dual-colored and are controlled using two traditional planar electrokinetic electrodes on the front and back substrates, along with a third electrode conveniently located at the perimeter of each unit cell. Demonstrated performance includes contrast ratios reaching ~10∶1, reflectance of ~62%, and transparency of ~75%. For electronic paper displays, these results provide a pathway to double the reflective performance compared to the traditional RGBW color-filter approach. For smart windows, the technology provides not only control of shade (transmission) but also provides complete control over color temperature. Furthermore, this three-electrode device can be roll-to-roll fabricated without need for any alignment steps, requiring only a single micro-replication step followed by self-aligned contact printing of the third electrode.

  10. Zn (II) Removal from River Water Samples of Sembrong, Johor State, Malaysia by Electrokinetic Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, E.; Husna, MNF; Shakila, A.; Azhar, ATS; Arif, AM; Norshuhaila, MS

    2017-08-01

    Heavy metals pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems today. The treatment of heavy metals is of special concern due to their recalcitrance and persistence in the environment. Even many physical, chemical and biological treatment processes have been proposed to remove heavy metals from river water, the use of these treatment processes are not efficient and relatively costly. This study focused on the potential application of electrokinetic (EK) remediation in Sembrong River water to remove zinc (Zn2+). The physicochemical and biological parameters and water quality index (WQI) of Sembrong River water was characterized. The electrokinetic remediation experiments were performed by controlling pH, and electric density on voltage were observed and investigated. The results indicated that all physicochemical and biological parameters of Sembrong River complied with the standard discharged limit set by the Department of Environment (DOE). However, suspended solids (SS) and pH can be categorized as Class III according to INWQS. The best performance of 88% efficiency of zinc can be achieved EK experiment run at a fixed voltage of 30 V at pH 5.14 after 60 min of the process operate. This technology may be proposed for faster and eco-friendly removal of heavy metals in the environment.

  11. Electrokinetic-enhanced bioaugmentation for remediation of chlorinated solvents contaminated clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuhui; Wang, James; Ciblak, Ali; Cox, Evan E.; Riis, Charlotte; Terkelsen, Mads; Gent, David B.; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2012-01-01

    Successful bioremediation of contaminated soils is controlled by the ability to deliver bioremediation additives, such as bacteria and/or nutrients, to the contaminated zone. Because hydraulic advection is not practical for delivery in clays, electrokinetic (EK) injection is an alternative for efficient and uniform delivery of bioremediation additive into low-permeability soil and heterogeneous deposits. EK–enhanced bioaugmentation for remediation of clays contaminated with chlorinated solvents is evaluated. Dehalococcoides (Dhc) bacterial strain and lactate ions are uniformly injected in contaminated clay and complete dechlorination of chlorinated ethene is observed in laboratory experiments. The injected bacteria can survive, grow, and promote effective dechlorination under EK conditions and after EK application. The distribution of Dhc within the clay suggests that electrokinetic transport of Dhc is primarily driven by electroosmosis. In addition to biodegradation due to bioaugmentation of Dhc, an EK-driven transport of chlorinated ethenes is observed in the clay, which accelerates cleanup of chlorinated ethenes from the anode side. Compared with conventional advection-based delivery, EK injection is significantly more effective forestablis hingmicrobial reductive dechlorination capacity in low-permeability soils. PMID:22365139

  12. Computational modeling of electrokinetic transport in random networks of micro-pores and nano-pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Shima; Mani, Ali

    2014-11-01

    A reduced order model has been developed to study the nonlinear electrokinetic behaviors emerging in the transport of ionic species through micro-scale and nano-scale porous media. In this approach a porous structure is modeled as a network of long and thin pores. By assuming transport equilibrium in the thin dimensions for each pore, a 1D transport equation is developed in the longitudinal direction covering a wide range of conditions including extreme limits of thick and thin electric double layers. This 1D model includes transport via diffusion, electromigration and wide range of advection mechanisms including pressure driven flow, electroosmosis, and diffusion osmosis. The area-averaged equations governing the axial transport from different pores are coupled at the pore intersections using the proper conservation laws. Moreover, an asymptotic treatment has been included in order to remove singularities in the limit of small concentration. The proposed method provides an efficient framework for insightful simulations of porous electrokinetic systems with applications in water desalination and energy storage. PhD student in Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University. She received her Master's degree in Mechanical Engineering from Stanford at 2013. Her research interests include CFD, high performance computing, and optimization.

  13. Effects of surface roughness and electrokinetic heterogeneity on electroosmotic flow in microchannel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masilamani, Kannan; Ganguly, Suvankar; Feichtinger, Christian; Bartuschat, Dominik; Rüde, Ulrich, E-mail: suva_112@yahoo.co.in [Department of Computer Science 10 University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr.11 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, a hybrid lattice-Boltzmann and finite-difference (LB-FD) model is applied to simulate the effects of three-dimensional surface roughness and electrokinetic heterogeneity on electroosmotic flow (EOF) in a microchannel. The lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method has been employed to obtain the flow field and a finite-difference (FD) method is used to solve the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation for the electrostatic potential distribution. Numerical simulation of flow through a square cross-section microchannel with designed roughness is conducted and the results are critically analysed. The effects of surface heterogeneity on the electroosmotic transport are investigated for different roughness height, width, roughness interval spacing, and roughness surface potential. Numerical simulations reveal that the presence of surface roughness changes the nature of electroosmotic transport through the microchannel. It is found that the electroosmotic velocity decreases with the increase in roughness height and the velocity profile becomes asymmetric. For the same height of the roughness elements, the EOF velocity rises with the increase in roughness width. For the heterogeneously charged rough channel, the velocity profile shows a distinct deviation from the conventional plug-like flow pattern. The simulation results also indicate locally induced flow vortices which can be utilized to enhance the flow and mixing within the microchannel. The present study has important implications towards electrokinetic flow control in the microchannel, and can provide an efficient way to design a microfluidic system of practical interest. (paper)

