WorldWideScience

Sample records for electrodeposited inorganic separators

  1. Separation and electrodeposited of 210 Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez R, E.; Iturbe G, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    Presently work it was determined the selective separation of the 210 Po that is in an uraniferous mineral, by means of acid leaching of the mineral and the purification was carried out by means of partition chromatography whose stationary phase is 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (D 2 EHPA), it has been possible to isolate the 210 Po of the rest of the radioactive elements that conform the family 4 N +2 , the optimal elutriation conditions of this element were settled down of manner of not dragging other radioelements. Another of the achievements presented in this communication has been the electrodeposition of this element has more than enough stainless steel discs with a superior yield to 95%. (Author)

  2. Separation of fission products using inorganic exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, T.S.; Balasubramanian, K.R.; Rao, K.L.N.; Venkatachalam, R.; Varma, R.N.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the separation of long lived fission products like caesium-137, strontium-90 using inorganic exchangers ammonium phosphomolybdate and zirconium antimonate. A revised flow sheet is proposed for the sequential separation of these isotopes using the above two compounds. This is a modification of the earlier scheme developed which involved the use of four inorganic exchangers namely ammonium phosphomolybdate, manganese dioxide, zirconium antimonate and polyantimonic acid. The elution of the adsorbed elements like cerium, strontium, and sodium has been studied and it has been possible to elute these using different eluting agents. (author)

  3. Molten salt battery having inorganic paper separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jr., Robert D.

    1977-01-01

    A high temperature secondary battery comprises an anode containing lithium, a cathode containing a chalcogen or chalcogenide, a molten salt electrolyte containing lithium ions, and a separator comprising a porous sheet comprising a homogenous mixture of 2-20 wt.% chrysotile asbestos fibers and the remainder inorganic material non-reactive with the battery components. The non-reactive material is present as fibers, powder, or a fiber-powder mixture.

  4. Functionalized inorganic membranes for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Anthony Yu-Chung [Rexford, NY; Ruud, James Anthony [Delmar, NY; Molaison, Jennifer Lynn [Marietta, GA; Schick, Louis Andrew ,; Ramaswamy, Vidya [Niskayuna, NY

    2008-07-08

    A porous membrane for separation of carbon dioxide from a fluid stream at a temperature higher than about 200.degree. C. with selectivity higher than Knudsen diffusion selectivity. The porous membrane comprises a porous support layer comprising alumina, silica, zirconia or stabilized zirconia; a porous separation layer comprising alumina, silica, zirconia or stabilized zirconia, and a functional layer comprising a ceramic oxide contactable with the fluid stream to preferentially transport carbon dioxide. In particular, the functional layer may be MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, La.sub.2O.sub.3, CeO.sub.2, ATiO.sub.3, AZrO.sub.3, AAl.sub.2O.sub.4, A.sup.1FeO.sub.3, A.sup.1MnO.sub.3, A.sup.1CoO.sub.3, A.sup.1NiO.sub.3, A.sup.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.3CeO.sub.3, Li.sub.2ZrO.sub.3, Li.sub.2SiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2TiO.sub.3 or a mixture thereof; wherein A is Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.1 is La, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.2 is Ca, Sr or Ba; and A.sup.3 is Sr or Ba.

  5. Noble gas separation with the use of inorganic adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, D.T.; Chou, C.C.; Christian, J.D.; Paplawsky, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    A noble gas separation process is proposed for application to airborne nuclear fuel reprocessing plant effluents. The process involves the use of inorganic adsorbents for the removal of contaminant gases and noble gas separation through selective adsorption. Water and carbon dioxide are removed with selected zeolites that do not appreciably adsorb the noble gases. Xenon is essentially quantitatively removed with a specially developed adsorbent using conventional adsorption-desorption techniques. Oxygen is removed to low ppM levels by the use of a rapid cycle adsorption technique on a special adsorbent leaving a krypton-nitrogen mixture. Krypton is separated from nitrogen with a special adsorbent operated at about -80 0 C. Because the separation process does not require high pressures and oxygen is readily removed to sufficiently limit ozone formation to insignificant levels, appreciable capital and operating cost savings with this process are possible compared with other proposed processes. In addition, the proposed process is safer to operate

  6. Electrodeposition of organic-inorganic tri-halide perovskites solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, U. A.; Ibrahim, M. A.; Teridi, M. A. M.

    2018-02-01

    Perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) semiconductor materials are promising high-performance light energy absorber for solar cell application. However, the power conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cell is severely affected by the surface quality of the deposited thin film. Spin coating is a low-cost and widely used deposition technique for perovskite solar cell. Notably, film deposited by spin coating evolves surface hydroxide and defeats from uncontrolled precipitation and inter-diffusion reaction. Alternatively, vapor deposition (VD) method produces uniform thin film but requires precise control of complex thermodynamic parameters which makes the technique unsuitable for large scale production. Most deposition techniques for perovskite require tedious surface optimization to improve the surface quality of deposits. Optimization of perovskite surface is necessary to significantly improve device structure and electrical output. In this review, electrodeposition of perovskite solar cell is demonstrated as a scalable and reproducible technique to fabricate uniform and smooth thin film surface that circumvents the need for high vacuum environment. Electrodeposition is achieved at low temperatures, supports precise control and optimization of deposits for efficient charge transfer.

  7. Separation and electrodeposited of {sup 210} Po; Separacion y electrodeposito de {sup 210} Po

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez R, E.; Iturbe G, J.L

    1991-12-15

    Presently work it was determined the selective separation of the {sup 210} Po that is in an uraniferous mineral, by means of acid leaching of the mineral and the purification was carried out by means of partition chromatography whose stationary phase is 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (D{sub 2}EHPA), it has been possible to isolate the {sup 210} Po of the rest of the radioactive elements that conform the family 4 N{sup +2}, the optimal elutriation conditions of this element were settled down of manner of not dragging other radioelements. Another of the achievements presented in this communication has been the electrodeposition of this element has more than enough stainless steel discs with a superior yield to 95%. (Author)

  8. Comparison of molten chloride and fluoride salts potentialities for An/Ln separation by electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laplace, A.; Peron, F.; Marrot, F.; Lacquement, J. [DRCP/SCPS/LPP - CEA/CEN Valrho - BP 17171 - 30207 Bagnols/Ceze (France)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this paper is the comparison of molten fluoride and chloride salts potentialities for Am/Nd separation by electrodeposition on inert cathode, on a purely thermodynamic point of view. The molten LiF-CaF{sub 2} eutectic (77-23 mol.%, at 780 deg. C) was considered for this study. Cyclic voltammetry showed a one step Am(III)/Am reduction at a potential of {approx_equal}+0.5 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li. A potential difference of 290 mV between Am and Nd metallic deposition was estimated by square-wave voltammetry. This Am/Nd potential difference is more important than in molten chlorides (220 mV in the LiCl-KCl eutectic at 500 deg. C). Moreover in molten fluoride salt, the americium and neodymium (+II) oxidation state is not stable contrary to the molten chloride one where corrosion of deposited Am would be potential. However this larger potential difference in molten fluorides is quite balanced by the higher working temperature. (authors)

  9. Organic-inorganic hybrid membranes in separation processes: a 10-year review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In relation to some inorganic membranes, polymeric membranes have relatively low separation performance. However, the processing flexibility and low cost of polymers still make them highly attractive for many industrial separation applications. Polymer-inorganic hybrid membranes constitute an emerging research field and have been recently developed to improve the separation properties of polymer membranes because they possess properties of both organic and inorganic membranes such as good hydrophilicity, selectivity, permeability, mechanical strength, and thermal and chemical stability. The structures and processing of polymer-inorganic nanocomposite hybrid membranes, as well as their use in the fields of ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, pervaporation, gas separation and separation mechanism are reviewed.

  10. Improved, low cost inorganic-organic separators for rechargeable silver-zinc batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Several flexible, low-cost inorganic-organic separators with performance characteristics and cycle life equal to, or better than, the Lewis Research Center Astropower separator were developed. These new separators can be made on continuous-production equipment at about one-fourth the cost of the Astropower separator produced the same way. In test cells, these new separators demonstrate cycle life improvement, acceptable operating characteristics, and uniform current density. The various separator formulas, test cell construction, and data analysis are described.

  11. Fabrication of a novel superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface by one-step electrodeposition method for continuous oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Meisu; Jiang, Meihuizi; Zhang, Yanzong; Liu, Yan; Shen, Fei; Yang, Gang; He, Yan; Wang, Lilin; Zhang, Xiaohong; Deng, Shihuai

    2018-03-01

    A novel superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface was fabricated by one-step electrodeposition on stainless steel meshes, and the durability and oil/water separation properties were assessed. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and optical contact angle measurements were used to characterize surface morphologies, chemical compositions, and wettabilities, respectively. The results indicated that the as-prepared mesh preformed excellent superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity with a high water contact angle (WCA) of 162 ± 1° and oil contact angle of (OCA) 0°. Meanwhile, the as-prepared mesh also exhibited continuous separation capacity of many kinds of oil/water mixtures, and the separation efficiency for lubrication oil/water mixture was about 98.6%. In addition, after 10 separation cycles, the as-prepared mesh possessed the WCAs of 155 ± 2°, the OCAs of 0° and the separation efficiency of 97.8% for lubrication oil/water mixtures. The as-prepared mesh also retained superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties after abrading, immersing in salt solutions and different pH solutions.

  12. Capillary electrophoretic separation of inorganic and organic arsenic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greschonig, H. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Karl Franzens University Graz (Austria); Schmid, M.G.; Guebitz, G. [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Karl Franzens University Graz (Austria)

    1998-09-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis was used to separate arsenite, arsenate, dimethylarsinic and diphenylarsinic acid, methanearsonic acid, phenyl- and p-aminophenyl arsonic acid, phenylarsineoxide and phenarsazinic acid. Anionic and uncharged species were separated in a fused silica capillary with on-column UV detection at 200 nm. A 15 mM phosphate solution adjusted to pH 6.5 containing 10 mM sodium dodecylsulfonate served as background electrolyte. The influence of pH and applied voltage on separation efficiency, as well as the feasibility of identification of arsenic compounds in spiked urine, were investigated. (orig.) With 7 figs., 1 tab., 22 refs.

  13. Synthesis of a composite inorganic membrane for the separation of nitrogen, tetrafluoromethane and hexafluoropropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertzog Bissett

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Composite inorganic membranes were synthesised for gas component separation of N2, CF4 and C3F6. Selectivities lower than Knudsen selectivities were obtained due to membrane defects. A composite ceramic membrane consisting of a ceramic support structure, a MFI intermediate zeolite layer and a Teflon top layer, was developed to improve separation.

  14. Magneto-paper electrophoresis in the separation of inorganic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, H.G.; Datta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    A comparative study of the separation of lanthanide ions by paper electrophoresis and magneto-paper electrophoresis is reported. The separation of La(III)-Gd(III), La(III)-Dy(III), Lu(III)-Gd(III), Lu(III)-Ho(III) etc. was achieved by magneto paper electrophoresis using 0.1M KCl as carrier electrolyte. Separation of different oxidation states of the same element like Cu(I)-Cu(II), Ce(III)-Ce(IV), Mn(CN) 6 3 - -Mn(CN) 6 4 - , Co(C 2 O 4 ) 2 2 - -Co(C 2 O 4 ) 3 3 - , V(CN) 6 3 - -VO(CN) 5 3 - , W(CN) 8 4 - -W(CN) 8 3 - and Ru(CN) 6 3 - Ru(CN) 6 4 - was also achieved by magneto paper electrophoretic technique using different carrier electrolytes. (Author)

  15. Inorganic membranes for separative techniques: from uranium isotope separation to non-nuclear fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpin, J.; Rigny, P.

    1989-01-01

    Uranium enrichment leads to the development of inorganic porous barriers - either ceramic or metallic. A wide range of these products had considerable potential for the improvement of filtration techniques in liquid media (ultrafiltration and microfiltration). This is how a new generation of inorganic membranes was created reputed for their performance and especially for their lifetime and their behaviour (mechanical and temperature stability, corrosion resistance). These membranes now have a respectable position in applications in the agro-food biotechnology industries, to give only two examples. Before the non-nuclear applications of inorganic membranes are presented, their success in the nuclear power industry are pointed out

  16. Fabrication and test of inorganic/organic separators. [for silver zinc batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smatko, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    Completion of testing and failure analysis of MDC 40 Ahr silver zinc cells containing largely inorganic separators was accomplished. The results showed that the wet stand and cycle life objectives of the silver zinc cell development program were accomplished. Building, testing and failure analysis of two plate cells employing three optimum separators selected on the basis of extensive screening tests, was performed. The best separator material as a result of these tests was doped calcium zirconate.

  17. Supported liquid inorganic membranes for nuclear waste separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhave, Ramesh R; DeBusk, Melanie M; DelCul, Guillermo D; Delmau, Laetitia H; Narula, Chaitanya K

    2015-04-07

    A system and method for the extraction of americium from radioactive waste solutions. The method includes the transfer of highly oxidized americium from an acidic aqueous feed solution through an immobilized liquid membrane to an organic receiving solvent, for example tributyl phosphate. The immobilized liquid membrane includes porous support and separating layers loaded with tributyl phosphate. The extracted solution is subsequently stripped of americium and recycled at the immobilized liquid membrane as neat tributyl phosphate for the continuous extraction of americium. The sequestered americium can be used as a nuclear fuel, a nuclear fuel component or a radiation source, and the remaining constituent elements in the aqueous feed solution can be stored in glassified waste forms substantially free of americium.

  18. Development of thin film inorganic membranes for oxygen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hyo Jeong

    2012-08-22

    Membrane-based gas separation systems are noteworthy among technological options for carbon capture and storage (CCS), which is an important strategy to reduce CO{sub 2} emitted from point sources, e.g. mainly fossil power plants. In Oxyfuel-Combustion and Pre-Combustion of CCS power plant concepts oxygen separation from air is required. To meet this requirement oxygen transport membranes (OTM) consisting of gastight mixed ionic electronic conductors (MIEC) are proposed, which are associated with significantly lower efficiency losses compared with conventional air separation technologies. For cost effective application a maximum oxygen flux has to be achieved to reduce the membrane area. This can be met by reduction of membrane thickness. Therefore, the reduction of the membrane thickness to the micrometer range or even below is aimed in the present thesis. Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-{delta}} (CGO) with fluorite crystal structure and La{sub 0.58}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCF) with perovskite crystal structure were developed as thin film membrane. CGO is expected to be more stable than other potential MIEC membranes in reducing atmospheres and to achieve sufficient oxygen permeation, e.g. in syngas production or petrol chemistry. LSCF is expected to be highly permeable with an acceptable chemical stability in Oxyfuel-combustion. Various porous ceramic substrates were prepared by vacuum-slip-casting and warm-pressing, and then characterized for porosity, gas-permeability and surface roughness. Subsequently, two approaches to fabrication of thin film membranes were investigated, which are wetchemical deposition (WCD) and physical vapor deposition (PVD). For WCD, nano-dispersions and colloidal sols were prepared for membrane top-layer and/or interlayer. When CGO nano-dispersion (NDCGO) was spin-coated as thin film membrane, the gastightness of sintered membranes was increased with decrease in spinning time and increase in concentration of

  19. Investigation of electrostatic ion chromatography for the separation of inorganic ions

    OpenAIRE

    Twohill, Eadaoin

    2002-01-01

    The new technique of ‘electrostatic ion chromatography’ (ion chromatography using a zwittenomc stationary phase) has been applied to the separation of ions using pure water as an eluent, without the addition of any inorganic buffers or organic modifiers. The nature of the separation, le cationic or anionic, is dependent upon the nature of the zwittenomc stationary phase. In the work presented here, the zwittenomc surfactant Zwittergent 3-14 was used to functionalise an octadecylsihca stationa...

  20. Electron beam induced strong organic/inorganic grafting for thermally stable lithium-ion battery separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yunah; Kim, Jin Il; Moon, Jungjin; Jeong, Jongyeob; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2018-06-01

    A tailored interface between organic and inorganic materials is of great importance to maximize the synergistic effects from hybridization. Polyethylene separators over-coated with inorganic thin films are the state-of-the art technology for preparing various secondary batteries with high safety. Unfortunately, the organic/inorganic hybrid separators have the drawback of a non-ideal interface, thus causing poor thermal/dimensional stability. Here, we report a straightforward method to resolve the drawback of the non-ideal interface between vapor deposited SiO2 and polyethylene separators, to produce a highly stable lithium-ion battery separator through strong chemical linking generated by direct electron beam irradiation. The simple treatment with an electron beam with an optimized dose generates thermally stable polymer separators, which may enhance battery safety under high-temperature conditions. Additionally, the newly formed Si-O-C or Si-CH3 chemical bonding enhances electrolyte-separator compatibility and thus may provide a better environment for ionic transport between the cathode and anode, thereby leading to better charge/discharge behaviors.

  1. Liquid-liquid phase separation in particles containing secondary organic material free of inorganic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mijung; Liu, Pengfei; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2017-09-01

    Particles containing secondary organic material (SOM) are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and play a role in climate and air quality. Recently, research has shown that liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) occurs at high relative humidity (RH) (greater than ˜ 95 %) in α-pinene-derived SOM particles free of inorganic salts, while LLPS does not occur in isoprene-derived SOM particles free of inorganic salts. We expand on these findings by investigating LLPS at 290 ± 1 K in SOM particles free of inorganic salts produced from ozonolysis of β-caryophyllene, ozonolysis of limonene, and photo-oxidation of toluene. LLPS was observed at greater than ˜ 95 % RH in the biogenic SOM particles derived from β-caryophyllene and limonene while LLPS was not observed in the anthropogenic SOM particles derived from toluene. This work combined with the earlier work on LLPS in SOM particles free of inorganic salts suggests that the occurrence of LLPS in SOM particles free of inorganic salts is related to the oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O : C) of the organic material. These results help explain the difference between the hygroscopic parameter κ of SOM particles measured above and below water saturation in the laboratory and field, and have implications for predicting the cloud condensation nucleation properties of SOM particles.

  2. Liquid–liquid phase separation in particles containing secondary organic material free of inorganic salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Song

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Particles containing secondary organic material (SOM are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and play a role in climate and air quality. Recently, research has shown that liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS occurs at high relative humidity (RH (greater than  ∼  95 % in α-pinene-derived SOM particles free of inorganic salts, while LLPS does not occur in isoprene-derived SOM particles free of inorganic salts. We expand on these findings by investigating LLPS at 290 ± 1 K in SOM particles free of inorganic salts produced from ozonolysis of β-caryophyllene, ozonolysis of limonene, and photo-oxidation of toluene. LLPS was observed at greater than  ∼  95 % RH in the biogenic SOM particles derived from β-caryophyllene and limonene while LLPS was not observed in the anthropogenic SOM particles derived from toluene. This work combined with the earlier work on LLPS in SOM particles free of inorganic salts suggests that the occurrence of LLPS in SOM particles free of inorganic salts is related to the oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O : C of the organic material. These results help explain the difference between the hygroscopic parameter κ of SOM particles measured above and below water saturation in the laboratory and field, and have implications for predicting the cloud condensation nucleation properties of SOM particles.

  3. Separation of methyltin species from inorganic tin, and their interactions with humates in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, M.; Bowen, H.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Tin(II) and tin(IV) are absorbed from aqueous solutions by Sephadex G-25 gel, from which they can be eluted by humates or fulvates, with which they interact more strongly. Methyltin species are not absorbed by Sephadex G-25, and so can be separated from inorganic tin. Both inorganic tin and methyltin species in natural waters at pH 7.4 can be quantitatively retained by passing through small columns of Chelex-100 resin: the methyltin species can then be washed off the resin with 4M nitric acid. Trimethyltin chloride 113 Sn in water scarcely interacts with fulvates, humates, kaolinite or montmorillonite but is absorbed by Sphagnum peat. Dimethyltin dichloride- 113 Sn reacts significantly with all the above materials after 2 hours equilibration. Methyltin trichloride- 113 Sn interacts weakly in alkaline solutions. (author)

  4. The selective separation of Cs and Sr ion on the inorganic ion-exchanger zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hun Hwee; Min, Byeog Heon [Hoseo University, Taegu (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    This study shows the selective separation of Cs and Sr ion on the inorganic ion-exchanger zeolites such as clinoptilolite, Y-type CBV760, CBV780 and A-type 3A. The selective separation of Cs and Sr on these zeolites was examined using batch and continuous column experiments. For the selective separation of Cs and Sr from a synthetic wastewater, adsorption rate of Cs increased in the order, clinoptilolite> 3A>> CBV760> CBV780, adsorption rate of Sr increased in the other, 3A>> clinoptilolite> CBV760> CBV780. For the clinoptilolite, the adsorption rate of Cs reached about 96 {approx} 98% within 3h. The adsorption rate of Sr on 3A reached about 99% within 3h. (author). 40 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Selective separation of radionuclides from nuclear waste solutions with inorganic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, J.; Harjula, R.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear industry produces and stores large volumes of radioactive waste solutions. Removal of radionuclides from the solutions is an important and challenging task for two main reasons: reductions in the volumes of solidified waste, which have to be disposed of, and reductions in the radioactive discharges into the environment. Since the radioactive elements in most waste solutions are in trace concentrations and the waste solutions contain large excesses of inactive metal ions, highly selective separation methods are needed for the removal of radionuclides. A number of inorganic ion exchange materials are very selective to key radionuclides and they can play an important role in solving these problems. The spectrum of nuclear waste solutions is rather wide considering their radionuclide contents, concentrations of interfering salts and acidity/alkalinity. Therefore, several inorganic ions exchangers are needed for the removal of most harmful radionuclides from a variety of solutions. This paper discusses the use and requirements of inorganic ion exchange materials in nuclear waste management. Special attention is paid to the novel ion exchange materials developed in the Laboratory of Radiochemistry, University of Helsinki. (orig.)

  6. Separation of In (III)and Cd(II) Using Zirconium Vanadate As Inorganic Ion Exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massoud, A.; Abou El Nour, F.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, zirconium vanadate as inorganic ion exchanger was chemically synthesized using homogeneous precipitation technique. The obtained zirconium vanadate was mixed with Indium ions to determine its capacity in aqueous solution using batch experiment. Ion exchange capacity of various metal ions was investigated. Effects of ph, initial concentration, weight of the sorbent and contact time on the adsorption of metals were studied. Chromatographic column methods were applied for separation of indium and cadmium. A fixed bed column of zirconium vanadate was successfully used for separation of indium and cadmium. The recovery percentage of both metal ions was about 98.4% using 2 M HCl and citrate buffer ph 3.5, respectively.

  7. Influence of Active Layer on Separation Potentials of Nanofiltration Membranes for Inorganic Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadekar, Shardul S; Vidic, Radisav D

    2017-05-16

    Active layers of two fully aromatic and two semi-aromatic nanofiltration membranes were studied along with surface charge at different electrolyte composition and effective pore size to elucidate their influence on separation mechanisms for inorganic ions by steric, charge, and dielectric exclusion. The membrane potential method used for pore size measurement is underlined as the most appropriate measurement technique for this application owing to its dependence on the diffusional potentials of inorganic ions. Crossflow rejection experiments with dilute feed composition indicate that both fully aromatic membranes achieved similar rejection despite the differences in surface charge, which suggests that rejection by these membranes is exclusively dependent on size exclusion and the contribution of charge exclusion is weak. Rejection experiments with higher ionic strength and different composition of the feed solution confirmed this hypothesis. On the other hand, increase in the ionic strength of feed solution when the charge exclusion effects are negligible due to charge screening strongly influenced ion rejection by semi-aromatic membranes. The experimental results confirmed that charge exclusion contributes significantly to the performance of semi-aromatic membranes in addition to size exclusion. The contribution of dielectric exclusion to overall ion rejection would be more significant for fully aromatic membranes.

  8. Radionuclide separations in the nuclear fuel cycle development and application of micro and meso porous inorganic ion-exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, C.S.; Luca, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: From the mining of uranium-containing ores to the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, separations technologies play a crucial role in determining the efficiency and viability of the nuclear fuel cycle. With respect to proposed Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles (ANFC), the integral role of separations is no different with solvent extraction and pyroelectrometalurgical processing dominating efforts to develop a sustainable and publicly acceptable roadmap for nuclear power in the next 100 years. An often forgotten or overlooked separation technology is ion-exchange, more specifically, inorganic ion-exchangers. This is despite the fact that these materials offer the potential advantages of process simplicity; exceptional selectivity against high background concentrations of competing ions; and the possibility of a simple immobilization route for the separated radionculides. ANSTO's principal interest in inorganic ion-exchange materials in recent years has been the development of an inorganic ion-exchanger for the pretreatment of acidic legacy 9 Mo production waste to simultaneously remove radiogenic cesium and strontium. Radiogenic cesium and strontium comprise the majority of activity in such waste and may offer increased ease in the downstream processing to immobilise this waste in a Synroc wasteform. With the reliance on separations technologies in all current ANFC concepts, and the recent admission of ANSTO to the European Commissions EUROPART project, the development of new inorganic ion-exchangers has also expanded within our group. This presentation will provide a background of the fundamentals of inorganic and composite inorganic-organic ion-exchange materials followed by specific discussion of some selected inorganic and composite ion-exchange materials being developed and studied at ANSTO. The detailed structural and ion-exchange chemistry of these materials will be discussed and note made of how such materials could benefit any of the

  9. Synthesis and characterization of microporous inorganic membranes for propylene/propane separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoli

    Membrane-based gas separation is promising for efficient propylene/propane (C3H6/C3H8) separation with low energy consumption and minimum environment impact. Two microporous inorganic membrane candidates, MFI-type zeolite membrane and carbon molecular sieve membrane (CMS) have demonstrated excellent thermal and chemical stability. Application of these membranes into C3H6/C3H 8 separation has not been well investigated. This dissertation presents fundamental studies on membrane synthesis, characterization and C3H 6/C3H8 separation properties of MFI zeolite membrane and CMS membrane. MFI zeolite membranes were synthesized on α-alumina supports by secondary growth method. Novel positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) techniques were used to non-destructively characterize the pore structure of these membranes. PAS reveals a bimodal pore structure consisting of intracrystalline zeolitic micropores of ~0.6 nm in diameter and irregular intercrystalline micropores of 1.4 to 1.8 nm in size for the membranes. The template-free synthesized membrane exhibited a high permeance but a low selectivity in C3H 6/C3H8 mixture separation. CMS membranes were synthesized by coating/pyrolysis method on mesoporous gamma-alumina support. Such supports allow coating of thin, high-quality polymer films and subsequent CMS membranes with no infiltration into support pores. The CMS membranes show strong molecular sieving effect, offering a high C3H 6/C3H8 mixture selectivity of ~30. Reduction in membrane thickness from 500 nm to 300 nm causes an increase in C3H8 permeance and He/N2 selectivity, but a decrease in the permeance of He, N 2 and C3H6 and C3H6/C 3H8 selectivity. This can be explained by the thickness dependent chain mobility of the polymer film resulting in final carbon membrane of reduced pore size with different effects on transport of gas of different sizes, including possible closure of C3H6-accessible micropores. CMS membranes demonstrate excellent C3H6/C 3H8 separation

  10. Flexible single-layer ionic organic-inorganic frameworks towards precise nano-size separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Liang; Wang, Shan; Zhou, Ding; Zhang, Hao; Li, Bao; Wu, Lixin

    2016-02-01

    Consecutive two-dimensional frameworks comprised of molecular or cluster building blocks in large area represent ideal candidates for membranes sieving molecules and nano-objects, but challenges still remain in methodology and practical preparation. Here we exploit a new strategy to build soft single-layer ionic organic-inorganic frameworks via electrostatic interaction without preferential binding direction in water. Upon consideration of steric effect and additional interaction, polyanionic clusters as connection nodes and cationic pseudorotaxanes acting as bridging monomers connect with each other to form a single-layer ionic self-assembled framework with 1.4 nm layer thickness. Such soft supramolecular polymer frameworks possess uniform and adjustable ortho-tetragonal nanoporous structure in pore size of 3.4-4.1 nm and exhibit greatly convenient solution processability. The stable membranes maintaining uniform porous structure demonstrate precisely size-selective separation of semiconductor quantum dots within 0.1 nm of accuracy and may hold promise for practical applications in selective transport, molecular separation and dialysis systems.

  11. Inorganic oxides as alternative in the separation of non fissioned residual uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca G, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Al 2 O 3 , SiO 2 and SnO 2 as well as vegetable carbon have been studied for its possible use as sorbent in the concentration and separation of non fissioned residual uranium of some fission products such as: 141 Ce, 134 Cs, 125 Sb, 103 Ru, 95 Zr, 95 Nb of alkaline aqueous systems. The separation efficiency has been evaluated using natural uranium and radionuclides in static and dynamic processes, through liquid scintillation and gamma spectrometry. Therefore Al 2 O 3 , SiO 2 , SnO 2 and carbon were pre-treated thermic and chemically and characterized through the technique of Nitrogen absorption analysis, X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. By means of the p H determination and the aqueous system potential the present hydrolysis products were determined. The inorganic oxides show structural and surface changes due to the treatment. The adsorption process is realized by different mechanism depending of the sorbent. The results show that the retention capacity is a dependence of the oxides pre-treatment and of the hydrolysis products in the aqueous system, as well as of the experimental conditions. Not in this way for carbon in which the results show the treatment and the experimental conditions significantly have not influence in its adsorption capacity. (Author)

  12. Semitransparent ZnO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) based hybrid inorganic/organic heterojunction thin film diodes prepared by combined radio-frequency magnetron-sputtering and electrodeposition techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Moreno, Jorge; Navarrete-Astorga, Elena; Martin, Francisco [Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al CSIC), Departamentos de Fisica Aplicada and Ing. Quimica, Universidad de Malaga, E29071 Malaga (Spain); Schrebler, Ricardo [Instituto de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Ramos-Barrado, Jose R. [Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al CSIC), Departamentos de Fisica Aplicada and Ing. Quimica, Universidad de Malaga, E29071 Malaga (Spain); Dalchiele, Enrique A., E-mail: dalchiel@fing.edu.uy [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Herrera y Reissig 565, C.C. 30, 11000 Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2012-12-15

    n-ZnO/p-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) semitransparent inorganic-organic hybrid vertical heterojunction thin film diodes have been fabricated with PEDOT and ZnO thin films grown by electrodeposition and radio-frequency magnetron-sputtering respectively, onto a tin doped indium oxide coated glass substrate. The diode exhibited an optical transmission of {approx} 40% to {approx} 50% in the visible region between 450 and 700 nm. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the heterojunction show good rectifying diode characteristics, with a ratio of forward current to the reverse current as high as 35 in the range - 4 V to + 4 V. The I-V characteristic was examined in the framework of the thermionic emission model. The ideality factor and barrier height were obtained as 4.0 and 0.88 eV respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semitransparent inorganic-organic heterojunction thin film diodes investigated Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer n-ZnO/p-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythipohene) used for the heterojunction Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diodes exhibited an optical transmission of {approx} 40%-{approx} 50% in the visible region Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heterojunction current-voltage features show good rectifying diode characteristics Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A forward to reverse current ratio as high as 35 (- 4 V to + 4 V range) was attained.

  13. Synthesis of a composite inorganic membrane for the separation of nitrogen, tetrafluoromethane and hexafluoropropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertzog Bissett

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The advanced use of inorganic membranes, such as zeolites, in large-scale industrial processes is hindered by the inability to manufacture continuous and defect-free membranes. We therefore aimed to construct such a defect-free membrane. Various zeolites were synthesised on the inner surface of ?-alumina support tubes by a hydrothermal process. Gas permeation properties were investigated at 298 K for single component systems of N2, CF4 and C3F6. Ideal selectivities lower than Knudsen selectivities were obtained as a result of defects from intercrystalline slits and crack formation during synthesis and template removal. A composite ceramic membrane consisting of a ceramic support structure, a mordenite framework inverted intermediate zeolite layer and a Teflon AF 2400 top layer was developed to improve separation. The Teflon layer sealed possible defects present in the separation layer forcing the gas molecules to follow the path through the zeolite pores. Ideal selectivities of 88 and 71 were obtained for N2/CF4 and N2/C3F6 respectively. Adsorption experiments performed on materials present in the membrane structure suggested that although adsorption of C3F6 onto Teflon AF 2400 compared to CF4 results in a considerable contribution to permeation for the composite ceramic membrane, the sealing effect of the zeolite layer by the Teflon layer is the reason for the large N2/CF4 and N2/C3F6 selectivities obtained. The Teflon layer effectively sealed intercrystalline areas in-between zeolite crystals, which resulted in high ideal selectivies for N2/CF4 and N2/C3F6.

  14. Development and testing of inorganic sorbents made by the internal gelation process for radionuclide and heavy metal separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, B.Z.; Collins, J.L.; Anderson, K.K.; Chase, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this task are to develop, prepare, and test microspheres and granular forms of inorganic ion exchangers to remove radionuclides and heavy metals from waste streams occurring at various sites. Several inorganic materials, such as hexacyanoferrates, titanates, phosphates, and oxides have high selectivities and efficiencies for separating and removing radionuclides such as uranium, technetium, cesium, and strontium, and metals such as cobalt, silver, zinc, and zirconium from aqueous waste streams. However, these sorbents frequently exist only as powders and consequently are not readily adaptable to continuous processing such as column chromatography. Making these inorganic ion exchangers as microspheres or granular forms improves the flow dynamics for column operations and expands their practical applications. Microspheres of several materials have been prepared at ORNL, and the effectiveness of zirconium monohydrogen phosphate and hydrous titanium oxide microspheres for removing radionuclides from hot cell waste solutions has been demonstrated

  15. use of weak ion association in the separation of inorganic anions by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    quality/safety control of water, foods and pharmaceuticals. This is because inorganic ... surfactants [7]; complex formation [8, 9]; addition of organic solvents or their binary aqueous mixtures to .... of the I- - NO2. - pair resolution (Figure 3d).

  16. High-capacity, selective solid sequestrants for innovative chemical separation: Inorganic ion exchange approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.

    1995-01-01

    The approach of this task is to develop high-capacity, selective solid inorganic ion exchangers for the recovery of cesium and strontium from nuclear alkaline and acid wastes. To achieve this goal, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) is collaborating with industry and university participants to develop high capacity, selective, solid ion exchangers for the removal of specific contaminants from nuclear waste streams

  17. Separation of radionuclides from gas by sorption on activated charcoal and inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepak, F.

    1988-01-01

    The review deals with the sorption and ion exchange of gaseous radionuclides on activated charcoal and on inorganic sorbents. It presents the physical and chemical characteristics of radionuclides, the sources of gaseous forms of radionuclides as well as the composition of radioactive gases from some nuclear facilities. 79 refs. (author)

  18. Niobium electrodeposition from molten fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    Niobium electrodeposition from molten alkali fluorides has been studied aiming the application of this technic to the processes of electrorefining and galvanotechnic of this metal. The effects of current density, temperature, niobium concentration in the bath, electrolysis time, substrate nature, ratio between anodic and cathodic areas, electrodes separation and the purity of anodes were investigated in relation to the cathodic current efficiency, electrorefining, electroplating and properties of the deposit and the electrolytic solution. The work also gives the results of the conctruction and operation of a pilot plant for refractory metals electrodeposition and shows the electrorefining and electroplating compared to those obtained at the laboratory scale. (author) [pt

  19. Separation of cadmium and lead from wastewater using supported liquid membrane integrated with in-situ electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatluri, Kamal Kumar; Manna, Mriganka Sekhar; Ghoshal, Aloke Kumar; Saha, Prabirkumar

    2017-01-01

    A novel process for separation of heavy metals from liquid wastes and/or industrial effluents has been developed as described in this paper wherein the technique of supported liquid membrane based extraction and stripping of heavy metals has been augmented with electroplating inside the stripping chamber of SLM. Wastewater, infested with cadmium and lead, has been subject of research in this work. The said process is employed in transporting the heavy metals from the polluted source phase (wastewater) to the sink (or strip) phase while simultaneously depositing the heavy metals in-situ on the electrode placed inside the strip phase, and thereby the strip phase is remained ever-unsaturated. This arrangement yields high gradient of chemical potential across the liquid membrane and thereby facilitates enhanced and faster recovery of said heavy metals and also yields value added component, viz. electroplated items, for suitable end use.

  20. Noble gas separation from nuclear reactor effluents using selective adsorption with inorganic adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, D.T.; Paplawsky, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    A radioactive waste gas treatment system utilizing selective adsorption on inorganic adsorbents is described for application to PWRs. The system operates at near ambient pressure, does not require a hydrogen recombiner, has low radioactive gas inventories, and is cost competitive with existing treatment systems. The proposed technique is also applicable for recovery of noble gases from the containment building of a nuclear reactor after an accident. A system design for this application is also presented

  1. Influence of an Inorganic Interlayer on Exciton Separation in Hybrid Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that in hybrid polymer–inorganic photovoltaic devices not all the photogenerated excitons dissociate at the interface immediately, but can instead exist temporarily as bound charge pairs (BCPs). Many of these BCPs do not contribute to the photocurrent, as their long lifetime as a bound species promotes various charge carrier recombination channels. Fast and efficient dissociation of BCPs is therefore considered a key challenge in improving the performance of polymer–inorganic cells. Here we investigate the influence of an inorganic energy cascading Nb2O5 interlayer on the charge carrier recombination channels in poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT)–TiO2 and PbSe colloidal quantum dot–TiO2 photovoltaic devices. We demonstrate that the additional Nb2O5 film leads to a suppression of BCP formation at the heterojunction of the P3HT cells and also a reduction in the nongeminate recombination mechanisms in both types of cells. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the reduction in nongeminate recombination in the P3HT–TiO2 devices is due in part to the passivation of deep midgap trap states in the TiO2, which prevents trap-assisted Shockley–Read–Hall recombination. Consequently a significant increase in both the open-circuit voltage and the short-circuit current was achieved, in particular for P3HT-based solar cells, where the power conversion efficiency increased by 39%. PMID:26548399

  2. Origins and Evolution of Inorganic-Based and MOF-Based Mixed-Matrix Membranes for Gas Separations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson V. Perez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gas separation for industrial, energy, and environmental applications requires low energy consumption and small footprint technology to minimize operating and capital costs for the processing of large volumes of gases. Among the separation methods currently being used, like distillation, amine scrubbing, and pressure and temperature swing adsorption, membrane-based gas separation has the potential to meet these demands. The key component, the membrane, must then be engineered to allow for high gas flux, high selectivity, and chemical and mechanical stability at the operating conditions of feed composition, pressure, and temperature. Among the new type of membranes studied that show promising results are the inorganic-based and the metal-organic framework-based mixed-matrix membranes (MOF-MMMs. A MOF is a unique material that offers the possibility of tuning the porosity of a membrane by introducing diffusional channels and forming a compatible interface with the polymer. This review details the origins of these membranes and their evolution since the first inorganic/polymer and MOF/polymer MMMs were reported in the open literature. The most significant advancements made in terms of materials, properties, and testing conditions are described in a chronological fashion.

  3. A novel approach to Ca-Sr separation in the determination of 90Sr using inorganic exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stella, R.; Pavia Univ.; Valentini, M.T.G.; Maggi, L.

    1992-01-01

    A procedure for 90 Sr determination in calcium rich samples is presented. It is based on the precipitation of calcium oxalate in homogeneous solution and under controlled conditions to minimize the comprecipitation of strontium. The latter is subsequently separated as carbonate and radiochemical purification is completed by ion exchange chromatography on two inorganic exchangers: PRTD (partially reduced tin dioxide) and CUCR (copper chromate). The procedure was applied to environmental samples such as ashed sediment, fish and vegetable and results are reported. (author) 15 refs.; 2 tabs

  4. Aggregation and phase separation behavior of an amphiphilic drug promazine hydrochloride under the influence of inorganic salts and ureas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rub, Malik Abdul, E-mail: malikrub@gmail.com [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Asiri, Abdullah M.; Azum, Naved; Khan, Anish; Khan, Aftab Aslam Parwaz; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Rahman, Mohammed M. [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Kabir-ud-Din [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India)

    2013-12-20

    Highlights: • Aggregation and clouding behavior of PMZ-additive (salts/ureas) mixtures have been investigated. • Both urea and thiourea, at low concentrations, decrease the cmc but, at high concentrations, increase it. • However, ΔH{sub m}° for pure drug/drug–additive systems is negative at low temperature and positive at higher temperature. • The ΔS{sub m}° values are positive, their magnitude being more at T = 303.15 K and above. - Abstract: Self-association and phase separation phenomena of an amphiphilic phenothiazine drug promazine hydrochloride (PMZ) in the absence and presence of inorganic salts (NaF, NaCl and NaBr) and ureas (urea and thiourea) have been investigated in the present study. By the increase in temperature the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of drug PMZ first increases then decreases. Maximum cmc values were obtained at 303.15 K in presence or absence of additives (salts/ureas). Decrease in cmc occurs by the addition of the inorganic salts which is explained on the basis of nature and ion size. Ureas (urea and thiourea) decreased the cmc at low concentration; however, at higher concentrations, increase in cmc was observed with both the additives. Increasing inorganic salt concentrations caused an increase in the cloud point (CP) of PMZ, whereas urea decreased the CP. Significant thermodynamic parameters were also evaluated and discussed.

  5. Aggregation and phase separation behavior of an amphiphilic drug promazine hydrochloride under the influence of inorganic salts and ureas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rub, Malik Abdul; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Azum, Naved; Khan, Anish; Khan, Aftab Aslam Parwaz; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Rahman, Mohammed M.; Kabir-ud-Din

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Aggregation and clouding behavior of PMZ-additive (salts/ureas) mixtures have been investigated. • Both urea and thiourea, at low concentrations, decrease the cmc but, at high concentrations, increase it. • However, ΔH m ° for pure drug/drug–additive systems is negative at low temperature and positive at higher temperature. • The ΔS m ° values are positive, their magnitude being more at T = 303.15 K and above. - Abstract: Self-association and phase separation phenomena of an amphiphilic phenothiazine drug promazine hydrochloride (PMZ) in the absence and presence of inorganic salts (NaF, NaCl and NaBr) and ureas (urea and thiourea) have been investigated in the present study. By the increase in temperature the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of drug PMZ first increases then decreases. Maximum cmc values were obtained at 303.15 K in presence or absence of additives (salts/ureas). Decrease in cmc occurs by the addition of the inorganic salts which is explained on the basis of nature and ion size. Ureas (urea and thiourea) decreased the cmc at low concentration; however, at higher concentrations, increase in cmc was observed with both the additives. Increasing inorganic salt concentrations caused an increase in the cloud point (CP) of PMZ, whereas urea decreased the CP. Significant thermodynamic parameters were also evaluated and discussed

  6. Electro-Deposition Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The electro-deposition laboratory can electro-deposit various coatings onto small test samples and bench level prototypes. This facility provides the foundation for...

  7. Separation and immobilization of Sr and Cs contained in acidic media by using inorganic ion-exchangers. Literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagishi, Isao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-07-01

    The present study deals with the survey of inorganic ion-exchangers suitable for separation and immobilization of Sr and Cs contained in acidic high-level liquid waste. The stabilities of published waste forms and their preparation processes were evaluated from the standpoint of conversion of exchangers containing Sr and Cs into appropriate waste forms. The essential results are below. (1) For separation and immobilization of Cs, crystalline silicotitanate seems to be the most promising exchanger. Insoluble ferrocyanides and phosphates are not suitable for immobilization without additives. Mordenite is inexpensive and commercially available but it would dissolve in highly acidic media. (2) For selective separation of Sr, there is no promising exchanger up to now. It is necessary either to modify separation condition or to synthesize a novel exchanger. (3) Soluble salts, glasses and ceramics are proposed as a storage or disposal form of separated Sr and Cs. Ceramics sintered by hot-pressing are favorable waste forms of inorganic ion-exchangers but their leachabilities and thermal conductivities are largely influenced by qualities of products. Crystallinity of a sintered exchanger depends on its composition. Exchanges of low Cs contents are often converted into amorphous materials whose chemical stabilities depend on solubilities of components of exchangers. (4) A new exchanger to be synthesized is crystalline and selective toward Sr and Cs. One meq/g is enough for Sr and Cs capacities, which are restricted by thermal and transmutation effects. Composition of the exchanger should be selected from the point of a scenario of separation and disposal. The solubilities of SiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} are low in acidic media and those of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}, in disposal circumstances. (5) Future works are optimization of separation scheme including development of exchangers, simplification of

  8. Inorganic gas chromatography - the separation of volatile chlorides by thermochromatography combined with complex formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsalas, S.; Baechmann, K.

    1978-01-01

    Separations of the volatile chlorides of I, Te, Sb, Sn, In, Cd, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Mo, Tc, Re, Ru and Os are described. The tube used for the separations has a temperature gradient from 600 0 C to 25 0 C, and is coated with KCl, CsCl, NaCl and BaCl 2 . It is possible to deposit the different compounds at characteristic positions, so that this technique can be used as an on-line chromatographic method. Fission products of uranium-235 were examined. The distribution of the different nuclides was measured with gamma spectrometry. (Auth.)

  9. Pervaporation Separation of Water-Ethanol Mixtures Using Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposite Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preyssler type heteropolyacid viz., H14[NaP5W30O110] incorporated chitosan nanocomposite membranes (NCMs) were prepared by solution casting, characterized using a variety of techniques and employed in the pervaporation separation of water-ethanol mixtures as a function of feed wa...

  10. Separation of Selenite from Inorganic Selenium Ions using TiO{sub 2} Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongmin; Lim, H. B. [Donkook Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    A simple and quick separation technique for selenite in natural water was developed using TiO{sub 2} SiO{sub 2}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. For the synthesis of nanoparticles, a polymer-assisted sol-gel method using hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) was developed to control particle dispersion in the synthetic procedure. In addition, titanium butoxide (TBT) precursor, instead of the typical titanium tetra isopropoxide, was used for the formation of the TiO{sub 2} shell. The synthesized nanoparticles were used to separate selenite (Se{sup 4+}) in the presence of Se{sup 6+} or selenium anions for the photocatalytic reduction to Se{sup 0} atom on the TiO{sub 2} shell, followed by magnetic separation using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The reduction efficiency of the photocatalytic reaction was 81.4% at a UV power of 6W for 3 h with a dark adsorption of 17.5% to the nanoparticles, as determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The developed separation method can be used for the speciation and preconcentration of selenium cations in environmental and biological analysis.

  11. Separation of organic and inorganic arsenic species by HPLC-ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Londesborough, S. [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry (Finland); Mattusch, J.; Wennrich, R. [UFZ-Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Leipzig (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    The HPLC separation of eight anionic, cationic or neutral arsenic species (arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenobetaine, arsenocholine, trimethylarsine oxide and tetramethylarsonium ion) on a high-capacity, anion-exchange column (Ion Pac AS 7, Dionex) was studied. The separation was performed during one run with a nitric acid gradient ranging from pH 4-1.3. The influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium octyl sulfate (SOS) and 1,2-benzenedisulfonic acid (BDSA) as ion pairing eluent modifiers was investigated. In addition the effect of elevated temperatures (30 to 40 C) was studied. The best results were obtained at room temperature of 20 C with 0.05 mM benzenedisulfonic acid as the eluent modifier. The chromatograph was connected to an ICP-MS via a cross-flow nebulizer. Detection limits obtained with the optimized chromatographic separation were 0.16-0.60 {mu}g As L{sup -1} for different species. The proposed speciation method was applied to the determination of arsenic species in the DORM-2 reference material (Dogfish Muscle) and in aqueous extracts of mushrooms collected on arsenic contaminated ground. (orig.) With 7 figs., 4 tabs., 17 refs.

  12. Studies on tin based inorganic ion exchangers for fission products separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, A.; Balasubramanian, K.R.; Murthy, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    Tin(IV) antimonate and hydrous tin(IV) oxide have been prepared and their characteristics are evaluated. A new method has been finalized for the separation of 95 Zr- 95 Nb from irradiated uranium using hydrous tin(IV) oxide. In this process, the irradiated sample is dissolved in concentrated HNO 3 , evaporated to near dryness and taken up in 0.5 M HNO 3 . The solution is passed over tin(IV) oxide column and the isotope eluted with 10 M HNO 3 . The product is obtained in pure nitrate form which is generally preferred for different applications. A method has been finalized for the separation of 106 Ru from fission product solution using tin(IV) antimonate. In this method fission product solution is adjusted to 2 M with respect to nitric acid, 137 Cs is separated on a column of ammonium phosphomolybdate, the effluent after adjustment of acidity to 0.2 M is then passed over a column of tin(IV) antimonate where the effluent contains pure 106 Ru. (author). 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Electrodeposition route to synthesize cigs films – an economical way ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrodeposition route to synthesize cigs films – an economical way to harness solar energy. ... for solar cells, how the charge separation in this nano scale photovoltaic (PV) materials occurs which help in absorption of radiation, and the electro-deposition route, a low cost one, produces thin film solar cells are analyzed.

  14. A Mechanistic Study of Chemically Modified Inorganic Membranes for Gas and Liquid Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Way, J. Douglas [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2011-01-21

    This final report will summarize the progress made during the period August 1, 1993 - October 31, 2010 with support from DOE grant number DE-FG03-93ER14363. The objectives of the research have been to investigate the transport mechanisms in micro- and mesoporous, metal oxide membranes and to examine the relationship between the microstructure of the membrane, the membrane surface chemistry, and the separation performance of the membrane. Examples of the membrane materials under investigation are the microporous silica hollow fiber membrane manufactured by PPG Industries, chemically modified mesoporous oxide membranes, and polymer membranes containing microporous oxides (mixed matrix membranes). Analytical techniques such as NMR, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and gas adsorption were used to investigate membrane microstructure and to probe the chemical interactions occurring at the gas-membrane interface.

  15. Inorganic-Organic Thiol-ene Coated Mesh for Oil/Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiyi; de Leon, Al; Advincula, Rigoberto C

    2015-08-26

    A highly efficient mesh for oil/water separation was fabricated by using a superhydrophobic and superoleophilic coating of thiol-ene hybrid, consisting of pentaerythritol tetra(3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP), 2,4,6,8-tetramethyl-2,4,6,8-tetravinylcyclotetrasiloxane (TMTVSi), and hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles, via a simple two-step fabrication process. Spray deposition and UV curing photopolymerization were sequentially performed, during which solvent evaporation provides microscale roughness while nanoparticle aggregation forms nanoscale roughness. The hierarchical morphologies were stabilized after UV curing photopolymerization. High contact angle (>150°) and low roll-off angle (<5°) were achieved due to the multiscale roughness structure of the hierarchical morphologies. These coatings also have excellent chemical resistance, as well as temperature and pH stability, after curing.

  16. Electrophoretic separation techniques and their hyphenation to mass spectrometry in biological inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtkamp, Hannah; Grabmann, Gerlinde; Hartinger, Christian G

    2016-04-01

    Electrophoretic methods have been widely applied in research on the roles of metal complexes in biological systems. In particular, CE, often hyphenated to a sensitive MS detector, has provided valuable information on the modes of action of metal-based pharmaceuticals, and more recently new methods have been added to the electrophoretic toolbox. The range of applications continues to expand as a result of enhanced CE-to-MS interfacing, with sensitivity often at picomolar level, and evolved separation modes allowing for innovative sample analysis. This article is a followup to previous reviews about CE methods in metallodrug research (Electrophoresis, 2003, 24, 2023-2037; Electrophoresis, 2007, 28, 3436-3446; Electrophoresis, 2012, 33, 622-634), also providing a comprehensive overview of metal species studied by electrophoretic methods hyphenated to MS. It highlights the latest CE developments, takes a sneak peek into gel electrophoresis, traces biomolecule labeling, and focuses on the importance of early-stage drug development. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. TAILORING INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR SRS STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS: OPTIMIZED MONOSODIUM TITANATE PHASE II FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D; Thomas Peters, T; Michael Poirier, M; Mark Barnes, M; Major Thompson, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-01-01

    3). Performance testing with simulated and actual waste solutions indicated that the material performs as well as or better than batches of modified MST prepared at the laboratory-scale. Particle size data of the vendor-prepared modified MST indicates a broader distribution centered at a larger particle size and microscopy shows more irregular particle morphology compared to the baseline MST and laboratory prepared modified MST. Stirred-cell (i.e., dead-end) filter testing revealed similar filtration rates relative to the baseline MST for both the laboratory and vendor-prepared modified MST materials. Crossflow filtration testing indicated that with MST-only slurries, the baseline MST produced between 30-100% higher flux than the vendor-prepared modified MST at lower solids loadings and comparable flux at higher solids loadings. With sludge-MST slurries, the modified MST produced 1.5-2.2 times higher flux than the baseline MST at all solids loadings. Based on these findings we conclude that the modified MST represents a much improved sorbent for the separation of strontium and actinides from alkaline waste solutions and recommend continued development of the material as a replacement for the baseline MST for waste treatment facilities at the Savannah River Site

  18. High Discharge Rate Electrodeposited Zinc Electrode for Use in Alkaline Microbattery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Nor Hairin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High discharge rate zinc electrode is prepared from electrodeposition process. The electrolytic bath consists of zinc chloride as the metal source and ammonium chloride as the supporting electrolyte. The concentration of the supporting electrolyte is varied from zero until 4 M, while the concentration of zinc chloride is fixed at 2 M. The aim is to produce a porous zinc coating with an enhanced and intimate interfacial area per unit volume. These characteristics shall contribute towards reduced ohmic losses, improved active material utilization, and subsequently producing high rate capacity electrochemical cell. Nitrogen physisorption at 77 K is used to measure the BET surface area and pore volume density of the zinc electrodeposits. The electrodeposited zinc electrodes are then fabricated into alkaline zinc-air microbattery measuring 1 cm2 area x ca. 305 µm thick. The use of inorganic MCM-41 membrane separator enables the fabrication of a compact cell design. The quality of the electrodeposited zinc electrodes is gauged directly from the electrochemical performance of zinc-air cell. Zinc electrodeposits prepared from electrolytic bath of 2 M NH4Cl produces the highest discharge capacity.ABSTRAK: Elektrod zink dengan kadar discas tinggi telah dihasilkan dengan proses saduran elektrokimia. Takungan elektrolit terdiri daripada zink klorida sebagai sumber logam dan ammonium klorida sebagai elektrolit sokongan. Kepekatan elektrolit sokongan diubah daripada sifar hingga 4 M, sementara kepekatan zink klorida ditetapkan pada 2 M. Ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan saduran zink yang poros dengan luas permukaan per unit isipadu dan sentuhan antaramuka yang dipertingkatkan. Ciri-ciri ini akan menyumbang terhadap pengurangan kehilangan disebabkan kerintangan, pertambahan dalam gunapakai bahan aktif dan akhirnya menghasilkan sel elektrokimia berprestasi tinggi. Physisorpsi nitrogen pada 77 K telah digunakan untuk mengukur luas permukaan BET dan isipadu liang

  19. Determination of inorganic arsenic species in natural waters--benefits of separation and preconcentration on ion exchange and hybrid resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Issa, Nureddin; Rajaković-Ognjanović, Vladana N; Jovanović, Branislava M; Rajaković, Ljubinka V

    2010-07-19

    A simple method for the separation and determination of inorganic arsenic (iAs) species in natural and drinking water was developed. Procedures for sample preparation, separation of As(III) and As(V) species and preconcentration of the total iAs on fixed bed columns were defined. Two resins, a strong base anion exchange (SBAE) resin and a hybrid (HY) resin were utilized. The inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry method was applied as the analytical method for the determination of the arsenic concentration in water. The governing factors for the ion exchange/sorption of arsenic on resins in a batch and a fixed bed flow system were analyzed and compared. Acidity of the water, which plays an important role in the control of the ionic or molecular forms of arsenic species, was beneficial for the separation; by adjusting the pH values to less than 8.00, the SBAE resin separated As(V) from As(III) in water by retaining As(V) and allowing As(III) to pass through. The sorption activity of the hydrated iron oxide particles integrated into the HY resin was beneficial for bonding of all iAs species over a wide range of pH values from 5.00 to 11.00. The resin capacities were calculated according to the breakthrough points in a fixed bed flow system. At pH 7.50, the SBAE resin bound more than 370 microg g(-1) of As(V) while the HY resin bound more than 4150 microg g(-1) of As(III) and more than 3500 microg g(-1) of As(V). The high capacities and selectivity of the resins were considered as advantageous for the development and application of two procedures, one for the separation and determination of As(III) (with SBAE) and the other for the preconcentration and determination of the total arsenic (with HY resin). Methods were established through basic analytical procedures (with external standards, certified reference materials and the standard addition method) and by the parallel analysis of some samples using the atomic absorption spectrometry-hydride generation

  20. Electrodeposition of Radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, M.T.; Jimenez, A.S.

    1996-01-01

    A study of different electrodeposition methods of radium for its measurement by alpha-spectrometry is presented. The recommended procedure uses an aqueous solution of ammonium oxalate and nitric acid in the presence of microgram amounts of platinum as electrolyte

  1. Recent Advances in Superhydrophobic Electrodeposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Tam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we present an extensive summary of research on superhydrophobic electrodeposits reported in the literature over the past decade. As a synthesis technique, electrodeposition is a simple and scalable process to produce non-wetting metal surfaces. There are three main categories of superhydrophobic surfaces made by electrodeposition: (i electrodeposits that are inherently non-wetting due to hierarchical roughness generated from the process; (ii electrodeposits with plated surface roughness that are further modified with low surface energy material; (iii composite electrodeposits with co-deposited inert and hydrophobic particles. A recently developed strategy to improve the durability during the application of superhydrophobic electrodeposits by controlling the microstructure of the metal matrix and the co-deposition of hydrophobic ceramic particles will also be addressed.

  2. Stability of Electrodeposition at Solid-Solid Interfaces and Implications for Metal Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zeeshan; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian

    2017-08-01

    We generalize the conditions for stable electrodeposition at isotropic solid-solid interfaces using a kinetic model which incorporates the effects of stresses and surface tension at the interface. We develop a stability diagram that shows two regimes of stability: a previously known pressure-driven mechanism and a new density-driven stability mechanism that is governed by the relative density of metal in the two phases. We show that inorganic solids and solid polymers generally do not lead to stable electrodeposition, and provide design guidelines for achieving stable electrodeposition.

  3. studies on the use of organic and inorganic ion exchangers for separation of indium(III) from cadmium(II) using analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Organic and inorganic ion exchangers have many applications not only in the industrial, environmental and the nuclear fields but also in the separation of metal ions. This may be returned to its high measured capacity, high selectivity for some metal ions, low solubility, high chemical radiation stability and easy to use.Indium and cadmium are produced from cyclotron target where the solvent extraction represents an ordinary method for separation of indium and cadmium from its target. In the present work, More than chromatographic columns were successfully used for the separation and recovery of indium(III) and cadmium(II) ions from di-component system in aqueous solution using organic and inorganic ion exchangers. The work was carried out in three main parts;1- In the first part, the commercial resin (Dowex50w-x8) was used for the separation of indium from cadmium. The effect of pH, the weight of resin, and equilibrium time on the sorption process of both metal ions were determined. It was found that the adsorption percentage was more than 99% at pH 4 (as optimum pH value) using batch experiment. The results show that indium was first extracted while cadmium is slightly extracted at this pH value. The recovery of indium and cadmium is about 98% using hydrochloric acid as best eluent. The ion exchange/complexing properties of Dowex50w-x8 resin containing various substituted groups towards indium and cadmium cations were investigated.2- In the second part, Zn(II)polymethacrylates, and poly (acrylamide-acrylic acid), as synthetic organic ion exchangers were prepared by gamma irradiation polymerization technique of the corresponding monomer at 30 kGy. The obtained organic resins were mixed with indium ions to determine its capacity in aqueous solutions using batch experiment.

  4. Methods development for separation of inorganic anions, organic acids and bases, and neutral organic compounds by ion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jie [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-04-01

    A novel anion-exchange resin containing three amine groups was prepared by reaction of a chloromethylated polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) resin with diethylenetriamine. After being protonated by contact with an aqueous acid, this resin can be used for ion chromatographic separation of anions. The charge on the resins can be varied from +1 to +3 by changing the mobile phase pH. The selectivity of the new ion exchangers for various inorganic anions was quite different from that of conventional anion exchangers. The performance of this new anion exchanger was studied by changing the pH and the concentration of the eluent, and several different eluents were used with some common anions as testing analytes. Conductivity detection and UV-visible detection were applied to detect the anions after separation. The new resin can also be used for HPLC separation of neutral organic compounds. Alkylphenols and alkylbenzenes were separated with this new polymeric resin, and excellent separations were obtained under simple conditions. This report contains Chapter 1: General introduction and Chapter 6: General conclusions.

  5. Semitransparent ZnO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) based hybrid inorganic/organic heterojunction thin film diodes prepared by combined radio-frequency magnetron-sputtering and electrodeposition techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Moreno, Jorge; Navarrete-Astorga, Elena; Martín, Francisco; Schrebler, Ricardo; Ramos-Barrado, José R.; Dalchiele, Enrique A.

    2012-01-01

    n-ZnO/p-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) semitransparent inorganic–organic hybrid vertical heterojunction thin film diodes have been fabricated with PEDOT and ZnO thin films grown by electrodeposition and radio-frequency magnetron-sputtering respectively, onto a tin doped indium oxide coated glass substrate. The diode exhibited an optical transmission of ∼ 40% to ∼ 50% in the visible region between 450 and 700 nm. The current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of the heterojunction show good rectifying diode characteristics, with a ratio of forward current to the reverse current as high as 35 in the range − 4 V to + 4 V. The I–V characteristic was examined in the framework of the thermionic emission model. The ideality factor and barrier height were obtained as 4.0 and 0.88 eV respectively. - Highlights: ► Semitransparent inorganic–organic heterojunction thin film diodes investigated ► n-ZnO/p-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythipohene) used for the heterojunction ► Diodes exhibited an optical transmission of ∼ 40%–∼ 50% in the visible region ► Heterojunction current–voltage features show good rectifying diode characteristics ► A forward to reverse current ratio as high as 35 (− 4 V to + 4 V range) was attained

  6. A procedure for preferential trapping of cesium cations from aqueous solutions and their separation from other inorganic cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plesek, J.; Hermanek, S.; Selucky, P.; Williams, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The title procedure is as follows. Deltahedral heteroborane anions are added to the aqueous solution containing cesium ions, precipitate (if any) is separated off, and the cesium salts involving the deltahedral heteroborane anions are trapped on activated carbon. The cobaltocarborane anion [3-Co-(1,2-C 2 B 9 H 11 ) 2 ] and/or its substitution derivatives are particularly well suited to this purpose. The process can find use in the separation of radionuclides present in waste solutions arising from spent nuclear fuel treatment. (P.A.). 1 fig

  7. Inorganic oxides as alternative in the separation of non fissioned residual uranium; Oxidos inorganicos como alternativa en la separacion del uranio residual no fisionado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baca G, A

    1997-07-01

    The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2} as well as vegetable carbon have been studied for its possible use as sorbent in the concentration and separation of non fissioned residual uranium of some fission products such as: {sup 141} Ce, {sup 134} Cs, {sup 125} Sb, {sup 103} Ru, {sup 95} Zr, {sup 95} Nb of alkaline aqueous systems. The separation efficiency has been evaluated using natural uranium and radionuclides in static and dynamic processes, through liquid scintillation and gamma spectrometry. Therefore Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, SnO{sub 2} and carbon were pre-treated thermic and chemically and characterized through the technique of Nitrogen absorption analysis, X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. By means of the p H determination and the aqueous system potential the present hydrolysis products were determined. The inorganic oxides show structural and surface changes due to the treatment. The adsorption process is realized by different mechanism depending of the sorbent. The results show that the retention capacity is a dependence of the oxides pre-treatment and of the hydrolysis products in the aqueous system, as well as of the experimental conditions. Not in this way for carbon in which the results show the treatment and the experimental conditions significantly have not influence in its adsorption capacity. (Author)

  8. Fabricating Copper Nanotubes by Electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, E. H.; Ramsey, Christopher; Bae, Youngsam; Choi, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Copper tubes having diameters between about 100 and about 200 nm have been fabricated by electrodeposition of copper into the pores of alumina nanopore membranes. Copper nanotubes are under consideration as alternatives to copper nanorods and nanowires for applications involving thermal and/or electrical contacts, wherein the greater specific areas of nanotubes could afford lower effective thermal and/or electrical resistivities. Heretofore, copper nanorods and nanowires have been fabricated by a combination of electrodeposition and a conventional expensive lithographic process. The present electrodeposition-based process for fabricating copper nanotubes costs less and enables production of copper nanotubes at greater rate.

  9. Electrodeposition in capillaries: Bottom-up micro and nanopatterning of functional materials on conductive substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, A.; Maijenburg, A.W.; Maas, M.G.; Blank, David H.A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2011-01-01

    A cost-effective and versatile methodology for bottom-up patterned growth of inorganic and metallic materials on the micro- and nanoscale is presented. Pulsed electrodeposition was employed to deposit arbitrary patterns of Ni, ZnO, and FeO(OH) of high quality, with lateral feature sizes down to

  10. Structural characterization of electrodeposited boron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structural characterization of electrodeposited boron was carried out by using transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Electron diffraction and phase contrast imaging were carried out by using transmission electron microscopy. Phase identification was done based on the analysis of electron diffraction ...

  11. ELECTRODEPOSITION OF NICKEL ON URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-08-26

    A method is described for preparing uranium objects prior to nickel electroplating. The process consiats in treating the surface of the uranium with molten ferric chloride hexahydrate, at a slightiy elevated temperature. This treatment etches the metal surface providing a structure suitable for the application of adherent electrodeposits and at the same time plates the surface with a thin protective film of iron.

  12. Electrodeposition of engineering alloy coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lasse

    Nickel based electrodeposited alloys were investigated with respect to their deposition process, heat treatment, hardness, corrosion resistance and combined wear-corrosion resistance. The investigated alloys were Ni-B, Ni-P and Ni-W, which are not fully developed for industrial utilisation...... are written in brackets). Temperature and especially pH influenced the cathodic efficiency of the electrodeposition processes for Ni-W and Ni-P. Mass balance problems of the development alloy processes are identified.Heat treatment for one hour at approx. 350°C, 400°C and 600°C of electrodeposited Ni-B, Ni......-P and Ni-W, respectively, resulted in hardness values of approx. 1000 HV0.1 in the case of Ni-P(6), approx. 1100 HV0.1 in the case of Ni-W(40-53) and approx. 1300 HV0.1 in the case of Ni-B(5). Cracks, which emerged during electrodeposition and heat treatment, were observed on Ni-W and Ni-B.The corrosion...

  13. Theoretical and experimental studies of reverse osmosis separation of inorganic salts in aqueous solutions; Estudio teorico y experimental de parametros de transporte a traves de membranas de osmosis inversa : Efecto de varios tipos de sales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khavet, M.; Mengual, J. I.

    2004-07-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of reverse osmosis separation of inorganic salts in aqueous solutions have been carried out. In this study, a polyamide thin film composite membrane in spiral wound configuration was used. The free energy of different inorganic monovalent (LiCl, NaCl, KCl, NaBr, NaI, LiBr, KBr) and divalent (MgCl2, MnCl2, CaCl2, MgBr2) salts has been calculated. The solute transport parameters were related to the free energy of the corresponding cations and anions. The mass transfer coefficient at the high pressure feed side of the spiral wound module was determined for each type of salt. The obtained theoretical values were compared to the experimental ones. The good agreements observed between the experimental and theoretical results confirm the validity of the theoretical procedure, which may be applied in modelling solar reverse osmosis plants for the prediction of the separation factor of various types of inorganic salts. (Author)

  14. Bioaccumulation of radionuclides and metals by microorganisms: Potential role in the separation of inorganic contaminants and for the in situ treatment of the subsurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, H. Jr.; Wildung, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    Radionuclide, metal and organic contaminants are present in relatively inaccessible subsurface environments at many U.S Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Subsurface contamination is of concern to DOE because the migration of these contaminants into relatively deep subsurface zones indicates that they exist in a mobile chemical form and thus could potentially enter domestic groundwater supplies. Currently, economic approaches to stabilize or remediate these deep contaminated zones are limited, because these systems are not well characterized and there is a lack of understanding of how geochemical, microbial, and hydrological processes interact to influence contaminant behavior. Microorganisms offer a potential means for radionuclide and metal immobilization or mobilization for subsequent surface treatment. Bioaccumulation is a specific microbial sequestering mechanism wherein mobile radionuclides and metals become associated with the microbial biomass by both intra- and extracellular sequestering ligands. Since most of the microorganism in the subsurface are associated with the stationary strata, bioaccumulation of mobile radionuclides and metals would initially result in a decrease in the transport of inorganic contaminants. How long the inorganic contaminants would remain immobilized, the selectivity of the bioaccumulation process for specific inorganic contaminants, the mechanism involved, and how the geochemistry and growth conditions of the subsurface environment influence bioaccumulation are not currently known. This presentation focuses on the microbial process of immobilizing radionuclides and metals and using this process to reduce inorganic contaminant migration at DOE sites. Background research with near-surface microorganisms will be presented to demonstrate this process and show its potential to reduce inorganic contaminant migration. Future research needs and approaches in this relatively new research area will also be discussed

  15. Electrodeposition: Principles, Applications and Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Ying, K.K.; Khuan, N.I.

    2011-01-01

    Electrodeposition technique has been around for a very long time. It is a process of coating a thin layer of one metal on top of a different metal to modify its surface properties, by donating electrons to the ions in a solution. This bottom-up fabrication technique is versatile and can be applied to a wide range of potential applications. Electrodeposition is gaining popularity in recent years due to its capability in fabricating one-dimensional nano structures such as nano rods, nao wires and nano tubes. In this paper, we present an overview on the fabrication and characterization of high aspect ratio nano structures prepared using the nano electrochemical deposition system set up in our laboratory. (author)

  16. Long Silver Nanowires Synthesis by Pulsed Electrodeposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Batevandi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanowires were pulse electrodeposited into nanopore anodic alumina oxide templates. The effects of continuous and pulse electrodeposition waveform on the microstructure properties of the nanowire arrays were studied. It is seen that the microstructure of nanowire is depend to pulse condition. The off time duration of pulse waveform enables to control the growth direction of Ag nanowires.

  17. Cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, David; Bowman, Mark P; Zawacky, Steven R; Van Buskirk, Ellor J; Kamarchik, Peter

    2013-07-30

    A cationic electrodepositable coating composition is disclosed. The present invention in directed to a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising a lignin-containing cationic salt resin, that comprises (A) the reaction product of: lignin, an amine, and a carbonyl compound; (B) the reaction product of lignin, epichlorohydrin, and an amine; or (C) combinations thereof.

  18. Electrochemical corrosion measurements on noble electrodeposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lasse; Maahn, Ernst Emanuel

    1998-01-01

    Novel electrodeposits are compared with hard chrome and electroless Ni-P with respect to production, corrosion resistance and hardness.......Novel electrodeposits are compared with hard chrome and electroless Ni-P with respect to production, corrosion resistance and hardness....

  19. Theory and practice of metal electrodeposition

    CERN Document Server

    Gamburg, Yuliy D

    2011-01-01

    fills the gap between modern developments in electrochemistry and outdated information on metals electrodeposition currently available in competing titles essential information on the theoretical and practical electrochemistry necessary to investigate modern metal deposition is provided part of the growing literature on electrodeposition

  20. Thermodynamics of gallium arsenide electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrault, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    Gallium Arsenide is well known as a very interesting compound for photoelectrical devices. Up to now, it has been prepared mostly by high temperature technology, and the authors considered that it might be of interest to set up an electrodeposition technique suitable to prepare thin layers of this compound. A reaction sequence similar to the one observed for Cadmium Sulfide or Cadmium Telluride could be considered. In these cases, the metal chalcogenide is obtained from the precipitation of the metal ions dissolved in the solutions by the reduction product of the metalloidic compound

  1. Structure investigations of electrodeposited nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Czako-Nagy, I.; Lakatos-Varsanyi, M.; Brauer, G.; Leidheiser, H. Jr

    1981-01-01

    Electrodeposited nickel samples were investigated by positron annihilation (lifetime and Doppler-broadening), Moessbauer effect and X-ray diffraction measurements. Two-component positron lifetime spectra were obtained. The first component is thought to result from bulk annihilation and trapping at single trapping centres (TC), their concentrations are obtained from the trapping model. The second one possibly denotes annihilation at voids, the number of which is dependent on the stress in the deposit. The Moessbauer results show differences in the magnetic orientation in the three samples examined. (author)

  2. Characterisation of electrodeposited polycrystalline uranium dioxide thin films on nickel foil for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamska, A.M.; Bright, E. Lawrence; Sutcliffe, J.; Liu, W.; Payton, O.D.; Picco, L.; Scott, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    Polycrystalline uranium dioxide thin films were grown on nickel substrates via aqueous electrodeposition of a precursor uranyl salt. The arising semiconducting uranium dioxide thin films exhibited a tower-like morphology, which may be suitable for future application in 3D solar cell applications. The thickness of the homogenous, tower-like films reached 350 nm. Longer deposition times led to the formation of thicker (up to 1.5 μm) and highly porous films. - Highlights: • Electrodeposition of polycrystalline UO_2 thin films • Tower-like morphology for 3D solar cell applications • Novel technique for separation of heavy elements from radioactive waste streams

  3. Preparation of 235U target by electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiping; Zhong Wenbin; Li Yougen

    2004-12-01

    A target for the production of fission 99 Mo in a nuclear reactor is composed of an enclosed, cylindrical vessel. Preferable vessel is comprised of stainless steel, having a thin, continuous, uniform layer of 235 U integrally bonded to its inner walls. Two processes are introduced for electrodepositing uranium on to the inner walls of the vessel. One processes is electrodepositing UO 2 from UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 -(NH 4 ) 2 CO 4 ·H 2 O solution; the other is electrodepositing pure uranium metal from molten salt. Its plating efficiency and plating quantity from a molten bath is higher than UO 2 from the aqueous system. (authors)

  4. Synthesis of boronate-functionalized organic-inorganic hybrid monolithic column for the separation of cis-diol containing compounds at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Heqing; Lyu, Haixia; Qin, Wenfei; Xie, Zenghong

    2018-04-01

    In this work, an organic-inorganic hybrid boronate affinity monolithic column was prepared via "one-pot" process using 4-vinylphenylboronic acid as organic monomer and divinylbenzene as cross-linker. The effects of reaction temperature, solvents and composition of organic monomers on the column properties (e.g. morphology, permeability, and mechanical stability) were investigated. A series of test compounds including small neutral molecules, aromatic amines, and cis-diol compounds were used to evaluate the retention behaviors of the prepared hybrid monolithic column. The results demonstrated that the prepared hybrid monolith exhibited mixed-interactions including hydrophilicity, cation exchange, and boronate affinity interaction. The run-to-run, day-to-day and batch-to-batch reproducibilities of the prepared hybrid monolith for thiourea's retention time were satisfactory with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 0.09, 1.45 and 4.05% (n = 3), respectively, indicating the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed method. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The electrodeposition of thorium in natural materials for alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, D.

    1980-01-01

    A technique has been developed for the electrodeposition of thorium on stainless steel planchettes following standard radiochemical separation and uptake in acetate buffer. The method has been used on over 130 samples including calcrete, clay, granite and shell matrices. To assess the efficiency at ultra low levels, three solutions of carrier free 228 Th ( -7 μg in 5 ml electrolyte) and four solutions of 229 Th (4.4x10 -4 μg in 5 ml) were studied. The efficiencies of the former averaged 66 per cent; those of the 229 Th varied from 41 to 91%. (author)

  6. Electrodeposition of Manganese-Nickel Oxide Films on a Graphite Sheet for Electrochemical Capacitor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Min Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Manganese-nickel (Mn-Ni oxide films were electrodeposited on a graphite sheet in a bath consisting of manganese acetate and nickel chloride, and the structural, morphological, and electrochemical properties of these films were investigated. The electrodeposited Mn-Ni oxide films had porous structures covered with nanofibers. The X-ray diffractometer pattern revealed the presence of separate manganese oxide (g-MnO2 and nickel oxide (NiO in the films. The electrodeposited Mn-Ni oxide electrode exhibited a specific capacitance of 424 F/g in Na2SO4 electrolyte. This electrode maintained 86% of its initial specific capacitance over 2000 cycles of the charge-discharge operation, showing good cycling stability.

  7. Electrodeposition of thin Pd-Ag films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasler, P.; Allmendinger, T.

    1993-01-01

    Thin Pd-Ag layers were electroplated preferably on brass and on nickel substrates using a two-compartment cell separated by an anion exchange membrane. The weakly alkaline electrolyte contained glycine-glycinate as the major complexing agents. The plating experiments were usually carried out without stirring, at different potentials and temperatures and in the absence or in the presence of sodium benzaldehyde-2,4-disulphonate (BDS). The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Their compositions were determined analytically by the inductively coupled plasma technique. In addition, the film porosity was tested. Electrodeposition in almost limiting current conditions for both components and without simultaneous hydrogen evolution led to deposits with compositions being in good agreement with the molar metal ratio in the electrolyte (77:23). The best results were achieved between 0 and -50 mV with respect to a reversible hydrogen electrode at 0 C in the presence of BDS. These deposits were bright, had good adherence and exhibited no pores at a film thickness of 1.2 μm. At too negative potentials, the deposits became black and powdery. (orig.)

  8. The electrodeposition of niobium on tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.G.

    1977-03-01

    The electrodeposition of niobium on a tungsten substrate has been demonstrated by electrolysis of an alkali metal fluoride melt. The deposit produced was non-porous, coherent and formed a good bond to the substrate. (author)

  9. Inorganic, coordination and organometallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jursik, F.

    1978-01-01

    Separation of cations and anions of inorganic, coordination and metalloorganic compounds by the method of liquid column chromatography is considered. Common scheme of multicomponent cation mixture is suggesteed. Separation conditions, adsrbents, eluents, pH value solution concenstration, elution rate are also suggested. Separation of rare earth elements Cs, Be, Cd, Te, Th, U, Mo, Re, V, Ru, Zr, In compounds is considered as an example of liquid column chromatography application. Data on column chromatography application are summarized in a table

  10. Cationic polyelectrolyte induced separation of some inorganic contaminants and their mixture (zirconium silicate, kaolin, K-feldspar, zinc oxide) as well as of the paraffin oil from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimici, Luminita

    2016-03-15

    The flocculation efficiency of a cationic polyelectrolyte with quaternary ammonium salt groups in the backbone, namely PCA5 was evaluated on zirconium silicate (kreutzonit), kaolin, K- feldspar and zinc oxide (ZnO) suspensions prepared either with each pollutant or with their mixture. The effect of several parameters such as settling time, polymer dose and the pollutant type on the separation efficacy was evaluated and followed by optical density and zeta potential measurements. Except for ZnO, the interactions between PCA5 and suspended particles led to low residual turbidity values (around 4% for kreutzonit, 5% for kaolin and 8% for K-feldspar) as well as to the reduction of flocs settling time (from 1200 min to 30 min and 120 min in case of kaolinit and K-feldspar, respectively), that meant a high efficiency in their separation. The negative value of the zeta potential and flocs size measurements, at the optimum polymer dose, point to contribution from charge patch mechanism for the particles flocculation. A good efficiency of PCA5 in separation of paraffin oil (a minimum residual turbidity of 9.8%) has been also found. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrodeposition and surface finishing fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Djokic, Stojan

    2014-01-01

    This volume of Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry has contributions from significant individuals in electrochemistry. This 7 chapter book discusses electrodeposition and the characterization of alloys and composite materials, the mechanistic aspects of lead electrodeposition, electrophoretic deposition of ceramic materials onto metal surfaces and the fundamentals of metal oxides for energy conversion and storage technologies. This volume also has a chapter devoted to the anodization of aluminum, electrochemical aspects of chemical and mechanical polishing, and surface treatments prior to metal

  12. Electrodeposited nanoparticles: properties and photocatalytic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sheridan, Eoin E.

    2009-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis reports on fundamental studies into electrodeposition of gold and silver nanoparticulate spheroids on a conducting substrate, Fluorine-doped tin-oxide, and the manipulation of the electrodeposition conditions in order to influence and control the size and surface concentration of spheroids. Methods to control the deposition included chemical modification of the surface with an adsorbed monolayer of 3-aminopropyldimethylmethoxysilane, and manipulation of...

  13. Apparatus for eliminating electrodeposition of radioactive nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Ichiro; Ishibe, Tadao; Matsunaga, Masaaki; Konuki, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Kazunori; Watanabe, Minoru; Tomoshige, Shozo; Kondo, Kozo.

    1990-01-01

    In a conventional device for eliminating by radioactive nuclides electrodeposition, a liquid containing radioactive nuclides is electrolyzed under a presence of non-radioactive heavy metals and removing radioactive nuclides by electrodepositing them together with the heavy metals. Two anode plates are opposed in an electrolysis vessel of this device. A plurality (4 to 6) of cathode plates are arranged between the anodes in parallel with them and the cathode surfaces opposed to the anodes are insulated. Further, such a plurality of cathode plates are grouped into respective units. Alternatively, the anode plate is made of platinum-plated titanium material and the cathode plate is made of stainless steel. In the thus constituted electrodeposition eliminating device, since the cathode surface directed to the anodes on both ends are insulated, all of electric current from the anode reach the core cathode after flowing around the cathodes at both ends. As a result, there is no substantial difference in the flowing length of the electrolyzing current to each of the cathodes and these is neither difference in the electrodeposition amount. The electrodeposited products are adhered uniformly and densely to the electrodes and, simultaneously, Co-60 and Mn-54, etc. are also electrodeposited. (I.S.)

  14. Synthesis of xanthate functionalized silica gel and its application for the preconcentration and separation of uranium(VI) from inorganic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopi Krishna, P.; Naidu, G.R.K.; Rao, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    A new chelating solid extractant prepared by the chemical immobilization of xanthate on silica gel was characterized by Fourier transform infra red spectrometry (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and microanalysis and used for the preconcentration and separation of uranyl ion prior to its determination by Arsenazo-III. The effect of pH, weight of the solid extractant, volume of the aqueous phase and the interference of neutral electrolytes, cations and anions on the determination of uranium, have been studied in detail to optimize the conditions for trace determination of uranium(VI). The accuracy of the developed procedure was tested by analyzing marine sediment (MESS-3) and soil (IAEA-SOIL-7) reference materials. The results obtained on analysis of soil and sediment samples are comparable to standard ICP-MS values. (author)

  15. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  16. Stable lithium electrodeposition in liquid and nanoporous solid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying; Tu, Zhengyuan; Archer, Lynden A.

    2014-01-01

    of these metals and their inability to form uniform electrodeposits on surfaces with inevitable defects. We report on electrodeposition of lithium in simple liquid electrolytes and in nanoporous solids infused with liquid electrolytes. We find that simple liquid

  17. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  18. Electrodeposition of rhenium-tin nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naor-Pomerantz, Adi; Eliaz, Noam; Gileadi, Eliezer

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Rhenium-tin nanowires were formed electrochemically, without using a template. → The nanowires consisted of a crystalline-Sn-core/amorphous-Re-shell structure. → The effects of bath composition and operating conditions were investigated. → A mechanism is suggested for the formation of the core/shell structure. → The nanowires may be attractive for a variety of applications. - Abstract: Rhenium (Re) is a refractory metal which exhibits an extraordinary combination of properties. Thus, nanowires and other nanostructures of Re-alloys may possess unique properties resulting from both Re chemistry and the nanometer scale, and become attractive for a variety of applications, such as in catalysis, photovoltaic cells, and microelectronics. Rhenium-tin coatings, consisting of nanowires with a core/shell structure, were electrodeposited on copper substrates under galvanostatic or potentiostatic conditions. The effects of bath composition and operating conditions were investigated, and the chemistry and structure of the coatings were studied by a variety of analytical tools. A Re-content as high as 77 at.% or a Faradaic efficiency as high as 46% were attained. Ranges of Sn-to-Re in the plating bath, applied current density and applied potential, within which the nanowires could be formed, were determined. A mechanism was suggested, according to which Sn nanowires were first grown on top of Sn micro-particles, and then the Sn nanowires reduced the perrhenate chemically, thus forming a core made of crystalline Sn-rich phase, and a shell made of amorphous Re-rich phase. The absence of mutual solubility of Re and Sn may be the driving force for this phase separation.

  19. Electrodeposited Silver Nanoparticles Patterned Hexagonally for SERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Geun Hoi; Lee, Sue Yeone; Suh, Jung Sang

    2010-01-01

    We have fabricated hexagonally patterned silver nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by electrodepositing silver on the surface of an aluminum plate prepared by completely removing the oxide from anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. Even after completely removing the oxide, well-ordered hexagonal patterns, similar to the shape of graphene, remained on the surface of the aluminum plate. The borders of the hexagonal pattern protruded up to form sorts of nano-mountains at both the sides and apexes of the hexagon, with the apexes protruding even more significantly than the sides. The aluminum plate prepared by completely removing the oxide has been used in the preparation of SERS substrates by sputter-coating of gold or silver on it. Instead of sputter-coating, here we have electro-deposited silver on the aluminum plate. When silver was electro-deposited on the plate, silver nanoparticles were made along the hexagonal margins.

  20. A MEMS lamination technology based on sequential multilayer electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Jooncheol; Herrault, Florian; Schafer, Richard; Allen, Mark G

    2013-01-01

    A MEMS lamination technology based on sequential multilayer electrodeposition is presented. The process comprises three main steps: (1) automated sequential electrodeposition of permalloy (Ni 80 Fe 20 ) structural and copper sacrificial layers to form multilayer structures of significant total thickness; (2) fabrication of polymeric anchor structures through the thickness of the multilayer structures and (3) selective removal of copper. The resulting structure is a set of air-insulated permalloy laminations, the separation of which is sustained by insulating polymeric anchor structures. Individual laminations have precisely controllable thicknesses ranging from 500 nm to 5 µm, and each lamination layer is electrically isolated from adjacent layers by narrow air gaps of similar scale. In addition to air, interlamination insulators based on polymers are investigated. Interlamination air gaps with very high aspect ratio (>1:100) can be filled with polyvinylalcohol and polydimethylsiloxane. The laminated structures are characterized using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy to directly examine properties such as the roughness and the thickness uniformity of the layers. In addition, the quality of the electrical insulation between the laminations is evaluated by quantifying the eddy current within the sample as a function of frequency. Fabricated laminations are comprised of uniform, smooth (surface roughness <100 nm) layers with effective electrical insulation for all layer thicknesses and insulator approaches studied. Such highly laminated structures have potential uses ranging from energy conversion to applications where composite materials with highly anisotropic mechanical or thermal properties are required. (paper)

  1. Quantitative texture analysis of electrodeposited line patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Free-standing line patterns of Cu and Ni were manufactured by electrochemical deposition into lithographically prepared patterns. Electrodeposition was carried out on top of a highly oriented Au-layer physically vapor deposited on glass. Quantitative texture analysis carried out by means of x......-ray diffraction for both the substrate layer and the electrodeposits yielded experimental evidence for epitaxy between Cu and Au. An orientation relation between film and substrate was discussed with respect to various concepts of epitaxy. While the conventional mode of epitaxy fails for the Cu...

  2. Effects of inorganic substances on water splitting in ion-exchange membranes; II. Optimal contents of inorganic substances in preparing bipolar membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Moon-Sung; Choi, Yong-Jin; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

    2004-05-15

    An approach to enhancing the water-splitting performance of bipolar membranes (BPMs) is introducing an inorganic substance at the bipolar (BP) junction. In this study, the immobilization of inorganic matters (i.e., iron hydroxides and silicon compounds) at the BP junction and the optimum concentration have been investigated. To immobilize these inorganic matters, novel methods (i.e., electrodeposition of the iron hydroxide and processing of the sol-gel to introduce silicon groups at the BP junction) were suggested. At optimal concentrations, the immobilized inorganic matters significantly enhanced the water-splitting fluxes, indicating that they provide alternative paths for water dissociation, but on the other hand possibly reduce the polarization of water molecules between the sulfonic acid and quaternary ammonium groups at high contents. Consequently, the amount of inorganic substances introduced should be optimized to obtain the maximum water splitting in the BPM.

  3. III. Co-electrodeposition/removal of copper and nickel in a spouted electrochemical reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Pengpeng; Calo, Joseph M; Hradil, George

    2011-07-11

    Results are presented of an investigation of co-electrodeposition of copper and nickel from acidic solution mixtures in a cylindrical spouted electrochemical reactor. The effects of solution pH, temperature, and applied current on metal removal/recovery rate, current efficiency, and corrosion of the deposited metals from the cathodic particles were examined under galvanostatic operation. The quantitative and qualitative behavior of co-electrodeposition of the two metals from their mixtures differs significantly from that of the individual single metal solutions. This is primarily attributed to the metal displacement reaction between Ni(0) and Cu(2+). This reaction effectively reduces copper corrosion, and amplifies that for nickel (at least at high concentrations). It also amplifies the separation of the deposition regimes of the two metals in time, which indicates that the recovery of each metal as a relatively pure deposit from the mixture is possible. It was also shown that nitrogen sparging considerably increases the observed net electrodeposition rates for both metals - considerably more so than from solutions with just the single metals alone. A numerical model of co-electrodeposition, corrosion, metal displacement, and mass transfer in the cylindrical spouted electrochemical reactor is presented that describes the behavior of the experimental copper and nickel removal data quite well.

  4. A process for electrodeposition of layers of niobium, vanadium, molybdenum or tungsten, or of their alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diepers, H.; Schmidt, O.

    1977-01-01

    An improvement is proposed for the process for electrodeposition of layers of niobium, vanadium, molybdenum or tungsten or of their alloys from molten-salt electrolytes (fluorid melts) which is to increase the quality of layers in order to obtain regular thickness and smooth surfaces. According to the invention, a pre-separation is executed on an auxiliary cathode before the (preheated) cathode is immersed. The cathode is only charged for separation after the adjustment of a constant anode potential. It is an advantage that the auxiliary cathode is mechanically and electrically connected with the cathode. As an electrolyte, a mixture of niobium fluorides and a eustetic mixture of potassium fluorides, sodium fluorides and lithium fluorides are particularly suitable for the electrodeposition of miobium. (UWI) [de

  5. Electrodeposition of zinc--nickel alloys coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, J W; Johnson, H R

    1977-10-01

    One possible substitute for cadmium in some applications is a zinc--nickel alloy deposit. Previous work by others showed that electrodeposited zinc--nickel coatings containing about 85 percent zinc and 15 percent nickel provided noticeably better corrosion resistance than pure zinc. Present work which supports this finding also shows that the corrosion resistance of the alloy deposit compares favorably with cadmium.

  6. Synthesis of shape memory alloys using electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, Timothy Roy

    Shape memory alloys are used in a variety of applications. The area of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) is a developing field for thin film shape memory alloys for making actuators, valves and pumps. Until recently thin film shape memory alloys could only be made by rapid solidification or sputtering techniques which have the disadvantage of being "line of sight". At the University of Missouri-Rolla, electrolytic techniques have been developed that allow the production of shape memory alloys in thin film form. The advantages of this techniques are in-situ, non "line of sight" and the ability to make differing properties of the shape memory alloys from one bath. This research focused on the electrodeposition of In-Cd shape memory alloys. The primary objective was to characterize the electrodeposited shape memory effect for an electrodeposited shape memory alloy. The effect of various operating parameters such as peak current density, temperature, pulsing, substrate and agitation were investigated and discussed. The electrodeposited alloys were characterized by relative shape memory effect, phase transformation, morphology and phases present. Further tests were performed to optimize the shape memory by the use of a statistically designed experiment. An optimized shape memory effect for an In-Cd alloy is reported for the conditions of the experiments.

  7. Defect structure of electrodeposited chromium layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marek, T.; Suevegh, K.; Vertes, A.; El-Sharif, M.; McDougall, J.; Chisolm, C.U.

    2000-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy was applied to study the effects of pre-treatment and composition of substrates on the quality and defect structure of electrodeposited thick chromium coatings. The results show that both parameters are important, and a scenario is proposed why the mechanically polished substrate gives more defective film than the electro polished one.

  8. Defect structure of electrodeposited chromium layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marek, T. E-mail: marek@para.chem.elte.hu; Suevegh, K.; Vertes, A.; El-Sharif, M.; McDougall, J.; Chisolm, C.U

    2000-06-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy was applied to study the effects of pre-treatment and composition of substrates on the quality and defect structure of electrodeposited thick chromium coatings. The results show that both parameters are important, and a scenario is proposed why the mechanically polished substrate gives more defective film than the electro polished one.

  9. On texture formation of chromium electrodeposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Bergenstof; Leisner, Peter; Horsewell, Andy

    1998-01-01

    The microstructure, texture and hardness of electrodeposited hard, direct current (DC) chromium and pulsed reversed chromium has been investigated. These investigations suggest that the growth and texture of hard chromium is controlled by inhibition processes and reactions. Further, it has been...

  10. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosevear, A.; Sims, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    sup(195m)Au for medical usage is separated from sup(195m)Hg in a solution containing ions of sup(195m)Hg by contacting the solution with an adsorbing agent to adsorb 195 Hgsup(H) thereon, followed by selective elution of sup(195m)Au generated by radioactive decay of the sup(195m)Hg. The adsorbing agent comprises a composite material in the form of an inert porous inorganic substrate (e.g. Kieselguhr),the pores of which are occupied by a hydrogel of a polysaccharide (e.g. agarose) carrying terminal thiol groups for binding Hgsup(H) ions. (author)

  11. The mechanism of cathodic electrodeposition of epoxy coatings and the corrosion behaviour of the electrodeposited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESNA B. MISKOVIC-STANKOVIC

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The model of organic film growth on a cathode during electrodeposition process proposes the current density-time and film thickness-time relationships and enables the evaluation of the rate contants for the electrochemical reaction of OH– ion evolution and for the chemical reaction of organic film deposition. The dependences of film thickness and rate constants on the applied voltage, bath temperature and resin concentration in the electrodeposition bath have also been obtained. The deposition parameters have a great effect on the cathodic electrodeposition process and on the protective properties of the obtained electrodeposited coatings. From the time dependences of the pore resistance, coating capacitance and relative permittivity, obtained from impedance measurements, the effect of applied voltage, bath temperature and resin concentration on the protective properties of electrodeposited coatings has been shown. Using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, gravimetric liquid sorption experiments, differential scanning calorimetry and optical miscroscopy, the corrosion stability of epoxy coatings was investigated. A mechanism for the penetration of electrolyte through an organic coating has been suggested and the shape and dimensions of the conducting macropores have been determined. It was shown that conduction through a coating depends only on the conduction through the macropores, although the quantity of electrolyte in the micropores of the polymer net is about one order of magnitude greater than that inside the conducting macropores.

  12. Nanocrystalline Ni-Co Alloy Synthesis by High Speed Electrodeposition

    OpenAIRE

    Idris, Jamaliah; Christian, Chukwuekezie; Gaius, Eyu

    2013-01-01

    Electrodeposition of nanocrystals is economically and technologically viable production path for the synthesis of pure metals and alloys both in coatings and bulk form. The study presents nanocrystalline Ni-Co alloy synthesis by high speed electrodeposition. Nanocrystalline Ni-Co alloys coatings were prepared by direct current (DC) and deposited directly on steel and aluminum substrates without any pretreatment, using high speed electrodeposition method. The influence of the electrolysis par...

  13. Nanometer-spaced electrodes with calibrated separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kervennic, Y.V.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Morpurgo, A.F.; Gurevich, L.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.

    2002-01-01

    We have fabricated pairs of platinum electrodes with separation between 20 and 3.5 nm. Our technique combines electron beam lithography and chemical electrodeposition. We show that the measurement of the conductance between the two electrodes through the electrolyte provides an accurate and

  14. Electrodeposition of Actinide and Lanthanide Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baerring, N.E.

    1966-02-01

    Some deposition parameters for the quantitative electrodeposition of hydrolysis products of plutonium were qualitatively studied at trace concentrations of plutonium. The hydrogen ion concentration, the current and the electrolysis time proved to be the determining factors in the quantitative electrolytic precipitation of plutonium, while other factors such as cathode material, the pretreatment of the cathode surface, the nature of the electrolytic anion, and the oxidation state of plutonium in the starting solution were found to be of less importance. The conditions selected for quantitative electrodeposition of plutonium from slightly acid nitrate solutions on a stainless steel cathode were successfully tried also with uranium, neptunium, americium, cerium and thulium. Details of a procedure used for plating mg amounts of plutonium and neptunium on small stainless steel cylinders are also given

  15. Electrodeposition of nickel nano wire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Kok Kuan Ying; Ng Inn Khuan; Nurazila Mat Zali; Siti Salwa Zainal Abidin

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis, characterization and assembly of one-dimensional nickel nano wires prepared by template directed electrodeposition are discussed in this paper. Parallel arrays of high aspect ratio nickel nano wires were electrodeposited using electrolytes with different cations and pH. The nano wires were characterized using X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the orientations of the electro deposited Ni nano wires were governed by the deposition current and the electrolyte conditions. Free standing nickel nano wires can be obtained by dissolving the template. Due to the magnetic nature of the nano wires, magnetic alignment was employed to assemble and position the free standing nano wires in the device structure. (author)

  16. Electrodeposition of Actinide and Lanthanide Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baerring, N E

    1966-02-15

    Some deposition parameters for the quantitative electrodeposition of hydrolysis products of plutonium were qualitatively studied at trace concentrations of plutonium. The hydrogen ion concentration, the current and the electrolysis time proved to be the determining factors in the quantitative electrolytic precipitation of plutonium, while other factors such as cathode material, the pretreatment of the cathode surface, the nature of the electrolytic anion, and the oxidation state of plutonium in the starting solution were found to be of less importance. The conditions selected for quantitative electrodeposition of plutonium from slightly acid nitrate solutions on a stainless steel cathode were successfully tried also with uranium, neptunium, americium, cerium and thulium. Details of a procedure used for plating mg amounts of plutonium and neptunium on small stainless steel cylinders are also given.

  17. Surface Engineering of Triboelectric Nanogenerator with an Electrodeposited Gold Nanoflower Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Jae; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Kim, Daewon; Lee, Dongil; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2015-09-14

    A triboelectric nanogenerator composed of gold nanoflowers is demonstrated. The proposed triboelectric nanogenerator creates electricity by contact-separation-based electrification between an anodic metal and a cathodic polymer. For the improvement of output power via the enlargement of the effective surface area in the anodic metal, gold nanoflowers that produce a hierarchical morphology at a micro-to-nano scale by electrodeposition are utilized. The hierarchical morphology is controlled by the applied voltage and deposition time. Even though the triboelectric coefficient of gold is inferior to those of other metals, gold is very attractive to make a flower-like structure by electrodeposition. Moreover, gold is stable against oxidation by oxygen in air. From a reliability and practicality point of view, the aforementioned stability against oxidation is preferred.

  18. A basic study on electrodeposition of metal halogen mixture in fluoride/chloride molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Z. H.; Kang, Y. H.; Hwang, S. C.; Woo, M. S.; Yoo, J. H.

    2001-01-01

    The electrodeposition experiments of metal mixture composed of U, Y, Gd, Nd and Ce were carried out in the KCl-LiCl and LiF-NaF-KF (FLINAK) eutectic melts at 500 .deg. C and 600 .deg. C, respectively. Uranium was major component in the cathode deposits, and the separation factors of uranium with respect to the rare earths (REs) are nearly same in both electrolytes. REs content in the cathode deposits increased sharply below -1.9V which is the decomposition voltage of the halogen compounds of REs. The current efficiency for electrodeposition of metals was inversely in proportion to the applied voltage in the range of -1.0 V to -1.9 V(vs. S.S. 304 or Ni)

  19. Nanostructured Electrolytes for Stable Lithium Electrodeposition in Secondary Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan

    2015-11-17

    of ceramic electrolytes that meet the modulus and stability requirements have to date proven to be insurmountable obstacles to progress. In this Account, we first review recent advances in continuum theory for dendrite growth and proliferation during metal electrodeposition. We show that the range of options for designing electrolytes and separators that stabilize electrodeposition is now substantially broader than one might imagine from previous literature accounts. In particular, separators designed at the nanoscale to constrain ion transport on length scales below a theory-defined cutoff, and structured electrolytes in which a fraction of anions are permanently immobilized to nanoparticles, to a polymer network or ceramic membrane are considered particularly promising for their ability to stabilize electrodeposition of lithium metal without compromising ionic conductivity or room temperature battery operation. We also review recent progress in designing surface passivation films for metallic lithium that facilitate fast deposition of lithium at the electrolyte/electrode interface and at the same time protect the lithium from parasitic side reactions with liquid electrolytes. A promising finding from both theory and experiment is that simple film-forming halide salt additives in a conventional liquid electrolyte can substantially extend the lifetime and safety of LMBs.

  20. Nanostructured electrolytes for stable lithium electrodeposition in secondary batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Zhengyuan; Nath, Pooja; Lu, Yingying; Tikekar, Mukul D; Archer, Lynden A

    2015-11-17

    modulus and stability requirements have to date proven to be insurmountable obstacles to progress. In this Account, we first review recent advances in continuum theory for dendrite growth and proliferation during metal electrodeposition. We show that the range of options for designing electrolytes and separators that stabilize electrodeposition is now substantially broader than one might imagine from previous literature accounts. In particular, separators designed at the nanoscale to constrain ion transport on length scales below a theory-defined cutoff, and structured electrolytes in which a fraction of anions are permanently immobilized to nanoparticles, to a polymer network or ceramic membrane are considered particularly promising for their ability to stabilize electrodeposition of lithium metal without compromising ionic conductivity or room temperature battery operation. We also review recent progress in designing surface passivation films for metallic lithium that facilitate fast deposition of lithium at the electrolyte/electrode interface and at the same time protect the lithium from parasitic side reactions with liquid electrolytes. A promising finding from both theory and experiment is that simple film-forming halide salt additives in a conventional liquid electrolyte can substantially extend the lifetime and safety of LMBs.

  1. Phosphorus introduction mechanism in electrodeposited cobalt films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtchenko, Jean-Francois

    1973-01-01

    The cathodic reduction of hypophosphite, phosphite and phosphate ions was studied using chrono-potentiometry and voltammetry. Then cobalt was deposited at constant current from a bath containing one of these three compounds. The current, while giving an electrodeposition of cobalt, also enhances at the same time a chemical deposition of cobalt. It is shown that high coercive forces in cobalt films are much more related to this chemical deposition than to the simple fact that the films contain some phosphorus. (author) [fr

  2. The Electrodeposition of Rhenium and Its Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-18

    did not have benefit. A combination of vanillin, sodium lauryl sulfate, and gelatin , and equal concentrations of Ni2+ and ReO4 - yielded a coating...substrate, thus facilitating good bonding between the coating and substrate. Similar phenomenon would occur between a silver substrate and...electrodeposited metal coating. Historically, this is why most successful electroplating process used copper, brass (copper-zinc alloy), and silver as substrates

  3. Electrodepositions on Tantalum in Alkali Halide Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barner, Jens H. Von; Jensen, Annemette Hindhede; Christensen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Surface layers of tantalum metal were electrodeposited on steel from K2TaF7-LiF-NaF-KF melts. With careful control of the oxide contents dense and adherent deposits could be obtained by pulse plating. In NaCl-KCl-NaF-Na2CO3 and NaCl-KCl-Na2CO3 melts carbonate ions seems to be reduced to carbon in...

  4. Electrodepositions on Tantalum in alkali halide melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barner, Jens H. Von; Jensen, Annemette Hindhede; Christensen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Surface layers of tantalum metal were electrodeposited on steel from K 2TaF7-LiF-NaF-KF melts. With careful control of the oxide contents dense and adherent deposits could be obtained by pulse plating. In NaCl-KCl-NaF-Na2CO3 and NaCl-KCl-Na2CO 3 melts carbonate ions seems to be reduced to carbon ...

  5. Acidic aqueous uranium electrodeposition for target fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saliba-Silva, A.M.; Oliveira, E.T.; Garcia, R.H.L.; Durazzo, M.

    2013-01-01

    Direct irradiation of targets inside nuclear research or multiple purpose reactors is a common route to produce 99 Mo- 99m Tc radioisotopes. The electroplating of low enriched uranium over nickel substrate might be a potential alternative to produce targets of 235 U. The electrochemistry of uranium at low temperature might be beneficial for an alternative route to produce 99 Mo irradiation LEU targets. Electrodeposition of uranium can be made using ionic and aqueous solutions producing uranium oxide deposits. The performance of uranium electrodeposition is relatively low because a big competition with H 2 evolution happens inside the window of electrochemical reduction potential. This work explores possibilities of electroplating uranium as UO 2 2+ (Uranium-VI) in order to achieve electroplating uranium in a sufficient amount to be commercially irradiated in the future Brazilian RMB reactor. Electroplated nickel substrate was followed by cathodic current electrodeposition from aqueous UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 solution. EIS tests and modeling showed that a film formed differently in the three tested cathodic potentials. At the lower level, (-1.8V) there was an indication of a double film formation, one overlaying the other with ionic mass diffusion impaired at the interface with nickel substrate as showed by the relatively lower admittance of Warburg component. (author)

  6. A new capillary electrophoresis buffer for determining organic and inorganic anions in electroplating bath with surfactant additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H; Lau, K M; Fung, Y S

    2010-05-07

    Monitoring of trace impurities in electroplating bath is needed to meet EU requirements for WEEE and RoHS and for quality control of electrodeposits. Methods using IC and 100% aqueous CE buffer were found producing non-repeatable results attributed to interference of surfactants and major methanesulphonate anion. A new CE buffer containing 1.5mM tetraethylenepentaamine, 3mM 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid and 15 mM Tris in 20% (v/v) methanol at pH=8.4 was shown to enhance the separation window, reduce interaction between buffer and bath constituents, and give satisfactory repeatability with baseline separation for 14 organic and inorganic anions within 14 min, good repeatability for migration time (0.32-0.57% RSD), satisfactory peak area and peak height (2.9-4.5 and 3-4.7% respectively), low detection limit (S/N=2, 20-150 ppb), and wide working ranges (0.1-100 ppm). The CE buffer with 20% (v/v) methanol has demonstrated its capability for identifying anion impurities causing problem in aged tin bath and the use of only 10-fold dilution to produce reliable results for quality assessment in plating bath containing high surfactant additives. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maijenburg, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is entitled “Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes”. Templated electrodeposition is the synthesis technique that was used throughout this thesis, and it comprises the use of a template with specific shape and dimensions for the

  8. Conductance quantization in magnetic nanowires electrodeposited in nanopores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elhoussine, F.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Encinas, A.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic nanocontacts have been prepared by a templating method that involves the electrodeposition of Ni within the pores of track-etched polymer membranes. The nanocontacts are made at the extremity of a single Ni nanowire either inside or outside the pores. The method is simple, flexible...... degeneracy. Our fabrication method enables future investigation of ballistic spin transport phenomena in electrodeposited magnetic nanocontacts....

  9. Deuterium retention in molten salt electrodeposition tungsten coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hai-Shan; Xu, Yu-Ping; Sun, Ning-Bo; Zhang, Ying-Chun; Oya, Yasuhisa; Zhao, Ming-Zhong; Mao, Hong-Min; Ding, Fang; Liu, Feng; Luo, Guang-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate D retention in electrodeposition W coatings. • W coatings are exposed to D plasmas in the EAST tokamak. • A cathodic current density dependence on D retention is found. • Electrodeposition W exhibits lower D retention than VPS-W. - Abstract: Molten salt electrodeposition is a promising technology to manufacture the first wall of a fusion reactor. Deuterium (D) retention behavior in molten salt electrodeposition tungsten (W) coatings has been investigated by D-plasma exposure in the EAST tokamak and D-ion implantation in an ion beam facility. Tokamak exposure experiments demonstrate that coatings prepared with lower current density exhibit less D retention and milder surface damage. Deuterium-ion implantation experiments indicate the D retention in the molten salt electrodeposition W is less than that in vacuum plasma spraying W and polycrystalline W.

  10. Deuterium retention in molten salt electrodeposition tungsten coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hai-Shan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Xu, Yu-Ping [Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Sun, Ning-Bo; Zhang, Ying-Chun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China); Oya, Yasuhisa [Radioscience Research Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan); Zhao, Ming-Zhong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Mao, Hong-Min [Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Ding, Fang; Liu, Feng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Luo, Guang-Nan, E-mail: gnluo@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Hefei Center for Physical Science and Technology, Hefei (China); Hefei Science Center of Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • We investigate D retention in electrodeposition W coatings. • W coatings are exposed to D plasmas in the EAST tokamak. • A cathodic current density dependence on D retention is found. • Electrodeposition W exhibits lower D retention than VPS-W. - Abstract: Molten salt electrodeposition is a promising technology to manufacture the first wall of a fusion reactor. Deuterium (D) retention behavior in molten salt electrodeposition tungsten (W) coatings has been investigated by D-plasma exposure in the EAST tokamak and D-ion implantation in an ion beam facility. Tokamak exposure experiments demonstrate that coatings prepared with lower current density exhibit less D retention and milder surface damage. Deuterium-ion implantation experiments indicate the D retention in the molten salt electrodeposition W is less than that in vacuum plasma spraying W and polycrystalline W.

  11. Technetium electrodeposition from aqueous formate solutions at graphite electrode: electrochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslennikov, A.; Peretroukhine, V.; Masson, M.; Lecomte, M.

    1999-01-01

    Recovery of technetium from aqueous formate buffer solutions of ionic strength μ = 1.0 was studied in the pH interval from 1.6 to 7.5 at graphite cathode in an electrolytic cell with separated compartments was studied, using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and inverse stripping voltammetry (ISV) techniques. It has been shown that Tc electrodeposition process becomes possible at the potentials of graphite cathode E cath. 1/2 = -0.72±0.02 V/SCE and was pH independent in the interval pH = 3.46-7.32. Mechanism of electrodeposition, including Tc(VII)/Tc(IV) reduction in the solution followed by Tc(IV) hydrolysis at the electrode surface with formation of hydrated Tc oxide cathodic deposit has been proposed. The further precision of the Tc(VII) electrochemical reduction mechanism in formate buffer media and optimization of the electrodeposition process seems to be possible using additional analytical facilities except electrochemical methods. (orig.)