  14. ACIDIC REMOVAL OF METALS FROM FLUIDIZED CATALYTIC CRACKING CATALYST WASTE ASSISTED BY ELECTROKINETIC TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. G. Valt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOne of the main uses of catalysts in the oil industry is in the fluidized catalytic cracking process, which generates large quantities of waste material after use and regeneration cycles and that can be treated by the electrokinetic remediation technique, in which the contaminant metals are transported by migration. In this study, deactivated FCC catalyst was characterized before and after the electrokinetic remediation process to evaluate the amount of metal removed, and assess structural modifications, in order to indicate a possible use as an adsorbent material. The analyses included pH measurement and the concentration profile of vanadium ions along the reactor, X-ray microtomography, X-ray fluorescence, BET analysis and DTA analysis. The results indicated that 40% of the surface area of the material was recovered in relation to the disabled material, showing an increase in the available area for the adsorption. The remediation process removed nearly 31% of the vanadium and 72% of the P2O5 adhering to the surface of the catalyst, without causing structural or thermal stability changes.

  15. Geotechnical behaviour of low-permeability soils in surfactant-enhanced electrokinetic remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vizcaíno, Rubén; Navarro, Vicente; Alonso, Juan; Yustres, Ángel; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Sáez, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Electrokinetic processes provide the basis of a range of very interesting techniques for the remediation of polluted soils. These techniques consist of the application of a current field in the soil that develops different transport mechanisms capable of mobilizing several types of pollutants. However, the use of these techniques could generate nondesirable effects related to the geomechanical behavior of the soil, reducing the effectiveness of the processes. In the case of the remediation of polluted soils with plasticity index higher than 35, an excessive shrinkage can be observed in remediation test. For this reason, the continued evaporation that takes place in the sample top can lead to the development of cracks, distorting the electrokinetic transport regime, and consequently, the development of the operation. On the other hand, when analyzing silty soils, in the surroundings of injection surfactant wells, high seepages can be generated that give rise to the development of piping processes. In this article methods are described to allow a reduction, or to even eliminate, both problems.

  16. A comprehensive strategy in the development of a cyclodextrin-modified microemulsion electrokinetic chromatographic method for the assay of diclofenac and its impurities: Mixture-process variable experiments and quality by design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandini, S; Pasquini, B; Caprini, C; Del Bubba, M; Squarcialupi, L; Colotta, V; Furlanetto, S

    2016-09-30

    A comprehensive strategy involving the use of mixture-process variable (MPV) approach and Quality by Design principles has been applied in the development of a capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous determination of the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac and its five related substances. The selected operative mode consisted in microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography with the addition of methyl-β-cyclodextrin. The critical process parameters included both the mixture components (MCs) of the microemulsion and the process variables (PVs). The MPV approach allowed the simultaneous investigation of the effects of MCs and PVs on the critical resolution between diclofenac and its 2-deschloro-2-bromo analogue and on analysis time. MPV experiments were used both in the screening phase and in the Response Surface Methodology, making it possible to draw MCs and PVs contour plots and to find important interactions between MCs and PVs. Robustness testing was carried out by MPV experiments and validation was performed following International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines. The method was applied to a real sample of diclofenac gastro-resistant tablets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. X-ray optics of tapered capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaic, D X; Nugent, K A

    1995-11-01

    The optics of x-ray concentration by tapered glass capillaries is analyzed in terms of a phase-space construction describing their transmission efficiency. The parameters defining the intensity gain are given in terms of parameters describing the x-ray source used, the capillary taper profile, and glass characteristics. We introduce some key concepts in understanding these devices: the extreme ray and a phase-space description of sources and optics. They are used to develop an analytical formulation for the optimum gain characteristics of generalized tapers for use with synchrotrons and other low-divergence sources. This general solution is solved further for the case of conical taper profile. The predictions of this theory are compared with the results of three-dimensional, ray-tracing simulations of x-ray concentration efficiency for conical and paraboloidal tapers.

  18. Intraoral capillary haemangioma: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Parimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiomas are common benign vascular tumors of the head and neck region which account for 7% of all benign tumors of infancy and childhood. Adults are rarely affected, and they have a female predilection. Based on the microscopic appearance, they are classified into capillary, cavernous, mixed, and sclerosing variety. Incidence of intraoral capillary hemangioma (CH is infrequent, and its topographical presentation on the palatal mucosa and gingiva marks extreme rarity. They are uncommonly encountered by the dentists. The aim of this article is to present a case of CH in a 46-year-old male who presented with a swelling on the posterior hard palate on the left side involving the palatal gingiva and palatal mucosa.

  19. Transversally periodic solitary gravity–capillary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, Paul A.; Wang, Zhan

    2014-01-01

    When both gravity and surface tension effects are present, surface solitary water waves are known to exist in both two- and three-dimensional infinitely deep fluids. We describe here solutions bridging these two cases: travelling waves which are localized in the propagation direction and periodic in the transverse direction. These transversally periodic gravity–capillary solitary waves are found to be of either elevation or depression type, tend to plane waves below a critical transverse period and tend to solitary lumps as the transverse period tends to infinity. The waves are found numerically in a Hamiltonian system for water waves simplified by a cubic truncation of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator. This approximation has been proved to be very accurate for both two- and three-dimensional computations of fully localized gravity–capillary solitary waves. The stability properties of these waves are then investigated via the time evolution of perturbed wave profiles. PMID:24399922

  20. Determination of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors by micellar electrokinetic chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircia Eleonora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study we report the development of a simple, rapid and efficient capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous determination of atorvastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin and simvastin.