  12. Safety shutdown separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Steven Allen; Anakor, Ifenna Kingsley; Farrell, Greg Robert

    2015-06-30

    The present invention pertains to electrochemical cells which comprise (a) an anode; (b) a cathode; (c) a solid porous separator, such as a polyolefin, xerogel, or inorganic oxide separator; and (d) a nonaqueous electrolyte, wherein the separator comprises a porous membrane having a microporous coating comprising polymer particles which have not coalesced to form a continuous film. This microporous coating on the separator acts as a safety shutdown layer that rapidly increases the internal resistivity and shuts the cell down upon heating to an elevated temperature, such as 110.degree. C. Also provided are methods for increasing the safety of an electrochemical cell by utilizing such separators with a safety shutdown layer.

  13. Architectural Growth of Cu Nanoparticles Through Electrodeposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ching-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cu particles with different architectures such as pyramid, cube, and multipod have been successfully fabricated on the surface of Au films, which is the polycrystalline Au substrate with (111 domains, using the electrodeposition technique in the presence of the surface-capping reagents of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid and poly(vinylpyrrolidone. Further, the growth evolution of pyramidal Cu nanoparticles was observed for the first time. We believe that our method might open new possibilities for fabricating nanomaterials of non-noble transition metals with various novel architectures, which can then potentially be utilized in applications such as biosensors, catalysis, photovoltaic cells, and electronic nanodevices.

  14. Electrodeposition of nickel particles and their characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, G. T. [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada, Laboratorio de Microscopia. Blvd. Enrique Reyna No. 140, Saltillo 25253, Coahuila (Mexico); Zavala, G.; Videa, M. [ITESM, Campus Monterrey, Depto. de Fisica, Av. Garza Sada 2501 Sur, Monterrey 64849, N. L. (Mexico)], e-mail: gtadeo@ciqa.mx

    2009-07-01

    Electrodeposition of nickel particles on ITO substrates is achieved by current pulse reduction. A comparison between potential pulse and current pulse experiments presents differences in particle size and particle size distribution. The latter shows smaller particle size dispersion than what is found with potential pulses. Characterization of the particles carried out by Atomic Force Microscopy shows particles with average sizes between 100 to 300 nm. Magnetic characterization by Magnetic Force Microscopy and SQUID shows that particles of {approx} 300 nm were ferromagnetic with a coercive field of 200 Oe and a saturation magnetization of 40 x 10{sup -6} emu at 300 K. (Author)

  15. Residual stress in Ni-W electrodeposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizushima, Io; Tang, Peter Torben; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, the residual stress in Ni–W layers electrodeposited from electrolytes based on NiSO4 and Na2WO4, is investigated. Citrate, glycine and triethanolamine were used as complexing agents, enabling complex formation between the nickel ion and tungstate. The results show that the type...... of complexing agent and the current efficiency have an influence on the residual stress. In all cases, an increase in tensile stress in the deposit with time after deposition was observed. Pulse plating could improve the stress level for the electrolyte containing equal amounts of citrate...

  16. Electrodeposited zinc/nickel coatings. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoeib, Madiha A. [Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Helwan, Cairo (Egypt). Surface Coating Dept.

    2011-10-15

    In recent years, the use of electrodeposited zinc-nickel coatings has significantly increased, mainly because of their superior corrosion resistance as compared with zinc. An additional strength of the process is that the proportion of the two metals, and thus the coating properties, can be varied. Initially, these alloy deposits were relatively brittle, with a tendency to crack-formation. More recently, ductile coatings have been developed. Now, as in the past, the emphasis has been on the cathodic corrosion protection which these coatings provide. Their properties can be further enhanced by post-treatment where additional developments have taken place. (orig.)

  17. Electrodeposition in capillaries: bottom-up micro- and nanopatterning of functional materials on conductive substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Antony; Maijenburg, A Wouter; Maas, Michiel G; Blank, Dave H A; Ten Elshof, Johan E

    2011-09-01

    A cost-effective and versatile methodology for bottom-up patterned growth of inorganic and metallic materials on the micro- and nanoscale is presented. Pulsed electrodeposition was employed to deposit arbitrary patterns of Ni, ZnO, and FeO(OH) of high quality, with lateral feature sizes down to 200-290 nm. The pattern was defined by an oxygen plasma-treated patterned PDMS mold in conformal contact with a conducting substrate and immersed in an electrolyte solution, so that the solid phases were deposited from the solution in the channels of the patterned mold. It is important that the distance between the entrance of the channels, and the location where deposition is needed, is kept limited. The as-formed patterns were characterized by high resolution scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction.

  18. The viability of MCM-41 as separator in secondary alkaline cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskon, S. R.; Othman, R.; Ani, M. H.

    2018-01-01

    The viability of MCM-41 membrane as a separator material in secondary alkaline cell is investigated. The inorganic membrane was employed in an alkaline nickel-zinc system. MCM-41 mesoporous material consists of arrays of hexagonal nano-pore channels. The membrane was synthesized using sol-gel route from parent solution comprising of quarternary ammonium surfactant, cethyltrimethylammonium bromide C16H33(CH3)3NBr (CTAB), hydrochloric acid (HCl), deionized water (H2O), ethanol (C2H5OH), and tetraethylortosilicate (TEOS). Both the anodic zinc/zinc oxide and cathodic nickel hydroxide electrodeposited film were coated with MCM-41 membrane. The Ni/MCM-41/Zn alkaline cell was then subjected to 100-cycle durability test and the structural stability of MCM-41 separator throughout the progression of the charge-discharge cycles is studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis on the dismantled cell shows that MCM-41 began to transform to lamellar MCM-50 on the 5th cycle and transformed almost completely on the 25th cycle. The phase transformation of MCM-41 hexagonal structure into gel-like MCM-50 prevents the mesoporous cell separator from diminished in the caustic alkaline surround. This work has hence demonstrated MCM-41 membrane is viable to be employed in secondary alkaline cells.

  19. Electrodeposition of germanium from supercritical fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Jie; Bartlett, Philip N; Cook, David; Easun, Timothy L; George, Michael W; Levason, William; Reid, Gillian; Smith, David; Su, Wenta; Zhang, Wenjian

    2012-01-28

    Several Ge(II) and Ge(IV) compounds were investigated as possible reagents for the electrodeposition of Ge from liquid CH(3)CN and CH(2)F(2) and supercritical CO(2) containing as a co-solvent CH(3)CN (scCO(2)) and supercritical CH(2)F(2) (scCH(2)F(2)). For Ge(II) reagents the most promising results were obtained using [NBu(n)(4)][GeCl(3)]. However the reproducibility was poor and the reduction currents were significantly less than the estimated mass transport limited values. Deposition of Ge containing films was possible at high cathodic potential from [NBu(n)(4)][GeCl(3)] in liquid CH(3)CN and supercritical CO(2) containing CH(3)CN but in all cases they were heavily contaminated by C, O, F and Cl. Much more promising results were obtained using GeCl(4) in liquid CH(2)F(2) and supercritical CH(2)F(2). In this case the reduction currents were consistent with mass transport limited reduction and bulk electrodeposition produced amorphous films of Ge. Characterisation by XPS showed the presence of low levels of O, F and C, XPS confirmed the presence of Ge together with germanium oxides, and Raman spectroscopy showed that the as deposited amorphous Ge could be crystallised by the laser used in obtaining the Raman measurements.

  20. Neutron reflectivity of electrodeposited thin magnetic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Joshaniel F.K.; Vyas, Kunal N.; Steinke, Nina-J.; Love, David M.; Kinane, Christian J.; Barnes, Crispin H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrodeposited magnetic bi-layers were measured by polarised neutron reflectivity. • When growing a CoNiCu alloy from a single bath a Cu rich region is initially formed. • This Cu rich region is formed in the first layer but not subsequent ones. • Ni deposition is inhibited in thin film growth and Co deposits anomalously. • Alloy magnetism and neutron scattering length give a self-consistent model. - Abstract: We present a polarised neutron reflectivity (PNR) study of magnetic/non-magnetic (CoNiCu/Cu) thin films grown by single bath electrodeposition. We find that the composition is neither homogeneous with time, nor consistent with bulk values. Instead an initial, non-magnetic copper rich layer is formed, around 2 nm thick. This layer is formed by the deposition of the dilute, but rapidly diffusing, Cu 2+ ions near the electrode surface at the start of growth, before the region is depleted and the deposition becomes mass transport limited. After the region has been depleted, by growth etc., this layer does not form and thus may be prevented by growing a copper buffer layer immediately preceding the magnetic layer growth. As has been previously found, cobalt deposits anomalously compared to nickel, and even inhibits Ni deposition in thin films. The layer magnetisation and average neutron scattering length are fitted independently but both depend upon the alloy composition. Thus these parameters can be used to check for model self-consistency, increasing confidence in the derived composition

  1. Gas Sensors Based on Electrodeposited Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Lakard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemically deposited polymers, also called “synthetic metals”, have emerged as potential candidates for chemical sensing due to their interesting and tunable chemical, electrical, and structural properties. In particular, most of these polymers (including polypyrrole, polyaniline, polythiophene and their derivatives can be used as the sensitive layer of conductimetric gas sensors because of their conducting properties. An important advantage of polymer-based gas sensors is their efficiency at room temperature. This characteristic is interesting since most of the commercially-available sensors, usually based on metal oxides, work at high temperatures (300–400 °C. Consequently, polymer-based gas sensors are playing a growing role in the improvement of public health and environment control because they can lead to gas sensors operating with rapid detection, high sensitivity, small size, and specificity in atmospheric conditions. In this review, the recent advances in electrodeposited polymer-based gas sensors are summarized and discussed. It is shown that the sensing characteristics of electrodeposited polymers can be improved by chemical functionalization, nanostructuration, or mixing with other functional materials to form composites or hybrid materials.

  2. Preparation of uranium electrodeposited target in aqueous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiping; Li Yougen; Zhong Wenbin

    2006-03-01

    The main factors affecting uranium electrodeposition were tested and discussed. In the primary experiment about preparation of uranium isotopic target by electrodeposition, a stainless steel disk has been chosen as the target material, the electrolytic bath is comprised of UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 and (NH 4 ) 2 C 2 O 4 , which has been adjusted to a pH of 2-3. Composition of the lost electrolytic bath was analysed by spectrophotometer. The thickness of resulting film is about 8-10 mg/cm 2 , the target having a thin, continuous, uniform layer of uranium, and its electrodeposited rate is more than 80%. (authors)

  3. Preliminary results about Electrodeposition of Cobalt at laboratory level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo, N.

    1992-01-01

    As of an organic compound, an extraction and Cobalt electrodeposition method had been developed as a part of fabrication aim of a sealed radioactive source with objective to the construction of density meter prototype. It was performed preliminary test of electrodeposition in the laboratory level in a simple cell. The used electrolyte had been a sulphate solution obtained by extraction of an organic solution. It is obtained a Co film by electrodeposition at 55 o C temperature and with an approximately Co concentration in 70 g/lt. (Author) 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Electrodeposition of gallium and zinc onto aluminium. Influence of the electrodeposited metals on the activation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flamini, D.O.; Saidman, S.B.; Bessone, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    The electrodeposition of gallium and/or zinc on aluminium, aluminium-zinc alloy and vitreous carbon electrodes in chloride solutions is analysed. The electrodissolution of the formed interfaces is also described and discussed. For this purpose, potentiodynamic and potentiostatic techniques and open circuit potential measurements were employed and surface characterisation was performed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The presence of zinc, electrodeposited from the solution or as an alloying component, facilitates gallium enrichment at the interface and improves the wetting on the aluminium oxide. These conditions ensure the formation of a surface Ga-Al amalgam. As a result, the dissolution process occurs at potentials which are more active than those observed for aluminium or aluminium-zinc alloy in halide solutions

  5. Electrodeposition of gallium and zinc onto aluminium. Influence of the electrodeposited metals on the activation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flamini, D.O. [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion (INIEC), Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Saidman, S.B. [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion (INIEC), Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)], E-mail: ssaidman@criba.edu.ar; Bessone, J.B. [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion (INIEC), Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2007-07-31

    The electrodeposition of gallium and/or zinc on aluminium, aluminium-zinc alloy and vitreous carbon electrodes in chloride solutions is analysed. The electrodissolution of the formed interfaces is also described and discussed. For this purpose, potentiodynamic and potentiostatic techniques and open circuit potential measurements were employed and surface characterisation was performed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The presence of zinc, electrodeposited from the solution or as an alloying component, facilitates gallium enrichment at the interface and improves the wetting on the aluminium oxide. These conditions ensure the formation of a surface Ga-Al amalgam. As a result, the dissolution process occurs at potentials which are more active than those observed for aluminium or aluminium-zinc alloy in halide solutions.

  6. Studies on inorganic exchanger: zirconium antimonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, A.; Balasubramanian, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    The inorganic exchanger zirconium antimonate has been prepared and its characteristics evaluated. A method has been developed for the separation of 90 Sr and 144 Ce from fission products solution using this exchanger. (author). 23 refs., 18 f igs., 9 tabs

  7. Triboelectric-generator-driven pulse electrodeposition for micropatterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guang; Pan, Caofeng; Guo, Wenxi; Chen, Chih-Yen; Zhou, Yusheng; Yu, Ruomeng; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-09-12

    By converting ambient energy into electricity, energy harvesting is capable of at least offsetting, or even replacing, the reliance of small portable electronics on traditional power supplies, such as batteries. Here we demonstrate a novel and simple generator with extremely low cost for efficiently harvesting mechanical energy that is typically present in the form of vibrations and random displacements/deformation. Owing to the coupling of contact charging and electrostatic induction, electric generation was achieved with a cycled process of contact and separation between two polymer films. A detailed theory is developed for understanding the proposed mechanism. The instantaneous electric power density reached as high as 31.2 mW/cm(3) at a maximum open circuit voltage of 110 V. Furthermore, the generator was successfully used without electric storage as a direct power source for pulse electrodeposition (PED) of micro/nanocrystalline silver structure. The cathodic current efficiency reached up to 86.6%. Not only does this work present a new type of generator that is featured by simple fabrication, large electric output, excellent robustness, and extremely low cost, but also extends the application of energy-harvesting technology to the field of electrochemistry with further utilizations including, but not limited to, pollutant degradation, corrosion protection, and water splitting.

  8. Electrodeposition of uranium and transuranic metals (Pu) on solid cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplace, A. F.; Lacquement, J.; Willitt, J. L.; Finch, R. A.; Fletcher, G. A.; Williamson, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    The results from a study of U and Pu metal electrodeposition from molten eutectic LiCl-KCl on a solid inert cathode are presented. This study has been conducted using ∼ to 50 g of U-Pu together with rare earths (mostly Nd) and 1.5 kg of salt. The introduction of a three-electrode probe with an Ag/AgCl reference electrode has allowed voltammetric measurement during electrolysis and control of the cathode potential versus the reference. Cyclic and square-wave voltammetric measurements proved to be very useful tools for monitoring the electrolysis as well as selecting the cathode versus reference potential to maximize the separation between actinides and rare earths. The voltammetric data also highlighted the occurrence of back reactions between the cathode deposit and oxidizing equivalents formed at the anode that remained in the molten salt electrolyte. Any further electrolysis test needs to be conducted continuously and followed by immediate removal of the cathode to minimize those back reactions. (authors)

  9. Surface and electrochemical characterization of electrodeposited PtRu alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richarz, Frank; Wohlmann, Bernd; Vogel, Ulrich; Hoffschulz, Henning; Wandelt, Klaus

    1995-07-01

    PtRu alloys of different compositions were electrodeposited on Au. Twelve alloys between 0% and 100% Pt were characterized with surface sensitive spectroscopies (XPS, LEIS) after transfer from an electrochemical cell to an ultra high vaccum chamber without contact to air. The composition of the thus prepared alloys showed a linear dependence on the concentrations of the deposition solution, but was Pt-enriched both in the bulk and (even more so) at the surface. During the electrochemical reduction of the metal cations, sulfur from the supporting electrolyte 1N H 2SO 4 was found to be incorporated into the electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry was used for the determination of the electrocatalytic activity of the electrodes for the oxidation of carbon monoxide. The highest activity for this oxidation as measured by the (peak) potential of the CO oxidation cyclovoltammograms was found for a surface concentration of ˜ 50%Pt. The asymmetry of this "activity curve" (oxidation potential versus Pt surface concentration) is tentatively explained in terms of a surface structural phase separation.

  10. A Study on the Effect of Electrodeposition Parameters on the Morphology of Porous Nickel Electrodeposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Srijan; Patra, Arghya; Jena, Sambedan; Das, Karabi; Das, Siddhartha

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the electrodeposition of nickel foam by dynamic hydrogen bubble-template method is optimized, and the effects of key deposition parameters (applied voltage and deposition time) and bath composition (concentration of Ni2+, pH of the bath, and roles of Cl- and SO4 2- ions) on pore size, distribution, and morphology and crystal structure are studied. Nickel deposit from 0.1 M NiCl2 bath concentration is able to produce the honeycomb-like structure with regular-sized holes. Honeycomb-like structure with cauliflower morphology is deposited at higher applied voltages of 7, 8, and 9 V; and a critical time (>3 minutes) is required for the development of the foamy structure. Compressive residual stresses are developed in the porous electrodeposits after 30 seconds of deposition time (-189.0 MPa), and the nature of the residual stress remains compressive upto 10 minutes of deposition time (-1098.6 MPa). Effect of pH is more pronounced in a chloride bath compared with a sulfate bath. The increasing nature of pore size in nickel electrodeposits plated from a chloride bath (varying from 21 to 48 μm), and the constant pore size (in the range of 22 to 24 μm) in deposits plated from a sulfate bath, can be ascribed to the striking difference in the magnitude of the corresponding current-time profiles.

  11. Electrodeposition route to synthesize cigs films – an economical way ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Unlike binary conductors CIGS film preparation needs highly ... This argument also holds well in forming a hetero-junction partner CdS ..... successfully electrodeposited onto indium tin oxide substrate and it is recently reported (Li et al., 2010).

  12. Bulk Copper Electrodeposition on Gold Imaged by In Situ STM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Møller, Per

    1996-01-01

    Electrochemical measurements were carried out simultaneously with acquisition of in situ STM images of copper electrodeposition at low cathodic overpotentials and subsequent dissolution from the underlying polycrystalline gold surfaces. The morphologies of the copper deposits were examined...

  13. Nanocrystalline Ni-Co Alloy Synthesis by High Speed Electrodeposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaliah Idris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrodeposition of nanocrystals is economically and technologically viable production path for the synthesis of pure metals and alloys both in coatings and bulk form. The study presents nanocrystalline Ni-Co alloy synthesis by high speed electrodeposition. Nanocrystalline Ni-Co alloys coatings were prepared by direct current (DC and deposited directly on steel and aluminum substrates without any pretreatment, using high speed electrodeposition method. The influence of the electrolysis parameters, such as cathodic current density and temperature at constant pH, on electrodeposition and microstructure of Ni-Co alloys were examined. A homogeneous surface morphology was obtained at all current densities of the plated samples, and it was evident that the current density and temperature affect the coating thickness of Ni-Co alloy coatings.

  14. Effect of condensation product on electrodeposition of zinc on mild ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Abstract. Electrodeposition of zinc on steel was obtained from acid chloride bath containing condensation products (CP) of 3,4 ..... nucleation number and hence smaller grain size. The ... thesis, Bangalore University, Bangalore. Venkatesha ...

  15. A review of the inorganic and organometallic chemistry of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalvins, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a literature review of the inorganic and organometallic chemistry of zirconium are presented. Compounds with physical and chemical properties compatible with the requirements of an ir laser zirconium isotope separation process have been identified

  16. Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes

    OpenAIRE

    Maijenburg, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is entitled “Templated electrodeposition of functional nanostructures: nanowires, nanotubes and nanocubes”. Templated electrodeposition is the synthesis technique that was used throughout this thesis, and it comprises the use of a template with specific shape and dimensions for the formation of different types of nanostructures. Throughout this thesis, three different nanostructures were made: nanowires (Chapters 2 to 6), nanotubes (Chapters 2 and 5) and nanocubes (Chapters 7 and ...

  17. Structural defects in electrodeposited Ni studied by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Szeles, C.; Czako-Nagy, I.; Lakatos-Varsanyi, M.

    1982-01-01

    Structural investigation of electrodeposited Ni was carried out by positron annihilation (PA) technique. Additional Moessbauer effect and X-ray diffraction measurements were also performed. The samples were produced under different plating conditions resulting in stress in the range -100 to +600 N/mm 2 . From the positron lifetime measurements it seems that the defect pattern of electrodeposited Ni samples might be substantially different from sample to sample with different deposition and plating conditions. (Auth.)

  18. New separation and detection methods in capillary electrophoresis and ion chromatography for the analysis of ionic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayrhofer, K.

    1999-10-01

    The first part of the thesis deals with the simultaneous analysis of inorganic anions and organic acids in electrodeposition coatings with the co-electroosmotic capillary electrophoresis. The coating of workpieces, e.g. car bodies, by means of an electrodeposition process is an important methodology especially in the automotiv industries. It is usually performed by introducing the object into a basin filled with a water-based electro-dipcoat, applying a voltage of 200-400 Volts (direct current) and using the bodywork as cathode. Because the workpiece has to pass a number of preliminary treatments before the coating procedure, ionic compound may be carried into the basin. If the concentrations of these ionic impurities is too high, the electro-deposition of the binding agent fails or the thickness of the coating is not reproducible. The organic acids are used as neutralization agents in order to control and to keep the pH of the basin constant. The common method of analysing ionic impurities is ion chromatography. The organic acids have to be separated in an ion exclusion chromatography column because organic acids may coelute with the inorganic anions or elute with the dead volume. Therefore a separation method for capillary electrophoresis was developed which enables the simultaneouse analysis of inorganic anions and organic acids in less then 5 minutes. Chloride, nitrate, sulfate, fuoride, phosphate, carbonate, formic acid, acetic acid, lactic acid and butyric acid were detected with indirect UV-detection at 254 nm. For removal of the the binding agent and the pigments the lacquer was mixed with a 0.01 M sodium hydroxide solution and then filtered through a 0.45 μm filter cartridge. 5 mM trimellitic acid, titrated with sodium hydroxid to pH 10, 0.001 % hexadimethrinbromide and 20 % acetonitrile served as buffer. The analytes were separated with a satisfactory resolution. Between every analysis the fused silica capillary was purged for two minutes with buffer. So

  19. Electrodeposition of nanostructured Sn-Zn coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhi, Y.; Cherrouf, S.; Cherkaoui, M.; Abdelouahdi, K.

    2016-03-01

    The electrodeposition of Sn-Zn coating at ambient temperature was investigated. The bath consists of metal salts SnCl2·2H2O and ZnSO4·7H2O and sodium citrate (NaC6H5Na3O7·2H2O) as complexing agent. To prevent precipitation, the pH is fixed at 5. Reducing tin and zinc through Sncit2- and ZnHcit- complex respectively is confirmed by the presence of two cathodic peaks on the voltammogram. The kinetic of tin (II) reduction process is limited by the SnCit2- dissociation. The SEM and TEM observations have showed that the coating consists of a uniform Sn-Zn layer composed of fine grains on which tin aggregates grow up. XRD revealed peaks corresponding to the hexagonal Zn phase and the tetragonal β-Sn phase.

  20. Method of recovering phosphoric acid type decontaminating electrolytes by electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takashi; Wada, Koichi; Kobayashi, Toshio.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To recoving phosphoric acid type highly concentrated decontaminating liquid used for the electrolytic decontamination of contaminated equipments, components, etc in nuclear power plants or the like through electrodeposition by diaphragm electrolysis. Method: Before supplying phosphoric acid decontaminating liquid at high concentration used in the electrolytic decontaminating step to an electrodeposition recovering tank, phosphoric acid in the decontaminating electrolyte is extracted with solvents and decomposed liquid extracts (electrolyte reduced with the phosphoric acid component) are supplied to the cathode chamber of the electrodeposition recovering tank, where phosphoric acid is back-extracted with water from the solvents after extraction of phosphoric acid. Then, the back-extracted liquids (aqueous phosphoric acid solution scarcely containing metal ions) are sent to the anode chamber of the electrodeposition recovering tank. Metal ions in the liquid are captured by electrodeposition in the cathode chamber, as well as phosphoric acid in the liquids is concentrated to the initial concentration of the electrolyte in the anode chamber for reuse as the decontaminating electrolyte. As the phosphoric acid extracting agent used in the electrodeposition recovering step for the decontaminating electrolyte, water-insoluble and non-combustible tributyl phosphate (TBP) is most effective. (Horiuchi, T.)

  1. Electrodeposition of amine-terminatedpoly(ethylene glycol) to titanium surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yuta; Doi, Hisashi; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Hiromoto, Sachiko; Yoneyama, Takayuki; Asami, Katsuhiko; Imai, Hachiro; Hanawa, Takao

    2007-01-01

    The immobilization of poly(ethylene glycol), PEG, to a solid surface is useful to functionalize the surface, e.g., to prevent the adsorption of proteins. No successful one-stage technique for the immobilization of PEG to base metals has ever been developed. In this study, PEG in which both terminals or one terminal had been modified with amine bases was immobilized onto a titanium surface using electrodeposition. PEG was dissolved in a NaCl solution, and electrodeposition was carried out at 310 K with - 5 V for 300 min. The thickness of the deposited PEG layer was evaluated using ellipsometry, and the bonding manner of PEG to the titanium surface was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy after electrodeposition. The results indicated that a certain amount of PEG was adsorbed on titanium through both electrodeposition and immersion when PEG was terminated by amine. However, terminated amines existed at the surface of titanium and were combined with titanium oxide as N-HO by electrodeposition, while amines randomly existed in the molecule and showed an ionic bond with titanium oxide by immersion. The electrodeposition of PEG was effective for the inhibition of albumin adsorption. This process is useful for materials that have electroconductivity and a complex morphology

  2. Layered inorganic solids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejka, Jiří; Morris, R. E.; Nachtigall, P.; Roth, Wieslaw Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 27 (2014), s. 10274-10275 ISSN 1477-9226 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : layered inorganic solids * physical chemistry * catalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.197, year: 2014

  3. Inorganic Coatings Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The inorganic Coatings Lab provides expertise to Navy and Joint Service platforms acquisition IPTs to aid in materials and processing choices which balance up-front...

  4. Inorganic and geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinnin, J.I.

    1975-01-01

    Recently described methods for applied inorganic analysis are reviewed from an interdisciplinary standpoint. Abstracts and periodical literature up to Nov. 1974, are included for consideration. The following areas of interest are covered: general reviews of inorganic analytical techniques; analytical techniques, areas of application, and analysis of individual elements. Selected books, monographs, and review articles on the analytical chemistry of the elements are listed. (416 references.) (U.S.)

  5. Composite separators and redox flow batteries based on porous separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Luo, Qingtao; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-01-12

    Composite separators having a porous structure and including acid-stable, hydrophilic, inorganic particles enmeshed in a substantially fully fluorinated polyolefin matrix can be utilized in a number of applications. The inorganic particles can provide hydrophilic characteristics. The pores of the separator result in good selectivity and electrical conductivity. The fluorinated polymeric backbone can result in high chemical stability. Accordingly, one application of the composite separators is in redox flow batteries as low cost membranes. In such applications, the composite separator can also enable additional property-enhancing features compared to ion-exchange membranes. For example, simple capacity control can be achieved through hydraulic pressure by balancing the volumes of electrolyte on each side of the separator. While a porous separator can also allow for volume and pressure regulation, in RFBs that utilize corrosive and/or oxidizing compounds, the composite separators described herein are preferable for their robustness in the presence of such compounds.

  6. Electrodeposition of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate coatings on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... inorganic component of bones. Differently oriented CaHPO4·2H2O coatings transform to hydroxyapatite ... materials involved in the biomineralization of bones and teeth (Johnsson and ... The unit cell consists of alternat- ing bilayers stacked ...

  7. Phosphate tuned copper electrodeposition and promoted formic acid selectivity for carbon dioxide reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jian; Sun, Libo; Canepa, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Fabrication of catalytically active electrodes by electrodeposition is attractive due to its in situ nature, easy controllability, and large-scale operation capability. Most recently, modifying the electrodes with phosphate ligands through electrodepositing electrode materials has shown promising...

  8. Inorganic UV filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Berbel Manaia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, concern over skin cancer has been growing more and more, especially in tropical countries where the incidence of UVA/B radiation is higher. The correct use of sunscreen is the most efficient way to prevent the development of this disease. The ingredients of sunscreen can be organic and/or inorganic sun filters. Inorganic filters present some advantages over organic filters, such as photostability, non-irritability and broad spectrum protection. Nevertheless, inorganic filters have a whitening effect in sunscreen formulations owing to the high refractive index, decreasing their esthetic appeal. Many techniques have been developed to overcome this problem and among them, the use of nanotechnology stands out. The estimated amount of nanomaterial in use must increase from 2000 tons in 2004 to a projected 58000 tons in 2020. In this context, this article aims to analyze critically both the different features of the production of inorganic filters (synthesis routes proposed in recent years and the permeability, the safety and other characteristics of the new generation of inorganic filters.

  9. Inorganic Membranes: Preparation and Application for Water Treatment and Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Gordon; Buekenhoudt, Anita; Motmans, Filip; Khraisheh, Marwan; Atieh, Muataz

    2018-01-01

    Inorganic membrane science and technology is an attractive field of membrane separation technology, which has been dominated by polymer membranes. Recently, the inorganic membrane has been undergoing rapid development and innovation. Inorganic membranes have the advantage of resisting harsh chemical cleaning, high temperature and wear resistance, high chemical stability, long lifetime, and autoclavable. All of these outstanding properties made inorganic membranes good candidates to be used for water treatment and desalination applications. This paper is a state of the art review on the synthesis, development, and application of different inorganic membranes for water and wastewater treatment. The inorganic membranes reviewed in this paper include liquid membranes, dynamic membranes, various ceramic membranes, carbon based membranes, silica membranes, and zeolite membranes. A brief description of the different synthesis routes for the development of inorganic membranes for application in water industry is given and each synthesis rout is critically reviewed and compared. Thereafter, the recent studies on different application of inorganic membrane and their properties for water treatment and desalination in literature are critically summarized. It was reported that inorganic membranes despite their high synthesis cost, showed very promising results with high flux, full salt rejection, and very low or no fouling. PMID:29304024

  10. Inorganic Membranes: Preparation and Application for Water Treatment and Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kayvani Fard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic membrane science and technology is an attractive field of membrane separation technology, which has been dominated by polymer membranes. Recently, the inorganic membrane has been undergoing rapid development and innovation. Inorganic membranes have the advantage of resisting harsh chemical cleaning, high temperature and wear resistance, high chemical stability, long lifetime, and autoclavable. All of these outstanding properties made inorganic membranes good candidates to be used for water treatment and desalination applications. This paper is a state of the art review on the synthesis, development, and application of different inorganic membranes for water and wastewater treatment. The inorganic membranes reviewed in this paper include liquid membranes, dynamic membranes, various ceramic membranes, carbon based membranes, silica membranes, and zeolite membranes. A brief description of the different synthesis routes for the development of inorganic membranes for application in water industry is given and each synthesis rout is critically reviewed and compared. Thereafter, the recent studies on different application of inorganic membrane and their properties for water treatment and desalination in literature are critically summarized. It was reported that inorganic membranes despite their high synthesis cost, showed very promising results with high flux, full salt rejection, and very low or no fouling.

  11. Inorganic liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlicek, Z.; Barta, C.; Jursova, L.

    1986-01-01

    An inorganic liquid scintillator is designed which contains 1 to 30 wt.% of an inorganic molecular compound as the basic active component; the compound contains a cation with an atomic number higher than 47 and a halogen anion. The basic inorganic component is dissolved in water or in an organic solvent in form of non-dissociated molecules or self-complexes in which the bond is preserved between the cation and anion components. The light yield from these scintillators ranges between 70 and 150% of the light yield of a standard organic scintillator based on toluene. They are advantageous in that that they allow to increase the water content in the sample to up to 100%. (M.D.)

  12. Preparation and characterization of electrodeposited cobalt nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irshad, M. I., E-mail: imrancssp@gmail.com; Mohamed, N. M., E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 PERAK (Malaysia); Ahmad, F., E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my; Abdullah, M. Z., E-mail: zaki-abdullah@petronas.com.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 PERAK (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Electrochemical deposition technique has been used to deposit cobalt nanowires into the nano sized channels of Anodized Aluminium Oxide (AAO) templates. CoCl{sub 2}Ðœ‡6H2O salt solution was used, which was buffered with H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} and acidified by dilute H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to increase the plating life and control pH of the solution. Thin film of copper around 150 nm thick on one side of AAO template coated by e-beam evaporation system served as cathode to create electrical contact. FESEM analysis shows that the as-deposited nanowires are highly aligned, parallel to one another and have high aspect ratio with a reasonably high pore-filing factor. The TEM results show that electrodeposited cobalt nanowires are crystalline in nature. The Hysteresis loop shows the magnetization properties for in and out of plane configuration. The in plane saturation magnetization (Ms) is lower than out of plane configuration because of the easy axis of magnetization is perpendicular to nanowire axis. These magnetic nanowires could be utilized for applications such as spintronic devices, high density magnetic storage, and magnetic sensor applications.

  13. Preparation and characterization of electrodeposited cobalt nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irshad, M. I.; Mohamed, N. M.; Ahmad, F.; Abdullah, M. Z.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical deposition technique has been used to deposit cobalt nanowires into the nano sized channels of Anodized Aluminium Oxide (AAO) templates. CoCl 2 Ðœ‡6H2O salt solution was used, which was buffered with H 3 BO 3 and acidified by dilute H 2 SO 4 to increase the plating life and control pH of the solution. Thin film of copper around 150 nm thick on one side of AAO template coated by e-beam evaporation system served as cathode to create electrical contact. FESEM analysis shows that the as-deposited nanowires are highly aligned, parallel to one another and have high aspect ratio with a reasonably high pore-filing factor. The TEM results show that electrodeposited cobalt nanowires are crystalline in nature. The Hysteresis loop shows the magnetization properties for in and out of plane configuration. The in plane saturation magnetization (Ms) is lower than out of plane configuration because of the easy axis of magnetization is perpendicular to nanowire axis. These magnetic nanowires could be utilized for applications such as spintronic devices, high density magnetic storage, and magnetic sensor applications

  14. Thorium inorganic gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genet, M.; Brandel, V.

    1988-01-01

    The optimum pH and concentration values of thorium salts and oxoacids or oxoacid salts which lead to transparent and stable inorganic gels have been determined. The isotherm drying process of the gel at 50 0 C leads successively to a partly dehydrated gel, then, to the formation of an unusual liquid phase and, finally to a dry amorphous solid phase which is still transparent. This kind of transparent inorganic gels and amorphous phase can be used as matrices for spectroscopic studies [fr

  15. Superconducting selenides intercalated with organic molecules: synthesis, crystal structure, electric and magnetic properties, superconducting properties, and phase separation in iron based-chalcogenides and hybrid organic-inorganic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzton-Maziopa, Anna; Pesko, Edyta; Puzniak, Roman

    2018-06-01

    Layered iron-based superconducting chalcogenides intercalated with molecular species are the subject of intensive studies, especially in the field of solid state chemistry and condensed matter physics, because of their intriguing chemistry and tunable electric and magnetic properties. Considerable progress in the research, revealing superconducting inorganic–organic hybrid materials with transition temperatures to superconducting state, T c, up to 46 K, has been brought in recent years. These novel materials are synthesized by low-temperature intercalation of molecular species, such as solvates of alkali metals and nitrogen-containing donor compounds, into layered FeSe-type structure. Both the chemical nature as well as orientation of organic molecules between the layers of inorganic host, play an important role in structural modifications and may be used for fine tuning of superconducting properties. Furthermore, a variety of donor species compatible with alkali metals, as well as the possibility of doping also in the host structure (either on Fe or Se sites), makes this system quite flexible and gives a vast array of new materials with tunable electric and magnetic properties. In this review, the main aspects of intercalation chemistry are discussed with a particular attention paid to the influence of the unique nature of intercalating species on the crystal structure and physical properties of the hybrid inorganic–organic materials. To get a full picture of these materials, a comprehensive description of the most effective chemical and electrochemical methods, utilized for synthesis of intercalated species, with critical evaluation of their strong and weak points, related to feasibility of synthesis, phase purity, crystal size and morphology of final products, is included as well.

  16. Determination of diphenylarsinic acid, phenylarsonic acid and inorganic arsenic in drinking water by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry after simultaneous separation and preconcentration with solid-phase extraction disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Kenta; Inui, Tetsuo; Koike, Yuya; Nakamura, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    A simple method of graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for the determination of diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), phenylarsonic acid (PAA), and inorganic arsenic (iAs) in drinking water. This method involves the simultaneous collection of DPAA, PAA, and iAs using three stacked SPE disks, i.e., an Empore SDB-XD disk (the upper layer), an activated carbon disk (the middle layer), and a Cation-SR disk loaded with Zr and Ca (ZrCa-CED; the lower layer). A 200-mL aqueous sample was adjusted to pH 3 with nitric acid and passed through the SPE disks at a flow rate of 15 mL min(-1), to concentrate DPAA on the SDB-XD disk, PAA on the activated carbon disk, and iAs on the ZrCa-CED. The As compounds were eluted from the disks with 10 mL of ethanol containing 0.5 mol L(-1) ammonia solution for DPAA, 20 mL of 1 mol L(-1) ammonia solution for PAA, and 20 mL of 6 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid for iAs. The eluates of DPAA, PAA, and iAs were diluted to 20, 25, and 25 mL, respectively, with deionized water, and then analyzed by GFAAS. The detection limits of As (three-times the standard deviation (n = 3) of the blank values) were 0.13 and 0.16 μg L(-1) at enrichment factors of 10 and 8, respectively, using a 200-mL water sample. Spike tests with 2 μg (10 μg L(-1)) of DPAA, PAA, and iAs in 200 mL of tap water and bottled drinking water showed good recoveries (96.1-103.8%).

  17. Preparation of uranium electrodeposited target in aqueous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiping, Chen; Yougen, Li; Wenbin, Zhong [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China). Inst. of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry

    2006-03-15

    The main factors affecting uranium electrodeposition were tested and discussed. In the primary experiment about preparation of uranium isotopic target by electrodeposition, a stainless steel disk has been chosen as the target material, the electrolytic bath is comprised of UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}, which has been adjusted to a pH of 2-3. Composition of the lost electrolytic bath was analysed by spectrophotometer. The thickness of resulting film is about 8-10 mg/cm{sup 2}, the target having a thin, continuous, uniform layer of uranium, and its electrodeposited rate is more than 80%. (authors)

  18. Use of carriers for to electrodeposited radium 226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe, J.L.

    1991-10-01

    The form of the energy distribution of a monoenergetic alpha particle starting from some emitting source of these particles, it depends on the quantity of material that its cross before being detected. Some authors deposit to the radium-226 by means of direct evaporation of the solution on metallic supports, on millipore paper and by electrodeposition. Some other ones place the radium solution in scintillation liquid, to quantify it by this technique. The objective of the present work is using carriers with the same oxidation state of the radium, that is to say of 2 + , for treating to be electrodeposited to the radium-226 with the biggest possible percentage for later use the alpha spectroscopy technique to quantify it. The carriers that have been used until its they are barium and zinc in form of barium chloride, zinc nitrate and zinc sulfate. The first results indicate that with the zinc solution a yield of 40% of electrodeposited radium has been reached. (Author)

  19. Microstructure and surface mechanical properties of pulse electrodeposited nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ul-Hamid, A., E-mail: anwar@kfupm.edu.sa [Center of Research Excellence in Corrosion (CoRE-C), Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, P.O. Box 1073, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Dafalla, H.; Quddus, A.; Saricimen, H.; Al-Hadhrami, L.M. [Center of Research Excellence in Corrosion (CoRE-C), Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, P.O. Box 1073, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-09-01

    The surface of carbon steel was modified by electrochemical deposition of Ni in a standard Watt's bath using dc and pulse plating electrodeposition. The aim was to compare the microstructure and surface mechanical properties of the deposit obtained by both techniques. Materials characterization was conducted using field emission scanning electron microscope fitted with scanning transmission electron detector, atomic force microscope and X-ray diffractometer. Nanoindentation hardness, elastic modulus, adhesion, coefficients of friction and wear rates were determined for both dc and pulse electrodeposits. Experimental results indicate that pulse electrodeposition produced finer Ni grains compared to dc plating. Size of Ni grains increased with deposition. Both dc and pulse deposition resulted in grain growth in preferred (2 0 0) orientation. However, presence of Ni (1 1 1) grains increased in deposits produced by pulse deposition. Pulse plated Ni exhibited higher hardness, creep and coefficient of friction and lower modulus of elasticity compared to dc plated Ni.

  20. Electrodeposition of Metal on GaAs Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Einabad, Omid; Watkins, Simon; Kavanagh, Karen

    2010-10-01

    Copper (Cu) electrical contacts to freestanding gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowires have been fabricated via electrodeposition. The nanowires are zincblende (111) oriented grown epitaxially on n-type Si-doped GaAs (111)B substrates by gold-catalyzed Vapor Liquid Solid (VLS) growth in a metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor. The epitaxial electrodeposition process, based on previous work with bulk GaAs substrates, consists of a substrate oxide pre-etch in dilute ammonium-hydroxide carried out prior to galvanostatic electrodeposition in a pure Cu sulphate aqueous electrolyte at 20-60^oC. For GaAs nanowires, we find that Cu or Fe has a preference for growth on the gold catalyst avoiding the sidewalls. After removing gold, both metals still prefer to grow only on top of the nanowire, which has the largest potential field.

  1. Ultrasonic electrodeposition of silver nanoparticles on dielectric silica spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Shaochun; Tang Yuefeng; Gao Feng; Liu Zhiguo; Meng Xiangkang

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, a facile and one-step ultrasonic electrodeposition method is first applied to controllably coat colloidal silica spheres with silver nanoparticles. This method is additive-free and very direct, because processes necessary in many other approaches, such as pretreatment of the silica sphere surface and pre-preparation of silver nanoparticles, are not involved in it. Furthermore, it makes possible the coating of dielectric substrates with metal through an electrodeposition route. Under appropriate conditions, silver nanoparticles with sizes of 8-10 nm in diameter can be relatively homogeneously deposited onto the surface of preformed colloidal silica spheres. Silver particles with different sizes and dispersive uniformity on silica sphere surfaces can also be obtained by adjusting the current density (I), the concentration of electrolyte (C) and the electrolysis time (t). The possible ultrasonic electrodeposition mechanism is also suggested according to the experimental results

  2. In situ diffraction studies of electrode surface structure during gold electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnussen, O.M.; Krug, K.; Ayyad, A.H.; Stettner, J.

    2008-01-01

    Surface X-ray scattering (SXS) in transmission geometry provides a valuable tool for in situ structural studies of electrochemical interfaces under reaction conditions, as illustrated here for homoepitaxial electrodeposition on Au(1 0 0) and Au(1 1 1) electrodes. Employing diffusion-limited deposition conditions to separate the effects of potential and deposition rate, a mutual interaction between the interface structure and the growth behavior is found. Time-dependent SXS measurements during Au(1 0 0) homoepitaxy show with decreasing potential transitions from step flow to layer-by-layer growth, then to multilayer growth, and finally back to layer-by-layer growth. This complex growth behavior can be explained within the framework of kinetic growth theory by the effect of potential, Cl adsorbates and the Au surface structure, specifically the presence of the surface reconstruction, on the Au surface mobility. Conversely, the electrodeposition process influences the structure of the reconstructed Au surface, as illustrated for Au(1 1 1), where a significant deposition-induced compression of the Au surface layer as compared to Au(1 1 1) surfaces under ultrahigh vacuum conditions or in Au-free electrolyte is found. This compression increases towards more negative potentials, which may be explained by a release of potential-induced surface stress

  3. Bright metal coatings from sustainable electrolytes: the effect of molecular additives on electrodeposition of nickel from a deep eutectic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Andrew P; Ballantyne, Andrew; Harris, Robert C; Juma, Jamil A; Ryder, Karl S

    2017-01-25

    Organic and inorganic additives are often added to nickel electroplating solutions to improve surface finish, reduce roughness and promote uniform surface morphology of the coatings. Such additives are usually small molecules and often referred to as brighteners or levellers. However, there have been limited investigations into the effect of such additives on electrodeposition from ionic liquids (ILs) and deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Here we study the effect of four additives on electrolytic nickel plating from an ethyleneglycol based DES; these are nicotinic acid (NA), methylnicotinate (MN), 5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DMH) and boric acid (BA). The additives show limited influence on the bulk Ni(ii) speciation but have significant influence on the electrochemical behaviour of Ni deposition. Small concentrations (ca. 15 mM) of NA and MN show inhibition of Ni(ii) reduction whereas high concentrations of DMH and BA are required for a modest difference in behaviour from the additive free system. NA and MN also show that they significantly alter the nucleation and growth mechanism when compared to the additive free system and those with DMH and BA. Each of the additive systems had the effect of producing brighter and flatter bulk electrodeposits with increased coating hardness but XRD shows that NA and MN direct crystal growth to the [111] orientation whereas DMH and BA direct crystal growth to the [220] orientation.

  4. Electrodeposition of polyfluorene on a carbon nanotube electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentini, L; Mengoni, F; Mattiello, L; Kenny, J M

    2007-01-01

    Electrophoretically deposited single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films on a transparent conducting surface are used as electrodes for the electrodeposition of a π-conjugated polymer formed by the oxidative coupling of fluorene units. This method provides a uniform coverage of the conducting surface with respect to SWCNTs chemically assembled on a gold substrate. Electron microscopy reveals the formation of a polymer-SWCNT nanostructure which imparts distinct electrical properties from those of the polymer electrodeposited on the neat electrode. By combining the attractive properties of SWCNTs and polyfluorene, these nanocomposites open up new opportunities to achieve electrical contacts in nano- to micro-devices

  5. Morphology selection for cupric oxide thin films by electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, V; Mahalingam, T; Chandramohan, R

    2011-10-01

    Polycrystalline cupric oxide thin films were deposited using alkaline solution bath employing cathodic electrodeposition method. The thin films were electrodeposited at various solution pH. The surface morphology and elemental analyzes of the films were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis, respectively. SEM studies revealed that the surface morphology could be tailored suitably by adjusting the pH value during deposition. Mesh average on multiple lattice mode atomic force microscopy image was obtained and reported. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Effect of pretreatments on electrodeposited epoxy coatings for electronic industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sironmani Palraj

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne epoxy coatings were prepared on aluminium (Al surfaces by cathodic electro-deposition on the pretreated surface of pickling, phosphating, chromating and anodizing. The electro-deposition experiments were done at two different voltages, 15 V and 25 V at room temperature in 10% epoxy coating formulations. Corrosion and thermal behavior of these coatings were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA. The coating exhibits better corrosion resistance in anodized Al surface than the other. But, TGA studies show that the thermal stability is higher in anodized and chromated Al surfaces. The surface morphology of these coatings were analyzed by SEM and AFM studies.

  7. Morphological and magnetic properties of cobalt nanoclusters electrodeposited onto HOPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, M.; Rios-Reyes, C.H.; Mendoza-Huizar, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the morphological and magnetic properties of cobalt nanoclusters obtained from two different sulphate electrolyte solutions were studied. The aggregates were electrodeposited onto highly oriented pyrolytic graphite electrodes in overpotential conditions, in order to investigate the cationic influence on the final properties of the aggregates. In both cases, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy showed random isolated clusters on the electrode surface, where size variations were determined by the electrolyte solution. By using magnetic force microscopy, the distribution of the electrodeposited magnetic material was more clearly observed which gave some insights on the growth mechanism of these aggregates.

  8. Microstructure stability of silver electrodeposits at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Karsten; Pantleon, Karen

    2008-01-01

    In situ quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis was used to investigate the kinetics of microstructure evolution at room temperature (self-annealing) in an electrodeposited silver layer. As a function of time at room temperature the as-deposited nanocrystalline microstructure evolved considerably: orientation-dependent grain growth and changes of the preferred grain orientation occurred. It is demonstrated for the first time that self-annealing occurs for electrodeposited silver layers and, hence, is not a unique feature of copper as often suggested

  9. Engineered inorganic core/shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mélinon, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.melinon@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière matière Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS et OMNT, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Bâtiment Léon Brillouin, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Begin-Colin, Sylvie [IPCMS et OMNT, 23 rue du Loess BP 43, 67034 STRASBOURG Cedex 2 (France); Duvail, Jean Luc [IMN UMR 6502 et OMNT Campus Sciences : 2 rue de la Houssinire, BP32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex3 (France); Gauffre, Fabienne [SPM et OMNT : Institut des sciences chimiques de Rennes - UMR 6226, 263 Avenue du General Leclerc, CS 74205, 35042 RENNES Cedex (France); Boime, Nathalie Herlin [IRAMIS-NIMBE, Laboratoire Francis Perrin (CEA CNRS URA 2453) et OMNT, Bat 522, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Ledoux, Gilles [Institut Lumière Matière Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS et OMNT, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Bâtiment Alfred Kastler 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918 F 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Plain, Jérôme [Universit de technologie de Troyes LNIO-ICD, CNRS et OMNT 12 rue Marie Curie - CS 42060 - 10004 Troyes cedex (France); Reiss, Peter [CEA Grenoble, INAC-SPrAM, UMR 5819 CEA-CNRS-UJF et OMNT, Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Silly, Fabien [CEA, IRAMIS, SPEC, TITANS, CNRS 2464 et OMNT, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte [CEMES-CNRS, Université de Toulouse et OMNT, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig F 31055 Toulouse (France)

    2014-10-20

    It has been for a long time recognized that nanoparticles are of great scientific interest as they are effectively a bridge between bulk materials and atomic structures. At first, size effects occurring in single elements have been studied. More recently, progress in chemical and physical synthesis routes permitted the preparation of more complex structures. Such structures take advantages of new adjustable parameters including stoichiometry, chemical ordering, shape and segregation opening new fields with tailored materials for biology, mechanics, optics magnetism, chemistry catalysis, solar cells and microelectronics. Among them, core/shell structures are a particular class of nanoparticles made with an inorganic core and one or several inorganic shell layer(s). In earlier work, the shell was merely used as a protective coating for the core. More recently, it has been shown that it is possible to tune the physical properties in a larger range than that of each material taken separately. The goal of the present review is to discuss the basic properties of the different types of core/shell nanoparticles including a large variety of heterostructures. We restrict ourselves on all inorganic (on inorganic/inorganic) core/shell structures. In the light of recent developments, the applications of inorganic core/shell particles are found in many fields including biology, chemistry, physics and engineering. In addition to a representative overview of the properties, general concepts based on solid state physics are considered for material selection and for identifying criteria linking the core/shell structure and its resulting properties. Chemical and physical routes for the synthesis and specific methods for the study of core/shell nanoparticle are briefly discussed.

  10. Electrodeposited silk coatings for functionalized implant applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Roberto

    The mechanical and morphological properties of titanium as well as its biocompatibility and osteoinductive characteristics have made it the material of choice for dental implant systems. Although the success rate of titanium implants exceeds 90% in healthy individuals, a large subset of the population has one or more risk factors that inhibit implant integration. Treatments and coatings have been developed to improve clinical outcomes via introduction of appropriate surface topography, texture and roughness or incorporation of bioactive molecules. It is essential that the coatings and associated deposition techniques are controllable and reproducible. Currently, methods of depositing functional coatings are dictated by numerous parameters (temperature, particle size distribution, pH and voltage), which result in variable coating thickness, strength, porosity and weight, and hinder or preclude biomolecule incorporation. Silk is a highly versatile protein with a unique combination of mechanical and physical properties, including tunable degradation, biocompatibility, drug stabilizing capabilities and mechanical properties. Most recently an electrogelation technique was developed which allows for the deposition of gels which dry seamlessly over the contoured topography of the conductive substrate. In this work we examine the potential use of silk electrogels as mechanically robust implant coatings capable of sequestering and releasing therapeutic agents. Electrodeposition of silk electrogels formed in uniform electric fields was characterized with respect to field intensity and deposition time. Gel formation kinetics were used to derive functions which allowed for the prediction of coating deposition over a range of process and solution parameters. Silk electrogel growth orientation was shown to be influenced by the applied electric field. Coatings were reproducible and tunable via intrinsic silk solution properties and extrinsic process parameters. Adhesion was

  11. Morphological instability during steady electrodeposition at overlimiting currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Peder; Bruus, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    We present a linear stability analysis of a planar metal electrode during steady electrodeposition. We extend the previous work of Sundstrom and Bark by accounting for the extended space-charge density, which develops at the cathode once the applied voltage exceeds a few thermal voltages...

  12. Cathodic electrodeposition of ceramic and organoceramic materials. Fundamental aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitomirsky, I

    2002-03-29

    Electrodeposition of ceramic materials can be performed by electrophoretic (EPD) or electrolytic (ELD) deposition. Electrophoretic deposition is achieved via motion of charged particles towards an electrode under an applied electric field. Electrolytic deposition produces colloidal particles in cathodic reactions for subsequent deposition. Various electrochemical strategies and deposition mechanisms have been developed for electrodeposition of ceramic and organoceramic films, and are discussed in the present article. Electrode-position of ceramic and organoceramic materials includes mass transport, accumulation of particles near the electrode and their coagulation to form a cathodic deposit. Various types of interparticle forces that govern colloidal stability in the absence and presence of processing additives are discussed. Novel theoretical contributions towards an interpretation of particle coagulation near the electrode surface are reviewed. Background information is given on the methods of particle charging, stabilization of colloids in aqueous and non-aqueous media, electrophoretic mobility of ceramic particles and polyelectrolytes, and electrode reactions. This review also covers recent developments in the electrodeposition of ceramic and organoceramic materials.

  13. Identification of an anomalous phase in Ni–W electrodeposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizushima, Io; Tang, Peter Torben; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2008-01-01

    In the present work Ni–W layers electrodeposited from electrolytes based on NiSO4, Na2WO4, citrate, glycine and triethanolamine are characterized with glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GD-OES) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). XRD showed the occurrence of an anomalous phase...

  14. Textural and morphological studies on zinc-iron alloy electrodeposits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zinc-iron alloy electrodeposits have industrial significance, since they provide better corrosion resistance and with improved mechanical properties when compared to pure zinc coatings. This is due to the unique phase structure of the alloy formed. But this deposition belongs to anomalous deposition, where the ...

  15. Electrodeposited Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Valdes, M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cu(sub2)ZnSnS(sub4)(CZTS) thin films have been prepared using Electrochemical Atomic Layer Deposition (EC-ALD)and also by one-step conventional constant potential electrodeposition. Optimal deposition conditionswere investigated using cyclic...

  16. Stable lithium electrodeposition in salt-reinforced electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying; Tu, Zhengyuan; Shu, Jonathan; Archer, Lynden A.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Development of high-energy lithium-based batteries that are safe remains a challenge due to the non-uniform lithium electrodeposition during repeated charge and discharge cycles. We report on the effectiveness of lithium bromide

  17. The fabrication of short metallic nanotubes by templated electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chienwen, Huang; Hao Yaowu, E-mail: yhao@uta.ed [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76051 (United States)

    2009-11-04

    Template-based electrochemical synthesis has widely been used to produce metal nanowires and nanorods. Commercially available filtration membranes, such as anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) and polycarbonate track etch membranes, have commonly been utilized as hard templates for this purpose. In this process, a thick metal film is usually sputtered or vacuum evaporated onto one side of the membrane to block the pores and serve as the working electrode for the subsequent electrodeposition. Here, we show that during the deposition of the metal electrode for AAO membranes, the electrode metal diffuses into the pores and is deposited on the pore walls which leads to preferential electrodeposition of metal on the walls and therefore forms metal tubes. This phenomenon has been utilized to fabricate short nanotubes by carefully controlling the electrodeposition conditions. The process is a straightforward method for any electroplatable materials to form nanoscale tubular structures. The effects of working electrodes and electrodeposition conditions on the formation of tubular structures are discussed in detail. A new mechanism based on this simple fact is proposed to explain the formation of Ni tubes by Ni-Cu co-deposition. Also, we demonstrate how to distinguish magnetic nanotubes from nanorods by a simple magnetic measurement.

  18. The fabrication of short metallic nanotubes by templated electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chienwen; Hao Yaowu

    2009-01-01

    Template-based electrochemical synthesis has widely been used to produce metal nanowires and nanorods. Commercially available filtration membranes, such as anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) and polycarbonate track etch membranes, have commonly been utilized as hard templates for this purpose. In this process, a thick metal film is usually sputtered or vacuum evaporated onto one side of the membrane to block the pores and serve as the working electrode for the subsequent electrodeposition. Here, we show that during the deposition of the metal electrode for AAO membranes, the electrode metal diffuses into the pores and is deposited on the pore walls which leads to preferential electrodeposition of metal on the walls and therefore forms metal tubes. This phenomenon has been utilized to fabricate short nanotubes by carefully controlling the electrodeposition conditions. The process is a straightforward method for any electroplatable materials to form nanoscale tubular structures. The effects of working electrodes and electrodeposition conditions on the formation of tubular structures are discussed in detail. A new mechanism based on this simple fact is proposed to explain the formation of Ni tubes by Ni-Cu co-deposition. Also, we demonstrate how to distinguish magnetic nanotubes from nanorods by a simple magnetic measurement.

  19. Effect of electrodeposition potential on composition and morphology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The underpotential deposition mechanism of Cu–Se and In–Se phases was observed in ... Thin films; cyclic voltammetry; CuInGaSe (CIGS); solar cell; electrodeposition. 1. ... trode was a Pt spiral wire and the working electrode was. 735 ...

  20. Metal-organic framework templated electrodeposition of functional gold nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrall, Stephen D.; Bissett, Mark A.; Hill, Patrick I.; Rooney, Aidan P.; Haigh, Sarah J.; Attfield, Martin P.; Dryfe, Robert A.W.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrodeposition of anisotropic Au nanostructures templated by HKUST-1. • Au nanostructures replicate ∼1.4 nm pore spaces of HKUST-1. • Encapsulated Au nanostructures active as SERS substrate for 4-fluorothiophenol. - Abstract: Utilizing a pair of quick, scalable electrochemical processes, the permanently porous MOF HKUST-1 was electrochemically grown on a copper electrode and this HKUST-1-coated electrode was used to template electrodeposition of a gold nanostructure within the pore network of the MOF. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that a proportion of the gold nanostructures exhibit structural features replicating the pore space of this ∼1.4 nm maximum pore diameter MOF, as well as regions that are larger in size. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the electrodeposited gold nanostructure, produced under certain conditions of synthesis and template removal, is sufficiently inter-grown and mechanically robust to retain the octahedral morphology of the HKUST-1 template crystals. The functionality of the gold nanostructure within the crystalline HKUST-1 was demonstrated through the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) detection of 4-fluorothiophenol at concentrations as low as 1 μM. The reported process is confirmed as a viable electrodeposition method for obtaining functional, accessible metal nanostructures encapsulated within MOF crystals.

  1. Stable lithium electrodeposition in liquid and nanoporous solid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying

    2014-08-10

    Rechargeable lithium, sodium and aluminium metal-based batteries are among the most versatile platforms for high-energy, cost-effective electrochemical energy storage. Non-uniform metal deposition and dendrite formation on the negative electrode during repeated cycles of charge and discharge are major hurdles to commercialization of energy-storage devices based on each of these chemistries. A long-held view is that unstable electrodeposition is a consequence of inherent characteristics of these metals and their inability to form uniform electrodeposits on surfaces with inevitable defects. We report on electrodeposition of lithium in simple liquid electrolytes and in nanoporous solids infused with liquid electrolytes. We find that simple liquid electrolytes reinforced with halogenated salt blends exhibit stable long-term cycling at room temperature, often with no signs of deposition instabilities over hundreds of cycles of charge and discharge and thousands of operating hours. We rationalize these observations with the help of surface energy data for the electrolyte/lithium interface and impedance analysis of the interface during different stages of cell operation. Our findings provide support for an important recent theoretical prediction that the surface mobility of lithium is significantly enhanced in the presence of lithium halide salts. Our results also show that a high electrolyte modulus is unnecessary for stable electrodeposition of lithium.

  2. Order/disorder in electrodeposited aluminum-titanium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafford G.R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition, morphology, and crystallographic microstructure of Al-Ti alloys electrodeposited from two different chloroaluminate molten salt electrolytes were examined. Alloys containing up to 28 % atomic fraction Ti were electrodeposited at 150 °C from 2:1 AlCl3-NaCl with controlled additions of Ti2+. The apparent limit on alloy composition is proposed to be due to a mechanism by which Al3Ti forms through the reductive decomposition of [Ti(AlCl43]-. The composition of Al-Ti alloys electrodeposited from the AlCl3-EtMeImCl melt at 80 °C is limited by the diffusion of Ti2+ to the electrode surface. Alloys containing up to 18.4 % atomic fraction Ti are only obtainable at high Ti2+ concentrations in the melt and low current densities. Alloys electrodeposited from the higher temperature melt have an ordered L12 crystal structure while alloys of similar composition but deposited at lower temperature are disordered fcc. The appearance of antiphase boundaries in the ordered alloys suggests that the deposit may be disordered initially and then orders in the solid state, subsequent to the charge transfer step and adatom incorporation into the lattice. This is very similar to the disorder-trapping observed in rapidly solidified alloys. The measured domain size is consistent with a mechanism of diffusion-controlled doman growth at the examined deposition temperatures and times.

  3. Inorganic Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    The book is a treatise on inorganic analytical reactions in aqueous solution. It covers about half of the elements in the periodic table, i.e. the most important ones : H, Li, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Ba, W,...

  4. On-line electrochemically controlled in-tube solid phase microextraction of inorganic selenium followed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asiabi, Hamid [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yamini, Yadollah, E-mail: yyamini@modares.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Seidi, Shahram [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamsayei, Maryam; Safari, Meysam; Rezaei, Fatemeh [Department of Chemistry, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-30

    In this work, for the first time, a rapid, simple and sensitive microextraction procedure is demonstrated for the matrix separation, preconcentration and determination of inorganic selenium species in water samples using an electrochemically controlled in-tube solid phase microextraction (EC-in-tube SPME) followed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). In this approach, in which EC-in-tube SPME and HG-AAS system were combined, the total analysis time, was decreased and the accuracy, repeatability and sensitivity were increased. In addition, to increases extraction efficiency, a novel nanostructured composite coating consisting of polypyrrole (PPy) doped with ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) was prepared on the inner surface of a stainless-steel tube by a facile electrodeposition method. To evaluate the offered setup and the new PPy-EGDMA coating, it was used to extract inorganic selenium species in water samples. Extraction of inorganic selenium species was carried out by applying a positive potential through the inner surface of coated in-tube under flow conditions. Under the optimized conditions, selenium was detected in amounts as small as 4.0 parts per trillion. The method showed good linearity in the range of 0.012–200 ng mL{sup −1}, with coefficients of determination better than 0.9996. The intra- and inter-assay precisions (RSD%, n = 5) were in the range of 2.0–2.5% and 2.7–3.2%, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied for the analysis of inorganic selenium species in some water samples and satisfactory results were obtained. - Graphical abstract: An electrochemically controlled in-tube solid phase microextraction followed by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry was developed for extraction and determination ultra-trace amounts of Se in aqueous solutions. - Highlights: • A nanostructured composite coating consisting of PPy doped with EGDMA was prepared. • The coating was

  5. Commercial and research status report for inorganic membranes: Suggested uses in environmental and waste management processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, P.I.

    1993-04-01

    This document reports on a search of the literature regarding inorganic membrane technology for use in hazardous and radioactive waste treatment. The report lists and discusses DOE waste management separation needs where membranes could be used and describes inorganic membranes and the characteristics that may make them applicable for these separations. It may serve as a tool for making waste treatment design decisions and for weighing technical proposals in the area of separations

  6. Inorganic chemistry and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, P.J.; Guo, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Inorganic chemistry is beginning to have a major impact on medicine. Not only does it offer the prospect of the discovery of truly novel drugs and diagnostic agents, but it promises to make a major contribution to our understanding of the mechanism of action of organic drugs too. Most of this article is concerned with recent developments in medicinal coordination chemistry. The role of metal organic compounds of platinum, titanium, ruthenium, gallium, bismuth, gold, gadolinium, technetium, silver, cobalt in the treatment or diagnosis of common diseases are briefly are examined

  7. Electrodeposited Pt for cost-efficient and flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seok-Soon; Nah, Yoon-Chae; Noh, Yong-Young; Jo, Jang; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2006-01-01

    Pt electrodes were prepared by direct and pulse current electrodeposition for use as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. Scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope images confirmed the formation of uniform Pt nanoclusters of ∼40 nm composed of 3 nm nanoparticles, when the pulse current electrodeposition method was used, as opposed to the dendritic growth of Pt by the results from direct current electrodeposition. By applying pulse electrodeposited Pt which has a 1.86 times higher surface area compared to direct current electrodeposited Pt, short-circuit current and conversion efficiency were increased from 10.34 to 14.11 mA/cm 2 and from 3.68 to 5.03%, respectively. In addition, a flexible solar cell with a pulse current electrodeposited Pt counter electrode with a conversion efficiency of 0.86% was demonstrated

  8. Electrocatalysis of the hydrogen evolution reaction by rhenium oxides electrodeposited by pulsed-current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas-Uscategui, Alejandro; Mosquera, Edgar; Chornik, Boris; Cifuentes, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Rhenium oxides were produced by means of pulsed current electrodeposition over ITO. • The electrocatalytic behavior of rhenium oxides electrodeposited over ITO was studied. • Electrodeposited rhenium oxides showed electrocatalytic behavior increasing the rate of the hydrogen evolution reaction. • The electrocatalysis behavior was explained considering the relative abundance of Re species on the surface of the electrodeposited material. - Abstract: Rhenium oxides are materials of interest for applications in the catalysis of reactions such as those occurring in fuel cells and photoelectrochemical cells. This research work was devoted to the production of rhenium oxide by means of pulsed current electrodeposition for the electrocatalysis of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Rhenium oxides were electrodeposited over a transparent conductive oxide substrate (Indium Tin-doped Oxide – ITO) in an alkaline aqueous electrolyte. The electrodeposition process allowed the production of rhenium oxides islands (200–600 nm) with the presence of three oxidized rhenium species: Re"I"V associated to ReO_2, Re"V"I associated to ReO_3 and Re"V"I"I associated to H(ReO_4)H_2O. Electrodeposited rhenium oxides showed electrocatalytic behavior over the HER and an increase of one order of magnitude of the exchange current density was observed compared to the reaction taking place on the bare substrate. The electrocatalytic behavior varied with the morphology and relative abundance of oxidized rhenium species in the electrodeposits. Finally, two mechanisms of electrocatalysis were proposed to explain experimental results.

  9. Influence of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) on zinc electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, I.L.; Saidman, S.B.

    2012-01-01

    This work is a study of the electrodeposition of zinc onto SAE 4140 steel electrodes using solutions containing zinc sulfate and bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT). The influence of different parameters such as electrolyte concentration, electrodeposition time and temperature on the morphology of the electrodeposits was analyzed. The deposits were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction. The variation of open circuit potential over time in chloride solutions was also evaluated. The nucleation-growth process and consequently the morphology of the electrodeposits are modified in the presence of AOT. The surfactant induces the formation of a porous deposit.

  10. Influence of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) on zinc electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, I. L.; Saidman, S. B.

    2012-03-01

    This work is a study of the electrodeposition of zinc onto SAE 4140 steel electrodes using solutions containing zinc sulfate and bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT). The influence of different parameters such as electrolyte concentration, electrodeposition time and temperature on the morphology of the electrodeposits was analyzed. The deposits were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction. The variation of open circuit potential over time in chloride solutions was also evaluated. The nucleation-growth process and consequently the morphology of the electrodeposits are modified in the presence of AOT. The surfactant induces the formation of a porous deposit.

  11. Fabrication of mesoporous cerium dioxide films by cathodic electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Soo; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Ahn, Jae-Hoon; Park, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Gil-Pyo; Baeck, Sung-Hyeon

    2007-11-01

    Mesoporous cerium dioxide (Ceria, CeO2) thin films have been successfully electrodeposited onto ITO-coated glass substrates from an aqueous solution of cerium nitrate using CTAB (Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide) as a templating agent. The synthesized films underwent detailed characterizations. The crystallinity of synthesized CeO2 film was confirmed by XRD analysis and HR-TEM analysis, and surface morphology was investigated by SEM analysis. The presence of mesoporosity in fabricated films was confirmed by TEM and small angle X-ray analysis. As-synthesized film was observed from XRD analysis and HR-TEM image to have well-crystallized structure of cubic phase CeO2. Transmission electron microscopy and small angle X-ray analysis revealed the presence of uniform mesoporosity with a well-ordered lamellar phase in the CeO2 films electrodeposited with CTAB templating.

  12. Electro-deposition of nickel, on reactor seal discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernekar, R.B.; Bhide, G.K.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of plating variables, acidity, current density and temperature on hardness of nickel deposited from purified nickel sulfamate bath has been investigated and optimum conditions for electrodeposition of nickel plating of hardness 160-170 VHN on reactor seal discs are established. Sodium lauryl sulfate was added as a wetting agent to the bath to overcome pitting tendency of the deposit. Factors affecting hydrogen absorption by electrodeposited nickel are also discussed. It is observed that : (1) at a pH 3.5 - 4.0 the decomposition rate of sulfamate salt is almost negligible and is the best value for bath operation, (2) at 15 A/dm 2 the hardness value is consistently around 160-170 VHN, (3) the temperatures less than 50 0 C give harder deposits and the bath is best operated at temperature 50-60 0 C and (4) annealing of the plated discs substantially reduces the hardness. (M.G.B.)

  13. Chirality of magneto-electrodeposited metal film electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogi, Iwao; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    The chiral electrode behaviors of magneto-electrodeposited (MED) Ag and Cu films were examined for the electrochemical reactions of D-glucose, L-glucose and L-cysteine. The Ag and Cu films were electrodeposited under a magnetic field of 2 T parallel (+2 T) or antiparallel (-2 T) to the faradaic current. For MED films of both Ag and Cu, the oxidation current of L-glucose was larger than that of D-glucose on the +2 T-film electrodes, and the results were opposite on the - 2 T-film electrodes. These facts demonstrate that the MED metal films possess the ability of chiral recognition for D- and L-glucoses. The MED Ag film electrodes also exhibited chiral behavior for the oxidation of L-cysteine

  14. The properties of electrodeposited Zn-Co coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, J.; de Wit, K.; de Cooman, B. C.; de Boeck, A.

    1999-10-01

    The possibility of increasing the corrosion resistance of automotive sheet steel by electrodepositing with Zn-Co alloy coatings was investigated. Process variables during electrodeposition such as current density, electrolyte flow rate, and pH were varied in order to examine their influence on the electroplating process. Cobalt contents varying from 0.2 to 7 wt% were easily obtained. The influence of these process parameters on the characteristics of the coating could be related to the hydroxide suppression mechanism for anomalous codeposition. The structure and the morphology of the coatings were determined using SEM and XRD analysis. Application properties important for coating systems used in the automotive industry, such as friction behavior, adhesion, and corrosion behavior, were investigated on coatings with varying cobalt content. The corrosion resistance of the Zn-Co alloy layers was found to be better than that of pure zinc coatings.

  15. Silver electrodeposition on nanostructured gold: from nanodots to nanoripples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro, P C dos Santos; Fonticelli, M; BenItez, G; Azzaroni, O; Schilardi, P L; Luque, N B; Leiva, E; Salvarezza, R C

    2006-01-01

    Silver nanodots and nanoripples have been grown on nanocavity-patterned polycrystalline Au templates by controlled electrodeposition. The initial step is the growth of a first continuous Ag monolayer followed by preferential deposition at nanocavities. The Ag-coated nanocavities act as preferred sites for instantaneous nucleation and growth of the three-dimensional metallic centres. By controlling the amount of deposited Ag, dots of ∼50 nm average size and ∼4 nm average height can be grown with spatial and size distributions dictated by the template. The dots are in a metastable state. Further Ag deposition drives the dot surface structure to nanoripple formation. Results show that electrodeposition on nanopatterned electrodes can be used to prepare a high density of nanostructures with a narrow size distribution and spatial order

  16. Electrodepositing of Au on hollow PS micro-spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jingyuan; Zhang Yunwang; Du Kai; Wan Xiaobo; Xiao Jiang; Zhang Wei; Zhang Lin; Chen Jing

    2010-01-01

    Using the self-regulating new micro-sphere electrodepositing device, the techniques of electrodepositing gold on hollow PS micro-spheres were established. The experiment was carried out under the following conditions: voltage was about 0.7 ∼ 0.8 V, current density was 2.0 mA · cm -2 , the temperature was 45 degree C, cathode rotating rate was 250 r · min -1 , flow rate of the solution was 7 mL · min -1 · cm -2 . Hollow gold-plated micro-spheres were prepared with well spherical symmetry, uniform thickness and surface smoothness under 500 nm. The speed of the gold depositing was 6 μm · h -1 . (authors)

  17. Processing and properties of electrodeposited layered surface coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsewell, Andy

    1998-01-01

    Hard chromium, produced by conventional dir ect curl ent (DC) electrodeposition, cannot be deposited to thicknesses gl enter than about 5 mu m because of the buildup of processing stresses which cause channel cracks in the coating. Much thicker chromium coatings map be produced by depositing a la...... geometry is almost always analogous to bending, and fracture resistance is provided through deviation of the channel crack by weak interfaces, resulting in 'terrace cracking'....

  18. Electrodeposition of uranium in stirred liquid cadmium cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, T.; Tanaka, H.

    1997-01-01

    The electrodeposition of U in a liquid Cd cathode was known to be hampered by the formation of dendritic U on the Cd surface. Electrotransports of uranium to the stirred liquid Cd cathode were carried out at 773 K for different cathode current densities and different Reynolds number of stirring. The maximum amount of U taken in the liquid Cd cathode without forming dendrites was found to increase with an increasing Reynolds number of stirring and decrease with increasing cathode current density. (orig.)

  19. Quantum conductance in electrodeposited nanocontacts and magnetoresistance measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elhoussine, F.; Encinas, A.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    The conductance and magnetoresistance measurements in magnetic Ni-Ni and Co-Ni nanocontacts prepared by electrodeposition within the pores of a track of track-etched polymer membrane were discussed. At room temperature, Ni-Ni constrictions were found to show broad quantization plateaus of conduct...... of conductance during their dissolution in units of e/h, as expected for ferromagnetic ballistic nanocontacts. The measurement of the positive and negative magnetoresistance in Co-Ni nanocontacts was also elaborated....

  20. Possible origin of superior corrosion resistance for electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, I.; Yang, H.W.; Dinh, L.; Lund, I.; Earthman, J.C.; Mohamed, F.A.

    2008-01-01

    We present here for the first time observations that grain boundaries in electrodeposited (ED) nanocrystalline (nc) Ni are predominantly of Σ3 character. The results presented are based on orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) performed to produce electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) maps. This large volume fraction of coherent low sigma coincidence site lattice (CSL) boundaries appears to be consistent with the superior corrosion resistance of ED nc-Ni in comparison with its coarse-grained counterpart

  1. Electrodeposition of epitaxial CdSe on (111) gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachet, H.; Cortes, R.; Froment, M. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France). Phys. des Liquides et Electrochimie; Etcheberry, A. [Institut Lavoisier (IREM) UMR CNRS C0173, Universite de Versailles- St Quentin en Yvelynes, 45 Avenue des Etats Unis, 78035, Versailles (France)

    2000-02-21

    Epitaxial growth of CdSe has been achieved on GaAs(111) by electrodeposition from an aqueous electrolyte. The structure of the film corresponds to the cubic modification of CdSe. The quality of epitaxy has been investigated by reflection high energy electron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. By XPS measurements the chemistry of the CdSe/GaAs interface and the composition of CdSe are determined. (orig.)

  2. Electrodeposition of niobium and titanium in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, A.F.; Chagas, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    The electrodeposition of niobium and titanium in molten fluorides from the additions of fluorine niobates and fluorine titanates of potassium is described in laboratory and pilot scale. The temperature influence, the current density and the time deposition over the current efficiency, the deposits structure and the deposits purity are studied. The conditions for niobium coating over copper and carbon steel and for titanium coating over carbon steel are also presented. (C.G.C.) [pt

  3. Electrodeposition of quaternary alloys in the presence of magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Electrodeposition of Ni-Co-Fe-Zn alloys was done in a chloride ion solution with the presence and absence of a Permanent Parallel Magnetic Field (PPMF). The PPMF was applied parallel to the cathode surface. The deposition profile was monitored chronoamperometrically. It was found that the electrodeposition current was enhanced in the presence of PPMF (9 T) compared to without PPMF. The percentage of current enhancement (Γ%) was increased in the presence of PPMF, with results of Γ% = 11.9%, 16.7% and 18.5% at -1.1, -1.2 and -1.3 V respectively for a 2400 sec duration. In chronoamperometry, the Composition Reference Line (CRL) for Ni was around 57%, although the nobler metals (i.e. Ni, Co) showed anomalous behaviour in the presence of Zn and Fe. The anomalous behaviour of the Ni-Co-Fe-Zn electrodeposition was shown by the Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) results. From Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements, it was found that the surface roughness of the Ni-Co-Fe-Zn alloy films decreased in the presence of a PPMF. PMID:20604934

  4. 2010 ELECTRODEPOSITION GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, AUGUST 1-6, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Searson

    2010-08-06

    The 2010 Gordon Conference on Electrodeposition will present cutting-edge research on electrodeposition with emphasis on (i) advances in basic science, (ii) developments in next-generation technologies, and (iii) new and emerging areas. The Conference will feature a wide range of topics, from atomic scale processes, nucleation and growth, thin film deposition, and electrocrystallization, to applications of electrodeposition in devices including microelectronics, solar energy, and power sources. The Conference will bring together investigators from a wide range of scientific disciplines, including chemical engineering, materials science and engineering, physics, and chemistry. The Conference will feature invited speakers at the forefront of the field, and a late-breaking news session that will provide the opportunity for graduate students, post-docs, and junior faculty to participate. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with scientific talks and poster sessions, as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, provides an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to discuss current issues and promotes cross-disciplinary collaborations in the various research areas represented. The Conference will be held at Colby-Sawyer College, located in the Mt. Kearsarge-Lake Sunapee Region of New Hampshire. The surrounding mountains, forests, and lakes provide a beautiful setting for this conference. The attendance is limited so early application is strongly advised.

  5. Super Nonlinear Electrodeposition-Diffusion-Controlled Thin-Film Selector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xinglong; Song, Li; He, Wei; Huang, Kejie; Yan, Zhiyuan; Zhong, Shuai; Zhang, Yishu; Zhao, Rong

    2018-03-28

    Selector elements with high nonlinearity are an indispensable part in constructing high density, large-scale, 3D stackable emerging nonvolatile memory and neuromorphic network. Although significant efforts have been devoted to developing novel thin-film selectors, it remains a great challenge in achieving good switching performance in the selectors to satisfy the stringent electrical criteria of diverse memory elements. In this work, we utilized high-defect-density chalcogenide glass (Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 ) in conjunction with high mobility Ag element (Ag-GST) to achieve a super nonlinear selective switching. A novel electrodeposition-diffusion dynamic selector based on Ag-GST exhibits superior selecting performance including excellent nonlinearity (<5 mV/dev), ultra-low leakage (<10 fA), and bidirectional operation. With the solid microstructure evidence and dynamic analyses, we attributed the selective switching to the competition between the electrodeposition and diffusion of Ag atoms in the glassy GST matrix under electric field. A switching model is proposed, and the in-depth understanding of the selective switching mechanism offers an insight of switching dynamics for the electrodeposition-diffusion-controlled thin-film selector. This work opens a new direction of selector designs by combining high mobility elements and high-defect-density chalcogenide glasses, which can be extended to other materials with similar properties.

  6. The effect of cysteine on electrodeposition of gold nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolati, A.; Imanieh, I.; Salehi, F.; Farahani, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Cysteine was found as an appropriate additive for electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles. → The deposition mechanism of gold nanoparticle was determined as instantaneous nucleation. → Oxygen reduction on the gold nanoparticle surface was eight times greater than that on the conventional gold deposits. - Abstract: The most applications of gold nanoparticles are in the photo-electronical accessories and bio-chemical sensors. Chloride solution with cysteine additive was used as electrolyte in gold nanoparticles electrodeposition. The nucleation and growing mechanism were studied by electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, in order to obtain a suitable nano structure. The deposition mechanism was determined as instantaneous nucleation and the dimension of particles was controlled in nanometric particle size range. Atomic Force Microscope was used to evaluate the effect of cysteine on the morphology and topography of gold nanoparticles. Finally the catalytic property of gold nanoparticle electrodeposited was studied in KOH solution, where oxygen reduction on the gold nanoparticle surface was eight times greater than that on the conventional gold deposits.

  7. SILVER RECYCLING FROM PHOTO-PROCESSING WASTE USING ELECTRODEPOSITION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Feri Hadiyanto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Silver electrodeposition of photo-processing waste and without addition of KCN 1,0 M has been studied for silver recycling. Photo procesing waste containing silver in form of [Ag(S2O32]3- was electrolysed at constant potential and faradic efficiency was determined at various of electrolysis times. Electrolysis of 100 mL photo processing waste without addition of KCN 1,0 M was carried out at constant potential 1.20 Volt, while electrolysis 100 mL photo procesing waste with addition of 10 mL KCN 1,0 M electrolysis was done at 1.30 Volt.The results showed that for silver electrodeposition from photo processing waste with addition of KCN 1,0 M was more favorable with faradic efficiency respectively were 93,16; 87,02; 74,74 and 78,35% for 30; 60; 90 and 120 minutes of electrolysis.   Keywords: Silver extraction, electrodeposition, photo-processing waste

  8. Atomistic minimal model for estimating profile of electrodeposited nanopatterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharpour Hassankiadeh, Somayeh; Sadeghi, Ali

    2018-06-01

    We develop a computationally efficient and methodologically simple approach to realize molecular dynamics simulations of electrodeposition. Our minimal model takes into account the nontrivial electric field due a sharp electrode tip to perform simulations of the controllable coating of a thin layer on a surface with an atomic precision. On the atomic scale a highly site-selective electrodeposition of ions and charged particles by means of the sharp tip of a scanning probe microscope is possible. A better understanding of the microscopic process, obtained mainly from atomistic simulations, helps us to enhance the quality of this nanopatterning technique and to make it applicable in fabrication of nanowires and nanocontacts. In the limit of screened inter-particle interactions, it is feasible to run very fast simulations of the electrodeposition process within the framework of the proposed model and thus to investigate how the shape of the overlayer depends on the tip-sample geometry and dielectric properties, electrolyte viscosity, etc. Our calculation results reveal that the sharpness of the profile of a nano-scale deposited overlayer is dictated by the normal-to-sample surface component of the electric field underneath the tip.

  9. Stable lithium electrodeposition in salt-reinforced electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying

    2015-04-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Development of high-energy lithium-based batteries that are safe remains a challenge due to the non-uniform lithium electrodeposition during repeated charge and discharge cycles. We report on the effectiveness of lithium bromide (LiBr) salt additives in a common liquid electrolyte (i.e. propylene carbonate (PC)) on the stability of lithium electrodeposition. From galvanostatic cycling measurements, we find that the presence of LiBr in PC provides more than 20-fold enhancement in cell lifetime over the control LiTFSI/PC electrolyte. Batteries containing 30 mol% LiBr additive in the electrolytes are able to cycle stably for at least 1.8 months with no observations of cell failure. From galvanostatic polarization measurements, an electrolyte containing 30 mol% LiBr shows a maximum improvement in lifetime. The formation of uneven lithium electrodeposits is significantly suppressed by the Br-containing SEI layers, evidenced by impedance spectra, post-mortem SEM and XPS analyses. The study also concludes that good solubility of halogenated salts is not necessary for achieving the observed improvements in cell lifetime.

  10. Magnetic field processing of inorganic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunerth, D.C.; Peterson, E.S. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate, understand, and demonstrate the use of magnetic field processing (MFP) to modify the properties of inorganic-based polymers and to develop the basic technical knowledge required for industrial implementation. Polyphosphazene membranes for chemical separation applications are being emphasized by this project. Previous work demonstrated that magnetic fields, appropriately applied during processing, can be used to beneficially modify membrane morphology. MFP membranes have significantly increased flux capabilities while maintaining the same chemical selectivity as the unprocessed membranes.

  11. Studies on inorganic exchangers - polyantimonic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, T.S.; Balasubramanian, K.R.; Ananthakrishnan, M.; Ramani, K.S.; Varma, R.N.

    1976-01-01

    From the detailed experimental investigations carried out, it may be mentioned that the inorganic exchanger polyantimonic acid could be used for effectively separating strontium from fission product waste solutions free from caesium and zirconium at acidities of the order of 2M or so. After thorough washing of the column with 2M HNO 3 acid to remove any residual activity unadsorbed, the strontium can be eluted with a mixture of 1M AgNO 3 +6M HNO 3 at room temperature. The column after regeneration and conditioning can be used for further adsorption and elution up to a maximum of 6 cycles without much deterioration in column characteristics. (author)

  12. Development of a new microelectrolysis system for in-situ electrodeposition of ultra-traces of gold prior to measurement by ETAAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Nahid Mashkouri; Manouchehri, Nastaran

    2003-06-01

    Electrodeposition is known to be suitable for separation and preconcentration of extremely low concentrations of analyte from bulk samples and is instrumentally is very simple. In this approach a new combined system was designed for in-situ electrodeposition of ultratrace levels of gold from micro samples on to a graphite furnace prior to determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Sediment samples were digested and traces of the gold content were extracted with boiling aqua regia. To prevent the highly corrosive effect of aqua regia media, the graphite tube surface was pre-coated by electrodeposition of ppm amounts of Pd prior to sample introduction. Separation of the analyte from the matrix was achieved by electrodeposition of the analyte in situ on the Pd/C surface of the furnace tube. Vanadium was also used as a modifier to stabilize the analyte from decomposition at charring temperatures. By using the proposed microelectrolysis preconcentration technique a considerable improvement in sensitivity and detection limit was achieved compared with conventional ETAAS. Characteristic masses for ED-ETAAS techniques in both nitric acid and aqua regia were reported to be m(o)=4.1 pg, with %RSD=2.9; the calculated LOD was 0.105 ppb, and typical calibration graphs for this element in nitric acid and aqua regia for both techniques were linear up to 70 microg L(-1) with about 99% recovery. Six reference sediments samples were tested by the proposed technique and by the Conv-ETAAS method. The results were in agreement with recommended values (reported by a reference laboratory using UV-visible spectrometry), demonstrating the efficiency of extraction and preconcentration of ultratrace levels of gold.

  13. High short-circuit current density CdTe solar cells using all-electrodeposited semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echendu, O.K., E-mail: oechendu@yahoo.com; Fauzi, F.; Weerasinghe, A.R.; Dharmadasa, I.M.

    2014-04-01

    CdS/CdTe and ZnS/CdTe n–n heterojunction solar cells have been fabricated using all-electrodeposited semiconductors. The best devices show remarkable high short-circuit current densities of 38.5 mAcm{sup −2} and 47.8 mAcm{sup −2}, open-circuit voltages of 630 mV and 646 mV and conversion efficiencies of 8.0% and 12.0% respectively. The major strength of these device structures lies in the combination of n–n heterojunction with a large Schottky barrier at the n-CdTe/metal back contact which provides the required band bending for the separation of photo-generated charge carriers. This is in addition to the use of a high quality n-type CdTe absorber layer with high electron mobility. The potential barrier heights estimated for these devices from the current–voltage characteristics exceed 1.09 eV and 1.13 eV for CdS/CdTe and ZnS/CdTe cells respectively. The diode rectification factors of both devices are in excess of four orders of magnitude with reverse saturation current densities of 1.0 × 10{sup −7} Acm{sup −2} and 4.0 × 10{sup −7} Acm{sup −2} respectively. These all-electrodeposited solar cell device structures are currently being studied and developed as an alternative to the well-known p–n junction structures which utilise chemical bath-deposited CdS. The preliminary material growth, device fabrication and assessment results are presented in this paper. - Highlights: • Two-electrode deposition. • High J{sub sc} Schottky barrier solar cells. • CdCl{sub 2} + CdF{sub 2} treatment.

  14. Laminar iridium coating produced by pulse current electrodeposition from chloride molten salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Li’an, E-mail: mr_zla@163.com; Bai, Shuxin; Zhang, Hong; Ye, Yicong

    2013-10-01

    Due to the unique physical and chemical properties, Iridium (Ir) is one of the most promising oxidation-resistant coatings for refractory materials above 1800 °C in aerospace field. However, the Ir coatings prepared by traditional methods are composed of columnar grains throughout the coating thickness. The columnar structure of the coating is considered to do harm to its oxidation resistance. The laminar Ir coating is expected to have a better high-temperature oxidation resistance than the columnar Ir coating does. The pulse current electrodeposition, with three independent parameters: average current density (J{sub m}), duty cycle (R) and pulse frequency (f), is considered to be a promising method to fabricate layered Ir coating. In this study, laminar Ir coatings were prepared by pulse current electrodeposition in chloride molten salt. The morphology, roughness and texture of the coatings were determined by scanning electron microscope (SEM), profilometer and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The results showed that the laminar Ir coatings were composed of a nucleation layer with columnar structure and a growth layer with laminar structure. The top surfaces of the laminar Ir coatings consisted of cauliflower-like aggregates containing many fine grains, which were separated by deep grooves. The laminar Ir coating produced at the deposition condition of 20 mA/cm{sup 2} (J{sub m}), 10% (R) and 6 Hz (f) was quite smooth (R{sub a} 1.01 ± 0.09 μm) with extremely high degree of preferred orientation of 〈1 1 1〉, and its laminar structure was well developed with clear boundaries and uniform thickness of sub-layers.

  15. Inorganic Halogen Oxidizer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-16

    Inorganic Chemistry. Vol. 14. No. 9. 1975 Karl 0. Christ¢ (21) L. J. Basile . P. LaBonvillk. J. R. Ferraro, and J. M. Williams. J. Claim. (38) K. 0. Chriae. E... basils of a nonplanar structure of symmetry CI, are revised for six fundamental frequencies. Imalredetle either the 1:2 adduct N 2F4.2SbF5 or the 1:3...8217 in mT are 7 2.1 for B, facility. We aba thank L. K. White and R. L. Belford 111.0 for C, 55.0 for N, and 17100 for F, and the atomic aniso- trop’c

  16. Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The series of symposia on 'Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry' (MTIC), which began in 1985 at the Indian Association for Cultivation of Science, Calcutta has evolved into a forum for the Inorganic Chemistry fraternity of the country to meet every two years and discuss the current status and future projections of research in.

  17. Effect of rare earth elements on uranium electrodeposition in LiCl-KCI eutectic salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Bin; Kang, Young Ho; Hwang, Sung Chan; Lee, Han Soo; Peak, Seung Woo; Ahn, Do Hee

    2015-01-01

    It is necessary to investigate the electrodeposition behavior of uranium and other elements on the cathode in the electrorefining process to recover the uranium selectively from the reduced metals of the electrolytic reduction process since transuranic elements and rare earth elements is dissolved in the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt. Study on separation factors of U, Ce, Y and Nd based on U and Ce was performed to investigate the deposition behavior of the cathode with respect to the concentration of rare earth elements in LiCl-KCl eutectic salt. After electrorefining with constant current mode by using Ce metal as a sacrifice anode, the contents of U, Ce, Y and Nd in the salt phase and the deposit phase of the cathode were analyzed, and separation factors of the elements were obtained from the analyses. Securing conditions of pure uranium recovery in the electrorefining process was investigated by considering the separation factors with respect to UCl 3 and CeCl 3 /UCl 3 ratio

  18. Electrodeposited cadmium selenide films for solar cells; Electrodeposition de couches minces de CdSe: Application a la conversion photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bnamar, E.; Rami, M.; Fahoume, M.; Chraibi, F.; Ennaoui, A. [Universite Mohammed 5, Rabat (Morocco). Faculte des Sciences; Fahoume, M. [Universite Ibn Tofail, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco)

    1998-01-01

    Solar cells based on II-IV semiconductors are among the leading candidates for low-cost photovoltaic conversion of solar energy due to their high absorption coefficients and therefore the low materials consumption for their production. The synthesis of polycrystalline Cd Se thin films by cathodic electrodeposition on conducting substrates is described in this paper. Electrodeposition involves potentiostatic reduction from an acid aqueous bath. The influence of bath temperature and deposition potential on the crystallinity is discussed. For optimized deposition parameters, the XRD patterns reveal cubic and hexagonal Cd Se. Electron probe microanalysis shows an excess of Se in the samples. Photoelectrochemical studies of the films in aqueous polysulfide allowed us to determine the photovoltaic properties e.g.: semiconducting type, short-circuit current, open circuit voltage and fill factor. (authors) 5 refs.

  19. Controllable wettability and morphology of electrodeposited surfaces on zinc substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Binyan; Lu, Shixiang, E-mail: shixianglu@bit.edu.cn; Xu, Wenguo, E-mail: wenguoxu60@bit.edu.cn; Cheng, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces combining hierarchical micro/nanostructures were fabricated on zinc substrates by etching, electrodeposition of ZnO coatings and annealing. Such superhydrophobic surfaces offer possibilities for chemical, biological, electronic and microfluidic applications. - Highlights: • Superhydrophobic surface was fabricated via electrodeposition of ZnO and annealing. • The ZnO hierarchical micro/nanostructures contribute to the surface superhydrophobicity. • Surface wettability and morphology can be controlled by varying process conditions. • The anti-icing properties and reversible wetting behaviors of the ZnO coatings were studied. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces combining hierarchical micro/nanostructures were fabricated on zinc substrates by etching in hydrochloric acid solution, electrodeposition of ZnO coatings and subsequent thermal annealing. The optimal coatings were electrodeposited at −1.25 V for 900 s on the etched zinc substrates and then annealed at 200 °C for 60 min, which could achieve a maximum water contact angle of 170 ± 2° and an ultra-low sliding angle of approximately 0°. By conducting SEM and water CA analysis, we found that the morphology and wettability of prepared samples were controllable by the fabrication process. Interestingly, even without any additional modification, the samples prepared under different electrodeposition conditions (including Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} concentration from 5 mM to 40 mM and deposition time from 300 s to 1500 s) exhibited superhydrophobic character. The influences of the Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} concentration, deposition time, annealing temperature and annealing time on the wetting behaviors were also discussed in detail. Such superhydrophobic surfaces possess long-term stability, and good corrosion resistance as well as self-cleaning ability. In addition, the anti-icing properties of the ZnO films were investigated. These surfaces could be rapidly and

  20. Controllable wettability and morphology of electrodeposited surfaces on zinc substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Binyan; Lu, Shixiang; Xu, Wenguo; Cheng, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces combining hierarchical micro/nanostructures were fabricated on zinc substrates by etching, electrodeposition of ZnO coatings and annealing. Such superhydrophobic surfaces offer possibilities for chemical, biological, electronic and microfluidic applications. - Highlights: • Superhydrophobic surface was fabricated via electrodeposition of ZnO and annealing. • The ZnO hierarchical micro/nanostructures contribute to the surface superhydrophobicity. • Surface wettability and morphology can be controlled by varying process conditions. • The anti-icing properties and reversible wetting behaviors of the ZnO coatings were studied. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces combining hierarchical micro/nanostructures were fabricated on zinc substrates by etching in hydrochloric acid solution, electrodeposition of ZnO coatings and subsequent thermal annealing. The optimal coatings were electrodeposited at −1.25 V for 900 s on the etched zinc substrates and then annealed at 200 °C for 60 min, which could achieve a maximum water contact angle of 170 ± 2° and an ultra-low sliding angle of approximately 0°. By conducting SEM and water CA analysis, we found that the morphology and wettability of prepared samples were controllable by the fabrication process. Interestingly, even without any additional modification, the samples prepared under different electrodeposition conditions (including Zn(CH_3COO)_2 concentration from 5 mM to 40 mM and deposition time from 300 s to 1500 s) exhibited superhydrophobic character. The influences of the Zn(CH_3COO)_2 concentration, deposition time, annealing temperature and annealing time on the wetting behaviors were also discussed in detail. Such superhydrophobic surfaces possess long-term stability, and good corrosion resistance as well as self-cleaning ability. In addition, the anti-icing properties of the ZnO films were investigated. These surfaces could be rapidly and reversibly switched

  1. Inorganic Fullerene-Like Nanoparticles and Inorganic Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshef Tenne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene-like nanoparticles (inorganic fullerenes; IF and nanotubes of inorganic layered compounds (inorganic nanotubes; INT combine low dimensionality and nanosize, enhancing the performance of corresponding bulk counterparts in their already known applications, as well as opening new fields of their own [1]. This issue gathers articles from the diverse area of materials science and is devoted to fullerene-like nanoparticles and nanotubes of layered sulfides and boron nitride and collects the most current results obtained at the interface between fundamental research and engineering.[...

  2. Hybrid inorganic-organic membranes: Tuning pore properties by sequential grafting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sripathi, V.G.P.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, the synthesis of inorganic - polymeric hybrid membranes by sequential grafting is discussed, for application in gas separation. At high pressures and temperatures, organic (olymer) membranes may suffer from swelling and plasticization. Generally, this causes a reduced molecular

  3. Alloy formation during chromium electrodeposition at niobium cathode in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, S.A.; Glagolevskaya, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Alloy formation during electrodeposition of chromium at niobium cathode is studied in salt melts. It is shown that during chromium electrodeposition at niobium support intermetallic compound Cr 2 Nb is formed. Thermodynamic characteristics of Cr 0.66 Nb 0.33 alloy are determined. 10 refs., 1 fig

  4. Electrodeposition of Zn-Co and Zn-Co-Fe alloys from acidic chloride electrolytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodhi, Z.F.; Mol, J.M.C.; Hovestad, A.; Terryn, H.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    2007-01-01

    The electrodeposition operating conditions for Zn-Co and Zn-Co-Fe alloys from chloride baths were studied. The electrodeposition was performed on a high strength steel substrate, under galvanostatic conditions, for a range of current densities at varying Co2+ and Fe2+ bath concentrations and at

  5. Cancer risk from inorganics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swierenga, S.H.; Gilman, J.P.; McLean, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Inorganic metals and minerals for which there is evidence of carcinogenicity are identified. The risk of cancer from contact with them in the work place, the general environment, and under conditions of clinical (medical) exposure is discussed. The evidence indicates that minerals and metals most often influence cancer development through their action as cocarcinogens. The relationship between the physical form of mineral fibers, smoking and carcinogenic risk is emphasized. Metals are categorized as established (As, Be, Cr, Ni), suspected (Cd, Pb) and possible carcinogens, based on the existing in vitro, animal experimental and human epidemiological data. Cancer risk and possible modes of action of elements in each class are discussed. Views on mechanisms that may be responsible for the carcinogenicity of metals are updated and analysed. Some specific examples of cancer risks associated with the clinical use of potentially carcinogenic metals and from radioactive pharmaceuticals used in therapy and diagnosis are presented. Questions are raised as to the effectiveness of conventional dosimetry in accurately measuring risk from radiopharmaceuticals. 302 references

  6. Influences of magnetic field on the fractal morphology in copper electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudibyo; How, M. B.; Aziz, N.

    2018-01-01

    Copper magneto-electrodeposition (MED) is used decrease roughening in the copper electrodeposition process. This technology plays a vital role in electrodeposition process to synthesize metal alloy, thin film, multilayer, nanowires, multilayer nanowires, dot array and nano contacts. The effects of magnetic fields on copper electrodeposition are investigated in terms of variations in the magnetic field strength and the electrolyte concentration. Based on the experimental results, the mere presence of magnetic field would result in a compact deposit. As the magnetic field strength is increased, the deposit grows denser. The increment in concentration also leads to the increase the deposited size. The SEM image analysis showed that the magnetic field has a significant effect on the surface morphology of electrodeposits.

  7. Morphology of uranium electrodeposits on cathode in electrorefining process: A phase-field simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuta, Yasushi; Sato, Takumi; Suzuki, Toshio; Ohta, Hirokazu; Kurata, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    Morphology of uranium electrodeposits on cathode with respect to applied voltage, zirconium concentration in the molten salt and the size of primary deposit during pyroprocessing is systematically investigated by the phase-field simulation. It is found that there is a threshold zirconium concentration in the molten salt demarcating planar and cellular/needle-like electrodeposits, which agrees with experimental results. In addition, the effect of size of primary deposits on the morphology of electrodeposits is examined. It is then confirmed that cellular/needle-like electrodeposits are formed from large primary deposits at all applied voltages considered, whereas both the planar and cellular/needle-like electrodeposits are formed from the primary deposits of 10 μm and less

  8. Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Nanocomposites for Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruchuan

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential in combining the advantages of both components. To understand the key issues in association with photoinduced charge separation/transportation processes and to improve overall power conversion efficiency, various combinations with nanostructures of hybrid systems have been investigated. Here, we briefly review the structures of hybrid nanocomposites studied so far, and attempt to associate the power conversion efficiency with these nanostructures. Subsequently, we are then able to summarize the factors for optimizing the performance of inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells. PMID:28788591

  9. Binary systems solubilities of inorganic and organic compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Stephen, H

    1963-01-01

    Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds, Volume 1: Binary Systems, Part 1 is part of an approximately 5,500-page manual containing a selection from the International Chemical Literature on the Solubilities of Elements, Inorganic Compounds, Metallo-organic and Organic Compounds in Binary, Ternary and Multi-component Systems. A careful survey of the literature in all languages by a panel of scientists specially appointed for the task by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Moscow, has made the compilation of this work possible. The complete English edition in five separately bound volumes w

  10. Poly(vinyl Alcohol) Borate Gel Polymer Electrolytes Prepared by Electrodeposition and Their Application in Electrochemical Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mengjin; Zhu, Jiadeng; Chen, Chen; Lu, Yao; Ge, Yeqian; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2016-02-10

    Gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) have been studied for preparing flexible and compact electrochemical energy storage devices. However, the preparation and use of GPEs are complex, and most GPEs prepared through traditional methods do not have good wettability with the electrodes, which retard them from achieving their performance potential. In this study, these problems are addressed by conceiving and implementing a simple, but effective, method of electrodepositing poly(vinyl alcohol) potassium borate (PVAPB) GPEs directly onto the surfaces of active carbon electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors. PVAPB GPEs serve as both the electrolyte and the separator in the assembled supercapacitors, and their scale and shape are determined solely by the geometry of the electrodes. PVAPB GPEs have good bonding to the active electrode materials, leading to excellent and stable electrochemical performance of the supercapacitors. The electrochemical performance of PVAPB GPEs and supercapacitors can be manipulated simply by adjusting the concentration of KCl salt used during the electrodeposition process. With a 0.9 M KCl concentration, the as-prepared supercapacitors deliver a specific capacitance of 65.9 F g(-1) at a current density of 0.1 A g(-1) and retain more than 95% capacitance after 2000 charge/discharge cycles at a current density of 1 A g(-1). These supercapacitors also exhibit intelligent high voltage self-protection function due to the electrolysis-induced cross-linking effect of PVAPB GPEs.

  11. Inorganic chemistry of earliest sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    A number of inorganic elements are now known to be essential to organisms. Chemical evolutionary processes involving carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen have been studied intensively and extensively, but the other essential elements have been rather neglected in the studies of chemical and biological evolution. This article attempts to assess the significance of inorganic chemistry in chemical and biological evolutionary processes on the earth. Emphasis is placed on the catalytic effects of inorganic elements and compounds, and also on possible studies on the earliest sediments, especially banded iron formation and stratabound copper from the inorganic point of view in the hope of shedding some light on the evolution of the environment and the biological effects on it. (orig./WL)

  12. Essentials of inorganic materials synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, C N R

    2015-01-01

    This compact handbook describes all the important methods of synthesis employed today for synthesizing inorganic materials. Some features: Focuses on modern inorganic materials with applications in nanotechnology, energy materials, and sustainability Synthesis is a crucial component of materials science and technology; this book provides a simple introduction as well as an updated description of methods Written in a very simple style, providing references to the literature to get details of the methods of preparation when required

  13. Electrodeposition of gold templated by patterned thiol monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    She, Zhe [EaStCHEM School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews, KY16 9ST (United Kingdom); Di Falco, Andrea [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Hähner, Georg [EaStCHEM School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews, KY16 9ST (United Kingdom); Buck, Manfred, E-mail: mb45@st-andrews.ac.uk [EaStCHEM School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews, KY16 9ST (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • First demonstration of electrodeposition/lift-off of gold using thiol monolayers. • Microelectrode structures with large length to width ratio were generated. • Performance of two different patterning techniques was investigated. • Conditions for achieving good contrast in the electrodeposition were established. - Abstract: The electrochemical deposition of Au onto Au substrates modified by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) was studied by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Patterned SAMs exhibiting electrochemical contrast were prepared by two different methods. One used microcontact printing (μCP) to generate a binary SAM of ω-(4′-methyl-biphenyl-4-yl)-propane thiol (CH{sub 3}-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}-SH, MBP3) and octadecane thiol (CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 17}SH, ODT). Templated by the SAM, a gold microelectrode structure was electrodeposited featuring a line 15 μm wide and 3 mm long. After transfer to an epoxy substrate the structure proved to be electrically conductive across the full length. The other patterning method applied electron beam lithography (EBL) where electrochemical contrast was achieved by crosslinking molecules in a single component SAM of MBP3. An electron dose above 250 mC/cm{sup 2} results in a high deposition contrast. The choice of parameters for the deposition/lift-off process is found to be more critical for Au compared to Cu studied previously. The origin of the differences and implications for nanoscale patterning are discussed.

  14. Microgravimetric Studies of Selenium Electrodeposition Onto Different Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalik R.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of selenium electrodeposition from sulfuric acid solution on different substrates was studied with the electrochemical techniques. The cyclic voltammetry was combined with the quartz crystal microbalance technique to analyze selenium deposition process. The electrochemical reduction of selenous acid on gold, silver and copper electrodes was investigated. It was found that reduction of selenous acid is a very complex process and it strongly depends from the applied substrate. The voltammetric measurements indicate the range of potentials in which the process of reduction of selenous acids on the applied substrate is possible. Additionally, the microgravimetric data confirm the deposition of selenium and they reveal the mechanism of the deposition process.

  15. Synthesis of tin oxide nanoparticle film by cathodic electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seok; Lee, Hochun; Park, Chang Min; Jung, Yongju

    2012-02-01

    Three-dimensional SnO2 nanoparticle films were deposited onto a copper substrate by cathodic electrodeposition in a nitric acid solution. A new formation mechanism for SnO2 films is proposed based on the oxidation of Sn2+ ion to Sn4+ ion by NO+ ion and the hydrolysis of Sn4+. The particle size of SnO2 was controlled by deposition potential. The SnO2 showed excellent charge capacity (729 mAh/g) at a 0.2 C rate and high rate capability (460 mAh/g) at a 5 C rate.

  16. Zinc-nickel alloy electrodeposits for water electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheela, G.; Pushpavanam, Malathy; Pushpavanam, S. [Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Karaikudi (India)

    2002-06-01

    Electrodeposited zinc-nickel alloys of various compositions were prepared. A suitable electrolyte and conditions to produce alloys of various compositions were identified. Alloys produced on electroformed nickel foils were etched in caustic to leach out zinc and to produce the Raney type, porous electro catalytic surface for hydrogen evolution. The electrodes were examined by polarisation measurements, to evaluate their Tafel parameters, cyclic voltammetry, to test the change in surface properties on repeated cycling, scanning electron microscopy to identify their microstructure and X-ray diffraction. The catalytic activity as well as the life of the electrode produced from 50% zinc alloy was found to be better than others. (Author)

  17. Electrodeposition of Asphaltenes. 2. Effect of Resins and Additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khvostichenko, Daria S; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    2010-01-01

    Electrodeposition of asphaltenes from oil/heptane, asphaltene/heptane, and asphaltene/heptane/additive mixtures has been investigated. Toluene, native petroleum resins, and a synthetic asphaltene dispersant, p-nonylphenol, were used as additives. The addition of these components led to partial...... dissolution of asphaltenes in heptane. The charge of asphaltenic particles was found to be negative in oil/heptane mixtures and positive in asphaltene/heptane mixtures. In asphaltene/heptane/toluene systems, the charge of the deposit varied from positive to neutral to negative, depending upon the method...

  18. 2008 Gordon Research Conference on Electrodeposition [Conference summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffat, Thomas P.; Gray, Nancy Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Electrodeposition melds key aspects of electrochemistry and materials science. In the last decade the advent of a variety of remarkable in situ characterization methods combined with the ever expanding application of wet chemical processing in high end technological endeavors has transformed the nature of the field. The 'old black magic' is giving way to the rigors of science as the electrodeposition process plays a central role in the fabrication of state-of-the-art ULSI and MEMS devices as well as being a key tool in the fabrication of novel materials and nanostructures. This year the conference will consider several timely issues such as how electrodeposition can contribute to the effective production of energy conversion devices, ranging from solar collectors to fuel cell electrocatalysts. Likewise, the challenge of building contacts and interconnects for next generation electronics will be examined over length scales ranging from individual atoms or molecules to chip stacking. Electrochemical fabrication of magnetic materials and devices as well as composite materials will also be discussed. Nucleation and growth phenomena underlie all aspect of electrochemical deposition and this year's meeting will consider the effect of both adsorbates and stress state on morphological evolution during thin film growth. A variety of new measurement methods for studying the growing electrode/electrolyte interface will also be detailed. In addition to the scheduled talks a session of short talks on late breaking news will be held Wednesday evening. There will also be at least two lively poster sessions that are essential elements of the conference and to which all attendees are encouraged to contribute. This will be 7th Electrodeposition GRC and based on past experience it is the premier 'mixing bowl' where young investigators and international experts have an extended opportunity to interact in a fun and collegial atmosphere. The afternoons provide

  19. Zinc Electrodeposition from Chloride Solutions onto Glassy Carbon Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza-Huízar, Luis Humberto; Rios-Reyes, Clara Hilda; Gómez-Villegas, María Guadalupe

    2009-01-01

    An electrochemical study of zinc deposition was carried out in baths containing 0.5 M ZnCl2 and 0.4 M H3BO3. From the voltammetric study it was found that, in our experimental conditions, zinc electrodeposition is quasi-reversible and occurs under charge transfer control. The average coefficient diffusion calculated was D = 7.14 × 10-6 cm²s-1 while the standard constant at electrode charge was 8.78 × 10-3 cms-1. The nucleation and growth parameters determined from the potentiostatic study sho...

  20. High-temperature ductility of electro-deposited nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, J. W.; Johnson, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    Work done during the past several months on high temperature ductility of electrodeposited nickel is summarized. Data are presented which show that earlier measurements made at NASA-Langley erred on the low side, that strain rate has a marked influence on high temperature ductility, and that codeposition of a small amount of manganese helps to improve high temperature ductility. Influences of a number of other factors on nickel properties were also investigated. They included plating solution temperature, current density, agitation, and elimination of the wetting agent from the plating solution. Repair of a large nozzle section by nickel plating is described.

  1. Characterization of nickel nanocones routed by electrodeposition without any template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Tao; Li, Ming; Fei, Qin; Mao, Dali

    2008-01-23

    This work reports the synthesis of Ni nanocones by a one-step electrodeposition method without any template. With the addition of ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (EDA·2HCl) in the nickel plating solution, the novel Ni conical structure can be easily deposited onto different metal surfaces. The as-prepared nickel nanocones grow preferentially along [Formula: see text] directions with very sharp tips. The conical structures are single crystalline without any disruption of the lattice planes. In addition, the Ni nanocone structure is demonstrated to show magnetocrystalline anisotropy and enhance the magnetic properties when compared with other Ni nanostructures.

  2. Electrodeposition and properties of Zn-Ni-CNT composite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praveen, B.M.; Venkatesha, T.V.

    2009-01-01

    Zn-Ni-CNT composite coatings were prepared by electrodeposition from a sulphate bath. The effect of CNTs on the corrosion behavior, wear resistance and hardness of the composite coatings was investigated. Their corrosion properties were evaluated by polarization, impedance, weight loss and salt spray tests. The CNT particles inclusion improved the corrosion resistance, hardness and wear resistance of the coating. The grain size of the composite coating was smaller than that of a pure Zn-Ni coating with the same Zn/Ni ratio. Scanning electron microscope images and X-ray diffraction patterns of coating revealed its fine-grain nature.

  3. Inorganic Halogen Oxidizer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-21

    such as atomic absorption, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and gravimetry . Typical elements determined in the hydrolysate after the NF, analysis include...I stoichiometric amounts of concentrated aqueous solutions of CsCl and NaIO 4 . 4 40 The mixture was cooled to 0 C, and the CsIO 4 precipitate was...white precipitate was separated from the solution by pressure f iltra- tion. Most of the HF solvent was pumped off over several hours at tempera- tures

  4. Material reliability of Ni alloy electrodeposition for steam generator tube repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Myong Jin; Kim, Joung Soo; Kim, Hong Pyo

    2007-01-01

    Due to the occasional occurrences of Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) in steam generator tubing (Alloy 600), degraded tubes are removed from service by plugging or are repaired for re-use. Since electrodeposition inside a tube dose not entail parent tube deformation, residual stress in the tube can be minimized. In this work, tube restoration via electrodeposition inside a steam generator tubing was performed after developing the following: an anode probe to be installed inside a tube, a degreasing condition to remove dirt and grease, an activation condition for surface oxide elimination, a tightly adhered strike layer forming condition between the electroforming layer and the Alloy 600 tube, and the condition for an electroforming layer. The reliability of the electrodeposited material, with a variation of material properties, was evaluated as a function of the electrodeposit position in the vertical direction of a tube using the developed anode. It has been noted that the variation of the material properties along the electrodeposit length was acceptable in a process margin. To improve the reliability of a material property, the causes of the variation occurrence were presumed, and an attempt to minimize the variation has been made. A Ni alloy electrodeposition process is suggested as a Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) mitigation method for various components, including steam generator tubes. The Ni alloy electrodeposit formed inside a tube by using the installed assembly shows proper material properties as well as an excellent SCC resistance

  5. Zeta potential control in decontamination with inorganic membranes and inorganic adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andalaft, E; Vega, R; Correa, M; Araya, R; Loyola, P [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)

    1997-02-01

    The application of some advanced separation processes such as microfiltration and ultrafiltration, electroosmosis and electrodialysis for treating nuclear waste from different aqueous streams is under examination at the Chilean Commission for Nuclear Energy. The application of these techniques can be extended to regular industrial wastes when economically advisable. This report deals mainly with electrodialysis, electroosmosis and adsorption with inorganic materials. Special attention is paid to zeta potential control as a driving factor to electroosmosis. For radioactive contaminants that are present in the form of cations, anions, non-ionic solutions, colloids and suspended matter, appropriate combination of the processes may considerably increase the efficiency of processes used. As an example, colloids and suspended particles may be retained in porous ceramic membranes by nanofiltration, ultrafiltration or microfiltration depending on the particle size of the particles. The control of zeta potential by acting in the solid phase or else on the liquid phase has been studied; a mathematical model to predict electrodialysis data has been developed, and finally, the use of a home-made inorganic adsorbent illustrated. The effect of gamma irradiation on the membranes has also been studied. Properties such as salt retention, water flux and pore size diameter determined on both organic and inorganic membranes before and after irradiation indicate deterioration of the organic membrane. (author). 13 refs, 15 figs, 2 tabs.

  6. Artificial inorganic Biohybrids: the functional combination of microorganisms and cells with inorganic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmeister, Ib; Schamel, Martha; Groll, Jürgen; Gbureck, Uwe; Vorndran, Elke

    2018-04-23

    Biohybrids can be defined as the functional combination of proteins, viable cells or microorganisms with non-biological materials. This article reviews recent findings on the encapsulation of microorganisms and eukaryotic cells in inorganic matrices such as silica gels or cements. The entrapment of biological entities into a support material is of great benefit for processing since the encapsulation matrix protects sensitive cells from shear forces, unfavourable pH changes, or cytotoxic solvents, avoids culture-washout, and simplifies the separation of formed products. After reflecting general aspects of such an immobilization as well as the chemistry of the inorganic matrices, we focused on manufacturing aspects and the application of such biohybrids in biotechnology, medicine as well as in environmental science and for civil engineering purpose. The encapsulation of living cells and microorganisms became an intensively studied and rapidly expanding research field with manifold applications in medicine, bio- and environmental technology, or civil engineering. Here, the use of silica or cements as encapsulation matrices have the advantage of a higher chemical and mechanical resistance towards harsh environmental conditions during processing compared to their polymeric counterparts. In this perspective, the article gives an overview about the inorganic material systems used for cell encapsulation, followed by reviewing the most important applications. The future may lay in a combination of the currently achieved biohybrid systems with additive manufacturing techniques. In a longer perspective, this would enable the direct printing of cell loaded bioreactor components. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Zeta potential control in decontamination with inorganic membranes and inorganic adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andalaft, E.; Vega, R.; Correa, M.; Araya, R.; Loyola, P.

    1997-01-01

    The application of some advanced separation processes such as microfiltration and ultrafiltration, electroosmosis and electrodialysis for treating nuclear waste from different aqueous streams is under examination at the Chilean Commission for Nuclear Energy. The application of these techniques can be extended to regular industrial wastes when economically advisable. This report deals mainly with electrodialysis, electroosmosis and adsorption with inorganic materials. Special attention is paid to zeta potential control as a driving factor to electroosmosis. For radioactive contaminants that are present in the form of cations, anions, non-ionic solutions, colloids and suspended matter, appropriate combination of the processes may considerably increase the efficiency of processes used. As an example, colloids and suspended particles may be retained in porous ceramic membranes by nanofiltration, ultrafiltration or microfiltration depending on the particle size of the particles. The control of zeta potential by acting in the solid phase or else on the liquid phase has been studied; a mathematical model to predict electrodialysis data has been developed, and finally, the use of a home-made inorganic adsorbent illustrated. The effect of gamma irradiation on the membranes has also been studied. Properties such as salt retention, water flux and pore size diameter determined on both organic and inorganic membranes before and after irradiation indicate deterioration of the organic membrane. (author). 13 refs, 15 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Influence of titanium oxide films on copper nucleation during electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hyun K.; Choe, Byung-Hak; Lee, Jong K.

    2005-01-01

    Copper electrodeposition has an important industrial role because of various interconnects used in electronic devices such as printed wire boards. With an increasing trend in device miniaturization, in demand are void-free, thin copper foils of 10 μm thick or less with a very low surface profile. In accordance, nucleation kinetics of copper was studied with titanium cathodes that were covered with thin, passive oxide films of 2-3 nm. Such an insulating oxide layer with a band gap of 3 eV is supposed to nearly block charge transfer from the cathode to the electrolyte. However, significant nucleation rates of copper were observed. Pipe tunneling mechanism along a dislocation core is reasoned to account for the high nucleation kinetics. A dislocation core is proposed to be a high electron tunneling path with a reduced energy barrier and a reduced barrier thickness. In supporting the pipe tunneling mechanism, both 'in situ' and 'ex situ' scratch tests were performed to introduce extra dislocations into the cathode surface, that is, more high charge paths via tunneling, before electrodeposition

  9. Molybdenum carbide coating electrodeposited from molten fluoride bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topor, D.C.; Selman, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Molybdenum carbide has been recently considered as a candidate material for the protection of common steel-based substrates in high-temperature high-sulfur activity applications. Methods to produce coatings of materials such as Mo/sub 2/C are scarce and only the electrodeposition from molten salts can yield dense, pore-free layers on various metallic profiles. Recently Stern reported the deposition of a Mo/sub 2/C coating on nickel substrate form, FLINAK + K/sub 2/MoCl/sub 6/ + Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ mixture at 850 0 C. Electrodeposition of Mo/sub 2/C on a cathode surface proceeds according to a rather complicated mechanism which may involve simultaneous reduction of carbonate to C, of molybdate to Mo and a subsequent chemical reaction between both species. The deposit grows further as a coherent coating. Reduction of CO/sub 2/ or carbonate to carbon in a fused salt medium could follow different paths but Li/sup +/ ions or other highly polarizing ions must be present. A similar situation in which a polyatomic anion discharges at the cathode is encountered when molybdates are used as source of molybdenum. In fluoride melts the chemistry of Mo(VI) species is considered to be much simpler due to the hard fluoride ions. These ions form strong complexes with molybdenum and the resulting solution is more stable

  10. Electrodeposition properties of modified cational epoxy resin-type photoresist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong He; Yunlong Zhang; Feipeng Wu; Miaozhen Li; Erjian Wang

    1999-01-01

    Multi-component cationic epoxy and acrylic resin system for ED photoresist was used in this work, since they can provide better storage stability for ED emulsion and better physical and chemical properties of deposited film than one-component system. The cationic main resin (AE) was prepared from amine modified epoxy resins and then treated with acetic acid. The amination degree was controlled as required. The synthetic procedure of cationic main resins is described in scheme I. The ED photoresist (AME) is composed of cationic main resin (AE) and nonionic multifunctional acrylic crosslinkers (PETA), in combination with suitable photo-initiator. They can easily be dispersed in deionized water to form a stable ED emulsion. The exposed part of deposited film upon UV irradiation occurs crosslinking to produce an insoluble semi-penetrating network and the unexposed part remains good solubility in the acidic water solution. It is readily utilized for fabrication of fine micropattern. The electrodeposition are carried out on Cu plate at room temperature. To evaluate the electrodeposition properties of ED photoresist (AME), the different influences are examined

  11. Microscopic and magnetic properties of template assisted electrodeposited iron nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irshad, M. I., E-mail: imrancssp@gmail.com; Mohamed, N. M., E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my; Yar, A., E-mail: asfandyarhargan@gmail.com [Department of Fundamental & Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 PERAK (Malaysia); Ahmad, F., E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my; Abdullah, M. Z., E-mail: zaki-abdullah@petronas.com.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 PERAK (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Nanowires of magnetic materials such as Iron, nickel, cobalt, and alloys of them are one of the most widely investigated structures because of their possible applications in high density magnetic recording media, sensor elements, and building blocks in biological transport systems. In this work, Iron nanowires have been prepared by electrodeposition technique using Anodized Aluminium Oxide (AAO) templates. The electrolyte used consisted of FeSO{sub 4.}6H{sub 2}O buffered with H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} and acidized by dilute H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. FESEM analysis shows that the asdeposited nanowires are parallel to one another and have high aspect ratio with a reasonably high pore-filing factor. To fabricate the working electrode, a thin film of copper (∼ 220 nm thick) was coated on back side of AAO template by e-beam evaporation system to create electrical contact with the external circuit. The TEM results show that electrodeposited nanowires have diameter around 100 nm and are polycrystalline in structure. Magnetic properties show the existence of anisotropy for in and out of plane configuration. These nanowires have potential applications in magnetic data storage, catalysis and magnetic sensor applications.

  12. Crystallization of Electrodeposited Germanium Thin Film on Silicon (100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Mastura Shafinaz Zainal; Matsumura, Ryo; Anisuzzaman, Mohammad; Park, Jong-Hyeok; Muta, Shunpei; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop; Sadoh, Taizoh; Hashim, Abdul Manaf

    2013-11-06

    We report the crystallization of electrodeposited germanium (Ge) thin films on n-silicon (Si) (100) by rapid melting process. The electrodeposition was carried out in germanium (IV) chloride: propylene glycol (GeCl₄:C₃H₈O₂) electrolyte with constant current of 50 mA for 30 min. The measured Raman spectra and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) images show that the as-deposited Ge thin film was amorphous. The crystallization of deposited Ge was achieved by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 980 °C for 1 s. The EBSD images confirm that the orientations of the annealed Ge are similar to that of the Si substrate. The highly intense peak of Raman spectra at 300 cm -1 corresponding to Ge-Ge vibration mode was observed, indicating good crystal quality of Ge. An additional sub peak near to 390 cm -1 corresponding to the Si-Ge vibration mode was also observed, indicating the Ge-Si mixing at Ge/Si interface. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) reveals that the intermixing depth was around 60 nm. The calculated Si fraction from Raman spectra was found to be in good agreement with the value estimated from Ge-Si equilibrium phase diagram. The proposed technique is expected to be an effective way to crystallize Ge films for various device applications as well as to create strain at the Ge-Si interface for enhancement of mobility.

  13. Crystallization of Electrodeposited Germanium Thin Film on Silicon (100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Manaf Hashim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the crystallization of electrodeposited germanium (Ge thin films on n-silicon (Si (100 by rapid melting process. The electrodeposition was carried out in germanium (IV chloride: propylene glycol (GeCl4:C3H8O2 electrolyte with constant current of 50 mA for 30 min. The measured Raman spectra and electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD images show that the as-deposited Ge thin film was amorphous. The crystallization of deposited Ge was achieved by rapid thermal annealing (RTA at 980 °C for 1 s. The EBSD images confirm that the orientations of the annealed Ge are similar to that of the Si substrate. The highly intense peak of Raman spectra at 300 cm−1 corresponding to Ge-Ge vibration mode was observed, indicating good crystal quality of Ge. An additional sub peak near to 390 cm−1 corresponding to the Si-Ge vibration mode was also observed, indicating the Ge-Si mixing at Ge/Si interface. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES reveals that the intermixing depth was around 60 nm. The calculated Si fraction from Raman spectra was found to be in good agreement with the value estimated from Ge-Si equilibrium phase diagram. The proposed technique is expected to be an effective way to crystallize Ge films for various device applications as well as to create strain at the Ge-Si interface for enhancement of mobility.

  14. A separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopyuk, S.G.; Dyachenko, A.Ye.; Mukhametov, M.N.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    A separator is proposed which contains separating slanted plates and baffle plates installed at a distance to them at an acute angle to them. To increase the effectiveness of separating a gas and liquid stream and the throughput through reducing the secondary carry away of the liquid drops and to reduce the hydraulic resistance, as well, openings are made in the plates. The horizontal projections of each opening from the lower and upper surfaces of the plate do not overlap each other.

  15. Amine-oxide hybrid materials for acid gas separations

    KAUST Repository

    Bollini, Praveen; Didas, Stephanie A.; Jones, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on porous silica materials functionalized with amine-containing organic species are emerging as an important class of materials for the adsorptive separation of acid gases from dilute gas streams

  16. II. Electrodeposition/removal of nickel in a spouted electrochemical reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Pengpeng; Calo, Joseph M; Shirvanian, Pezhman A; Hradil, George

    2011-08-17

    An investigation is presented of nickel electrodeposition from acidic solutions in a cylindrical spouted electrochemical reactor. The effects of solution pH, temperature, and applied current on nickel removal/recovery rate, current efficiency, and corrosion rate of deposited nickel on the cathodic particles were explored under galvanostatic operation. Nitrogen sparging was used to decrease the dissolved oxygen concentration in the electrolyte in order to reduce the nickel corrosion rate, thereby increasing the nickel electrowinning rate and current efficiency. A numerical model of electrodeposition, including corrosion and mass transfer in the particulate cathode moving bed, is presented that describes the behavior of the experimental net nickel electrodeposition data quite well.

  17. Phase-Change Memory Properties of Electrodeposited Ge-Sb-Te Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruomeng; Kissling, Gabriela P.; Jolleys, Andrew; Bartlett, Philip N.; Hector, Andrew L.; Levason, William; Reid, Gillian; De Groot, C. H. `Kees'

    2015-11-01

    We report the properties of a series of electrodeposited Ge-Sb-Te alloys with various compositions. It is shown that the Sb/Ge ratio can be varied in a controlled way by changing the electrodeposition potential. This method opens up the prospect of depositing Ge-Sb-Te super-lattice structures by electrodeposition. Material and electrical characteristics of various compositions have been investigated in detail, showing up to three orders of magnitude resistance ratio between the amorphous and crystalline states and endurance up to 1000 cycles.

  18. Electrodeposition of Iridium Oxide by Cyclic Voltammetry: Application of Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakooei Saeid

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of scan rate, temperature, and number of cycles on the coating thickness of IrOX electrodeposited on a stainless steel substrate by cyclic voltammetry were investigated in a statistical system. The central composite design, combined with response surface methodology, was used to study condition of electrodeposition. All fabricated electrodes were characterized using electrochemical methods. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were performed for IrOX film characterization. Results showed that scan rate significantly affects the thickness of the electrodeposited layer. Also, the number of cycles has a greater effect than temperature on the IrOX thickness.

  19. Magnetic properties of CoP alloys electrodeposited at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, I.; Perez, L.; Aroca, C.; Sanchez, P.; Lopez, E.; Sanchez, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    CoP alloys have been electrodeposited at room temperature from electrolytes with different pH values and their magnetic properties have been studied. Cracks and fractures appear when using stiff substrates, showing that high internal stresses, due to hydrogen evolution, are involved in the electrodeposition process. Samples electrodeposited onto flexible substrates do not show cracks on the surface. We also report an increment in the coercivity of the alloys when the pH of the electrolyte decreases, and therefore, the hydrogen evolution and the internal stresses increase

  20. A Study on Zinc-Iron Alloy Electrodeposition from a Chloride Electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Dahl

    1998-01-01

    The electrodeposition of zinc-iron alloys from a chloride-based electrolyte has been studied using electrochemical polarisation techniques, Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDXA) and Computer Assisted Pulse Plating (CAPP...... this system ideal for production of compositional modulated alloy (CMA) electrodeposits. Chloride content, pH and agitation of the electrolyte have been observed to have a strong influence on the reaction at the cathode surface, just as the use of pulse reversal current during electrodeposition. A theory...

  1. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method of isotope separation is described which involves the use of a laser photon beam to selectively induce energy level transitions of an isotope molecule containing the isotope to be separated. The use of the technique for 235 U enrichment is demonstrated. (UK)

  2. Electrodeposition of Zn and Cu–Zn alloy from ZnO/CuO precursors in deep eutectic solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xueliang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zou, Xingli, E-mail: xinglizou@shu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Lu, Xionggang, E-mail: luxg@shu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Lu, Changyuan; Cheng, Hongwei; Xu, Qian [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhou, Zhongfu [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    Graphical abstract: Micro/nanostructured Zn and Cu–Zn alloy films have been electrodeposited directly from ZnO/CuO precursors in ChCl/urea-based DES, the typical nucleation-growth mechanism and the micro/nanostructures-formation process are determined. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Micro/nanostructured Zn films have been electrodeposited directly from ZnO precursor in deep eutectic solvent (DES). • The morphology of the Zn electrodeposits depends on the cathodic potential and temperature. • The electrodeposited Zn films exhibit homogeneous morphologies with controllable particle sizes and improved corrosion resistance. • Cu–Zn alloy films have also been electrodeposited directly from their metal oxides precursors in DES. - Abstract: The electrodeposition of Zn and Cu–Zn alloy has been investigated in choline chloride (ChCl)/urea (1:2 molar ratio) based deep eutectic solvent (DES). Cyclic voltammetry study demonstrates that the reduction of Zn(II) to Zn is a diffusion-controlled quasi-reversible, one-step, two electrons transfer process. Chronoamperometric investigation indicates that the electrodeposition of Zn on a Cu electrode typically involves three-dimensional instantaneous nucleation with diffusion-controlled growth process. Micro/nanostructured Zn films can be obtained by controlling the electrodeposition potential and temperature. The electrodeposited Zn crystals preferentially orient parallel to the (101) plane. The Zn films electrodeposited under more positive potentials and low temperatures exhibit improved corrosion resistance in 3 wt% NaCl solution. In addition, Cu–Zn alloy films have also been electrodeposited directly from CuO–ZnO precursors in ChCl/urea-based DES. The XRD analysis indicates that the phase composition of the electrodeposited Cu–Zn alloy depends on the electrodeposition potential.

  3. Preparation of inorganic hydrophobic catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Heyi; Du, Yang

    2009-04-01

    In order to catalyse the oxidation of tritium gas, two inorganic hydrophobic catalysts are prepared. Under room temperature, the catalysed oxidation ratio of 0.3%-1% (V/V) hydrogen gas in air is higher than 95%. Pt-II inorganic hydrophobic catalysts has obviously better catalysing ability than Pt-PTFE and lower ability than Pt-SDB in H 2 -HTO isotopic exchange, because the pressure resistence of Pt-II is much higher than Pt-SDB, it can be used to the CECE cell of heavy water detritium system. (authors)

  4. Optimum Condition for Plutonium Electrodeposition Process in Radiochemistry and Environment Laboratory, Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yii, Mei-Wo; Abdullah Siddiqi Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Determination of alpha emitting plutonium radionuclides such as Pu-238, Pu-239 and Pu-240 concentrations inside a sample require lots of radiochemistry purification process to separate them from other interfering alpha emitters. These pure isotopes are then been electrodeposited onto a stainless steel disc and quantified using alpha spectrometry counter. In Radiochemistry and Environment Laboratory (RAS), Nuclear Malaysia, the quantification is done by comparing these isotopes with the recovery of known amount plutonium tracer, Pu-242, that been added into the sample prior analysis. This study been conducted to find the optimum conditions for the electrolysis process used at RAS. Four variable parameters that may interfere the percentage recovery of tracer hence the current, cathode to anode distance, pH and electrolysis duration had been identify and studied. Study was carry out using Pu-242 standard solution and the deposition disc was counted using Zinc Sulphite (silver) counter. Studies outcome suggested that the optimum conditions to reduce plutonium ion happens at 1-1.1 ampere of current, 3-5 mm of electrodes distance, pH 2.2-2.5 and a minimal electrolysis duration of 2 hours. (author)

  5. Growth and characterisation of potentiostatically electrodeposited Cu2O and Cu thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijesundera, R.P.; Hidaka, M.; Koga, K.; Sakai, M.; Siripala, W.

    2006-01-01

    Cuprous oxide and copper thin films were potentiostatically electrodeposited in an acetate bath. Voltammetric curves were used to investigate the growth parameters; deposition potential, pH and temperature of the bath. Deposition potential dependency on the structural, morphological, optical and electronic properties of the films were investigated by the X-ray diffraction measurements, scanning electron micrographs, absorption measurements and dark and light current-voltage characterisations. It was observed that single phase polycrystalline Cu 2 O can be deposited from 0 to - 300 mV Vs saturated calomel electrode (SCE) and co-deposition of Cu and Cu 2 O starts at - 400 mV Vs SCE. Further increase in deposition potential from - 700 mV Vs SCE produces single phase Cu thin films. Single phase polycrystalline Cu 2 O thin films with cubic grains of 1-2 μm can be possible within the very narrow potential domain around - 200 mV Vs SCE. Enhanced photoresponse in a photoelectrochemical cell is produced by the Cu 2 O thin film prepared at - 400 mV Vs SCE, where Cu is co-deposited with Cu 2 O with random distribution of Cu spheres on the Cu 2 O surface. This study reveals that a single deposition bath can be used to deposit both Cu and Cu 2 O separately and an admixture of Cu-Cu 2 O by controlling the deposition parameters

  6. Effects of pH on the crystallographic structure and magnetic properties of electrodeposited cobalt nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, N.; Shamaila, S.; Sharif, R.; Wali, H.; Naseem, S.; Riaz, S.; Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M.

    2015-01-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide templates with pore diameter of 40 nm and inter pore separation of 100 nm are prepared by two step anodization in 0.3 M oxalic acid solution. These templates are used to fabricate dc-deposited Co nanowires at different pH values of acidic bath. Continuous and densely packed nanowires having length ∼8 µm are observed. The hcp configuration appeared at moderate and high pH whereas both fcc and hcp phases are observed at low pH. However the crystallinity distorted at high pH due to formation of polycrystalline structure of cobalt nanowires. Alignment of easy-axis of nanowires can be tailored by varying pH of solution. - Highlights: • Variation in the structure of dc deposited cobalt nanowires can be obtained by varying pH of acidic bath. • The hcp structure is stable at room temperature with low voltage deposition for electrodeposited Co nanowires. Co with fcc structure, is stable at temperatures above 422 °C or at pH<3 with high potential. • The hcp (100) plane is obtained with pH∼3.5 and (101) is stable at pH∼5.5 due to variation in temperature inside the pores with respect to the pH. • Alignment of easy-axis of nanowires can be tailored by varying pH of solution

  7. Inorganic-organic nanocomposites for optical coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Helmut K.; Krug, Herbert; Sepeur-Zeitz, Bernhard; Geiter, Elisabeth

    1997-10-01

    The fabrication of nanoparticles by the sol-gel process and their use in polymeric or sol-gel-derived inorganic-organic composite matrices opens up interesting possibilities for designing new optical materials. Two different routes have been chosen for preparing optical nanocomposites: The first is the so-called 'in situ route,' where the nanoparticles are synthesized in a liquid mixture from Zr-alkoxides in a polymerizable system and diffractive gratings were produced by embossing uncured film. The second is the 'separate' preparation route, where a sterically stabilized dry nanoboehmite powder was completely redispersed in an epoxy group-containing matrix and hard coatings with optical quality on polycarbonate were prepared.

  8. Multifunctional hybrid coating on titanium towards hydroxyapatite growth: Electrodeposition of tantalum and its molecular functionalization with organophosphonic acids films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnould, Christelle; Delhalle, Joseph; Mekhalif, Zineb

    2008-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys are base materials used in the dental and orthopaedic fields owing to suitable intrinsic properties: good biocompatibility, high corrosion resistance and excellent mechanical properties. However, the bonding between titanium and bone tissue is not always strong enough and can become a critical problem. In this context, the two main objectives of this paper are the increase of the corrosion resistance and the improvement of the hydroxyapatite (HAp) growth. The surface modification considered here is achieved in three main steps and consists in the elaboration of different inorganic and organic coatings. The first step is the elaboration of electrodeposition of tantalum on the titanium oxide film of a titanium substrate. The second step is the modification of the tantalum oxide coating with organophosphonic acids. The last step is the nucleation and growth of HAP on the outermost layer of the system by immersion in a simulated body fluid. The hybrid coating tantalum oxide/organophosphonic acids/molecular layer is shown to be promising for orthopaedic implants

  9. CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.

    1959-03-10

    A centrifugal separator is described for separating gaseous mixtures where the temperature gradients both longitudinally and radially of the centrifuge may be controlled effectively to produce a maximum separation of the process gases flowing through. Tbe invention provides for the balancing of increases and decreases in temperature in various zones of the centrifuge chamber as the result of compression and expansions respectively, of process gases and may be employed effectively both to neutralize harmful temperature gradients and to utilize beneficial temperaturc gradients within the centrifuge.

  10. Microparticle Separation by Cyclonic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karback, Keegan; Leith, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    The ability to separate particles based on their size has wide ranging applications from the industrial to the medical. Currently, cyclonic separators are primarily used in agriculture and manufacturing to syphon out contaminates or products from an air supply. This has led us to believe that cyclonic separation has more applications than the agricultural and industrial. Using the OpenFoam computational package, we were able to determine the flow parameters of a vortex in a cyclonic separator in order to segregate dust particles to a cutoff size of tens of nanometers. To test the model, we constructed an experiment to separate a test dust of various sized particles. We filled a chamber with Arizona test dust and utilized an acoustic suspension technique to segregate particles finer than a coarse cutoff size and introduce them into the cyclonic separation apparatus where they were further separated via a vortex following our computational model. The size of the particles separated from this experiment will be used to further refine our model. Metropolitan State University of Denver, Colorado University of Denver, Dr. Randall Tagg, Dr. Richard Krantz.

  11. One-step electrodeposition process of CuInSe2: Deposition time effect

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    CuInSe2 thin films were prepared by one-step electrodeposition process using a simplified two- electrodes system. ... homojunctions or heterojunctions (Rincon et al 1983). Efficiency of ... deposition times onto indium thin oxide (ITO)-covered.

  12. Nucleation and growth mechanism of Co–Pt alloy nanowires electrodeposited within alumina template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastav, Ajeet K., E-mail: srivastav.ajeet.kumar@gmail.com, E-mail: mm09d004@smail.iitm.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering (India); Shekhar, Rajiv [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (India)

    2015-01-15

    Co–Pt alloy nanowires were electrodeposited by direct current electrodeposition within nanoporous alumina templates with varying deposition potentials. The effect of deposition potential on nucleation and growth mechanisms during electrodeposition of Co–Pt alloy nanowires was investigated. The less negative deposition potential (−0.9 V) favours the instantaneous nucleation mechanism. The positive deviation from theoretical instantaneous and progressive nucleation mechanisms occurs at higher negative deposition potentials. The hysteresis behaviour and magnetic properties of electrodeposited Co–Pt alloy nanowires altered with varying deposition potential. The easy magnetization direction was in direction perpendicular to the wire axis. The deposition potential dependent change in hysteresis behaviour with increased coercivity and scattered remanence ratio was observed. This is attributed to better crystallinity with reduced defect density and hydrogen evolution causing structural changes at more negative deposition potentials.

  13. Interfacial electronic structure of electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles on iron oxide nanorice particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Young Ku [Dept. of Chemistry, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A bimetallic hybrid nanostructure of uni- formly electrodeposited Ag NPs on an Fe oxide nanorice particle template was developed. Figure 6 schematically illustrates uniform electrodeposition of Ag NPs on Fe oxide nanorice supported on a Si substrate. According to Ar + ion depth-probling XPS spectra, the electrodeposited Ag NPs are metallic, and the Fe oxide nanorice particles consist of a metallic shell covered by ultrathin FeOOH or Fe 2 O 3 shells. When the template was functionalized with 1,4-diisocyanobenzene, one terminal NC group was bridge- bonded as in the N C form on the Fe surface. The newly developed selective facial electrodeposition method will be very useful for facial fabrication of bimetallic hybrid systems for diverse application areas.

  14. Electrodeposition of platinum nanoparticles in a room-temperature ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da; Chang, Wan Cheng; Okajima, Takeyoshi; Ohsaka, Takeo

    2011-12-06

    The electrochemistry of the [PtCl(6)](2-)-[PtCl(4)](2-)-Pt redox system on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode in a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) [i.e., N,N-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl)ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DEMEBF(4))] has been examined. The two-step four-electron reduction of [PtCl(6)](2-) to Pt, i.e., reduction of [PtCl(6)](2-) to [PtCl(4)](2-) and further reduction of [PtCl(4)](2-) to Pt, occurs separately in this RTIL in contrast to the one-step four-electron reduction of [PtCl(6)](2-) to Pt in aqueous media. The cathodic and anodic peaks corresponding to the [PtCl(6)](2-)/[PtCl(4)](2-) redox couple were observed at ca. -1.1 and 0.6 V vs a Pt wire quasi-reference electrode, respectively, while those observed at -2.8 and -0.5 V were found to correspond to the [PtCl(4)](2-)/Pt redox couple. The disproportionation reaction of the two-electron reduction product of [PtCl(6)](2-) (i.e., [PtCl(4)](2-)) to [PtCl(6)](2-) and Pt metal was also found to occur significantly. The electrodeposition of Pt nanoparticles could be carried out on a GC electrode in DEMEBF(4) containing [PtCl(6)](2-) by holding the potential at -3.5 or -2.0 V. At -3.5 V, the four-electron reduction of [PtCl(6)](2-) to Pt can take place, while at -2.0 V the two-electron reduction of [PtCl(6)](2-) to [PtCl(4)](2-) occurs. The results obtained demonstrate that the electrodeposition of Pt at -3.5 V may occur via a series of reductions of [PtCl(6)](2-) to [PtCl(4)](2-) and further [PtCl(4)](2-) to Pt and at -2.0 V via a disproportionation reaction of [PtCl(4)](2-) to [PtCl(6)](2-) and Pt. Furthermore, the deposition potential of Pt nanoparticles was found to largely influence their size and morphology as well as the relative ratio of Pt(110) and Pt(100) crystalline orientation domains. The sizes of the Pt nanoparticles prepared by holding the electrode potential at -2.0 and -3.5 V are almost the same, in the range of ca. 1-2 nm. These small nanoparticles are "grown" to form bigger

  15. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to molecular and atomic isotope separation and is particularly applicable to the separation of 235 U from other uranium isotopes including 238 U. In the method described a desired isotope is separated mechanically from an atomic or molecular beam formed from an isotope mixture utilising the isotropic recoil momenta resulting from selective excitation of the desired isotope species by radiation, followed by ionization or dissociation by radiation or electron attachment. By forming a matrix of UF 6 molecules in HBr molecules so as to collapse the V 3 vibrational mode of the UF 6 molecule the 235 UF 6 molecules are selectively excited to promote reduction of UF 6 molecules containing 235 U and facilitate separation. (UK)

  16. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopic species in an isotopic mixture including a first species having a first isotope and a second species having a second isotope are separated by selectively exciting the first species in preference to the second species and then reacting the selectively excited first species with an additional preselected radiation, an electron or another chemical species so as to form a product having a mass different from the original species and separating the product from the balance of the mixture in a centrifugal separating device such as centrifuge or aerodynamic nozzle. In the centrifuge the isotopic mixture is passed into a rotor where it is irradiated through a window. Heavier and lighter components can be withdrawn. The irradiated mixture experiences a large centrifugal force and is separated in a deflection area into lighter and heavier components. (UK)

  17. Regulating the electrodeposition of zinc and cadmium coatings with mixtures of o-oxyazomethyne derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, V.P.; Shpan'ko, S.P.; Dymnikova, O.V.; Popov, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    The results of electrodeposition of zinc and cadmium metals from the sulfate electrolyte in presence of the organic compounds of the oxyazomethine reaction series are described. It is shown that the current dependences retardation coefficient and cathode polarization of electrodeposited zinc and cadmium are described by equations, following from the principle of the reaction and activation free energy linearity. The character of these dependence for the negatively charged zinc and positively charged cadmium cathodes is similar [ru

  18. Dendrite-Free Electrodeposition and Reoxidation of Lithium-Sodium Alloy for Metal-Anode Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Dendrite-Free Electrodeposition and Reoxidation of Lithium-Sodium Alloy for Metal-Anode Battery Johanna K. Star 1 , Yi Ding 2 , and Paul A. Kohl ,1, * 1...Journal Article 3. DATES COVERED 01-11-2011 to 01-11-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DENDRITE-FREE ELECTRODEPOSITION AND REOXIDATION OF LITHIUM-SODIUM...can short circuit the anode and cathode . Anode- cathode short circuits are especially dangerous when a flammable organic solvent is used as the

  19. Vapour and electro-deposited metal films on copper: structure and reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    McEvoy, Thomas F.

    2004-01-01

    The systems studied involve deposition of metals of a larger atomic diameter on a Cu{100} single crystal surface under vacuum and determining the structures formed along with the effect on the Cu{100} substrate. Cu microelectrodes were fabricated and characterised with Indium electrodeposited on the electrode surface. The In on Cu{ 100} growth mode is compared with the growth mode of electrodeposited Indium on Cu microelectrodes. The Cu{100}/In system has been studied for the In coverage ...

  20. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Results of studies on the photochemistry of aqueous Pu solutions and the stability of iodine in liquid and gaseous CO 2 are reported. Progress is reported in studies on: the preparation of macroporous bodies filled with oxides and sulfides to be used as adsorbents; the beneficiation of photographic wastes; the anion exchange adsorption of transition elements from thiosulfate solutions; advanced filtration applications of energy significance; high-resolution separations; and, the examination of the separation agents, octylphenylphosphoric acid (OPPA) and trihexyl phosphate (THP)

  1. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for separating isotopes in which photo-excitation of selected isotope species is used together with the reaction of the excited species with postive ions of predetermined ionization energy, other excited species, or free electrons to produce ions or ion fragments of the selected species. Ions and electrons are produced by an electrical discharge, and separation is achieved through radial ambipolar diffusion, electrostatic techniques, or magnetohydrodynamic methods

  2. Molecular modeling of inorganic compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Comba, Peter; Hambley, Trevor W; Martin, Bodo

    2009-01-01

    ... mechanics to inorganic and coordination compounds. Initially, simple metal complexes were modeled, but recently the field has been extended to include organometallic compounds, catalysis and the interaction of metal ions with biological macromolecules. The application of molecular mechanics to coordination compounds is complicated by the numbe...

  3. Inorganic nanomedicine--part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Bhupinder S; Kamboj, Seema R

    2010-08-01

    Inorganic nanomedicine refers to the use of inorganic or hybrid nanomaterials and nanosized objects to achieve innovative medical breakthroughs for drug and gene discovery and delivery, discovery of biomarkers, and molecular diagnostics. Potential uses for fluorescent quantum dots include cell labeling, biosensing, in vivo imaging, bimodal magnetic-luminescent imaging, and diagnostics. Biocompatible quantum dot conjugates have been used successfully for sentinel lymph node mapping, tumor targeting, tumor angiogenesis imaging, and metastatic cell tracking. Magnetic nanowires applications include biosensing and construction of nucleic acids sensors. Magnetic cell therapy is used for the repair of blood vessels. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are important for magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, cell labeling, and tracking. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are used for hyperthermic treatment of tumors. Multifunctional MNPs applications include drug and gene delivery, medical imaging, and targeted drug delivery. MNPs could have a vital role in developing techniques to simultaneously diagnose, monitor, and treat a wide range of common diseases and injuries. From the clinical editor: This review serves as an update about the current state of inorganic nanomedicine. The use of inorganic/hybrid nanomaterials and nanosized objects has already resulted in innovative medical breakthroughs for drug/gene discovery and delivery, discovery of biomarkers and molecular diagnostics, and is likely to remain one of the most prolific fields of nanomedicine. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. James Moir as Inorganic Chemist

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    KEYWORDS. Inorganic chemistry, gold, atomic theory, history of chemistry. .... Figure 2 (a) shows Moir's model for the C atom, where the black circles represent the ..... Na filled the hole in the F atom, both becoming ions even in the crystal state ...

  5. Determining Inorganic and Organic Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koistinen, Jaana; Sjöblom, Mervi; Spilling, Kristian

    2017-11-21

    Carbon is the element which makes up the major fraction of lipids and carbohydrates, which could be used for making biofuel. It is therefore important to provide enough carbon and also follow the flow into particulate organic carbon and potential loss to dissolved organic forms of carbon. Here we present methods for determining dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and particulate organic carbon.

  6. Influence of lead ions on the macromorphology of electrodeposited zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, Tetsuaki [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tobias, Charles W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1981-09-01

    The morphology of zinc as it is electrodeposited from acid solutions demonstrates a remarkable imprint of electrolyte flow conditions. The development of macromorphology of zinc deposits has been investigated under galvanostatic conditions on a rotating plantinum disk electrode by use of photomacrography, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and Auger microprobe analysis. Logarithmic spiral markings, which reflect the hydrodynamic flow on a rotating disk, appear in a certain region of current density well below the limiting current density. Morphological observations revealed the major influence of trace lead ions on the amplifications of surface roughness through coalescence and preferred growth of initial protrusions. Results obtained from ultra-pure electrolyte suggest preferred crystal growth towards well-mixed orientation in the concentration field caused by slight differences in crystallization overpotential. A qualitative model involving a coupling mechanism between the evolving surface roughness and instability phenomena in the boundary layer is advanced to explain the formation of spiral patterns.

  7. Studies on zinc nodules electrodeposited from acid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Rolfe [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tobias, Charles W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1984-12-01

    The development of morphology of electrodeposited zinc was investigated by studying the initial stages of deposition. Zinc was deposited galvanostatically from 1.0 M ZnCl2 electrolyte (0.7 < pH < 4.6) on rotating disc electrodes at current densities from 5 to 130 ma/cm2. Pine glassy carbon, Union Carbide pyrolytic graphite, Gould pyrolytic graphite, Exxon graphite loaded polymer, and platinum substrates were used. The number densities of nodules (diameter greater than 1 μm), typically encountered during incipient morphological development, were measured using scanning electron microscopy and image analysis. Nodule densities up to 7 x 104 nodules/mm2 were measured.

  8. Zinc electrodeposition from alkaline zincate solution by pulsating overpotentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILOS V. SIMICIC

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that smooth zinc deposits cannot be obtained from alkaline zincate using constant overpotential and current rate. During prolonged metal deposition, spongy and dendritic deposits are formed. It has been shown that the deposits are less agglomerated in the case of square-wave pulsating overpotentials regime than the ones obtained in case of constant overpotential regime. This is explained in a semiquantitative way by two phenomena: selective anodic dissolution during overpotentials “off” period and decreasing diffusion control. These effects is more pronounced at higher pause-to-pulse ratio. Increasing the pause-to-pulse ratio causes a reduction of the ratio between diffusion and activation overpotential, resulting in a more compact deposit. Confirmation of the proposed semiquantitative mathematical model was obtained by zinc electrodeposition onto a copper wire from a 0.1 M zincate solution in 1.0 M KOH at room temperature.

  9. Potentiostatic current and galvanostatic potential oscillations during electrodeposition of cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sauri, D A; Veleva, L; Pérez-Ángel, G

    2015-09-14

    Cathodic current and potential oscillations were observed during electrodeposition of cadmium from a cyanide electrolyte on a vertical platinum electrode, in potentiostatic and galvanostatic experiments. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experiments revealed a region of negative real impedance in a range of non-zero frequencies, in the second descending branch with a positive slope of the N-shape current-potential curve. This kind of dynamical behaviour is characteristic of the HN-NDR oscillators (oscillators with the N-Shape current-potential curve and hidden negative differential resistance). The oscillations could be mainly attributed to the changes in the real active cathodic area, due to the adsorption of hydrogen molecules and their detachment from the surface. The instabilities of the electrochemical processes were characterized by time series, Fast Fourier Transforms and 2-D phase portraits showing quasi-periodic oscillations.

  10. Nanocrystalline electrodeposited Ni-Mo-C cathodes for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, K.; Sasaki, T.; Meguro, S.; Asami, K.

    2004-01-01

    Tailoring active nickel alloy cathodes for hydrogen evolution in a hot concentrated hydroxide solution was attempted by electrodeposition. The carbon addition to Ni-Mo alloys decreased the nanocrystalline grain size and remarkably enhanced the activity for hydrogen evolution, changing the mechanism of hydrogen evolution. The Tafel slope of hydrogen evolution was about 35 mV per decade. This suggested that the rate-determining step is desorption of adsorbed hydrogen atoms by recombination. As was distinct from the binary Ni-Mo alloys, after open circuit immersion, the overpotential, that is, the activity of nanocrystalline Ni-Mo-C alloys for hydrogen evolution was not changed, indicating the sufficient durability in the practical electrolysis

  11. Efficient production of ultrapure manganese oxides via electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marcos A; Joo, Sang Woo; Banerjee, Arghya; Min, Bong-Ki

    2012-08-01

    A new process for the production of electrolytic amorphous nanomanganese oxides (EAMD) with uniform size and morphology is described. EAMD are produced for the first time by cathodic deposition from a basic aqueous solution of potassium permanganate at a constant temperature of 16°C. The synthesized materials are characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, and HRTEM. The materials produced at 5.0 V at constant temperature are amorphous with homogeneous size and morphology with an average particle size around 20 nm, which appears to be much lesser than the previously reported anodic EAMD. A potentiostatic electrodeposition with much lesser deposition rate (with respect to previously reported anodic depositions) is considered to be the reason behind the very low and homogenous particle size distribution due to the lesser agglomeration of our as-synthesized nanoparticles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tin electrodeposition from sulfate solution containing a benzimidazolone derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said BAKKALI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tin electrodeposition in an acidic medium in the presence of N,N’-1,3-bis-[N-3-(6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-D-glucopyranose-6-yl-2-oxobenzimidazol-1-yl]-2-tetradecyloxypropane as an additive was investigated in this work. The adequate current density and the appropriate additive concentration were determined by gravimetric measurements. Chronopotentiometric curves showed that the presence of the additive caused an increase in the overpotential of tin reduction. The investigations by cyclic voltammetry technique revealed that, in the presence and in absence of the additive, there were two peaks, one in the cathodic side attributed to the reduction of Sn2+ and the other one in the anodic side assigned to the oxidation of tin previously formed during the cathodic scan. The surface morphology of the tin deposits was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and XRD.

  13. Electrodeposited highly-ordered manganese oxide nanowire arrays for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haifeng; Lu, Bingqiang; Wei, Shuiqiang; Bao, Mi; Wen, Yanxuan; Wang, Fan

    2012-07-01

    Large arrays of well-aligned Mn oxide nanowires were prepared by electrodeposition using anodic aluminum oxide templates. The sizes of nanowires were tuned by varying the electrotype solution involved and the MnO2 nanowires with 10 μm in length were obtained in a neutral KMnO4 bath for 1 h. MnO2 nanowire arrays grown on conductor substance save the tedious electrode-making process, and electrochemical characterization demonstrates that the MnO2 nanowire arrays electrode has good capacitive behavior. Due to the limited mass transportation in narrow spacing, the spacing effects between the neighbor nanowires have show great influence to the electrochemical performance.

  14. Electrodeposition of silver nanoparticle arrays on transparent conductive oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dezhong; Tang, Yang; Jiang, Fuguo; Han, Zhihua; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The sliver nanoparticles' size and the distance between nanoparticles are tunable. - Abstract: In this paper, we present a facile method for the preparation of silver nanoparticles on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) via electrodeposition techniques at room temperature. The morphology and structure of silver nanoparticles are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Due to localized surface plasmon resonances, as-prepared silver nanoparticles on AZO glass exhibited different reflectivity in contrast with bare AZO glass. The weighted reflection of AZO substrate increased from 10.2% to 12.8%. The high reflection property of silver nanoparticle arrays on AZO substrate might be applicable for thin film solar cells and other optoelectronics applications.

  15. Electrodeposition of silver nanoparticle arrays on transparent conductive oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dezhong; Tang, Yang, E-mail: tangyang@nicenergy.com; Jiang, Fuguo; Han, Zhihua; Chen, Jie

    2016-04-30

    Highlights: • The sliver nanoparticles' size and the distance between nanoparticles are tunable. - Abstract: In this paper, we present a facile method for the preparation of silver nanoparticles on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) via electrodeposition techniques at room temperature. The morphology and structure of silver nanoparticles are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Due to localized surface plasmon resonances, as-prepared silver nanoparticles on AZO glass exhibited different reflectivity in contrast with bare AZO glass. The weighted reflection of AZO substrate increased from 10.2% to 12.8%. The high reflection property of silver nanoparticle arrays on AZO substrate might be applicable for thin film solar cells and other optoelectronics applications.

  16. Nonequilibrium fluctuations in micro-MHD effects on electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aogaki, Ryoichi; Morimoto, Ryoichi; Asanuma, Miki

    2010-01-01

    In copper electrodeposition under a magnetic field parallel to electrode surface, different roles of two kinds of nonequilibrium fluctuations for micro-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects are discussed; symmetrical fluctuations are accompanied by the suppression of three dimensional (3D) nucleation by micro-MHD flows (the 1st micro-MHD effect), whereas asymmetrical fluctuations controlling 2D nucleation yield secondary nodules by larger micro-MHD flows (the 2nd micro-MHD effect). Though the 3D nucleation with symmetrical fluctuations is always suppressed by the micro-MHD flows, due to the change in the rate-determining step from electron transfer to mass transfer, the 2D nucleation with asymmetrical fluctuations newly turns unstable, generating larger micro-MHD flows. As a result, round semi-spherical deposits, i.e., secondary nodules are yielded. Using computer simulation, the mechanism of the 2nd micro-MHD effect is validated.

  17. Characterisation of a thiosulphate-sulphite gold electrodeposition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J-Liew, M.; Sobri, S.; Roy, S.

    2005-01-01

    Electrodeposition of soft gold is an important process in the fabrication of micro devices for electronics, optics etc. Traditional gold electroplating is based on a gold cyanide process which is not applicable for the stringent requirements in state of the art micro device manufacture. Newcastle University has been involved in the development of an industrial process based on a mixed ligand electrolyte-the gold thiosulphate-sulphite system. Here we present methods for the formulation of this electrolyte in the laboratory which ensure bath stability and process compatibility. In addition, we have carried out spectrophotometry to elucidate the possible reasons of its chemical stability. Standard rotating disk and cyclic voltammetry has been carried out to determine the electrochemical behaviour of the gold thiosulphate-sulphite system. The changes in electrochemical behaviour as the bath ages are also discussed

  18. Electrical conductivity of chromate conversion coating on electrodeposited zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tencer, Michal

    2006-01-01

    For certain applications of galvanized steel protected with conversion coatings it is important that the surface is electrically conductive. This is especially important with mating surfaces for electromagnetic compatibility. This paper addresses electrical conductivity of chromate conversion coatings. A cross-matrix study using different zinc plating techniques by different labs showed that the main deciding factor is the type of zinc-plating bath used rather than the subsequent chromating process. Thus, chromated zinc plate electrodeposited from cyanide baths is non-conductive while that from alkaline (non-cyanide) and acid baths is conductive, even though the plate from all the bath types is conductive before conversion coating. The results correlate well with the microscopic structure of the surfaces as observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and could be further corroborated and rationalized using EDX and Auger spectroscopies

  19. Insights into pulsed electrodeposition of GMR multilayered nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullini, D.; Busquets, D.; Ruotolo, A.; Innocenti, G.; Amigo, V.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, Co/Cu nanowires are fabricated by pulsed electrodeposition from a single bath solution containing both Co and Cu ions. Alternate Co and Cu layers are deposited into the nanopores of track etched polycarbonate templates. Although the feasibility of this process is generally recognized, some important issues such as process reproducibility and how structural defects affect the nanowires arrays' sensing performances are still open; conditions necessary to turn a this made system into a magnetic field sensor. The present work aims at pushing forward knowledge concerning the nanowires fabrication and defining the best growth parameters; in particular, a tight control of the growth process parameters such as single metal deposition potentials and single cycle deposition durations have been carried out for nanowires of 80 nm diameter and correlated to the system magneto-electric response

  20. Oriented hydroxyapatite single crystals produced by the electrodeposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, E.A. dos, E-mail: euler@ufs.br [INSA - Groupe Ingenierie des Surfaces, 24, Bld de la Victoire, 67084 Strasbourg (France); IPCMS - Departement de Surfaces et Interfaces, 23, rue du Loess, BP 43, 67034 Strasbourg (France); Moldovan, M.S. [INSA - Groupe Ingenierie des Surfaces, 24, Bld de la Victoire, 67084 Strasbourg (France); IPCMS - Departement de Surfaces et Interfaces, 23, rue du Loess, BP 43, 67034 Strasbourg (France); Jacomine, L. [INSA - Groupe Ingenierie des Surfaces, 24, Bld de la Victoire, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Mateescu, M. [IS2M - Equipe Interaction Surface-Matiere Vivant, 15, rue Jean Starcky, BP 2488, 68057 Mulhouse (France); Werckmann, J. [IPCMS - Departement de Surfaces et Interfaces, 23, rue du Loess, BP 43, 67034 Strasbourg (France); Anselme, K. [IS2M - Equipe Interaction Surface-Matiere Vivant, 15, rue Jean Starcky, BP 2488, 68057 Mulhouse (France); Mille, P.; Pelletier, H. [INSA - Groupe Ingenierie des Surfaces, 24, Bld de la Victoire, 67084 Strasbourg (France)

    2010-05-25

    We propose here the use of cathodic electrodeposition as tool to fabricate implant coatings consisting in nano/micro single crystals of hydroxyapatite (HA), preferentially orientated along the c-axis. Coating characterization is the base of this work, where we discuss the mechanisms related to the deposition of oriented hydroxyapatite thin films. It is shown that when deposited on titanium alloys, the HA coating is constituted by two distinct regions with different morphologies: at a distance of few microns from the substrate, large HA single crystals are oriented along the c-axis and appear to grow up from a base material, consisting in an amorphous HA. This organized system has a great importance for cell investigation once the variables involved in the cell/surface interaction are reduced. The use of such systems could give a new insight on the effect of particular HA orientation on the osteoblast cells.

  1. Iron Fibers Arrays Prepared by Electrodepositing in Reverse Liquid Crystalline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Suling; LIN Dong; GUAN Jianguo; ZHANG Lianmeng

    2006-01-01

    Ordered iron fiber arrays were electrodeposited on the surface of zinc foils using "FeSO4 solution-sodium caprylate-Decanol" 3-component reverse hexagonal liquid crystal as soft templates. The structure of the soft templates and the synthesized iron fibers were characterized by polarizing microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis etc. The experimental results show that the synthesized iron fibers with α crystal phase grew up in the form of fiber clusters of about 200 nm along the direction perpendicular to the cathode surface. Each cluster was composed of several tens of fibers. The fibers had almost the same length of more than 10 μm with a diameter of about 50 nm.

  2. Mechanical Properties of Electrolyte Jet Electrodeposited Nickel Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Principles of the preparation of nickel foam by electrolyte jet electrodeposition were introduced, Nickel foam samples with different porosity were fabricated. Effect of different porosity on microhardness and uniaxial tensile properties of nickel foam was discussed. The results show that the microhardness of nickel foam is 320~400 HV, lower than entitative metal clearly. The lower the porosity of nickel foam, the higher the microhardness is. During the process of uniaxial tensile, nickel foam is characterized by three distinct regions, e.g. elastic deforming region, plastic plateau region and densification region. The higher the porosity of nickel foam, the lower the plastic plateau and the poorer the strength of nickel foam, accordingly

  3. Pulse electrodeposition of Fe-Ni-Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelkhani, H.

    2000-01-01

    Pulse Electroplating is a relativity new technique in electrodeposition of pure metals and alloys which has resulted in a number of improvement over the traditional direct current method. Among these are a better composition control, lower porosity, reduction of internal stresses and hydrogen content as well as other impurities. In this work Pulse plating of Fe-Ni-Cr alloys has been investigated by using a series of planned experiments. A domain of Pulse parameters, such a pulse frequency, pulse duration, current density and batch condition such as Ph, temperature and has been defined where the coating quality is optimal. The result obtained were Compared with those of D C electroplating and finally a number of recommendations are made for future works towards a semi-industrial process

  4. Cathodic processes during ruthenium electrodeposition from a chloride melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokol'skij, D.V.

    1985-01-01

    Cathodic processes occurring during the electrolysis of chloride melts in the presence of oxygen-containing impurities were studied. The experiments were carried out at 500, 550 600 and 680 deg C, ruthenium ions concentration in KCl-NaCl-CsCl eutectic melt being 0.4-1.5 mol% and BaO additions 4.8x10 -2 mol%. Temperature dependence of Ru(3) ion diffusion coefficient in the chloride melt (lg D=3.25-1508/T+-0.02) and activation energy of the diffusion process (6.9 k cal/mol) were determined. It is shown that changes of the shape of E, t-curve and the deviation of values determined in the cause of chronopotentiometric investigations from the corresponding values of reversable processes are related in many respects to the participation of oxygen-containing compounds in the cathodic process. Irreversibility of the cathodic process is also connected with metal crystallization during electrodeposition

  5. Indium doped zinc oxide thin films obtained by electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, G.; Guerra, D.N.; Leinen, D.; Ramos-Barrado, J.R.; Marotti, R.E.; Dalchiele, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    Indium doped ZnO thin films were obtained by co-electrodeposition (precursor and dopant) from aqueous solution. XRD analysis showed typical patterns of the hexagonal ZnO structure for both doped and undoped films. No diffraction peaks of any other structure such as In 2 O 3 or In(OH) 3 were found. The incorporation of In into the ZnO film was verified by both EDS and XPS measurements. The bandgap energy of the films varied from 3.27 eV to 3.42 eV, increasing with the In concentration in the solution. This dependence was stronger for the less cathodic potentials. The incorporation of In into the film occurs as both, an In donor state in the ZnO grains and as an amorphous In 2 O 3 at the grain boundaries

  6. Separation of cesium by ion exchange columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonini, Alberto; Falcon, Marcelo F.; Devida, Claudio A.; Tadey, D.; Vaccaro, Jorge O.; Maset, Elvira

    2003-01-01

    Crystalline silico titanate (CST) has been tested as a selective inorganic ion exchanger to separate Cs 137 from the residual fission product s solution of the Mo 99 plant. The tests are described in detail and show decontamination factors higher than 6000 and a good elution yield

  7. Growth of uranyl hydroxide nanowires and nanotubes with electrodeposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lin; Yuan Liyong; Chai Zhifang; Shi Weiqun

    2013-01-01

    Actinides nanomaterials have great potential applications in fabrication of novel nuclear fuel and spent fuel reprocessing in advanced nuclear energy system. However, the relative research so far still lacks systematic investigation on the synthetic methods for actinides nanomaterials. In this work, we use track-etched membranes as hard templates to synthesize uranium based nanomaterials with novel structures by electrodeposition method. Through electrochemical behavior investigations and subsequent product characterizations such as energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the chemical composition of deposition products have been confirmed as the uranyl hydroxide. More importantly, accurate control of morphology and structures (nanowires and nanotubes) could be achieved by carefully adjusting the growth parameters such as deposition time and deposition current density. It was found that the preferred morphology of electrodeposition products is nanowire when a low current density was applied, whereas nanotubes could be formed only under conditions of high current density and the short deposition time. The mechanism for the formation of nanowires in track-etched membranes is based on the precipitation of uranyl hydroxide from uranyl nitrate solution, according to the previous researches about obtaining nanostructures of hydroxides from nitrate salt solutions. And we have concluded that the formation of nanotubes is attributed to the hydrogen bubbles generated by water electrolysis under the condition of over-potential electro-reduction. The conveying of hydrogen bubbles plays the role of dynamic template which can prevent the complete filling of uranyl hydroxide in the channels. Additionally, we transform the chemical composition of deposition products from uranyl hydroxide to triuranium octoxide by calcining them at 500 and 800 degree centigrade, respectively, and SEM results show the morphologies of nanowires and

  8. Characterisation of electrodeposited and heat-treated Ni-Mo-P coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Regis L.; Casciano, Paulo N.S.; Correia, Adriana N.; Lima-Neto, Pedro de, E-mail: pln@ufc.br [Departamento de Quimica Analitica e Fisico-Quimica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The electrodeposition, hardness and corrosion resistance properties of Ni-Mo-P coatings were investigated. Characterisations of the electrodeposited coatings were carried out using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray analysis techniques. Corrosion tests were performed at room temperature in 10-1 mol dm-3 NaCl solutions and by potentiodynamic linear polarisation. Amorphous Ni-Mo-P coatings were successfully obtained by electrodeposition using direct current. The coating composition showed to be dependent on the bath composition, current density and bath temperature. Both P and Mo contents contribute for the hardness properties of the Ni-Mo-P coatings and the absence of cracks is a requirement to produce electrodeposited Ni-Mo-P coatings with good hardness properties. The hardness values increase with heat-treatment temperature due to the precipitation of Ni, Ni{sub 3}P and NiMo phases during the heat treatment. The corrosion resistance of the electrodeposited Ni-Mo-P amorphous coatings increases with P content in the layer. Among the electrodeposited Ni-Mo-P amorphous coatings, Ni{sub 78}Mo{sub 10}P{sub 12} presented the best hardness and corrosion-resistance properties. The results showed that the addition of P is beneficial for the hardness and corrosion resistance properties of the Ni-Mo-based coatings. (author)

  9. Hybrid polymer-inorganic photovoltaic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, W.J.E.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Merhari, L.

    2009-01-01

    Composite materials made from organic conjugated polymers and inorganic semiconductors such as metal oxides attract considerable interest for photovoltaic applications. Hybrid polymer-inorganic solar cells offer the opportunity to combine the beneficial properties of the two materials in charge

  10. Isotope separations using chromatographic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leseticky, L.

    1985-01-01

    A survey is given of chromatographic separations of compounds only differing in isotope composition. Isotope effects on physical properties which allow chromatographic separation (vapour tension, adsorption heat, partition coefficient) are very small, with the exception of the simplest molecules. Therefore, separation factors only assume the value of several per cent. From this ensues the necessity of using columns which are specially and very carefully prepared and have a separation efficiency of the order of 10 4 theoretical plates. Briefly discussed is liquid chromatography on ion exchangers which with a varied degree of success was used for separating simple inorganic compounds or ions. Ion exchange chromatography of amino acids labelled with tritium, and chromatography of tritium labelled steroids also provided only a certain degree of separation. A detailed analysis is presented of gas chromatography separation of various deuterium and tritium labelled low-molecular compounds, to which a number of studies has been devoted in the literature. Very promising is the method of complexation gas chromatography based on the reversible formation of a complex of the ligand (the compound being separated) and the compound of the (transition) metal as the steady-state phase. (author)

  11. A novel speciation alternative for the determination of inorganic arsenic in marine samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Herbst, M. Birgitte Koch

    Arsenic (As) is bioaccumulated from seawater to concentrations in the mg/kg range in marine animals. More than 50 naturally-occurring arsenic containing species, both inorganic and organic forms, have been identified in marine animals. The organic forms are mainly considered to be non......-toxic, whereas inorganic arsenic is highly toxic and exposure may lead to severe adverse effects including cancer. Since seafood is the major dietary source for arsenic exposure in the European population, arsenic speciation analysis of marine samples is highly relevant for food safety. However, most data...... of inorganic arsenic in marine based food is based on microwave extraction, species separation by strong anion solid phase extraction (SPE) and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) detection. Separation organic arsenic compounds (e.g. MA, DMA and AB) and inorganic arsenic in the form...

  12. Preliminary study on auto-electrodeposition of copper, cadmium, nickel, and cobalt in acid and glycerol medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Viswanath

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrodeposition can be carried out even without corresponding metal ions in the solution, but the respective metal electrode acts as anode. This process is called auto-electrodeposition. It occurs under similar conditions applied for electrowinning or electrodeposition. The electrochemical mechanism of electrowinning and autoelectrodeposition is suggested. Hydroxyl ions play very important role in this process. In this process, a black loss deposit is formed on the anode metal. The autoelectrodeposition is combination of electrodissolution process and electrowinning process.

  13. Effect of Electrodeposition Potential on Composition of CuIn1−xGaxSe2 Absorber Layer for Solar Cell by One-Step Electrodeposition

    OpenAIRE

    You, Rui-Wei; Lew, Kar-Kit; Fu, Yen-Pei

    2014-01-01

    CIGS polycrystalline thin films were successfully fabricated by one-step cathodic electrodeposition on Mo-coated glass. In this study, we applied a galvanometry mode with three-electrode potentiostatic systems to produce a constant concentration electroplating solution, which were composed of CuCl2, InCl3, GaCl3, and SeO2. Then these as-electrodeposited films were annealed in argon atmosphere and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that annealing treatment significantly i...

  14. Separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    A disposal container is described for use in disposal of radioactive waste materials consisting of: top wall structure, bottom wall structure, and circumferential side wall structure interconnecting the top and bottom wall structures to define an enclosed container, separation structure in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure for allowing passage of liquid and retention of solids, inlet port structure in the top wall structure, discharge port structure at the periphery of the container in communication with the outer surface of the separation structure for receiving liquid that passes through the separation structure, first centrifugally actuated valve structure having a normal position closing the inlet port structure and a centrifugally actuated position opening the inlet port structure, second centrifugally actuated valve structure having a normal position closing the discharge port structure and a centrifugally actuated position opening the discharge port structure, and coupling structure integral with wall structure of the container for releasable engagement with centrifugal drive structure

  15. Separable algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the theory of separable algebras over commutative rings. After a thorough introduction to the general theory, the fundamental roles played by separable algebras are explored. For example, Azumaya algebras, the henselization of local rings, and Galois theory are rigorously introduced and treated. Interwoven throughout these applications is the important notion of étale algebras. Essential connections are drawn between the theory of separable algebras and Morita theory, the theory of faithfully flat descent, cohomology, derivations, differentials, reflexive lattices, maximal orders, and class groups. The text is accessible to graduate students who have finished a first course in algebra, and it includes necessary foundational material, useful exercises, and many nontrivial examples.

  16. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.J.; Morrey, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated

  17. Fundamentals of EUV resist-inorganic hardmask interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Dario L.; Glodde, Martin; De Silva, Anuja; Sheshadri, Indira; Felix, Nelson M.; Lionti, Krystelle; Magbitang, Teddie

    2017-03-01

    High resolution Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) patterning is currently limited by EUV resist thickness and pattern collapse, thus impacting the faithful image transfer into the underlying stack. Such limitation requires the investigation of improved hardmasks (HMs) as etch transfer layers for EUV patterning. Ultrathin (<5nm) inorganic HMs can provide higher etch selectivity, lower post-etch LWR, decreased defectivity and wet strippability compared to spin-on hybrid HMs (e.g., SiARC), however such novel layers can induce resist adhesion failure and resist residue. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of EUV resist-inorganic HM interactions is needed in order to optimize the EUV resist interfacial behavior. In this paper, novel materials and processing techniques are introduced to characterize and improve the EUV resist-inorganic HM interface. HM surface interactions with specific EUV resist components are evaluated for open-source experimental resist formulations dissected into its individual additives using EUV contrast curves as an effective characterization method to determine post-development residue formation. Separately, an alternative adhesion promoter platform specifically tailored for a selected ultrathin inorganic HM based on amorphous silicon (aSi) is presented and the mitigation of resist delamination is exemplified for the cases of positive-tone and negative-tone development (PTD, NTD). Additionally, original wafer priming hardware for the deposition of such novel adhesion promoters is unveiled. The lessons learned in this work can be directly applied to the engineering of EUV resist materials and processes specifically designed to work on such novel HMs.

  18. Particle separations by electrophoretic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, N.E.; Petersen, S.L.; Ducatte, G.R.; Remcho, V.T.

    1996-03-01

    A new method for particle separations based on capillary electrophoresis has been developed and characterized. It uniquely separates particles according to their chemical nature. Separations have been demonstrated with chemically modified latex particles and with inorganic oxide and silicate particles. Separations have been shown both experimentally and theoretically to be essentially independent of particle size in the range of about 0.2 μm to 10 μm. The method has been applied to separations of U0 2 particles from environmental particulate material. For this, an integrated method was developed for capillary electrophoretic separation, collection of separated fractions, and determinations of U0 2 and environmental particles in each fraction. Experimental runs with the integrated method on mixtures of UO 2 particles and environmental particulate material demonstrated enrichment factors of 20 for UO 2 particles in respect to environmental particles in the U0 2 containing fractions. This enrichment factor reduces the costs and time for processing particulate samples by the lexan process by a factor of about 20

  19. Electro-deposition of Pd on carbon paper and Ni foam via surface limited redox-replacement reaction for oxygen reduction reaction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, RM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pd nanostructured catalysts were electrodeposited by surface-limited redox replacement reactions usingthe electrochemical atomic layer deposition technique. Carbon paper and Ni foam were used as substratesfor the electrodeposition of the metal...

  20. Effect of Electrodeposition Potential on Composition of CuIn1−xGaxSe2 Absorber Layer for Solar Cell by One-Step Electrodeposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Wei You

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CIGS polycrystalline thin films were successfully fabricated by one-step cathodic electrodeposition on Mo-coated glass. In this study, we applied a galvanometry mode with three-electrode potentiostatic systems to produce a constant concentration electroplating solution, which were composed of CuCl2, InCl3, GaCl3, and SeO2. Then these as-electrodeposited films were annealed in argon atmosphere and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that annealing treatment significantly improved the crystallinity of electrodeposited films and formed CIGS chalcopyrite structure, but at low applied deposition voltage (−950 mV versus SCE there appeared second phase. The cross-section morphology revealed that applied voltage at −1350 mV versus SCE has uniform deposition, and higher applied voltage made grain more unobvious. The deposition rate and current density are proportional to deposition potential, and hydrogen was generated apparently when applying potential beyond −1750 mV versus SCE. It was found that the CIGS compound did not match exact stoichiometry of Cu : In : Ga : Se =1 : x : 1-x : 2. This result suggests the possibility of controlling the property of thin films by varying the applied potential during electrodeposition.

  1. The effect of different component ratios in block polymers and processing conditions on electrodeposition efficiency onto titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuhara, Yusuke; Kyuzo, Megumi [Department of Materials Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Tsutsumi, Yusuke [Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Nagai, Akiko [Department of Materials Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Chen, Peng [Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Hanawa, Takao, E-mail: hanawa.met@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Materials Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • MPC polymers with an ability of electrodeposition were synthesized. • MPC polymers were immobilized on titanium substrates by electrodeposition. • Immobilization by electrodeposition of MPC polymer decreased water contact angle and protein adsorption. • Length of MPC unit and electrodeposition time did not influence water contact angle and protein adsorption. - Abstract: 2-Methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymers for electrodeposition to titanium surfaces were synthesized. The polymers were block-type copolymers composed of a poly(MPC) segment and a poly(2-aminoethylmethacrylate (AEMA)) segment, which could electronically adsorb to a titanium oxide film on the titanium surface. The polymer was synthesized as expected by nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography. In a 0.26 mmol L{sup −1} PMbA solution adjusted to pH 11, −3.0 V (vs. an Ag/AgCl electrode) was applied to a titanium substrate for 300 s. We evaluated the effects of the molecular structure of poly(MPC-block-AEMA) (PMbA) with a different polymerization degree of MPC unit, whereas the polymerization degree of the AEMA units was fixed. The 15-min electrodeposition of PMbA100 was the most efficient condition in this study. On the other hand, the results of the water contact angle and the amount of adsorbed protein did not change, even when altering the MPC unit number and electrodeposition time. This indicates that the immobilization by electrodeposition of PMbA is important for the inhibition of protein adsorption, while the polymerization degree of the MPC unit and the electrodeposition time do not influence them. This study will enhance the understanding of effective polymer structures for electrodeposition and electrodeposition conditions.

  2. PdNi- and Pd-coated electrodes prepared by electrodeposition from ionic liquid for nonenzymatic electrochemical determination of ethanol and glucose in alkaline media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Po-Yu

    2010-12-15

    Nonenzymatic electrochemical determination of ethanol and glucose was respectively achieved using PdNi- and Pd-coated electrodes prepared by electrodeposition from the novel metal-free ionic liquid (IL); N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide (BMP-DCA). BMP-DCA provided an excellent environment and wide cathodic limit for electrodeposition of metals and alloys because many metal chlorides could dissolve in this IL where the reduction potentials of Pd(II) and Ni(II) indeed overlapped, leading to the convenience of potentiostatic codeposition. In aqueous solutions, the reduction potentials of Pd(II) and Ni(II) are considerably separated. The bimetallic PdNi coatings with atomic ratios of ∼ 80/20 showed the highest current for ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). Ethanol was detected by either cyclic voltammetry (CV) or hydrodynamic amperometry (HA). Using CV, the dependence of EOR peak current on concentration was linear from 4.92 to 962 μM with a detection limit of 2.26 μM (σ=3), and a linearity was observed from 4.92 to 988 μM using HA (detection limit 0.83 μM (σ=3)). The Pd-coated electrodes prepared by electrodeposition from BMP-DCA showed electrocatalytic activity to glucose oxidation and CV, HA, and square-wave voltammetry (SWV) were employed to determine glucose. SWV showed the best sensitivity and linearity was observed from 2.86 μM to 107 μM, and from 2.99 mM to 10.88 mM with detection limits of 0.78 μM and 25.9 μM (σ=3), respectively. For glucose detection, the interference produced from ascorbic acid, uric acid, and acetaminophen was significantly suppressed, compared with a regular Pt disk electrode. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Iron oxide nanotubes synthesized via template-based electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jin-Hee; Min, Seong-Gi; Malkinski, Leszek; Wiley, John B.

    2014-04-01

    Considerable effort has been invested in the development of synthetic methods for the preparation iron oxide nanostructures for applications in nanotechnology. While a variety of structures have been reported, only a few studies have focused on iron oxide nanotubes. Here, we present details on the synthesis and characterization of iron oxide nanotubes along with a proposed mechanism for FeOOH tube formation. The FeOOH nanotubes, fabricated via a template-based electrodeposition method, are found to exhibit a unique inner-surface. Heat treatment of these tubes under oxidizing or reducing atmospheres can produce either hematite (α-Fe2O3) or magnetite (Fe3O4) structures, respectively. Hematite nanotubes are composed of small nanoparticles less than 20 nm in diameter and the magnetization curves and FC-ZFC curves show superparamagnetic properties without the Morin transition. In the case of magnetite nanotubes, which consist of slightly larger nanoparticles, magnetization curves show ferromagnetism with weak coercivity at room temperature, while FC-ZFC curves exhibit the Verwey transition at 125 K.Considerable effort has been invested in the development of synthetic methods for the preparation iron oxide nanostructures for applications in nanotechnology. While a variety of structures have been reported, only a few studies have focused on iron oxide nanotubes. Here, we present details on the synthesis and characterization of iron oxide nanotubes along with a proposed mechanism for FeOOH tube formation. The FeOOH nanotubes, fabricated via a template-based electrodeposition method, are found to exhibit a unique inner-surface. Heat treatment of these tubes under oxidizing or reducing atmospheres can produce either hematite (α-Fe2O3) or magnetite (Fe3O4) structures, respectively. Hematite nanotubes are composed of small nanoparticles less than 20 nm in diameter and the magnetization curves and FC-ZFC curves show superparamagnetic properties without the Morin transition

  4. Study on the Thermal Properties of Some Inorganically Modified Pre- Baked Clay Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Shakirullah, M.; Ishaq, M.

    2013-01-01

    The paper is focused on the influence of some inorganic modifiers on the thermal stability of the clay-inorganic intercalates. The inorganic modifiers used were NaOH and KOH. Solvent intercalation procedure was used. Clay was modified at 150, 500 and 750 degree C, separately with NaOH and KOH. TGDTA study was performed to evaluate the thermal stability of the resultant intercalates. Intercalation with NaOH and KOH performed at 150 degree C showed significant mass loss. Intercalation with NaOH performed at 500 and 750 degree C, separately showed less mass loss compared to the ones prepared at 150 degree C and hence exhibited thermal stability. In case of intercalation performed with KOH at 500 and 750 degree C separately, the mass loss was comparable to the original pre-baked clay. (author)

  5. Cyclic Voltammetric Study of High Speed Silver Electrodeposition and Dissolution in Low Cyanide Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical processes in solutions with a much lower amount of free cyanide (<10 g/L KCN than the conventional alkaline silver electrolytes were first explored by using cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical behavior and the effect of KAg(CN2, KCN, and KNO3 electrolytes and solution pH on the electrodeposition and dissolution processes were investigated. Moreover, suitable working conditions for high speed, low cyanide silver electrodeposition were also proposed. Both silver and cyanide ions concentration had significant effects on the electrode polarization and deposition rate. The onset potential of silver electrodeposition could be shifted to more positive values by using solutions containing higher silver and lower KCN concentration. Higher silver concentration also led to higher deposition rate. Besides maintaining high conductivity of the solution, KNO3 might help reduce the operating current density required for silver electrodeposition at high silver concentration albeit at the expense of slowing down the electrodeposition rate. The silver dissolution consists of a limiting step and the reaction rate depends on the amount of free cyanide ions. The surface and material characteristics of Ag films deposited by low cyanide solution are also compared with those deposited by conventional high cyanide solution.

  6. DC electrodeposition of NiGa alloy nanowires in AAO template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleki, K. [Nanomaterials Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sanjabi, S., E-mail: sanjabi@modares.ac.ir [Nanomaterials Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Iran, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alemipour, Z. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-01

    NiGa alloy nanowires were electrodeposited from an acidic sulfate bath into nanoporous anodized alumina oxide (AAO). This template was fabricated by two-step anodizing. The effects of bath composition and current density were explored on the Ga content of electrodeposited nanowires. The Ga content in the deposits was increased by increasing both Ga in the bath composition and electrodepositing current density. The NiGa alloy nanowires were synthesized for Ga content up to 2–4% without significant improving the magnetic properties. Above this threshold Ga clusters were formed and decreased the magnetic properties of the nanowires. For Ga content of the alloy above 30%, the wires were too short and incomplete. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the significant increase of Ga content in the nanowires, changes the FCC crystal structure of Ni to an amorphous phase. It also causes a sizeable increase in the Ga cluster size; these both lead to a significant reduction in the coercivity and the magnetization respectively. - Highlights: • NiGa alloy nanowires were electrodeposited from acidic sulphate baths into nanoporous anodized alumina oxide (AAO) template. • The Ga content was increased by increasing the Ga in the bath composition and electrodeposition current density. • The magnetic parameters such as coercivity and magnetization were not changed for the alloy nanowire with Ga content less than 4%.

  7. Physical and electrochemical properties of ZnO films fabricated from highly cathodic electrodeposition potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Abdul Hadi; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Sulaiman, Yusran

    2017-03-01

    The physical and electrochemical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) film electrode that were prepared electrochemically were studied. ZnO was electrodeposited on ITO glass substrate by applying three different highly cathodic potentials (-1.3 V, -1.5 V, -1.7 V) in a solution containing 70 mM of Zn(NO3)2.xH2O and 0.1 M KCl with bath temperatures of 70 °C and 80 °C. The presence of ZnO was asserted from XRD analysis where the corresponding peaks in the spectra were assigned. SEM images revealed the plate-like hexagonal morphology of ZnO which is in agreement with the XRD analysis. The areal capacitance of the ZnO was observed to increase when the applied electrodeposition potential is increased from -1.3 V to -1.5 V. However, the areal capacitance is found to decrease when the applied electrodeposition potential is further increased to -1.7 V. The resistance of charge transfer (Rct) of the ZnO decreased when the applied electrodeposition potential varies from -1.3 V to -1.7 V due to the decreased particle size of ZnO when more cathodic electrodeposition potential is applied.

  8. Correlation between crystallographic texture, microstructure and magnetic properties of pulse electrodeposited nanocrystalline Nickel–Cobalt alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Amit; Chhangani, Sumit; Madhavan, R.; Suwas, Satyam, E-mail: satyamsuwas@materials.iisc.ernet.in

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Nano-crystalline Ni–Co materials with varying composition has been deposited by pulse electrodeposition. • Overall weakening of <1 1 1> texture and strengthening of <2 0 0> fibre texture is observed with increasing cobalt content. • Higher thermal stability of Ni–70Co is interpreted in terms of low mobility twins and texture. • A clear transition from soft to hard magnetic character is observed with an increase cobalt content. - Abstract: This paper reports the evolution of microstructure and texture in Nickel–Cobalt electrodeposits fabricated by pulse electrodeposition (PED) technique and the correlation of these attributes with the magnetic properties. The structural and microstructural investigation using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopic studies indicate the presence of nanocrystalline grains and nano-twins in the electrodeposits. Convoluted Multiple Whole profile fitting reveals an increase in dislocation density and twin density with increasing cobalt content in the as-deposited samples. Strengthening of <1 1 1> fibre texture and weakening of <2 0 0> fibre texture with increasing cobalt concentration has been observed with X-ray texture analysis. A corresponding significant increase in the saturation magnetization and coercivity observed with increasing cobalt content. A significant improvement in the soft magnetic character in the electrodeposits in terms of increase in saturation magnetization and decrease in coercivity has been observed with thermal annealing.

  9. Utilization of electrodeposition for electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry determination of gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konecna, Marie; Komarek, Josef

    2007-01-01

    Gold was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after electrochemical preconcentration on the graphite ridge probe used as a working electrode and sample support. The probe surface was electrochemically modified with Pd, Re and the mixture of both. The electrolysis of gold was performed under galvanostatic control at 0.5 mA. Maximum pyrolysis temperature for the probe surface modified with Pd was 1200 deg. C, with Re 1300 deg. C. The relative standard deviation for the determination of 2 μg l -1 Au was not higher than 5.6% (n = 8) for 2 min electrodeposition. The sensitivity of gold determination was reproducible for 300 electrodeposition and atomization cycles. When the probe surface was modified with a mixture of Pd and Re the detection limit was 31 ng l -1 for 2 min electrodeposition, 3.7 ng l -1 for 30 min, 1.5 ng l -1 for 1 h and 0.4 ng l -1 for 4 h electrodeposition, respectively. The procedure was applied to the determination of gold in river water samples. The relative standard deviation for the determination of 2.5 ng l -1 Au at 4 h electrodeposition time at 0.5 mA was 7.5%

  10. Electrodeposited Ni-B coatings: Formation and evaluation of hardness and wear resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaveni, K.; Sankara Narayanan, T.S.N.; Seshadri, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    The formation of electrodeposited Ni-B alloy coatings using a dimethylamine borane (DMAB) modified Watt's nickel bath and evaluation of their structural characteristics, hardness and wear resistance are discussed. The boron content in the electrodeposited Ni-B alloy coating is determined by the ratio of rate of reduction of nickel and rate of decomposition of DMAB. The boron content of the electrodeposited Ni-B coating decreases as the current density increased from 0.4 to 4 A dm -2 . XRD diffraction pattern of electrodeposited Ni-B coatings in their as-plated condition exhibits the presence of Ni (1 1 1) (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) reflections with (1 1 1) texture. Heat treatment at 400 deg. C for 1 h has resulted in the formation of nickel boride phases, which results in an increase in hardness and wear resistance. The mechanism of wear in electrodeposited Ni-B coatings is intensive plastic deformation of the coating due to the ploughing action of the hard counter disk

  11. Using Ion Exchange Chromatography to Separate and Quantify Complex Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Ion exchange chromatography is an important technique in the separation of charged species, particularly in biological, inorganic, and environmental samples. In this experiment, students are supplied with a mixture of two substitution-inert complex ions. They separate the complexes by ion exchange chromatography using a "flash"…

  12. Gas Permeation Characteristics across Nano-Porous Inorganic Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Othman, H. Mukhtar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An overview of parameters affecting gas permeation in inorganic membranes is presented. These factors include membrane physical characteristics, operational parameters and gas molecular characteristics. The membrane physical characteristics include membrane materials and surface area, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution and membrane morphology. The operational parameters include feed flow rate and concentration, stage cut, temperature and pressure. The gas molecular characteristics include gas molecular weight, diameter, critical temperature, critical pressure, Lennard-Jones parameters and diffusion volumes. The current techniques of material characterization may require complementary method in describing microscopic heterogeneity of the porous ceramic media. The method to be incorporated in the future will be to apply a stochastic model and/or fractal dimension. Keywords: Inorganic membrane, surface adsorption, Knudsen diffusion, Micro-porous membrane, permeation, gas separation.

  13. Conducting Layered Organic-inorganic Halides Containing -Oriented Perovskite Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, D B; Wang, S; Feild, C A; Chess, C A; Guloy, A M

    1995-03-10

    Single crystals of the layered organic-inorganic perovskites, [NH(2)C(I=NH(2)](2)(CH(3)NH(3))m SnmI3m+2, were prepared by an aqueous solution growth technique. In contrast to the recently discovered family, (C(4)H(9)NH(3))(2)(CH(3)NH(3))n-1SnnI3n+1, which consists of (100)-terminated perovskite layers, structure determination reveals an unusual structural class with sets of m -oriented CH(3)NH(3)SnI(3) perovskite sheets separated by iodoformamidinium cations. Whereas the m = 2 compound is semiconducting with a band gap of 0.33 +/- 0.05 electron volt, increasing m leads to more metallic character. The ability to control perovskite sheet orientation through the choice of organic cation demonstrates the flexibility provided by organic-inorganic perovskites and adds an important handle for tailoring and understanding lower dimensional transport in layered perovskites.

  14. Guidelines for determining inputs of inorganic contaminants into estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This publication describes sampling and sample preparation procedures suitable to obtain unpolluted samples for the purpose of determining river inputs of inorganic pollutants into estuaries. Emphasis is placed on heavy metal pollutants but procedures are suitable, with appropriate modifications for other inorganic pollutants. For example, the collection of samples for mercury may require modifications of handling procedures. River water samples are collected at the most down-river point where no estuarine influences effect results. Samples are collected using a peristaltic pump and separated into aqueous and particulate phases for pollutant analysis. As is the case of all trace pollutant analyses, meticulous care is required to prevent pollution of the sample and in addition to the precautions described in this method, great personal attention is required to minimize sample handling, pollution by smoke, hands, hair, dust, talc from gloves, etc., and to avoid all contact of the samples and reagents with skin and metallic objects. 1 ref., 3 figs, 1 tab

  15. Composite inorganic ion-exchangers and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, F.; John, J.; Motl, A.

    1998-01-01

    Composite inorganic ion exchangers are described containing modified polyacrylonitrile as the binding polymer. An overview of existing composite ion exchangers is presented, and the universality and assets of the developed procedure of treatment of inorganic ion exchanger powders are highlighted. Examples of applicability of the ion exchangers to the separation and concentration of radionuclides include in particular: wastes from the operation of nuclear power plants, contaminated surface waters and ground water, high level radioactive wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, and wastewaters from uranium ore mining and milling. In addition, composite ion exchangers find use in the monitoring of contamination of the hydrosphere and the environment and in the investigation of radionuclide migration in surface waters and ground water

  16. Magnetic signature of granular superconductivity in electrodeposited Pb nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riminucci, Alberto, E-mail: a.riminucci@bo.ismn.cnr.it [CNR, Institute for Nanostructured Materials, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Schwarzacher, Walther [H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-14

    Nanocrystalline freestanding Pb nanowires ∼200 nm in diameter were fabricated by electrodeposition into track etched polycarbonate membranes in order to study their superconducting properties. Their superconducting critical temperature, as determined by measuring the Meissner effect, was the same as for bulk Pb, but their critical field was greatly enhanced up to ∼3000 Oe. By assuming the wires consisted of spherical superconducting grains, an estimated grain size r = 60 ± 25 nm was obtained from the magnetization measured as a function of the applied magnetic field at a fixed temperature. An independent estimate for r = 47 ± 12 nm, in good agreement with the previous one, was obtained from the magnetization measured as a function of temperature at a fixed applied magnetic field. Transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize grain size at the wire edges, where a grain size in agreement with the magnetic studies was observed.

  17. Electrochemical behavior of CIGS electrodeposition for applications to photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyunju; Ji, Changwook; Kim, Yangdo; Hwang, Yoonhwae [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaeho [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Ilguk [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Kim, Hyoungchan [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    The electrodeposition mechanism of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin films on ITO substrates was examined by using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The CV study was performed in unitary In, binary In-Se, ternary Cu-In-Se, and quaternary Cu-In-Ga-Se systems. CV of the Cu-In-Ga-Se system revealed a reduction peak at -0.6 V with the addition of GaCl{sub 3} and showed that the current density was affected significantly by the concentrations of GaCl{sub 3} and InCl{sub 3}. This is probably due to the adsorption-site competition between In{sup 3+} and Ga{sup 3+} on the electrode surface. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed the CV results. The composition of Ga in the CIGS films increased with increasing concentration of GaCl{sub 3} in the electrolyte whereas the composition of In decreased sharply. The as-deposited films were annealed at 500 .deg. C in a N{sub 2} atmosphere for crystallization. XRD revealed three major peaks corresponding to the (112), (220) and (312) planes of CIGS chalcopyrite respectively. On the other hand, a secondary phase, such as In{sub 4}Se{sub 3}, was observed in the CIGS films containing a high In composition.

  18. Electrodeposition of hybrid ZnO/organic dye films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya, Monica; Mari, Bernabe; Mollar, Miquel [Department de Fisica Aplicada-IDF, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-06-15

    The viability of the electrodeposition as a suitable technique for preparing new porous hybrid materials has been tested in this paper. Hybrid ZnO films with two different organic dyes: Eosin-Y and Tetrasulphonated-Cu-phtalocyanine were prepared. Their physical and chemical properties as well as their dependence on the growth conditions were investigated. It is found that the type of dye has a big influence on the morphology and porosity of hybrid films. Open and connected pores are created in hybrid ZnO/Eosin-Y films while both open and closed pores coexist in hybrid ZnO/Tetrasulfonated-Cu-phthalocyanine. As one of the promising applications of hybrid materials is photovoltaic conversion of sunlight, photoelectrochemical characterization of hybrid films is also reported. Photocurrent generation owing to both contributions ZnO and Eosin-Y is observed in ZnO/Eosin-Y films but no photocurrent has been observed in ZnO/Tetrasulfonated-Cu-phthalocyanine films. SEM micrographs of hybrid ZnO films grown in aqueous bath; (Left) ZnO/Eosin-Y films grown at 70 C, -0.9 V (Right) ZnO/Ts-CuPc films grown at 70 C, -0.9 V. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Kinetics of ethanol electrooxidation at Pd electrodeposited on Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jianping; Ye, Jianqing; Tong, Yexiang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Xu, Changwei [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Jiang, San Ping [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2007-09-15

    Pd nanoparticles dispersed well on Ti were successfully prepared by the electrodeposition method used in this study. The results show that Pd has no activity for ethanol oxidation in acid media and is a good electrocatalyst for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media when the OH{sup -} concentration is greater than 0.001 M. The pH and ethanol concentration affects the ethanol oxidation. The reaction orders for OH{sup -} and ethanol are 0.2 and 1. The anodic transfer coefficient ({alpha}) is 0.1. The diffusion coefficient (D) of ethanol is calculated as 9.3 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} (298 K) when the concentration of KOH and ethanol is both 1.0 M. The overall rate equation for ethanol oxidation on Pd/Ti electrode in alkaline media is given as j=1.4 x 10{sup -4}C{sub KOH}{sup 0.2}C{sub ethanol} exp ((0.28F)/(RT){eta}). (author)

  20. Structural and electrical properties of CZTS thin films by electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. C.; Basha, Sk. Shahenoor

    2018-06-01

    CZTS (Cu2ZnSnS4) thin films were coated on ITO glass substrates by single bath electrodeposition technique. The prepared films were subsequently characterized by XRD, SEM, FTIR, UV-visible spectroscopy and Raman studies. The thickness of the thin films was measured by wedge method. X-ray diffraction studies revealed the formation of polycrystalline phase. The morphological surface of the prepared thin films was examined by SEM and AFM and showed the presence of microcrystals on the surface of the samples. The elemental analysis and their compositional ratios present in the samples were confirmed by the energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Functional groups and the position of band structure involved in the materials were confirmed by FTIR. Optical absorption studies were performed on the prepared thin films in the wavelength ranging from 300 to 1000 nm and the energy bandgap values were found to be in the range from 1.39 to 1.60 eV. Raman spectral peak which was observed at 360 cm-1 correspond to kesterite phase, was formed due to the vibration of the molecules. Electrical measurements confirmed the nature of the thin film depending on the charge concentration present in the samples.

  1. Electrodeposition and Corrosion Resistance of Ni-Graphene Composite Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeptycka, Benigna; Gajewska-Midzialek, Anna; Babul, Tomasz

    2016-08-01

    The research on the graphene application for the electrodeposition of nickel composite coatings was conducted. The study assessed an important role of graphene in an increased corrosion resistance of these coatings. Watts-type nickel plating bath with low concentration of nickel ions, organic addition agents, and graphene as dispersed particles were used for deposition of the composite coatings nickel-graphene. The results of investigations of composite coatings nickel-graphene deposited from the bath containing 0.33, 0.5, and 1 g/dm3 graphene and one surface-active substance were shown. The contents of particles in coatings, the surface morphology, the cross-sectional structures of the coated samples, and their thickness and the internal stresses were studied. Voltammetric method was used for examination of the corrosion resistance of samples of composite coatings in 0.5 M NaCl. The obtained results suggest that the content of incorporated graphene particles increases with an increasing amount of graphene in plating bath. The application of organic compounds was advantageous because it caused compressive stresses in the deposited coatings. All of the nickel-graphene composite layers had better corrosion resistance than the nickel coating.

  2. Hydroxyapatite electrodeposition on anodized titanium nanotubes for orthopedic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcharoen, Yardnapar; Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat; Sirivisoot, Sirinrath; Termsuksawad, Preecha

    2014-08-01

    Nanotubes modification for orthopedic implants has shown interesting biological performances (such as improving cell adhesion, cell differentiation, and enhancing osseointegration). The purpose of this study is to investigate effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube feature on performance of hydroxyapatite-coated titanium (Ti) bone implants. TiO2 nanotubes were prepared by anodization using ammonium fluoride electrolyte (NH4F) with and without modifiers (PEG400 and Glycerol) at various potential forms, and times. After anodization, the nanotubes were subsequently annealed. TiO2 nanotubes were characterized by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer. The amorphous to anatase transformation due to annealing was observed. Smooth and highly organized TiO2 nanotubes were found when high viscous electrolyte, NH4F in glycerol, was used. Negative voltage (-4 V) during anodization was confirmed to increase nanotube thickness. Length of the TiO2 nanotubes was significantly increased by times. The TiO2 nanotube was electrodeposited with hydroxyapatite (HA) and its adhesion was estimated by adhesive tape test. The result showed that nanotubes with the tube length of 560 nm showed excellent adhesion. The coated HA were tested for biological test by live/dead cell straining. HA coated on TiO2 nanotubes showed higher cells density, higher live cells, and more spreading of MC3T3-E1 cells than that growing on titanium plate surface.

  3. Electrodeposition of bismuth alloys by the controlled potential method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Alvarez, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    We worked with the electrodeposition of three bismuth alloys, the composition of the first electrolyte was: 0.3 g/l. Bi; 20 g/l. Ni; and the conditions were pH = 5.2 - 5.6; T = 25 Centigrade degrees; current density 0.3 A / dm 2 - 6.6 A / dm 2 . Following alloy was between Bi - Pb, composition of the electrolyte was 3.18 g/l. Bi (metallic); 31.81 g/l. Pb (Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ) pH : 1; T = 20 Centigrade degrees; current density 10.20 A/dm 2 . The third electrolyte was Bi-Cu, its composition was: 20.89 g/l. Bi; (metallic) 63.54 g/l Cu (Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ) pH : 1.5 - 1.8; T = 25-30 Centigrade degrees; current density 1-2 A/dm 2 . The best results were obtained with the third electrolyte. The purpose of this work was to experiment with different parameters like temperature, pH and the electrolyte concentration to obtain a bismuth alloy. (Author)

  4. Gas separating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  5. Polyacrylamide-based inorganic hybrid flocculants with self-degradable property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xinfang [Materials and Metallurgical College, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Hebei Provincial Laboratory for Dielectric and Electrolyte Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Tao, Junshi; Li, Mingzhi; Zhu, Bishan; Li, Xuan; Ma, Zhiyu; Zhao, Tingjie; Wang, Bingzhu; Suo, Biao [Hebei Provincial Laboratory for Dielectric and Electrolyte Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wang, Haiwang, E-mail: whwdbdx@126.com [Materials and Metallurgical College, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Hebei Provincial Laboratory for Dielectric and Electrolyte Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Yang, Jun, E-mail: jyang@ipe.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Ye, Li, E-mail: yeli@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Qi, Xiwei, E-mail: qxw@mail.neuq.edu.cn [Materials and Metallurgical College, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Hebei Provincial Laboratory for Dielectric and Electrolyte Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM)-based inorganic hybrid materials are of great potential as flocculants in soil-liquid separation. Herein, we reported the design of inorganic soil-TiO{sub 2}-PAM hybrid materials using a unique process, which involved coating of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles on the surface of inorganic soils and subsequent polymerization of acrylamide (AM) on these nanoparticles under visible light. Inorganic soils including kaolin, bentonite, montmorillonite and diatomaceous earth were used to control the volume and to reduce the cost, and the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles accelerated PAM degradation. The nanoparticles initiated AM polymerization directly under visible light, thus providing a facile strategy for the synthesis of new organic-inorganic hybrid flocculants. The obtained hybrid materials were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The degradation of PAM initiated by UV irradiation exceeded 24% in 2 h, depending on its initial concentration. - Highlights: • A new polyacrylamide (PAM)-based inorganic hybrid flocculants with self-degradable property was developed. • TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles show a unique surface-initiated property under the condition of visible light. • We designed a facile strategy for the synthesis of inorganic soil@TiO{sub 2}@PAM hybrid materials.

  6. Nomenclature on an inorganic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    This book contains eleven chapters : which mention nomenclature of an inorganic compound with introduction and general principle on nomenclature of compound. It gives the description of grammar for nomenclature such as brackets, diagonal line, asterisk, and affix, element, atom and groups of atom, chemical formula, naming by stoichiometry, solid, neutral molecule compound, ion, a substituent, radical and name of salt, oxo acid and anion on introduction and definition of oxo acid, coordination compound like symbol of stereochemistry , boron and hydrogen compound and related compound.

  7. Electrodeposition and characterization of Fe–Mo alloys as cathodes for hydrogen evolution in the process of chlorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. GRGUR

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Fe–Mo alloys were electrodeposited from a pyrophosphate bath using a single diode rectified AC current. Their composition and morphology were investigated by SEM, optical microscopy and EDS, in order to determine the influence of the deposition conditions on the morphology and composition of these alloys. It was shown that the electrodeposition parameters, such as: chemical bath composition and current density, influenced both the composition of the Fe–Mo alloys and the current efficiency for their deposition, while the micro and macro-morphology did not change significantly with changing conditions of alloy electrodeposition. It was found that the electrodeposited Fe–Mo alloys possessed a 0.15 V to 0.30 V lower overvoltage than mild steel for hydrogen evolution in an electrolyte commonly used in commercial chlorate production, depending on the alloy composition, i.e., the conditions of alloy electrodeposition.

  8. Interpretation of microstructure evolution during self-annealing and thermal annealing of nanocrystalline electrodeposits-A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Electrodeposition results in a non-equilibrium state of the as-deposited nanocrystalline microstructure, which evolves towards an energetically more favorable state as a function of time and/or temperature upon deposition. Real-time investigation of the evolving microstructure in copper, silver and nickel electrodeposits was achieved by time-resolved X-ray diffraction line profile analysis and crystallographic texture analysis during room temperature storage and during isothermal annealing at elevated temperatures. These in-situ studies with unique time resolution allowed quantification of the self-annealing kinetics of copper and silver electrodeposits as well as the annealing kinetics of electrodeposited nickel. Similarities and characteristic differences of the kinetics and mechanisms of microstructure evolution in the various electrodeposits are discussed and the experimental results are attempted to be interpreted in terms of recovery, recrystallization and grain growth.

  9. Electrodeposition as an alternate method for preparation of environmental samples for iodide by AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamic, M.L., E-mail: Mary.Adamic@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Lister, T.E.; Dufek, E.J.; Jenson, D.D.; Olson, J.E. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Vockenhuber, C. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Watrous, M.G. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    This paper presents an evaluation of an alternate method for preparing environmental samples for {sup 129}I analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at Idaho National Laboratory. The optimal sample preparation method is characterized by ease of preparation, capability of processing very small quantities of iodide, and ease of loading into a cathode. Electrodeposition of iodide on a silver wire was evaluated using these criteria. This study indicates that the electrochemically-formed silver iodide deposits produce ion currents similar to those from precipitated silver iodide for the same sample mass. Precipitated silver iodide samples are usually mixed with niobium or silver powder prior to loading in a cathode. Using electrodeposition, the silver is already mixed with the sample and can simply be picked up with tweezers, placed in the sample die, and pressed into a cathode. The major advantage of this method is that the silver wire/electrodeposited silver iodide is much easier to load into a cathode.

  10. The Technology and Properties of Digital Double Pulse Electrodepositing Ni-HA Composite Coating of Bioceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG He-yan; WANG Zhou; SHI Gu-guizhi; FU Chuan-qi; CHEN Wei-rong; JIN Zhong-hong; LI Yan

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses and analyses the technology, the surface image, microstructure and ability of digital double pulse electrodepositing Ni-HA composite coatings of bioceramics made on 1Crl8Ni9Ti substrate by SEM ,XRD and so on. The results shows that ( 1 ) the HA particles exit in substrate uniformly; (2) XRD result shows that there are HA peaks at 78. 023 ° ,43. 246°and 73. 120°differently; (3) The microhardnees of the composite coatings is increased with the rise of content of HA particles, and on the same conditions the microhardnees value is greater than that of common non-pulse electrodepositing Ni-HA composite coatings of bioceramics. (4) The grain size of digital double pulse electrodepositing Ni-HA composite coatings of bioceramics is much thinner than that of common D. C.

  11. Electrodeposition of Amorphous Molybdenum Chalcogenides from Ionic Liquids and Their Activity for the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Daniel W; Rose, Michael J; Stevenson, Keith J

    2017-09-19

    This work reports on the general electrodeposition mechanism of tetrachalcogenmetallates from 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. Both tetrathio- and tetraselenomolybdate underwent anodic electrodeposition and cathodic corrosion reactions as determined by UV-vis spectroelectrochemistry. Electrodeposition was carried out by cycling the potential between the anodic and cathodic regimes. This resulted in a film of densely packed nanoparticles of amorphous MoS x or MoSe x as determined by SEM, Raman, and XPS. The films were shown to have high activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction. The onset potential (J = 1 mA/cm 2 ) of the MoS x film was E = -0.208 V vs RHE, and that of MoSe x was E = -0.230 V vs RHE. The Tafel slope of MoS x was 42 mV/decade, and that of MoSe x was 59 mV/decade.

  12. Electrodeposition of milligram amounts of uranium on electropolished stainless steel disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Shah, P.M.; Duggal, R.K.; Jain, H.C.

    1991-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out for the electrodeposition of milligram amounts of uranium on electropolished stainless steel disks with an objective of preparing good quality sources for α-spectrometric studies on uranium. The parameters studied include the vatiation of electrodeposition yield as a function of voltage, time, distance between the cathode and anode, and the volume of 0.2M ammonium oxalate solution. The conditions selected for preparing good quality sources with nearly 100% yield were: electrodeposition voltage 25 V, time of deposition 15 min, volume of 0.2M ammonium oxalate solution in the cell 4 ml and a distance of 2 cm between the cathode and anode. The sources prepared using this method have been used successfully for the α-spectrometric determination of 234 U/ 238 U ratios in uranium samples. (author) 6 refs.; 4 figs

  13. Electrodeposition as an alternate method for preparation of environmental samples for iodide by AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamic, M.L.; Lister, T.E.; Dufek, E.J.; Jenson, D.D.; Olson, J.E.; Vockenhuber, C.; Watrous, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an alternate method for preparing environmental samples for "1"2"9I analysis by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at Idaho National Laboratory. The optimal sample preparation method is characterized by ease of preparation, capability of processing very small quantities of iodide, and ease of loading into a cathode. Electrodeposition of iodide on a silver wire was evaluated using these criteria. This study indicates that the electrochemically-formed silver iodide deposits produce ion currents similar to those from precipitated silver iodide for the same sample mass. Precipitated silver iodide samples are usually mixed with niobium or silver powder prior to loading in a cathode. Using electrodeposition, the silver is already mixed with the sample and can simply be picked up with tweezers, placed in the sample die, and pressed into a cathode. The major advantage of this method is that the silver wire/electrodeposited silver iodide is much easier to load into a cathode.

  14. Studying the initial stages of film electrodeposition of magnetic cobalt-tungsten alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachinskas, V.S.; Orlovskaya, L.V.; Parfenov, V.A.; Yasulajtene, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Initial stages of magnetic film electrodeposition by recording potentiodynamic polarization and j c ,t-curves, determination of surface structure of electrolytically deposited films by the method of XPS and study of thin coating properties have been considered. It is shown that at initial stage of electrodeposition of magnetic Co-W-films a sharp decrease in cathode process rate and formation of Co(OH) 2 , WO 3 and/or WO 4 2- occur on Cu-cathode surface. Electrodeposition of metallic magnetic Co-W-alloy, consisting of Co, W and containing basic compounds of co-deposited metals, takes place after a certain time period depending on deposition E c . 6 refs.; 3 figs

  15. ZnTe Amorphous Semiconductor Nanowires Array Electrodeposited into Polycarbonate Membrane Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohgai, T; Ikeda, T; Ohta, J

    2013-01-01

    ZnTe amorphous semiconductor nanowires array was electrodeposited into the nanochannels of ion-track etched polycarbonate membrane thin films from acidic aqueous solution at 313 K. ZnTe electrodeposits with Zn-rich composition was obtained over the wide range of cathode potential from −0.8 V to −1.1 V and the growth rate of ZnTe amorphous nanowires was around 3 nm.sec −1 at the cathode potential of −0.8 V. Cylindrical shape of the nanowires was precisely transferred from the nanochannels and the aspect ratio reached up to ca. 40. ZnTe amorphous phase electrodeposited at 313 K was crystallized by annealing at 683 K and the band gap energy of ZnTe crystalline phase reached up to ca. 2.13 eV.

  16. Liquid Membrane System for Extraction and Electrodeposition of Lead(II During Electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadyrbaeva Tatiana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for lead(II removal from aqueous acidic solutions is presented. The method involves electrodialysis through bulk liquid membranes accompanied by electrodeposition of metal from the cathodic solution. Solutions of di(2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid with admixtures of tri-n-octylamine in 1,2-dichloroethane were used as the liquid membranes. The effects of the main electrodialysis parameters as well as of the composition of the liquid membranes and aqueous solutions on the lead(II transport rate are studied. The optimal conditions are determined. A possibility of effective single-stage transfer of lead(II through the liquid membrane into dilute solutions of perchloric, nitric and acetic acids is demonstrated. Dense and adherent lead electrodeposits are obtained from perchloric acid solutions. Maximum extraction degree of 93 % and electrodeposition degree of ~60 % are obtained during 5 h of electrodialysis.

  17. Composition control of tin-zinc electrodeposits through means of experimental strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubent, S.; De Petris-Wery, M.; Saurat, M.; Ayedi, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    Tin-zinc coatings offer excellent corrosion protection and do not suffer the drawback of the voluminous white corrosion product of pure zinc or high zinc alloy coatings. The aim of this study was to determine the suitable electroplating conditions (i.e. electrolyte composition and cathode current density) to produce 70Sn-30Zn electrodeposits. Thus, a fractional factorial design (FFD) was carried out to evaluate the effects of experimental parameters (Zn II concentration, Sn IV concentration, pH and current density) on the Zn content of the electrodeposit. On the other hand, the electrodeposits were characterised by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Correlation between operating conditions, composition and morphology was attempted

  18. Effects of highly ordered TiO2 nanotube substrates on the nucleation of Cu electrodeposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Won Hee; Park, Chan Jin; Kwon, Hyuk Sang

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the effects of TiO2 nanotube substrates on the nucleation density of Cu during electrodeposition in a solution of CuSO4 and H2SO4 at 50 degrees C compared with those of pure Ti and micro-porous TiO2 substrates. During electrodeposition, the density of Cu nuclei on the TiO2 nanotube substrate increased and the average size of Cu nuclei decreased with increasing anodizing voltage and time for the synthesis of the substrate. In addition, the nucleation density of Cu electrodeposits on the highly ordered TiO2 nanotube substrate was much higher than that on pure Ti and micro-porous TiO2 substrates.

  19. Use of carriers for to electrodeposited radium 226; Utilizacion de portadores para electrodepositar radio 226

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbe, J.L

    1991-10-15

    The form of the energy distribution of a monoenergetic alpha particle starting from some emitting source of these particles, it depends on the quantity of material that its cross before being detected. Some authors deposit to the radium-226 by means of direct evaporation of the solution on metallic supports, on millipore paper and by electrodeposition. Some other ones place the radium solution in scintillation liquid, to quantify it by this technique. The objective of the present work is using carriers with the same oxidation state of the radium, that is to say of 2{sup +}, for treating to be electrodeposited to the radium-226 with the biggest possible percentage for later use the alpha spectroscopy technique to quantify it. The carriers that have been used until its they are barium and zinc in form of barium chloride, zinc nitrate and zinc sulfate. The first results indicate that with the zinc solution a yield of 40% of electrodeposited radium has been reached. (Author)

  20. Stress control in electrodeposited CoFe films—Experimental study and analytical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brankovic, Stanko R.; Kagajwala, Burhanuddin; George, Jinnie; Majkic, Goran; Stafford, Gery; Ruchhoeft, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Work investigating the effect of saccharin as an additive on growth stress and structure of electrodeposited CoFe films is presented. The saccharin concentrations were in the range between 0 g L −1 and 1.5 g L −1 . The stress measurements are performed in situ during electrodeposition of CoFe films using cantilever-bending method (curvature measurements). The structure of CoFe films was studied by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results show that growth stress is a decreasing function of saccharin concentration. No appreciable change in composition, grain size, orientation or texture of CoFe films are observed with increasing saccharin content in solution. The growth stress dependence on saccharin concentration is discussed within the framework of analytical model, which directly links the observed stress decrease with the apparent saccharin coverage of the CoFe film surface during the electrodeposition process.

  1. Aluminium Electrodeposition from Ionic Liquid: Effect of Deposition Temperature and Sonication †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Berretti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery, ionic liquids (ILs have attracted a wide interest for their potential use as a medium for many chemical processes, in particular electrochemistry. As electrochemical media they allow the electrodeposition of elements that are impossible to reduce in aqueous media. We have investigated the electrodeposition of aluminium from 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride ((BmimCl/AlCl3 (40/60 mol % as concerns the effect of deposition parameters on the quality of the deposits. Thick (20 μm aluminium coatings were electrodeposited on brass substrates at different temperatures and mixing conditions (mechanical stirring and sonication. These coatings were investigated by means of scanning electron microscope, roughness measurements, and X-ray diffraction to assess the morphology and the phase composition. Finally, electrochemical corrosion tests were carried out with the intent to correlate the deposition parameters to the anti-corrosion properties.

  2. Advanced Polymeric and Organic–Inorganic Membranes for Pressure-Driven Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu

    2017-02-13

    The state-of-the-art of membranes for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and gas separation is shortly reviewed, taking in account the most representative examples currently in application. Emphasis is also done on recent developments of advanced polymeric and organic–inorganic materials for pressure-driven processes. Many of the more recent membranes are not only polymeric but also contain an inorganic phase. Tailoring innovative materials with organic and inorganic phases coexisting in a nanoscale with multifunctionalization is an appealing approach to control at the same time diffusivity and gas solubility. Other advanced materials that are now being considered for membrane development are organic or organic–inorganic self-assemblies, metal-organic frameworks, and different forms of carbon fillers.

  3. Advanced Polymeric and Organic–Inorganic Membranes for Pressure-Driven Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Ngoc Lieu; Phuoc, Duong; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2017-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of membranes for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and gas separation is shortly reviewed, taking in account the most representative examples currently in application. Emphasis is also done on recent developments of advanced polymeric and organic–inorganic materials for pressure-driven processes. Many of the more recent membranes are not only polymeric but also contain an inorganic phase. Tailoring innovative materials with organic and inorganic phases coexisting in a nanoscale with multifunctionalization is an appealing approach to control at the same time diffusivity and gas solubility. Other advanced materials that are now being considered for membrane development are organic or organic–inorganic self-assemblies, metal-organic frameworks, and different forms of carbon fillers.

  4. Microstructure and tribological property of nanocrystalline Co–W alloy coating produced by dual-pulse electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Fenghua; Huang Ping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The nanocrystalline Co–W alloy coating were produced by dual-pulse electrodeposition from aqueous bath with cobalt sulfate and sodium tungstate. ► The correlation between the electrodeposition condition, the microstructure and alloy composition, and the hardness and tribological properties of electrodeposited Co–W alloy coatings were established. ► By careful control of the electrodeposition condition and the bath composition, the Co–W alloy coating excellent performance of microhardness and tribological properties, can exhibit excellent performances of microhardness and tribological properties. - Abstract: The nanocrystalline Co–W alloy coatings were produced by dual-pulse electrodeposition from aqueous bath with cobalt sulfate and sodium tungstate (Na 2 WO 4 ). Influence of the current density and Na 2 WO 4 concentration in bath on the microstructure, morphology and hardness of the Co–W alloy coatings were investigated using an X-ray diffraction, a scanning electronic microscope and a Vickers hardness tester, respectively. In addition, the friction and wear properties of the Co–W alloy coating electrodeposited under different condition were evaluated with a ball-on-disk UMT-3MT tribometer. The correlation between the electrodeposition condition, the microstructure and alloy composition, and the hardness and tribological properties of the deposited Co–W alloy coatings were discussed in detail. The results showed that the microhardness of the deposited Co–W alloy coating was significantly affected by its average grain size, W content and crystal orientation. Smaller grain size, higher W content and strong hcp (1 0 0) orientation favor the improvement of the hardness for Co–W alloy coatings. The deposited Co–W alloy coating could obtain the maximum microhardness over 1000 kgf mm −2 by careful control of the electrodeposition conditions. The tribological properties of the electrodeposited Co–W alloy coating were greatly

  5. Electrochemical preparation of vertically aligned, hollow CdSe nanotubes and their p-n junction hybrids with electrodeposited Cu2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debgupta, Joyashish; Devarapalli, Ramireddy; Rahman, Shakeelur; Shelke, Manjusha V; Pillai, Vijayamohanan K

    2014-08-07

    Vertically aligned, hollow nanotubes of CdSe are grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates by ZnO nanowire template-assisted electrodeposition technique, followed by selective removal of the ZnO core using NH4OH. A detailed mechanism of nucleation and anisotropic growth kinetics of nanotubes have been studied by a combination of characterization tools such as chronoamperometry, SEM and TEM. Interestingly, "as grown" CdSe nanotubes (CdSe NTs) on FTO coated glass plates behave as n-type semiconductors exhibiting an excellent photo-response (with a generated photocurrent density value of ∼ 470 μA cm(-2)) while in contact with p-type Cu2O (p-type semiconductor, grown separately on FTO plates) because of the formation of a n-p heterojunction (type II). The observed photoresponse is 3 times higher than that of a similar device prepared with electrodeposited CdSe films (not nanotubes) and Cu2O on FTO. This has been attributed to the hollow 1-D nature of CdSe NTs, which provides enhanced inner and outer surface areas for better absorption of light and also assists faster transport of photogenerated charge carriers.

  6. Microstructure and corrosion behavior of electrodeposited nano-crystalline nickel coating on AZ91 Mg alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarebidaki, Arman, E-mail: arman.zare@iauyazd.ac.ir; Mahmoudikohani, Hassan, E-mail: hassanmahmoudi.k@gmail.com; Aboutalebi, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Activation, zincating, and Cu electrodeposition were used as pretreatment processes for electrodeposition of nickel coatings. • Nano-crystalline nickel coatings were successfully electrodeposited onto the AZ91 Mg alloys. • Effect of nickel electrodeposited coating on the corrosion resistance of AZ91 Mg alloy has been studied. - Abstract: In order to enhance the corrosion resistance, nickel coating was electrodeposited onto AZ91 Mg alloy. Activation, zincating, and Cu electrodeposition used as pretreatment processes for better adhesion and corrosion performance of the nickel over layer. The corrosion properties of the AZ91 Mg alloy, nickel electroplated AZ91 Mg alloy, and pure nickel was assessed via polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. Moreover, the structure of the coating was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, whereas specimen’s morphology and elemental composition were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Measurements revealed that the coating has a nano-crystalline structure with the grain size of 95 nm. Corrosion results showed superior corrosion resistance for the coated AZ91 Mg alloy as the corrosion current density decreased from 2.5 × 10{sup −4} A cm{sup −2}, for the uncoated sample, to 1.5 × 10{sup −5} A cm{sup −2}, for coated specimen and the corrosion potential increased from −1.55 V to −0.98 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) at the same condition.

  7. Heat-resistant inorganic binders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich,

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider some aspects of production of inorganic heat-resistant composite materials in which new classes of inorganic binders - the basic salts of various metals – are applied. The possibility to use hydroxochlorides and hydroxonitrates of aluminum, zirconium, chromium and a number of other metals as the binder has been shown. The main products of the thermal decomposition of all types of binders discussed in this paper are nano-dispersed highly refractory oxides. Increased pressure in the manufacture of these materials shifts the position of the minimum of the dependence «production strength – production temperature» in the direction of low temperatures. This effect is caused by decreased film thickness of the binder located between filler particles and hence by increased rate of transfer of the matter to the interface and by facilitated sintering process. Materials based on the systems containing chromium and some other elements in transitional oxidation states are colour. For this reason, they have the worst thermal conductivity under the same heat resistance compared to colorless materials.

  8. Investigations of inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Kinson Chihang

    This thesis focuses on the exploratory synthesis and characterization of inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic nanomaterials. In particular, nanostructures of semiconducting nitrides and oxides, and hybrid systems of nanowire-polymer composites and framework materials, are investigated. These materials are characterized by a variety of techniques for structure, composition, morphology, surface area, optical properties, and electrical properties. In the study of inorganic nanomaterials, gallium nitride (GaN), indium oxide (In2O3), and vanadium dioxide (VO2) nanostructures were synthesized using different strategies and their physical properties were examined. GaN nanostructures were obtained from various synthetic routes. Solid-state ammonolysis of metastable gamma-Ga2O 3 nanoparticles was found to be particularly successful; they achieved high surface areas and photoluminescent study showed a blue shift in emission as a result of surface and size defects. Similarly, In2O3 nanostructures were obtained by carbon-assisted solid-state syntheses. The sub-oxidic species, which are generated via a self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid mechanism, resulted in 1D nanostructures including nanowires, nanotrees, and nanobouquets upon oxidation. On the other hand, hydrothermal methods were used to obtain VO2 nanorods. After post-thermal treatment, infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that these nanorods exhibit a thermochromic transition with temperature that is higher by ˜10°C compared to the parent material. The thermochromic behavior indicated a semiconductor-to-metal transition associated with a structural transformation from monoclinic to rutile. The hybrid systems, on the other hand, enabled their properties to be tunable. In nanowire-polymer composites, zinc oxide (ZnO) and silver (Ag) nanowires were synthesized and incorporated into polyaniline (PANI) and polypyrrole (PPy) via in-situ and ex-situ polymerization method. The electrical properties of these composites are

  9. Preparation and characterization of alpha sources as standards in the actinides separation; Preparacion y caracterizacion de fuentes alfa como estandares en la separacion de actinidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroy G, F.; Escobar A, L.; Zepeda R, C. P.; Balcazar, M., E-mail: fabiola.monroy@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2017-09-15

    The radioisotopes Am-243, Cm-244, Pu-242 and U-232 are used as radioactive tracers in the processes of separation and quantification of the radioisotopes of Am, Cm, Pu and U contained in radioactive and nuclear wastes, with the purpose of determining the efficiency of said processes. For this, in this work, alpha sources of Am-243, Cm-244, Pu-242 and U-232 standards were prepared by two methods: evaporation and electro-deposition, and they were analyzed by means of alpha spectrometry to verify the properties of these radioactive standards. The alpha sources prepared by electro-deposition were analyzed by Raman spectrometry to determine the chemical form in which the actinide was deposited; the good homogeneity in the distribution of the deposit was determined with solid nuclear trace detectors. The resolution of the alpha spectra obtained with surface barrier detectors of the standards is greater when deposited by electro-deposition. The FWHM of the alpha sources prepared by electro-deposition is always lower than that prepared by evaporation. Actinides are electrodeposited in the form of hydroxides and oxo compounds. (Author)

  10. Evolution of the microstructure in nanocrystalline copper electrodeposits during room temperature storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2007-01-01

    The microstructure evolution in copper electrodeposits at room temperature (self-annealing) was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction analysis and simultaneous measurement of the electrical resistivity as a function of time. In-situ studies were started immediately after electrodeposition......, crystallographic texture changes by multiple twinning and a decrease of the electrical resistivity occurred as a function of time at room temperature. The kinetics of self-annealing is strongly affected by the layer thickness: the thinner the layer the slower is the microstructure evolution and self-annealing...

  11. Near boundary acoustic streaming in Ni-Fe alloy electrodeposition control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pocwiardowski, Pawel; Lasota, H.; Ravn, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Alloy electrodeposition is strongly influenced by diffusion layer phenomena affecting the ion concentration distribution in a different way for each component. This paper presents the method of acoustic agitation leading to controlled uniform electrodeposition of alloys. The method consists...... in generating acoustic flow perpendicular to the surface in the field of an acoustic standing wave parallel to the plated substrate - so called modified Rayleigh streaming. The result showed that the near boundary streaming offers controlled mass transportation in the micrometer thick layer close to the cathode...

  12. Electrodeposition of near stoichiometric CuInSe2 thin films for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Ramkumar; Mallik, Archana

    2018-03-01

    This work investigates on the single step electrodeposition of quality CuInSe2 (CIS) thin film absorber layer for photovoltaics applications. The electrodeposition was carried using an aqueous acidic solution with a pH of 2.25. The deposition was carried using a three electrode system in potentiostatic conditions for 50 minutes. The as-deposited and nitrogen (N2) annealed films were characterized using XRD, FE-SEM and Raman spectroscopy. It has been observed that the SDS has the tendency to suppress the copper selenide (CuxSe) secondary phase which is detrimental to the device performance.

  13. Controllable growth and magnetic properties of nickel nanoclusters electrodeposited on the ZnO nanorod template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yang; Zhao Dongxu; Shen Dezhen; Zhang Jiying; Wang Xiaohua

    2009-01-01

    The ZnO nanorods were used as a template to fabricate nickel nanoclusters by electrodeposition. The ZnO nanorod arrays act as a nano-semiconductor electrode for depositing metallic and magnetic nickel nanoclusters. The growth sites of Ni nanoclusters could be controlled by adjusting the applied potential. Under -1.15 V the Ni nanoclusters could be grown on the tips of ZnO nanorods. On increasing the potential to be more negative the ZnO nanorods were covered by Ni nanoclusters. The magnetic properties of the electrodeposited Ni nanoclusters also evolved with the applied potentials.

  14. Controllable growth and magnetic properties of nickel nanoclusters electrodeposited on the ZnO nanorod template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Yang; Zhao Dongxu; Shen Dezhen; Zhang Jiying [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone, Changchun 130033 (China); Wang Xiaohua, E-mail: dxzhao2000@yahoo.com.c [National Key Laboratory of High Power Semiconductor Laser, Changchun University of Science and Technology, 7089 WeiXing Road, ChangChun 130022 (China)

    2009-12-09

    The ZnO nanorods were used as a template to fabricate nickel nanoclusters by electrodeposition. The ZnO nanorod arrays act as a nano-semiconductor electrode for depositing metallic and magnetic nickel nanoclusters. The growth sites of Ni nanoclusters could be controlled by adjusting the applied potential. Under -1.15 V the Ni nanoclusters could be grown on the tips of ZnO nanorods. On increasing the potential to be more negative the ZnO nanorods were covered by Ni nanoclusters. The magnetic properties of the electrodeposited Ni nanoclusters also evolved with the applied potentials.

  15. Depth profile analysis of electrodeposited nanoscale multilayers by Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometry (SNMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katona, G.L.; Berenyi, Z.; Vad, K.; Peter, L.

    2006-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Nanoscale multilayers have been in the focus of research since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect in this family of nanostructures. The first observation of GMR on sputtered magnetic/non-magnetic multilayers was followed by the detection of the same effect in electrodeposited Co-Ni-Cu/Cu multilayers within half a decade. Electrodeposition has long been considered as an inexpensive alternative of the high-vacuum methods to produce multilayers with GMR, although the GMR effect observed for electrodeposited multilayers is usually inferior to multilayers produced by physical methods. Electrochemistry appears to be an exclusive technology to produce multilayered nanowires by using porous templates. In spite of the large number of papers about the multilayers themselves, data on the depth profile of electrodeposited multilayer samples are very scarce. It has long been known that the simultaneous electrodeposition of the iron group metals takes place in the so-called anomalous manner. The diagnostic criterion of the anomalous codeposition is that the metallic component of lower standard potential (the Co in the case of Ni/Co) can be discharged together with the more noble one (Ni) at potentials where the less noble component (Co) alone cannot be deposited onto a substrate composed of the parent metal; moreover, the less noble metal (Co) is deposited preferentially. We have investigated the composition gradient along the growth direction of electrodeposited Co/Cu and CoNiCu/Cu multilayers films using SNMS. Samples were electrodeposited using the single bath method. Commercial Cu sheets and an Cr/Cu layer evaporated onto Si (111) surface were used as substrates with high and low roughness, respectively. The depth profiles of the samples were recorded using SNMS (INA-X, Specs GmbH, Berlin) in the Direct Bombardment Mode. Depth profile analysis of electrodeposited magnetic/nonmagnetic layered structures on

  16. Effect of mass density on surface morphology of electrodeposited manganese oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Avtar; Kumar, Davinder; Thakur, Anup; Kaur, Raminder

    2018-05-01

    This work focus on high surface area morphology of manganese oxide films which are currently required for electrochemical capacitor electrode to enhance their performance. Electrodeposition of manganese oxide films was carried out using Chronoamperometry for different deposition time ranging from 30 to 120 sec. Cronoamperomertic I-T integrated data have been used to analyze active mass of all electrodeposited films. Morphological study of the deposited films with different mass was carried out through scanning electron microscopy. Film deposited for 30 sec time show highest porous morphology than others. Manganese oxide films with high porosity are suitable for electrochemical capacitor electrode.

  17. Mechanisms of Current Transfer in Electrodeposited Layers of Submicron Semiconductor Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, N. D.; Mosiyash, D. S.; Sinev, I. V.; Khazanov, A. A.; Smirnov, A. V.; Lapshin, I. V.

    2017-12-01

    Current-voltage ( I- V) characteristics of conductance in multigrain layers of submicron particles of silicon, gallium arsenide, indium arsenide, and indium antimonide have been studied. Nanoparticles of all semiconductors were obtained by processing initial single crystals in a ball mill and applied after sedimentation onto substrates by means of electrodeposition. Detailed analysis of the I- V curves of electrodeposited layers shows that their behavior is determined by the mechanism of intergranular tunneling emission from near-surface electron states of submicron particles. Parameters of this emission process have been determined. The proposed multigrain semiconductor structures can be used in gas sensors, optical detectors, IR imagers, etc.

  18. Surface crack nucleation and propagation in electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-P alloy during high cycle fatigue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Shigeaki; Kamata, Akiyuki [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ashikaga Institute of Technology, 268-1 Omae, Ashikaga, Tochigi 326-8558 (Japan); Watanabe, Tadao, E-mail: skoba@ashitech.ac.j [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Northeastern University, Shenyang, 110004 (China)

    2010-07-01

    The morphology of specimen surface after fatigue fracture was evaluated in connection with grain orientation distribution and grain boundary microstructure to reveal a mechanism of fatigue fracture in nanocrystalline materials. The electrodeposited and sharply {l_brace}001{r_brace} textured Ni -2.0 mass% P alloy with the average grain size of ca. 45 nm and high fractions of low-angle and {Sigma}3 boundaries showed 2 times higher fatigue limit than electrodeposited microcrystalline Ni polycrystal. The surface features of fatigued specimen were classified into two different types of morphologies characterized as brittle fracture at the central area and as ductile fracture at the surrounding area.

  19. Electrodeposition of lead on ITO electrode: influence of copper as an additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avellaneda, Cesar O.; Napolitano, Marcos A.; Kaibara, Evandro K.; Bulhoes, Luis O.S.

    2005-01-01

    The reversible electrodeposition of metallic lead onto indium-tin oxide coated glass (ITO) was investigated and the influence of Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ·3H 2 O as additive was evaluated. The presence of Cu 2+ in the electrolytic solution produces a higher variation in the optical transmissivity. The optical response of the system changes from 85 to 10% relative to the ITO coated substrate. The kinetics of the electroreduction process of the Pb 2+ and Cu 2+ from the electrolytes has been determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) at different electrodeposition potentials. This system may be a promising candidate for electrochromic materials

  20. Inorganic ion exchangers for nuclear waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clearfield, A.; Bortun, A.; Bortun, L.; Behrens, E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a broad spectrum of inorganic ion exchangers that can be used for a range of applications and separations involving remediation of groundwater and tank wastes. The authors intend to scale-up the most promising exchangers, through partnership with AlliedSignal Inc., to provide samples for testing at various DOE sites. While much of the focus is on exchangers for removal of Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} from highly alkaline tank wastes, especially at Hanford, the authors have also synthesized exchangers for acid wastes, alkaline wastes, groundwater, and mercury, cobalt, and chromium removal. These exchangers are now available for use at DOE sites. Many of the ion exchangers described here are new, and others are improved versions of previously known exchangers. They are generally one of three types: (1) layered compounds, (2) framework or tunnel compounds, and (3) amorphous exchangers in which a gel exchanger is used to bind a fine powder into a bead for column use. Most of these exchangers can be regenerated and used again.

  1. Applications of inorganic Ion-conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiki, Yoshinori [Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1989-03-01

    Physical properties and application of solid electrolyte, particularly of inorganic solid electrolyte, are described. Ion conductors have been widely used not only for electric power application but also for sensors, gas separators, display elements, Coulomb meters, storage elements, etc. The most extensively used pacemakers now employ Li/I{sub 2}(PVP) primary batteries. Thin film lithium secondary battery has a feature of providing comparatively large electric current, with 2.5 V charging, 1.8 V discharging, and 3 mA.cm{sup {minus}2} short circuit current. The capacity of about 4 mAh per 1 cm{sup 2} electrode has been achieved. The most widely used solid electrolyte for the oxygen sensor is the stabilized ZrO{sub 2}. The relation of air/fuel mix proportion with the change in electromotive force is shown. Although solid electrolyte fuel cell is not yet put to practical use, a result of an experiment is introduced. Brief explanations are made on the oxygen pump, electrochromic display elements, Coulomb meter and voltage storage element. 18 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Microstructure and properties of manganese dioxide films prepared by electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, G. Moses; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructured manganese dioxide films were obtained by galvanostatic, pulse and reverse pulse electrodeposition from 0.01 to 0.1 M KMnO 4 solutions. The deposition yield was investigated by in situ monitoring the deposit mass using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Obtained films were studied by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, energy dispersive spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. The QCM and electron microscopy data were utilized for the investigation of deposition kinetics and film formation mechanism. It was shown that the deposition rate and film microstructure could be changed by variation of deposition conditions. The method allowed the fabrication of dense or porous films. The thickness of dense films was limited to ∼0.1 μm due to the insulating properties of manganese dioxide and film cracking, attributed to drying shrinkage. Porous and crack-free 1-2 μm films were obtained using galvanostatic or reverse pulse deposition from 0.02 M KMnO 4 solutions. It was shown that film porosity is beneficial for the charge transfer during deposition and crack prevention in thick films. Moreover, porous nanostructured films showed good capacitive behavior for applications in electrochemical supercapacitors. The porous nanostructured films prepared in the reverse pulse regime showed higher specific capacitance (SC) compared to the SC of the galvanostatic films. The highest SC of 279 F/g in a voltage window of 1 V was obtained in 0.1 M Na 2 SO 4 solutions at a scan rate of 2 mV/s

  3. Hydroxyapatite electrodeposition on anodized titanium nanotubes for orthopedic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parcharoen, Yardnapar [Department of Biological Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat [Center of Excellence on Environmental Research and Innovation, Faculty of Engineering, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok (Thailand); Sirivisoot, Sirinrath [Department of Biological Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Termsuksawad, Preecha, E-mail: preecha.ter@kmutt.ac.th [Division of Materials Technology, School of Energy, Environment and Materials, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha Uthit Rd., Bang Mod, ThungKhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • We found that different anodization time of titanium significantly effects on nanotube length which further impacts adhesion strength of hydroxyapatite coating layers. • Adhesion strength of Hydroxyapatite (HA) coated on titanium dioxide nanotubes is better than that of HA coated on titanium plate. • Hydroxyapatite coated on titanium dioxide nanotubes showed higher cell density and better spreading of MC3T3-E1 cells (bone-forming cells) than that coated on titanium plate surface. - Abstract: Nanotubes modification for orthopedic implants has shown interesting biological performances (such as improving cell adhesion, cell differentiation, and enhancing osseointegration). The purpose of this study is to investigate effect of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanotube feature on performance of hydroxyapatite-coated titanium (Ti) bone implants. TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were prepared by anodization using ammonium fluoride electrolyte (NH{sub 4}F) with and without modifiers (PEG400 and Glycerol) at various potential forms, and times. After anodization, the nanotubes were subsequently annealed. TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were characterized by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer. The amorphous to anatase transformation due to annealing was observed. Smooth and highly organized TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were found when high viscous electrolyte, NH{sub 4}F in glycerol, was used. Negative voltage (−4 V) during anodization was confirmed to increase nanotube thickness. Length of the TiO{sub 2} nanotubes was significantly increased by times. The TiO{sub 2} nanotube was electrodeposited with hydroxyapatite (HA) and its adhesion was estimated by adhesive tape test. The result showed that nanotubes with the tube length of 560 nm showed excellent adhesion. The coated HA were tested for biological test by live/dead cell straining. HA coated on TiO{sub 2} nanotubes showed higher cells density, higher live cells, and more spreading of MC3T3-E1 cells than that

  4. Magnetotransport and magnetization reversal of electrodeposited multilayer nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xueti

    2007-12-01

    Electrodeposited magnetic multilayer nanowires are ideal materials to study nanoscale magnetism and the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) in the current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP) geometry. This is because the diameter of each nanowire is uniform, the surface of the nanowire is smooth, and the thickness of both the magnetic and non-magnetic layers can be varied to either larger or smaller than the spin diffusion length which is an important parameter in magnetotransport study. In addition, the aspect ratio (layer-thickness/diameter) that is related to shape anisotropy can be varied for magnetization reversal study. There has been little understanding in the magnetization reversal mechanism of multilayer nanowires, which is complicated due to the dipolar interactions between magnetic layers in each nanowire and between nanowires. The objective of this work is to study the magnetization reversal mechanism of multilayer nanowires using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), where various dipolar interactions are taken into account. Although multilayer nanowires are ideal for the study of the CPP-GMR effect, there remains technical difficulty in making an electrical contact with individual nanowires for the CPP-GMR measurements. In this work, a point-contact method using a conductive plunger tip was developed in-house, that enabled us to measure the CPP-GMR of selected multilayer nanowires in an array of vertically aligned nanowires in each sample. To examine the CPP-GMR and compare the results with theoretical models, the CPP-GMR data were systematically obtained from samples with various magnetic and non-magnetic layer thicknesses. It was found from VSM measurement that the magnetization reversal mode in electrodeposited CoNi/Cu multilayer nanowires depends on the shape and thickness of the CoNi layers where the mode in rod-shaped thick CoNi layers is different from that in disk-shaped thin CoNi layers. The reversal mode in coherent rotation or curling was determined

  5. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Infrared spectra of Pu(IV) polymer show effects of CO 2 adsorption and of aging. Uv light (300 nm) increases the rate of reduction of PuO 2 2+ and Pu 4+ to Pu 3+ and the Pu--U separation factor using TBP. Distribution ratios for Zr and Hf between Dowex 50W--X8 resin and H 2 SO 4 solutions were found to decrease sharply with H 2 SO 4 content. Octylphenyl acid phosphate, a mixture of monooctylphenyl and dioctylphenyl phosphoric acids, is being studied for U recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid. A study of HNO 3 leaching of Ra from U ores was completed. Effects of particle size of the packed bed on the dispersion of the boundary of the miscible phase used in oil recovery are being studied. Effects of sulfonates on toluene--n-butanol--water phase relations were determined, as were the effects of salts and solutes on the max water content of 1:1 toluene--alcohol solutions. A study was begun of hydrocarbon solubility in water--surfactant--alcohol. The mechanism of the formation of hydrous ZrO 2 --polyacrylate membranes and their use for sulfate rejection were studied. Salt rejection through hyperfiltration by clay membranes (bentonite and kaolin) was also investigated. Preliminary results are given for hyperfiltration of wood-pulping wastes by ZrO 2 membranes. 13 figures

  6. Gas chromatographic determination of impurities of inorganic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drugov, Yu.S.

    1985-01-01

    Methods of concentration, separation, detection in gas chromatographic determination of impurities of inorganic compounds including low-boiling gases, reactive gases, organometallic compounds, free metals, anions, etc. are reviewed. Methods of reaction gas chromatography for determining reactive gases, water, anions, metal chelates are considered in detail as well as methods of reaction-sorption concentration and reaction gas extraction. The application of gas chromatograpny ior anaiysis of water and atmosphere contamination, for determination of impurities in highly pure solid substances and gases is described

  7. Synthesis, Properties and Mineralogy of Important Inorganic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, Terence E

    2010-01-01

    Intended as a textbook for courses involving preparative solid-state chemistry, this book offers clear and detailed descriptions on how to prepare a selection of inorganic materials that exhibit important optical, magnetic and electrical properties, on a laboratory scale. The text covers a wide range of preparative methods and can be read as separate, independent chapters or as a unified coherent body of work. Discussions of various chemical systems reveal how the properties of a material can often be influenced by modifications to the preparative procedure, and vice versa. References to miner

  8. Hybrid and Mixed Matrix Membranes for Separations from Fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher John Davey

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fermentations provide an alternative to fossil fuels for accessing a number of biofuel and chemical products from a variety of renewable and waste substrates. The recovery of these dilute fermentation products from the broth, however, can be incredibly energy intensive as a distillation process is generally involved and creates a barrier to commercialization. Membrane processes can provide a low energy aid/alternative for recovering these dilute fermentation products and reduce production costs. For these types of separations many current polymeric and inorganic membranes suffer from poor selectivity and high cost respectively. This paper reviews work in the production of novel mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs for fermentative separations and those applicable to these separations. These membranes combine a trade-off of low-cost and processability of polymer membranes with the high selectivity of inorganic membranes. Work within the fields of nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and pervaporation has been discussed. The review shows that MMMs are currently providing some of the most high-performing membranes for these separations, with three areas for improvement identified: Further characterization and optimization of inorganic phase(s, Greater understanding of the compatibility between the polymer and inorganic phase(s, Improved methods for homogeneously dispersing the inorganic phase.

  9. Hybrid and Mixed Matrix Membranes for Separations from Fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Christopher John; Leak, David; Patterson, Darrell Alec

    2016-02-29

    Fermentations provide an alternative to fossil fuels for accessing a number of biofuel and chemical products from a variety of renewable and waste substrates. The recovery of these dilute fermentation products from the broth, however, can be incredibly energy intensive as a distillation process is generally involved and creates a barrier to commercialization. Membrane processes can provide a low energy aid/alternative for recovering these dilute fermentation products and reduce production costs. For these types of separations many current polymeric and inorganic membranes suffer from poor selectivity and high cost respectively. This paper reviews work in the production of novel mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) for fermentative separations and those applicable to these separations. These membranes combine a trade-off of low-cost and processability of polymer membranes with the high selectivity of inorganic membranes. Work within the fields of nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and pervaporation has been discussed. The review shows that MMMs are currently providing some of the most high-performing membranes for these separations, with three areas for improvement identified: Further characterization and optimization of inorganic phase(s), Greater understanding of the compatibility between the polymer and inorganic phase(s), Improved methods for homogeneously dispersing the inorganic phase.

  10. Medicinal Uses of Inorganic Compounds - 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the first part of this article, we described medicinal uses of inorganic compounds relating to cancer care, infection and diabetic control, neurological, cardiovascular and in- flammatory diseases. This article contains further infor- mation on the medicinal uses of inorganic compounds as therapeutic and diagnostic in ...

  11. Recent Advances in Bio-inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Bio-inorganic chemistry has developed rapidly in recent years. A number of laboratories in India have made significant contributions to this area. The motivation in bringing out this special issue on Bio-inorganic. Chemistry is to highlight the recent work emerging from India in this important and fascinating interdisci-.

  12. Attachment of inorganic moieties onto aliphatic polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Ayres

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethanes have been used in a series of applications due basically to their versatility in terms of controlling the behavior by altering basically the type of reagents used. However, for more specific and advanced applications, such as in membranes, biomaterials and sensors, well-organized and defined chemical functionalities are necessary. In this work, inorganic functionalities were incorporated into aliphatic polyurethanes (PU having different macromolecular architectures. Polyurethanes were synthesized using a polyether diol and dicyclohexylmethane 4,4' diisocyanate (H12-MDI. Polyurethanes having carboxylic acid groups were also produced by introducing 2,2- bis (hydroxymethyl propionic acid in the polymerization process. Inorganic functionalities were inserted into polyurethanes by reacting isocyanate end capped chains with aminopropyltriethoxysilane followed by tetraethoxysilane. PU having carboxylic acid groups yielded transparent samples after the incorporation of inorganic entities, as an evidence of smaller and better dispersed inorganic entities in the polymer network. FTIR and swelling measurements showed that polyurethanes having carboxylic acid groups had inorganic domains less packed, condensed and cross-linked when compared to polyurethanes with no carboxylic acid groups. Results also suggested that the progressive incorporation of inorganic moieties in both types of polyurethanes occurred in regions previously activated with inorganic functionalities, instead of by the creation of new domains. The temperatures of thermal decomposition and glass transition were also shifted to higher temperatures when inorganic functionalities were incorporated into polyurethanes.

  13. Uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jiemin; Chen Ziyuan; Tang Shirong; Guangzhou Univ., Guangzhou; Ding Bingyang

    2005-01-01

    The review covers results at home and abroad in terms of uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes, and suggests pteridophytes' significance in phytoremediation; the mechanisms related to uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes and some methods and means used for research on the mechanism are also introduced; the authors' viewpoints on future development trends are presented in this paper. (authors)

  14. Ultrasound exfoliation of inorganic analogues of graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Slušná, Michaela; Ecorchard, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, APR (2014), s. 1-14 ISSN 1556-276X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Ultrasound * Exfoliation * Graphene inorganic analogues Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.779, year: 2014

  15. Gas separation using porous cement membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiqi; Gaggl, Maria; Gluth, Gregor J G; Behrendt, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Gas separation is a key issue in various industrial fields. Hydrogen has the potential for application in clean fuel technologies. Therefore, the separation and purification of hydrogen is an important research subject. CO2 capture and storage have important roles in "green chemistry". As an effective clean technology, gas separation using inorganic membranes has attracted much attention in the last several decades. Membrane processes have many applications in the field of gas separation. Cement is one type of inorganic material, with the advantages of a lower cost and a longer lifespan. An experimental setup has been created and improved to measure twenty different cement membranes. The purpose of this work was to investigate the influence of gas molecule properties on the material transport and to explore the influence of operating conditions and membrane composition on separation efficiency. The influences of the above parameters are determined, the best conditions and membrane type are found, it is shown that cementitious material has the ability to separate gas mixtures, and the gas transport mechanism is studied.

  16. Development of cement material using inorganic additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyohara, Masumitsu; Satou, Tatsuaki; Wada, Mikio; Ishii, Tomoharu; Matsuo, Kazuaki.

    1997-01-01

    Inorganic admixtures to enhance the fluidity of cement material was developed. These admixtures turned into easy to immobilize the miscellaneous radioactive waste using cement material. It was found that the ζ potential of cement particles was directly proportional to the content of the inorganic admixtures in cement paste and the particles of cement were dispersed at the high ζ potential. The condensed sodium phosphate, which was the main component of the inorganic admixtures, retarded the dissolution of Ca 2+ ion from the cement, and generated the colloids by incorporating dissolved Ca 2+ ion. The cement material containing the inorganic admixtures was found to have the same mechanical strength and adsorption potential of radionuclides in comparison to normal cement materials. It was confirmed that the cement material containing the inorganic admixture was effectively filled gaps of miscellaneous radioactive waste. (author)

  17. Welcome to Inorganics: A New Open Access, Inclusive Forum for Inorganic Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan H. Gregory

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the beauties of inorganic chemistry is its sheer diversity. Just as chemistry sits at the centre of the sciences, inorganic chemistry sits at the centre of chemistry itself. Inorganic chemists are fortunate in having the entire periodic table at their disposal, providing a palette for the creation of a multitude of rich and diverse compounds and materials from the simplest salts to the most complex of molecular species. It follows that the language of inorganic chemistry can thus be a demanding one, accommodating sub-disciplines with very different perspectives and frames of reference. One could argue that it is the unequivocal breadth of inorganic chemistry that empowers inorganic chemists to work at the interfaces, not just between the traditional Inorganic-Organic-Physical boundaries of the discipline, but in the regions where chemistry borders the other physical and life sciences, engineering and socio-economics. [...

  18. Templated electrodeposition of Ag7NO11 nanowires with very high oxidation states of silver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodijk, E.J.B.; Maijenburg, A.W.; Maas, M.G.; Blank, David H.A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2011-01-01

    The templated electrodeposition of 200 nm diameter nanowires of the argentic oxynitrate Ag(Ag3O4)2NO3 phase is reported. Their high surface-to-volume ratio and the high average oxidation state of Ag make these wires promising candidates for nanoscale redox processes in which both a high volumetric

  19. Nucleation, aggregative growth and detachment of metal nanoparticles during electrodeposition at electrode surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, Stanley; Lazenby, R.A.; Kirkman, P.M.; Unwin, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of metal nanoparticles (NPs) on surfaces is of considerable interest with regard to creating functional interfaces with myriad applications. Yet, key features of these processes remain elusive and are undergoing revision. Here, the mechanism of the electrodeposition of

  20. Potentiostatic electro-deposition of 241Am using room temperature ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankhe, R.H.; Mirashi, N.N.; Arijit Sengupta; Murali, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    An attempt was made for the potentiostatic electrodeposition of 241 Am using six different room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). Effect of electrodeposition time on the % of electrodeposition of 241 Am, pH change of the solution and the temperature change of the systems were investigated. It was observed that for water immiscible RTILs, the least viscous RTIL gave the best yield (when mixed with iso-propanol), while for water miscible RTILs, reverse trend was observed (when mixed with water). Out of all water immiscible RTILs under consideration for the present case, the octyl-methyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (C 8 mpyNTf 2 ) in isopropanol was found to yield almost quantitative (99.6 %) electrodeposition of 241 Am within 45 min whereas the most effective system was found to be C 8 mimBr with ∼90 % of 241 Am deposited on the electrode for water miscible RTILs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first approach ever been reported in the literature. (author)

  1. A study on corrosion resistance of electrodeposited Zn-base alloy steel sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Soon

    1986-01-01

    Effects of electrodeposits of Zn-Ni or Zn-Co alloy with small amounts of Mo or W in sulphate bath on the corrosion resistance of plated steel sheet were studied. 1) The electrodeposition of Zn-Ni and Zn-Co alloy shows both anomalous codeposition behavior. The grade of anomalous codeposition of Zn-Co alloy rises with adding Mo or W in bath. 2) The Ni content in Zn-Ni deposits increases with decreasing cathode current density and with increasing bath temperature. 3) In case of electroplating of Zn-Co, the increase of cathodic current density of bath bring on increasing of the Co content, but on decreasing of the Mo content in deposits. And rising bath temperature increases both Co and Mo deposits. 4) The corrosion resistance of the Zn-Ni electrodeposited steel sheet is shown a maximum at the Ni content of 10-17%. The structure of Zn-Ni of these composition range was finegrained γ-phase. 5) The corrosion resistance of the Zn-Co electrodeposited steel sheet is improved with increasing Co content. The corrosion resistance of the Zn-Co-Mo or Zn-Co-W deposits electroplated by proper plating conditions was improved much more than that of Zn-Co deposits. (Author)

  2. Electrodeposition Techniques for the Preparation of Beta-Sprectroscopy Sources of Rare-Earth Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P. Gregers; Høgh, J.; Nielsen, H. L.

    1964-01-01

    Thin, uniform radioactive deposits of rare earths and related elements can be prepared by cathodic electrodeposition of their hydroxides. The main theoretical and experimental features of this process are reviewed and plating cell design and the choice of conditions are described together...

  3. Effect of weak magnetic field on the grain size of electrodeposited nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, M.S.; Gul, N.

    2007-01-01

    Effect of weak magnetic field on the electro-deposition of nickel onto copper electrode has been investigated. The working conditions were optimized through adjustment of cathodic current density (CCD), deposition time, bath temperature and pH of the medium. For electro-deposition in the absence of magnetic field, the optimum conditions comprised of pH = 4.0+- 0.5, average CCD = 22.5 +- 0.5 mA cm/sup -2/ and bath temperature in the range from 25 to 30 degree C. The same conditions were maintained for the electrodeposition while applying magnetic field of 0.75 kG. The morphological features of the Ni-deposits on copper cathode were compared for the two cases. The applied magnetic field not only enhanced the amount of nickel deposition but also improved the quality of the deposit. Surface morphology of the electro-deposited nickel has been monitored using scanning electron microscopy (SEM); the preliminary investigation has shown that the grain size decreased with the applied magnetic field case. One possible explanation to this behavior is the convection flow of cations close to the electrode surface induced by the Lorentz force which also influences the ion-migration. (author)

  4. A novel polymeric leveller for the electrodeposition of copper from acidic sulphate bath: A spectroelectrochemical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzini, Benedetto; D'Urzo, Lucia; Mele, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    The electrodeposition of copper has recently become a 'hot topic' due to its extensive application to the fabrication of interconnects in the integrated circuits (IC) manufacturing process. However, the proper composition of the electrochemical deposition (ECD) bath, and in particular the selection of the levelling agent, represents one of the crucial factors for an effective transition of Cu ECD towards the most advanced technology nodes. In this paper we report on the electrodeposition of Cu from acidic sulphate baths containing a potential innovative polymeric leveller: a benzyl-phenyl modified polyethyleneimine (BPPEI). This investigation was carried out by: (i) cyclic voltammetry (CV) at a rotating-disk electrode, (ii) in situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) during electrodeposition and (iii) scanning electron microscopy (SEM). CV results show that BPPEI acts as an inhibitor of the electrodeposition process, since it reduces the exchange current density and increases the cathodic Tafel slope. Mass transport limitations to the Cu(II) reduction process are essentially unaffected by the presence of BPPEI. SERS spectra show that BPPEI is adsorbed at the growing Cu cathode at all potentials of interest for electroplating. SEM micrographs prove that BPPEI acts as an efficient grain-refiner and suppressor of unstable 3D growth. Cathodic reactivity of BPPEI was proved by the analysis of CV features and potential-dependent SERS spectral changes

  5. A pH Sensor Based on a Stainless Steel Electrode Electrodeposited with Iridium Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, C. C. M.; Madrid, R. E.; Felice, C. J.

    2009-01-01

    A simple procedure to make an iridium oxide (IrO[subscript 2]) electrodeposited pH sensor, that can be used in a chemical, biomedical, or materials laboratory, is presented here. Some exercises, based on this sensor, that can be used to teach important concepts in the field of biomedical, biochemical, tissue, or materials engineering, are also…

  6. Alternate method of source preparation for alpha spectrometry: No electrodeposition, no hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Hiromu; Mueller, Rebecca J.; Lambert, Susan B.; Rao, Govind R.

    2016-01-01

    An alternate method of preparing actinide alpha counting sources was developed in place of electrodeposition or lanthanide fluoride micro-precipitation. The method uses lanthanide hydroxide micro-precipitation to avoid the use of hazardous hydrofluoric acid. Lastly, it provides a quicker, simpler, and safer way of preparing actinide alpha counting sources in routine, production-type laboratories that process many samples daily.

  7. Thermal stability of electrodeposited Ni and Ni-Co layers; an EBSD-study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anette Alsted; Gholinia, A.; Trimby, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of heat treatment on the microstructure and the microtexture of electrodeposited Ni and Ni-Co layers was investigated with Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) with high resolution. Samples were annealed for 1 hour at 523 K and 673 K, the temperature region wherein...

  8. Nanoindentation and micro-mechanical fracture toughness of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-W alloy films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, D.E.J., E-mail: david.armstrong@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Haseeb, A.S.M.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Roberts, S.G.; Wilkinson, A.J. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Bade, K. [Institut fuer Mikrostrukturtechnik (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-04-30

    Nanocrystalline nickel-tungsten alloys have great potential in the fabrication of components for microelectromechanical systems. Here the fracture toughness of Ni-12.7 at.%W alloy micro-cantilever beams was investigated. Micro-cantilevers were fabricated by UV lithography and electrodeposition and notched by focused ion beam machining. Load was applied using a nanoindenter and fracture toughness was calculated from the fracture load. Fracture toughness of the Ni-12.7 at.%W was in the range of 1.49-5.14 MPa {radical}m. This is higher than the fracture toughness of Si (another important microelectromechanical systems material), but considerably lower than that of electrodeposited nickel and other nickel based alloys. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Micro-scale cantilevers manufactured by electro-deposition and focused ion beam machining. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoindenter used to perform micro-scale fracture test on Ni-13at%W micro-cantilevers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculation of fracture toughness of electrodeposited Ni-13at%W thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fracture toughness values lower than that of nanocrystalline nickel.

  9. Electrodeposition of antimony, tellurium and their alloys from molten acetamide mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, H.P.; Peng, X.; Murugan, G.; Vullers, R.J.M.; Vereecken, P.M.; Fransaer, J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the electrodeposition of antimony (Sb), tellurium (Te) and their alloys from molten mixtures of acetamide - antimony chloride and tellurium chloride. The binary mixtures of acetamide with SbCl3 and TeCl 4 exhibit eutectic formation with large depressions of freezing points to below room

  10. High Pt utilization PEMFC electrode obtained by alternative ion-exchange/electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siguo; Wei, Zidong; Li, Hua; Li, Li

    2010-12-14

    High Pt utilization PEMFC electrodes were prepared by an alternative ion-exchange/electrodeposition (AIEE) technique. The results demonstrated that the MEA employing an AIEE electrode with a Pt loading of 0.014 mg Pt cm(-2) exhibits performance approximately 2.2 times larger than that employing a conventional Nafion-bonded Pt/C electrode with a same Pt loading.

  11. Alternate method of source preparation for alpha spectrometry: no electrodeposition, no hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiromu Kurosaki; Lambert, S.B.; Rao, G.R.; Mueller, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    An alternate method of preparing actinide alpha counting sources was developed in place of electrodeposition or lanthanide fluoride micro-precipitation. The method uses lanthanide hydroxide micro-precipitation to avoid the use of hazardous hydrofluoric acid. It provides a quicker, simpler, and safer way of preparing actinide alpha counting sources in routine, production-type laboratories that process many samples daily. (author)

  12. Nanoindentation and micro-mechanical fracture toughness of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni–W alloy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, D.E.J.; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Roberts, S.G.; Wilkinson, A.J.; Bade, K.

    2012-01-01

    Nanocrystalline nickel–tungsten alloys have great potential in the fabrication of components for microelectromechanical systems. Here the fracture toughness of Ni–12.7 at.%W alloy micro-cantilever beams was investigated. Micro-cantilevers were fabricated by UV lithography and electrodeposition and notched by focused ion beam machining. Load was applied using a nanoindenter and fracture toughness was calculated from the fracture load. Fracture toughness of the Ni–12.7 at.%W was in the range of 1.49–5.14 MPa √m. This is higher than the fracture toughness of Si (another important microelectromechanical systems material), but considerably lower than that of electrodeposited nickel and other nickel based alloys. - Highlights: ► Micro-scale cantilevers manufactured by electro-deposition and focused ion beam machining. ► Nanoindenter used to perform micro-scale fracture test on Ni-13at%W micro-cantilevers. ► Calculation of fracture toughness of electrodeposited Ni-13at%W thin films. ► Fracture toughness values lower than that of nanocrystalline nickel.

  13. Microstructure and micromechanical properties of electrodeposited Zn–Mo coatings on steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazimierczak, Honorata, E-mail: h.kazimierczak@imim.pl [Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, 30-059 Krakow, Reymonta 25 (Poland); Ozga, Piotr [Institute of Metallurgy and Material Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, 30-059 Krakow, Reymonta 25 (Poland); Berent, Katarzyna [Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Krakow, Mickiewicza Av. 30 (Poland); Kot, Marcin [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Krakow, Mickiewicza Av. 30 (Poland)

    2015-07-05

    Highlights: • The conditions for electrodeposition of uniform and compact Zn–Mo coatings have been studied. • Zn–Mo coatings microstructure can be controlled by the molybdenum content. • Surface roughness can be controlled by the content of Mo in coatings. • The value of microhardness grows gradually with the increase of Mo content up to 3 wt.%. - Abstract: The aim of the work was to characterise the new coating material based on zinc with the addition of molybdenum, electrodeposited on steel substrate from nontoxic, citrate based electrolytes. The surface composition of deposits was ascertained by chemical analysis (WDXRF). The morphology of coatings was studied by SEM. The surface morphology and roughness of Zn–Mo coatings on steel was investigated by AFM. The microhardness and Young modulus were determined by indentation technique, whereas the coating adhesion to the substrate was examined by means of scratch test. The optimal ranges of electrodeposition parameters, enabling the preparation of good quality coatings (i.e. uniform, compact, with good adhesion to the substrate), was specified. The morphology of deposits depends significantly on the content of molybdenum and on the thickness of electrodeposited layer. The microhardness of Zn–Mo coating increases with the increase of molybdenum content up to 3 wt.% and then reaches about 3.5 GPa, which is almost five times that of the value of the microhardness of the Zn coating studied.

  14. Magnetic vortex state and multi-domain pattern in electrodeposited hemispherical nanogranular nickel films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samardak, Alexander; Sukovatitsina, Ekaterina; Ognev, Alexey; Stebliy, Maksim; Davydenko, Alexander; Chebotkevich, Ludmila; Keun Kim, Young; Nasirpouri, Forough; Janjan, Seyed-Mehdi; Nasirpouri, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic states of nickel nanogranular films were studied in two distinct structures of individual and agglomerated granules electrodeposited on n-type Si(1 1 1) surface from a modified Watts bath at a low pH of 2. Magnetic force microscopy and micromagnetic simulations revealed three-dimensional out-of-plane magnetic vortex states in stand-alone hemispherical granules and their arrays, and multi-domain patterns in large agglomerates and integrated films. Once the granules coalesce into small chains or clusters, the coercivity values increased due to the reduction of inter-granular spacing and strengthening of the magnetostatic interaction. Further growth leads to the formation of a continuous granulated film which strongly affected the coercivity and remanence. This was characterized by the domain wall nucleation and propagation leading to a stripe domain pattern. Magnetoresistance measurements as a function of external magnetic field are indicative of anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) for the continuous films electrodeposited on Si substrate. - Highlights: • Magnetic states of electrodeposited nickel in isolated spherical and agglomerated nanogranules, and a continuous film. • Preferential magnetization reversal mechanism in isolated granules is vortex state. • Micromagnetic simulations confirm the three-dimensional vortex. • Transition between the vortex state and multi-domain magnetic pattern causes a significant decrease in the coercive force. • Continuous nickel films electrodeposited on silicon substrate exhibit AMR whose magnitude increases with the film thickness

  15. Reuse of Expired Cefort Drug in Nickel Electrodeposition From Watts Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia-Andrada Duca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the possibility to use ceftriaxone (CEFTR active compound from expired Cefort as additive in nickel electrodeposition from Watts baths. Electrochemical behaviour and the influence of CEFTR on nickel electroplating were studied by electrochemical methods. Experimental data recommends CEFTR as additive in nickel electroplating from Watts baths.

  16. Method for electrodeposition of nickel--chromium alloys and coating of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromatt, R.W.; Lundquist, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    High-quality electrodeposits of nickel-chromium binary alloys in which the percentage of chromium is controlled can be obtained by the addition of a complexing agent such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic disodium salt to the plating solution. The nickel-chromium alloys were found to provide an excellent hydrogen barrier for the protection of uranium fuel elements. (U.S.)

  17. Anticorrosion protection of carbon steel by electrodeposition of niobium in melted fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, M.E. de; Robin, A.

    1990-01-01

    The results about niobium electrodeposition over carbon steel from K sub(2) Nb F sub(7) solutions, on LiF-Na F-KF eutetic at 750 sup(0)C and over the corrosion resistance of obtainment deposit from acid media are presented. (author)

  18. Cr-Ni ALLOY ELECTRODEPOSITION AND COMPARISON WITH CONVENTIONAL PURE Cr COATING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moniruzzaman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cr coating is widely used as the outer surface of precision parts due to its attractive appearance and superior corrosion resistance properties. It is obtained by electrodeposition via a conventional bath with hexavalent Cr ions. This manufacturing technique has many drawbacks, such as very low efficiency and high operating temperature and it is hazardous to health. In this work, we studied a Cr-Ni alloy deposition technique and compared the alloy coating properties to those with conventional Cr coating. Sequential two-step alloy electrodeposition was also compared. We took varying concentrations of Cr, Ni and complexing agents for the electrodeposition of Cr-Ni alloy and sequential Cr-Ni alloy coating on mild steel. Operating parameters, i.e. current density and temperature, were varied to examine their effects on the coating properties. The coatings thus obtained were characterized by visual observation, corrosion test, microhardness measurement, morphology and chemical analysis. The Cr-Ni alloy coating was found to be more corrosion resistant in 5% NaCl solution and harder than the pure Cr coating obtained by conventional electrodeposition. Toxic gas was produced in a much lower extent in the alloy coating than the conventional Cr coating technique. Again, the two-step Cr-Ni alloy coating was found better in terms of corrosion resistance as well as hardness compared to the Cr-Ni alloy coating. The process was also found to be much more environmentally friendly.

  19. Preparation of /sup 237/Np samples by electrodeposition and its determination by alpha spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertzig, W; Matsuda, H T; Araujo, B.F. de; Araujo, J.A. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Quimica

    1980-01-01

    An analytical method followed by alpha spectrometry was developed for the determination of trace amounts of actinides. A technique for quantitative electrodeposition of /sup 237/Np, under optimal conditions, using a carrier, is presented. This method will be applied for the control of trace amounts of /sup 237/Np in the solutions from the reprocessing (Purex process) of irradiated uranium.

  20. Whisker and Hillock formation on Sn, Sn-Cu and Sn-Pb electrodeposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettinger, W.J.; Johnson, C.E.; Bendersky, L.A.; Moon, K.-W.; Williams, M.E.; Stafford, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    High purity bright Sn, Sn-Cu and Sn-Pb layers, 3, 7 and 16 μm thick were electrodeposited on phosphor bronze cantilever beams in a rotating disk apparatus. Beam deflection measurements within 15 min of plating proved that all electrodeposits had in-plane compressive stress. In several days, the surfaces of the Sn-Cu deposits, which have the highest compressive stress, develop 50 μm contorted hillocks and 200 μm whiskers, pure Sn deposits develop 20 μm compact conical hillocks, and Sn-Pb deposits, which have the lowest compressive stress, remain unchanged. The differences between the initial compressive stresses for each alloy and pure Sn is due to the rapid precipitation of Cu 6 Sn 5 or Pb particles, respectively, within supersaturated Sn grains produced by electrodeposition. Over longer time, analysis of beam deflection measurements indicates that the compressive stress is augmented by the formation of Cu 6 Sn 5 on the bronze/Sn interface, while creep of the electrodeposit tends to decrease the compressive stress. Uniform creep occurs for Sn-Pb because it has an equi-axed grain structure. Localized creep in the form of hillocks and whiskers occurs for Sn and Sn-Cu because both have columnar structures. Compact hillocks form for the Sn deposits because the columnar grain boundaries are mobile. Contorted hillocks and whiskers form for the Sn-Cu deposits because the columnar grain boundary motion is impeded

  1. Electrodeposition and Properties of Copper Layer on NdFeB Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yue

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To decrease the impact of the regular Ni/Cu/Ni coating on the magnetic performance of sintered NdFeB device, alkaline system of HEDP complexing agent was applied to directly electro-deposit copper layer on NdFeB matrix, then nickel layer was electrodeposited on the copper layer and Cu/Ni coating was finally obtained to replace the regular Ni/Cu/Ni coating. The influence of concentration of HEDP complexing agent on deposition course was tested by electrochemical testing; morphology of copper layer was characterized by SEM, XRD and TEM; the binding force of copper layer and the thermal reduction of magnetic of NdFeB caused by electrodeposited coating were respectively explored through the thermal cycle test and thermal demagnetization test. The results show that the concentration of HEDP has great impact on the deposition overpotential of copper. In the initial electrodepositing stage, copper particles precipitate at the grain boundaries of NdFeB magnets with a preferred (111 orientation. The copper layer is compact and has enough binding force with the NdFeB matrix to meet the requirements in SJ 1282-1977. Furthermore, the thermal demagnetization loss rate of the sintered NdFeB with the protection of Cu/Ni coating is significantly less than that with the protection of Ni/Cu/Ni coating.

  2. Properties of ternary NiFeW alloy coating by jet electrodeposition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, ternary NiFeW alloy coatings were prepared by jet electrodeposition, and the effects of lord salt concentration, jet speed, current density and temperature on the properties of the coatings, including the composition, microhardness, surface morphology, structure and corrosion resistance, were investigated.

  3. Electrodeposition and corrosion properties of zn-co and zn-co-fe alloy coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.M.C.; Lodhi, Z.F.; Hovestad, A.; Hoen-Velterop, L. 't; Terryn, H.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has been extensively used as an excellent corrosion protective coating for steel components in aerospace, automotive, electrical and fasteners industries. However, Cd is banned due to its toxic nature and strict environmental regulations. In this study, the electrodeposition mechanism

  4. Electrodeposition and corrosion properties of Zn-Co and Zn-Co-Fe alloy coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.M.C.; Lodhi, Z.F.; Hovestad, A.; Hoen-Velterop, L. 't; Terryn, H.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has been extensively used as an excellent corrosion protective coating for steel components in aerospace, automotive, electrical and fasteners industries. However, Cd is banned due to its toxic nature and strict environmental regulations. In this study, the electrodeposition mechanism

  5. Hybrid helical magnetic microrobots obtained by 3D template-assisted electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeshan, Muhammad A; Grisch, Roman; Pellicer, Eva; Sivaraman, Kartik M; Peyer, Kathrin E; Sort, Jordi; Özkale, Berna; Sakar, Mahmut S; Nelson, Bradley J; Pané, Salvador

    2014-04-09

    Hybrid helical magnetic microrobots are achieved by sequential electrodeposition of a CoNi alloy and PPy inside a photoresist template patterned by 3D laser lithography. A controlled actuation of the microrobots by a rotating magnetic field is demonstrated in a fluidic environment. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Microstructure development in zinc oxide nanowires and iron oxohydroxide nanotubes by cathodic electrodeposition in nanopores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.G.; Rodijk, E.J.B.; Maijenburg, A.W.; Blank, David H.A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2011-01-01

    The cathodic electrodeposition of crystalline ZnO nanowires and amorphous FeO(OH) nanotubes in polycarbonate track-etched membranes with pore diameters of 50–200 nm is reported. Nitrate was used as a sacrificial precursor for the electrochemical generation of hydroxyl ions that raised the pH of the

  7. Electrodeposition of enzymes-integrated mesoporous composite films by interfacial templating: A paradigm for electrochemical biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dongming; Tan, Yiwei

    2014-01-01

    The development of nanostructured electrodes for electrochemical biosensors is of significant interest for modern detection, portable devices, and enhanced performance. However, development of such sensors still remains challenging due to the time-consuming, detriment-to-nature, and costly modifications of both electrodes and enzymes. In this work, we report a simple one-step approach to fabricating high-performance, direct electron transfer (DET) based nanoporous enzyme-embedded electrodes by electrodeposition coupled with recent progress in potential-controlled interfacial surfactant assemblies. In contrast to those previously electrodeposited mesoporous materials that are not bioactive, we imparted the biofunctionality to electrodeposited mesoporous thin films by means of the amphiphilic phospholipid templates strongly interacting with enzymes. Thus, phospholipid-templated mesoporous ZnO films covalently inlaid with the pristine enzymes were prepared by simple one-step electrodeposition. We further demonstrate two examples of such hybrid film electrodes embedded with alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and glucose oxidase (GOx), which are effectively employed as electrochemical biosensors for amperometric sensing of ethanol and glucose without using any electron relays. The favorable mass transport and large contact surface area provided by nanopores play an important role in improving the performance of these two biosensors, such as excellent sensitivities, low detection limits, and fast response. The matrix mesoporous films acting as effective electronic bridges are responsible for DET between enzyme molecules and metal electrode

  8. Hydrodynamic voltammetric studies of the oxygen reduction at gold nanoparticles-electrodeposited gold electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Deab, Mohamed S.; Ohsaka, Takeo

    2002-01-01

    The electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen at Au nanoparticles-electrodeposited Au electrodes has been studied using rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry in 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 . Upon analyzing and comparison of the limiting currents data obtained at various rotation speeds of this RDE with those obtained at the bulk Au electrode, an effective value of the number of electrons, n, involved in the electrochemical reduction of O 2 was estimated to be ca. 4 for the former electrode and ca. 3 for the bulk Au electrode at the same potential of -350 mV versus Ag/AgCl/KCl(sat.). This indicates the higher possibility of further reduction and decomposition of H 2 O 2 at Au nanoparticles-electrodeposited Au electrode in this acidic medium. The reductive desorption of the self-assembled monolayer of cysteine, which was formed on the Au nanoparticles-electrodeposited Au electrode, was used to monitor the change of the specific activity of the bulk Au electrode upon the electrodeposition of the Au nanoparticles

  9. Development of silver-gas diffusion electrodes for the oxygen reduction reaction by electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomé, Sónia; Rego, Rosa; Oliveira, M. Cristina, E-mail: mcris@utad.pt

    2013-12-16

    Silver-gas diffusion electrodes (Ag-GDE) were prepared by direct deposition of the catalyst onto a carbon paper support by electrodeposition. This deposition technique, under potentiostatic and galvanostatic mode, allows the production of well dispersed ultra-low Ag loading levels. The catalytic activity of the prepared materials towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was investigated in the alkaline solution and its tolerance to methanol was evaluated. Based on an Ag-ink prepared from the electrodeposit material and RDE experiments, it was concluded that the ORR occurs via a four-electron pathway on the Ag electrodeposit. The combination of reasonably high catalytic activity, efficiency, low price, facile and green synthesis makes the electrodeposited Ag-GDE attractive for the ORR in alkaline fuel cells. - Highlights: • A facile and simple way to successfully prepare catalyzed gas diffusion electrodes. • Ultra-low loadings of Ag-GDEs can be achieved. • Good tolerance to methanol and a high mass activity (3.14 mA{sub Ag} mg{sup −1}). • ORR occurs via a four-electron pathway.

  10. [Comparison of fibroblastic cell compatibility of type I collagen-immobilized titanium between electrodeposition and immersion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyuragi, Takeru

    2014-03-01

    Titanium is widely used for medical implants. While many techniques for surface modification have been studied for optimizing its biocompatibility with hard tissues, little work has been undertaken to explore ways of maximizing its biocompatibility with soft tissues. We investigated cell attachment to titanium surfaces modified with bovine Type I collagen immobilized by either electrodeposition or a conventional immersion technique. The apparent thickness and durability of the immobilized collagen layer were evaluated prior to incubation of the collagen-immobilized titanium surfaces with NIH/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The initial cell attachment and expression of actin and vinculin were evaluated. We determined that the immobilized collagen layer was much thicker and more durable when placed using the electrodeposition technique than the immersion technique. Both protocols produced materials that promoted better cell attachment, growth and structural protein expression than titanium alone. However, electrodeposition was ultimately superior to immersion because it is quicker to perform and produces a more durable collagen coating. We conclude that electrodeposition is an effective technique for immobilizing type I collagen on titanium surfaces, thus improving their cytocompatibility with fibroblasts.

  11. Numerical insights into the early stages of nanoscale electrodeposition: nanocluster surface diffusion and aggregative growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamme, Mesfin Haile; Kohn, Christoph; Deconinck, Johan

    2018-01-01

    Fundamental understanding of the early stages of electrodeposition at the nanoscale is key to address the challenges in a wide range of applications. Despite having been studied for decades, a comprehensive understanding of the whole process is still out of reach. In this work, we introduce a nov...

  12. Electrodeposition of BaCO3 coatings on stainless steel substrates ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Dedicated to the memory of the late Professor S K Rangarajan. *For correspondence. Electrodeposition of BaCO3 coatings on stainless steel substrates: Oriented growth ... orientation by an interfacial molecular recognition mechanism. BaCO3 has important applications in paint, ceramic, and paper industries. Also it is used ...

  13. Studies on electrodeposition and characterization of the Ni–W–Fe alloys coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Aldrighi Luiz M.; Costa, Josiane D.; Sousa, Mikarla B. de; Alves, José Jailson N. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Campina Grande, Av. Aprígio Veloso, 882, 58429-970 Campina Grande (Brazil); Campos, Ana Regina N.; Santana, Renato Alexandre C. [Department of Education, Federal University of Campina Grande, R. Olho da Água da Bica, S. N., 58175-000 Cuité-Pb (Brazil); Prasad, Shiva, E-mail: prasad@deq.ufcg.edu.br [Department of Education, Federal University of Campina Grande, R. Olho da Água da Bica, S. N., 58175-000 Cuité-Pb (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Ni–W–Fe alloy resistant to corrosion has been obtained by electrodeposition. • Optimal temperature and current density for Ni–W–Fe alloy electrodeposition has been found. • Experimental design has been used as optimization tool. • Amorphous Ni–W–Fe alloy has been obtained. - Abstract: Corrosion has been responsible for industrial maintenance cost as well as for industrial accidents. A key to prevent corrosion is to develop advanced materials with highly anti-corrosive properties. The electrodeposition has been one of the most important techniques for obtaining these materials. The objective of this work is to develop and optimize the parameters to obtain a new Ni–W–Fe alloy with high resistance to corrosion. A factorial design 2{sup 2} with 2 center points was used to find the optimal current density and bath temperature for Ni–W–Fe electrodeposition. The influence of such variables on the cathodic current efficiency and polarization resistance were obtained. The alloys obtained with the highest current density (125 mA/cm{sup 2}) and the highest bath temperature (70 °C) had the best anticorrosive properties, which are superior to anticorrosive properties of Ni–W–Fe available in the literature. The obtained alloys had the highest tungsten content compared with other alloys studied of about 46 wt.%. The highest cathodic current efficiency was 34% for the alloy with a chemical composition of 3 wt.% Fe, 29 wt.% W and 68 wt.% Ni.

  14. Adapting Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Lecture and Laboratory Instruction for a Legally Blind Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miecznikowski, John R.; Guberman-Pfeffer, Matthew J.; Butrick, Elizabeth E.; Colangelo, Julie A.; Donaruma, Cristine E.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the strategies and techniques used to successfully teach advanced inorganic chemistry, in the lecture and laboratory, to a legally blind student are described. At Fairfield University, these separate courses, which have a physical chemistry corequisite or a prerequisite, are taught for junior and senior chemistry and biochemistry…

  15. Speciation without chromatography using selective hydride generation: Inorganic arsenic in rice and samples of marine origin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musil, Stanislav; Pétursdóttir, A. H.; Raab, A.; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H.; Krupp, E.; Feldmann, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 2 (2014), s. 993-999 ISSN 0003-2700 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M200311271 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : inorganic arsenic * hydride generation * inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 5.636, year: 2014

  16. NOVEL CERAMIC MEMBRANE FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE CARBON DIOXIDE SEPARATION; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerry Y.S. Lin; Jun-ichi Ida

    2001-01-01

    This project is aimed at demonstrating technical feasibility for a lithium zirconate based dense ceramic membrane for separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas at high temperature. The research work conducted in this reporting period was focused on several fundamental issues of lithium zirconate important to the development of the dense inorganic membrane. These fundamental issues include material synthesis of lithium zirconate, phases and microstructure of lithium zirconate and structure change of lithium zirconate during sorption/desorption process. The results show difficulty to prepare the dense ceramic membrane from pure lithium zirconate, but indicate a possibility to prepare the dense inorganic membrane for carbon dioxide separation from a composite lithium zirconate

  17. Microstructure and thermal stability of nickel layers electrodeposited from an additive-free sulphamate-based electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anette Alsted; Møller, Per; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2006-01-01

    and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction; the Vickers hardness was measured in cross sections. The present is meant as a reference for forthcoming articles on the investigation of various strengthening mechanisms on the microstructure, hardness and thermal stability of Ni (alloys) electrodeposits.......The influences of the current density and the temperature on the microstructure and hardness of Ni layers electrodeposited from an additive-free sulphamate bath were investigated. The microstructure and thermal stability of the electrodeposits was investigated with a combination of transmission...

  18. Sol-gel Process in Preparation of Organic-inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macan, J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid materials are a sort of nanostructured material in which the organic and inorganic phases are mixed at molecular level. The inorganic phase in hybrid materials is formed by the sol-gel process, which consists of reactions of hydrolysis and condensation of metal (usually silicon alkoxides. Flexibility of sol-gel process enables creation of hybrid materials with varying organic and inorganic phases in different ratios, and consequently fine-tuning of their properties. In order to obtain true hybrid materials, contact between the phases should be at molecular level, so phase separation between thermodynamically incompatible organic and inorganic phases has to be prevented. Phase interaction can be improved by formation of hydrogen or covalent bonds between them during preparation of hybrid materials. Covalent bond can be introduced by organically modified silicon alkoxides containing a reactive organic group (substituent capable of reacting with the organic phase. In order to obtain hybrid materials with desired structures, a detailed knowledge of hydrolysis and condensation mechanism is necessary. The choice of catalyst, whether acid or base, has the most significant influence on the structure of the inorganic phase. Other important parameters are alkoxide concentration, water: alkoxide ratio, type of alkoxide groups, solvent used, temperature, purity of chemicals used, etc. Hydrolysis and condensation of organically modified silicon alkoxides are additionally influenced by nature and size of the organic supstituent.

  19. Copper electrodeposition from an acidic plating bath containing accelerating and inhibiting organic additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquale, M.A.; Gassa, L.M.; Arvia, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Copper electrodeposition on copper from still plating solutions of different compositions was investigated utilising electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An acid copper sulphate plating base solution was employed either with or without sodium chloride in the presence of a single additive, either polyethylene glycol (PEG) or 3-mercapto-2-propanesulphonic acid (MPSA), and their mixture. Thallium underpotential deposition/anodic stripping was employed to determine the adsorption capability of additives on copper. In the absence of chloride ions, MPSA shows a moderate adsorption on copper, whereas PEG is slightly adsorbed. At low cathodic overpotentials, the simultaneous presence of MPSA and chloride ions accelerates copper electrodeposition through the formation of an MPSA-chloride ion complex in the solution, particularly for about 220 μM sodium chloride. The reverse effect occurs in PEG-sodium chloride plating solutions. In this case, from EIS data the formation of a film that interferes with copper electrodeposition can be inferred. At higher cathodic overpotentials, when copper electrodeposition is under mass transport control, the cathode coverage by a PEG-copper chloride-mediated film becomes either partially or completely detached as the concentration of chloride ions at the negatively charged copper surface diminishes. The copper cathode grain topography at the μm scale depends on the cathodic overpotential, plating solution composition and average current density. Available data about the solution constituents and their adsorption on copper make it possible to propose a likely complex mechanism to understand copper electrodeposition from these media, including the accelerating effect of MPSA and the dynamics of PEG-copper chloride complex adsorbate interfering with the surface mobility of depositing copper ad-ions/ad-atoms

  20. The effect of the electrode material on the electrodeposition of zinc from deep eutectic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, L.; Schennach, R.; Gollas, B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mechanistic insight into zinc electrodeposition from deep eutectic solvents. • Overpotential for hydrogen evolution affects the electrodeposition of zinc. • Electrodeposited zinc forms surface alloys on Cu, Au, and Pt. • In situ PM-IRRAS of a ZnCl_2 containing deep eutectic solvent on glassy carbon. - Abstract: The voltammetric behaviour of the ZnCl_2 containing deep eutectic solvent choline chloride/ethylene glycol 1:2 was investigated on glassy carbon, stainless steel, Au, Pt, Cu, and Zn electrodes. While cyclic voltammetry on glassy carbon and stainless steel showed a cathodic peak for zinc electrodeposition only in the anodic reverse sweep, a cathodic peak was found also in the cathodic forward sweep on Au, Pt, Cu, and Zn. This behaviour is in agreement with the proposed mechanism of zinc deposition from an intermediate species Z, whose formation depends on the cathodic reduction potential of the solvent. The voltammetric reduction of the electrolyte involves hydrogen evolution and as a result the formation of Z and its reduction to zinc depend on the hydrogen overpotential for each electrode material. On Au, Pt, and Cu also the anodic stripping was different from that on glassy carbon and steel due to the formation of surface zinc alloys with the three former metals. The morphology of the zinc layers on Cu has been characterised by scanning electron microscopy and focussed ion beam. X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of crystalline zinc and a Cu_4Zn phase. Spectroelectrochemistry by means of polarization modulation reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) on a glassy carbon electrode in the ZnCl_2 containing deep eutectic solvent showed characteristic potential dependent changes. The variation of band intensities at different applied potentials correlate with the voltammetry and suggest the formation of a compact blocking layer on the electrode surface, which inhibits the electrodeposition of zinc at sufficiently negative

  1. Synthesizing the Nanocrytalline Cobalt-Iron Coating Through The Electrodeposition Process With Different Time Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozlin Nik Masdek, Nik; Sorfian Hafiz Mansor, Mohd; Salleh, Zuraidah; Hyie, Koay Mei

    2018-03-01

    In the engineering world, electrodeposition or electroplating has become the most popular method of surface coating in improving corrosion behavior and mechanical properties of material. Therefore in this study, CoFe nanoparticle protective coating has been synthesized on the mild steel washer using electrodeposition method. The electrodeposition was conducted in the acidic environment with the pH value range from 1 to 2 with the controlled temperature of 50°C. The influence of deposition time (30, 60, 90 minutes) towards characteristic and properties such as particle size, surface morphology, corrosion behavior, and microhardness were studied in this investigation. Several results can be obtained by doing this experiment and testing. First, the surface morphology of Cobalt Iron (CoFe) on the electrodeposited mild steel washer are obtained. In addition, the microhardness of the mild steel washer due to the different deposition time are determined. Next, the observation on the difference in the grain size of CoFe that has been electrodeposited on the mild steel plate is made. Last but not least, the corrosion behavior was investigated. CoFe nanoparticles deposited for 30 minutes produced the smallest particle size and the highest microhardness of 86.17 and 236.84 HV respectively. The CoFe nanoparticles also exhibit the slowest corrosion rate at 30 minutes as compared to others. The crystalline size also increases when the time deposition is increased. The sample with 30 minute depositon time indicate the smallest crystalline size which is 15nm. The decrement of deposition time plays an important role in synthesizing CoFe nanoparticles with good corrosion resistance and microhardness. CoFe nanoparticles obtained at 30 minutes shows high corrosion resistance compared to others. In a nutshell, it was observed that the decrement of deposition time improved mechanical and corrosion properties of CoFe nanoparticles.

  2. Structure characterization of nanocrystalline Ni–W alloys obtained by electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indyka, P., E-mail: paulina.indyka@uj.edu.pl [Jagiellonian University, Faculty of Chemistry, 3 Ingardena St., 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Beltowska-Lehman, E.; Tarkowski, L.; Bigos, A. [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, 25 Reymonta St., 30-059 Krakow (Poland); García-Lecina, E. [Surface Finishing Department, CIDETEC-IK4 – Centre for Electrochemical Technologies, P° Miramón 196, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain)

    2014-03-25

    Highlights: • Ni–W alloy coatings were electrodeposited from an aqueous electrolyte solutions. • The microstructure was studied with respect to electrodeposition process parameters. • We report optimal plating conditions for crack-free, nanocrystalline Ni–W coatings. • Crystalline Ni–W coatings exhibited the phase structure of an α-Ni(W) solid solution. • Coatings revealed tensile residual stresses and weakly pronounced 〈1 1 0〉 fiber texture. -- Abstract: Ni–W coatings of different tungsten content (2–50 wt%) were electrodeposited on a steel substrates from an aqueous complex sulfate–citrate galvanic baths, under controlled hydrodynamic conditions in a Rotating Disk Electrode (RDE) system. The optimum conditions for the electrodeposition of crack-free, homogeneous nanocrystalline Ni–W coatings were determined on the basis of the microstructure investigation results. The XRD structural characterizations of Ni–W alloy coatings obtained under different experimental conditions were complemented by SEM and TEM analysis. Results of the study revealed that the main factor influencing the microstructure formation of the Ni–W coatings is the chemical composition of an electrolyte solution. X-ray and electron diffraction patterns of all nanocrystalline Ni–W coatings revealed mainly the fcc phase structure of an α-Ni(W) solid solution with a lattice parameter increased along with tungsten content. The use of additives in the plating bath resulted in the formation of equiaxial/quasifibrous, nanocrystalline Ni–W grains of an average size of about 10 nm. The coatings were characterized by relatively high tensile residual stresses (500–1000 MPa), depending on the electrodeposition conditions. Ni–W coatings exhibited weakly pronounced fiber type 〈1 1 0〉 crystallographic texture, consistent with the symmetry of the plating process. Coatings of the highest tungsten content 50 wt% were found to be amorphous.

  3. Gel electrophoresis of inorganic cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhofer, F.; Grass, F.

    1978-01-01

    In order to be able to separate the largest possible amounts of substance, polyacryl amide gel (PAA) and silica gel are used as carrier for the electrophoresis. Milligramme quantities can easily be separated on PAA gel plates. Electrophoretic ion focussing considerably improves it. Separations of Sr/Y and lanthanoids were carried out. The behaviour of the readily soluble complexing agent acids on silica gel thin layers was minutely investigated and an interpretation of the focussing effect was derived. The conditions for separating radionuclides were optimized. A further improved separation can be achieved by a time sequence combination of normal electrophoresis and ion focussing. Selective isolation methods are advantageous to determine radionuclide traces in environmental samples. The selective adsorption on preformed deposits was transferred to electrophoresis. After pre-investigations on silica gel layers, strontium and barium could also be retained on PAA gel and radium on strontium sulphate in PAA, whereas the disturbing calcium can easily pass through. Cesium can also be retained by prussian blue in the electrophoresis. (orig.) [de

  4. Electrodeposited nano-scale islands of ruthenium oxide as a bifunctional electrocatalyst for simultaneous catalytic oxidation of hydrazine and hydroxylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zare, Hamid R., E-mail: hrzare@yazduni.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Yazd University, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology Research Center, Yazd University, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, S. Hossein; Benvidi, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Yazd University, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-06-04

    For the first time, an electrodeposited nano-scale islands of ruthenium oxide (ruthenium oxide nanoparticles), as an excellent bifunctional electrocatalyst, was successfully used for hydrazine and hydroxylamine electrocatalytic oxidation. The results show that, at the present bifunctional modified electrode, two different redox couples of ruthenium oxides serve as electrocatalysts for simultaneous electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine and hydroxylamine. At the modified electrode surface, the peaks of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) for hydrazine and hydroxylamine oxidation were clearly separated from each other when they co-exited in solution. Thus, it was possible to simultaneously determine hydrazine and hydroxylamine in the samples at a ruthenium oxide nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode (RuON-GCE). Linear calibration curves were obtained for 2.0-268.3 {mu}M and 268.3-417.3 {mu}M of hydrazine and for 4.0-33.8 {mu}M and 33.8-78.3 {mu}M of hydroxylamine at the modified electrode surface using an amperometric method. The amperometric method also exhibited the detection limits of 0.15 {mu}M and 0.45 {mu}M for hydrazine and hydroxylamine respectively. RuON-GCE was satisfactorily used for determination of spiked hydrazine in two water samples. Moreover, the studied bifunctional modified electrode exhibited high sensitivity, good repeatability, wide linear range and long-term stability.

  5. Direct Electrodeposition of Gold Nanoparticles on Glassy Carbon Electrode for Selective Determination Catechol in the Presence of Hydroquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, C; Magdalane, C Maria; Kaviyarasu, K; Kulandainathan, M Anbu; Jeyaraj, Boniface; Maaza, M

    2018-07-01

    A simple and reliable voltammetric sensor for simultaneous determination of Catechol (CT) and Hydroquinone (HQ) was developed by electrodepositing the gold nanoparticles on the surface of the Glassy Carbon Electrode (GCE). The cyclic voltammograms in a mixed solution of CT and HQ have shown that the oxidation peaks become well resolved and were separated by 110 mV, although the bare GCE gave a single broad oxidation peak. Moreover, the oxidation peak currents of both CT and HQ were remarkably increased three times in comparison with the bare GCE. This makes gold nanoparticles deposited GCE a suitable candidate for the determination of these isomers. In the presence of 1 mM HQ isomer, the oxidation peak currents of differential pulse voltammograms are proportional to the concentration of CT in the range of 21 μM to 323 μM with limit of detection 3.0 μM (S/N = 3). The proposed sensor has some important advantages such as low cost, ease of preparation, good stability and high reproducibility.

  6. Role of surfactant-mediated electrodeposited titanium oxide substrate in improving electrocatalytic features of supported platinum particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spătaru, Tanţa; Preda, Loredana; Osiceanu, Petre; Munteanu, Cornel; Anastasescu, Mihai; Marcu, Maria; Spătaru, Nicolae, E-mail: nspataru@icf.ro

    2014-01-01

    A new hybrid system with improved photocatalytic and electrocatalytic performances was obtained by two-step potentiostatic deposition on highly boron-doped diamond (BDD) substrate. First, hydrated TiO{sub 2} was anodically deposited from a TiCl{sub 3} aqueous solution, both in the presence and in the absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The study of the UV irradiation effect evidenced that titanium oxide coatings obtained by surfactant-assisted electrodeposition (TiO{sub 2}:SDS) exhibit enhanced photocurrent, due to its very rough texonsture and presumably to better efficiency of charge carrier separation. Electrochemical deposition of platinum on the oxide-coated BDD was carried out in a second step and AFM, SEM and XPS measurements have shown that, on the TiO{sub 2}:SDS substrate, Pt particles are smaller, more uniformly distributed, and tend to form clusters, leading to a specific surface area of the electrocatalyst of ca. 6.55 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. Carbon monoxide stripping experiments demonstrated that, when deposited on TiO{sub 2}:SDS, Pt particles are also less sensitive to CO-poisoning during methanol anodic oxidation.

  7. Low-level liquid waste decontamination by inorganic ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.O.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Improved processes are being developed to treat contaminated liquid wastes that have been and continue to be generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The most serious contaminants are 137 Cs and 90 Sr, and certain inorganic ion-exchange material have given promising results. Nickel and cobalt hexacyanoferrate (II) compounds are extremely selective for cesium removal, with distribution coefficients in excess of 10 6 even in the presence of high cesium and moderate potassium concentrations. Sodium titanate is selective for strontium removal from solutions with high alkali metal concentrations, especially at high pH. These separations are so efficient that one or two stages of simple, batch separation can yield large DFs (∼10 4 ) while still generating small volumes of solid waste

  8. Inorganic biomaterials structure, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiang C

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a practical guide to the use and applications of inorganic biomaterials. It begins by introducing the concept of inorganic biomaterials, which includes bioceramics and bioglass. This concept is further extended to hybrid biomaterials consisting of inorganic and organic materials to mimic natural biomaterials. The book goes on to provide the reader with information on biocompatibility, bioactivity and bioresorbability. The concept of the latter is important because of the increasing role resorbable biomaterials are playing in implant applications. The book also introduces a n

  9. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de, E-mail: pauladesalles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k{sub 0} method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  10. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de

    2013-01-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k 0 method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  11. The quest for inorganic fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietsch, Susanne; Dollinger, Andreas; Strobel, Christoph H.; Ganteför, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.gantefoer@uni-konstanz.de, E-mail: ydkim91@skku.edu [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Park, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Dok, E-mail: gerd.gantefoer@uni-konstanz.de, E-mail: ydkim91@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyun Ook [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science/DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Idrobo, Juan-Carlos [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Pennycook, Stephen J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117575 (Singapore)

    2015-10-07

    Experimental results of the search for inorganic fullerenes are presented. Mo{sub n}S{sub m}{sup −} and W{sub n}S{sub m}{sup −} clusters are generated with a pulsed arc cluster ion source equipped with an annealing stage. This is known to enhance fullerene formation in the case of carbon. Analogous to carbon, the mass spectra of the metal chalcogenide clusters produced in this way exhibit a bimodal structure. The species in the first maximum at low mass are known to be platelets. Here, the structure of the species in the second maximum is studied by anion photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and scanning tunneling microcopy. All experimental results indicate a two-dimensional structure of these species and disagree with a three-dimensional fullerene-like geometry. A possible explanation for this preference of two-dimensional structures is the ability of a two-element material to saturate the dangling bonds at the edges of a platelet by excess atoms of one element. A platelet consisting of a single element only cannot do this. Accordingly, graphite and boron might be the only materials forming nano-spheres because they are the only single element materials assuming two-dimensional structures.

  12. Inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tavlarides, L.

    1997-10-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researchers are developing a technology that combines metal chelation extraction technology and synthesis chemistry. They begin with a ceramic substrate such as alumina, titanium oxide or silica gel because they provide high surface area, high mechanical strength, and radiolytic stability. One preparation method involves silylation to hydrophobize the surface, followed by chemisorption of a suitable chelation agent using vapor deposition. Another route attaches newly designed chelating agents through covalent bonding by the use of coupling agents. These approaches provide stable and selective, inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs) tailored for removal of metals. The technology has the following advantages over ion exchange: (1) higher mechanical strength, (2) higher resistance to radiation fields, (3) higher selectivity for the desired metal ion, (4) no cation exchange, (5) reduced or no interference from accompanying anions, (6) faster kinetics, and (7) easy and selective regeneration. Target waste streams include metal-containing groundwater/process wastewater at ORNL`s Y-12 Plant (multiple metals), Savannah River Site (SRS), Rocky Flats (multiple metals), and Hanford; aqueous mixed wastes at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); and scrubber water generated at SRS and INEL. Focus Areas that will benefit from this research include Mixed Waste, and Subsurface Contaminants.

  13. Electrodeposition of rhenium from chloride melts: Electrochemical nature, structure and applied aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinogradov-Zhabrov O.N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes involved in the electrodeposition of rhenium from chloride melts have been studied over the temperature interval from 680 to 970 0C at a cathodic current density of 5 to 250 mA/cm2. It has been found that rhenium is deposited in the form of continuous layers. In addition to that the growth of deposits as separate single-crystal needles has also been noticed. Continuous layers had axial growth textures. The crystallographic direction of the textures is due to electrolysis conditions, such as concentration of oxygen-containing impurities, temperature, melt composition and cathodic current density. When the concentration of oxygen-containing impurities in the melt decreased, electrolysis temperature increased, the average radius of the supporting electrolyte cations became smaller, or cathodic current density diminished, the direction of the growth textures was changing as follows: (1010 →(1120 →(101L →(0001 →(0001needles. The microhardness of the deposits in this series is 900 to 250 kg/mm2. The growth of deposits on textured rhenium substrates and single crystals having different orientations, including bent substrates, was studied. It has been found that the epitaxial growth is virtually unlimited in depth if the orientation of the substrate coincides with the growth texture under given conditions. If the substrate orientation deviated from the growth texture, the epitaxial growth was nearly absent. Kinetic parameters were measured using the galvanostatic method. The exchange current density was determined over the interval of (0.01-0.1 A/cm2 depending on the concentration of oxygen-containing impurities, cation composition, type of the surface and its condition. The parameter α⋅Z, which was estimated by two methods, was equal to 2.1-3.1. The diffusion coefficient of rhenium ions has been found to be 2.8 ⋅10 −5 cm2/s at 790 0C and 3.5 ⋅10 −5 cm2/s at 840 0C. Galvanoplastic production of rhenium products, such as

  14. SURFACE MODIFICATION OF SEMICONDUCTOR THIN FILM OF TiO2 ON GRAPHITE SUBSTRATE BY Cu-ELECTRODEPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Rahmawati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification of graphite/TiO2 has been done by mean of Cu electrodeposition. This research aims to study the effect of Cu electrodeposition on photocatalytic enhancing of TiO2. Electrodeposition has been done using CuSO4 0,4 M as the electrolyte at controlled current. The XRD pattern of modified TiO2 thin film on graphite substrate exhibited new peaks at 2θ= 43-44o and 2θ= 50-51o that have been identified as Cu with crystal cubic system, face-centered crystal lattice and crystallite size of 26-30 nm. CTABr still remains in the material as impurities. Meanwhile, based on morphological analysis, Cu particles are dissipated in the pore of thin film. Graphite/TiO2/Cu has higher photoconversion efficiency than graphite/TiO2.   Keywords: semiconductor, graphite/TiO2, Cu electrodeposition

  15. Tuning the electrodeposition parameters of silver to yield micro/nano structures from room temperature protic ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanto, Bryan H.R.; Gunawan, Christian A.; Lu Xunyu; Zhao Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Controlled electrodeposition of silver onto glassy carbon, gold and indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates has been achieved from three room temperature protic ionic liquids (PILs), ethylammonium nitrate, triethylammonium methylsulfonate, and bis(2-methoxyethyl)ammonium acetate. Cyclic voltammetric, chronoamperometric, together with microscopic and X-ray techniques reveal that micro/nanostructured Ag thin films of controlled morphology, size, density, and uniformity can be achieved by tuning the electrodeposition parameters such as potential, time, types of PILs, substrate materials, and ionic liquid viscosity by altering the water content. Chronoamperometric results provide direct evidence that electrodeposition of Ag in protic ionic liquids takes place through a progressive nucleation and diffusion-controlled 3D growth mechanism. The as prepared Ag micro/nanoparticles have been employed as electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction and exhibit excellent catalytic activity. The study provides promise for using protic ionic liquids as alternative electrolytes to conventional aprotic ionic liquids for electrodeposition of metals and nanostructured electrocatalysts.

  16. Influence of citrate ions as complexing agent for electrodeposition of CuInSe{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chraibi, F. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Service de Sciences des Materiaux et Electrochimie; Universite Mohammed 5, Rabat (Morocco). Dept. de Physique; Fahoume, M.; Ennaoui, A. [Universite Mohammed 5, Rabat (Morocco). Dept. de Physique; Delplancke, J.L. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Service de Sciences des Materiaux et Electrochimie

    2001-08-16

    The preparation of CuInSe{sub 2} thin films by electrodeposition is studied. The effect of sodium citrate (Na{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}) as complexing agent on the electrodeposition of pure copper, indium, selenium and of their ternary alloy is emphasized. Cathodic shifts of the copper and selenium electrodeposition potentials with increasing citrate concentration are observed. On the contrary, the presence of citrate in the electrolyte does not change the indium electrodeposition potential but improves its crystallinity. The surface morphology and the composition of the deposited films are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The texture of the deposits and their compositions are analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The formation of CuInSe{sub 2} films with a chalcopyrite structure and good stoichiometry is observed. (orig.)

  17. Particle size dependence on oxygen reduction reaction activity of electrodeposited TaOx catalysts in acidic media

    KAUST Repository

    Seo, J.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Kubota, J.; Domen, K.

    2013-01-01

    The size dependence of the oxygen reduction reaction activity was studied for TaOx nanoparticles electrodeposited on carbon black for application to polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Compared with a commercial Ta2O5 material, the ultrafine

  18. Biomedical inorganic polymers bioactivity and applications of natural and synthetic polymeric inorganic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Schroder, Heinz C

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, inorganic polymers have attracted much attention in nano-biomedicine, in particular in the area of regenerative medicine and drug delivery. This growing interest in inorganic polymers has been further accelerated by the development of new synthetic and analytical methods in the field of nanotechnology and nanochemistry. Examples for biomedical inorganic polymers that had been proven to exhibit biomedical effects and/or have been applied in preclinical or clinical trials are polysilicate / silica glass (such as naturally formed "biosilica" and synthetic "bioglass") and inorganic polyphosphate. Some members of the mentioned biomedical inorganic polymers have already been applied e.g. as "bioglass" for bone repair and bone tissue engineering, or they are used in food processing and in dental care (inorganic polyphosphates). However, there are a number of further biological and medicinal properties of these polymers, which have been elucidated in the last few years but not yet been applied for tr...

  19. Binary systems solubilities of inorganic and organic compounds, v.1 pt.2

    CERN Document Server

    Stephen, H

    2013-01-01

    Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds, Volume 1: Binary Systems, Part 1 is part of an approximately 5,500-page manual containing a selection from the International Chemical Literature on the Solubilities of Elements, Inorganic Compounds, Metallo-organic and Organic Compounds in Binary, Ternary and Multi-component Systems. A careful survey of the literature in all languages by a panel of scientists specially appointed for the task by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Moscow, has made the compilation of this work possible. The complete English edition in five separately bound volumes w

  20. Nanoscale Organic−Inorganic Hybrid Lubricants

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel; Archer, Lynden A.

    2011-01-01

    Silica (SiO2) nanoparticles densely grafted with amphiphilic organic chains are used to create a family of organic-inorganic hybrid lubricants. Short sulfonate-functionalized alkylaryl chains covalently tethered to the particles form a dense corona

  1. Room-temperature ductile inorganic semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xun; Chen, Hongyi; Hao, Feng; Liu, Ruiheng; Wang, Tuo; Qiu, Pengfei; Burkhardt, Ulrich; Grin, Yuri; Chen, Lidong

    2018-05-01

    Ductility is common in metals and metal-based alloys, but is rarely observed in inorganic semiconductors and ceramic insulators. In particular, room-temperature ductile inorganic semiconductors were not known until now. Here, we report an inorganic α-Ag2S semiconductor that exhibits extraordinary metal-like ductility with high plastic deformation strains at room temperature. Analysis of the chemical bonding reveals systems of planes with relatively weak atomic interactions in the crystal structure. In combination with irregularly distributed silver-silver and sulfur-silver bonds due to the silver diffusion, they suppress the cleavage of the material, and thus result in unprecedented ductility. This work opens up the possibility of searching for ductile inorganic semiconductors/ceramics for flexible electronic devices.

  2. Prospects for separating heavy metal from contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langen, M.; Hoberg, H.; Hamacher, B.

    1994-01-01

    For decades, large quantities of organic and inorganic pollutants have been brought into the soil as a result of the industrial operations of smelting and coking plants. This paper reports on the prospects of separating heavy metals from soil contaminated by smelting and coking plants by means of a physical/chemical washing procedure. Besides the description of virgin soil characteristics, cleaning results and process parameters of calssification, density separation and flotation processes are presented. It is shown that heavy metal pollution of virgin soil can be reduced by the classical process stages of soil washing. The metal content of virgin soil are critically assessed whereby the limits of the physical-chimical washing process will also be entered into. Emphasis is placed on the significance of the determination of limiting values for inorganic contamination, especially for soil contaminated with both organic and inorganic pollution. (orig.) [de

  3. Developments for transactinide chemistry experiments behind the gas-filled separator TASCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Topic of this thesis is the development of experiments behind the gas-filled separator TASCA (TransActinide Separator and Chemistry Apparatus) to study the chemical properties of the transactinide elements. In the first part of the thesis, the electrodepositions of short-lived isotopes of ruthenium and osmium on gold electrodes were studied as model experiments for hassium. From literature it is known that the deposition potential of single atoms differs significantly from the potential predicted by the Nernst equation. This shift of the potential depends on the adsorption enthalpy of therndeposited element on the electrode material. If the adsorption on the electrode-material is favoured over the adsorption on a surface made of the same element as the deposited atom, the electrode potential is shifted to higher potentials. This phenomenon is called underpotential deposition. Possibilities to automatize an electro chemistry experiment behind the gas-filled separator were explored for later studies with transactinide elements. The second part of this thesis is about the in-situ synthesis of transition-metal-carbonyl complexes with nuclear reaction products. Fission products of uranium-235 and californium-249 were produced at the TRIGA Mainz reactor and thermalized in a carbon-monoxide containing atmosphere. The formed volatile metal-carbonyl complexes could be transported in a gas-stream. Furthermore, short-lived isotopes of tungsten, rhenium, osmium, and iridium were synthesised at the linear accelerator UNILAC at GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt. The recoiling fusion products were separated from the primary beam and the transfer products in the gas-filled separator TASCA. The fusion products were stopped in the focal plane of TASCA in a recoil transfer chamber. This chamber contained a carbon-monoxide - helium gas mixture. The formed metal-carbonyl complexes could be transported in a gas stream to various experimental setups. All

  4. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah, Bullo; Hussein, Mohd Zobir B

    2015-01-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes), high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging.

  5. Salicylate-spectrophotometric determination of inorganic monochloramine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Hui; Chen Zhonglin; Li Xing; Yang Yanling; Li Guibai

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of classical Berthelot reaction, a simple salicylate-spectrophotometric method was developed for quantitative determination of inorganic monochloramine in water samples. With the catalysis of disodium pentacyanonitrosylferrate(III), inorganic monochloramine reacts with salicylate in equimolar to produce indophenol compound which has an intense absorption at 703 nm. Parameters that influence method performance, such as pH, dosage of salicylate and nitroprussiate and reaction time, were modified to enhance the method performance. By using this method, inorganic monochloramine can be distinguished from organic chloramines and other inorganic chlorine species, such as free chlorine, dichloramine, and trichloramine. The molar absorptivities of the final products formed by these compounds are below ±3% of inorganic monochloramine, because of the α-N in them have only one exchangeable hydrogen atom, and cannot react with salicylate to produce the indophenol compound. The upper concentrations of typical ions that do not interfere with the inorganic monochloramine determination are also tested to be much higher than that mostly encountered in actual water treatment. Case study demonstrates that the results obtained from this method are lower than DPD-titrimetric method because the organic chloramines formed by chlorination of organic nitrogenous compounds give no response in the newly established method. And the result measured by salicylate-spectrophotometric method is coincident with theoretical calculation

  6. Separation of Actinium 227 from the uranium minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Tarango, S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to separate Actinium 227, whose content is 18%, from the mineral carnotite found in Gomez Chihuahua mountain range in Mexico. The mineral before processing is is pre-concentrated and passed, first through anionic exchange resins, later the eluate obtained is passed through cationic resins. The resins were 20-50 MESH QOWEX and 100-200 MESH 50 X 8-20 in some cased 200-400 MESH AG 50W-X8, 1X8 in other cases. The eluates from the ionic exchange were electrodeposited on stainless steel polished disc cathode and platinum electrode as anode; under a current ODF 10mA for 2.5 to 5 hours and of 100mA for .5 of an hour. it was possible to identify the Actinium 227 by means of its descendents, TH-227 and RA-223, through alpha spectroscopy. Due to the radiochemical purity which the electro deposits were obtained the Actinium 227 was low and was not quantitatively determined. A large majority of the members of the natural radioactive series 3 were identified and even alpha energies reported in the literature with very low percentages of non-identified emissions were observed. We conclude that a more precise study is needed concerning ionic exchange and electrodeposit to obtain an Actinium 227 of radiochemical purity. (Author)

  7. Inorganic nanostructure-organic polymer heterostructures useful for thermoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    See, Kevin C.; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Segalman, Rachel A.; Coates, Nelson E.; Yee, Shannon K.

    2017-11-28

    The present invention provides for an inorganic nanostructure-organic polymer heterostructure, useful as a thermoelectric composite material, comprising (a) an inorganic nanostructure, and (b) an electrically conductive organic polymer disposed on the inorganic nanostructure. Both the inorganic nanostructure and the electrically conductive organic polymer are solution-processable.

  8. Methods for Introducing Inorganic Polymer Concepts throughout the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lill, Daniel T.; Carraher, Charles E., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic polymers can be introduced in a variety of undergraduate courses to discuss concepts related to polymer chemistry. Inorganic polymers such as silicates and polysiloxanes are simple materials that can be incorporated into an introductory or descriptive inorganic course. Polymers based on inorganic carbon, including diamond and graphite,…

  9. Cutting the Gordian Knot of electrodeposition via controlled cathodic corrosion enabling the production of supported metal nanoparticles below 5 nm

    OpenAIRE

    Vanrenterghem, B.; Bele, M.; Zepeda, F.R.; Sala, M.; Hodnik, N.; Breugelmans, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: In the past decades, there has been an ongoing search for tailor-made active metal nanoparticles for the use as electrocatalysts. An upcoming versatile and green method for the synthesis of nanoparticles is electrodeposition. However, the state-of-the-art electrodeposited metal particle sizes are in the range of 50200 nm. Production of high surface area metallic electrocatalysts with small particle sizes is a serious limitation of electrodeposition, i.e., the Gordian Knot. In this a...

  10. Non-Cyanide Electrodeposited Ag–PTFE Composite Coating Using Direct or Pulsed Current Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Sieh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of FC-4 cationic surfactant on electrodeposited Ag–PTFE composite coating using direct or pulsed currents were studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray (EDS, optical microscope, and a linear tribometer. FC-4:PTFE in various ratios were added to a non-cyanide succinimide silver complex bath. Direct or pulsed current method was used at a constant current density to enable comparison between both methods. A high incorporation rate of PTFE was successfully achieved, with pulsed current being highly useful in increasing the amount of PTFE in the composite coating. The study of coating wear under sliding showed that a large majority of the electrodeposited coatings still managed to adhere to the substrate, even after 10 wear cycles of sliding tests. Performance improvements were achieved on all the samples with a coefficient of friction (CoF between 0.06 and 0.12.

  11. Variation of magnetoimpedance of electrodeposited NiFe/Cu with deposition current density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A. C.; Jha, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    An investigation about influence of deposition current density on electrodeposited magnetic film is reported in this paper. Ferromagnetic NiFe thin films were electrodeposited on copper wires of 100 μm diameter for various electrdepostion current densities ranging from 10 to 60 mA/cm2 maintaining equal thickness in all films. The composition of deposited film varied with deposition current density and in particular, a composition of Ni79Fe21 was achieved for a current density of 20 mA/cm2. The surface microstructure of the film deposited at the current density of 20 mA/cm2 was found to have excellent smoothness. The coercivity of the film was lowest and highest value of magnetoimpedance was measured for this film. The influence of current density on film composition and hence magnetic properties was attributed to the change of deposition mechanism.

  12. Microgravity effects on electrodeposition of metals and metal-cermet mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybee, George W.; Riley, Clyde; Coble, H. Dwain

    1987-01-01

    An experimental system, designed to investigate the potential advantages of electrodeposition in microgravity, is being developed by the McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company-Huntsville Division and the University of Alabama in Huntsville. It is intended to fly as an Orbiter payload when NASA resumes STS operations. The system will provide power, thermal conditioning, command and control for the production of electrodeposits; system performance data will be recorded for post-flight analysis. Plated metal surfaces will be created using simple electrolytic cells with pure metal electrodes immersed in aqueous electrolytic solutions. Crystalline structure and other properties will be analyzed to identify differences between samples produced in flight and those obtained from ground-based operations.

  13. Electrodeposition of zinc-doped silane films for corrosion protection of mild steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Liankui; Hu Jiming; Zhang Jianqing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Metallic zinc is doped into organosilane films by one-step electrodeposition. ► The composite films exhibit the improved corrosion resistance of mild steels. ► Zinc-doping provides additional cathodic protection to the mild steels. - Abstract: Organosilane/zinc composite films are prepared by one-step electrodeposition onto cold-rolled steels for corrosion protection. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement, bulk solution immersion and wet heat tests all show that the composite films have improved corrosion performance. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement suggests the successful encapsulation of metallic zinc. The embedding of metallic zinc results in negative shift in open-circuit potential of the film-covered electrodes. Such cathodic protection effect given by the metallic zinc provides the improved corrosion resistance of the composite films.

  14. Magnetic transition phase diagram of cobalt clusters electrodeposited on HOPG: Experimental and micromagnetic modelling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, M., E-mail: mrivera@fisica.unam.m [Imperial College London, Department of Chemistry, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Rios-Reyes, C.H. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Departamento de Materiales, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa Tamaulipas, C.P. 02200, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Mineral de la Reforma, Hidalgo, C.P. 42181 (Mexico); Mendoza-Huizar, L.H. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Mineral de la Reforma, Hidalgo, C.P. 42181 (Mexico)

    2011-04-15

    The magnetic transition from mono- to multidomain magnetic states of cobalt clusters electrodeposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite electrodes was studied experimentally using Magnetic Force Microscopy. From these images, it was found that the critical size of the magnetic transition is dominated by the height rather than the diameter of the aggregate. This experimental behavior was found to be consistent with a theoretical single-domain ferromagnetic model that states that a critical height limits the monodomain state. By analyzing the clusters magnetic states as a function of their dimensions, magnetic exchange constant and anisotropy value were obtained and used to calculate other magnetic properties such as the exchange length, magnetic wall thickness, etc. Finally, a micromagnetic simulation study correctly predicted the experimental magnetic transition phase diagram. - Research highlights: > Electrodeposition of cobalt clusters. > Mono to multidomain magnetic transition. > Magnetic phase diagram.

  15. Magnetic transition phase diagram of cobalt clusters electrodeposited on HOPG: Experimental and micromagnetic modelling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, M.; Rios-Reyes, C.H.; Mendoza-Huizar, L.H.

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic transition from mono- to multidomain magnetic states of cobalt clusters electrodeposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite electrodes was studied experimentally using Magnetic Force Microscopy. From these images, it was found that the critical size of the magnetic transition is dominated by the height rather than the diameter of the aggregate. This experimental behavior was found to be consistent with a theoretical single-domain ferromagnetic model that states that a critical height limits the monodomain state. By analyzing the clusters magnetic states as a function of their dimensions, magnetic exchange constant and anisotropy value were obtained and used to calculate other magnetic properties such as the exchange length, magnetic wall thickness, etc. Finally, a micromagnetic simulation study correctly predicted the experimental magnetic transition phase diagram. - Research highlights: → Electrodeposition of cobalt clusters. →Mono to multidomain magnetic transition. → Magnetic phase diagram.

  16. Concerted Electrodeposition and Alloying of Antimony on Indium Electrodes for Selective Formation of Crystalline Indium Antimonide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenkrug, Eli; Rafson, Jessica; Lancaster, Mitchell; Maldonado, Stephen

    2017-09-19

    The direct preparation of crystalline indium antimonide (InSb) by the electrodeposition of antimony (Sb) onto indium (In) working electrodes has been demonstrated. When Sb is electrodeposited from dilute aqueous electrolytes containing dissolved Sb 2 O 3 , an alloying reaction is possible between Sb and In if any surface oxide films are first thoroughly removed from the electrode. The presented Raman spectra detail the interplay between the formation of crystalline InSb and the accumulation of Sb as either amorphous or crystalline aggregates on the electrode surface as a function of time, temperature, potential, and electrolyte composition. Electron and optical microscopies confirm that under a range of conditions, the preparation of a uniform and phase-pure InSb film is possible. The cumulative results highlight this methodology as a simple yet potent strategy for the synthesis of intermetallic compounds of interest.

  17. The Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films solar cells synthesized by electrodeposition route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Ma, Tuteng; Wei, Ming; Liu, Weifeng; Jiang, Guoshun; Zhu, Changfei

    2012-06-01

    An electrodeposition route for preparing Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films for thin film solar cell absorber layers is demonstrated. The Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films are prepared by co-electrodeposition Cu-Zn-Sn metallic precursor and subsequently annealing in element selenium atmosphere. The structure, composition and optical properties of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrometry, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy. The Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film with high crystalline quality was obtained, the band gap and absorption coefficient were 1.0 eV and 10-4 cm-1, which is quite suitable for solar cells fabrication. A solar cell with the structure of ZnO:Al/i-ZnO/CdS/Cu2ZnSnSe4/Mo/glass was fabricated and achieved an conversion efficiency of 1.7%.

  18. X-ray diffraction investigation of self-annealing in nanocrystalline copper electrodeposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray diffraction analysis and electrical resistivity measurements were conducted simultaneously for in-situ examination of self-annealing in copper electrodeposits. Considerable growth of the as-deposited nano-sized crystallites occurs with time and the crystallographic texture changes by multip...... twinning during self-annealing. The kinetics of self-annealing depends on the layer thickness as well as on the orientation and/or the size of the as-deposited crystallites. (c) 2006 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......X-ray diffraction analysis and electrical resistivity measurements were conducted simultaneously for in-situ examination of self-annealing in copper electrodeposits. Considerable growth of the as-deposited nano-sized crystallites occurs with time and the crystallographic texture changes by multiple...

  19. The mechanism of electrodeposition of bismuth sulfide and cadmium sulfide from dimethylsulfoxide and diethylene glycol solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, C.M.; Baranski, A.S.; Fawcett, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics of the electrodeposition of Bi 2 S 3 on an electrode covered with a coherent layer of Bi 2 S 3 was examined by analysis of the Tafel plots for different solution compositions and at different temperatures in two nonaqueous solvents, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and diethylene glycol (DEG). The results were compared with those obtained for the electrodeposition of CdS on CdS under similar conditions. In both cases, it was found that the rate-determining step was an irreversible electron transfer. The rate of the reaction was independent of the metal ion concentration, but electrochemical orders with respect to S 8 of 0.7 in DMSO and 1.0 in DEG were found. Several mechanisms explaining these results are proposed and discussed

  20. Optical properties of zinc oxide-based ternary compounds synthesized by electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cembrero, J. [Departament d' Enginyeria Mecanica i Materials, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Mollar, M.; Tortosa, M. [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Mari, B.

    2008-07-01

    Structure, morphology and optical properties of ZnO thin films grown by electrodeposition under different conditions changing both solvent (water or dimethylsulfoxide) and substrate (polycrystalline FTO or monocrystalline GaN) are reported. The results point out the advantage of using dimethylsulfoxide when uniform, oriented and highly transparent films are required. On the other hand electrodeposition in aqueous bath produces perfectly defined hexagonal ZnO columns which can be fully oriented by chosing a suitable substrate. Photoluminescence has only been observed for ZnO films grown in aqueous bath. Ternary compounds as ZnMO (M=Cd,Co,Mn) with a controlled ratio between both cations, and morphology and structure like binary ZnO can be easily obtained from dimethylsulfoxide. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)